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Sample records for four-dimensional gated cardiac

  1. Photon gating in four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammed T; Liu, Haihua; Baskin, John Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2015-10-20

    Ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) is a pivotal tool for imaging of nanoscale structural dynamics with subparticle resolution on the time scale of atomic motion. Photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM), a key UEM technique, involves the detection of electrons that have gained energy from a femtosecond optical pulse via photon-electron coupling on nanostructures. PINEM has been applied in various fields of study, from materials science to biological imaging, exploiting the unique spatial, energy, and temporal characteristics of the PINEM electrons gained by interaction with a "single" light pulse. The further potential of photon-gated PINEM electrons in probing ultrafast dynamics of matter and the optical gating of electrons by invoking a "second" optical pulse has previously been proposed and examined theoretically in our group. Here, we experimentally demonstrate this photon-gating technique, and, through diffraction, visualize the phase transition dynamics in vanadium dioxide nanoparticles. With optical gating of PINEM electrons, imaging temporal resolution was improved by a factor of 3 or better, being limited only by the optical pulse widths. This work enables the combination of the high spatial resolution of electron microscopy and the ultrafast temporal response of the optical pulses, which provides a promising approach to attain the resolution of few femtoseconds and attoseconds in UEM.

  2. Photon gating in four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohammed T.; Liu, Haihua; Baskin, John Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) is a pivotal tool for imaging of nanoscale structural dynamics with subparticle resolution on the time scale of atomic motion. Photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM), a key UEM technique, involves the detection of electrons that have gained energy from a femtosecond optical pulse via photon–electron coupling on nanostructures. PINEM has been applied in various fields of study, from materials science to biological imaging, exploiting the unique spatial, energy, and temporal characteristics of the PINEM electrons gained by interaction with a “single” light pulse. The further potential of photon-gated PINEM electrons in probing ultrafast dynamics of matter and the optical gating of electrons by invoking a “second” optical pulse has previously been proposed and examined theoretically in our group. Here, we experimentally demonstrate this photon-gating technique, and, through diffraction, visualize the phase transition dynamics in vanadium dioxide nanoparticles. With optical gating of PINEM electrons, imaging temporal resolution was improved by a factor of 3 or better, being limited only by the optical pulse widths. This work enables the combination of the high spatial resolution of electron microscopy and the ultrafast temporal response of the optical pulses, which provides a promising approach to attain the resolution of few femtoseconds and attoseconds in UEM. PMID:26438835

  3. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.W. III; Hoffman, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  4. Live four-dimensional optical coherence tomography reveals embryonic cardiac phenotype in mouse mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L., III; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-09-01

    Efficient phenotyping of developmental defects in model organisms is critical for understanding the genetic specification of normal development and congenital abnormalities in humans. We previously reported that optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with live embryo culture is a valuable tool for mouse embryo imaging and four-dimensional (4-D) cardiodynamic analysis; however, its capability for analysis of mouse mutants with cardiac phenotypes has not been previously explored. Here, we report 4-D (three-dimensional+time) OCT imaging and analysis of the embryonic heart in a Wdr19 mouse mutant, revealing a heart looping defect. Quantitative analysis of cardiac looping revealed a statistically significant difference between mutant and control embryos. Our results indicate that live 4-D OCT imaging provides a powerful phenotyping approach to characterize embryonic cardiac function in mouse models.

  5. Cine MPR: interactive multiplanar reformatting of four-dimensional cardiac data using hardware-accelerated texture mapping.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Raj; Zagrodsky, Vladimir

    2003-12-01

    Four-dimensional (4-D) imaging to capture the three-dimensional (3-D) structure and motion of the heart in real time is an emerging trend. We present here our method of interactive multiplanar reformatting (MPR), i.e., the ability to visualize any chosen anatomical cross section of 4-D cardiac images and to change its orientation smoothly while maintaining the original heart motion. Continuous animation to show the time-varying 3-D geometry of the heart and smooth dynamic manipulation of the reformatted planes, as well as large image size (100-300 MB), make MPR challenging. Our solution exploits the hardware acceleration of 3-D texture mapping capability of high-end commercial PC graphics boards. Customization of volume subdivision and caching concepts to periodic cardiac data allows us to use this hardware effectively and efficiently. We are able to visualize and smoothly interact with real-time 3-D ultrasound cardiac images at the desired frame rate (25 Hz). The developed methods are applicable to MPR of one or more 3-D and 4-D medical images, including 4-D cardiac images collected in a gated fashion.

  6. Four-dimensional (4D) flow of the whole heart and great vessels using real-time respiratory self-gating.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Sergio; Beerbaum, Philipp; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Rasmusson, Allan; Razavi, Reza; Schaeffter, Tobias

    2009-10-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) flow imaging has been used to study flow patterns and pathophysiology, usually focused on specific thoracic vessels and cardiac chambers. Whole-heart 4D flow at high measurement accuracy covering the entire thoracic cardiovascular system would be desirable to simplify and improve hemodynamic assessment. This has been a challenge because compensation of respiratory motion is difficult to achieve, but it is paramount to limit artifacts and improve accuracy. In this work we propose a self-gating technique for respiratory motion-compensation integrated into a whole-heart 4D flow acquisition that overcomes these challenges. Flow components are measured in all three directions for each pixel over the complete cardiac cycle, and 1D volume projections are obtained at certain time intervals for respiratory gating in real time during the acquisition. The technique was tested in 15 volunteers, in which stroke volumes (SVs) in the great arteries showed excellent agreement with standard 2D phase-contrast (PC) scans. In contrast, nongated 4D flow with two averages had substantial disagreement with 2D flow. Applied to patients with congenital cardiac left-to-right shunting, the precision of flux data was highly beneficial. The methodology presented here has the potential to allow a complete study of flow pathophysiology of the thoracic cardiovascular system from a single free-breathing scan. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Four-dimensional in vivo X-ray microscopy with projection-guided gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokso, Rajmund; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Walker, Simon M.; Doube, Michael; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Stampanoni, Marco; Taylor, Graham K.; Krapp, Holger G.

    2015-03-01

    Visualizing fast micrometer scale internal movements of small animals is a key challenge for functional anatomy, physiology and biomechanics. We combine phase contrast tomographic microscopy (down to 3.3 μm voxel size) with retrospective, projection-based gating (in the order of hundreds of microseconds) to improve the spatiotemporal resolution by an order of magnitude over previous studies. We demonstrate our method by visualizing 20 three-dimensional snapshots through the 150 Hz oscillations of the blowfly flight motor.

  8. Analysis of four-dimensional cardiac ventricular magnetic resonance images using statistical models of ventricular shape and cardiac motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghai; Walker, Nicholas; Mitchell, Steven C.; Thomas, Matthew; Wahle, Andreas; Scholz, Thomas; Sonka, Milan

    2006-03-01

    Conventional analysis of cardiac ventricular magnetic resonance images is performed using short axis images and does not guarantee completeness and consistency of the ventricle coverage. In this paper, a four-dimensional (4D, 3D+time) left and right ventricle statistical shape model was generated from the combination of the long axis and short axis images. Iterative mutual intensity registration and interpolation were used to merge the long axis and short axis images into isotropic 4D images and simultaneously correct existing breathing artifact. Distance-based shape interpolation and approximation were used to generate complete ventricle shapes from the long axis and short axis manual segmentations. Landmarks were automatically generated and propagated to 4D data samples using rigid alignment, distance-based merging, and B-spline transform. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in model creation and analysis. The two strongest modes of the shape model captured the most important shape feature of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients, right ventricle enlargement. Classification of cardiac images into classes of normal and TOF subjects performed on 3D and 4D models showed 100% classification correctness rates for both normal and TOF subjects using k-Nearest Neighbor (k=1 or 3) classifier and the two strongest shape modes.

  9. Four-dimensional in vivo X-ray microscopy with projection-guided gating

    PubMed Central

    Mokso, Rajmund; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Walker, Simon M.; Doube, Michael; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Stampanoni, Marco; Taylor, Graham K.; Krapp, Holger G.

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing fast micrometer scale internal movements of small animals is a key challenge for functional anatomy, physiology and biomechanics. We combine phase contrast tomographic microscopy (down to 3.3 μm voxel size) with retrospective, projection-based gating (in the order of hundreds of microseconds) to improve the spatiotemporal resolution by an order of magnitude over previous studies. We demonstrate our method by visualizing 20 three-dimensional snapshots through the 150 Hz oscillations of the blowfly flight motor. PMID:25762080

  10. Measuring hemodynamics in the developing heart tube with four-dimensional gated Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Peterson, Lindsy; Gu, Shi; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Wilson, David L.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2010-11-01

    Hemodynamics is thought to play a major role in heart development, yet tools to quantitatively assess hemodynamics in the embryo are sorely lacking. The especially challenging analysis of hemodynamics in the early embryo requires new technology. Small changes in blood flow could indicate when anomalies are initiated even before structural changes can be detected. Furthermore, small changes in the early embryo that affect blood flow could lead to profound abnormalities at later stages. We present a demonstration of 4-D Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of structure and flow, and present several new hemodynamic measurements on embryonic avian hearts at early stages prior to the formation of the four chambers. Using 4-D data, pulsed Doppler measurements could accurately be attained in the inflow and outflow of the heart tube. Also, by employing an en-face slice from the 4-D Doppler image set, measurements of stroke volume and cardiac output are obtained without the need to determine absolute velocity. Finally, an image plane orthogonal to the blood flow is used to determine shear stress by calculating the velocity gradient normal to the endocardium. Hemodynamic measurements will be crucial to identifying genetic and environmental factors that lead to congenital heart defects.

  11. Extracting cardiac shapes and motion of the chick embryo heart outflow tract from four-dimensional optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Liu, Aiping; Thornburg, Kent L; Wang, Ruikang K; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the development of image reconstruction algorithms, enabled four-dimensional (4-D) (three-dimensional imaging over time) imaging of the embryonic heart. To further analyze and quantify the dynamics of cardiac beating, segmentation procedures that can extract the shape of the heart and its motion are needed. Most previous studies analyzed cardiac image sequences using manually extracted shapes and measurements. However, this is time consuming and subject to inter-operator variability. Automated or semi-automated analyses of 4-D cardiac OCT images, although very desirable, are also extremely challenging. This work proposes a robust algorithm to semi automatically detect and track cardiac tissue layers from 4-D OCT images of early (tubular) embryonic hearts. Our algorithm uses a two-dimensional (2-D) deformable double-line model (DLM) to detect target cardiac tissues. The detection algorithm uses a maximum-likelihood estimator and was successfully applied to 4-D in vivo OCT images of the heart outflow tract of day three chicken embryos. The extracted shapes captured the dynamics of the chick embryonic heart outflow tract wall, enabling further analysis of cardiac motion.

  12. Patient-specific modelling of whole heart anatomy, dynamics and haemodynamics from four-dimensional cardiac CT images

    PubMed Central

    Mihalef, Viorel; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Sharma, Puneet; Georgescu, Bogdan; Voigt, Ingmar; Suehling, Michael; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for patient-specific and holistic modelling of the heart to support comprehensive disease assessment and intervention planning as well as prediction of therapeutic outcomes. We propose a patient-specific model of the whole human heart, which integrates morphology, dynamics and haemodynamic parameters at the organ level. The modelled cardiac structures are robustly estimated from four-dimensional cardiac computed tomography (CT), including all four chambers and valves as well as the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. The patient-specific geometry serves as an input to a three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver that derives realistic haemodynamics, constrained by the local anatomy, along the entire heart cycle. We evaluated our framework with various heart pathologies and the results correlate with relevant literature reports. PMID:22670200

  13. Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan; Thrane, Lars; Männer, Jörg; Ortmaier, Tobias; Heimann, Bodo; Yelbuz, Talat Mesud

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a new method of rotational image acquisition for four-dimensional (4D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of beating embryonic chick hearts. The rotational axis and the central A-scan of the OCT are identical. An out-of-phase image sequence covering multiple heartbeats is acquired at every angle of an incremental rotation of the deflection mirrors of the OCT system. Image acquisition is accomplished after a rotation of 180°. Comparison of a displayed live M-mode of the central A-scan with a reference M-mode allows instant detection of translational movements of the embryo. For calculation of 4D data sets, we apply an image-based retrospective gating algorithm using the phase information of the common central A-scan present in all acquired images. This leads to cylindrical three-dimensional data sets for every time step of the cardiac cycle that can be used for 4D visualization. We demonstrate this approach and provide a video of a beating Hamburger and Hamilton stage 16 embryonic chick heart generated from a 4D OCT data set using rotational image acquisition.

  14. Rotationally acquired four-dimensional optical coherence tomography of embryonic chick hearts using retrospective gating on the common central A-scan1

    PubMed Central

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan; Thrane, Lars; Männer, Jörg; Ortmaier, Tobias; Heimann, Bodo; Yelbuz, Talat Mesud

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new method of rotational image acquisition for four-dimensional (4D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of beating embryonic chick hearts. The rotational axis and the central A-scan of the OCT are identical. An out-of-phase image sequence covering multiple heartbeats is acquired at every angle of an incremental rotation of the deflection mirrors of the OCT system. Image acquisition is accomplished after a rotation of 180°. Comparison of a displayed live M-mode of the central A-scan with a reference M-mode allows instant detection of translational movements of the embryo. For calculation of 4D data sets, we apply an image-based retrospective gating algorithm using the phase information of the common central A-scan present in all acquired images. This leads to cylindrical three-dimensional data sets for every time step of the cardiac cycle that can be used for 4D visualization. We demonstrate this approach and provide a video of a beating Hamburger and Hamilton stage 16 embryonic chick heart generated from a 4D OCT data set using rotational image acquisition. PMID:21950921

  15. Prospectively gated cardiac computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Moore, S C; Judy, P F; Garnic, J D; Kambic, G X; Bonk, F; Cochran, G; Margosian, P; McCroskey, W; Foote, F

    1983-01-01

    A fourth-generation scanner has been modified to perform prospectively gated cardiac computed tomography (CT). A computer program monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG) and predicts when to initiate the next scan in a gated series in order to acquire all projection data for a desired phase of the heart cycle. The system has been tested with dogs and has produced cross-sectional images of all phases of the cardiac cycle. Eight to ten scans per series were sufficient to obtain reproducible images of each transverse section in the end-diastolic and end-systolic phases. The radiation dose to the skin was approximately 1.4 cGy per scan. The prospectively gated system is more than twice as efficient as a retrospectively gated system in obtaining complete angular projection data for a 10% heart cycle window. A temporal smoothing technique to suppress reconstruction artifacts due to sorting inconsistent projection data was developed and evaluated. Image noise was reduced by averaging together any overlapping projection data. Prospectively gated cardiac CT has also been used to demonstrate that the error in attenuation measured with a single nongated CT scan through the heart can be as large as 50-60 CT numbers outside the heart in the lung field.

  16. Efficient cross-modality cardiac four-dimensional active appearance model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghai; Abiose, Ademola K.; Buettner, Elisabeth J.; Birrer, Emily K.; Sonka, Milan; Martins, James B.; Wahle, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    The efficiency of constructing an active appearance model (AAM) is limited by establishing the independent standard via time-consuming and tedious manual tracing. It is more challenging for 3D and 4D (3D+time) datasets as the smoothness of shape and motion is essential. In this paper, a three-stage pipeline is designed for efficient cross-modality model construction. It utilizes existing AAM and active shape model (ASM) of the left ventricle (LV) for magnetic resonance (MR) datasets to build 4D AAM of the LV for real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) datasets. The first AAM fitting stage uses AAM for MR to fit valid shapes onto the intensity-transformed RT3DE data that resemble low-quality MR data. The fitting is implemented in a 3D phase-by-phase fashion to prevent introducing bias due to different motion patterns related to the two modalities and patient groups. The second global-scale editing stage adjusts fitted shapes by tuning modes of ASM for MR data. The third local-scale editing stage adjusts the fitted volumes at small local regions and produces the final accurate independent standard. By visual inspection, the AAM fitting stage successfully produces results that capture the LV motion - especially its base movement - within the cardiac cycle on 29 of the 32 RT3DE datasets tested. This multi-stage approach can reduce the human effort of the manual tracing by at least 50%. With the model built for a modality A available, this approach is generalizable to constructing the model of the same organ for any other modality B.

  17. Four-Dimensional Lung Treatment Planning in Layer-Stacking Carbon Ion Beam Treatment: Comparison of Layer-Stacking and Conventional Ungated/Gated Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Shinichiro; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Hiroshi; Sharp, Gregory C.; Kumagai, Motoki; Dobashi, Suguru; Nakajima, Mio; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Kandatsu, Susumu; Baba, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: We compared four-dimensional (4D) layer-stacking and conventional carbon ion beam distribution in the treatment of lung cancer between ungated and gated respiratory strategies using 4DCT data sets. Methods and Materials: Twenty lung patients underwent 4DCT imaging under free-breathing conditions. Using planning target volumes (PTVs) at respective respiratory phases, two types of compensating bolus were designed, a full single respiratory cycle for the ungated strategy and an approximately 30% duty cycle for the exhalation-gated strategy. Beams were delivered to the PTVs for the ungated and gated strategies, PTV(ungated) and PTV(gated), respectively, which were calculated by combining the respective PTV(Tn)s by layer-stacking and conventional irradiation. Carbon ion beam dose distribution was calculated as a function of respiratory phase by applying a compensating bolus to 4DCT. Accumulated dose distributions were calculated by applying deformable registration. Results: With the ungated strategy, accumulated dose distributions were satisfactorily provided to the PTV, with D95 values for layer-stacking and conventional irradiation of 94.0% and 96.2%, respectively. V20 for the lung and Dmax for the spinal cord were lower with layer-stacking than with conventional irradiation, whereas Dmax for the skin (14.1 GyE) was significantly lower (21.9 GyE). In addition, dose conformation to the GTV/PTV with layer-stacking irradiation was better with the gated than with the ungated strategy. Conclusions: Gated layer-stacking irradiation allows the delivery of a carbon ion beam to a moving target without significant degradation of dose conformity or the development of hot spots.

  18. Reconstruction of dynamic gated cardiac SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Mingwu; Yang Yongyi; King, Michael A.

    2006-11-15

    In this paper we propose an image reconstruction procedure which aims to unify gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dynamic SPECT into a single method. We divide the cardiac cycle into a number of gate intervals as in gated SPECT, but treat the tracer distribution for each gate as a time-varying signal. By using both dynamic and motion-compensated temporal regularization, our reconstruction procedure will produce an image sequence that shows both cardiac motion and time-varying tracer distribution simultaneously. To demonstrate the proposed reconstruction method, we simulated gated cardiac perfusion imaging using the gated mathematical cardiac-torso (gMCAT) phantom with Tc99m-Teboroxime as the imaging agent. Our results show that the proposed method can produce more accurate reconstruction of gated dynamic images than independent reconstruction of individual gate frames with spatial smoothness alone. In particular, our results show that the former could improve the contrast to noise ratio of a simulated perfusion defect by as much as 100% when compared to the latter.

  19. Evaluation of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography-Based Intensity-Modulated and Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy Techniques for Pancreatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Geld, Ylanga G. van der; Triest, Baukelien van; Verbakel, Wilko; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Senan, Suresh; Slotman, Ben J.; Lagerwaard, Frank J.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To compare conformal radiotherapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT) planning techniques for pancreatic cancer. All target volumes were determined using four-dimensional computed tomography scans (4D CT). Methods and Materials: The pancreatic tumor and enlarged regional lymph nodes were contoured on all 10 phases of a planning 4D CT scan for 10 patients, and the planning target volumes (PTV{sub allphases}) were generated. Three consecutive respiratory phases for RGRT delivery in both inspiration and expiration were identified, and the corresponding PTVs (PTV{sub inspiration} and PTV{sub expiration}) and organ at risk volumes created. Treatment plans using CRT and IMRT, with and without RGRT, were created for each PTV. Results: Compared with the CRT plans, IMRT significantly reduced the mean volume of right kidney exposed to 20 Gy from 27.7% {+-} 17.7% to 16.0% {+-} 18.2% (standard deviation) (p < 0.01), but this was not achieved for the left kidney (11.1% {+-} 14.2% to 5.7% {+-} 6.5%; p = 0.1). The IMRT plans also reduced the mean gastric, hepatic, and small bowel doses (p < 0.01). No additional reductions in the dose to the kidneys or other organs at risk were seen when RGRT plans were combined with either CRT or IMRT, and the findings for RGRT in end-expiration and end-inspiration were similar. Conclusion: 4D CT-based IMRT plans for pancreatic tumors significantly reduced the radiation doses to the right kidney, liver, stomach, and small bowel compared with CRT plans. The additional dosimetric benefits from RGRT appear limited in this setting.

  20. Four-dimensional MRI using three-dimensional radial sampling with respiratory self-gating to characterize temporal phase-resolved respiratory motion in the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zixin; Pang, Jianing; Yang, Wensha; Yue, Yong; Sharif, Behzad; Tuli, Richard; Li, Debiao; Fraass, Benedick; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-04-01

    To develop a four-dimensional MRI (4D-MRI) technique to characterize the average respiratory tumor motion for abdominal radiotherapy planning. A continuous spoiled gradient echo sequence was implemented with 3D radial trajectory and 1D self-gating for respiratory motion detection. Data were retrospectively sorted into different respiratory phases based on their temporal locations within a respiratory cycle, and each phase was reconstructed by means of a self-calibrating CG-SENSE program. Motion phantom, healthy volunteer and patient studies were performed to validate the respiratory motion detected by the proposed method against that from a 2D real-time protocol. The proposed method successfully visualized the respiratory motion in phantom and human subjects. The 4D-MRI and real-time 2D-MRI yielded comparable superior-inferior (SI) motion amplitudes (intraclass correlation = 0.935) with up-to one pixel mean absolute differences in SI displacements over 10 phases and high cross-correlation between phase-resolved displacements (phantom: 0.985; human: 0.937-0.985). Comparable anterior-posterior and left-right displacements of the tumor or gold fiducial between 4D and real-time 2D-MRI were also observed in the two patients, and the hysteresis effect was shown in their 3D trajectories. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed 4D-MRI technique to characterize abdominal respiratory motion, which may provide valuable information for radiotherapy planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Four-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging with 3D Radial Sampling and Self-gating based K-space Sorting: Early Clinical Experience on Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wensha; Fan, Zhaoyang; Tuli, Richard; Deng, Zixin; Pang, Jianing; Wachsman, Ashley; Reznik, Robert; Sandler, Howard; Li, Debiao; Fraass, Benedick A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to characterize internal organ motion but real time acquisition is typically limited to 2 dimensions. Methods have been developed to reconstruct four dimensional MRI (4D-MRI) based on time-stamped 2D images or 2D K-space data. These methods suffer from anisotropic resolution and rebinning artifacts. We applied a novel self-gating K-space sorted 4D-MRI (SG-KS-4D-MRI) method to overcome these limitations and to monitor pancreatic tumor motion. Methods and Material Ten patients were imaged using 4D-CT, cine 2D-MRI and the SG-KS-4D-MRI, which is a spoiled gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequence with 3D radial-sampling K-space projections and 1D projection-based self-gating. Tumor volumes were defined on all phases in both 4D-MRI and 4D-CT and then compared. Results An isotropic resolution of 1.56 mm was achieved in the SG-KS-4D-MRI images, which showed superior soft tissue contrast to 4D-CT and appeared to be free of visible rebinning artifacts. The tumor motion trajectory cross-correlations between SG-KS-4D-MRI and cine 2D-MRI in SI, AP and ML directions were 0.93±0.03, 0.83±0.10 and 0.74±0.18, respectively. The tumor motion trajectories cross-correlations between SG-KS-4D-MRI and 4D-CT in SI, AP and ML directions were 0.91±0.06, 0.72±0.16 and 0.44±0.24, respectively. The average standard deviation of GTV volume (GTV_σ) calculated from the ten breathing phases were 0.81 cc and 1.02 cc for SG-KS-4D-MRI and 4D-CT (p=0.012). Conclusions A novel SG-KS-4D-MRI acquisition method capable of reconstructing rebinning artifact free high resolution 4D-MRI images was used to quantify pancreas tumor motion. The resultant pancreatic tumor motion trajectories agreed well with 2D-cine-MRI and 4D-CT. The pancreatic tumor volumes shown in the different phases for the SG-KS-4D-MRI were statistically significantly more consistent than those in the 4D-CT. PMID:26452571

  2. Fully automated intrinsic respiratory and cardiac gating for small animal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, J.; Dinkel, J.; Zwick, S.; Bäuerle, T.; Grasruck, M.; Kiessling, F.; Gupta, R.; Semmler, W.; Bartling, S. H.

    2010-04-01

    A fully automated, intrinsic gating algorithm for small animal cone-beam CT is described and evaluated. A parameter representing the organ motion, derived from the raw projection images, is used for both cardiac and respiratory gating. The proposed algorithm makes it possible to reconstruct motion-corrected still images as well as to generate four-dimensional (4D) datasets representing the cardiac and pulmonary anatomy of free-breathing animals without the use of electrocardiogram (ECG) or respiratory sensors. Variation analysis of projections from several rotations is used to place a region of interest (ROI) on the diaphragm. The ROI is cranially extended to include the heart. The centre of mass (COM) variation within this ROI, the filtered frequency response and the local maxima are used to derive a binary motion-gating parameter for phase-sensitive gated reconstruction. This algorithm was implemented on a flat-panel-based cone-beam CT scanner and evaluated using a moving phantom and animal scans (seven rats and eight mice). Volumes were determined using a semiautomatic segmentation. In all cases robust gating signals could be obtained. The maximum volume error in phantom studies was less than 6%. By utilizing extrinsic gating via externally placed cardiac and respiratory sensors, the functional parameters (e.g. cardiac ejection fraction) and image quality were equivalent to this current gold standard. This algorithm obviates the necessity of both gating hardware and user interaction. The simplicity of the proposed algorithm enables adoption in a wide range of small animal cone-beam CT scanners.

  3. Self-gated fat-suppressed cardiac cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Ingle, R Reeve; Santos, Juan M; Overall, William R; McConnell, Michael V; Hu, Bob S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2015-05-01

    To develop a self-gated alternating repetition time balanced steady-state free precession (ATR-SSFP) pulse sequence for fat-suppressed cardiac cine imaging. Cardiac gating is computed retrospectively using acquired magnetic resonance self-gating data, enabling cine imaging without the need for electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. Modification of the slice-select rephasing gradients of an ATR-SSFP sequence enables the acquisition of a one-dimensional self-gating readout during the unused short repetition time (TR). Self-gating readouts are acquired during every TR of segmented, breath-held cardiac scans. A template-matching algorithm is designed to compute cardiac trigger points from the self-gating signals, and these trigger points are used for retrospective cine reconstruction. The proposed approach is compared with ECG-gated ATR-SSFP and balanced steady-state free precession in 10 volunteers and five patients. The difference of ECG and self-gating trigger times has a variability of 13 ± 11 ms (mean ± SD). Qualitative reviewer scoring and ranking indicate no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between self-gated and ECG-gated ATR-SSFP images. Quantitative blood-myocardial border sharpness is not significantly different among self-gated ATR-SSFP ( 0.61±0.15 mm -1), ECG-gated ATR-SSFP ( 0.61±0.15 mm -1), or conventional ECG-gated balanced steady-state free precession cine MRI ( 0.59±0.15 mm -1). The proposed self-gated ATR-SSFP sequence enables fat-suppressed cardiac cine imaging at 1.5 T without the need for ECG gating and without decreasing the imaging efficiency of ATR-SSFP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Self-Gated Fat-Suppressed Cardiac Cine MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, R. Reeve; Santos, Juan M.; Overall, William R.; McConnell, Michael V.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a self-gated alternating repetition time balanced steady-state free precession (ATR-SSFP) pulse sequence for fat-suppressed cardiac cine imaging. Methods Cardiac gating is computed retrospectively using acquired MR self-gating data, enabling cine imaging without the need for electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. Modification of the slice-select rephasing gradients of an ATR-SSFP sequence enables the acquisition of a 1D self-gating readout during the unused short repetition time (TR). Self-gating readouts are acquired during every TR of segmented, breath-held cardiac scans. A template-matching algorithm is designed to compute cardiac trigger points from the self-gating signals, and these trigger points are used for retrospective cine reconstruction. The proposed approach is compared with ECG-gated ATR-SSFP and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) in ten volunteers and five patients. Results The difference of ECG and self-gating trigger times has a variability of 13 ± 11 ms (mean ± SD). Qualitative reviewer scoring and ranking indicate no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between self-gated and ECG-gated ATR-SSFP images. Quantitative blood-myocardial border sharpness is not significantly different among self-gated ATR-SSFP (0.61 ± 0.15 mm−1), ECG-gated ATR-SSFP (0.61 ± 0.15 mm−1), or conventional ECG-gated bSSFP cine MRI (0.59 ± 0.15 mm−1). Conclusion The proposed self-gated ATR-SSFP sequence enables fat-suppressed cardiac cine imaging at 1.5 T without the need for ECG gating and without decreasing the imaging efficiency of ATR-SSFP. PMID:24806049

  5. Comparison of fast acquisition strategies in whole-heart four-dimensional flow cardiac MR: Two-center, 1.5 Tesla, phantom and in vivo validation study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Westenberg, Jos J M; van den Boogaard, Pieter J; Swoboda, Peter P; Aziz, Rahoz; Foley, James R J; Fent, Graham J; Tyl, F G J; Coratella, L; ElBaz, Mohammed S M; van der Geest, R J; Higgins, David M; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven

    2017-05-04

    To validate three widely-used acceleration methods in four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiac MR; segmented 4D-spoiled-gradient-echo (4D-SPGR), 4D-echo-planar-imaging (4D-EPI), and 4D-k-t Broad-use Linear Acquisition Speed-up Technique (4D-k-t BLAST). Acceleration methods were investigated in static/pulsatile phantoms and 25 volunteers on 1.5 Tesla MR systems. In phantoms, flow was quantified by 2D phase-contrast (PC), the three 4D flow methods and the time-beaker flow measurements. The later was used as the reference method. Peak velocity and flow assessment was done by means of all sequences. For peak velocity assessment 2D PC was used as the reference method. For flow assessment, consistency between mitral inflow and aortic outflow was investigated for all pulse-sequences. Visual grading of image quality/artifacts was performed on a four-point-scale (0 = no artifacts; 3 = nonevaluable). For the pulsatile phantom experiments, the mean error for 2D PC = 1.0 ± 1.1%, 4D-SPGR = 4.9 ± 1.3%, 4D-EPI = 7.6 ± 1.3% and 4D-k-t BLAST = 4.4 ± 1.9%. In vivo, acquisition time was shortest for 4D-EPI (4D-EPI = 8 ± 2 min versus 4D-SPGR = 9 ± 3 min, P < 0.05 and 4D-k-t BLAST = 9 ± 3 min, P = 0.29). 4D-EPI and 4D-k-t BLAST had minimal artifacts, while for 4D-SPGR, 40% of aortic valve/mitral valve (AV/MV) assessments scored 3 (nonevaluable). Peak velocity assessment using 4D-EPI demonstrated best correlation to 2D PC (AV:r = 0.78, P < 0.001; MV:r = 0.71, P < 0.001). Coefficient of variability (CV) for net forward flow (NFF) volume was least for 4D-EPI (7%) (2D PC:11%, 4D-SPGR: 29%, 4D-k-t BLAST: 30%, respectively). In phantom, all 4D flow techniques demonstrated mean error of less than 8%. 4D-EPI demonstrated the least susceptibility to artifacts, good image quality, modest agreement with the current reference standard for peak intra-cardiac velocities and the highest consistency of intra-cardiac

  6. Whole-heart four-dimensional flow can be acquired with preserved quality without respiratory gating, facilitating clinical use: a head-to-head comparison.

    PubMed

    Kanski, Mikael; Töger, Johannes; Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Xanthis, Christos; Bloch, Karin Markenroth; Heiberg, Einar; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2015-06-18

    Respiratory gating is often used in 4D-flow acquisition to reduce motion artifacts. However, gating increases scan time. The aim of this study was to investigate if respiratory gating can be excluded from 4D flow acquisitions without affecting quantitative intracardiac parameters. Eight volunteers underwent CMR at 1.5 T with a 5-channel coil (5ch). Imaging included 2D flow measurements and whole-heart 4D flow with and without respiratory gating (Resp(+), Resp(-)). Stroke volume (SV), particle-trace volumes, kinetic energy, and vortex-ring volume were obtained from 4D flow-data. These parameters were compared between 5ch Resp(+) and 5ch Resp(-). In addition, 20 patients with heart failure were scanned using a 32-channel coil (32ch), and particle-trace volumes were compared to planimetric SV. Paired comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon's test and correlation analysis using Pearson r. Agreement was assessed as bias±SD. Stroke volume from 4D flow was lower compared to 2D flow both with and without respiratory gating (5ch Resp(+) 88±18 vs 97±24.0, p=0.001; 5ch Resp(-) 86±16 vs 97.1±22.7, p<0.01). There was a good correlation between Resp(+) and Resp(-) for particle-trace derived volumes (R2=0.82, 0.2±9.4 ml), mean kinetic energy (R2=0.86, 0.07±0.21 mJ), peak kinetic energy (R2=0.88, 0.14±0.77 mJ), and vortex-ring volume (R2=0.70, -2.5±9.4 ml). Furthermore, good correlation was found between particle-trace volume and planimetric SV in patients for 32ch Resp(-) (R2=0.62, -4.2±17.6 ml) and in healthy volunteers for 5ch Resp(+) (R2=0.89, -11±7 ml), and 5ch Resp(-) (R2=0.93, -7.5±5.4 ml), Average scan duration for Resp(-) was shorter compared to Resp(+) (27±9 min vs 61±19 min, p<0.05). Whole-heart 4D flow can be acquired with preserved quantitative results without respiratory gating, facilitating clinical use.

  7. Four-dimensional computed tomography based respiratory-gated radiotherapy with respiratory guidance system: analysis of respiratory signals and dosimetric comparison.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ae; Kim, Chul Yong; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Young Bum

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory guidance system in 4-dimensional computed tomography (4 DCT) based respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) by comparing respiratory signals and dosimetric analysis of treatment plans. The respiratory amplitude and period of the free, the audio device-guided, and the complex system-guided breathing were evaluated in eleven patients with lung or liver cancers. The dosimetric parameters were assessed by comparing free breathing CT plan and 4 DCT-based 30-70% maximal intensity projection (MIP) plan. The use of complex system-guided breathing showed significantly less variation in respiratory amplitude and period compared to the free or audio-guided breathing regarding the root mean square errors (RMSE) of full inspiration (P = 0.031), full expiration (P = 0.007), and period (P = 0.007). The dosimetric parameters including V(5 Gy), V(10 Gy), V(20 Gy), V(30 Gy), V(40 Gy), and V(50 Gy) of normal liver or lung in 4 DCT MIP plan were superior over free breathing CT plan. The reproducibility and regularity of respiratory amplitude and period were significantly improved with the complex system-guided breathing compared to the free or the audio-guided breathing. In addition, the treatment plan based on the 4D CT-based MIP images acquired with the complex system guided breathing showed better normal tissue sparing than that on the free breathing CT.

  8. Automatic phase determination for retrospectively gated cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect

    Manzke, R.; Koehler, Th.; Nielsen, T.; Hawkes, D.; Grass, M.

    2004-12-01

    The recent improvements in CT detector and gantry technology in combination with new heart rate adaptive cone beam reconstruction algorithms enable the visualization of the heart in three dimensions at high spatial resolution. However, the finite temporal resolution still impedes the artifact-free reconstruction of the heart at any arbitrary phase of the cardiac cycle. Cardiac phases must be found during which the heart is quasistationary to obtain outmost image quality. It is challenging to find these phases due to intercycle and patient-to-patient variability. Electrocardiogram (ECG) information does not always represent the heart motion with an adequate accuracy. In this publication, a simple and efficient image-based technique is introduced which is able to deliver stable cardiac phases in an automatic and patient-specific way. From low-resolution four-dimensional data sets, the most stable phases are derived by calculating the object similarity between subsequent phases in the cardiac cycle. Patient-specific information about the object motion can be determined and resolved spatially. This information is used to perform optimized high-resolution reconstructions at phases of little motion. Results based on a simulation study and three real patient data sets are presented. The projection data were generated using a 16-slice cone beam CT system in low-pitch helical mode with parallel ECG recording.

  9. Regional cardiac wall motion from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. F.; Brigger, P.; Ferrand, S. K.; Dilsizian, V.; Bacharach, S. L.

    1999-06-01

    A method for estimating regional epicardial and endocardial wall motion from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT studies has been developed. The method uses epicardial and endocardial boundaries determined from four long-axis slices at each gate of the cardiac cycle. The epicardial and endocardial wall position at each time gate is computed with respect to stationary reference ellipsoids, and wall motion is measured along lines normal to these ellipsoids. An initial quantitative evaluation of the method was made using the beating heart from the dynamic mathematical cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom, with and without a 1.5-cm FWHM Gaussian blurring filter. Epicardial wall motion was generally well-estimated within a fraction of a 3.56-mm voxel, although apical motion was overestimated with the Gaussian filter. Endocardial wall motion was underestimated by about two voxels with and without the Gaussian filter. The MCAT heart phantom was modified to model hypokinetic and dyskinetic wall motion. The wall motion analysis method enabled this abnormal motion to be differentiated from normal motion. Regional cardiac wall motion also was analyzed for /sup 201/Tl patient studies. Estimated wall motion was consistent with a nuclear medicine physician's visual assessment of motion from gated long-axis slices for male and female study examples. Additional research is required for a comprehensive evaluation of the applicability of the method to patient studies with normal and abnormal wall motion.

  10. Gated magnetic resonance imaging of congenital cardiac malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, B.D.; Jocobstein, M.D.; Nelson, A.D.; Riemenschneider, T.A.; Alfidi, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a variety of cardiac malformations in 19 patients aged 1 week to 33 years were obtained using pulse plethysmographic- or ECG-gated spin echo pulse sequences. Coronal, axial, and sagittal images displaying intracardiac structures with excellent spatial and contrast resolution were acquired during systole or diastole. It is concluded that MR will be a valuable noninvasive method of diagnosing congenital heart disease.

  11. Acquisition and automated 3-D segmentation of respiratory/cardiac-gated PET transmission images

    SciTech Connect

    Reutter, B.W.; Klein, G.J.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H. |

    1996-12-31

    To evaluate the impact of respiratory motion on attenuation correction of cardiac PET data, we acquired and automatically segmented gated transmission data for a dog breathing on its own under gas anesthesia. Data were acquired for 20 min on a CTI/Siemens ECAT EXACT HR (47-slice) scanner configured for 12 gates in a static study, Two respiratory gates were obtained using data from a pneumatic bellows placed around the dog`s chest, in conjunction with 6 cardiac gates from standard EKG gating. Both signals were directed to a LabVIEW-controlled Macintosh, which translated them into one of 12 gate addresses. The respiratory gating threshold was placed near end-expiration to acquire 6 cardiac-gated datasets at end-expiration and 6 cardiac-gated datasets during breaths. Breaths occurred about once every 10 sec and lasted about 1-1.5 sec. For each respiratory gate, data were summed over cardiac gates and torso and lung surfaces were segmented automatically using a differential 3-D edge detection algorithm. Three-dimensional visualizations showed that lung surfaces adjacent to the heart translated 9 mm inferiorly during breaths. Our results suggest that respiration-compensated attenuation correction is feasible with a modest amount of gated transmission data and is necessary for accurate quantitation of high-resolution gated cardiac PET data.

  12. Continuous real-time photoacoustic demodulation via field programmable gate array for dynamic imaging of zebrafish cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Scott P; Shelton, Ryan L; Maxson, Ryan T; Applegate, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    A four dimensional data set of the cardiac cycle of a zebrafish embryo was acquired using postacquisition synchronization of real time photoacoustic b-scans. Utilizing an off-axis photoacoustic microscopy (OA-PAM) setup, we have expanded upon our previous work with OA-PAM to develop a system that can sustain 100 kHz line rates while demodulating the bipolar photoacoustic signal in real-time. Real-time processing was accomplished by quadrature demodulation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in line with the signal digitizer. Simulated data acquisition verified the system is capable of real-time processing up to a line rate of 1 MHz. Galvanometer-scanning of the excitation laser inside the focus of the ultrasonic transducer enables real data acquisition of a 200 by 200 by 200 pixel, volumetric data set across a 2 millimeter field of view at a rate of 2.5 Hz.

  13. Continuous real-time photoacoustic demodulation via field programmable gate array for dynamic imaging of zebrafish cardiac cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Scott P.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Maxson, Ryan T.; Applegate, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    A four dimensional data set of the cardiac cycle of a zebrafish embryo was acquired using postacquisition synchronization of real time photoacoustic b-scans. Utilizing an off-axis photoacoustic microscopy (OA-PAM) setup, we have expanded upon our previous work with OA-PAM to develop a system that can sustain 100 kHz line rates while demodulating the bipolar photoacoustic signal in real-time. Real-time processing was accomplished by quadrature demodulation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in line with the signal digitizer. Simulated data acquisition verified the system is capable of real-time processing up to a line rate of 1 MHz. Galvanometer-scanning of the excitation laser inside the focus of the ultrasonic transducer enables real data acquisition of a 200 by 200 by 200 pixel, volumetric data set across a 2 millimeter field of view at a rate of 2.5 Hz. PMID:24010007

  14. Four Dimensional Trace Space Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, M.

    2005-02-10

    Future high energy colliders and FELs (Free Electron Lasers) such as the proposed LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC require high brightness electron beams. In general a high brightness electron beam will contain a large number of electrons that occupy a short longitudinal duration, can be focused to a small transverse area while having small transverse divergences. Therefore the beam must have a high peak current and occupy small areas in transverse phase space and so have small transverse emittances. Additionally the beam should propagate at high energy and have a low energy spread to reduce chromatic effects. The requirements of the LCLS for example are pulses which contain 10{sup 10} electrons in a temporal duration of 10 ps FWHM with projected normalized transverse emittances of 1{pi} mm mrad[1]. Currently the most promising method of producing such a beam is the RF photoinjector. The GTF (Gun Test Facility) at SLAC was constructed to produce and characterize laser and electron beams which fulfill the LCLS requirements. Emittance measurements of the electron beam at the GTF contain evidence of strong coupling between the transverse dimensions of the beam. This thesis explores the effects of this coupling on the determination of the projected emittances of the electron beam. In the presence of such a coupling the projected normalized emittance is no longer a conserved quantity. The conserved quantity is the normalized full four dimensional phase space occupied by the beam. A method to determine the presence and evaluate the strength of the coupling in emittance measurements made in the laboratory is developed. A method to calculate the four dimensional volume the beam occupies in phase space using quantities available in the laboratory environment is also developed. Results of measurements made of the electron beam at the GTF that demonstrate these concepts are presented and discussed.

  15. Gated MRI of cardiac and paracardiac masses: initial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Amparo, E.G.; Higgins, C.B.; Farmer, D.; Gamsu, G.; McNamara, M.

    1984-12-01

    Ten cardiac and paracardiac masses were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the utility of this new method for determining the nature, location, and extent of such masses. The masses were intramural lesions (two cases), left atrial thrombus (one case), pericardial cysts (three cases), and mediastinal masses deforming and displacing the left atrium (two cases). ECG-gated images were obtained in all patients. In each of nine cases, MRI determined the location of the mass as intracavitary, intramural, or paracardiac, without the need for exogenous contrast material. This initial experience suggests that MRI can provide as much information as echocardiography, computed tomography, and angiography combined in the evaluation of cardiac and paracardiac masses.

  16. Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, F. Fernandez, P.; Le Maitre, A.; Visvikis, D.; Dawood, M.; Schäfers, K. P.; Rimoldi, O. E.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Cardiac imaging suffers from both respiratory and cardiac motion. One of the proposed solutions involves double gated acquisitions. Although such an approach may lead to both respiratory and cardiac motion compensation there are issues associated with (a) the combination of data from cardiac and respiratory motion bins, and (b) poor statistical quality images as a result of using only part of the acquired data. The main objective of this work was to evaluate different schemes of combining binned data in order to identify the best strategy to reconstruct motion free cardiac images from dual gated positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions. Methods: A digital phantom study as well as seven human studies were used in this evaluation. PET data were acquired in list mode (LM). A real-time position management system and an electrocardiogram device were used to provide the respiratory and cardiac motion triggers registered within the LM file. Acquired data were subsequently binned considering four and six cardiac gates, or the diastole only in combination with eight respiratory amplitude gates. PET images were corrected for attenuation, but no randoms nor scatter corrections were included. Reconstructed images from each of the bins considered above were subsequently used in combination with an affine or an elastic registration algorithm to derive transformation parameters allowing the combination of all acquired data in a particular position in the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Images were assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, image profile, coefficient-of-variation (COV), and relative difference of the recovered activity concentration. Results: Regardless of the considered motion compensation strategy, the nonrigid motion model performed better than the affine model, leading to higher SNR and contrast combined with a lower COV. Nevertheless, when compensating for respiration only, no statistically significant differences were

  17. Prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice using carbon nanotube field emission x-ray.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guohua; Burk, Laurel M; Lee, Yueh Z; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2010-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source technology has recently been investigated for diagnostic imaging applications because of its attractive characteristics including electronic programmability, fast switching, distributed source, and multiplexing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of this technology for high-resolution prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging. A dynamic cone-beam micro-CT scanner was constructed using a rotating gantry, a stationary mouse bed, a flat-panel detector, and a sealed CNT based microfocus x-ray source. The compact single-beam CNT x-ray source was operated at 50 KVp and 2 mA anode current with 100 microm x 100 microm effective focal spot size. Using an intravenously administered iodinated blood-pool contrast agent, prospective cardiac and respiratory-gated micro-CT images of beating mouse hearts were obtained from ten anesthetized free-breathing mice in their natural position. Four-dimensional cardiac images were also obtained by gating the image acquisition to different phases in the cardiac cycle. High-resolution CT images of beating mouse hearts were obtained at 15 ms temporal resolution and 6.2 lp/mm spatial resolution at 10% of system MTF. The images were reconstructed at 76 microm isotropic voxel size. The data acquisition time for two cardiac phases was 44 +/- 9 min. The CT values observed within the ventricles and the ventricle wall were 455 +/- 49 and 120 +/- 48 HU, respectively. The entrance dose for the acquisition of a single phase of the cardiac cycle was 0.10 Gy. A high-resolution dynamic micro-CT scanner was developed from a compact CNT microfocus x-ray source and its feasibility for prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice under their natural position was demonstrated.

  18. Prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice using carbon nanotube field emission x-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Guohua; Burk, Laurel M.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source technology has recently been investigated for diagnostic imaging applications because of its attractive characteristics including electronic programmability, fast switching, distributed source, and multiplexing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of this technology for high-resolution prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging. Methods: A dynamic cone-beam micro-CT scanner was constructed using a rotating gantry, a stationary mouse bed, a flat-panel detector, and a sealed CNT based microfocus x-ray source. The compact single-beam CNT x-ray source was operated at 50 KVp and 2 mA anode current with 100 {mu}mx100 {mu}m effective focal spot size. Using an intravenously administered iodinated blood-pool contrast agent, prospective cardiac and respiratory-gated micro-CT images of beating mouse hearts were obtained from ten anesthetized free-breathing mice in their natural position. Four-dimensional cardiac images were also obtained by gating the image acquisition to different phases in the cardiac cycle. Results: High-resolution CT images of beating mouse hearts were obtained at 15 ms temporal resolution and 6.2 lp/mm spatial resolution at 10% of system MTF. The images were reconstructed at 76 {mu}m isotropic voxel size. The data acquisition time for two cardiac phases was 44{+-}9 min. The CT values observed within the ventricles and the ventricle wall were 455{+-}49 and 120{+-}48 HU, respectively. The entrance dose for the acquisition of a single phase of the cardiac cycle was 0.10 Gy. Conclusions: A high-resolution dynamic micro-CT scanner was developed from a compact CNT microfocus x-ray source and its feasibility for prospective-gated cardiac micro-CT imaging of free-breathing mice under their natural position was demonstrated.

  19. Micro-CT with respiratory and cardiac gating

    SciTech Connect

    Badea, C.; Hedlund, L.W.; Johnson, G.A.

    2004-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary imaging in rodents using micro-computed tomography (CT) is a challenging task due to both cardiac and pulmonary motion and the limited fluence rate available from micro-focus x-ray tubes of most commercial systems. Successful imaging in the mouse requires recognition of both the spatial and temporal scales and their impact on the required fluence rate. Smaller voxels require an increase in the total number of photons (integrated fluence) used in the reconstructed image for constant signal-to-noise ratio. The faster heart rates require shorter exposures to minimize cardiac motion blur imposing even higher demands on the fluence rate. We describe a system with fixed tube/detector and with a rotating specimen. A large focal spot x-ray tube capable of producing high fluence rates with short exposure times was used. The geometry is optimized to match focal spot blur with detector pitch and the resolution limits imposed by the reproducibility of gating. Thus, it is possible to achieve isotropic spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m with a fluence rate at the detector 250 times that of a conventional cone beam micro-CT system with rotating detector and microfocal x-ray tube. Motion is minimized for any single projection with 10 ms exposures that are synchronized to both cardiac and breathing motion. System performance was validated in vivo by studies of the cardiopulmonary structures in C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating the value of motion integration with a bright x-ray source.

  20. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies). PMID:28377738

  1. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies).

  2. Pediatric cardiac-gated CT angiography: assessment of radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Caroline L; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Frush, Donald P; Chan, Frandics P; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Lowry, Carolyn R; Hurwitz, Lynne M

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine a dose range for cardiac-gated CT angiography (CTA) in children. ECG-gated cardiac CTA simulating scanning of the heart was performed on an anthropomorphic phantom of a 5-year-old child on a 16-MDCT scanner using variable parameters (small field of view; 16 x 0.625 mm configuration; 0.5-second gantry cycle time; 0.275 pitch; 120 kVp at 110, 220, and 330 mA; and 80 kVp at 385 mA). Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology measured 20 organ doses. Effective dose calculated using the dose-length product (DLP) was compared with effective dose determined from measured absorbed organ doses. Highest organ doses included breast (3.5-12.6 cGy), lung (3.3-12.1 cGy), and bone marrow (1.7-7.6 cGy). The 80 kVp/385 mA examination produced lower radiation doses to all organs than the 120 kVp/220 mA examination. MOSFET effective doses (+/- SD) were as follows: 110 mA: 7.4 mSv (+/- 0.6 mSv), 220 mA: 17.2 mSv (+/- 0.3 mSv), 330 mA: 25.7 mSv (+/- 0.3 mSv), 80 kVp/385 mA: 10.6 mSv (+/- 0.2 mSv). DLP effective doses for diagnostic runs were as follows: 110 mA: 8.7 mSv, 220 mA: 19 mSv, 330 mA: 28 mSv, 80 kVp/385 mA: 12 mSv. DLP effective doses exceeded MOSFET effective doses by 9.7-17.2%. Radiation doses for a 5-year-old during cardiac-gated CTA vary greatly depending on parameters. Organ doses can be high; the effective dose may reach 28.4 mSv. Further work, including determination of size-appropriate mA and image quality, is important before routine use of this technique in children.

  3. Fetal cardiac ventricular volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction determined with four-dimensional ultrasound using Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™)

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Neil; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Lee, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify fetal cardiovascular parameters with Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) utilizing the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”. Study Design A cross-sectional study was designed consisting of patients with normal pregnancies between 19 and 40 weeks of gestation. After STIC datasets were acquired, analysis was performed offline (4DView) and the following cardiovascular parameters were evaluated: ventricular volume in end systole and end diastole, stroke volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction. To account for fetal size, cardiac output was also expressed as a function of head circumference, abdominal circumference, or femoral diaphysis length. Regression models were fitted for each cardiovascular parameter to assess the effect of gestational age and paired comparisons were made between the left and right ventricles. Results 1) Two hundred and seventeen patients were retrospectively identified, of whom 184 had adequate STIC datasets (85% acceptance); 2) ventricular volume, stroke volume, cardiac output, and adjusted cardiac output increased with gestational age; whereas, the ejection fraction decreased as gestation advanced; 3) the right ventricle was larger than the left in both systole (Right: 0.50 ml, IQR: 0.2 – 0.9; vs. Left: 0.27 ml, IQR: 0.1 – 0.5; p<0.001) and diastole (Right: 1.20 ml, IQR: 0.7 – 2.2; vs. Left: 1.03 ml, IQR: 0.5 – 1.7; p<0.001); 4) there were no differences between the left and right ventricle with respect to stroke volume, cardiac output, or adjusted cardiac output; and 5) the left ventricular ejection fraction was greater than the right (Left: 72.2%, IQR: 64 – 78; vs. Right: 62.4%, IQR: 56 – 69; p<0.001). Conclusion Fetal echocardiography, utilizing STIC and VOCAL™ with the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”, allows assessment of fetal cardiovascular parameters. Normal fetal cardiovascular physiology is characterized by ventricular

  4. Cardiac Mechano-Gated Ion Channels and Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Peyronnet, Remi; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Kohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical forces will have been omnipresent since the origin of life, and living organisms have evolved mechanisms to sense, interpret and respond to mechanical stimuli. The cardiovascular system in general, and the heart in particular, are exposed to constantly changing mechanical signals, including stretch, compression, bending, and shear. The heart adjusts its performance to the mechanical environment, modifying electrical, mechanical, metabolic, and structural properties over a range of time scales. Many of the underlying regulatory processes are encoded intra-cardially, and are thus maintained even in heart transplant recipients. Although mechano-sensitivity of heart rhythm has been described in the medical literature for over a century, its molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Thanks to modern biophysical and molecular technologies, the roles of mechanical forces in cardiac biology are being explored in more detail, and detailed mechanisms of mechano-transduction have started to emerge. Mechano-gated ion channels are cardiac mechano-receptors. They give rise to mechano-electric feedback, thought to contribute to normal function, disease development, and, potentially, therapeutic interventions. In this review, we focus on acute mechanical effects on cardiac electrophysiology, explore molecular candidates underlying observed responses, and discuss their pharmaceutical regulation. From this, we identify open research questions and highlight emerging technologies that may help in addressing them. Cardiac electrophysiology is acutely affected by the heart’s mechanical environment. Mechano-electric feedback affects excitability, conduction, and electrical load, and remains an underestimated player in arrhythmogenesis. The utility of therapeutic interventions targeting acute mechano-electrical transduction is an open field worthy of further study. PMID:26838316

  5. Effect of respiratory and cardiac gating on the major diffusion-imaging metrics.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Tha, Khin Khin; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Taro; Yoshida, Hirokazu; Takamori, Sayaka; Shirato, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    The effect of respiratory gating on the major diffusion-imaging metrics and that of cardiac gating on mean kurtosis (MK) are not known. For evaluation of whether the major diffusion-imaging metrics-MK, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the brain-varied between gated and non-gated acquisitions, respiratory-gated, cardiac-gated, and non-gated diffusion-imaging of the brain were performed in 10 healthy volunteers. MK, FA, and MD maps were constructed for all acquisitions, and the histograms were constructed. The normalized peak height and location of the histograms were compared among the acquisitions by use of Friedman and post hoc Wilcoxon tests. The effect of the repetition time (TR) on the diffusion-imaging metrics was also tested, and we corrected for its variation among acquisitions, if necessary. The results showed a shift in the peak location of the MK and MD histograms to the right with an increase in TR (p ≤ 0.01). The corrected peak location of the MK histograms, the normalized peak height of the FA histograms, the normalized peak height and the corrected peak location of the MD histograms varied significantly between the gated and non-gated acquisitions (p < 0.05). These results imply an influence of respiration and cardiac pulsation on the major diffusion-imaging metrics. The gating conditions must be kept identical if reproducible results are to be achieved.

  6. Free-breathing cardiac MR with a fixed navigator efficiency using adaptive gating window size.

    PubMed

    Moghari, Mehdi H; Chan, Raymond H; Hong, Susie N; Shaw, Jaime L; Goepfert, Lois A; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Josephson, Mark E; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2012-12-01

    A respiratory navigator with a fixed acceptance gating window is commonly used to reduce respiratory motion artifacts in cardiac MR. This approach prolongs the scan time and occasionally yields an incomplete dataset due to respiratory drifts. To address this issue, we propose an adaptive gating window approach in which the size and position of the gating window are changed adaptively during the acquisition based on the individual's breathing pattern. The adaptive gating window tracks the breathing pattern of the subject throughout the scan and adapts the size and position of the gating window such that the gating efficiency is always fixed at a constant value. To investigate the image quality and acquisition time, free breathing cardiac MRI, including both targeted coronary MRI and late gadolinium enhancement imaging, was performed in 67 subjects using the proposed navigator technique. Targeted coronary MRI was acquired from eleven healthy adult subjects using both the conventional and proposed adaptive gating window techniques. Fifty-six patients referred for cardiac MRI were also imaged using late gadolinium enhancement with the proposed adaptive gating window technique. Subjective and objective image assessments were used to evaluate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique allows free-breathing cardiac MRI in a relatively fixed time without compromising imaging quality due to respiratory motion artifacts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A novel dual gating approach using joint inertial sensors: implications for cardiac PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Jafari Tadi, Mojtaba; Teuho, Jarmo; Lehtonen, Eero Lennart; Saraste, Antti; Pänkäälä, Mikko; Koivisto, Tero; Teras, Mika

    2017-09-07

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique which may be considered as the state of art for the examination of cardiac inflammation due to atherosclerosis. A fundamental limitation of PET is that cardiac and respiratory motions reduce the quality of the achieved images. Current approaches for motion compensation involve gating the PET data based on the timing of quiescent periods of cardiac and respiratory cycles. In this study, we present a novel gating method called microelectromechanical (MEMS) dual gating which relies on joint non-electrical sensors, i.e. tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope. This approach can be used for optimized selection of quiescent phases of cardiac and respiratory cycles. Cardiomechanical activity according to echocardiography observations was investigated to confirm whether this dual sensor solution can provide accurate trigger timings for cardiac gating. Additionally, longitudinal chest motions originating from breathing were measured by accelerometric- and gyroscopic-derived respiratory (ADR and GDR) tracking. The ADR and GDR signals were evaluated against Varian Real-time position management (RPM) signals in terms of amplitude and phase. Accordingly, high linear correlation and agreement were achieved between the reference electrocardiography (ECG), RPM, and measured MEMS signals. We also performed a Ge-68 phantom study to evaluate possible metal artifacts caused by the integrated read-out electronics including mechanical sensors and semiconductors. The reconstructed phantom images did not reveal any image artifacts. Thus, it was concluded that MEMS-driven dual gating can be used in PET studies without an effect on the quantitative or visual accuracy of the PET images. Finally, the applicability of MEMS dual gating for cardiac PET imaging was investigated with two atherosclerosis patients. Dual gated PET images were successfully reconstructed using only MEMS signals and both qualitative and quantitative

  8. Cardiac gated computed tomography used to confirm iatrogenic aortic valve leaflet perforation after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Luke; Love, Kathleen; Ramirez, Alfredo; Boswell, Gilbert; Nayak, Keshav

    2013-01-01

    Aortic insufficiency from iatrogenic valve perforation from nonaortic valve operations is rarely reported despite the prevalence of these procedures. Rapid diagnosis of these defects is essential to prevent deterioration of cardiac function. In this paper, we describe a young man who reported to our institution after two open cardiac surgeries with new aortic regurgitation found to be due to an iatrogenic perforation of his noncoronary aortic valve cusp. This defect was not appreciated by previous intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and was inadequately visualized on follow-up transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. In contrast, cardiac gated computed tomography clearly visualized the defect and its surrounding structures. This case highlights the utility of cardiac gated computed tomography for cases of suspected valvular perforation when echocardiography is not readily available or inadequate imaging is obtained.

  9. Cardiac Gated Computed Tomography Used to Confirm Iatrogenic Aortic Valve Leaflet Perforation after Mitral Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Love, Kathleen; Ramirez, Alfredo; Boswell, Gilbert; Nayak, Keshav

    2013-01-01

    Aortic insufficiency from iatrogenic valve perforation from nonaortic valve operations is rarely reported despite the prevalence of these procedures. Rapid diagnosis of these defects is essential to prevent deterioration of cardiac function. In this paper, we describe a young man who reported to our institution after two open cardiac surgeries with new aortic regurgitation found to be due to an iatrogenic perforation of his noncoronary aortic valve cusp. This defect was not appreciated by previous intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and was inadequately visualized on follow-up transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. In contrast, cardiac gated computed tomography clearly visualized the defect and its surrounding structures. This case highlights the utility of cardiac gated computed tomography for cases of suspected valvular perforation when echocardiography is not readily available or inadequate imaging is obtained. PMID:24826290

  10. Phospholemman Modulates the Gating of Cardiac L-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianming; Gao, Guofeng; Guo, Kai; Yarotskyy, Viktor; Huang, Congxin; Elmslie, Keith S.; Peterson, Blaise Z.

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ entry through L-type calcium channels (CaV1.2) is critical in shaping the cardiac action potential and initiating cardiac contraction. Modulation of CaV1.2 channel gating directly affects myocyte excitability and cardiac function. We have found that phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family and regulator of cardiac ion transport, coimmunoprecipitates with CaV1.2 channels from guinea pig myocytes, which suggests PLM is an endogenous modulator. Cotransfection of PLM in HEK293 cells slowed CaV1.2 current activation at voltages near the threshold for activation, slowed deactivation after long and strong depolarizing steps, enhanced the rate and magnitude of voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI), and slowed recovery from inactivation. However, Ca2+-dependent inactivation was not affected. Consistent with slower channel closing, PLM significantly increased Ca2+ influx via CaV1.2 channels during the repolarization phase of a human cardiac action potential waveform. Our results support PLM as an endogenous regulator of CaV1.2 channel gating. The enhanced VDI induced by PLM may help protect the heart under conditions such as ischemia or tachycardia where the channels are depolarized for prolonged periods of time and could induce Ca2+ overload. The time and voltage-dependent slowed deactivation could represent a gating shift that helps maintain Ca2+ influx during the cardiac action potential waveform plateau phase. PMID:20371314

  11. A four dimensional variational analysis experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R.

    1981-01-01

    A demonstration that the four dimensional variational analysis method using the governing equations as exact constraints can be successfully employed for a perfect model and for a simple, but nonlinear, system is presented. The method is stable in an assimilation cycle. The method reconstructs the unobservable variables; in the case demonstrated, no velocity data was observed. The analysis errors are much smaller than the observing system errors.

  12. Improving Cardiac Phase Extraction in IVUS Studies by Integration of Gating Methods.

    PubMed

    Maso Talou, Gonzalo D; Larrabide, Ignacio; Blanco, Pablo J; Bezerra, Cristiano Guedes; Lemos, Pedro A; Feijoo, Raul A

    2015-12-01

      Coronary intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a fundamental imaging technique for atherosclerotic plaque assessment. However, volume-based data retrieved from IVUS studies can be misleading due to the artifacts generated by the cardiac motion, hindering diagnostic, and visualization of the vessel condition. Then, we propose an image-based gating method that improves the performance of the preexisting methods, delivering a gating in an appropriate time for clinical practice. We propose a fully automatic method to synergically integrate motion signals from different gating methods to improve the cardiac phase estimation. Additionally, we present a local extrema identification method that provides a more accurate extraction of a cardiac phase and, also, a scheme for multiple phase extraction mandatory for elastography-type studies. A comparison with three state-of-the-art methods is performed over 61 in-vivo IVUS studies including a wide range of physiological situations. The results show that the proposed strategy offers: 1) a more accurate cardiac phase extraction; 2) a lower frame oversampling and/or omission in the extracted phase data (error of 1.492 ±0.977 heartbeats per study, mean ± SD); 3) a more accurate and robust heartbeat period detection with a Bland-Altman coefficient of reproducibility (RPC) of 0.23 s, while the second closest method presents an RPC of 0.36 s. The integration of motion signals performed by our method shown an improvement of the gating accuracy and reliability.

  13. Kinetic effects of quaternary lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels: a gating current study

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of antiarrhythmic drugs with ion channels is often described within the context of the modulated receptor hypothesis, which explains the action of drugs by proposing that the binding site has a variable affinity for drugs, depending upon whether the channel is closed, open, or inactivated. Lack of direct evidence for altered gating of cardiac Na channels allowed for the suggestion of an alternative model for drug interaction with cardiac channels, which postulated a fixed affinity receptor with access limited by the conformation of the channel (guarded receptor hypothesis). We report measurement of the gating currents of Na channels in canine cardiac Purkinje cells in the absence and presence of QX-222, a quaternary derivative of lidocaine, applied intracellularly, and benzocaine, a neutral local anesthetic. These data demonstrate that the cardiac Na channel behaves as a modulated rather than a guarded receptor in that drug-bound channels gate with altered kinetics. In addition, the results suggest a new interpretation of the modulated receptor hypothesis whereby drug occupancy reduces the overall voltage- dependence of gating, preventing full movement of the voltage sensor. PMID:8169596

  14. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J; Liu, Chi

    2014-10-21

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise

  15. End-expiration Respiratory Gating for a High Resolution Stationary Cardiac SPECT system

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual-respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or 8 cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p<0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p<0.05) compared to EXG SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the

  16. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on

  17. Prototype development of an electrical impedance based simultaneous respiratory and cardiac monitoring system for gated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Kirpal; Liu, Jeff; Schellenberg, Devin; Karvat, Anand; Parameswaran, Ash; Grewal, Parvind; Thomas, Steven

    2014-10-14

    In radiotherapy, temporary translocations of the internal organs and tumor induced by respiratory and cardiac activities can undesirably lead to significantly lower radiation dose on the targeted tumor but more harmful radiation on surrounding healthy tissues. Respiratory and cardiac gated radiotherapy offers a potential solution for the treatment of tumors located in the upper thorax. The present study focuses on the design and development of simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac signal using electrical impedance technology for use in dual gated radiotherapy. An electronic circuitry was developed for monitoring the bio-impedance change due to respiratory and cardiac motions and extracting the cardiogenic ECG signal. The system was analyzed in terms of reliability of signal acquisition, time delay, and functionality in a high energy radiation environment. The resulting signal of the system developed was also compared with the output of the commercially available Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) system in both time and frequency domains. The results demonstrate that the bioimpedance-based method can potentially provide reliable tracking of respiratory and cardiac motion in humans, alternative to currently available methods. When compared with the RPM system, the impedance-based system developed in the present study shows similar output pattern but different sensitivities in monitoring different respiratory rates. The tracking of cardiac motion was more susceptible to interference from other sources than respiratory motion but also provided synchronous output compared with the ECG signal extracted. The proposed hardware-based implementation was observed to have a worst-case time delay of approximately 33 ms for respiratory monitoring and 45 ms for cardiac monitoring. No significant effect on the functionality of the system was observed when it was tested in a radiation environment with the electrode lead wires directly exposed to high-energy X

  18. Comparison of gated cardiac MRI and 2D echocardiography of intracardiac neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Go, R T; O'Donnell, J K; Underwood, D A; Feiglin, D H; Salcedo, E E; Pantoja, M; MacIntyre, W J; Meaney, T F

    1985-07-01

    The gross diagnostic factors of intracardiac tumor in four patients imaged by two-dimensional echocardiography (2D echo) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared. Three cases had left and one had a right atrial tumor, all histologically identified as myxoma. Gated cardiac MRI depicted the size, shape, and surface characteristics of the tumors more clearly than 2D echo, because MRI provides better spatial and contrast resolution. Depiction of tumor attachment was poor to good with both techniques. Both techniques were highly accurate in localizing the tumor and displaying whether it was fixed or mobile. The global field of view provided by MRI allows better definition of tumor prolapse, secondary valvular obstruction, and cardiac chamber size. This study shows that despite its early stage of development, gated cardiac MRI provides superior image quality and is complementary to 2D echo for characterization and diagnosis of intracardiac tumor.

  19. Gated cardiac tomographic visualization of coronary artery calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Markivee, C.R.; Hoyt, T.S.; Francis, R.A.; Burns, J.; Ruark, B.

    1984-07-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is usually detected by fluoroscopy or on cine films during coronary angiography, but measurement of the calcification is not possible. Gated tomography of the heart provides a full sized image with high contrast spatial resolution of 0.76 mm. The radiation exposure to the heart is between 1-5% of that experienced with coronary cinefluorography. Measurement of the diameter of calcium deposits is possible and calcium that could be related to arterial stenosis may be identified.

  20. String breaking in four dimensional lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Eichten, E.; Thacker, H.

    2001-06-01

    Virtual quark pair screening leads to breaking of the string between fundamental representation quarks in QCD. For unquenched four dimensional lattice QCD, this (so far elusive) phenomenon is studied using the recently developed truncated determinant algorithm (TDA). The dynamical configurations were generated on a 650 MHz PC. Quark eigenmodes up to 420 MeV are included exactly in these TDA studies performed at low quark mass on large coarse [but O(a{sup 2}) improved] lattices. A study of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge extracted from an ensemble of 1000 two-flavor dynamical configurations reveals evidence for flattening of the string tension at distances R{approx}>1 fm.

  1. Ryanodine receptor gating controls generation of diastolic calcium waves in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petrovič, Pavol; Valent, Ivan; Cocherová, Elena; Pavelková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The role of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) gating in the initiation and propagation of calcium waves was investigated using a mathematical model comprising a stochastic description of RyR gating and a deterministic description of calcium diffusion and sequestration. We used a one-dimensional array of equidistantly spaced RyR clusters, representing the confocal scanning line, to simulate the formation of calcium sparks. Our model provided an excellent description of the calcium dependence of the frequency of diastolic calcium sparks and of the increased tendency for the production of calcium waves after a decrease in cytosolic calcium buffering. We developed a hypothesis relating changes in the propensity to form calcium waves to changes of RyR gating and tested it by simulation. With a realistic RyR gating model, increased ability of RyR to be activated by Ca2+ strongly increased the propensity for generation of calcium waves at low (0.05–0.1-µM) calcium concentrations but only slightly at high (0.2–0.4-µM) calcium concentrations. Changes in RyR gating altered calcium wave formation by changing the calcium sensitivity of spontaneous calcium spark activation and/or the average number of open RyRs in spontaneous calcium sparks. Gating changes that did not affect RyR activation by Ca2+ had only a weak effect on the propensity to form calcium waves, even if they strongly increased calcium spark frequency. Calcium waves induced by modulating the properties of the RyR activation site could be suppressed by inhibiting the spontaneous opening of the RyR. These data can explain the increased tendency for production of calcium waves under conditions when RyR gating is altered in cardiac diseases. PMID:26009544

  2. The impact of cardiac gating on the detection of coronary calcifications in dual-energy chest radiography: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabol, John M.; Liu, Ray; Saunders, Rowland; Markley, Jonathan; Moreno, Nery; Seamans, John; Wiese, Scott; Jabri, Kadri; Gilkeson, Robert C.

    2006-03-01

    The detection of coronary calcifications with CT is generally accepted as a useful method for predicting early onset of coronary artery disease. Film-screen X-ray and fluoroscopy have also been shown to have high predictive value for coronary disease diagnosis, but have minimal sensitivity. Recently, flat-panel detectors capable of dual-energy techniques have enabled the separation of soft-tissue and bone from images. Clinical studies report substantially improved sensitivity for the detection of coronary calcifications using these techniques. However, heart motion causes minor artefacts from misregistration of both calcified and soft-tissue structures, resulting in inconsistent detection of calcifications. This research examines whether cardiac gating improves the reliability of calcification detection. Single-energy, gated, and non-gated dual-energy imaging techniques are examined in a dynamic phantom model. A gating system was developed to synchronize two dual-energy exposures to a specified phase of the cardiac cycle. The performance and repeatability of the gating system was validated with the use of a cyclical phantom. An anthropomorphic phantom was developed to simulate both cardiac and soft-tissue motion, and generate ECG-like output signals. The anthropomorphic phantom and motion artefact accuracy was verified by comparison with clinical images of patients with calcifications. The ability of observers to detect calcifications in non-gated, and gated techniques was compared through the use of an ROC experiment. Gating visibly reduces the effect of motion artifacts in the dual-energy images. Without gating, motion artefacts cause greater variability in calcification detection. Comparison of the average area-under-the-curve of the ROC curves show that gating significantly increases the accuracy of calcification detection. The effects of motion and gating on DE cardiac calcification detection have been demonstrated and characterized in a phantom model that

  3. Automatic intrinsic cardiac and respiratory gating from cone-beam CT scans of the thorax region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Andreas; Sauppe, Sebastian; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We present a new algorithm that allows for raw data-based automated cardiac and respiratory intrinsic gating in cone-beam CT scans. It can be summarized in three steps: First, a median filter is applied to an initially reconstructed volume. The forward projection of this volume contains less motion information and is subtracted from the original projections. This results in new raw data that contain only moving and not static anatomy like bones, that would otherwise impede the cardiac or respiratory signal acquisition. All further steps are applied to these modified raw data. Second, the raw data are cropped to a region of interest (ROI). The ROI in the raw data is determined by the forward projection of a binary volume of interest (VOI) that includes the diaphragm for respiratory gating and most of the edge of the heart for cardiac gating. Third, the mean gray value in this ROI is calculated for every projection and the respiratory/cardiac signal is acquired using a bandpass filter. Steps two and three are carried out simultaneously for 64 or 1440 overlapping VOI inside the body for the respiratory or cardiac signal respectively. The signals acquired from each ROI are compared and the most consistent one is chosen as the desired cardiac or respiratory motion signal. Consistency is assessed by the standard deviation of the time between two maxima. The robustness and efficiency of the method is evaluated using simulated and measured patient data by computing the standard deviation of the mean signal difference between the ground truth and the intrinsic signal.

  4. {N}=3 four dimensional field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Etxebarria, Iñaki; Regalado, Diego

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a class of four dimensional field theories constructed by quotienting ordinary {N}=4 U(N ) SYM by particular combinations of R-symmetry and SL(2, ℤ) automorphisms. These theories appear naturally on the worldvolume of D3 branes probing terminal singularities in F-theory, where they can be thought of as non-perturbative generalizations of the O3 plane. We focus on cases preserving only 12 supercharges, where the quotient gives rise to theories with coupling fixed at a value of order one. These constructions possess an unconventional large N limit described by a non-trivial F-theory fibration with base AdS 5 × (S 5/ ℤ k ). Upon reduction on a circle the {N}=3 theories flow to well-known {N}=6 ABJM theories.

  5. Four-dimensional visualization of rising microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Won; Jeon, Hyung Min; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lim, Jae-Hong; Weon, Byung Mook; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Je, Jung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Four-dimensional imaging, which indicates imaging in three spatial dimensions as a function of time, provides useful evidence to investigate the interactions of rising bubbles. However, this has been largely unexplored for microbubbles, mostly due to problems associated with strong light scattering and shallow depth of field in optical imaging. Here, tracking x-ray microtomography is used to visualize rising microbubbles in four dimensions. Bubbles are tracked by moving the cell to account for their rise velocity. The sizes, shapes, time-dependent positions, and velocities of individual rising microbubbles are clearly identified, despite substantial overlaps between bubbles in the field of view. Our tracking x-ray microtomography affords opportunities for understanding bubble-bubble (or particle) interactions at microscales – important in various fields such as microfluidics, biomechanics, and floatation. PMID:24866552

  6. Four-dimensional unsubtraction with massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sborlini, Germán F. R.; Driencourt-Mangin, Félix; Rodrigo, Germán

    2016-10-01

    We extend the four-dimensional unsubtraction method, which is based on the loop-tree duality (LTD), to deal with processes involving heavy particles. The method allows to perform the summation over degenerate IR configurations directly at integrand level in such a way that NLO corrections can be implemented directly in four space-time dimensions. We define a general momentum mapping between the real and virtual kinematics that accounts properly for the quasi-collinear configurations, and leads to an smooth massless limit. We illustrate the method first with a scalar toy example, and then analyse the case of the decay of a scalar or vector boson into a pair of massive quarks. The results presented in this paper are suitable for the application of the method to any multipartonic process.

  7. Quantum teleportation of four-dimensional qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amri, M.; Evers, Joerg; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2010-08-15

    A protocol for the teleportation of arbitrary quantum states of four-dimensional qudits is presented. The qudit to be teleported is encoded in the combined state of two ensembles of atoms placed in a cavity at the sender's side. The receiver uses a similar setup, with his atoms prepared in a particular initial state. The teleportation protocol then consists of adiabatic mapping of the ensemble states onto photonic degrees of freedom, which are then directed onto a specific beam splitter and detection setup. For part of the measurement outcome, the qudit state is fully transferred to the receiver. Other detection events lead to partial teleportation or failed teleportation attempts. The interpretation of the different detection outcomes and possible ways of improving the full teleportation probability are discussed.

  8. Chiral four-dimensional heterotic covariant lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beye, Florian

    2014-11-01

    In the covariant lattice formalism, chiral four-dimensional heterotic string vacua are obtained from certain even self-dual lattices which completely decompose into a left-mover and a right-mover lattice. The main purpose of this work is to classify all right-mover lattices that can appear in such a chiral model, and to study the corresponding left-mover lattices using the theory of lattice genera. In particular, the Smith-Minkowski-Siegel mass formula is employed to calculate a lower bound on the number of left-mover lattices. Also, the known relationship between asymmetric orbifolds and covariant lattices is considered in the context of our classification.

  9. A multi-resolution approach to retrospectively-gated cardiac micro-CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Johnson, G. A.; Badea, C. T.

    2014-03-01

    In preclinical research, micro-CT is commonly used to provide anatomical information; however, there is significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information in cardiac studies. The fastest acquisition in 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging is achieved via retrospective gating, resulting in irregular angular projections after binning the projections into phases of the cardiac cycle. Under these conditions, analytical reconstruction algorithms, such as filtered back projection, suffer from streaking artifacts. Here, we propose a novel, multi-resolution, iterative reconstruction algorithm inspired by robust principal component analysis which prevents the introduction of streaking artifacts, while attempting to recover the highest temporal resolution supported by the projection data. The algorithm achieves these results through a unique combination of the split Bregman method and joint bilateral filtration. We illustrate the algorithm's performance using a contrast-enhanced, 2D slice through the MOBY mouse phantom and realistic projection acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Our results indicate that the algorithm is robust to under sampling levels of only 34 projections per cardiac phase and, therefore, has high potential in reducing both acquisition times and radiation dose. Another potential advantage of the multi-resolution scheme is the natural division of the reconstruction problem into a large number of independent sub-problems which can be solved in parallel. In future work, we will investigate the performance of this algorithm with retrospectively-gated, cardiac micro-CT data.

  10. Manual and semi-automatic registration vs retrospective ECG gating for correction of cardiac motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Aaron; Adam, Vincent; Acharya, Kishor; Pan, Tin-Su; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2003-05-01

    A manual and a semi-automatic image registration method were compared with retrospective ECG (rECG) gating to correct for cardiac motion in myocardial perfusion (MBF) measurement. 5 beagles were used in 11 experiments. For each experiment a 30 s cine CT scan of the heart was acquired after contrast injection. For the manual method, a reference end-diastole (ED) image was selected from the first cardiac cycle. ED images in subsequent cardiac cycles were manually selected to match the shape of the reference ED image. For each cardiac cycle in the semi-automatic method, the image with the maximum area and the most similar shape to the selected image of the previous cardiac cycle was chosen as ED image. MBFs were calculated from the images registered by the three methods and compared. The averages of the difference of MBFmanual and MBFsemi-auto and MBFrECG in the lateral free wall of LV were 3.6 and 3.4 ml/min/100g respectively. The corresponding standard deviations from the mean were 9.1 and 28.3 ml/min/100g respectively. We concluded from these preliminary results that image registration methods were better than rECG gating for correcting heart, which should facilitate more precise measurement of MBF.

  11. Carbon Tube Electrodes for Electrocardiography-Gated Cardiac Multimodality Imaging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, Philippe; Goetz, Christian; Aubertin, Gaelle; Hubele, Fabrice; Sannié, Sébastien; Constantinesco, André

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a simple design of noninvasive carbon tube electrodes that facilitates electrocardiography (ECG) in mice during cardiac multimodality preclinical imaging. Both forepaws and the left hindpaw, covered by conductive gel, of mice were placed into the openings of small carbon tubes. Cardiac ECG-gated single-photon emission CT, X-ray CT, and MRI were tested (n = 60) in 20 mice. For all applications, electrodes were used in a warmed multimodality imaging cell. A heart rate of 563 ± 48 bpm was recorded from anesthetized mice regardless of the imaging technique used, with acquisition times ranging from 1 to 2 h. PMID:21333165

  12. Cardiac gating with a pulse oximeter for dual-energy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkumat, N. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Dhanantwari, A. C.; Williams, D. B.; Paul, N. S.; Yorkston, J.; Van Metter, R.

    2008-11-01

    The development and evaluation of a prototype cardiac gating system for double-shot dual-energy (DE) imaging is described. By acquiring both low- and high-kVp images during the resting phase of the cardiac cycle (diastole), heart misalignment between images can be reduced, thereby decreasing the magnitude of cardiac motion artifacts. For this initial implementation, a fingertip pulse oximeter was employed to measure the peripheral pulse waveform ('plethysmogram'), offering potential logistic, cost and workflow advantages compared to an electrocardiogram. A gating method was developed that accommodates temporal delays due to physiological pulse propagation, oximeter waveform processing and the imaging system (software, filter-wheel, anti-scatter Bucky-grid and flat-panel detector). Modeling the diastolic period allowed the calculation of an implemented delay, timp, required to trigger correctly during diastole at any patient heart rate (HR). The model suggests a triggering scheme characterized by two HR regimes, separated by a threshold, HRthresh. For rates at or below HRthresh, sufficient time exists to expose on the same heartbeat as the plethysmogram pulse [timp(HR) = 0]. Above HRthresh, a characteristic timp(HR) delays exposure to the subsequent heartbeat, accounting for all fixed and variable system delays. Performance was evaluated in terms of accuracy and precision of diastole-trigger coincidence and quantitative evaluation of artifact severity in gated and ungated DE images. Initial implementation indicated 85% accuracy in diastole-trigger coincidence. Through the identification of an improved HR estimation method (modified temporal smoothing of the oximeter waveform), trigger accuracy of 100% could be achieved with improved precision. To quantify the effect of the gating system on DE image quality, human observer tests were conducted to measure the magnitude of cardiac artifact under conditions of successful and unsuccessful diastolic gating. Six observers

  13. Four-dimensional MR cardiovascular imaging: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Anthony G; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Haosen; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as a powerful tool for cardiovascular imaging because of its unique potential to measure blood flow, cardiac wall motion and tissue properties jointly. However, many clinical applications of cardiac MRI have been limited by low imaging speed. Three-dimensional cardiovascular MRI in real-time, or 4D cardiovascular MRI without cardiac and respiratory gating or triggering, remains an important technological goal of the MR cardiovascular research community. In this paper, we present a novel technique to achieve 4D cardiovascular MR imaging in unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This breakthrough is made possible through a creative use of sparse sampling theory and parallel imaging with phased array coils and a novel implementation of data acquisition and image reconstruction. We have successfully used the technique to perform 4D cardiovascular imaging on rats, achieving 0.65 mm × 0.65 mm × 0.31 mm spatial resolution with a frame rate of 67 fps. This capability enables simultaneous imaging of cardiac motion, respiratory motion, and first-pass myocardial perfusion. This in turn allows multiple cardiac assessments including measurement of ejection fraction, cardiac output, and myocardial blood flow in a single experiment. We believe that the proposed technique can open up many important applications of cardiovascular imaging and have significant impact on the field.

  14. Real-time cardiac MRI without triggering, gating, or breath holding.

    PubMed

    Brinegar, Cornelius; Wu, Yi-Jen L; Foley, Lesley M; Hitchens, T Kevin; Ye, Qing; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2008-01-01

    State-of-the-art cardiac MRI can perform real-time 2D scans without cardiac triggering during a single breath hold; however, real-time cardiac MRI in rats is difficult due to the high heart rate (330 bpm) and presence of respiratory motion. These challenges are overcome by using a dynamic imaging method based on Partially Separable Function (PSF) theory with an acceleration factor of 256. This paper demonstrates that this method can be used in the study of transplanted rat hearts for both anatomical and perfusion applications. The study was carried out with a 200 microm in-plane resolution with a 17.2 msec temporal resolution, and the results show improved spatial resolution (2x) and reduced acquisition time (3x) relative to Electrocardiogram (ECG) triggered, respiratory gated cine imaging.

  15. Four-dimensional coherent electronic Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Elad

    2017-04-01

    The correlations between different quantum-mechanical degrees of freedom of molecular species dictate their chemical and physical properties. Generally, these correlations are reflected in the optical response of the system but in low-order or low-dimensionality measurement the signals are highly averaged. Here, we describe a novel four-dimensional coherent spectroscopic method that directly correlates within and between the manifold of electronic and vibrational states. The optical response theory is developed in terms of both resonant and non-resonant field-matter interactions. Using resonance to select coherences on specific electronic states creates opportunities to directly distinguish coherent dynamics on the ground and electronically excited potentials. Critically, this method is free from lower-order signals that have plagued other electronically non-resonant vibrational spectroscopies. The theory presented here compliments recent work on the experimental demonstration of the 4D spectroscopic method described. We highlight specific means by which non-trivial effects such as anharmonicity (diagonal and off-diagonal), mode-specific vibronic coupling, and curvature of the excited states manifest in different projections of the 4D spectrum.

  16. Entanglement generation and entanglement concentration of two-photon four-dimensional spatial modes partially entangled Dicke state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jin

    2017-05-01

    Two-photon four-dimensional spatial modes partially entangled Dicke state can be compactly generated from six concurrent spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes by cascading poling domain structures in 5% MgO-doped poled lithium niobate bulk crystal. Entanglement concentration of the two-photon four-dimensional spatial modes partially entangled Dicke state can be realized by using quantum nondestructive detection of nonlinear Kerr medium, optical beam splitter, and quantum gate operation.

  17. Pseudo‐projection–driven, self‐gated cardiac cine imaging using cartesian golden step phase encoding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liheng; Derbyshire, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a novel two‐dimensional self‐gated imaging technique for free‐breathing cardiac cine MRI that is free of motion‐detection overhead and requires minimal planning for motion tracking. Methods Motion along the readout direction was extracted solely from normal Cartesian imaging readouts near ky = 0. During imaging, the readouts below a certain |ky| threshold were scaled in magnitude and filtered in time to form “pseudo‐projections,” enabling projection‐based motion tracking along readout without frequently acquiring the central phase encode. A discrete golden step phase encode scheme allowed the |ky| threshold to be freely set after the scan while maintaining uniform motion sampling. Results The pseudo‐projections stream displayed sufficient spatiotemporal resolution for both cardiac and respiratory tracking, allowing retrospective reconstruction of free‐breathing non‐electrocardiogram (ECG) cines. The technique was tested on healthy subjects, and the resultant image quality, measured by blood‐myocardium boundary sharpness, myocardial mass, and single‐slice ejection fraction was found to be comparable to standard breath‐hold ECG‐gated cines. Conclusion The use of pseudo‐projections for motion tracking was found feasible for cardiorespiratory self‐gated imaging. Despite some sensitivity to flow and eddy currents, the simplicity of acquisition makes the proposed technique a valuable tool for self‐gated cardiac imaging. Magn Reson Med 76:417–429, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID

  18. Computer system for four-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Duann, J R; Lin, S B; Hu, W C; Su, J L

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a system for reconstructing a four-dimensional (4D) heart-beating image from transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) data acquired with a rotational approach. The system consists of the necessary processing modules for two-dimensional (2D) echocardiogram reformation and 3D/4D-image reconstruction. These include the modules of image decoding, image re-coordinating, and three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering. The system is implemented under PC platform with Windows 95 operating system (with Intel Pentium-166 CPU, 64 MB RAM on board, and 2.0 GB hard disk capacity). It takes 6 min to reconstruct a 4D echocardiographic data set. The resultant 2D/3D/4D echocardiographic image provide the tools for investigating the phenomenon of heart beating, exploring the heart structure, and reformatting the 2D echocardiograms in an arbitrary plane. The functions provided by the system can be applied for further studies, such as 3D cardiac shape analysis, cardiac function measurement, and so forth.

  19. Cardiac gating calibration by the Septal Scout for magnetic resonance coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) gating is commonly used to synchronize imaging windows to diastasis periods over multiple heartbeats in magnetic resonance (MR) coronary angiography. Calibration of the ECG gating parameters is typically based on a cine cardiovascular MR (CMR) video of the beating heart. Insufficient temporal resolution in the cine-CMR method, however, may produce gating errors and motion artifacts. It was previously shown that tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) can identify accurate diastasis window timings by observing the movement of the interventricular septum (IVS). We present a new CMR technique, the Septal Scout, for measuring IVS motion. We demonstrate that cardiac gating windows determined by the Septal Scout produce sharper coronary MR angiography images than windows determined by cine-CMR. Methods 9 healthy volunteers were scanned on a GE Optima 450w 1.5T MR system. Cine-CMR was acquired and used to identify the start and end times of the diastasis window (Wcine). The Septal Scout employs a one-dimensional steady-state free precession (SSFP) readout along the ventricular septum prescribed from the 4-chamber view. The Septal Scout data is processed to produce a septal velocity function, from which the diastasis window was determined (Wsep). Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography was performed twice for each volunteer: once gated to Wcine, once to Wsep. Vessel sharpness was assessed subjectively by two experienced observers, and quantitatively by full width half maximum (FWHM) measurements of cross-sectional vessel profiles. In addition, TDE was performed on a subcohort of 6 volunteers where diastasis windows (WTDE) were determined from the IVS velocity measured in the 4-chamber view. W sep and W TDE were compared using Pearson’s correlation. Results MRA acquisitions were successful in all volunteers. Vessel segments produced smaller FWHM measurements and were deemed sharper when imaged during the Septal Scout gating windows (p < 0

  20. A statistical method for retrospective cardiac and respiratory motion gating of interventional cardiac x-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Panayiotou, Maria King, Andrew P.; Housden, R. James; Ma, YingLiang; Rhode, Kawal S.; Cooklin, Michael; O'Neill, Mark; Gill, Jaswinder; Rinaldi, C. Aldo

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Image-guided cardiac interventions involve the use of fluoroscopic images to guide the insertion and movement of interventional devices. Cardiorespiratory gating can be useful for 3D reconstruction from multiple x-ray views and for reducing misalignments between 3D anatomical models overlaid onto fluoroscopy. Methods: The authors propose a novel and potentially clinically useful retrospective cardiorespiratory gating technique. The principal component analysis (PCA) statistical method is used in combination with other image processing operations to make our proposed masked-PCA technique suitable for cardiorespiratory gating. Unlike many previously proposed techniques, our technique is robust to varying image-content, thus it does not require specific catheters or any other optically opaque structures to be visible. Therefore, it works without any knowledge of catheter geometry. The authors demonstrate the application of our technique for the purposes of retrospective cardiorespiratory gating of normal and very low dose x-ray fluoroscopy images. Results: For normal dose x-ray images, the algorithm was validated using 28 clinical electrophysiology x-ray fluoroscopy sequences (2168 frames), from patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and cardiac resynchronization therapy procedures for heart failure. The authors established end-systole, end-expiration, and end-inspiration success rates of 97.0%, 97.9%, and 97.0%, respectively. For very low dose applications, the technique was tested on ten x-ray sequences from the RFA procedures with added noise at signal to noise ratio (SNR) values of√(5)0, √(1)0, √(8), √(6), √(5), √(2), and √(1) to simulate the image quality of increasingly lower dose x-ray images. Even at the low SNR value of √(2), representing a dose reduction of more than 25 times, gating success rates of 89.1%, 88.8%, and 86.8% were established. Conclusions: The proposed

  1. Feasibility of epicardial adipose tissue quantification in non-ECG-gated low-radiation-dose CT: comparison with prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Simon-Yarza, Isabel; Viteri-Ramírez, Guillermo; Saiz-Mendiguren, Ramón; Slon-Roblero, Pedro J; Paramo, María; Bastarrika, Gorka

    2012-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an important indicator of cardiovascular risk. This parameter is generally assessed on ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) images. To evaluate feasibility and reliability of EAT quantification on non-gated thoracic low-radiation-dose CT examinations with respect to prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition. Sixty consecutive asymptomatic smokers (47 men; mean age 64 ± 9.8 years) underwent low-dose CT of the chest and prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisitions (64-slice dual-source CT). The two examinations were reconstructed with the same range, field of view, slice thickness, and convolution algorithm. Two independent observers blindly quantified EAT volume using commercially available software. Data were compared with paired sample Student t-test, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), and Bland-Altman plots. No statistically significant difference was observed for EAT volume quantification with low-dose-CT (141.7 ± 58.3 mL) with respect to ECG-gated CT (142.7 ± 57.9 mL). Estimation of CCC showed almost perfect concordance between the two techniques for EAT-volume assessment (CCC, 0.99; mean difference, 0.98 ± 5.1 mL). Inter-observer agreement for EAT volume estimation was CCC: 0.96 for low-dose-CT examinations and 0.95 for ECG-gated CT. Non-gated low-dose CT allows quantifying EAT with almost the same concordance and reliability as using dedicated prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition protocols.

  2. Ephaptic coupling rescues conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue with voltage-gated gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, S H

    2017-09-01

    Electrical conduction in cardiac tissue is usually considered to be primarily facilitated by gap junctions, providing a pathway between the intracellular spaces of neighboring cells. However, recent studies have highlighted the role of coupling via extracellular electric fields, also known as ephaptic coupling, particularly in the setting of reduced gap junction expression. Further, in the setting of reduced gap junctional coupling, voltage-dependent gating of gap junctions, an oft-neglected biophysical property in computational studies, produces a positive feedback that promotes conduction failure. We hypothesized that ephaptic coupling can break the positive feedback loop and rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue. In a computational tissue model incorporating voltage-gated gap junctions and ephaptic coupling, we demonstrate that ephaptic coupling can rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled tissue. Further, ephaptic coupling increased conduction velocity in weakly coupled tissue, and importantly, reduced the minimum gap junctional coupling necessary for conduction, most prominently at fast pacing rates. Finally, we find that, although neglecting gap junction voltage-gating results in negligible differences in well coupled tissue, more significant differences occur in weakly coupled tissue, greatly underestimating the minimal gap junctional coupling that can maintain conduction. Our study suggests that ephaptic coupling plays a conduction-preserving role, particularly at rapid heart rates.

  3. Ephaptic coupling rescues conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue with voltage-gated gap junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Electrical conduction in cardiac tissue is usually considered to be primarily facilitated by gap junctions, providing a pathway between the intracellular spaces of neighboring cells. However, recent studies have highlighted the role of coupling via extracellular electric fields, also known as ephaptic coupling, particularly in the setting of reduced gap junction expression. Further, in the setting of reduced gap junctional coupling, voltage-dependent gating of gap junctions, an oft-neglected biophysical property in computational studies, produces a positive feedback that promotes conduction failure. We hypothesized that ephaptic coupling can break the positive feedback loop and rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue. In a computational tissue model incorporating voltage-gated gap junctions and ephaptic coupling, we demonstrate that ephaptic coupling can rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled tissue. Further, ephaptic coupling increased conduction velocity in weakly coupled tissue, and importantly, reduced the minimum gap junctional coupling necessary for conduction, most prominently at fast pacing rates. Finally, we find that, although neglecting gap junction voltage-gating results in negligible differences in well coupled tissue, more significant differences occur in weakly coupled tissue, greatly underestimating the minimal gap junctional coupling that can maintain conduction. Our study suggests that ephaptic coupling plays a conduction-preserving role, particularly at rapid heart rates.

  4. Electron-conformational transformations govern the temperature dependence of the cardiac ryanodine receptor gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, A. S.; Iaparov, B. I.; Ryvkin, A. M.; Solovyova, O. E.; Markhasin, V. S.

    2015-07-01

    Temperature influences many aspects of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, in particular, hypothermia increases the open probability ( P open) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-release channels (ryanodine-sensitive RyR channels) rising the SR Ca2+ load in mammalian myocytes. However, to the best of our knowledge, no theoretical models are available for that effect. Traditional Markov chain models do not provide a reasonable molecular mechanistic insight on the origin of the temperature effects. Here in the paper we address a simple physically clear electron-conformational model to describe the RyR gating and argue that a synergetic effect of external thermal fluctuation forces (Gaussian-Markovian noise) and internal friction via the temperature stimulation/suppression of the open-close RyR tunneling probability can be considered as a main contributor to temperature effects on the RyR gating. Results of the computer modeling allowed us to successfully reproduce all the temperature effects observed for an isolated RyR gating in vitro under reducing the temperature: increase in P open and mean open time without any significant effect on mean closed

  5. Effects of stochastic channel gating and distribution on the cardiac action potential.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Mathieu; de Lange, Enno; Kucera, Jan P

    2011-07-21

    Ion channels exhibit stochastic conformational changes determining their gating behavior. In addition, the process of protein turnover leads to a natural variability of the number of membrane and gap junctional channels. Nevertheless, in computational models, these two aspects are scarcely considered and their impacts are largely unknown. We investigated the effects of stochastic current fluctuations and channel distributions on action potential duration (APD), intercellular conduction delays (ICDs) and conduction blocks using a modified ventricular cell model (Rudy et al.) with Markovian formulations of the principal ion currents (to simulate their stochastic open-close gating behavior) and with channel counts drawn from Poisson distributions (to simulate their natural variability). In single cells, APD variability (coefficient of variation: 1.6% at BCL=1000ms) was essentially caused by stochastic channel gating of I(Ks), persistent I(Na) and I(Ca,L). In cell strands, ICD variability induced by stochastic channel gating and Poissonian channel distributions was low under normal conditions. Nonetheless, at low intercellular coupling levels, Poissonian gap junctional channel distribution resulted in a large ICD variability (coefficient of variation >20%), highly heterogeneous conduction patterns and conduction blocks. Therefore, the stochastic behavior of current fluctuations and channel distributions can contribute to the heterogeneity of conduction patterns and to conduction block, as observed previously in experiments in cardiac tissue with altered intercellular coupling.

  6. Self-gated fetal cardiac MRI with tiny golden angle iGRASP: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Haris, Kostas; Hedström, Erik; Bidhult, Sebastian; Testud, Frederik; Maglaveras, Nicos; Heiberg, Einar; Hansson, Stefan R; Arheden, Håkan; Aletras, Anthony H

    2017-07-01

    To develop and assess a technique for self-gated fetal cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tiny golden angle radial sampling combined with iGRASP (iterative Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel) for accelerated acquisition based on parallel imaging and compressed sensing. Fetal cardiac data were acquired from five volunteers in gestational week 29-37 at 1.5T using tiny golden angles for eddy currents reduction. The acquired multicoil radial projections were input to a principal component analysis-based compression stage. The cardiac self-gating (CSG) signal for cardiac gating was extracted from the acquired radial projections and the iGRASP reconstruction procedure was applied. In all acquisitions, a total of 4000 radial spokes were acquired within a breath-hold of less than 15 seconds using a balanced steady-state free precession pulse sequence. The images were qualitatively compared by two independent observers (on a scale of 1-4) to a single midventricular cine image from metric optimized gating (MOG) and real-time acquisitions. For iGRASP and MOG images, good overall image quality (2.8 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 1.3, respectively, for observer 1; 3.6 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 2) and cardiac diagnostic quality (3.8 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 1; 3.6 ± 0.5 and 3.6 ± 0.9, respectively, for observer 2) were obtained, with visualized myocardial thickening over the cardiac cycle and well-defined myocardial borders to ventricular lumen and liver/lung tissue. For iGRASP, MOG, and real time, left ventricular lumen diameter (14.1 ± 2.2 mm, 14.2 ± 1.9 mm, 14.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively) and wall thickness (2.7 ± 0.3 mm, 2.6 ± 0.3 mm, 3.0 ± 0.4, respectively) showed agreement and no statistically significant difference was found (all P > 0.05). Images with iGRASP tended to have higher overall image quality scores compared with MOG and particularly

  7. Detectability of perfusion defect in five-dimensional gated-dynamic cardiac SPECT images.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yongyi; King, Michael A; Wernick, Miles N

    2010-09-01

    In previous work, the authors developed and demonstrated the concept of an image reconstruction procedure aimed to unify gated and dynamic nuclear cardiac imaging, which the authors have termed five-dimensional (5D) SPECT. Gated imaging permits the clinician to evaluate wall motion and, through the use of stress and rest scans, allows perfusion defects to be observed. Dynamic imaging depicts kinetics in the myocardium, which can be used to evaluate perfusion, but traditional dynamic images are motionless and do not depict wall motion. In this article, the authors investigate the degree to which perfusion defects can be detected from the dynamic information conveyed by 5D images, a problem that is particularly challenging in the absence of multiple fast camera rotations. The authors first demonstrate the usefulness of dynamic reconstructed images for perfusion detection by using linear discriminant analyses (Fisher linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) and a numerical channelized Hotelling observer. The authors then derive three types of discriminant metrics for characterizing the temporal kinetic information in reconstructed dynamic images for differentiating perfusion defects from normal cardiac perfusion, which are the Fisher linear discriminant map, temporal derivative map, and kinetic parametric images. Results are based on the NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom with simulation of Tc99m-teboroxime as the imaging agent. The derived metric maps and quantitative contrast-to-noise ratio results demonstrate that the reconstructed dynamic images could yield higher detectability of the perfusion defect than conventional gated reconstruction while providing wall motion information simultaneously. The proposed metrics can be used to produce new types of visualizations, showing wall motion and perfusion information, that may potentially be useful for clinical evaluation. Since 5D imaging permits wall motion and kinetics to be observed

  8. General flat four-dimensional world pictures and clock systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.; Underwood, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    We explore the mathematical structure and the physical implications of a general four-dimensional symmetry framework which is consistent with the Poincare-Einstein principle of relativity for physical laws and with experiments. In particular, we discuss a four-dimensional framework in which all observers in different frames use one and the same grid of clocks. The general framework includes special relativity and a recently proposed new four-dimensional symmetry with a nonuniversal light speed as two special simple cases. The connection between the properties of light propagation and the convention concerning clock systems is also discussed, and is seen to be nonunique within the four-dimensional framework.

  9. Investigations on the efficiency of cardiac-gated methods for the acquisition of diffusion-weighted images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Rita G.; Jezzard, Peter; Clare, Stuart

    2005-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted images are inherently very sensitive to motion. Pulsatile motion of the brain can give rise to artifactual signal attenuation leading to over-estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficients, even with snapshot echo planar imaging. Such miscalculations can result in erroneous estimates of the principal diffusion directions. Cardiac gating can be performed to confine acquisition to the quiet portion of the cycle. Although effective, this approach leads to significantly longer acquisition times. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that pulsatile motion is not significant in regions above the corpus callosum. To reduce acquisition times and improve the efficiency of whole brain cardiac-gated acquisitions, the upper slices of the brain can be imaged during systole, reserving diastole for those slices most affected by pulsatile motion. The merits and disadvantages of this optimized approach are investigated here, in comparison to a more standard gating method and to the non-gated approach.

  10. Respiratory motion correction in gated cardiac SPECT using quaternion-based, rigid-body registration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jason G; Mair, Bernard A; Gilland, David R

    2009-10-01

    In this article, a new method is introduced for estimating the motion of the heart due to respiration in gated cardiac SPECT using a rigid-body model with rotation parametrized by a unit quaternion. The method is based on minimizing the sum of squared errors between the reference and the deformed frames resulting from the usual optical flow constraint by using an optimized conjugate gradient routine. This method does not require any user-defined parameters or penalty terms, which simplifies its use in a clinical setting. Using a mathematical phantom, the method was quantitatively compared to the principal axis method, as well as an iterative method in which the rotation matrix was represented by Euler angles. The quaternion-based method was shown to be substantially more accurate and robust across a wide range of extramyocardial activity levels than the principal axis method. Compared with the Euler angle representation, the quaternion-based method resulted in similar accuracy but a significant reduction in computation times. Finally, the quaternion-based method was investigated using a respiratory-gated cardiac SPECT acquisition of a human subject. The motion-corrected image has increased sharpness and myocardial uniformity compared to the uncorrected image.

  11. New cardiac MRI gating method using event-synchronous adaptive digital filter.

    PubMed

    Park, Hodong; Park, Youngcheol; Cho, Sungpil; Jang, Bongryoel; Lee, Kyoungjoung

    2009-11-01

    When imaging the heart using MRI, an artefact-free electrocardiograph (ECG) signal is not only important for monitoring the patient's heart activity but also essential for cardiac gating to reduce noise in MR images induced by moving organs. The fundamental problem in conventional ECG is the distortion induced by electromagnetic interference. Here, we propose an adaptive algorithm for the suppression of MR gradient artefacts (MRGAs) in ECG leads of a cardiac MRI gating system. We have modeled MRGAs by assuming a source of strong pulses used for dephasing the MR signal. The modeled MRGAs are rectangular pulse-like signals. We used an event-synchronous adaptive digital filter whose reference signal is synchronous to the gradient peaks of MRI. The event detection processor for the event-synchronous adaptive digital filter was implemented using the phase space method-a sort of topology mapping method-and least-squares acceleration filter. For evaluating the efficiency of the proposed method, the filter was tested using simulation and actual data. The proposed method requires a simple experimental setup that does not require extra hardware connections to obtain the reference signals of adaptive digital filter. The proposed algorithm was more effective than the multichannel approach.

  12. Development and implementation of a high-performance, cardiac-gated dual-energy imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkumat, N. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Dhanantwari, A. C.; Williams, D. B.; Richard, S.; Tward, D. J.; Paul, N. S.; Yorkston, J.; Van Metter, R.

    2007-03-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the superposition of anatomical clutter in a projection radiograph poses a major impediment to the detectability of subtle lung nodules. Through decomposition of projections acquired at multiple kVp, dual-energy (DE) imaging offers to dramatically improve lung nodule detectability and, in part through quantitation of nodule calcification, increase specificity in nodule characterization. The development of a high-performance DE chest imaging system is reported, with design and implementation guided by fundamental imaging performance metrics. A diagnostic chest stand (Kodak RVG 5100 digital radiography system) provided the basic platform, modified to include: (i) a filter wheel, (ii) a flat-panel detector (Trixell Pixium 4600), (iii) a computer control and monitoring system for cardiac-gated acquisition, and (iv) DE image decomposition and display. Computational and experimental studies of imaging performance guided optimization of key acquisition technique parameters, including: x-ray filtration, allocation of dose between low- and high-energy projections, and kVp selection. A system for cardiac-gated acquisition was developed, directing x-ray exposures to within the quiescent period of the heart cycle, thereby minimizing anatomical misregistration. A research protocol including 200 patients imaged following lung nodule biopsy is underway, allowing preclinical evaluation of DE imaging performance relative to conventional radiography and low-dose CT.

  13. Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, S M; Williams, P L; Williams, M P; Edwards, A J; Roobottom, C A; Morgan-Hughes, G J; Manghat, N E

    2010-01-01

    Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) with its high spatial and temporal resolution has now become an established and complementary method for cardiac imaging. It can now be used reliably to exclude significant coronary artery disease and delineate complex coronary artery anomalies, and has become a valuable problem-solving tool. Our experience with MDCT imaging suggests that it is clinically useful for imaging the pericardium. It is important to be aware of the normal anatomy of the pericardium and not mistake normal variations for pathology. The pericardial recesses are visible in up to 44% of non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated MDCT images. Abnormalities of the pericardium can now be identified with increasing certainty on 64-detector row CT; they may be the key to diagnosis and therefore must not be overlooked. This educational review of the pericardium will cover different imaging techniques, with a significant emphasis on MDCT. We have a large research and clinical experience of ECG-gated cardiac CT and will demonstrate examples of pericardial recesses, their variations and a wide variety of pericardial abnormalities and systemic conditions affecting the pericardium. We give a brief relevant background of the conditions and reinforce the key imaging features. We aim to provide a pictorial demonstration of the wide variety of abnormalities of the pericardium and the pitfalls in the diagnosis of pericardial disease. PMID:20197434

  14. DIDS modifies the conductance, gating, and inactivation mechanisms of the cardiac ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Adam Parker; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the covalent modifier of amino groups, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) on the single-channel properties of purified sheep cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR) incorporated into planar phospholipid bilayers were investigated. DIDS increased single-channel conductance and open probability (P(o)) and induced unique modifications to the voltage-dependence of gating. The effects of DIDS on conduction and gating were irreversible within the time scale of the experiments, and both effects were dependent on the permeant ion. DIDS induced a greater increase in conductance with Ca(2+) (20%) compared with K(+) (8%) as the permeant ion. After modification by DIDS, all channels could be rapidly inactivated in a voltage-dependent manner. The open probability of the DIDS-modified channel decreased with increasing positive or negative transmembrane potentials; however, inactivation was only observed at negative potentials. Our results demonstrate that inactivation of RyR channels is dependent on the ligand activating the channel, and this will have consequences for the control and termination of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release in cardiac cells. PMID:12023226

  15. Respiratory motion correction in gated cardiac SPECT using quaternion-based, rigid-body registration

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jason G.; Mair, Bernard A.; Gilland, David R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new method is introduced for estimating the motion of the heart due to respiration in gated cardiac SPECT using a rigid-body model with rotation parametrized by a unit quaternion. The method is based on minimizing the sum of squared errors between the reference and the deformed frames resulting from the usual optical flow constraint by using an optimized conjugate gradient routine. This method does not require any user-defined parameters or penalty terms, which simplifies its use in a clinical setting. Using a mathematical phantom, the method was quantitatively compared to the principal axis method, as well as an iterative method in which the rotation matrix was represented by Euler angles. The quaternion-based method was shown to be substantially more accurate and robust across a wide range of extramyocardial activity levels than the principal axis method. Compared with the Euler angle representation, the quaternion-based method resulted in similar accuracy but a significant reduction in computation times. Finally, the quaternion-based method was investigated using a respiratory-gated cardiac SPECT acquisition of a human subject. The motion-corrected image has increased sharpness and myocardial uniformity compared to the uncorrected image. PMID:19928105

  16. Residual motion compensation in ECG-gated interventional cardiac vasculature reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, C.; Rohkohl, C.; Lauritsch, G.; Müller, K.; Hornegger, J.

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of cardiac vasculature from angiographic C-arm CT (rotational angiography) data is a major challenge. Motion artefacts corrupt image quality, reducing usability for diagnosis and guidance. Many state-of-the-art approaches depend on retrospective ECG-gating of projection data for image reconstruction. A trade-off has to be made regarding the size of the ECG-gating window. A large temporal window is desirable to avoid undersampling. However, residual motion will occur in a large window, causing motion artefacts. We present an algorithm to correct for residual motion. Our approach is based on a deformable 2D-2D registration between the forward projection of an initial, ECG-gated reconstruction, and the original projection data. The approach is fully automatic and does not require any complex segmentation of vasculature, or landmarks. The estimated motion is compensated for during the backprojection step of a subsequent reconstruction. We evaluated the method using the publicly available CAVAREV platform and on six human clinical datasets. We found a better visibility of structure, reduced motion artefacts, and increased sharpness of the vessels in the compensated reconstructions compared to the initial reconstructions. At the time of writing, our algorithm outperforms the leading result of the CAVAREV ranking list. For the clinical datasets, we found an average reduction of motion artefacts by 13 ± 6%. Vessel sharpness was improved by 25 ± 12% on average.

  17. Residual motion compensation in ECG-gated interventional cardiac vasculature reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Schwemmer, C; Rohkohl, C; Lauritsch, G; Müller, K; Hornegger, J

    2013-06-07

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of cardiac vasculature from angiographic C-arm CT (rotational angiography) data is a major challenge. Motion artefacts corrupt image quality, reducing usability for diagnosis and guidance. Many state-of-the-art approaches depend on retrospective ECG-gating of projection data for image reconstruction. A trade-off has to be made regarding the size of the ECG-gating window. A large temporal window is desirable to avoid undersampling. However, residual motion will occur in a large window, causing motion artefacts. We present an algorithm to correct for residual motion. Our approach is based on a deformable 2D-2D registration between the forward projection of an initial, ECG-gated reconstruction, and the original projection data. The approach is fully automatic and does not require any complex segmentation of vasculature, or landmarks. The estimated motion is compensated for during the backprojection step of a subsequent reconstruction. We evaluated the method using the publicly available CAVAREV platform and on six human clinical datasets. We found a better visibility of structure, reduced motion artefacts, and increased sharpness of the vessels in the compensated reconstructions compared to the initial reconstructions. At the time of writing, our algorithm outperforms the leading result of the CAVAREV ranking list. For the clinical datasets, we found an average reduction of motion artefacts by 13 ± 6%. Vessel sharpness was improved by 25 ± 12% on average.

  18. Comparison study of temporal regularization methods for fully 5D reconstruction of cardiac gated dynamic SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yongyi; King, Michael A.

    2012-09-01

    Temporal regularization plays a critical role in cardiac gated dynamic SPECT reconstruction, of which the goal is to obtain an image sequence from a single acquisition which simultaneously shows both cardiac motion and tracer distribution change over the course of imaging (termed 5D). In our recent work, we explored two different approaches for temporal regularization of the dynamic activities in gated dynamic reconstruction without the use of fast camera rotation: one is the dynamic EM (dEM) approach which is imposed on the temporal trend of the time activity of each voxel, and the other is a B-spline modeling approach in which the time activity is regulated by a set of B-spline basis functions. In this work, we extend the B-spline approach to fully 5D reconstruction and conduct a thorough quantitative comparison with the dEM approach. In the evaluation of the reconstruction results, we apply a number of quantitative measures on two major aspects of the reconstructed dynamic images: (1) the accuracy of the reconstructed activity distribution in the myocardium and (2) the ability of the reconstructed dynamic activities to differentiate perfusion defects from normal myocardial wall uptake. These measures include the mean square error (MSE), bias-variance analysis, accuracy of time-activity curves (TAC), contrast-to-noise ratio of a defect, composite kinetic map of the left ventricle wall and perfusion defect detectability with channelized Hotelling observer. In experiments, we simulated cardiac gated imaging with the NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom and Tc99m-Teboroxime as the imaging agent, where acquisition with the equivalent of only three full camera rotations was used during the imaging period. The results show that both dEM and B-spline 5D could achieve similar overall accuracy in the myocardium in terms of MSE. However, compared to dEM 5D, the B-spline approach could achieve a more accurate reconstruction of the voxel TACs; in particular, B-spline 5D could

  19. Voltage-gated sodium channel modulation by sigma-receptors in cardiac myocytes and heterologous systems.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Molly; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Riemer, Logan; Ramos-Serrano, Andrea; Ruoho, Arnold E; Jackson, Meyer B

    2009-05-01

    The sigma-receptor, a broadly distributed integral membrane protein with a novel structure, is known to modulate various voltage-gated K(+) and Ca(2+) channels through a mechanism that involves neither G proteins nor phosphorylation. The present study investigated the modulation of the heart voltage-gated Na(+) channel (Na(v)1.5) by sigma-receptors. The sigma(1)-receptor ligands [SKF-10047 and (+)-pentazocine] and sigma(1)/sigma(2)-receptor ligands (haloperidol and ditolylguanidine) all reversibly inhibited Na(v)1.5 channels to varying degrees in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells and COS-7 cells, but the sigma(1)-receptor ligands were less effective in COS-7 cells. The same four ligands also inhibited Na(+) current in neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes. In sigma(1)-receptor knockout myocytes, the sigma(1)-receptor-specific ligands were far less effective in modulating Na(+) current, but the sigma(1)/sigma(2)-receptor ligands modulated Na(+) channels as well as in wild type. Photolabeling with the sigma(1)-receptor photoprobe [(125)I]-iodoazidococaine demonstrated that sigma(1)-receptors were abundant in heart and HEK-293 cells, but scarce in COS-7 cells. This difference was consistent with the greater efficacy of sigma(1)-receptor-specific ligands in HEK-293 cells than in COS-7 cells. sigma-Receptors modulated Na(+) channels despite the omission of GTP and ATP from the patch pipette solution. sigma-Receptor-mediated inhibition of Na(+) current had little if any voltage dependence and produced no change in channel kinetics. Na(+) channels represent a new addition to the large number of voltage-gated ion channels modulated by sigma-receptors. The modulation of Na(v)1.5 channels by sigma-receptors in the heart suggests an important pathway by which drugs can alter cardiac excitability and rhythmicity.

  20. Automatic Cardiac Self-Gating of Small-Animal PET Data.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Joaquin L; Herranz, Elena; Cal-González, Jacobo; Vaquero, Juan J; Desco, Manuel; Cussó, Lorena; Udias, Jose M

    2016-02-01

    The cardiac gating signal (CGS) in positron emission tomography (PET) studies is usually obtained from an electrocardiography (ECG) monitor. In this work, we propose a method to obtain the CGS in small-animal PET using the acquired list-mode data without using any hardware or end-user input. The CGS was obtained from the number of coincidences over time acquired in the lines-of-response connected with the cardiac region. This region is identified in the image as its value changes with frequencies in the range of 3 to 12 Hz. The procedure was tested in a study with 29 Wistar rats and 6 mice injected with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose, which underwent a 45-min single-bed list-mode PET scan of the heart syncronized with an ECG. The estimated signals and the reconstructed images using eight-gated frames were compared with the ones obtained using the ECG signal from the monitor. The differences of the PET-based CGS with respect to the ECG relative to the duration of the heartbeats were 5.6 % in rats and 11.0 % in mice. The reconstructed gated images obtained from the proposed method do not differ qualitatively with respect to the ones obtained with the ECG. The quantitative analysis of both set of images were performed measuring the volume of the left ventricle (LV) of the rats in the end-of-systole and end-of-diastole phase. The differences found in these parameters between both methods were below 12.1 % in the ESV and 9.3 % in the EDV with a 95 % confidence interval, which are comparable to the accuracy (7 %) of the method used for segmenting the LV. The proposed method is able to provide a valid and accurate CGS in small-animal PET list-mode data.

  1. Dyskinesis in chagasic myocardium: centerline analysis of wall motion using cardiac-gated magnetic resonance images of mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Jorge L.; Tang, Baiyu; Gutstein, David E.; Petkova, Stefka; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Jelicks, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the use of centerline analysis of cardiac-gated magnetic resonance images to measure wall motion abnormalities in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. To our knowledge, this is the first report of segmental wall motion abnormalities in an animal model of Chagas’ disease. Chagas’ disease patients with severe cardiac involvement exhibit mild hypokinesis in an extensive region of the left ventricle and dyskinesis in the apical region. We observed dyskinetic segments in a similar region of the hearts of infected wild-type mice. Dyskinesis was not observed in infected mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, a chemokine that may play an important role in the cardiac remodeling that is normally observed in mouse models of Chagas’ disease and in human patients. This study aimed to demonstrate the utility of cardiac-gated magnetic resonance imaging and centerline analysis as a straightforward method for monitoring regional left ventricular wall motion in transgenic and/or diseased mice. PMID:16997075

  2. Model-based image reconstruction for four-dimensional PET

    SciTech Connect

    Li Tianfang; Thorndyke, Brian; Schreibmann, Eduard; Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2006-05-15

    Positron emission tonography (PET) is useful in diagnosis and radiation treatment planning for a variety of cancers. For patients with cancers in thoracic or upper abdominal region, the respiratory motion produces large distortions in the tumor shape and size, affecting the accuracy in both diagnosis and treatment. Four-dimensional (4D) (gated) PET aims to reduce the motion artifacts and to provide accurate measurement of the tumor volume and the tracer concentration. A major issue in 4D PET is the lack of statistics. Since the collected photons are divided into several frames in the 4D PET scan, the quality of each reconstructed frame degrades as the number of frames increases. The increased noise in each frame heavily degrades the quantitative accuracy of the PET imaging. In this work, we propose a method to enhance the performance of 4D PET by developing a new technique of 4D PET reconstruction with incorporation of an organ motion model derived from 4D-CT images. The method is based on the well-known maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. During the processes of forward- and backward-projection in the ML-EM iterations, all projection data acquired at different phases are combined together to update the emission map with the aid of deformable model, the statistics is therefore greatly improved. The proposed algorithm was first evaluated with computer simulations using a mathematical dynamic phantom. Experiment with a moving physical phantom was then carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method and the increase of signal-to-noise ratio over three-dimensional PET. Finally, the 4D PET reconstruction was applied to a patient case.

  3. Cardiac-respiratory self-gated cine ultra-short echo time (UTE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessment of functional cardiac parameters at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To overcome flow and electrocardiogram-trigger artifacts in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), we have implemented a cardiac and respiratory self-gated cine ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence. We have assessed its performance in healthy mice by comparing the results with those obtained with a self-gated cine fast low angle shot (FLASH) sequence and with echocardiography. Methods 2D self-gated cine UTE (TE/TR = 314 μs/6.2 ms, resolution: 129 × 129 μm, scan time per slice: 5 min 5 sec) and self-gated cine FLASH (TE/TR = 3 ms/6.2 ms, resolution: 129 × 129 μm, scan time per slice: 4 min 49 sec) images were acquired at 9.4 T. Volume of the left and right ventricular (LV, RV) myocardium as well as the end-diastolic and -systolic volume was segmented manually in MR images and myocardial mass, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output (CO) were determined. Statistical differences were analyzed by using Student t test and Bland-Altman analyses. Results Self-gated cine UTE provided high quality images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) also for the RV myocardium (CNRblood-myocardium = 25.5 ± 7.8). Compared to cine FLASH, susceptibility, motion, and flow artifacts were considerably reduced due to the short TE of 314 μs. The aortic valve was clearly discernible over the entire cardiac cycle. Myocardial mass, SV, EF and CO determined by self-gated UTE were identical to the values measured with self-gated FLASH and showed good agreement to the results obtained by echocardiography. Conclusions Self-gated UTE allows for robust measurement of cardiac parameters of diagnostic interest. Image quality is superior to self-gated FLASH, rendering the method a powerful alternative for the assessment of cardiac function at high magnetic fields. PMID:23826850

  4. Cardiac-respiratory self-gated cine ultra-short echo time (UTE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessment of functional cardiac parameters at high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Verena; Nagelmann, Nina; Nauerth, Arno; Kuhlmann, Michael T; Stypmann, Jörg; Faber, Cornelius

    2013-07-04

    To overcome flow and electrocardiogram-trigger artifacts in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), we have implemented a cardiac and respiratory self-gated cine ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence. We have assessed its performance in healthy mice by comparing the results with those obtained with a self-gated cine fast low angle shot (FLASH) sequence and with echocardiography. 2D self-gated cine UTE (TE/TR = 314 μs/6.2 ms, resolution: 129 × 129 μm, scan time per slice: 5 min 5 sec) and self-gated cine FLASH (TE/TR = 3 ms/6.2 ms, resolution: 129 × 129 μm, scan time per slice: 4 min 49 sec) images were acquired at 9.4 T. Volume of the left and right ventricular (LV, RV) myocardium as well as the end-diastolic and -systolic volume was segmented manually in MR images and myocardial mass, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output (CO) were determined. Statistical differences were analyzed by using Student t test and Bland-Altman analyses. Self-gated cine UTE provided high quality images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) also for the RV myocardium (CNRblood-myocardium = 25.5 ± 7.8). Compared to cine FLASH, susceptibility, motion, and flow artifacts were considerably reduced due to the short TE of 314 μs. The aortic valve was clearly discernible over the entire cardiac cycle. Myocardial mass, SV, EF and CO determined by self-gated UTE were identical to the values measured with self-gated FLASH and showed good agreement to the results obtained by echocardiography. Self-gated UTE allows for robust measurement of cardiac parameters of diagnostic interest. Image quality is superior to self-gated FLASH, rendering the method a powerful alternative for the assessment of cardiac function at high magnetic fields.

  5. The evaluation of cardiac tamponade risk in patients with pericardial effusion detected by non-gated chest CT.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yasutoshi; Miyoshi, Fuminori; Kaminou, Toshio; Kaetsu, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2016-05-01

    Although pericardial effusion is often identified using non-gated chest computed tomography (CT), findings predictive of cardiac tamponade have not been adequately established. To determine the findings predictive of clinical cardiac tamponade in patients with moderate to large pericardial effusion using non-gated chest CT. We performed a retrospective analysis of 134 patients with moderate to large pericardial effusion who were identified from among 4581 patients who underwent non-gated chest CT. Cardiac structural changes, including right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), were qualitatively evaluated. The inferior vena cava ratio with hepatic (IVCupp) and renal portions (IVClow) and effusion size were measured. The diagnostic performance of each structural change was calculated, and multivariate analysis was used to determine the predictors of cardiac tamponade. Of the 134 patients (mean age, 70.3 years; 64 men), 37 (28%) had cardiac tamponade. The sensitivity and specificity were 76% and 74% for RVOT compression; 87% and 84% for an IVClow ratio ≥0.77; and 60% and 77% for an effusion size ≥25.5 mm, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that RVOT compression, an IVClow ratio ≥0.77, and an effusion size ≥25.5 mm were independent predictors of cardiac tamponade. The combination of these three CT findings had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 81%, 95%, and 91%, respectively. In patients with moderate to large pericardial effusion, non-gated chest CT provides additional information for predicting cardiac tamponade. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  6. Electrocardiographically gated 16-section CT of the thorax: cardiac motion suppression.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Lars K; Zou, Kelly H; Costello, Philip; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2004-12-01

    Thirty patients underwent 16-section multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT) angiography of the thorax with retrospective electrocardiographic gating. Institutional review board approval was obtained for retrospective analysis of CT scan data and records; patient informed consent was not required. Images reconstructed at six different time points (0%, 20%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80%) within the R-R interval on the electrocardiogram were analyzed by two radiologists for diagnostic quality, to identify suitable reconstruction intervals for optimal suppression of cardiac motion. Five regions of interest (left coronary artery, aortic root, ascending and descending aorta, pulmonary arteries) were evaluated. Best image quality was achieved by referencing image reconstruction to middiastole (50%-60%) for the left coronary artery, aortic root, and ascending aorta. The pulmonary arteries are best displayed during mid- to late diastole (80%). (c) RSNA, 2004

  7. Graphene-gated biochip for the detection of cardiac marker Troponin I.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Satish K; Priyanka; Bhalla, Vijayender; Deep, Akash; Paul, A K; Suri, C Raman

    2014-01-27

    We report lithium ion intercalation mediated efficient exfoliation of graphite to form monolithic graphene sheets which have subsequently been investigated for the development of highly sensitive label-free electrochemical detection platform for cardiac biomarker, Troponin I (cTnI). The spectroscopic and morphological analysis demonstrated the formation of defect free graphene sheets which were successfully employed to fabricate an inter-digited microdevice in a drain-source configuration on a silicon biochip. The graphene gated biochip functionalized with anti-cTnI antibodies used in label free detection of cTnI which exhibited an excellent sensitivity in the picogram range (~1 pg mL(-1)) for cTnI without the use of any enzymatic amplification that promises its potential applicability for bio-molecular detection in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved interpretation of gated cardiac images by use of digital filters

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.R.; Goldman, K.J.; Epstein, D.M.; Biello, D.R.; Sampathkumaran, K.S.; Kumar, B.; Siegel, B.A.

    1984-09-01

    The authors describe a digital filter that greatly enhances the quality of gated cardiac blood-pool images. Spatial filtering is accomplished with a minimum-mean-square-error (Wiener) filter incorporating measured camera blur and Poisson noise statistics. A low-pass temporal filter is then applied to each pixel, with the cutoff frequency determined from measurements of frequency spectra in 20 patients. This filter was evaluated in routine clinical use for nearly one year and found to significantly improve chamber definition, delineate wall motion abnormalities better, and reduce noise. To quantitatively assess the effect of the filter on image interpretation, four experienced observers evaluated wall motion in a series of mathematically simulated left ventricular images. ROC analysis revealed that accuracy in assessing wall motion was significantly greater with the filtered images.

  9. Advantages of list-mode acquisition of dynamic cardiac data [ECG-gated nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, J. E.; Kirch, D. L.; Little, E. P.; Johnson, T. K.; Steele, P. P.

    1997-12-01

    Conventional frame-mode acquisition of multigated blood-pool (MUGA) studies is an imprecise means to study cardiac dynamics in part because the energy and ECG waveform information is not retained Early methods for list-mode acquisition were also somewhat limited in that only the (x,y) coordinate, a timing pulse and an R-wave detect pulse were stored. The authors have extended list-mode capability to include full storage of the ECG waveform and the energy value associated with each spatial coordinate. The spatial coordinates (x and y), energy value (E), and an encoded physiologic/timing signal (p/t) are stored on an event-by-event basis as 8-bit values. These four bytes are streamed onto a hard disk storage device allowing even stress gated blood pool studies to be recorded. List-mode acquisition gives greater flexibility than frame-mode. Among the demonstrable advantages this flexibility provides are the ability to: (1) Measure and correct respirational displacement of the ventricle to minimize motion blurring; (2) Form gated sequences representing only a specific aberrancy for detection of ectopic ventricular foci; and (3) Use the stored multispectral energy information to perform scatter correction on the dynamic images. To conclusively demonstrate the improved resolution of the list-mode methodology, a dynamic phantom was used to simulate blurring due to respiration. The advantages of list-mode warrant its further use, and it may be especially valuable for wall thickness measurements.

  10. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of the PeTrack motion tracking system for respiratory gating in cardiac PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manwell, Spencer; Chamberland, Marc J. P.; Klein, Ran; Xu, Tong; deKemp, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory gating is a common technique used to compensate for patient breathing motion and decrease the prevalence of image artifacts that can impact diagnoses. In this study a new data-driven respiratory gating method (PeTrack) was compared with a conventional optical tracking system. The performance of respiratory gating of the two systems was evaluated by comparing the number of respiratory triggers, patient breathing intervals and gross heart motion as measured in the respiratory-gated image reconstructions of rubidium-82 cardiac PET scans in test and control groups consisting of 15 and 8 scans, respectively. We found evidence suggesting that PeTrack is a robust patient motion tracking system that can be used to retrospectively assess patient motion in the event of failure of the conventional optical tracking system.

  11. Proton Sensors in the Pore Domain of the Cardiac Voltage-gated Sodium Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David K.; Peters, Colin H.; Allard, Charlene R.; Claydon, Tom W.; Ruben, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Protons impart isoform-specific modulation of inactivation in neuronal, skeletal muscle, and cardiac voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels. Although the structural basis of proton block in NaV channels has been well described, the amino acid residues responsible for the changes in NaV kinetics during extracellular acidosis are as yet unknown. We expressed wild-type (WT) and two pore mutant constructs (H880Q and C373F) of the human cardiac NaV channel, NaV1.5, in Xenopus oocytes. C373F and H880Q both attenuated proton block, abolished proton modulation of use-dependent inactivation, and altered pH modulation of the steady-state and kinetic parameters of slow inactivation. Additionally, C373F significantly reduced the maximum probability of use-dependent inactivation and slow inactivation, relative to WT. H880Q also significantly reduced the maximum probability of slow inactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation to more positive potentials, relative to WT. These data suggest that Cys-373 and His-880 in NaV1.5 are proton sensors for use-dependent and slow inactivation and have implications in isoform-specific modulation of NaV channels. PMID:23283979

  12. Coronary endothelial function assessment using self-gated cardiac cine MRI and k-t sparse SENSE.

    PubMed

    Yerly, Jérôme; Ginami, Giulia; Nordio, Giovanna; Coristine, Andrew J; Coppo, Simone; Monney, Pierre; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cine MRI, paired with isometric handgrip exercise, can be used to accurately, reproducibly, and noninvasively measure coronary endothelial function (CEF). Obtaining a reliable ECG signal at higher field strengths, however, can be challenging due to rapid gradient switching and an increased heart rate under stress. To address these limitations, we present a self-gated cardiac cine MRI framework for CEF measurements that operates without ECG signal. Cross-sectional slices of the right coronary artery (RCA) were acquired using a two-dimensional golden angle radial trajectory. This sampling approach, combined with the k-t sparse SENSE algorithm, allows for the reconstruction of both real-time images for self-gating signal calculations and retrospectively reordered self-gated cine images. CEF measurements were quantitatively compared using both the self-gated and the standard ECG-gated approach. Self-gated cine images with high-quality, temporal, and spatial resolution were reconstructed for 18 healthy volunteers. CEF as measured in self-gated images was in good agreement (R(2)  = 0.60) with that measured by its standard ECG-gated counterpart. High spatial and temporal resolution cross-sectional cine images of the RCA can be obtained without ECG signal. The coronary vasomotor response to handgrip exercise compares favorably with that obtained with the standard ECG-gated method. Magn Reson Med 76:1443-1454, 2015. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Contrast-enhanced specific absorption rate-efficient 3D cardiac cine with respiratory-triggered radiofrequency gating.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Markus; Chan, Raymond H; Goddu, Beth; Goepfert, Lois A; Razavi, Reza; Botnar, Rene M; Schaeffter, Tobias; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the use of radiofrequency (RF) gating in conjunction with a paramagnetic contrast agent to reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR) and increase the blood-myocardium contrast in balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) 3D cardiac cine. RF gating was implemented by synchronizing the RF-excitation with an external respiratory sensor (bellows), which could additionally be used for respiratory gating. For reference, respiratory-gated 3D cine images were acquired without RF gating. Free-breathing 3D cine images were acquired in eight healthy subjects before and after contrast injection (Gd-BOPTA) and compared to breath-hold 2D cine. RF-gated 3D cine reduced the SAR by nearly 40% without introducing significant artifacts while providing left ventricle (LV) measurements similar to those obtained with 2D cine. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was significantly higher for 3D cine compared to 2D cine, both before and after contrast injection; however, no statistically significant CNR increase was observed for the postcontrast 3D cine compared to the precontrast acquisitions. Respiratory-triggered RF gating significantly reduces SAR in 3D cine acquisitions, which may enable a more widespread clinical use of 3D cine. Furthermore, CNR of 3D bSSFP cine is higher than of 2D and administration of Gd-BOPTA does not improve the CNR of 3D cine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Free-breathing steady-state free precession cine cardiac magnetic resonance with respiratory navigator gating.

    PubMed

    Moghari, Mehdi H; Komarlu, Rukmini; Annese, David; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    To develop and validate a respiratory motion compensation method for free-breathing cardiac cine imaging. A free-breathing navigator-gated cine steady-state free precession acquisition (Cine-Nav) was developed which preserves the equilibrium state of the net magnetization vector, maintains the high spatial and temporal resolutions of standard breath-hold (BH) acquisition, and images entire cardiac cycle. Cine image data is accepted only from cardiac cycles occurring entirely during end-expiration. Prospective validation was performed in 10 patients by obtaining in each three complete ventricular image stacks with different respiratory motion compensation approaches: (1) BH, (2) free-breathing with 3 signal averages (3AVG), and (3) free-breathing with Cine-Nav. The subjective image quality score (1 = worst, 4 = best) for Cine-Nav (3.8 ± 0.4) was significantly better than for 3AVG (2.2 ± 0.5, P = 0.002), and similar to BH (4.0 ± 0.0, P = 0.13). The blood-to-myocardium contrast ratio for Cine-Nav (6.3 ± 1.5) was similar to BH (5.9 ± 1.6, P = 0.52) and to 3AVG (5.6 ± 2.5, P = 0.43). There were no significant differences between Cine-Nav and BH for the ventricular volumes and mass. In contrast, there were significant differences between 3AVG and BH in all of these measurements but right ventricular mass. Free-breathing cine imaging with Cine-Nav yielded comparable image quality and ventricular measurements to BH, and was superior to 3AVG. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasound in fetal echocardiography: an up-to-date overview.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, B M E; van Vugt, J M G; Haak, M C

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most commonly overlooked lesions in prenatal screening programs. Real-time two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) is the conventionally used tool for fetal echocardiography. Although continuous improvements in the hardware and post-processing software have resulted in a good image quality even in late first trimester, 2DUS still has its limitations. Four-dimensional ultrasound with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) is an automated volume acquisition, recording a single three-dimensional (3D) volume throughout a complete cardiac cycle, which results in a four-dimensional (4D) volume. STIC has the potential to increase the detection rate of CHD. The aim of this study is to provide a practical overview of the possibilities and (dis)advantages of STIC. A review of literature and evaluation of the current status and clinical value of 3D/4D ultrasound in prenatal screening and diagnosis of congenital heart disease are presented.

  16. Performance studies of four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhihua; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-10-01

    Four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) has been proposed to characterize the breathing motion of tumors before radiotherapy treatment. However, when the acquired cone beam projection data are retrospectively gated into several respiratory phases, the available data to reconstruct each phase is under-sampled and thus causes streaking artifacts in the reconstructed images. To solve the under-sampling problem and improve image quality in 4DCBCT, various methods have been developed. This paper presents performance studies of three different 4DCBCT methods based on different reconstruction algorithms. The aims of this paper are to study (1) the relationship between the accuracy of the extracted motion trajectories and the data acquisition time of a 4DCBCT scan and (2) the relationship between the accuracy of the extracted motion trajectories and the number of phase bins used to sort projection data. These aims will be applied to three different 4DCBCT methods: conventional filtered backprojection reconstruction (FBP), FBP with McKinnon-Bates correction (MB) and prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) reconstruction. A hybrid phantom consisting of realistic chest anatomy and a moving elliptical object with known 3D motion trajectories was constructed by superimposing the analytical projection data of the moving object to the simulated projection data from a chest CT volume dataset. CBCT scans with gantry rotation times from 1 to 4 min were simulated, and the generated projection data were sorted into 5, 10 and 20 phase bins before different methods were used to reconstruct 4D images. The motion trajectories of the moving object were extracted using a fast free-form deformable registration algorithm. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the extracted motion trajectories were evaluated for all simulated cases to quantitatively study the performance. The results demonstrate (1) longer acquisition times result in more accurate motion delineation

  17. Calcium-mediated dual-mode regulation of cardiac sodium channel gating.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subrata; DiSilvestre, Deborah; Tian, Yanli; Halperin, Victoria L; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2009-04-10

    Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) can trigger dual-mode regulation of the voltage gated cardiac sodium channel (Na(V)1.5). The channel components of the Ca(2+) regulatory system are the calmodulin (CaM)-binding IQ motif and the Ca(2+) sensing EF hand-like (EFL) motif in the carboxyl terminus of the channel. Mutations in either motif have been associated with arrhythmogenic changes in expressed Na(V)1.5 currents. Increases in [Ca(2+)](i) shift the steady-state inactivation of Na(V)1.5 in the depolarizing direction and slow entry into inactivated states. Mutation of the EFL (Na(V)1.5(4X)) shifts inactivation in the hyperpolarizing direction compared with the wild-type channel and eliminates the Ca(2+) sensitivity of inactivation gating. Modulation of the steady-state availability of Na(V)1.5 by [Ca(2+)](i) is more pronounced after the truncation of the carboxyl terminus proximal to the IQ motif (Na(V)1.5(Delta1885)), which retains the EFL. Mutating the EFL (Na(V)1.5(4X)) unmasks CaM-mediated regulation of the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation. This latent CaM modulation of inactivation is eliminated by mutation of the IQ motif (Na(V)1.5(4X-IQ/AA)). The LQT3 EFL mutant channel Na(V)1.5(D1790G) exhibits Ca(2+) insensitivity and unmasking of CaM regulation of inactivation gating. The enhanced effect of CaM on Na(V)1.5(4X) gating is associated with significantly greater fluorescence resonance energy transfer between enhanced cyan fluorescent protein-CaM and Na(V)1.5(4X) channels than is observed with wild-type Na(V)1.5. Unlike other isoforms of the Na channel, the IQ-CaM interaction in the carboxyl terminus of Na(V)1.5 is latent under physiological conditions but may become manifest in the presence of disease causing mutations in the CT of Na(V)1.5 (particularly in the EFL), contributing to the production of potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias.

  18. Accuracy and effectiveness of self-gating signals in free-breathing three-dimensional cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yan-Chun; Yang, Jie; Xie, Yao-Qin; Fu, Nan; Wang, Yi; Gao, Song

    2016-12-01

    Conventional multiple breath-hold two-dimensional (2D) balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) presents many difficulties in cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, a self-gated free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) SSFP technique has been proposed as an alternative in many studies. However, the accuracy and effectiveness of self-gating signals have been barely studied before. Since self-gating signals are crucially important in image reconstruction, a systematic study of self-gating signals and comparison with external monitored signals are needed. Previously developed self-gated free-breathing 3D SSFP techniques are used on twenty-eight healthy volunteers. Both electrocardiographic (ECG) and respiratory bellow signals are also acquired during the scan as external signals. Self-gating signal and external signal are compared by trigger and gating window. Gating window is proposed to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of respiratory self-gating signal. Relative deviation of the trigger and root-mean-square-deviation of the cycle duration are calculated. A two-tailed paired t-test is used to identify the difference between self-gating and external signals. A Wilcoxon signed rank test is used to identify the difference between peak and valley self-gating triggers. The results demonstrate an excellent correlation (P = 0, R > 0.99) between self-gating and external triggers. Wilcoxon signed rank test shows that there is no significant difference between peak and valley self-gating triggers for both cardiac (H = 0, P > 0.10) and respiratory (H = 0, P > 0.44) motions. The difference between self-gating and externally monitored signals is not significant (two-tailed paired-sample t-test: H = 0, P > 0.90). The self-gating signals could demonstrate cardiac and respiratory motion accurately and effectively as ECG and respiratory bellow. The difference between the two methods is not significant and can be explained. Furthermore, few ECG trigger errors

  19. A quantitative analysis of the benefits of cardiac gating in practical diffusion tensor imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Habib, Josef; Auer, Dorothee P; Morgan, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    Increasing demand for quantitative diffusion MRI in biomedical research necessitates a reevaluation of potential sources of artifact. While cardiac pulsation-induced effects have been reported previously, their quantitative characterization under standard acquisition protocols remains outstanding. To determine whether practical data quality improvements merit the use of cardiac gating, the maximum effects induced in apparent diffusion coefficient, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity measurements were quantitatively estimated via measurements and bootstrapping simulations. In apparent diffusion coefficient time courses, cardiac pulsation effects were measured to occupy approximately 6% of the heartbeat duration, with considerable intersession differences in effect magnitude. Bootstrapping revealed overestimations in fractional anisotropy up to 0.26, and mean diffusivity up to 0.19 x 10(-3) mm(2) sec(-1) without gating compared to 0.072 (fractional anisotropy) and 0.043 x 10(-3) mm(2) sec(-1) (mean diffusivity) in the same gated simulation. However, while cardiac pulsation may thus impair the quantification of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in some individuals, our data suggested negligible effects in group studies.

  20. Hydrogen atom as a four-dimensional oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.C.

    1980-08-01

    A coordinate transformation which exhibits the rotational invariance of the hydrogen atom in four-dimensional Hilbert space is introduced. The coordinates are shown to be directly related to the spherical polar and parabolic coordinates in position space. With the use of the transformation, the Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom left-multiplied by 4r is transformed into one for a four-dimensional harmonic oscillator. Solutions are obtained and related to the hydrogenic wave functions. Group-theoretical implications of the transformation and its application to the hydrogen Stark problem are briefly discussed.

  1. Gating of cardiac Na+ channels in excised membrane patches after modification by alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, C; Bennett, P B

    1994-01-01

    Single cardiac Na+ channels were investigated after intracellular proteolysis to remove the fast inactivation process in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of channel gating and the role of slow inactivation. Na+ channels were studied in inside-out patches excised from guinea-pig ventricular myocytes both before and after very brief exposure (2-4 min) to the endopeptidase, alpha-chymotrypsin. Enzyme exposure times were chosen to maximize removal of fast inactivation and to minimize potential nonspecific damage to the channel. After proteolysis, the single channel current-voltage relationship was approximately linear with a slope conductance of 18 +/- 2.5 pS. Na+ channel reversal potentials measured before and after proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin were not changed. The unitary current amplitude was not altered after channel modification suggesting little or no effect on channel conductance. Channel open times were increased after removal of fast inactivation and were voltage-dependent, ranging between 0.7 (-70 mV) and 3.2 (-10 mV) ms. Open times increased with membrane potential reaching a maximum at -10 mV; at more positive membrane potentials, open times decreased again. Fast inactivation appeared to be completely removed by alpha-chymotrypsin and slow inactivation became more apparent suggesting that fast and slow inactivation normally compete, and that fast inactivation dominates in unmodified channels. This finding is not consistent with a slow inactivated state that can only be entered through the fast inactivated state, since removal of fast inactivation does not eliminate slow inactivation. The data indicate that cardiac Na+ channels can enter the slow inactivated state by a pathway that bypasses the fast inactivated state and that the likelihood of entering the slow inactivated state increases after removal of fast inactivation. PMID:7918983

  2. Variational four-dimensional analysis using quasi-geostrophic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derber, John C.

    1987-01-01

    A variational four-dimensional analysis technique using quasi-geostrophic models as constraints is examined using gridded fields as data. The analysis method uses a standard iterative nonlinear minimization technique to find the solution to the constraining forecast model which best fits the data as measured by a predefined functional. The minimization algorithm uses the derivative of the functional with respect to each of the initial condition values. This derivative vector is found by inserting the weighted differences between the model solution and the inserted data into a backwards integrating adjoint model. The four-dimensional analysis system was examined by applying it to fields created from a primitive equations model forecast and to fields created from satellite retrievals. The results show that the technique has several interesting characteristics not found in more traditional four-dimensional assimilation techniques. These features include a close fit of the model solution to the observations throughout the analysis interval and an insensitivity to the frequency of data insertion or the amount of data. The four-dimensional analysis technique is very versatile and can be extended to more complex problems with little theoretical difficulty.

  3. Tori and Klein bottles in four-dimensional chaotic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindlin, G. B.; Solari, H. G.

    1997-02-01

    We have analyzed the local structure of the flow in the neighborhood of the unstable periodic orbits within the chaotic solution of a four-dimensional vector field. Surfaces within the invariant manifolds of the orbits are found and characterized: they are either Klein bottles or tori.

  4. Feasibility of low radiation dose retrospectively-gated cardiac CT for functional analysis in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Groves, Daniel W; Olivieri, Laura J; Shanbhag, Sujata M; Bronson, Kathie C; Yu, Jeannie H; Nelson, Evan A; Rollison, Shirley F; Stagliano, Michael S; John, Anitha S; Kuehl, Karen; Chen, Marcus Y

    2017-02-01

    The use of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of adult congenital heart disease patients is limited due to concerns of high radiation doses. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess whether low radiation dose cardiac CT is feasible to evaluate ventricular systolic function in adults with congenital heart disease. The study group included 30 consecutive patients with significant congenital heart disease who underwent a total of 35 ECG-gated cardiac CT scans utilizing a 320-detector row CT scanner. Each study included a non-contrast scan and subsequent contrast-enhanced retrospectively-gated acquisition. Effective radiation dose was estimated by multiplying the dose length product by a k-factor of 0.014mSv/mGycm. The mean age of the patients was 34.4±8.9years, 60% were men, and mean body mass index was 24.2±4.3kg/m(2). A majority of patients (n=28, 93.3%) had contraindications to cardiac MRI. A tube potential of 80kV was used in 27 (77.1%) of the contrast-enhanced scans. The mean signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios were 11.5±3.9 and 10.3±3.7, respectively. The median radiation dose for non-contrast and contrast-enhanced images were 0.1mSv (0.07-0.2mSv) and 0.94mSv (0.5-2.1mSv), respectively. All 35 CT scans were successfully analyzed for ventricular systolic function. A low radiation contrast-enhanced, retrospectively-gated cardiac CT with a median radiation dose of less than 1mSv was successful in evaluating ventricular systolic function in 30 consecutive adult congenital heart disease patients who underwent a total of 35 scans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Common time in a four-dimensional symmetry framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.; Sherry, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    Following the ideas of Poincare, Reichenbach, and Grunbaum concerning the convention of setting up clock systems, clock systems and light propagation are analyzed within the framework of four-dimensional symmetry. It is possible to construct a new four-dimensional symmetry framework incorporating common time: observers in different inertial frames of reference use one and the same clock system, which is located in any one of the frames. Consequently, simultaneity has a meaning independent of position and independent of frame of reference. A further consequence is that the two-way speeds of light alone are isotropic in any frame. By the choice of clock system there will be one frame in which the one-way speed of light is isotropic. This frame can be arbitrarily chosen. The difference between one-way speeds and two-way speeds of light signals is considered in detail.

  6. Manual control displays for a four-dimensional landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverthorn, J. T.; Swaim, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Six instrument rated pilots flew a STOL fixed base simulator to study the effectiveness of three displays for a four dimensional approach. The three examined displays were a digital readout of forward position error, a digital speed command, and an analog display showing forward position error and error prediction. A flight director was used in all conditions. All test runs were for a typical four dimensional approach in moderate turbulence that included a change in commanded ground speed, a change in flight path angle, and two standard rate sixty degree turns. Use of the digital forward position error display resulted in large overshoot in the forward position error. Some type of lead (rate or prediction information) was shown to be needed. The best overall performance was obtained using the speed command display. It was demonstrated that curved approaches can be flown with relative ease.

  7. Going four-dimensional at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.; Thielman, J.; Gorst, W.

    1990-10-01

    The four-dimensional principle, as explained by Horton, is founded upon the notion that our senses and mind prefer dynamic, life-like images -- we understand and enjoy pictures better than words and raw data. Whenever we convert information to graphical images, we increase the number of readers, improve our chances of being understood, and increase the impact of our document. In this paper, we discuss our efforts to engage today's audience by applying the visual approach to our communication work at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Topics include: the increasing importance of visuals, the opportunity for editors to take a lead role in design and development of the visual elements, a discussion of how we work at PNL and how our efforts to incorporate the four-dimensional concept are going, along with some examples of successes, and efforts to speed up the process and a brief summary. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Prospectively ECG gated CT pulmonary angiography versus helical ungated CT pulmonary angiography: impact on cardiac related motion artifacts and patient radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Shuman, William P; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Busey, Janet M; Green, Douglas E; Pipavath, Sudhakar N; Hague, Cameron J; Koprowicz, Kent M

    2012-09-01

    To compare prospectively ECG gated CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with routine helical ungated CTPA for cardiac related motion artifacts and patient radiation dose. Twenty patients with signs and symptoms suspicious for pulmonary embolism and who had a heart rate below 85 were scanned with prospectively ECG gated CTPA. These gated exams were matched for several clinical parameters to exams from twenty similar clinical patients scanned with routine ungated helical CTPA. Three blinded independent reviewers subjectively evaluated all exams for overall pulmonary artery enhancement and for several cardiac motion related artifacts, including vessel blurring, intravascular shading, and double line. Reviewers also measured pulmonary artery intravascular density and image noise. Patient radiation dose for each technique was compared. Fourteen clinical prospectively ECG gated CTPA exams from a second institution were evaluated for the same parameters. Prospectively ECG gated CTPA resulted in significantly decreased motion-related image artifact scores in lung segments adjacent to the heart compared to ungated CTPA. Measured image noise was not significantly different between the two types of CTPA exams. Effective dose was 28% less for prospectively ECG gated CTPA (4.9 mSv versus 6.8 mSv, p=0.02). Similar results were found in the prospectively ECG gated exams from the second institution. Compared to routine helical ungated CTPA, prospectively ECG gated CTPA may result in less cardiac related motion artifact in lung segments adjacent to the heart and significantly less patient radiation dose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Finding four dimensional symplectic maps with reduced chaos: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Weishi Wan; Cary, J.R.; Shasharina, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    A method for finding integrable four-dimensional symplectic maps is outlined. The method relies on solving for parameter values at which the linear stability factors of the fixed points of the map have the values corresponding to integrability. This method is applied to accelerator lattices in order to increase dynamic aperture. Results show a increase of the dynamic aperture after correction, which implies the validity of the method.

  10. Philosophy of gravity: Intuitions of four-dimensional curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Marthe

    1994-04-01

    General Relativity describes the universe as a four-dimensional spacetime manifold which is somehow ‘curved’. Accounts of curved spacetime often claim that most of us find it impossible to imagine four-dimensional spacetime, and so should not even try to do so. This paper examines the claim that the best description of the universe is counter-intuitive and suggests ways to re-educate our intuitions to make them compatible with what seems to be the best science around. The paper examines two world views, or pictures of the universe — the Aristotelian and the Newtonian — and argues that we have forgotten (or perhaps never realized) how much of an idealization the Newtonian world view actually is. For this reason we have come to believe that we can only ‘see’ the world in three spatial dimensions. The paper ends by describing an alternative idealization, or set of pictures, that would lead us to find the claim that the universe is a four-dimensional spacetime manifold ‘perfectly natural’.

  11. Evaluation of motion-correction methods for dual-gated cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Klén, Riku; Noponen, Tommi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thielemans, Kris; Hoppela, Erika; Sipilä, Hannu; Teräs, Mika; Knuuti, Juhani

    2016-09-01

    Dual gating is a method of dividing the data of a cardiac PET scan into smaller bins according to the respiratory motion and the ECG of the patient. It reduces the undesirable motion artefacts in images, but produces several images for interpretation and decreases the quality of single images. By using motion-correction techniques, the motion artefacts in the dual-gated images can be corrected and the images can be combined into a single motion-free image with good statistics. The aim of the present study is to develop and evaluate motion-correction methods for cardiac PET studies. We have developed and compared two different methods: computed tomography (CT)/PET-based and CT-only methods. The methods were implemented and tested with a cardiac phantom and three patient datasets. In both methods, anatomical information of CT images is used to create models for the cardiac motion. In the patient study, the CT-only method reduced motion (measured as the centre of mass of the myocardium) on average 43%, increased the contrast-to-noise ratio on average 6.0% and reduced the target size on average 10%. Slightly better figures (51, 6.9 and 28%) were obtained with the CT/PET-based method. Even better results were obtained in the phantom study for both the CT-only method (57, 68 and 43%) and the CT/PET-based method (61, 74 and 52%). We conclude that using anatomical information of CT for motion correction of cardiac PET images, both respiratory and pulsatile motions can be corrected with good accuracy.

  12. Unambiguous observation of blocked states reveals altered, blocker-induced, cardiac ryanodine receptor gating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Thomas, N. Lowri; Williams, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of ions through membrane channels is precisely regulated by gates. The architecture and function of these elements have been studied extensively, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying gating. Recent investigations have focused on ion occupancy of the channel’s selectivity filter and its ability to alter gating, with most studies involving prokaryotic K+ channels. Some studies used large quaternary ammonium blocker molecules to examine the effects of altered ionic flux on gating. However, the absence of blocking events that are visibly distinct from closing events in K+ channels makes unambiguous interpretation of data from single channel recordings difficult. In this study, the large K+ conductance of the RyR2 channel permits direct observation of blocking events as distinct subconductance states and for the first time demonstrates the differential effects of blocker molecules on channel gating. This experimental platform provides valuable insights into mechanisms of blocker-induced modulation of ion channel gating. PMID:27703263

  13. The Development and Initial Evaluation of a Realistic Simulated SPECT Dataset with Simultaneous Respiratory and Cardiac Motion for Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modelled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24×48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1,152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of 99mTc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into no gating, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion correction

  14. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Manzke, Robert . E-mail: robert.manzke@philips.com

    2005-10-15

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.

  15. Reference ranges for LVEF and LV volumes from electrocardiographically gated 82Rb cardiac PET/CT using commercially available software.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Paco E; Chien, David; Javadi, Mehrbod; Merrill, Jennifer; Bengel, Frank M

    2010-06-01

    Electrocardiographic gating is increasingly used for (82)Rb cardiac PET/CT, but reference ranges for global functional parameters are not well defined. We sought to establish reference values for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end systolic volume (ESV), and end diastolic volume (EDV) using 4 different commercial software packages. Additionally, we compared 2 different approaches for the definition of a healthy individual. Sixty-two subjects (mean age +/- SD, 49 +/- 9 y; 85% women; mean body mass index +/- SD, 34 +/- 10 kg/m(2)) who underwent (82)Rb-gated myocardial perfusion PET/CT were evaluated. All subjects had normal myocardial perfusion and no history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or cardiomyopathy. Subgroup 1 consisted of 34 individuals with low pretest probability of CAD (<10%), and subgroup 2 comprised 28 subjects who had no atherosclerosis on a coronary CT angiogram obtained concurrently during the PET/CT session. LVEF, ESV, and EDV were calculated at rest and during dipyridamole-induced stress, using CardIQ Physio (a dedicated PET software) and the 3 major SPECT software packages (Emory Cardiac Toolbox, Quantitative Gated SPECT, and 4DM-SPECT). Mean LVEF was significantly different among all 4 software packages. LVEF was most comparable between CardIQ Physio (62% +/- 6% and 54% +/- 7% at stress and rest, respectively) and 4DM-SPECT (64% +/- 7% and 56% +/- 8%, respectively), whereas Emory Cardiac Toolbox yielded higher values (71% +/- 6% and 65% +/- 6%, respectively, P < 0.001) and Quantitated Gated SPECT lower values (56% +/- 8% and 50% +/- 8%, respectively, P < 0.001). Subgroup 1 (low likelihood) demonstrated higher LVEF values than did subgroup 2 (normal CT angiography findings), using all software packages (P < 0.05). However, mean ESV and EDV at stress and rest were comparable between both subgroups (p = NS). Intra- and interobserver agreement were excellent for all methods. The reference range of LVEF and LV volumes from gated (82)Rb

  16. Automated four-dimensional Monte Carlo workflow using log files and real-time motion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibolt, P.; Cronholm, R. O.; Heath, E.; Andersen, C. E.; Behrens, C. F.

    2017-05-01

    With emerging techniques for tracking and gating methods in radiotherapy of lung cancer patients, there is an increasing need for efficient four-dimensional Monte Carlo (4DMC) based quality assurance (QA). An automated and flexible workflow for 4DMC QA, based on the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc user code, has been developed in python. The workflow has been tested and verified using an in-house developed dosimetry system comprised of a dynamic thorax phantom constructed for plastic scintillator dosimetry. The workflow is directly compatible with any treatment planning system and can also be triggered by the appearance of linac log files. It has minimum user interaction and, with the use of linac log files, it provides a method for verification of the actually delivered dose in the patient geometry.

  17. Four-dimensional characterization of a sheet-forming web

    DOEpatents

    Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Goddard, James S.

    2003-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided by which a sheet-forming web may be characterized in four dimensions. Light images of the web are recorded at a point adjacent the initial stage of the web, for example, near the headbox in a paperforming operation. The images are digitized, and the resulting data is processed by novel algorithms to provide a four-dimensional measurement of the web. The measurements include two-dimensional spatial information, the intensity profile of the web, and the depth profile of the web. These measurements can be used to characterize the web, predict its properties and monitor production events, and to analyze and quantify headbox flow dynamics.

  18. Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Daria, Vincent Ricardo; Glückstad, Jesper

    2005-02-01

    We transform a TEM00 laser mode into multiple counterpropagating optical traps to achieve four-dimensional simultaneous manipulation of multiple particles. Efficient synthesis and dynamic control of the counterpropagating-beam traps is carried out via the generalized phase contrast method, and a spatial polarization-encoding scheme. Our experiments genuinely demonstrate real-time, interactive particle-position control for forming arbitrary volumetric constellations and complex three-dimensional trajectories of multiple particles. This opens up doors for cross-disciplinary cutting-edge research in various fields.

  19. Four-dimensional imaging: the exploration of space and time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C F; White, J G

    1998-04-01

    The process of studying dynamic three-dimensional samples has a long history in biological research. Recent advances in hardware and software have made it easier to visualise and record interior detail from multiple focal planes of three-dimensional samples as they change over time (four-dimensional imaging). Once captured, it is possible to watch these events repeatedly and to analyse them in numerous ways. This article discusses the history of and the hardware necessary to perform 4D experiments, the various techniques that make 4D imaging possible, and the applications and various options for 4D-image analysis.

  20. The development and initial evaluation of a realistic simulated SPECT dataset with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac motion for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-02-01

    We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modeled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24  ×  48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of 99mTc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into ungated, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion

  1. The development and initial evaluation of a realistic simulated SPECT dataset with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac motion for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2015-02-21

    We developed a realistic simulation dataset for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac (R&C) gated SPECT/CT using the 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) Phantom and Monte Carlo simulation methods, and evaluated it for a sample application study. The 4D NCAT phantom included realistic respiratory motion and beating heart motion based on respiratory gated CT and cardiac tagged MRI data of normal human subjects. To model the respiratory motion, a set of 24 separate 3D NCAT phantoms excluding the heart was generated over a respiratory cycle. The beating heart motion was modeled separately with 48 frames per cardiac cycle for each of the 24 respiratory phases. The resultant set of 24  ×  48 3D NCAT phantoms provides a realistic model of a normal human subject at different phases of combined R&C motions. An almost noise-free SPECT projection dataset for each of the 1152 3D NCAT phantoms was generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques and the radioactivity uptake distribution of (99m)Tc sestamibi in different organs. By grouping and summing the separate projection datasets, separate or simultaneous R&C gated acquired data with different gating schemes could be simulated. In the initial evaluation, we combined the projection datasets into ungated, 6 respiratory-gates only, 8 cardiac-gates only, and combined 6 respiratory-gates & 8 cardiac-gates projection datasets. Each dataset was reconstructed using 3D OS-EM without and with attenuation correction using the averaged and respiratory-gated attenuation maps, and the resulting reconstructed images were compared. These results were used to demonstrate the effects of R&C motions and the reduction of image artifact due to R&C motions by gating and attenuation corrections. We concluded that the realistic 4D NCAT phantom and Monte Carlo simulated SPECT projection datasets with R&C motions are powerful tools in the study of the effects of R&C motions, as well as in the development of R&C gating schemes and motion

  2. Computational modeling of inhibition of voltage-gated Ca channels: identification of different effects on uterine and cardiac action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Wing-Chiu; Ghouri, Iffath; Taggart, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The uterus and heart share the important physiological feature whereby contractile activation of the muscle tissue is regulated by the generation of periodic, spontaneous electrical action potentials (APs). Preterm birth arising from premature uterine contractions is a major complication of pregnancy and there remains a need to pursue avenues of research that facilitate the use of drugs, tocolytics, to limit these inappropriate contractions without deleterious actions on cardiac electrical excitation. A novel approach is to make use of mathematical models of uterine and cardiac APs, which incorporate many ionic currents contributing to the AP forms, and test the cell-specific responses to interventions. We have used three such models—of uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC), cardiac sinoatrial node cells (SAN), and ventricular cells—to investigate the relative effects of reducing two important voltage-gated Ca currents—the L-type (ICaL) and T-type (ICaT) Ca currents. Reduction of ICaL (10%) alone, or ICaT (40%) alone, blunted USMC APs with little effect on ventricular APs and only mild effects on SAN activity. Larger reductions in either current further attenuated the USMC APs but with also greater effects on SAN APs. Encouragingly, a combination of ICaL and ICaT reduction did blunt USMC APs as intended with little detriment to APs of either cardiac cell type. Subsequent overlapping maps of ICaL and ICaT inhibition profiles from each model revealed a range of combined reductions of ICaL and ICaT over which an appreciable diminution of USMC APs could be achieved with no deleterious action on cardiac SAN or ventricular APs. This novel approach illustrates the potential for computational biology to inform us of possible uterine and cardiac cell-specific mechanisms. Incorporating such computational approaches in future studies directed at designing new, or repurposing existing, tocolytics will be beneficial for establishing a desired uterine specificity of action

  3. Four-dimensional black holes in Einsteinian cubic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.

    2016-12-01

    We construct static and spherically symmetric generalizations of the Schwarzschild- and Reissner-Nordström-(anti-)de Sitter [RN-(A)dS] black-hole solutions in four-dimensional Einsteinian cubic gravity (ECG). The solutions are characterized by a single function which satisfies a nonlinear second-order differential equation. Interestingly, we are able to compute independently the Hawking temperature T , the Wald entropy S and the Abbott-Deser mass M of the solutions analytically as functions of the horizon radius and the ECG coupling constant λ . Using these we show that the first law of black-hole mechanics is exactly satisfied. Some of the solutions have positive specific heat, which makes them thermodynamically stable, even in the uncharged and asymptotically flat case. Further, we claim that, up to cubic order in curvature, ECG is the most general four-dimensional theory of gravity which allows for nontrivial generalizations of Schwarzschild- and RN-(A)dS characterized by a single function which reduce to the usual Einstein gravity solutions when the corresponding higher-order couplings are set to zero.

  4. Four-dimensional maps of the human somatosensory system

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, Pietro; Abdollahi, Rouhollah O.; Sartori, Ivana; Caruana, Fausto; Pelliccia, Veronica; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Mai, Roberto; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Orban, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    A fine-grained description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human brain activity is a major goal of neuroscientific research. Limitations in spatial and temporal resolution of available noninvasive recording and imaging techniques have hindered so far the acquisition of precise, comprehensive four-dimensional maps of human neural activity. The present study combines anatomical and functional data from intracerebral recordings of nearly 100 patients, to generate highly resolved four-dimensional maps of human cortical processing of nonpainful somatosensory stimuli. These maps indicate that the human somatosensory system devoted to the hand encompasses a widespread network covering more than 10% of the cortical surface of both hemispheres. This network includes phasic components, centered on primary somatosensory cortex and neighboring motor, premotor, and inferior parietal regions, and tonic components, centered on opercular and insular areas, and involving human parietal rostroventral area and ventral medial-superior-temporal area. The technique described opens new avenues for investigating the neural basis of all levels of cortical processing in humans. PMID:26976579

  5. Restricted Weyl invariance in four-dimensional curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edery, Ariel; Nakayama, Yu

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the physics of restricted Weyl invariance, a symmetry of dimensionless actions in four-dimensional curved space time. When we study a scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity with Weyl(conformal) weight of -1 (i.e. scalar field with the usual two-derivative kinetic term), we find that dimensionless terms are either fully Weyl invariant or are Weyl invariant if the conformal factor Ω(x) obeys the condition gμν∇μ∇νΩ =0. We refer to the latter as restricted Weyl invariance. We show that all the dimensionless geometric terms such as R2, RμνRμν and RμνστRμνστ are restricted Weyl invariant. Restricted Weyl transformations possesses nice mathematical properties such as the existence of a composition and an inverse in four-dimensional space-time. We exemplify the distinction among rigid Weyl invariance, restricted Weyl invariance and the full Weyl invariance in dimensionless actions constructed out of scalar fields and vector fields with Weyl weight zero.

  6. Restricted Weyl invariance in four-dimensional curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edery, Ariel; Nakayama, Yu

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the physics of restricted Weyl invariance, a symmetry of dimensionless actions in four dimensional curved space time. When we study a scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity with Weyl(conformal) weight of - 1 (i.e. scalar field with the usual two-derivative kinetic term), we find that dimensionless terms are either fully Weyl invariant or are Weyl invariant if the conformal factor Ω (x) obeys the condition gμν∇μ∇ν Ω = 0 . We refer to the latter as restricted Weyl invariance. We show that all the dimensionless geometric terms such as R2, RμνRμν and RμνστRμνστ are restricted Weyl invariant. Restricted Weyl transformations possesses nice mathematical properties such as the existence of a composition and an inverse in four dimensional space-time. We exemplify the distinction among rigid Weyl invariance, restricted Weyl invariance and the full Weyl invariance in dimensionless actions constructed out of scalar fields and vector fields with Weyl weight zero.

  7. Modal gating transitions in cardiac ryanodine receptors during increases of Ca2+ concentration produced by photolysis of caged Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Zahradníková, A; Dura, M; Györke, S

    1999-08-01

    Channel adaptation is a basic property of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyRs). It allows channel activity to decay during sustained increases in the concentration of activating Ca2+. Despite the potential physiological importance of this self-confining process, its molecular mechanism is not well understood. To define the mechanism of adaptation we studied the dynamics of cardiac Ca2+-release channel (RyR) gating using the planar lipid bilayer technique in combination with photolysis of caged Ca2+ (DM-nitrophen). Channels activated by rapid and sustained increases in Ca2+ concentration (from 0.1 to 0.5 micromol/l) displayed three distinct gating modes, manifested as current records with frequent and long openings (H-mode), with rare and short openings (L-mode), and with no openings (I-mode). H-mode channel activity occurred primarily at early times while L- and I-modes predominated at late times after the rapid Ca2+ concentration increase. The decrease in probability of H-mode, mirrored by an increase in the probability of the I-mode, proceeded with a time constant similar to that observed for spontaneous decay in channel activity (i.e., adaptation) in ensemble average records. These results indicate that RyR adaptation transpires by a shift of channel gating from a high open probability mode to low open probability and inactivated modes of the channel.

  8. Unravelling cardiovascular disease using four dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Vivian P; Westenberg, Jos J M; van der Palen, Roel L F; Blom, Nico A; de Roos, Albert; van der Geest, Rob; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Roest, Arno A W

    2016-11-25

    Knowledge of normal and abnormal flow patterns in the human cardiovascular system increases our understanding of normal physiology and may help unravel the complex pathophysiological mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a suitable technique that enables visualization of in vivo blood flow patterns and quantification of parameters that could potentially be of prognostic value in the disease process. In this review, current image processing tools that are used for comprehensive visualization and quantification of blood flow and energy distribution in the heart and great vessels will be discussed. Also, imaging biomarkers extracted from 4D flow CMR will be reviewed that have been shown to distinguish between normal and abnormal flow patterns. Furthermore, current applications of 4D flow CMR in the heart and great vessels will be discussed, showing its potential as an additional diagnostic modality which could aid in disease management and timing of surgical intervention.

  9. Visualization of Four Dimensional Data on Virtual Globes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swick, R.; Maurer, J.; Troisi, V.; Wang, I.

    2006-12-01

    The recent proliferation of virtual globes seems to have captured the public imagination to a degree seldom seen in the Earth Sciences. Virtual globes, such as Google Earth and World Winds, do such a fantastic job of rendering geolocated imagery on a 3D Earth it would be almost criminal not to take advantage. For just the cost of creating compatible imagery the scientific community can offer data visualization capabilities with features like zoom, variable transparency, overlays, etc... But for the climate change community 3D is not enough. To show change over time one needs 4D capabilities. Using 20-30 year time series data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center this presentation explores methods for incorporating four dimensional data into virtual globes.

  10. Fast live simultaneous multiwavelength four-dimensional optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Peter M.; Boulanger, Jérôme; Kervrann, Charles; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Salamero, Jean; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Bressan, Debra; Haber, James E.; Haase, Sebastian; Shao, Lin; Winoto, Lukman; Matsuda, Atsushi; Kner, Peter; Uzawa, Satoru; Gustafsson, Mats; Kam, Zvi; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Live fluorescence microscopy has the unique capability to probe dynamic processes, linking molecular components and their localization with function. A key goal of microscopy is to increase spatial and temporal resolution while simultaneously permitting identification of multiple specific components. We demonstrate a new microscope platform, OMX, that enables subsecond, multicolor four-dimensional data acquisition and also provides access to subdiffraction structured illumination imaging. Using this platform to image chromosome movement during a complete yeast cell cycle at one 3D image stack per second reveals an unexpected degree of photosensitivity of fluorophore-containing cells. To avoid perturbation of cell division, excitation levels had to be attenuated between 100 and 10,000× below the level normally used for imaging. We show that an image denoising algorithm that exploits redundancy in the image sequence over space and time allows recovery of biological information from the low light level noisy images while maintaining full cell viability with no fading. PMID:20705899

  11. Four-dimensional Printing of Liquid Crystal Elastomers.

    PubMed

    Ambulo, Cedric P; Burroughs, Julia J; Boothby, Jennifer M; Kim, Hyun; Shankar, M Ravi; Ware, Taylor H

    2017-10-11

    Three-dimensional structures capable of reversible changes in shape, i.e., four-dimensional-printed structures, may enable new generations of soft robotics, implantable medical devices, and consumer products. Here, thermally responsive liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) are direct-write printed into 3D structures with a controlled molecular order. Molecular order is locally programmed by controlling the print path used to build the 3D object, and this order controls the stimulus response. Each aligned LCE filament undergoes 40% reversible contraction along the print direction on heating. By printing objects with controlled geometry and stimulus response, magnified shape transformations, for example, volumetric contractions or rapid, repetitive snap-through transitions, are realized.

  12. Low-energy structure of four-dimensional superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Zwirner, F.

    1988-05-01

    The N = 1, d = 4 supergravity theories derived as the low-energy limit of four-dimensional superstrings are discussed, focusing on the properties of their effective potentials. Gauge symmetry breaking is possible along several flat directions. A class of superpotential modifications is introduced, which describes supersymmetry breaking with vanishing cosmological constant and Str M{sup 2} = 0 at any minimum of the tree level potential. Under more restrictive assumptions, there are minima with broken supersymmetry at which also Str f(M{sup 2}) = 0 for any function f, so that the whole one-loop cosmological constant vanishes. This result is interpreted in terms of a new discrete boson-fermion symmetry, relating particles whose helicities differ by 3/2, e.g., the graviton and the dilatino.' 21 refs.

  13. Benefit of ECG-gated rest and stress N-13 cardiac PET imaging for quantification of LVEF in ischemic patients.

    PubMed

    Peelukhana, Srikara V; Banerjee, Rupak; Kolli, Kranthi K; Fernandez-Ulloa, Mariano; Arif, Imran; Effat, Mohamed; Helmy, Tarek; Kerr, Hanan

    2015-10-01

    ECG-gated rest-stress cardiac PET can lead to simultaneous quantification of both left ventricular ejection fraction and flow impairment. In this study, our aim was to assess the benefit of rest and stress PET ejection fraction (EF) (EFp) in relation to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) EF (EFs) and echocardiography EF (EFe). To this effect, the EFp was compared with EFs and EFe. Further, the relation between rest and stress EFp was also assessed. ECG-gated N-13 ammonia rest and stress PET imaging was performed in 26 patients. EFp values were obtained using gated reconstruction of the data in Flowquant. In 13 patients, EFs and EFe values were obtained through chart review. Correlation, analysis of variance, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed. P values less than 0.05 were used for statistical significance. The rest and stress EFp values correlated significantly (r=0.80 and 0.71, respectively; P<0.05) with EFs values. There was moderate correlation with statistical significance (P<0.05) between the rest and stress EFp and EFe values (r=0.58 and 0.50, respectively). The mean rest and stress EFp values were not significantly different from mean EFs values. Also, the rest EFp and stress EFp values correlated well (r=0.81, P<0.05) and were not significantly different. Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias between the rest and stress EFp, and EFs, and EFe values. Rest and stress EFp values obtained through an ECG-gated PET scan can be used for clinical diagnosis in place of conventional methods like SPECT and echocardiography.

  14. Highly-accelerated self-gated free-breathing 3D cardiac cine MRI: validation in assessment of left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Feng, Li; Shen, Hsin-Wei; Zhu, Chengcheng; Wang, Yan; Mukai, Kanae; Brooks, Gabriel C; Ordovas, Karen; Saloner, David

    2017-08-01

    This work presents a highly-accelerated, self-gated, free-breathing 3D cardiac cine MRI method for cardiac function assessment. A golden-ratio profile based variable-density, pseudo-random, Cartesian undersampling scheme was implemented for continuous 3D data acquisition. Respiratory self-gating was achieved by deriving motion signal from the acquired MRI data. A multi-coil compressed sensing technique was employed to reconstruct 4D images (3D+time). 3D cardiac cine imaging with self-gating was compared to bellows gating and the clinical standard breath-held 2D cine imaging for evaluation of self-gating accuracy, image quality, and cardiac function in eight volunteers. Reproducibility of 3D imaging was assessed. Self-gated 3D imaging provided an image quality score of 3.4 ± 0.7 vs 4.0 ± 0 with the 2D method (p = 0.06). It determined left ventricular end-systolic volume as 42.4 ± 11.5 mL, end-diastolic volume as 111.1 ± 24.7 mL, and ejection fraction as 62.0 ± 3.1%, which were comparable to the 2D method, with bias ± 1.96 × SD of -0.8 ± 7.5 mL (p = 0.90), 2.6 ± 3.3 mL (p = 0.84) and 1.4 ± 6.4% (p = 0.45), respectively. The proposed 3D cardiac cine imaging method enables reliable respiratory self-gating performance with good reproducibility, and provides comparable image quality and functional measurements to 2D imaging, suggesting that self-gated, free-breathing 3D cardiac cine MRI framework is promising for improved patient comfort and cardiac MRI scan efficiency.

  15. 2D Free-breathing Dual Navigator-gated Cardiac Function Validated against the 2D Breath-hold Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Dana C.; Nezafat, Reza; Eggers, Holger; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a free-breathing cardiac cine acquisition, with potential to simplify cardiac MR studies, provide registered slices and increase spatial resolution. Materials and Methods A 2D free-breathing (FB) navigator-gated cine radial acquisition for cardiac function was developed which used two navigators (one placed prior to the QRS, and another 500 ms after the QRS complex, after systole) to provide complete motion-compensated assessment of systole, without loss of end-diastole. Eleven subjects were studied. Results The 2D FB method provided results visually and quantitatively similar to the 2D breath-hold (BH) methods. Comparison of volumes measured with the free-breathing to those measured by standard 2D BH cine resulted in mean bias ± 2 standard deviations of 1.0 ml ± 13.7 ml, 1.1 ml ± 7.6 ml, 3.0 g ± 18.8 g, and 0.3 %± 2.5%, for end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left-ventricular mass, and ejection fraction, respectively. Slice misregistration was identified in 4 (36%) of the BH studies, but none (0%) of the FB studies. In subjects with slice misregistration, there was greater discordance in LV volume measurements (P<0.05 for end-diastolic mass). Conclusion The free-breathing cine acquisition provided results qualitatively and quantitatively similar to 2D breath-hold methods with improved slice registration. PMID:18777547

  16. 2D free-breathing dual navigator-gated cardiac function validated against the 2D breath-hold acquisition.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dana C; Nezafat, Reza; Eggers, Holger; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J

    2008-09-01

    To develop and validate a free-breathing cardiac cine acquisition, with potential to simplify cardiac MR studies, provide registered slices, and increase spatial resolution. A 2D free-breathing (FB) navigator-gated cine radial acquisition for cardiac function was developed that used two navigators (one placed prior to the QRS, and another 500 msec after the QRS complex, after systole) to provide complete motion-compensated assessment of systole, without loss of end-diastole. Eleven subjects were studied. The 2D FB method provided results visually and quantitatively similar to the 2D breath-hold (BH) methods. Comparison of volumes measured with FB to those measured by standard 2D BH cine resulted in mean bias+/-2 standard deviations of 1.0 mL+/-13.7 mL, 1.1 mL+/-7.6 mL, 3.0 g+/-18.8 g, and 0.3%+/-2.5%, for end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, left ventricular (LV) mass, and ejection fraction, respectively. Slice misregistration was identified in four (36%) of the BH studies, but none (0%) of the FB studies. In subjects with slice misregistration, there was greater discordance in LV volume measurements (P<0.05 for end-diastolic mass). The FB cine acquisition provided results qualitatively and quantitatively similar to 2D BH methods with improved slice registration. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 matches the acid-gated current in cardiac ischemia-sensing neurons.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, S P; Benson, C J; Adelman, J P; McCleskey, E W

    2001-01-16

    Cardiac afferents are sensory neurons that mediate angina, pain that occurs when the heart receives insufficient blood supply for its metabolic demand (ischemia). These neurons display enormous acid-evoked depolarizing currents, and they fire action potentials in response to extracellular acidification that accompanies myocardial ischemia. Here we show that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3), but no other known acid-sensing ion channel, reproduces the functional features of the channel that underlies the large acid-evoked current in cardiac afferents. ASIC3 and the native channel are both especially sensitive to pH, interact similarly with Ca(2+), and gate rapidly between closed, open, and desensitized states. Particularly important is the ability of ASIC3 and the native channel to open at pH 7, a value reached in the first few minutes of a heart attack. The steep activation curve suggests that the channel opens when four protons bind. We propose that ASIC3, a member of the degenerin channel (of Caenorhabditis elegans)/epithelial sodium channel family of ion channels, is the sensor of myocardial acidity that triggers cardiac pain, and that it might be a useful pharmaceutical target for treating angina.

  18. Cardiac-Gated En Face Doppler Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography at 100,000 Axial Scans per Second

    PubMed Central

    Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Liu, Jonathan J.; Lu, Chen D.; Schuman, Joel S.; Wollstein, Gadi; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To develop and demonstrate a cardiac gating method for repeatable in vivo measurement of total retinal blood flow (TRBF) in humans using en face Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) at commercially available imaging speeds. Methods. A prototype swept-source OCT system operating at 100-kHz axial scan rate was developed and interfaced with a pulse oximeter. Using the plethysmogram measured from the earlobe, Doppler OCT imaging of a 1.5- × 2-mm area at the optic disc at 1.8 volumes/s was synchronized to cardiac cycle to improve sampling of pulsatile blood flow. Postprocessing algorithms were developed to achieve fully automatic calculation of TRBF. We evaluated the repeatability of en face Doppler OCT measurement of TRBF in 10 healthy young subjects using three methods: measurement at 100 kHz with asynchronous acquisition, measurement at 100 kHz with cardiac-gated acquisition, and a control measurement using a 400-kHz instrument with asynchronous acquisition. Results. The median intrasubject coefficients of variation (COV) of the three methods were 8.0%, 4.9%, and 6.1%, respectively. All three methods correlated well, without a significant bias. Mean TRBF measured at 100 kHz with cardiac-gated acquisition was 40.5 ± 8.2 μL/min, and the range was from 26.6 to 55.8 μL/min. Conclusions. Cardiac-gated en face Doppler OCT can achieve smaller measurement variability than previously reported methods. Although further validation in older subjects and diseased subjects is required, precise measurement of TRBF using cardiac-gated en face Doppler OCT at commercially available imaging speeds should be feasible. PMID:25744974

  19. Gated cardiac imaging using a continuously rotating CT scanner: clinical evaluation of 91 patients.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Y; Uji, T; Hirayama, T; Inada, Y; Ishikawa, T; Fujii, M

    1984-05-01

    To produce electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated computed tomographic (CT) images of the heart, a post-data-acquisition ECG correlation technique was used in which data for missing angular projections are derived from the original scan data to complete 360 angular projections. Improved image quality and clinical usefulness were demonstrated compared with routine nongated CT and two-dimensional echocardiography. Gated CT was better than nongated CT in 26 of 41 positive and three of five negative cases of suspected myocardial infarction, four of 10 positive and one of 12 negative cases of suspected left atrial mass, three of 10 cases with pericardial fluid collection, and three other cases. Compared with echocardiography, CT was of additional value in eight of 10 cases of myocardial infarction, five of nine positive and one of 10 negative cases of suspected left atrial mass, four of 10 positive and one of three negative cases of suspected pericardial fluid collection, and two other cases. The equipment required for CT gating is of low cost, but the examination time is lengthy and less conveniently performed than echocardiography. However, when echocardiography is indecisive or suspected to be falsely negative, gated CT imaging of the heart is recommended.

  20. Acoustic cardiac triggering: a practical solution for synchronization and gating of cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To demonstrate the applicability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for imaging of the heart at ultrahigh magnetic fields (7.0 T) by comparing phonocardiogram, conventional vector electrocardiogram (ECG) and traditional pulse oximetry (POX) triggered 2D CINE acquisitions together with (i) a qualitative image quality analysis, (ii) an assessment of the left ventricular function parameter and (iii) an examination of trigger reliability and trigger detection variance derived from the signal waveforms. Results ECG was susceptible to severe distortions at 7.0 T. POX and ACT provided waveforms free of interferences from electromagnetic fields or from magneto-hydrodynamic effects. Frequent R-wave mis-registration occurred in ECG-triggered acquisitions with a failure rate of up to 30% resulting in cardiac motion induced artifacts. ACT and POX triggering produced images free of cardiac motion artefacts. ECG showed a severe jitter in the R-wave detection. POX also showed a trigger jitter of approximately Δt = 72 ms which is equivalent to two cardiac phases. ACT showed a jitter of approximately Δt = 5 ms only. ECG waveforms revealed a standard deviation for the cardiac trigger offset larger than that observed for ACT or POX waveforms. Image quality assessment showed that ACT substantially improved image quality as compared to ECG (image quality score at end-diastole: ECG = 1.7 ± 0.5, ACT = 2.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.04) while the comparison between ECG vs. POX gated acquisitions showed no significant differences in image quality (image quality score: ECG = 1.7 ± 0.5, POX = 2.0 ± 0.5, p = 0.34). Conclusions The applicability of acoustic triggering for cardiac CINE imaging at 7.0 T was demonstrated. ACT's trigger reliability and fidelity are superior to that of ECG and POX. ACT promises to be beneficial for cardiovascular magnetic resonance at ultra-high field strengths including 7.0 T. PMID:21080933

  1. Universality in four-dimensional random-field magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the universality aspects of the four-dimensional random-field Ising model (RFIM) using numerical simulations at zero temperature. We consider two different, in terms of the field distribution, versions of the model, namely a Gaussian RFIM and an equal-weight trimodal RFIM. By implementing a computational approach that maps the ground-state of the system to the maximum-flow optimization problem of a network, we employ the most up-to-date version of the push-relabel algorithm and simulate large ensembles of disorder realizations of both models for a broad range of random-field values and system sizes. Using as finite-size measures the sample-to-sample fluctuations of the order parameter of the system, we propose, for both types of distributions, estimates of the critical field hc and the critical exponent ν of the correlation length, the latter suggesting that the two models in four dimensions share the same universality class.

  2. Constraints on RG flow for four dimensional quantum field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, I.; Osborn, H.

    2014-06-01

    The response of four dimensional quantum field theories to a Weyl rescaling of the metric in the presence of local couplings and which involve a, the coefficient of the Euler density in the energy momentum tensor trace on curved space, is reconsidered. Previous consistency conditions for the anomalous terms, which implicitly define a metric G on the space of couplings and give rise to gradient flow like equations for a, are derived taking into account the role of lower dimension operators. The results for infinitesimal Weyl rescaling are integrated to finite rescalings e2σ to a form which involves running couplings gσ and which interpolates between IR and UV fixed points. The results are also restricted to flat space where they give rise to broken conformal Ward identities. Expressions for the three loop Yukawa β-functions for a general scalar/fermion theory are obtained and the three loop contribution to the metric G for this theory is also calculated. These results are used to check the gradient flow equations to higher order than previously. It is shown that these are only valid when β→B, a modified β-function, and that the equations provide strong constraints on the detailed form of the three loop Yukawa β-function. N=1 supersymmetric Wess-Zumino theories are also considered as a special case. It is shown that the metric for the complex couplings in such theories may be restricted to a hermitian form.

  3. Four dimensional deformable image registration using trajectory modeling

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Edward; Castillo, Richard; Martinez, Josue; Shenoy, Maithili; Guerrero, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A four-dimensional deformable image registration (4D DIR) algorithm, referred to as 4D local trajectory modeling (4DLTM), is presented and applied to thoracic 4D computed tomography (4DCT) image sets. The theoretical framework on which this algorithm is built exploits the incremental continuity present in 4DCT component images to calculate a dense set of parameterized voxel trajectories through space as functions of time. The spatial accuracy of the 4DLTM algorithm is compared with an alternative registration approach in which component phase to phase (CPP) DIR is utilized to determine the full displacement between maximum inhale and exhale images. A publically available DIR reference database (http://www.dir-lab.com) is utilized for the spatial accuracy assessment. The database consists of ten 4DCT image sets and corresponding manually identified landmark points between the maximum phases. A subset of points are propagated through the expiratory 4DCT component images. Cubic polynomials were found to provide sufficient flexibility and spatial accuracy for describing the point trajectories through the expiratory phases. The resulting average spatial error between the maximum phases was 1.25 mm for the 4DLTM and 1.44 mm for the CPP. The 4DLTM method captures the long-range motion between 4DCT extremes with high spatial accuracy. PMID:20009196

  4. A Four-Dimensional Probabilistic Atlas of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mazziotta, John; Toga, Arthur; Evans, Alan; Fox, Peter; Lancaster, Jack; Zilles, Karl; Woods, Roger; Paus, Tomas; Simpson, Gregory; Pike, Bruce; Holmes, Colin; Collins, Louis; Thompson, Paul; MacDonald, David; Iacoboni, Marco; Schormann, Thorsten; Amunts, Katrin; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Geyer, Stefan; Parsons, Larry; Narr, Katherine; Kabani, Noor; Le Goualher, Georges; Feidler, Jordan; Smith, Kenneth; Boomsma, Dorret; Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff; Cannon, Tyrone; Kawashima, Ryuta; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a four-dimensional atlas and reference system that includes both macroscopic and microscopic information on structure and function of the human brain in persons between the ages of 18 and 90 years. Given the presumed large but previously unquantified degree of structural and functional variance among normal persons in the human population, the basis for this atlas and reference system is probabilistic. Through the efforts of the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM), 7,000 subjects will be included in the initial phase of database and atlas development. For each subject, detailed demographic, clinical, behavioral, and imaging information is being collected. In addition, 5,800 subjects will contribute DNA for the purpose of determining genotype– phenotype–behavioral correlations. The process of developing the strategies, algorithms, data collection methods, validation approaches, database structures, and distribution of results is described in this report. Examples of applications of the approach are described for the normal brain in both adults and children as well as in patients with schizophrenia. This project should provide new insights into the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic structure and function in the human brain and should have important implications in basic neuroscience, clinical diagnostics, and cerebral disorders. PMID:11522763

  5. Tomography of the ionosphere: Four-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Bruce M.; Runciman, Kay; Secan, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Using a four-dimensional stochastic model of ionosphere perturbations, simulations are made of a tomography system based on data from the Global Positioning System and a low Earth-orbiting satellite. The perturbations are departures from a simple time-independent reference state. The spatial structure is parameterized in terms of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) in the vertical and spherical harmonics in the horizontal. The horizontal covariance structure is specified by variance and correlation length scales as functions of latitude and longitude. Time dependence is modeled as a first-order Markov process with a 6-hour timescale and white-noise forcing. A Sun-fixed coordinate system is used so that ionospheric features are more nearly steady in time. A Kaiman filter is used to objectively assimilate the simulated data into the simple time-dependent model. In addition to solving for the three-dimensional electron density field at each time step, the procedure solves for instrumental biases. The simulations show that the fractions of resolved variance for vertical EOF modes 1, 2, and 3 are 0.99, 0.93, and 0.73, respectively. The resolution of the vertically integrated total electron content is 0.99.

  6. Four dimensional reconstruction and analysis of plume images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Peck, Charles, III; Disimile, Peter

    1991-05-01

    A number of methods have been investigated and are under current investigation for monitoring the health of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Plume emission analysis has recently emerged as a potential technique for correlating the emission characteristics with the health of an engine. In order to correlate the visual and spectral signatures of the plume emission with the characteristic health monitoring features of the engine, the plume emission data must be acquired, stored, and analyzed in a manner similar to flame emission spectroscopy. The characteristic visual and spectral signatures of the elements vaporized in exhaust plume along with the features related to their temperature, pressure, and velocity can be analyzed once the images of plume emission are effectively acquired, digitized, and stored on a computer. Since the emission image varies with respect to time at a specified planar location, four dimensional visual and spectral analysis need to be performed on the plume emission data. In order to achieve this objective, feasibility research was conducted to digitize, store, analyze, and visualize the images of a subsonic jet in a cross flow. The jet structure was made visible using a direct injection flow visualization technique. The results of time-history based three dimensional reconstruction of the cross sectional images corresponding to a specific planar location of the jet structure are presented. The experimental set-up to acquire such data is described and three dimensional displays of time-history based reconstructions of the jet structure are discussed.

  7. Four-dimensional positron age-momentum correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Ulrich; Löwe, Benjamin; Dickmann, Marcel; Mitteneder, Johannes; Sperr, Peter; Egger, Werner; Reiner, Markus; Dollinger, Günther

    2016-11-01

    We have performed first four-dimensional age-momentum correlation (4D-AMOC) measurements at a pulsed high intensity positron micro beam and determined the absolute value of the three-dimensional momentum of the electrons annihilating with the positrons in coincidence with the positron age in the sample material. We operated two position sensitive detectors in coincidence to measure the annihilation radiation: a pixelated HPGe-detector and a microchannel plate image intensifier with a CeBr3 scintillator pixel array. The transversal momentum resolution of the 4D-AMOC setup was measured to be about 17 × 10-3 {m}0c (FWHM) and was circa 3.5 times larger than the longitudinal momentum resolution. The total time resolution was 540 ps (FWHM). We measured two samples: a gold foil and a carbon tape at a positron implantation energy of 2 keV. For each sample discrete electron momentum states and their respective positron lifetimes were extracted.

  8. An mRNA encoding a putative GABA-gated chloride channel is expressed in the human cardiac conduction system.

    PubMed

    Garret, M; Bascles, L; Boue-Grabot, E; Sartor, P; Charron, G; Bloch, B; Margolskee, R F

    1997-04-01

    GABA-gated chloride channels are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS. Conserved domains among members of previously described GABAA receptor subunits were used to design degenerate sense and antisense oligonucleotides. A PCR product from this amplification was used to isolate a full-length cDNA. The predicted protein has many of the features shared by other members of the ligand-gated ion channel family. This channel subunit has significant amino acid identity (25-40%) with members of GABAA and GABAC receptor subunits and thus may represent a new subfamily of the GABA receptor channel. Although we cannot rule out that this clone encodes a receptor for an unidentified ligand, it was termed GABA chi. This gene is mainly expressed in placenta and in heart; however, placenta appears to express only an unspliced mRNA. In situ hybridization reveals that the GABA chi subunit mRNA is present in the electrical conduction system of the human heart. Our results suggest that novel GABA receptors expressed outside of the CNS may regulate cardiac function.

  9. Gated cardiac magnetic resonance structural imaging: optimization by electronic axial rotation.

    PubMed

    Feiglin, D H; George, C R; MacIntyre, W J; O'Donnell, J K; Go, R T; Pavlicek, W; Meaney, T F

    1985-01-01

    Most magnetic resonance imaging has used body orthogonal axes with the Z axis placed along the length of the body and the X and Y axes at right angles to the body. This orientation is not optimum for the heart; visualization of sections along the short and long cardiac axes would best define cardiac structural detail and functional status. The new orientation was accomplished by selection of electronic angulation of the magnetic fields for each subject rather than by attempting to approximate the cardiac axes by altering the position of the patient. This technique improved visualization of comparative wall segments, valvular structures, and the true four-chamber view of the heart, and also gave the best visualization of the pericardium. In addition, more accurate estimates of chamber size and myocardial mass can be made from the short-axis orientation, since the sections are orthogonal to the myocardium.

  10. Four dimensional lidar imaging of the atmosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloranta, E.

    2010-12-01

    High resolution four-dimensional depictions of atmospheric structure are needed for many atmospheric investigations. Scanning lidar offers the potential to provide high spatial and temporal resolution four-dimensional imaging of atmospheric structure. This paper will use data acquired with the University of Wisconsin Volume Imaging Lidar (VIL) to illustrate the potential of such measurements, describe the necessary lidar performance requirements , and provide measurement examples. The University of Wisconsin Volume imaging lidar acquired it's first data in the 1987 FIFE experiment and was operated in several deployments until it was mothballed after the 1997-98 Lake-ICE experiment. Although this data is old and the system is now obsolete, the data illustrates the power of the measurement approach and the system characteristics needed to acquire such data. The key challenge in acquiring useful 4-D scan is to provide high spatial resolution along with a scan repeat time short enough to maintain temporal coherence between successive images. This requires a high power transmitter, high pulse repetition rates, large optics, high quantum efficiency, good optical throughput and fast data acquisition. The VIL operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm, emitting an average power of 40 W at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The receiver utilized 0.5 m diameter telescope with an avalanche photodiode detector that provides a quantum efficiency of ~35%. Operating at the fundamental Nd:YAG wavelength of 1064 rather than the more usual doubled 532 nm wavelength, avoided the loss of power and photon numbers involved in frequency doubling. It also allowed use of the high quantum efficiency of the avalanche photodiode in place of the the lower efficiency photomultiplier. Signal-to-noise calculations show that the combination of higher photon numbers and greater quantum efficiency more than maked up for the large dark current noise of the APD-amplifier combination. The high power and sensitivity

  11. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1970’s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a standard imaging modality. With its broad and standardized application, it is firmly established in the clinical routine and an essential element in cardiovascular and abdominal imaging. In addition to sonography and computer tomography, MRI is a valuable tool for diagnosing cardiovascular and abdominal diseases, for determining disease severity, and for assessing therapeutic success. MRI techniques have improved over the last few decades, revealing not just morphologic information, but functional information about perfusion, diffusion and hemodynamics as well. Four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a time-resolved phase contrast-MRI with three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage and velocity encoding along all three flow directions has been used to comprehensively assess complex cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the body. The technique enables visualization of 3D blood flow patterns and retrospective quantification of blood flow parameters in a region of interest. Over the last few years, 4D flow MRI has been increasingly performed in the abdominal region. By applying different acceleration techniques, taking 4D flow MRI measurements has dropped to a reasonable scanning time of 8 to 12 min. These new developments have encouraged a growing number of patient studies in the literature validating the technique’s potential for enhanced evaluation of blood flow parameters within the liver’s complex vascular system. The purpose of this review article is to broaden our understanding of 4D flow MRI for the assessment of liver hemodynamics by providing insights into acquisition, data analysis, visualization and quantification. Furthermore, in this article we highlight its development, focussing on the clinical application of the technique. PMID:26755862

  12. Coupled decomposition of four-dimensional NOESY spectra

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Sebastian; Ibraghimov, Ilghis; Wagner, Gerhard; Orekhov, Vladislav Y.

    2009-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) NOESY spectra provide unambiguous distance information at a resolution that can not be achieved in fewer dimensions and thus increase the quality of biomolecular structure determination substantially. Since the degree of chemical shift degeneracy increases with protein size, the use of 4D NOESY spectra is particularly important for large proteins. The potential high resolution in 4D spectra can not be achieved in a reasonable time with conventional acquisition routines that sample the Nyquist grid uniformly. It can however be obtained with non-uniform sampling of the data grid, but optimal processing of such data has not yet been established. Here we describe a processing method for a pair of sparsely sampled 4D NOESY spectra, a methyl–methyl and an amide–methyl NOESY, recorded on a perdeuterated protein with protonated isoleucine, leucine and valine methyl groups. The coupled multi-dimensional decomposition (Co-MDD) of these two spectra together with a 2D template spectrum results in a substantial increase in sensitivity, evidenced by 50–100% additional cross peaks, when compared to alternative processing schemes. At the same time, Co-MDD allows the use of low sparse levels of 10–15% of the full data grid for NOESY spectra. For the 283-residue integral human membrane protein VDAC-1, which has a rotational correlation time of about 70 ns in detergent micelles, the two 4D Co-MDD NOESYs yielded a total of 366 NOEs, resulting in 139 unambiguous upper limit distance constraints for the structure calculation. PMID:19737017

  13. Semiautomated four-dimensional computed tomography segmentation using deformable models

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Dustin; Starkschall, George; McNutt, Todd; Kaus, Michael; Guerrero, Thomas; Stevens, Craig W.

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a proof of feasibility of the application of a commercial prototype deformable model algorithm to the problem of delineation of anatomic structures on four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) image data sets. We acquired a 4D CT image data set of a patient's thorax that consisted of three-dimensional (3D) image data sets from eight phases in the respiratory cycle. The contours of the right and left lungs, cord, heart, and esophagus were manually delineated on the end inspiration data set. An interactive deformable model algorithm, originally intended for deforming an atlas-based model surface to a 3D CT image data set, was applied in an automated fashion. Triangulations based on the contours generated on each phase were deformed to the CT data set on the succeeding phase to generate the contours on that phase. Deformation was propagated through the eight phases, and the contours obtained on the end inspiration data set were compared with the original manually delineated contours. Structures defined by high-density gradients, such as lungs, cord, and heart, were accurately reproduced, except in regions where other gradient boundaries may have confused the algorithm, such as near bronchi. The algorithm failed to accurately contour the esophagus, a soft-tissue structure completely surrounded by tissue of similar density, without manual interaction. This technique has the potential to facilitate contour delineation in 4D CT image data sets; and future evolution of the software is expected to improve the process.

  14. Variability of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Patient Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify the interfractional variability in lung tumor trajectory and mean position during the course of radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Repeat four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (median, nine scans/patient) routinely acquired during the course of treatment were analyzed for 56 patients with lung cancer. Tumor motion was assessed by using local rigid registration of a region of interest in the 3D planning CT to each phase in the 4D CBCT. Displacements of the mean tumor position relative to the planned position (baseline variations) were obtained by using time-weighted averaging of the motion curve. Results: The tumor trajectory shape was found to be stable interfractionally, with mean variability not exceeding 1 mm (1 SD) in each direction for the inhale and exhale phases. Interfractional baseline variations, however, were large, with 1.6- (left-right), 3.9- (cranial-caudal), and 2.8-mm (anterior-posterior) systematic variations (1 SD) and 1.2- (left-right), 2.4- (cranial-caudal) and 2.2-mm (anterior-posterior) random variations. Eliminating baseline variations by using soft-tissue guidance decreases planning target volume margins by approximately 50% compared with bony anatomy-driven protocols for conventional fractionation schemes. Conclusions: Systematic and random baseline variations constitute a substantial portion of the geometric variability present in the treatment of patients with lung cancer and require generous safety margins when relying on accurate setup/immobilization or bony anatomy-driven correction strategies. The 4D-CBCT has the ability to accurately monitor tumor trajectory shape and baseline variations and drive image-guided correction strategies that allows safe margin reduction.

  15. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Zoran

    2016-01-07

    Since its introduction in the 1970's, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a standard imaging modality. With its broad and standardized application, it is firmly established in the clinical routine and an essential element in cardiovascular and abdominal imaging. In addition to sonography and computer tomography, MRI is a valuable tool for diagnosing cardiovascular and abdominal diseases, for determining disease severity, and for assessing therapeutic success. MRI techniques have improved over the last few decades, revealing not just morphologic information, but functional information about perfusion, diffusion and hemodynamics as well. Four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a time-resolved phase contrast-MRI with three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage and velocity encoding along all three flow directions has been used to comprehensively assess complex cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the body. The technique enables visualization of 3D blood flow patterns and retrospective quantification of blood flow parameters in a region of interest. Over the last few years, 4D flow MRI has been increasingly performed in the abdominal region. By applying different acceleration techniques, taking 4D flow MRI measurements has dropped to a reasonable scanning time of 8 to 12 min. These new developments have encouraged a growing number of patient studies in the literature validating the technique's potential for enhanced evaluation of blood flow parameters within the liver's complex vascular system. The purpose of this review article is to broaden our understanding of 4D flow MRI for the assessment of liver hemodynamics by providing insights into acquisition, data analysis, visualization and quantification. Furthermore, in this article we highlight its development, focussing on the clinical application of the technique.

  16. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the thoracic aorta using cardiac and navigator-gated magnetization-prepared three-dimensional steady-state free precession.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yasuo; Takahama, Katsuya; Kumita, Shinichiro

    2008-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography using cardiac and navigator-gated magnetization-prepared three-dimensional (3D) steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging for the diagnosis of diseases of the thoracic aorta. Twenty-two patients with diseases of the thoracic aorta were examined using a 1.5 Tesla unit. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography was done using parasagittal 3D SSFP combined with cardiac-gating and k-space weighted navigator-gating techniques, using T2-prepared and fat-suppression pulses. Imaging quality and the diagnostic capability of this technique were compared with the imaging quality of 2D SSFP or contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography and with final diagnoses. Non-contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography provided signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of the thoracic aorta comparable to non-contrast-enhanced 2D or contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (P > 0.17). This imaging technique gave accurate diagnoses in 19 of the 22 patients. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography using cardiac and navigator-gated magnetization-prepared 3D SSFP technique was useful for the diagnosis of diseases of the thoracic aorta.

  17. Electro-Anatomical Four-Dimensional Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    pulmonary vein (PV) region reported ulterior stenosis . Anatomic reconstruction by CT has helped understand the frequency of occurrence and effects of PV... stenosis [1]. Our group presented that the bi-atrial activation sequence became well understood when cardiac activity data and anatomic information...through the Aortic Valve, and of deploying the ICE catheter into the LV transseptally via the IVC, through the Fossa Ovalis and through the Mitral

  18. Radiation-induced cardiomyopathy as a function of radiation beam gating to the cardiac cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, David J.; Flanagan, Michael F.; Southworth, Jean B.; Hadley, Vaughn; Thibualt, Melissa Wei; Hug, Eugen B.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2004-04-01

    Portions of the heart are often unavoidably included in the primary treatment volume during thoracic radiotherapy, and radiation-induced heart disease has been observed as a treatment-related complication. Such complications have been observed in humans following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease and treatment of the left breast for carcinoma. Recent attempts have been made to prevent re-stenosis following angioplasty procedures using external beam irradiation. These attempts were not successful, however, due to the large volume of heart included in the treatment field and subsequent cardiac morbidity. We suggest a mechanism for sparing the heart from radiation damage by synchronizing the radiation beam with the cardiac cycle and delivering radiation only when the heart is in a relatively hypoxic state. We present data from a rat model testing this hypothesis and show that radiation damage to the heart can be altered by synchronizing the radiation beam with the cardiac cycle. This technique may be useful in reducing radiation damage to the heart secondary to treatment for diseases such as Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer.

  19. Gated in vivo examination of cardiac metabolites with /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, H.L.; Briggs, R.W.; Metz, K.R.; Balaban, R.S.

    1986-07-01

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 31/P NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the temporal aspects of metabolism of canine heart in vivo. An NMR catheter coil was passed through the jugular vein of a dog into the apex of the right ventricle and spectra were recorded at four points in the cardiac cycle by triggering from the blood pressure trace of the animal. The /sup 31/P spin-lattice relaxation times of phosphocreatine (PC) and the ..gamma../sup -/,..cap alpha../sup -/, and ..beta..-phosphates of ATP at 1.89 Tesla are 4.4, 1.8, 1.7, and 1.6 s, respectively. The ratio of PC to ATP is 2.0. No changes in PC/ATP were noted in any of the four portions of the cardiac cycle examined, and difference spectra exhibited no observable signals, in contrast to previously reported results for glucose-perfused rat hearts. On the assumption that intracellular pH and the total creatine pool were constant, the expression for the creatine kinase reaction was used to deduce that free ADP concentrations were invariant throughout the cardiac cycle. This is in apparent disagreement with the proposed regulatory role for ADP in heart oxidative phosphorylation.

  20. Improvement in banding artefacts in four-dimensional computed tomography for radiotherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiro; Asakura, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    Respiratory-gated CT (RGCT) and four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scan techniques cover consecutive segments of the respiratory cycle. However, motion artefacts may occur in fast respiratory phases such as mid-inhalation and -exhalation. CT imaging involves the use of a number of x-ray tube positions for each couch position. We investigated the fundamental nature of motion artefacts using a constant-velocity moving phantom in motion in the CT plane or perpendicular to the CT plane, and in pigs to simulate a human model. Artefacts and movement distance were evaluated in a moving phantom and artificially ventilated pigs with a 256-multi-detector row CT (256MDCT). The phantom moved in the CT plane or perpendicular to the CT plane with a constant velocity. Backprojection used variable initial backprojection angles (IBAs). The phantom length for motion perpendicular to the CT plane was independent of IBA but was represented by phantom diameter plus the distance of movement per gantry rotation. In contrast, that for the motion in the CT plane was dependent on IBA, as represented by phantom diameter plus the distance of movement per rotation for IBA perpendicular to the phantom movement direction, and phantom diameter plus half the distance of movement per gantry rotation for other IBAs. Results for volumetric CT images with different IBAs showed the presence of banding artefacts. Similar findings were seen in artificially ventilated pigs. Motion artefacts are unavoidable in both conventional CT and 256MDCT. Banding artefacts will be improved if the same IBAs at each couch position are accounted for during image reconstruction. This improvement will be beneficial in respiratory gated and 4D radiation therapies.

  1. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiac KATP channels like phosphatidylinositols, but with novel gating kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Gao, Lizhi; Wang, Wenxia

    2003-01-01

    Membrane-bound anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositols have the capacity to modulate ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels through a mechanism involving long-range electrostatic interaction between the lipid headgroup and channel. However, it has not yet been determined whether the multiple effects of phosphatidylinositols reported in the literature all result from this general electrostatic interaction or require a specific headgroup structure. The present study investigated whether phosphatidic acid (PA), an anionic phospholipid substantially different in structure from phosphatidylinositols, evokes effects similar to phosphatidylinositols on native K(ATP) channels of rat heart and heterogeneous Kir6.2/SUR2A channels. Channels treated with PA (0.2-1 mg/ml applied to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane) exhibited higher activity, lower sensitivity to ATP inhibition, less Mg(2+)-dependent nucleotide stimulation, and poor sulfonylurea inhibition. These effects match the spectrum of phosphatidylinositols' effects, but, in addition, PA also induced a novel pattern in gating kinetics, represented by a decreased mean open time (from 12.2 +/- 2.0 to 3.3 +/- 0.7 ms). This impact on gating kinetics clearly distinguishes PA's effects from those of phosphatidylinositols. Results indicate that multiple effects of anionic phospholipids on K(ATP) channels are related phenomena and can likely be attributed to a common mechanism, but additional specific effects due to other mechanisms may also coincide.

  2. Energy aware path planning in complex four dimensional environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Anjan

    This dissertation addresses the problem of energy-aware path planning for small autonomous vehicles. While small autonomous vehicles can perform missions that are too risky (or infeasible) for larger vehicles, the missions are limited by the amount of energy that can be carried on board the vehicle. Path planning techniques that either minimize energy consumption or exploit energy available in the environment can thus increase range and endurance. Path planning is complicated by significant spatial (and potentially temporal) variations in the environment. While the main focus is on autonomous aircraft, this research also addresses autonomous ground vehicles. Range and endurance of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be greatly improved by utilizing energy from the atmosphere. Wind can be exploited to minimize energy consumption of a small UAV. But wind, like any other atmospheric component , is a space and time varying phenomenon. To effectively use wind for long range missions, both exploration and exploitation of wind is critical. This research presents a kinematics based tree algorithm which efficiently handles the four dimensional (three spatial and time) path planning problem. The Kinematic Tree algorithm provides a sequence of waypoints, airspeeds, heading and bank angle commands for each segment of the path. The planner is shown to be resolution complete and computationally efficient. Global optimality of the cost function cannot be claimed, as energy is gained from the atmosphere, making the cost function inadmissible. However the Kinematic Tree is shown to be optimal up to resolution if the cost function is admissible. Simulation results show the efficacy of this planning method for a glider in complex real wind data. Simulation results verify that the planner is able to extract energy from the atmosphere enabling long range missions. The Kinematic Tree planning framework, developed to minimize energy consumption of UAVs, is applied for path planning

  3. NOTE: Conceptual formulation on four-dimensional inverse planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Louis; Ma, Yunzhi; Ye, Yinyu; Xing, Lei

    2009-07-01

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) offers an extra dimension of 'time' on the three-dimensional patient model with which we can incorporate target motion in radiation treatment (RT) planning and delivery in various ways such as in the concept of internal target volume, in gated treatment or in target tracking. However, for all these methodologies, different phases are essentially considered as non-interconnected independent phases for the purpose of optimization, in other words, the 'time' dimension has yet to be incorporated explicitly in the optimization algorithm and fully exploited. In this note, we have formulated a new 4D inverse planning technique that treats all the phases in the 4DCT as one single entity in the optimization. The optimization is formulated as a quadratic problem for disciplined convex programming that enables the problem to be analyzed and solved efficiently. In the proof-of-principle examples illustrated, we show that the temporal information of the spatial relation of the target and organs at risk could be 'exchanged' amongst different phases so that an appropriate weighting of dose deposition could be allocated to each phase, thus enabling a treatment with a tight target margin and a full duty cycle otherwise not achievable by either of the aforementioned methodologies. Yet there are practical issues to be solved in the 4D RT planning and delivery. The 4D concept in the optimization we have formulated here does provide insight on how the 'time' dimension can be exploited in the 4D optimization process.

  4. A Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis of Multiorgan Abdominal Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, Joshua L.; Mori, Shinichiro; Sharp, Gregory C.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Hong, Theodore S.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To characterize and quantify multiorgan respiration-induced motion in the abdomen in liver and pancreatic cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography scans were acquired for 18 patients treated for abdominal tumors. Contours of multiple abdominal organs were drawn by the radiation oncologist at one respiratory phase; these contours were propagated to other respiratory phases by deformable registration. Three-dimensional organ models were generated from the resulting contours at each phase. Motions of the bounding box and center of mass were extracted and analyzed for the clinical target volume and organs at risk. Results: On average, the center of mass motion for liver clinical target volumes was 9.7 mm (SD 5 mm) in the superior-inferior direction, with a range of 3 to 18 mm; for pancreatic tumors, the average was 5 mm (SD 1 mm) m with a range of 3 to 7 mm. Abdominal organs move in unison, but with varying amplitudes. Gating near exhale (T40-T60) reduces the range of motion by a factor of {approx}10. Conclusion: We have used deformable registration to calculate the trajectories of abdominal organs in four dimensions, based on center of mass and bounding box motion metrics. Our results are compared with previously reported studies. Possible reasons for differences are discussed.

  5. Conceptual formulation on four-dimensional inverse planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Louis; Ma, Yunzhi; Ye, Yinyu; Xing, Lei

    2009-07-07

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) offers an extra dimension of 'time' on the three-dimensional patient model with which we can incorporate target motion in radiation treatment (RT) planning and delivery in various ways such as in the concept of internal target volume, in gated treatment or in target tracking. However, for all these methodologies, different phases are essentially considered as non-interconnected independent phases for the purpose of optimization, in other words, the 'time' dimension has yet to be incorporated explicitly in the optimization algorithm and fully exploited. In this note, we have formulated a new 4D inverse planning technique that treats all the phases in the 4DCT as one single entity in the optimization. The optimization is formulated as a quadratic problem for disciplined convex programming that enables the problem to be analyzed and solved efficiently. In the proof-of-principle examples illustrated, we show that the temporal information of the spatial relation of the target and organs at risk could be 'exchanged' amongst different phases so that an appropriate weighting of dose deposition could be allocated to each phase, thus enabling a treatment with a tight target margin and a full duty cycle otherwise not achievable by either of the aforementioned methodologies. Yet there are practical issues to be solved in the 4D RT planning and delivery. The 4D concept in the optimization we have formulated here does provide insight on how the 'time' dimension can be exploited in the 4D optimization process.

  6. Four-dimensional functional analysis of left and right ventricles using MR images and active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghai; Thomas, Matthew T.; Walker, Nicholas E.; Stolpen, Alan H.; Wahle, Andreas; Scholz, Thomas D.; Sonka, Milan

    2007-03-01

    Conventional analysis of cardiac ventricular function from magnetic resonance images is typically relying on short axis image information only. Usually, two cardiac phases of the cardiac cycle are analyzed- the end-diastole and end-systole. Unfortunately, the short axis ventricular coverage is incomplete and inconsistent due to the lack of image information about the ventricular apex and base. In routine clinical images, this information is only available in long axis image planes. Additionally, the standard ventricular function indices such as ejection fraction are only based on a limited temporal information and therefore do not fully describe the four-dimensional (4D, 3D+time) nature of the heart's motion. We report a novel approach in which the long and short axis image data are fused to correct for respiratory motion and form a spatio-temporal 4D data sequence with cubic voxels. To automatically segment left and right cardiac ventricles, a 4D active appearance model was built. Applying the method to cardiac segmentation of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and normal hearts, our method achieved mostly subvoxel signed surface positioning errors of 0.2+/-1.1 voxels for normal left ventricle, 0.6+/-1.5 voxels for normal right ventricle, 0.5+/-2.1 voxels for TOF left ventricle, and 1.3+/-2.6 voxels for TOF right ventricle. Using the computer segmentation results, the cardiac shape and motion indices and volume-time curves were derived as novel indices describing the ventricular function in 4D.

  7. Erroneous cardiac ECG-gated PET list-mode trigger events can be retrospectively identified and replaced by an offline reprocessing approach: first results in rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böning, Guido; Todica, Andrei; Vai, Alessandro; Lehner, Sebastian; Xiong, Guoming; Mille, Erik; Ilhan, Harun; la Fougère, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    The assessment of left ventricular function, wall motion and myocardial viability using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is widely accepted in human and in preclinical small animal studies. The nonterminal and noninvasive approach permits repeated in vivo evaluations of the same animal, facilitating the assessment of temporal changes in disease or therapy response. Although well established, gated small animal PET studies can contain erroneous gating information, which may yield to blurred images and false estimation of functional parameters. In this work, we present quantitative and visual quality control (QC) methods to evaluate the accuracy of trigger events in PET list-mode and physiological data. Left ventricular functional analysis is performed to quantify the effect of gating errors on the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and on the ejection fraction (EF). We aim to recover the cardiac functional parameters by the application of the commonly established heart rate filter approach using fixed ranges based on a standardized population. In addition, we propose a fully reprocessing approach which retrospectively replaces the gating information of the PET list-mode file with appropriate list-mode decoding and encoding software. The signal of a simultaneously acquired ECG is processed using standard MATLAB vector functions, which can be individually adapted to reliably detect the R-peaks. Finally, the new trigger events are inserted into the PET list-mode file. A population of 30 mice with various health statuses was analyzed and standard cardiac parameters such as mean heart rate (119 ms ± 11.8 ms) and mean heart rate variability (1.7 ms ± 3.4 ms) derived. These standard parameter ranges were taken into account in the QC methods to select a group of nine optimal gated and a group of eight sub-optimal gated [18F]-FDG PET scans of mice from our archive. From the list-mode files of the optimal gated group, we

  8. Erroneous cardiac ECG-gated PET list-mode trigger events can be retrospectively identified and replaced by an offline reprocessing approach: first results in rodents.

    PubMed

    Böning, Guido; Todica, Andrei; Vai, Alessandro; Lehner, Sebastian; Xiong, Guoming; Mille, Erik; Ilhan, Harun; la Fougère, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus

    2013-11-21

    The assessment of left ventricular function, wall motion and myocardial viability using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated [(18)F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is widely accepted in human and in preclinical small animal studies. The nonterminal and noninvasive approach permits repeated in vivo evaluations of the same animal, facilitating the assessment of temporal changes in disease or therapy response. Although well established, gated small animal PET studies can contain erroneous gating information, which may yield to blurred images and false estimation of functional parameters. In this work, we present quantitative and visual quality control (QC) methods to evaluate the accuracy of trigger events in PET list-mode and physiological data. Left ventricular functional analysis is performed to quantify the effect of gating errors on the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and on the ejection fraction (EF). We aim to recover the cardiac functional parameters by the application of the commonly established heart rate filter approach using fixed ranges based on a standardized population. In addition, we propose a fully reprocessing approach which retrospectively replaces the gating information of the PET list-mode file with appropriate list-mode decoding and encoding software. The signal of a simultaneously acquired ECG is processed using standard MATLAB vector functions, which can be individually adapted to reliably detect the R-peaks. Finally, the new trigger events are inserted into the PET list-mode file. A population of 30 mice with various health statuses was analyzed and standard cardiac parameters such as mean heart rate (119 ms ± 11.8 ms) and mean heart rate variability (1.7 ms ± 3.4 ms) derived. These standard parameter ranges were taken into account in the QC methods to select a group of nine optimal gated and a group of eight sub-optimal gated [(18)F]-FDG PET scans of mice from our archive. From the list-mode files of the optimal gated group

  9. Cardiotoxic Antiemetics Metoclopramide and Domperidone Block Cardiac Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Carsten; Voelker, Marc; Doll, Thorben; Heineke, Joerg; Wegner, Florian; Leffler, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Metoclopramide and domperidone are prokinetic and antiemetic substances often used in clinical practice. Although domperidone has a more favorable side effect profile and is considered the first-line agent, severe cardiac side effects were reported during the administration of both substances. Cardiac Na channels are common targets of therapeutics inducing cardiotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the differential cardiotoxicities of metoclopramide and domperidone correlate with the block of Na channels. Effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on the human α-subunit Nav1.5 expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and on Na currents in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Tonic block of resting Nav1.5 channels was more potent for domperidone (IC50 85 ± 25 μM; 95% confidence interval [CI], 36-134) compared with metoclopramide (IC50 458 ± 28 μM; 95% CI, 403-513). Both agents induced use-dependent block at 10 and 1 Hz, stabilized fast and slow inactivation, and delayed recovery from inactivation. However, metoclopramide induced considerably smaller effects compared with domperidone. Na currents in rat cardiomyocytes displayed tonic and use-dependent block by both substances, and in this system, domperidone (IC50 312 ± 15 μM; 95% CI, 22-602) and metoclopramide (IC50 250 ± 30 μM; 95% CI, 191-309) induced a similar degree of tonic block. Our data demonstrate that the clinically relevant cardiotoxicity of domperidone and metoclopramide corresponds to a rather potent and local anesthetic-like inhibition of cardiac Na channels including Nav1.5. These data suggest that Nav1.5 might be a hitherto unrecognized molecular mechanism of some cardiovascular side effects, for example, malignant arrhythmias of prokinetic and antiemetic agents.

  10. Measurement of changes in high-energy phosphates in the cardiac cycle by using gated /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fossel, E.T.; Morgan, H.E.; Ingwall, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    Levels of the high-energy phosphate-containing compounds, ATP and creatine phosphate, and of inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/ were measured as a function of position in the cardiac cycle. Measurements were made on isolated, perfused, working rat hearts through the use of gated /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of ATP and creatine phosphate were found to vary during the cardiac cycle and were maximal at minimal aortic pressure and minimal at maximal aortic pressure. P/sub i/ varied inversely with the high-energy phosphates.

  11. Calmodulin is essential for cardiac IKS channel gating and assembly: impaired function in long-QT mutations.

    PubMed

    Shamgar, Liora; Ma, Lijuan; Schmitt, Nicole; Haitin, Yoni; Peretz, Asher; Wiener, Reuven; Hirsch, Joel; Pongs, Olaf; Attali, Bernard

    2006-04-28

    The slow IKS K+ channel plays a major role in repolarizing the cardiac action potential and consists of the assembly of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. Mutations in either KCNQ1 or KCNE1 genes produce the long-QT syndrome, a life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Here, we show that long-QT mutations located in the KCNQ1 C terminus impair calmodulin (CaM) binding, which affects both channel gating and assembly. The mutations produce a voltage-dependent macroscopic inactivation and dramatically alter channel assembly. KCNE1 forms a ternary complex with wild-type KCNQ1 and Ca(2+)-CaM that prevents inactivation, facilitates channel assembly, and mediates a Ca(2+)-sensitive increase of IKS-current, with a considerable Ca(2+)-dependent left-shift of the voltage-dependence of activation. Coexpression of KCNQ1 or IKS channels with a Ca(2+)-insensitive CaM mutant markedly suppresses the currents and produces a right shift in the voltage-dependence of channel activation. KCNE1 association to KCNQ1 long-QT mutants significantly improves mutant channel expression and prevents macroscopic inactivation. However, the marked right shift in channel activation and the subsequent decrease in current amplitude cannot restore normal levels of IKS channel activity. Our data indicate that in healthy individuals, CaM binding to KCNQ1 is essential for correct channel folding and assembly and for conferring Ca(2+)-sensitive IKS-current stimulation, which increases the cardiac repolarization reserve and hence prevents the risk of ventricular arrhythmias.

  12. Four-dimensional multislice computed tomography for determination of respiratory lung tumor motion in conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Leter, Edward M. . E-mail: emleter@hotmail.com; Cademartiri, Filippo; Levendag, Peter C.; Flohr, Thomas; Stam, Henk; Nowak, Peter J.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: We used four-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) to determine respiratory lung-tumor motion and compared this strategy to common clinical practice in conformal radiotherapy treatment-planning imaging. Methods and Materials: The entire lung volume of 10 consecutive patients with 14 lung metastases were scanned by a 16-slice MSCT. During the scans, patients were instructed to breathe through a spirometer that was connected to a laptop computer. For each patient, 10 stacks of 1.5-mm slices, equally distributed throughout the respiratory cycle, were reconstructed from the acquired MSCT data. The lung tumors were manually contoured in each data set. For each patient, the tumor-volume contours of all data sets were copied to 1 data set, which allowed determination of the volume that encompassed all 10 lung-tumor positions (i.e., the tumor-traversed volume [TTV]) during the respiratory cycle. The TTV was compared with the 10 tumor volumes contoured for each patient, to which an empiric respiratory-motion margin was added. The latter target volumes were designated internal-motion included tumor volume (IMITV). Results: The TTV measurements were significantly smaller than the reference IMITV measurements (5.2 {+-} 10.2 cm{sup 3} and 10.1 {+-} 13.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively). All 10 IMITVs for 2 of the 4 tumors in 1 subject completely encompassed the TTV. All 10 IMITVs for 3 tumors in 2 patients did not show overlap with up to 35% of the corresponding TTV. The 10 IMITVs for the remaining tumors either completely encompassed the corresponding TTV or did not show overlap with up to 26% of the corresponding TTV. Conclusions: We found that individualized determination of respiratory lung-tumor motion by four-dimensional respiratory-gated MSCT represents a better and simple strategy to incorporate periodic physiologic motion compared with a generalized approach. The former strategy can, therefore, improve common and state-of-the-art clinical practice

  13. Fast Gated EPR Imaging of the Beating Heart: Spatiotemporally-Resolved 3D Imaging of Free Radical Distribution during the Cardiac Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiyu; Reyes, Levy A.; Johnson, David H.; Velayutham, Murugesan; Yang, Changjun; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    In vivo or ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a powerful technique for determining the spatial distribution of free radicals and other paramagnetic species in living organs and tissues. However, applications of EPRI have been limited by long projection acquisition times and the consequent fact that rapid gated EPRI was not possible. Hence in vivo EPRI typically provided only time-averaged information. In order to achieve direct gated EPRI, a fast EPR acquisition scheme was developed to decrease EPR projection acquisition time down to 10 – 20 ms, along with corresponding software and instrumentation to achieve fast gated EPRI of the isolated beating heart with submillimeter spatial resolution in as little as 2 to 3 minutes. Reconstructed images display temporal and spatial variations of the free radical distribution, anatomical structure, and contractile function within the rat heart during the cardiac cycle. PMID:22473660

  14. Four-dimensional noise reduction using the time series of medical computed tomography datasets with short interval times: a static-phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Tani, Wakiko; Suehiro, Erina; Negi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds. This study examines the hypothesis that four-dimensional noise reduction (4DNR) with short interval times reduces noise in cardiac computed tomography (CCT) using “padding” phases. Furthermore, the capability of reducing the reduction dose in CCT using this post-processing technique was assessed. Methods. Using base and quarter radiation doses for CCT (456 and 114 mAs/rot with 120 kVp), a static phantom was scanned ten times with retrospective electrocardiogram gating, and 4DNR with short interval times (50 ms) was performed using a post-processing technique. Differences in the computed tomography (CT) attenuation, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution with modulation transfer function in each dose image obtained with and without 4DNR were assessed by conducting a Tukey–Kramer’s test and non-inferiority test. Results. For the base dose, by using 4DNR, the CNR was improved from 1.18 ± 0.15 to 2.08 ± 0.20 (P = 0.001), while the CT attenuation and spatial resolution of the image of 4DNR did not were significantly inferior to those of reference image (P < 0.001). CNRs of the quarter-dose image in 4DNR also improved to 1.28 ± 0.11, and were not inferior to those of the non-4DNR images of the base dose (P < 0.001). Conclusions. 4DNR with short interval times significantly reduced noise. Furthermore, applying this method to CCT would have the potential of reducing the radiation dose by 75%, while maintaining a similar image noise level. PMID:26893966

  15. Spatial heterogeneity of four-dimensional relative pressure fields in the human left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jonatan; Bolger, Ann F; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino

    2015-12-01

    To assess the spatial heterogeneity of the four-dimensional (4D) relative pressure fields in the healthy human left ventricle (LV) and provide reference data for normal LV relative pressure. Twelve healthy subjects underwent a cardiac MRI examination where 4D flow and morphological data were acquired. The latter data were segmented and used to define the borders of the LV for computation of relative pressure fields using the pressure Poisson equation. The LV lumen was divided into 17 pie-shaped segments. In the normal left ventricle, the relative pressure in the apical segments was significantly higher relative to the basal segments (P < 0.0005) along both the anteroseptal and inferolateral sides after the peaks of early (E-wave) and late (A-wave) diastolic filling. The basal anteroseptal segment showed significantly lower median pressure than the opposite basal inferolateral segment during both E-wave (P < 0.0005) and A-wave (P = 0.0024). Relative pressure in the left ventricle is heterogeneous. During diastole, the main pressure differences in the LV occur along the basal-apical axis. However, pressure differences were also found in the short axis direction and may reflect important aspects of atrioventricular coupling. Additionally, this study provides reference data on LV pressure dynamics for a group of healthy subjects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Four-dimensional coronary morphology and computational hemodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Mitchell, Steven C.; Ramaswamy, Sharan D.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Sonka, Milan

    2001-07-01

    Conventional reconstructions from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) stack the frames as acquired during the pullback of the catheter to form a straight three-dimensional volume, thus neglecting the vessel curvature and merging images from different heart phases. We are developing a comprehensive system for fusion of the IVUS data with the pullback path as determined from x-ray angiography, to create a geometrically accurate 4-D (3-D plus time) model of the coronary vasculature as basis for computational hemodynamics. The overall goal of our work is to correlate shear stress with plaque thickness. The IVUS data are obtained in a single pullback using an automated pullback device; the frames are afterwards assigned to their respective heart phases based upon the ECG signal. A set of 3-D models is reconstructed by fusion of IVUS and angiographic data corresponding to the same ECG-gated heart phase; methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are applied to obtain important hemodynamic data. Combining these models yields the final 4-D reconstruction. Visualization is performed using the platform-independent VRML standard for a user-friendly manipulation of the scene. An extension for virtual angioscopy allows an easy assessment of the vessel features within their local context. Validation was successfully performed both in-vitro and in-vivo.

  17. Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating.

    PubMed

    Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N

    2012-03-01

    For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (7-9 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 2-15 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.01-0.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ~0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction.

  18. Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating

    PubMed Central

    Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N

    2012-01-01

    Objective For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. Methods CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. Results For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (7–9 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 2–15 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.01–0.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ∼0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Conclusions Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction. PMID:21896660

  19. Block and modified gating of cardiac calcium channel currents by terodiline

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Toshitsugu; Jones, Stephen; Shuba, Lesya M; McCullough, John R; McDonald, Terence F

    1999-01-01

    Terodiline, an anticholinergic/antispasmodic drug effective in the treatment of urinary incontinence, is presently restricted due to adverse side effects on cardiac function. To characterize its effects on cardiac L-type Ca2+-channel current carried by Ca2+ (ICa,L) and Ba2+ (IBa,L), concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 μM were applied to whole-cell-configured guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.Although sub-micromolar concentrations of terodiline had no effect on ICa,L at 0 mV, 100 μM drug reduced its amplitude to ca. 10% of pre-drug control. The estimated IC50 (15.2 μM in K+-dialysed cells, 12.2 μM in Cs+-dialysed cells; 0.1 Hz pulsing rate) is eight times higher than reported for ICa,L in bladder smooth muscle myocytes.Terodiline affected ICa,L in a use-dependent manner; block increased when the pulsing rate was increased from 0.1 to 2–3 Hz, and when holding potential was lowered from −43 mV. The drug accelerated the decay of ICa,L at 0 mV in a concentration-dependent manner, and slowed the recovery of channels from inactivation.Terodiline reduced peak IBa,L more effectively than peak ICa,L, and markedly accelerated the rate of inactivation of the current.The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms of Ca2+ channel block and relation to the therapeutic and cardiotoxic effects of the drug. PMID:10482914

  20. Robust principal component analysis-based four-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hao; Cai, Jian-Feng; Shen, Zuowei; Zhao, Hongkai

    2011-06-07

    The purpose of this paper for four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) is threefold. (1) A new spatiotemporal model is presented from the matrix perspective with the row dimension in space and the column dimension in time, namely the robust PCA (principal component analysis)-based 4D CT model. That is, instead of viewing the 4D object as a temporal collection of three-dimensional (3D) images and looking for local coherence in time or space independently, we perceive it as a mixture of low-rank matrix and sparse matrix to explore the maximum temporal coherence of the spatial structure among phases. Here the low-rank matrix corresponds to the 'background' or reference state, which is stationary over time or similar in structure; the sparse matrix stands for the 'motion' or time-varying component, e.g., heart motion in cardiac imaging, which is often either approximately sparse itself or can be sparsified in the proper basis. Besides 4D CT, this robust PCA-based 4D CT model should be applicable in other imaging problems for motion reduction or/and change detection with the least amount of data, such as multi-energy CT, cardiac MRI, and hyperspectral imaging. (2) A dynamic strategy for data acquisition, i.e. a temporally spiral scheme, is proposed that can potentially maintain similar reconstruction accuracy with far fewer projections of the data. The key point of this dynamic scheme is to reduce the total number of measurements, and hence the radiation dose, by acquiring complementary data in different phases while reducing redundant measurements of the common background structure. (3) An accurate, efficient, yet simple-to-implement algorithm based on the split Bregman method is developed for solving the model problem with sparse representation in tight frames.

  1. Feasibility of four-dimensional conformal planning for robotic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaefer, A.; Fisseler, J.; Dieterich, S.; Shiomi, H.; Cleary, K.; Schweikard, A.

    2005-12-15

    Organ motion can have a severe impact on the dose delivered by radiation therapy, and different procedures have been developed to address its effects. Conventional techniques include breath hold methods and gating. A different approach is the compensation for target motion by moving the treatment beams synchronously. Practical results have been reported for robot based radiosurgery, where a linear accelerator mounted on a robotic arm delivers the dose. However, not all organs move in the same way, which results in a relative motion of the beams with respect to the body and the tissues in the proximity of the tumor. This relative motion can severely effect the dose delivered to critical structures. We propose a method to incorporate motion in the treatment planning for robotic radiosurgery to avoid potential overdosing of organs surrounding the target. The method takes into account the motion of all considered volumes, which is discretized for dose calculations. Similarly, the beam motion is taken into account and the aggregated dose coefficient over all discrete steps is used for planning. We simulated the treatment of a moving target with three different planning methods. First, we computed beam weights based on a 3D planning situation and simulated treatment with organ motion and the beams moving synchronously to the target. Second, beam weights were computed by the 4D planning method incorporating the organ and beam motion and treatment was simulated for beams moving synchronously to the target. Third, the beam weights were determined by the 4D planning method with the beams fixed during planning and simulation. For comparison we also give results for the 3D treatment plan if there was no organ motion and when the plan is delivered by fixed beams in the presence of organ motion. The results indicate that the new 4D method is preferable and can further improve the overall conformality of motion compensated robotic radiosurgery.

  2. Inactivation of single cardiac Na+ channels in three different gating modes.

    PubMed Central

    Böhle, T; Steinbis, M; Biskup, C; Koopmann, R; Benndorf, K

    1998-01-01

    In small cell-attached patches containing one and only one Na+ channel, inactivation was studied in three different gating modes, namely, the fast-inactivating F mode and the more slowly inactivating S mode and P mode with similar inactivation kinetics. In each of these modes, ensemble-averaged currents could be fitted with a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model with a single exponential for inactivation (tauh). tauh declined from 1.0 ms at -60 mV to 0.1 ms at 0 mV in the F mode, from 4.6 ms at -40 mV to 1.1 ms at 0 mV in the S mode, and from 4.5 ms at -40 mV to 0.8 ms at +20 mV in the P mode, respectively. The probability of non-empty traces (net), the mean number of openings per non-empty trace (op/tr), and the mean open probability per trace (popen) were evaluated at 4-ms test pulses. net inclined from 30% at -60 mV to 63% at 0 mV in the F mode, from 4% at -90 mV to 90% at 0 mV in the S mode, and from 2% at -60 mV to 79% at +20 mV in the P mode. op/tr declined from 1.4 at -60 mV to 1.1 at 0 mV in the F mode, from 4.0 at -60 mV to 1.2 at 0 mV in the S mode, and from 2.9 at -40 mV to 1.6 at +20 mV in the P mode. popen was bell-shaped with a maximum of 5% at -30 mV in the F mode, 48% at -50 mV in the S mode, and 16% at 0 mV in the P mode. It is concluded that 1) a switch between F and S modes may reflect a functional change of inactivation, 2) a switch between S and P modes may reflect a functional change of activation, 3) tauh is mainly determined by the latency until the first channel opening in the F mode and by the number of reopenings in the S and P modes, 4) at least in the S and P modes, inactivation is independent of pore opening, and 5) in the S mode, mainly open channels inactivate, and in the P mode, mainly closed channels inactivate. PMID:9746515

  3. Determination of Respiratory Motion for Distal Esophagus Cancer Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yaremko, Brian P.; Guerrero, Thomas M. McAleer, Mary F.; Bucci, M. Kara; Noyola-Martinez, Josue M.S.; Nguyen, Linda T. C.; Balter, Peter A.; Guerra, Rudy; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the motion characteristics of distal esophagus cancer primary tumors using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-one consecutive patients treated for esophagus cancer who received respiratory-gated 4D CT imaging for treatment planning were selected. Deformable image registration was used to map the full expiratory motion gross tumor volume (GTV) to the full-inspiratory CT image, allowing quantitative assessment of each voxel's displacement. These displacements were correlated with patient tumor and respiratory characteristics. Results: The mean (SE) tidal volume was 608 (73) mL. The mean GTV volume was 64.3 (10.7) mL on expiration and 64.1 (10.7) mL on inspiration (no significant difference). The mean tumor motion in the x-direction was 0.13 (0.006) cm (average of absolute values), in the y-direction 0.23 (0.01) cm (anteriorly), and in the z-direction 0.71 (0.02) cm (inferiorly). Tumor motion correlated with tidal volume. Comparison of tumor motion above vs. below the diaphragm was significant for the average net displacement (p = 0.014), motion below the diaphragm was greater than above. From the cumulative distribution 95% of the tumors moved less than 0.80 cm radially and 1.75 cm inferiorly. Conclusions: Primary esophagus tumor motion was evaluated with 4D CT. According to the results of this study, when 4D CT is not available, a radial margin of 0.8 cm and axial margin of {+-}1.8 cm would provide tumor motion coverage for 95% of the cases in our study population.

  4. A Four-Dimensional CT-Based Evaluation of Techniques for Gastric Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Geld, Ylanga G. van; Senan, Suresh; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.; Slotman, Ben J.; Lagerwaard, Frank J.

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional conformal (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated (IMRT) and respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT) techniques for gastric irradiation for target coverage and minimization of renal doses. All techniques were four-dimensional (4D)-CT based, incorporating the intrafractional mobility of the target volume and organs at risk (OAR). Methods and Materials: The stomach, duodenal C-loop, and OAR (kidneys, liver, and heart) were contoured in all 10 phases of planning 4D-CT scans for five patients who underwent abdominal radiotherapy. Planning target volumes (PTVs) encompassing all positions of the stomach (PTV{sub allphases}) were generated. Three respiratory phases for RGRT in inspiration and expiration were identified, and corresponding PTV{sub inspiration} and PTV{sub expiration} and OAR volumes were created. Landmark-based fields recommended for the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 99-04 study protocol were simulated to assess PTV coverage. IMRT and 3D-CRT planning with and without additional RGRT planning were performed for all PTVs, and corresponding dose volume histograms were analyzed. Results: Use of landmark-based fields did not result in full geometric coverage of the PTV{sub allphases} in any patient. IMRT significantly reduced mean renal doses compared with 3D-CRT (15.0 Gy {+-} 0.9 Gy vs. 20.1 Gy {+-} 9.3 Gy and 16.6 Gy {+-} 1.5 Gy vs. 32.6 Gy {+-} 7.1 Gy for the left and right kidneys, respectively; p = 0.04). No significant increase in renal sparing was seen when adding RGRT to either 3D-CRT or IMRT. Tolerance doses to the other OAR were not exceeded. Conclusions: Individualized field margins are essential for gastric irradiation. IMRT plans significantly reduce renal doses, but the benefits of RGRT in gastric irradiation appear to be limited.

  5. Optimal reproducibility of gated sestamibi and thallium myocardial perfusion study left ventricular ejection fractions obtained on a solid-state CZT cardiac camera requires operator input.

    PubMed

    Cherk, Martin H; Ky, Jason; Yap, Kenneth S K; Campbell, Patrina; McGrath, Catherine; Bailey, Michael; Kalff, Victor

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of serial re-acquisitions of gated Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measurements obtained on a new generation solid-state cardiac camera system during myocardial perfusion imaging and the importance of manual operator optimization of left ventricular wall tracking. Resting blinded automated (auto) and manual operator optimized (opt) LVEF measurements were measured using ECT toolbox (ECT) and Cedars-Sinai QGS software in two separate cohorts of 55 Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) and 50 thallium (Tl-201) myocardial perfusion studies (MPS) acquired in both supine and prone positions on a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) solid-state camera system. Resting supine and prone automated LVEF measurements were similarly obtained in a further separate cohort of 52 gated cardiac blood pool scans (GCBPS) for validation of methodology and comparison. Appropriate use of Bland-Altman, chi-squared and Levene's equality of variance tests was used to analyse the resultant data comparisons. For all radiotracer and software combinations, manual checking and optimization of valve planes (+/- centre radius with ECT software) resulted in significant improvement in MPS LVEF reproducibility that approached that of planar GCBPS. No difference was demonstrated between optimized MIBI/Tl-201 QGS and planar GCBPS LVEF reproducibility (P = .17 and P = .48, respectively). ECT required significantly more manual optimization compared to QGS software in both supine and prone positions independent of radiotracer used (P < .02). Reproducibility of gated sestamibi and Tl-201 LVEF measurements obtained during myocardial perfusion imaging with ECT toolbox or QGS software packages using a new generation solid-state cardiac camera with improved image quality approaches that of planar GCBPS however requires visual quality control and operator optimization of left ventricular wall tracking for best results. Using this superior cardiac technology, Tl-201

  6. Properties of Ca2+ sparks revealed by four-dimensional confocal imaging of cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Shkryl, Vyacheslav M.; Blatter, Lothar A.

    2012-01-01

    Parameters (amplitude, width, kinetics) of Ca2+ sparks imaged confocally are affected by errors when the spark source is not in focus. To identify sparks that were in focus, we used fast scanning (LSM 5 LIVE; Carl Zeiss) combined with fast piezoelectric focusing to acquire x–y images in three planes at 1-µm separation (x-y-z-t mode). In 3,000 x–y scans in each of 34 membrane-permeabilized cat atrial cardiomyocytes, 6,906 sparks were detected. 767 sparks were in focus. They had greater amplitude, but their spatial width and rise time were similar compared with all sparks recorded. Their distribution of amplitudes had a mode at ΔF/F0 = 0.7. The Ca2+ release current underlying in-focus sparks was 11 pA, requiring 20 to 30 open channels, a number at the high end of earlier estimates. Spark frequency was greater than in earlier imaging studies of permeabilized ventricular cells, suggesting a greater susceptibility to excitation, which could have functional relevance for atrial cells. Ca2+ release flux peaked earlier than the time of peak fluorescence and then decayed, consistent with significant sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) depletion. The evolution of fluorescence and release flux were strikingly similar for in-focus sparks of different rise time (T). Spark termination involves both depletion of Ca2+ in the SR and channel closure, which may be synchronized by depletion. The observation of similar flux in sparks of different T requires either that channel closure and other termination processes be independent of the determinants of flux (including [Ca2+]SR) or that different channel clusters respond to [Ca2+]SR with different sensitivity. PMID:22330954

  7. Three-dimensional presentation of the Fourier amplitude and phase: a fast display method for gated cardiac blood-pool SPECT.

    PubMed

    Máté, E; Mester, J; Csernay, L; Kuba, A; Madani, S; Makay, A

    1992-03-01

    The routine clinical use of gated SPECT is inhibited by sophisticated, time-consuming processing techniques. The present paper describes a new technique for the simultaneous three-dimensional presentation of the amplitude and phase of the first Fourier harmonics, with the aim of obtaining detailed information about the ventricular motion in a relatively short time, from each angle of view of three-dimensional space. The method is simple and robust, and processing is automatic. It does not need carefully elaborated techniques for surface determination, because the cardiac surface is merely used as a reference skeleton onto which the functional information of amplitude and phase is mapped. The Fourier analysis before reconstruction results in running times shorter than 15 min and may further open the way for the routine use of gated SPECT.

  8. Improving the Horizontal Transport in the Lower Troposphere with Four Dimensional Data Assimilation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical processes involved in air quality modeling are governed by dynamically-generated meteorological model fields. This research focuses on reducing the uncertainty in the horizontal transport in the lower troposphere by improving the four dimensional data assimilation (F...

  9. Improving the Horizontal Transport in the Lower Troposphere with Four Dimensional Data Assimilation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical processes involved in air quality modeling are governed by dynamically-generated meteorological model fields. This research focuses on reducing the uncertainty in the horizontal transport in the lower troposphere by improving the four dimensional data assimilation (F...

  10. Validation of four-dimensional ultrasound for targeting in minimally-invasive beating-heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Danielle F.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Gobbi, David G.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound is garnering significant interest as an imaging modality for surgical guidance, due to its affordability, real-time temporal resolution and ease of integration into the operating room. Minimally-invasive intracardiac surgery performed on the beating-heart prevents direct vision of the surgical target, and procedures such as mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure would benefit from intraoperative ultrasound imaging. We propose that placing 4D ultrasound within an augmented reality environment, along with a patient-specific cardiac model and virtual representations of tracked surgical tools, will create a visually intuitive platform with sufficient image information to safely and accurately repair tissue within the beating heart. However, the quality of the imaging parameters, spatial calibration, temporal calibration and ECG-gating must be well characterized before any 4D ultrasound system can be used clinically to guide the treatment of moving structures. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive accuracy assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the performance of 4D ultrasound systems while imaging moving targets. We image a dynamic phantom that is comprised of a simple robot and a tracked phantom to which point-source, distance and spherical objects of known construction can be attached. We also follow our protocol to evaluate 4D ultrasound images generated in real-time by reconstructing ECG-gated 2D ultrasound images acquired from a tracked multiplanar transesophageal probe. Likewise, our evaluation framework allows any type of 4D ultrasound to be quantitatively assessed.

  11. Quantum secret sharing protocol based on four-dimensional three-particle entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yi; Mo, Zhi Wen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a three-party quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme using four-dimensional three-particle entangled states. In this QSS scheme, each agent can obtain a shadow of the secret key by performing single-particle measurements. Compared with the existing QSS protocol, this scheme has high efficiency and can resist the eavesdropping attack and entangle-measuring attack, which using three-particle entangled states are based on four-dimensional Hilbert space.

  12. Image-based view-angle independent cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus catheter tracking for x-ray-guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayiotou, Maria; Rhode, Kawal S.; King, Andrew P.; Ma, Yingliang; Cooklin, Michael; O'Neill, Mark; Gill, Jaswinder; Rinaldi, C. A.; Housden, R. James

    2015-10-01

    Determination of the cardiorespiratory phase of the heart has numerous applications during cardiac imaging. In this article we propose a novel view-angle independent near-real time cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus (CS) catheter tracking technique for x-ray fluoroscopy images that are used to guide cardiac electrophysiology procedures. The method is based on learning CS catheter motion using principal component analysis and then applying the derived motion model to unseen images taken at arbitrary projections, using the epipolar constraint. This method is also able to track the CS catheter throughout the x-ray images in any arbitrary subsequent view. We also demonstrate the clinical application of our model on rotational angiography sequences. We validated our technique in normal and very low dose phantom and clinical datasets. For the normal dose clinical images we established average systole, end-expiration and end-inspiration gating success rates of 100%, 85.7%, and 92.3%, respectively. For very low dose applications, the technique was able to track the CS catheter with median errors not exceeding 1 mm for all tracked electrodes. Average gating success rates of 80.3%, 71.4%, and 69.2% were established for the application of the technique on clinical datasets, even with a dose reduction of more than 10 times. In rotational sequences at normal dose, CS tracking median errors were within 1.2 mm for all electrodes, and the gating success rate was 100%, for view angles from RAO 90° to LAO 90°. This view-angle independent technique can extract clinically useful cardiorespiratory motion information using x-ray doses significantly lower than those currently used in clinical practice.

  13. Image-based view-angle independent cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus catheter tracking for x-ray-guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Maria; Rhode, Kawal S; King, Andrew P; Ma, Yingliang; Cooklin, Michael; O'Neill, Mark; Gill, Jaswinder; Rinaldi, C A; Housden, R James

    2015-10-21

    Determination of the cardiorespiratory phase of the heart has numerous applications during cardiac imaging. In this article we propose a novel view-angle independent near-real time cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus (CS) catheter tracking technique for x-ray fluoroscopy images that are used to guide cardiac electrophysiology procedures. The method is based on learning CS catheter motion using principal component analysis and then applying the derived motion model to unseen images taken at arbitrary projections, using the epipolar constraint. This method is also able to track the CS catheter throughout the x-ray images in any arbitrary subsequent view. We also demonstrate the clinical application of our model on rotational angiography sequences. We validated our technique in normal and very low dose phantom and clinical datasets. For the normal dose clinical images we established average systole, end-expiration and end-inspiration gating success rates of 100%, 85.7%, and 92.3%, respectively. For very low dose applications, the technique was able to track the CS catheter with median errors not exceeding 1 mm for all tracked electrodes. Average gating success rates of 80.3%, 71.4%, and 69.2% were established for the application of the technique on clinical datasets, even with a dose reduction of more than 10 times. In rotational sequences at normal dose, CS tracking median errors were within 1.2 mm for all electrodes, and the gating success rate was 100%, for view angles from RAO 90° to LAO 90°. This view-angle independent technique can extract clinically useful cardiorespiratory motion information using x-ray doses significantly lower than those currently used in clinical practice.

  14. Volume and planar gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a correlative study of normal anatomy with thallium-201 SPECT and cadaver sections

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.; Kramer, D.M.; Geisinger, M.; Chilcote, W.; George, C.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Moodie, D.S.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton Tl-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

  15. Volume and planar gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a correlative study of normal anatomy with Thallium-201 SPECT and cadaver sections

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Yeung, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) gated cardiac imaging was performed in ten subjects using a prototype 0.15-T resistive magnet imaging system. Volume and planar imaging techniques utilizing saturation recovery, proton TI-weighted relaxation time pulse sequences produced images of the heart and great vessels with exquisite anatomic detail that showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with cadaver sections of the heart. The left ventricular myocardial segments also showed excellent correlation with the thallium-201 cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images. Volume acquisition allowed postprocessing selection of tomographic sections in various orientations to optimize visualization of a particular structure of interest. The excellent spatial and contrast resolution afforded by MR volume imaging, which does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material, should assure it a significant role in the diagnostic assessment of the cardiovascular system.

  16. Color Tissue Doppler to Analyze Fetal Cardiac Time Intervals: Normal Values and Influence of Sample Gate Size.

    PubMed

    Willruth, A M; Steinhard, J; Enzensberger, C; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Doelle, A; Dimitriou, I; Fimmers, R; Bahlmann, F

    2016-02-04

    Purpose: To assess the time intervals of the cardiac cycle in healthy fetuses in the second and third trimester using color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI) and to evaluate the influence of different sizes of sample gates on time interval values. Materials and Methods: Time intervals were measured from the cTDI-derived Doppler waveform using a small and large region of interest (ROI) in healthy fetuses. Results: 40 fetuses were included. The median gestational age at examination was 26 + 1 (range: 20 + 5 - 34 + 5) weeks. The median frame rate was 116/s (100 - 161/s) and the median heart rate 143 (range: 125 - 158) beats per minute (bpm). Using small and large ROIs, the second trimester right ventricular (RV) mean isovolumetric contraction times (ICTs) were 39.8 and 41.4 ms (p = 0.17), the mean ejection times (ETs) were 170.2 and 164.6 ms (p < 0.001), the mean isovolumetric relaxation times (IRTs) were 52.8 and 55.3 ms (p = 0.08), respectively. The left ventricular (LV) mean ICTs were 36.2 and 39.4 ms (p = 0.05), the mean ETs were 167.4 and 164.5 ms (p = 0.013), the mean IRTs were 53.9 and 57.1 ms (p = 0.05), respectively. The third trimester RV mean ICTs were 50.7 and 50.4 ms (p = 0.75), the mean ETs were 172.3 and 181.4 ms (p = 0.49), the mean IRTs were 50.2 and 54.6 ms (p = 0.03); the LV mean ICTs were 45.1 and 46.2 ms (p = 0.35), the mean ETs were 175.2 vs. 172.9 ms (p = 0.29), the mean IRTs were 47.1 and 50.0 ms (p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: Isovolumetric time intervals can be analyzed precisely and relatively independent of ROI size. In the near future, automatic time interval measurement using ultrasound systems will be feasible and the analysis of fetal myocardial function can become part of the clinical routine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Motion gated small animal imaging with a flat-panel CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasruck, M.; Bartling, S.; Dinkel, J.; Kiessling, F.; Semmler, W.; Stierstorfer, K.; Schmidt, B.

    2008-03-01

    Small animal CT gains increasing interest in preclinical research. However, physiological motion compensation like in clinical CT has seldom been employed so far. We present different methods of retrospective motion correction for small animal imaging despite their high respiratory and heart rate. Beside respiratory gating alone the combination of respiratory and simultaneous cardiac gating is shown. In vivo data are acquired with an experimental flat-panel based CT scanner*(Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim Germany). Whole mice or rats fit in the available FOV of 25 * 25 * 4 cm 3, while acquisition rate is 100fps. Extrinsic gating is realized by tracing the physiological motion from a small animal monitoring system with a pneumatic pillow for respiratory motion and ECG for heart motion. At the alternative intrinsic method, the lung motion is directly correlated to the movement of the center of gravity in the acquired projection data. As an advantage of the second method the even low preparation effort per scan is reduced. As long as the rotation time of the gantry is far below the cycle time of heart or the lung a multi-segment reconstruction is used in both methods. Motion artifacts are largely suppressed after gating. While in non gated images, the diaphragm, heart contours, bronchi and lung vessels are already visible, they are more sharply defined in the gated datasets. Four-dimensional assessment of lung motion is possible and lung volume in several phases such as peak inspiration and expiration could be segmented, quantified and compared.

  18. Free-Breathing 3D Imaging of Right Ventricular Structure and Function Using Respiratory and Cardiac Self-Gated Cine MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanchun; Liu, Jing; Weinsaft, Jonathan; Spincemaille, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh D.; Prince, Martin R.; Bao, Shanglian; Xie, Yaoqin; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Providing a movie of the beating heart in a single prescribed plane, cine MRI has been widely used in clinical cardiac diagnosis, especially in the left ventricle (LV). Right ventricular (RV) morphology and function are also important for the diagnosis of cardiopulmonary diseases and serve as predictors for the long term outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a self-gated free-breathing 3D imaging method for RV quantification and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with breath-hold 2D cine imaging in 7 healthy volunteers. Compared with 2D, the 3D RV functional measurements show a reduction of RV end-diastole volume (RVEDV) by 10%, increase of RV end-systole volume (RVESV) by 1.8%, reduction of RV systole volume (RVSV) by 21%, and reduction of RV ejection fraction (RVEF) by 12%. High correlations between the two techniques were found (RVEDV: 0.94; RVESV: 0.85; RVSV: 0.95; and RVEF: 0.89). Compared with 2D, the 3D image quality measurements show a small reduction in blood SNR, myocardium-blood CNR, myocardium contrast, and image sharpness. In conclusion, the proposed self-gated free-breathing 3D cardiac cine imaging technique provides comparable image quality and correlated functional measurements to those acquired with the multiple breath-hold 2D technique in RV. PMID:26185764

  19. Free-Breathing 3D Imaging of Right Ventricular Structure and Function Using Respiratory and Cardiac Self-Gated Cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanchun; Liu, Jing; Weinsaft, Jonathan; Spincemaille, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh D; Prince, Martin R; Bao, Shanglian; Xie, Yaoqin; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Providing a movie of the beating heart in a single prescribed plane, cine MRI has been widely used in clinical cardiac diagnosis, especially in the left ventricle (LV). Right ventricular (RV) morphology and function are also important for the diagnosis of cardiopulmonary diseases and serve as predictors for the long term outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a self-gated free-breathing 3D imaging method for RV quantification and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with breath-hold 2D cine imaging in 7 healthy volunteers. Compared with 2D, the 3D RV functional measurements show a reduction of RV end-diastole volume (RVEDV) by 10%, increase of RV end-systole volume (RVESV) by 1.8%, reduction of RV systole volume (RVSV) by 21%, and reduction of RV ejection fraction (RVEF) by 12%. High correlations between the two techniques were found (RVEDV: 0.94; RVESV: 0.85; RVSV: 0.95; and RVEF: 0.89). Compared with 2D, the 3D image quality measurements show a small reduction in blood SNR, myocardium-blood CNR, myocardium contrast, and image sharpness. In conclusion, the proposed self-gated free-breathing 3D cardiac cine imaging technique provides comparable image quality and correlated functional measurements to those acquired with the multiple breath-hold 2D technique in RV.

  20. High-frame rate four dimensional optoacoustic tomography enables visualization of cardiovascular dynamics and mouse heart perfusion.

    PubMed

    Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Ford, Steven James; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Functional imaging of mouse models of cardiac health and disease provides a major contribution to our fundamental understanding of the mammalian heart. However, imaging murine hearts presents significant challenges due to their small size and rapid heart rate. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of high-frame-rate, noninvasive optoacoustic imaging of the murine heart. The temporal resolution of 50 three-dimensional frames per second provides functional information at important phases of the cardiac cycle without the use of gating or other motion-reduction methods. Differentiation of the blood oxygenation state in the heart chambers was enabled by exploiting the wavelength dependence of optoacoustic signals. Real-time volumetric tracking of blood perfusion in the cardiac chambers was also evaluated using indocyanine green. Taken together, the newly-discovered capacities offer a unique tool set for in-vivo structural and functional imaging of the whole heart with high spatio-temporal resolution in all three dimensions.

  1. High-quality four-dimensional cone-beam CT by deforming prior images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Due to a limited number of projections at each phase, severe view aliasing artifacts are present in four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) when reconstruction is performed using conventional algorithms. In this work, we aim to obtain high-quality 4D-CBCT of lung cancer patients in radiation therapy by deforming the planning CT. The deformation vector fields (DVF) to deform the planning CT are estimated through matching the forward projection of the deformed prior image and measured on-treatment CBCT projection. The estimation of the DVF is formulated as an unconstrained optimization problem, where the objective function to be minimized is the sum of the squared difference between the forward projection of the deformed planning CT and the measured 4D-CBCT projection. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the DVF. As the number of the variables in the DVF is much greater than the number of measurements, the solution to such a highly ill-posed problem is very sensitive to the initials during the optimization process. To improve the estimation accuracy of DVF, we proposed a new strategy to obtain better initials for the optimization. In this strategy, 4D-CBCT is first reconstructed by total variation minimization. Demons deformable registration is performed to register the planning CT and the 4D-CBCT reconstructed by total variation minimization. The resulted DVF from demons registration is then used as the initial parameters in the optimization process. A 4D nonuniform rotational B-spline-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom and a patient 4D-CBCT are used to evaluate the algorithm. Image quality of 4D-CBCT is substantially improved by using the proposed strategy in both NCAT phantom and patient studies. The proposed method has the potential to improve the temporal resolution of 4D-CBCT. Improved 4D-CBCT can better characterize the motion of lung tumors and will be a valuable tool for image-guided adaptive radiation therapy.

  2. Four-Dimensional Ultrasonography of the Fetal Heart using a Novel Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging Display

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Luís F.; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Swope, Betsy; Nien, Jyh Kae; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Treadwell, Marjorie C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of examining the fetal heart with Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging (TUI) using four-dimensional (4D) volume datasets acquired with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). Material and Methods One hundred and ninety-five fetuses underwent 4D ultrasonography (US) of the fetal heart with STIC. Volume datasets were acquired with B-mode (n=195) and color Doppler imaging (CDI) (n=168), and were reviewed offline using TUI, a new display modality that automatically slices 3D/4D volume datasets, providing simultaneous visualization of up to eight parallel planes in a single screen. Visualization rates for standard transverse planes used to examine the fetal heart were calculated and compared for volumes acquired with B-mode or CDI. Diagnoses by TUI were compared to postnatal diagnoses. Results 1) The four- and five-chamber and the three-vessel and trachea views were visualized in 97.4% (190/195), 88.2% (172/195), and 79.5% (142/195), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with B-mode; 2) these views were visualized in 98.2% (165/168), 97.0% (163/168), and 83.6% (145/168), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with CDI; 3) CDI contributed additional diagnostic information to 12.5% (21/168), 14.2% (24/168) and 10.1% (17/168) of the four- and five-chamber and the three-vessel and trachea views; 4) cardiac anomalies other than isolated ventricular septal defects were identified by TUI in 16 of 195 fetuses (8.2%) and, among these, CDI provided additional diagnostic information in 5 (31.3%); 5) the sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of TUI to diagnose congenital heart disease in cases where both B-mode and CDI volume datasets were acquired prenatally were 92.9%, 98.8%, 92.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Conclusion Standard transverse planes commonly used to examine the fetal heart can be automatically displayed with TUI in the majority of fetuses undergoing 4D US

  3. Four-dimensional ultrasonography of the fetal heart using a novel Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging display.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Swope, Betsy; Nien, Jyh Kae; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of examining the fetal heart with Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging (TUI) using four-dimensional (4D) volume datasets acquired with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). One hundred and ninety-five fetuses underwent 4D ultrasonography (US) of the fetal heart with STIC. Volume datasets were acquired with B-mode (n=195) and color Doppler imaging (CDI) (n=168), and were reviewed offline using TUI, a new display modality that automatically slices 3D/4D volume datasets, providing simultaneous visualization of up to eight parallel planes in a single screen. Visualization rates for standard transverse planes used to examine the fetal heart were calculated and compared for volumes acquired with B-mode or CDI. Diagnoses by TUI were compared to postnatal diagnoses. (1) The four- and five-chamber views and the three-vessel and trachea view were visualized in 97.4% (190/195), 88.2% (172/195), and 79.5% (142/195), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with B-mode; (2) these views were visualized in 98.2% (165/168), 97.0% (163/168), and 83.6% (145/168), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with CDI; (3) CDI contributed additional diagnostic information to 12.5% (21/168), 14.2% (24/168) and 10.1% (17/168) of the four- and five-chamber and the three-vessel and trachea views; (4) cardiac anomalies other than isolated ventricular septal defects were identified by TUI in 16 of 195 fetuses (8.2%) and, among these, CDI provided additional diagnostic information in 5 (31.3%); (5) the sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of TUI to diagnose congenital heart disease in cases where both B-mode and CDI volume datasets were acquired prenatally were 92.9%, 98.8%, 92.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Standard transverse planes commonly used to examine the fetal heart can be automatically displayed with TUI in the majority of fetuses undergoing 4D US with STIC. Due to the retrospective nature

  4. High-quality four-dimensional cone-beam CT by deforming prior images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Xuejun

    2013-01-21

    Due to a limited number of projections at each phase, severe view aliasing artifacts are present in four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) when reconstruction is performed using conventional algorithms. In this work, we aim to obtain high-quality 4D-CBCT of lung cancer patients in radiation therapy by deforming the planning CT. The deformation vector fields (DVF) to deform the planning CT are estimated through matching the forward projection of the deformed prior image and measured on-treatment CBCT projection. The estimation of the DVF is formulated as an unconstrained optimization problem, where the objective function to be minimized is the sum of the squared difference between the forward projection of the deformed planning CT and the measured 4D-CBCT projection. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the DVF. As the number of the variables in the DVF is much greater than the number of measurements, the solution to such a highly ill-posed problem is very sensitive to the initials during the optimization process. To improve the estimation accuracy of DVF, we proposed a new strategy to obtain better initials for the optimization. In this strategy, 4D-CBCT is first reconstructed by total variation minimization. Demons deformable registration is performed to register the planning CT and the 4D-CBCT reconstructed by total variation minimization. The resulted DVF from demons registration is then used as the initial parameters in the optimization process. A 4D nonuniform rotational B-spline-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom and a patient 4D-CBCT are used to evaluate the algorithm. Image quality of 4D-CBCT is substantially improved by using the proposed strategy in both NCAT phantom and patient studies. The proposed method has the potential to improve the temporal resolution of 4D-CBCT. Improved 4D-CBCT can better characterize the motion of lung tumors and will be a valuable tool for image-guided adaptive radiation therapy.

  5. Questions on universal constants and four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    It is demonstrated that there is a flexibility in clock synchronizations and that four-dimensional symmetry framework can be viewed broadly. The true universality of basic constants is discussed, considering a class of measurement processes based on the velocity = distance/time interval, which always yields some number when used by an observer. The four-dimensional symmetry framework based on common time for all observers is formulated, and related processes of measuring light speed are discussed. Invariant 'action functions' for physical laws in the new four-dimensional symmetry framework with the common time are established to discuss universal constants. Truly universal constants are demonstrated, and it is shown that physics in this new framework and in special relativity are equivalent as far as one-particle systems and the S-matrix in field theories are concerned.

  6. Accurate estimation of global and regional cardiac function by retrospectively gated multidetector row computed tomography: comparison with cine magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Belge, Bénédicte; Coche, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Agnès; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis J; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2006-07-01

    Retrospective reconstruction of ECG-gated images at different parts of the cardiac cycle allows the assessment of cardiac function by multi-detector row CT (MDCT) at the time of non-invasive coronary imaging. We compared the accuracy of such measurements by MDCT to cine magnetic resonance (MR). Forty patients underwent the assessment of global and regional cardiac function by 16-slice MDCT and cine MR. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes estimated by MDCT (134+/-51 and 67+/-56 ml) were similar to those by MR (137+/-57 and 70+/-60 ml, respectively; both P=NS) and strongly correlated (r=0.92 and r=0.95, respectively; both P<0.001). Consequently, LV ejection fractions by MDCT and MR were also similar (55+/-21 vs. 56+/-21%; P=NS) and highly correlated (r=0.95; P<0.001). Regional end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses by MDCT were highly correlated (r=0.84 and r=0.92, respectively; both P<0.001), but significantly lower than by MR (8.3+/-1.8 vs. 8.8+/-1.9 mm and 12.7+/-3.4 vs. 13.3+/-3.5 mm, respectively; both P<0.001). Values of regional wall thickening by MDCT and MR were similar (54+/-30 vs. 51+/-31%; P=NS) and also correlated well (r=0.91; P<0.001). Retrospectively gated MDCT can accurately estimate LV volumes, EF and regional LV wall thickening compared to cine MR.

  7. Covariant Four-Dimensional Scattering Equations for the NN- πNNSystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. R.; Afnan, I. R.

    1996-04-01

    We derive a set of coupled four-dimensional integral equations for theNN-πNNsystem using our modified version of the Taylor method of classification-of-diagrams. These equations are covariant, obey two- and three-body unitarity and contain subtraction terms which eliminate the double-counting present in some previous four-dimensionalNN-πNNequations. The equations are then recast into a from convenient for computation by grouping the subtraction terms together and obtaining a set of two-fragment scattering equations for the amplitudes of interest.

  8. Experimental measurement of the four-dimensional coherence function for an undulator x-ray source.

    PubMed

    Tran, C Q; Williams, G J; Roberts, A; Flewett, S; Peele, A G; Paterson, D; de Jonge, M D; Nugent, K A

    2007-06-01

    A full measurement of the four-dimensional coherence function from an undulator beam line is reported. The analysis is based on the observation that the data are consistent with a coherence function that is mathematically separable. The effective source size can be altered by changing the width of the exit slit, and the complete coherence function is presented for two settings. We find, to within experimental error, that the four-dimensional complex degree of coherence can be described as a real Gaussian function that depends only on the difference of the spatial coordinates.

  9. Study on eigenvalue space of hyperchaotic canonical four-dimensional Chua's circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guan-Lin; Chen, Xi-You

    2010-03-01

    The eigenvalue space of the canonical four-dimensional Chua's circuit which can realize every eigenvalue for four-dimensional system is studied in this paper. First, the analytical relations between the circuit parameters and the eigenvalues of the system are established, and therefore all the circuit parameters can be determined explicitly by any given set of eigenvalues. Then, the eigenvalue space of the circuit is investigated in two cases by the nonlinear elements used. According to the types of the eigenvalues, some novel hyperchaotic attractors are presented. Further, the dynamic behaviours of the circuit are studied by the bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov spectra of the eigenvalues.

  10. Novel application of four-dimensional sonography with B-flow imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation in the assessment of fetal congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Hongmei, Wu; Ying, Zhang; Ailu, Cai; Wei, Sun

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the role of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound with B-flow imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) in the evaluation of normal fetal heart and congenital heart disease during pregnancy. Volume data sets of the fetal heart were acquired with automated transverse and longitudinal sweeps of the anterior chest wall. We studied 31 normal fetuses and 28 fetuses with congenital heart disease (6 with double-outlet right ventricle, 5 with complete transposition of great arteries, 8 with tetralogy of Fallot, 3 with right aortic arch, 2 with persistent left superior vena cava, 3 with truncus arteriosus communis, and 1 with interruption of aortic arch) at gestation ages ranging from 18 to 39 weeks using transabdominal 4D B-flow sonography with STIC (4D BF-STIC). Four-dimensional BF-STIC demonstrated dynamic angiographic features in both normal and abnormal fetal hearts. Four-dimensional BF-STIC images could not be obtained in two normal fetuses at 18.9 and 35.6 weeks because of the high fetal heart rate and inappropriate fetal position. Of the other 29 fetuses all extracardiac vessels such as aorta, pulmonary artery, ductus arteriosus, inferior vena cava, and ductus venosus could be detected on reconstructed images. In seven normal cases, a 4D image was recorded to allow simultaneous visualization of all four pulmonary veins. In the 28 fetuses with cardiac anomalies, 4D sonography with B-flow imaging and STIC detected the "digital casts" of the outflow tracts, great arteries, and veins draining into the heart. These results demonstrate spatial relationship among these structures which provide important anatomical information. Four-dimensional BF-STIC provides a means of real time three-dimensional evaluation of fetal extracardiac hemodynamics in the second and third trimesters. This novel technique assists in the evaluation of fetal cardiac hemodynamics and may play an important role in future fetal cardiac research and in the identification of anatomical

  11. Back Cover: Four-dimensional live imaging of hemodynamics in mammalian embryonic heart with Doppler optical coherence tomography (J. Biophotonics 8/2016).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang; Lakomy, David S; Garcia, Monica D; Lopez, Andrew L; Larin, Kirill V; Larina, Irina V

    2016-08-01

    Detailed volumetric measurement of hemodynamics in early developing mammalian heart can provide great insights for improved understanding of normal cardiogenesis and management of congenital cardiac disease. In this study, Doppler optical coherence tomography is performed in live mouse embryo culture to obtain the first four-dimensional high-resolution reconstruction and quantitative analysis of hemodynamic features in the mouse embryonic heart. This provides a powerful approach to investigate biomechanical regulation of early mammalian cardiogenesis. Further details can be found in the article by Shang Wang et al. on pp. 837-847. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Combined first pass and gated blood pool radionuclide studies in the hemodynamic-cardiac evaluation of patients with low cardiac output

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Mansour, P.; Fouad, F.M.; Sheeler, L.R.; Bravo, E.L.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Tarazi, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) is frequently used in the evaluation of cardiac function but low CO does not necessarily reflect heart failure. Similarly, low ejection fraction (EF) can be present in compensated heart diseases. In order to evaluate cardiac performance in relation to systematic hemodynamics, the authors used a multifactorial approach for the determination of CO, EF, pulmonary mean transit time (MTT), ratio of cardiopulmonary volume over total blood volume (CPV/TBV as an index of venous tone) all obtained from a single injection of 99m Tc-HSA. Four different conditions associated with low CO (less than or equal to 2.1 L/min/m/sup 2/) were evaluated. The combined use of CO, EF, MTT and CPV/TBV allowed a better understanding of the myocardial and peripheral circulatory factors associated with low CO states. This is helpful in the selection and follow-up of appropriate therapeutic intervention.

  13. On metric geometry of conformal moduli spaces of four-dimensional superconformal theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asnin, Vadim

    2010-09-01

    Conformal moduli spaces of four-dimensional superconformal theories obtained by deformations of a superpotential are considered. These spaces possess a natural metric (a Zamolodchikov metric). This metric is shown to be Kahler. The proof is based on superconformal Ward identities.

  14. Tensor Spherical and Pseudo-Spherical Harmonics in Four-Dimensional Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, K.

    1982-07-01

    Explicit expressions for tensor spherical harmonics on the 3 sphere in the four-dimensional Euclidean space are derived, and extended to derive those for pseudo-spherical harmonics. They are useful for the analyses of large-scale perturbations in the Friedmann universe models.

  15. Adding Four- Dimensional Data Assimilation (a.k.a. grid nudging) to MPAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adding four-dimensional data assimilation (a.k.a. grid nudging) to MPAS.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is investigating the use of MPAS as the meteorological driver for its next-generation air quality model. To function as such, MPAS needs to operate in a diagnostic mod...

  16. Adding Four- Dimensional Data Assimilation (a.k.a. grid nudging) to MPAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adding four-dimensional data assimilation (a.k.a. grid nudging) to MPAS.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is investigating the use of MPAS as the meteorological driver for its next-generation air quality model. To function as such, MPAS needs to operate in a diagnostic mod...

  17. Conceptualising Quality of School Life from Pupils' Perspectives: A Four-Dimensional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Reidun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a four-dimensional, dynamic model of pupils' subjective quality of school life. The model is based on the author's and colleagues' studies of experiences and perspectives of pupils in regular schools who have been assessed as having "special educational needs". The conceptualisation of quality of school life proposed…

  18. Chiral symmetry breaking in quenched massive strong-coupling four-dimensional QED

    SciTech Connect

    Hawes, F.T. ); Williams, A.G. )

    1995-03-15

    We present results from a study of subtractive renormalization of the fermion propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) in massive strong-coupling quenched four-dimensional QED. The results are compared for three different fermion-photon proper vertex [ital Ansa]$[ital uml---tze]: bare [gamma][sup [mu

  19. Integrable and superintegrable Hamiltonian systems with four dimensional real Lie algebras as symmetry of the systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi-Fardad, J.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.; Haghighatdoost, Gh.

    2014-05-15

    We construct integrable and superintegrable Hamiltonian systems using the realizations of four dimensional real Lie algebras as a symmetry of the system with the phase space R{sup 4} and R{sup 6}. Furthermore, we construct some integrable and superintegrable Hamiltonian systems for which the symmetry Lie group is also the phase space of the system.

  20. Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsten, Lars; Schnabel, Christian; Gaertner, Maria; Koch, Edmund

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be utilized for the spatially and temporally resolved visualization of alveolar tissue and its dynamics in rodent models, which allows the investigation of lung dynamics on the microscopic scale of single alveoli. The findings could provide experimental input data for numerical simulations of lung tissue mechanics and could support the development of protective ventilation strategies. Real four-dimensional OCT imaging permits the acquisition of several OCT stacks within one single ventilation cycle. Thus, the entire four-dimensional information is directly obtained. Compared to conventional virtual four-dimensional OCT imaging, where the image acquisition is extended over many ventilation cycles and is triggered on pressure levels, real four-dimensional OCT is less vulnerable against motion artifacts and non-reproducible movement of the lung tissue over subsequent ventilation cycles, which widely reduces image artifacts. However, OCT imaging of alveolar tissue is affected by refraction and total internal reflection at air-tissue interfaces. Thus, only the first alveolar layer beneath the pleura is visible. To circumvent this effect, total liquid ventilation can be carried out to match the refractive indices of lung tissue and the breathing medium, which improves the visibility of the alveolar structure, the image quality and the penetration depth and provides the real structure of the alveolar tissue. In this study, a combination of four-dimensional OCT imaging with total liquid ventilation allowed the visualization of the alveolar structure in rat lung tissue benefiting from the improved depth range beneath the pleura and from the high spatial and temporal resolution.

  1. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: A study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K.; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S.; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz; Sandtner, Walter

    2013-12-01

    The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licenced as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Na{sub v}1.5 sodium and Ca{sub v}1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (≥ 10 μM) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. - Highlights: • We study effects of anti-addiction drug ibogaine on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes. • We assess the cardiac ion channel profile of ibogaine. • Ibogaine inhibits hERG potassium, sodium and calcium channels. • Ibogaine’s effects on ion channels are a

  2. Thin-section CT of lung without ECG gating: 64-detector row CT can markedly reduce cardiac motion artifact which can simulate lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Masahiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Atsuo; Daimon, Tadahisa; Honda, Osamu; Mihara, Naoki; Johkoh, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hironobu

    2009-01-01

    Motion artifacts, which can mimic thickened bronchial wall and the cystic appearance of bronchiectasis, constitute a potential pitfall in the diagnosis of interstitial or bronchial disease. Therefore, purpose of our study was to evaluate whether 64-detector row CT (64-MDCT) enables a reduction in respiratory or cardiac motion artifacts in the lung area on thin-section CT without ECG gating, and to examine the correlation between cardiac motion artifact and heart rate. Thirty-two patients with suspected diffuse lung disease, who underwent both 8- and 64-MDCT (gantry rotation time, 0.5 and 0.4s, respectively), were included. The heart rates of an additional 155 patients were measured (range, 48-126 beats per minute; mean, 76 beats per minute) immediately prior to 64-MDCT, and compared to the degree of cardiac motion artifact. Two independent observers evaluated the following artifacts on a monitor without the knowledge of relevant clinical information: (1) artifacts on 8- and 64-MDCT images with 1.25-mm thickness and those on 64-MDCT images with 0.625-mm thickness in 32 patients; and (2) artifacts on 64-MDCT images with 0.625-mm thickness in 155 patients. Interobserver agreement was good in evaluating artifacts on 8-MDCT images with 1.25-mm thickness (weighted Kappa test, kappa=0.61-0.71), and fair or poor in the other evaluations (kappa<0.31). Two observers stated that cardiac motion artifacts were more significant on 8-MDCT than on 64-MDCT in all 32 patients. Statistically significant differences were found at various checkpoints only in comparing artifacts between 8- and 64-MDCT for 1.25-mm thickness (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p<0.0017). Cardiac motion artifacts on 64-MDCT had no significant correlation with heart rate (Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test). The high temporal resolution of 64-MDCT appears to reduce cardiac motion artifact that can affect thin-section scans of the lung parenchyma.

  3. Inhibitory effects of hesperetin on Nav1.5 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and on the voltage-gated cardiac sodium current in human atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-fei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yu-fang; Ma, Rong; Xiang, Ji-zhou; Du, Xin-ling; Tang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming α subunit and auxiliary β subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac myocytes. The pore-forming subunit of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5, which is encoded by SCN5A, is the main ion channel that conducts the voltage-gated cardiac sodium current (INa) in cardiac cells. The current study sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of hesperetin on human cardiac Nav1.5 channels stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells and on the voltage-gated cardiac sodium current (INa) in human atrial myocytes. Methods: The effects of hesperetin on human cardiac Nav1.5 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells and on cardiac Na+ currents in human atrial myocytes were examined through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Results: Nav1.5 currents were potently and reversibly suppressed in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner by hesperetin, which exhibited an IC50 of 62.99 μmol/L. Hesperetin significantly and negatively shifted the voltage-dependent activation and inactivation curves. Hesperetin also markedly decelerated Nav1.5 current inactivation and slowed the recovery from Nav1.5 channel inactivation. The hesperetin-dependent blockage of Nav1.5 currents was frequency-dependent. Hesperetin also potently and reversibly inhibited Na+ current (INa) in human atrial myocytes, consistently with its effects on Nav1.5 currents in HEK 293 cells. Conclusion: Hesperetin is a potent inhibitor of INa in human atrial myocytes and Nav1.5 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Hesperetin probably functions by blocking the open state and the inactivated state of these channels. PMID:27694909

  4. Segmental and global left ventricular function assessment using gated SPECT with a semiconductor Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) camera: phantom study and clinical validation vs cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Bailliez, Alban; Blaire, Tanguy; Mouquet, Frédéric; Legghe, R; Etienne, B; Legallois, Damien; Agostini, Denis; Manrique, Alain

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated gated-SPECT using a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) camera for assessing global and regional left ventricular (LV) function. A phantom study evaluated the accuracy of wall thickening assessment using systolic count increase on both Anger and CZT (Discovery 530NMc) cameras. The refillable phantom simulated variable myocardial wall thicknesses. The apparent count increase (%CI) was compared to the thickness increase (%Th). CZT gated-SPECT was compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in 27 patients. Global and regional LV function (wall thickening and motion) were quantified and compared between SPECT and CMR data. In the phantom study using a 5-mm object, the regression between %CI and %Th was significantly closer to the line of identity (y = x) with the CZT (R (2) = 0.9955) than the Anger (R (2) = 0.9995, P = .03). There was a weaker correlation for larger objects (P = .003). In patients, there was a high concordance between CZT and CMR for ESV, EDV, and LVEF (all CCC >0.80, P < .001). CZT underestimated %CI and wall motion (WM) compared to CMR (P < .001). The agreement to CMR was better for WM than wall thickening. The Discovery 530NMc provided accurate measurements of global LV function but underestimated regional wall thickening, especially in patients with increased wall thickness.

  5. Insights into the gating mechanism of the ryanodine-modified human cardiac Ca2+-release channel (ryanodine receptor 2).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Thomas, N Lowri; Williams, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular membrane channels playing key roles in many Ca(2+) signaling pathways and, as such, are emerging novel therapeutic and insecticidal targets. RyRs are so named because they bind the plant alkaloid ryanodine with high affinity and although it is established that ryanodine produces profound changes in all aspects of function, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered gating is minimal. We address this issue using detailed single-channel gating analysis, mathematical modeling, and energetic evaluation of state transitions establishing that, with ryanodine bound, the RyR pore adopts an extremely stable open conformation. We demonstrate that stability of this state is influenced by interaction of divalent cations with both activating and inhibitory cytosolic sites and, in the absence of activating Ca(2+), trans-membrane voltage. Comparison of the conformational stability of ryanodine- and Imperatoxin A-modified channels identifies significant differences in the mechanisms of action of these qualitatively similar ligands.

  6. Four-dimensional cone beam CT reconstruction and enhancement using a temporal nonlocal means method

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xun; Tian, Zhen; Lou, Yifei; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) has been developed to provide respiratory phase-resolved volumetric imaging in image guided radiation therapy. Conventionally, it is reconstructed by first sorting the x-ray projections into multiple respiratory phase bins according to a breathing signal extracted either from the projection images or some external surrogates, and then reconstructing a 3D CBCT image in each phase bin independently using FDK algorithm. This method requires adequate number of projections for each phase, which can be achieved using a low gantry rotation or multiple gantry rotations. Inadequate number of projections in each phase bin results in low quality 4D-CBCT images with obvious streaking artifacts. 4D-CBCT images at different breathing phases share a lot of redundant information, because they represent the same anatomy captured at slightly different temporal points. Taking this redundancy along the temporal dimension into account can in principle facilitate the reconstruction in the situation of inadequate number of projection images. In this work, the authors propose two novel 4D-CBCT algorithms: an iterative reconstruction algorithm and an enhancement algorithm, utilizing a temporal nonlocal means (TNLM) method. Methods: The authors define a TNLM energy term for a given set of 4D-CBCT images. Minimization of this term favors those 4D-CBCT images such that any anatomical features at one spatial point at one phase can be found in a nearby spatial point at neighboring phases. 4D-CBCT reconstruction is achieved by minimizing a total energy containing a data fidelity term and the TNLM energy term. As for the image enhancement, 4D-CBCT images generated by the FDK algorithm are enhanced by minimizing the TNLM function while keeping the enhanced images close to the FDK results. A forward–backward splitting algorithm and a Gauss–Jacobi iteration method are employed to solve the problems. The algorithms implementation

  7. Four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with retrospective k-space reordering: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Chen, Nan-kuei; Chu, Mei-Lan

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Current four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) techniques lack sufficient temporal/spatial resolution and consistent tumor contrast. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development and initial evaluation of a new strategy for 4D-MRI which is based on retrospective k-space reordering. Methods: We simulated a k-space reordered 4D-MRI on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom. A 2D echo planar imaging MRI sequence [frame rate (F) = 0.448 Hz; image resolution (R) = 256 × 256; number of k-space segments (N{sub KS}) = 4] with sequential image acquisition mode was assumed for the simulation. Image quality of the simulated “4D-MRI” acquired from the XCAT phantom was qualitatively evaluated, and tumor motion trajectories were compared to input signals. In particular, mean absolute amplitude differences (D) and cross correlation coefficients (CC) were calculated. Furthermore, to evaluate the data sufficient condition for the new 4D-MRI technique, a comprehensive simulation study was performed using 30 cancer patients’ respiratory profiles to study the relationships between data completeness (C{sub p}) and a number of impacting factors: the number of repeated scans (N{sub R}), number of slices (N{sub S}), number of respiratory phase bins (N{sub P}), N{sub KS}, F, R, and initial respiratory phase at image acquisition (P{sub 0}). As a proof-of-concept, we implemented the proposed k-space reordering 4D-MRI technique on a T2-weighted fast spin echo MR sequence and tested it on a healthy volunteer. Results: The simulated 4D-MRI acquired from the XCAT phantom matched closely to the original XCAT images. Tumor motion trajectories measured from the simulated 4D-MRI matched well with input signals (D = 0.83 and 0.83 mm, and CC = 0.998 and 0.992 in superior–inferior and anterior–posterior directions, respectively). The relationship between C{sub p} and N{sub R} was found best represented by an exponential function

  8. Four-dimensional cone beam CT reconstruction and enhancement using a temporal nonlocal means method

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Xun; Tian Zhen; Lou Yifei; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) has been developed to provide respiratory phase-resolved volumetric imaging in image guided radiation therapy. Conventionally, it is reconstructed by first sorting the x-ray projections into multiple respiratory phase bins according to a breathing signal extracted either from the projection images or some external surrogates, and then reconstructing a 3D CBCT image in each phase bin independently using FDK algorithm. This method requires adequate number of projections for each phase, which can be achieved using a low gantry rotation or multiple gantry rotations. Inadequate number of projections in each phase bin results in low quality 4D-CBCT images with obvious streaking artifacts. 4D-CBCT images at different breathing phases share a lot of redundant information, because they represent the same anatomy captured at slightly different temporal points. Taking this redundancy along the temporal dimension into account can in principle facilitate the reconstruction in the situation of inadequate number of projection images. In this work, the authors propose two novel 4D-CBCT algorithms: an iterative reconstruction algorithm and an enhancement algorithm, utilizing a temporal nonlocal means (TNLM) method. Methods: The authors define a TNLM energy term for a given set of 4D-CBCT images. Minimization of this term favors those 4D-CBCT images such that any anatomical features at one spatial point at one phase can be found in a nearby spatial point at neighboring phases. 4D-CBCT reconstruction is achieved by minimizing a total energy containing a data fidelity term and the TNLM energy term. As for the image enhancement, 4D-CBCT images generated by the FDK algorithm are enhanced by minimizing the TNLM function while keeping the enhanced images close to the FDK results. A forward-backward splitting algorithm and a Gauss-Jacobi iteration method are employed to solve the problems. The algorithms implementation on

  9. T2-weighted four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with result-driven phase sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: T2-weighted MRI provides excellent tumor-to-tissue contrast for target volume delineation in radiation therapy treatment planning. This study aims at developing a novel T2-weighted retrospective four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) phase sorting technique for imaging organ/tumor respiratory motion. Methods: A 2D fast T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo MR sequence was used for image acquisition of 4D-MRI, with a frame rate of 2–3 frames/s. Respiratory motion was measured using an external breathing monitoring device. A phase sorting method was developed to sort the images by their corresponding respiratory phases. Besides, a result-driven strategy was applied to effectively utilize redundant images in the case when multiple images were allocated to a bin. This strategy, selecting the image with minimal amplitude error, will generate the most representative 4D-MRI. Since we are using a different image acquisition mode for 4D imaging (the sequential image acquisition scheme) with the conventionally used cine or helical image acquisition scheme, the 4D dataset sufficient condition was not obviously and directly predictable. An important challenge of the proposed technique was to determine the number of repeated scans (N{sub R}) required to obtain sufficient phase information at each slice position. To tackle this challenge, the authors first conducted computer simulations using real-time position management respiratory signals of the 29 cancer patients under an IRB-approved retrospective study to derive the relationships between N{sub R} and the following factors: number of slices (N{sub S}), number of 4D-MRI respiratory bins (N{sub B}), and starting phase at image acquisition (P{sub 0}). To validate the authors’ technique, 4D-MRI acquisition and reconstruction were simulated on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom using simulation derived parameters. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved

  10. T2-weighted four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with result-driven phase sorting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Czito, Brian G; Bashir, Mustafa R; Cai, Jing

    2015-08-01

    T2-weighted MRI provides excellent tumor-to-tissue contrast for target volume delineation in radiation therapy treatment planning. This study aims at developing a novel T2-weighted retrospective four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) phase sorting technique for imaging organ/tumor respiratory motion. A 2D fast T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo MR sequence was used for image acquisition of 4D-MRI, with a frame rate of 2-3 frames/s. Respiratory motion was measured using an external breathing monitoring device. A phase sorting method was developed to sort the images by their corresponding respiratory phases. Besides, a result-driven strategy was applied to effectively utilize redundant images in the case when multiple images were allocated to a bin. This strategy, selecting the image with minimal amplitude error, will generate the most representative 4D-MRI. Since we are using a different image acquisition mode for 4D imaging (the sequential image acquisition scheme) with the conventionally used cine or helical image acquisition scheme, the 4D dataset sufficient condition was not obviously and directly predictable. An important challenge of the proposed technique was to determine the number of repeated scans (NR) required to obtain sufficient phase information at each slice position. To tackle this challenge, the authors first conducted computer simulations using real-time position management respiratory signals of the 29 cancer patients under an IRB-approved retrospective study to derive the relationships between NR and the following factors: number of slices (NS), number of 4D-MRI respiratory bins (NB), and starting phase at image acquisition (P0). To validate the authors' technique, 4D-MRI acquisition and reconstruction were simulated on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom using simulation derived parameters. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in an IRB-approved study to investigate the

  11. Holomorphic classification of four-dimensional surfaces in \\mathbb C^3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloshapka, V. K.; Ezhov, V. V.; Schmalz, G.

    2008-06-01

    We use the method of model surfaces to study real four-dimensional submanifolds of \\mathbb C^3. We prove that the dimension of the holomorphic symmetry group of any germ of an analytic four-dimensional manifold does not exceed 5 if this dimension is finite. (There are only two exceptional cases of infinite dimension.) The envelope of holomorphy of the model surface is calculated. We construct a normal form for arbitrary germs and use it to give a holomorphic classification of completely non-degenerate germs. It is shown that the existence of a completely non-degenerate CR-structure imposes strong restrictions on the topological structure of the manifold. In particular, the four-sphere S^4 admits no completely non-degenerate embedding into a three-dimensional complex manifold.

  12. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: A study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile☆

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K.; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S.; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz; Sandtner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licenced as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Nav1.5 sodium and Cav1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (≥ 10 μM) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:23707769

  13. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: a study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz; Sandtner, Walter

    2013-12-01

    The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licensed as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Nav1.5 sodium and Cav1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (≥ 10 μM) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Echocardiography versus (201)Tl semi-quantitative gated single photon emission tomography for the evaluation of cardiac disease associated with late stage Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Arahata, Hajime; Sugawara, Miwa; Watanabe, Akihiro; Kawano, Yuji; Sasagasako, Naokazu; Fujii, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients cardiac abnormalities are often detected. In adult DMD patients cardiac disease (CD) is a cause of death which increases by age and is related to respiratory dysfunction. Studies have demonstrated that CD in early DMD can be detected by echocardiography (EC) or semi-quantitative gated single photon emission tomography ((201)Tl SQGS), and the accuracy of these two tests is similar. As the disease advances, evaluation of CD by EC becomes difficult due to thoracic deformity and scoliosis. We compared (201)Tl SQGS and EC in the evaluation of cardiac function in late stage DMD, based on the ejection fraction (EF) value calculated by both tests. Twenty-three males with late stage DMD, 12 to 35 years of age (22.2±7.5), were studied by (201)Tl SQGS and EC. The mean EF value by (201)Tl SQGS was 60.8%±14.1%, which differed from that obtained by EC (52.7%±9.8%, P=0.003). Eleven patients less than 20 years old did not demonstrate a significant difference between the two tests (P=0.06), however, 12 patients over 20 years of age had significantly different results between tests (P=0.002). Although our patients were few we indicated that in DMD patients, aged older than 20 years, at an advanced stage of the disease, the EF values calculated by EC were lower than those by (201)Tl SQGS possibly due to thoracic deformity.

  15. Normal values of cardiac mechanical synchrony parameters using gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography: Impact of population and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Singh, Harmandeep; Patel, Chetan; Sharma, Gautam; Roy, Ambuj; Naik, Nitish

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Normal values of cardiac mechanical synchrony parameters in gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (GMPS) are well established in literature from the Western population. The aim of the study is to establish normal values of mechanical synchrony with GMPS in Indian population and to find out whether it differs significantly from established values. Procedure: We retrospectively analyzed 1 day low-dose stress/high-dose rest GMPS studies of 120 patients (sixty males, 52 ± 11.7 years) with low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease and having normal GMPS study. In GMPS, first-harmonic fast Fourier transform was used to extract a phase array using commercially available software. Phase standard deviation (PSD) and phase histogram bandwidth (PHB) were used to quantify cardiac mechanical dyssynchrony. Results: The values obtained were as follows, PSD: In men, 14.3 ± 4.7 (stress) and 8.9 ± 2.9 (rest), in women 11 ± 4 (stress) and 7.7 ± 2.7 (rest), and PHB: In men, 40.1 ± 11.9 (stress) and 30.6 ± 7.6 (rest), in women, 34.7 ± 12.6 (stress) and 25.3 ± 8.6 (rest). The value of PSD and PHB was significantly less in Indian population as compared with established values in literature. We also observed that synchrony indices derived from the low-dose stress studies are higher than high-dose rest studies. Conclusions: The value of synchrony parameters differs significantly according to population and methodology suggesting that specific population and methodology-based normal database for assessment of cardiac mechanical dyssynchrony should be established. PMID:27833309

  16. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-03: Four-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using Plastic Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M; Kozuka, T; Oguchi, M; Nishio, T; Haga, A; Hanada, T; Kabuki, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop the detector for the four-dimensional dose distribution measurement. Methods: We made the prototype detector for four-dimensional dose distribution measurement using a cylindrical plastic scintillator (5 cm diameter) and a conical reflection grass. The plastic scintillator is used as a phantom. When the plastic scintillator is irradiated, the scintillation light was emitted according to absorbed dose distribution. The conical reflection grass was arranged to surround the plastic scintillator, which project to downstream the projection images of the scintillation light. Then, the projection image was reflected to 45 degree direction by flat reflection grass, and was recorded by camcorder. By reconstructing the three-dimensional dose distribution from the projection image recorded in each frame, we could obtain the four-dimensional dose distribution. First, we tested the characteristic according to the amount of emitted light. Then we compared of the light profile and the dose profile calculated with the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results: The dose dependency of the amount of light showed linearity. The pixel detecting smaller amount of light had high sensitivity than the pixel detecting larger amount of light. However the difference of the sensitivity could be corrected from the amount of light detected in each pixel. Both of the depth light profile through the conical reflection grass and the depth dose profile showed the same attenuation in the region deeper than peak depth. In lateral direction, the difference of the both profiles was shown at outside field and penumbra region. We consider that the difference is occurred due to the scatter of the scintillation light in the plastic scintillator block. Conclusion: It was possible to obtain the amount of light corresponding to the absorbed dose distribution from the prototype detector. Four-dimensional dose distributions can be reconstructed with high accuracy by the correction of

  17. Haunted Kaluza universe with four-dimensional Lorentzian flat, Kerr, and Taub NUT slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Rossen I.; Prodanov, Emil M.

    2005-03-01

    The duality between the original Kaluza's theory and Klein's subsequent modification is duality between slicing and threading decomposition of the five-dimensional spacetime. The field equations of the original Kaluza's theory lead to the interpretation of the four-dimensional Lorentzian Kerr and Taub-NUT solutions as resulting from static electric and magnetic charges and dipoles in the presence of ghost matter and constant dilaton, which models Newton's constant.

  18. Exact four-dimensional dyonic black holes and Bertotti-Robinson spacetimes in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, David A.; Strominger, Andrew

    1994-09-01

    Conformal field theories corresponding to two-dimensional electrically charged black holes and to two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with a covariantly constant electric field are simply constructed as SL(2,openR)/openZ Wess-Zumino-Witten coset models. Four-dimensional spacetime solutions are obtained by tensoring these two-dimensional theories with SU(2)/Z(m) coset models. These describe a family of dyonic black holes and the Bertotti-Robinson universe.

  19. Four-Dimensional Screening Anti-Counterfeiting Pattern by Inkjet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jue; Zhang, Huacheng; Su, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-10-06

    A four-dimensional screening anti-counterfeiting QR code composed of differently shaped photonic crystal (PC) dots has been fabricated that could display four images depending on different lighting conditions. By controlling the rheology of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), three kinds of PC dots could be sequentially integrated into one pattern using the layer-by-layer printing strategy. The information can be encoded and stored in shapes and read out by the difference in optical properties.

  20. Implications of general covariance and maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry. [gravitational interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    General covariance and maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry lead to these results: (1) gravity is characterized by a dimensionless constant F of the order of 10 to the -19th; (2) the Newtonian force is always attractive; (3) space-time has a torsion; and (4) gravitational spin-force between two protons is about 10 to the 19th times stronger than the corresponding Newtonian force. A possible experimental test is discussed.

  1. BACE1 modulates gating of KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) and cardiac delayed rectifier KCNQ1/KCNE1 (IKs).

    PubMed

    Agsten, Marianne; Hessler, Sabine; Lehnert, Sandra; Volk, Tilmann; Rittger, Andrea; Hartmann, Stephanie; Raab, Christian; Kim, Doo Yeon; Groemer, Teja W; Schwake, Michael; Alzheimer, Christian; Huth, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) proteins form a homotetrameric channel, which produces a voltage-dependent K(+) current. Co-assembly of KCNQ1 with the auxiliary β-subunit KCNE1 strongly up-regulates this current. In cardiac myocytes, KCNQ1/E1 complexes are thought to give rise to the delayed rectifier current IKs, which contributes to cardiac action potential repolarization. We report here that the type I membrane protein BACE1 (β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1), which is best known for its detrimental role in Alzheimer's disease, but is also, as reported here, present in cardiac myocytes, serves as a novel interaction partner of KCNQ1. Using HEK293T cells as heterologous expression system to study the electrophysiological effects of BACE1 and KCNE1 on KCNQ1 in different combinations, our main findings were the following: (1) BACE1 slowed the inactivation of KCNQ1 current producing an increased initial response to depolarizing voltage steps. (2) Activation kinetics of KCNQ1/E1 currents were significantly slowed in the presence of co-expressed BACE1. (3) BACE1 impaired reconstituted cardiac IKs when cardiac action potentials were used as voltage commands, but interestingly augmented the IKs of ATP-deprived cells, suggesting that the effect of BACE1 depends on the metabolic state of the cell. (4) The electrophysiological effects of BACE1 on KCNQ1 reported here were independent of its enzymatic activity, as they were preserved when the proteolytically inactive variant BACE1 D289N was co-transfected in lieu of BACE1 or when BACE1-expressing cells were treated with the BACE1-inhibiting compound C3. (5) Co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) supported our hypothesis that BACE1 modifies the biophysical properties of IKs by physically interacting with KCNQ1 in a β-subunit-like fashion. Strongly underscoring the functional significance of this interaction, we detected BACE1 in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and murine cardiac tissue and observed

  2. Prognostic Value of Functional Variables as Assessed by Gated Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography for Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Thau-Yun; Chang, Ming-Che; Hung, Guang-Uei; Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Bailing

    2013-05-01

    Gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 (Tl-201) has the capacity to evaluate the earlier post-stress (PS) function compared to technetium-99m labeled tracers, and may be more sensitive in detecting transient ventricular dysfunction caused by stress-induced ischemia. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of functional variables obtained from Tl-201 gated SPECT as a predictor of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Four hundred and thirty-eight subjects who had known or suspected coronary artery disease and underwent clinically indicated dipyridamole-stress electrocardiography-gated Tl-201 SPECT were included in this study. Functional variables, including PS-ejection fraction (EF), PS-end systolic volume (ESV), PS-regional wall motion abnormality (RWA), reversible RWA and EF worsening, were generated to study the correlation with MACE (cardiac death, nonfatal infarction, unstable angina and coronary revascularization). Sixty-eight of the total 438 patients (15.5%) had MACE during the period of follow-up (a median time of 31 months), including 2 cardiac deaths, 9 non-fatal infarctions, 9 unstable angina and 48 coronary revascularizations. These events occurred significantly more frequently in patients with reversible RWA (28.8% vs. 7.1%, p < 0.0001), EF worsening (34.8% vs. 12.1%, p < 0.0001), PS-RWA (29.9% vs. 11.4%, p < 0.0001) and PS-EF < 45% (27.8% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.034). Using the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, reversible RWA and EF worsening were two independent predictors of MACE, providing incremental prognostic value over clinical and perfusion-alone information. The functional assessment with Tl-201 gated SPECT was a useful prognosticator for patients who had known or suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease; Gated SPECT; Major adverse cardiac events; Tl-201.

  3. Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Munce, Nigel R.; Randall, Cristina; Liu, George; Jiang, James Y.; Cable, Alex E.; Vitkin, I. A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2007-02-01

    We report a Doppler optical cardiogram gating technique for increasing the effective frame rate of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) when imaging periodic motion as found in the cardiovascular system of embryos. This was accomplished with a Thorlabs swept-source DOCT system that simultaneously acquired and displayed structural and Doppler images at 12 frames per second (fps). The gating technique allowed for ultra-high speed visualization of the blood flow pattern in the developing hearts of African clawed frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) at up to 1000 fps. In addition, four-dimensional (three spatial dimensions + temporal) Doppler imaging at 45 fps was demonstrated using this gating technique, producing detailed visualization of the complex cardiac motion and hemodynamics in a beating heart.

  4. Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system.

    PubMed

    Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A; Munce, Nigel R; Randall, Cristina; Liu, George; Jiang, James Y; Cable, Alex E; Vitkin, I A; Yang, Victor X D

    2007-02-19

    We report a Doppler optical cardiogram gating technique for increasing the effective frame rate of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) when imaging periodic motion as found in the cardiovascular system of embryos. This was accomplished with a Thorlabs swept-source DOCT system that simultaneously acquired and displayed structural and Doppler images at 12 frames per second (fps). The gating technique allowed for ultra-high speed visualization of the blood flow pattern in the developing hearts of African clawed frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) at up to 1000 fps. In addition, four-dimensional (three spatial dimensions + temporal) Doppler imaging at 45 fps was demonstrated using this gating technique, producing detailed visualization of the complex cardiac motion and hemodynamics in a beating heart.

  5. Insights into the Gating Mechanism of the Ryanodine-Modified Human Cardiac Ca2+-Release Channel (Ryanodine Receptor 2)

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Thomas, N. Lowri; Williams, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular membrane channels playing key roles in many Ca2+ signaling pathways and, as such, are emerging novel therapeutic and insecticidal targets. RyRs are so named because they bind the plant alkaloid ryanodine with high affinity and although it is established that ryanodine produces profound changes in all aspects of function, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered gating is minimal. We address this issue using detailed single-channel gating analysis, mathematical modeling, and energetic evaluation of state transitions establishing that, with ryanodine bound, the RyR pore adopts an extremely stable open conformation. We demonstrate that stability of this state is influenced by interaction of divalent cations with both activating and inhibitory cytosolic sites and, in the absence of activating Ca2+, trans-membrane voltage. Comparison of the conformational stability of ryanodine- and Imperatoxin A-modified channels identifies significant differences in the mechanisms of action of these qualitatively similar ligands. PMID:25002270

  6. Statistical Metamodeling and Sequential Design of Computer Experiments to Model Glyco-Altered Gating of Sodium Channels in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Du, Dongping; Yang, Hui; Ednie, Andrew R; Bennett, Eric S

    2016-09-01

    Glycan structures account for up to 35% of the mass of cardiac sodium ( Nav ) channels. To question whether and how reduced sialylation affects Nav activity and cardiac electrical signaling, we conducted a series of in vitro experiments on ventricular apex myocytes under two different glycosylation conditions, reduced protein sialylation (ST3Gal4(-/-)) and full glycosylation (control). Although aberrant electrical signaling is observed in reduced sialylation, realizing a better understanding of mechanistic details of pathological variations in INa and AP is difficult without performing in silico studies. However, computer model of Nav channels and cardiac myocytes involves greater levels of complexity, e.g., high-dimensional parameter space, nonlinear and nonconvex equations. Traditional linear and nonlinear optimization methods have encountered many difficulties for model calibration. This paper presents a new statistical metamodeling approach for efficient computer experiments and optimization of Nav models. First, we utilize a fractional factorial design to identify control variables from the large set of model parameters, thereby reducing the dimensionality of parametric space. Further, we develop the Gaussian process model as a surrogate of expensive and time-consuming computer models and then identify the next best design point that yields the maximal probability of improvement. This process iterates until convergence, and the performance is evaluated and validated with real-world experimental data. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm achieves superior performance in modeling the kinetics of Nav channels under a variety of glycosylation conditions. As a result, in silico models provide a better understanding of glyco-altered mechanistic details in state transitions and distributions of Nav channels. Notably, ST3Gal4(-/-) myocytes are shown to have higher probabilities accumulated in intermediate inactivation during the repolarization and yield a

  7. Atrial-ventricular differences in rabbit cardiac voltage-gated Na(+) currents: Basis for atrial-selective block by ranolazine.

    PubMed

    Caves, Rachel E; Cheng, Hongwei; Choisy, Stéphanie C; Gadeberg, Hanne C; Bryant, Simon M; Hancox, Jules C; James, Andrew F

    2017-06-10

    Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs are highly effective in restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation patients but carry a risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The antianginal agent ranolazine is a prototypic atrial-selective voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker but the mechanisms underlying its atrial-selective action remain unclear. The present study examined the mechanisms underlying the atrial-selective action of ranolazine. Whole-cell voltage-gated Na(+) currents (INa) were recorded at room temperature (∼22°C) from rabbit isolated left atrial and right ventricular myocytes. INa conductance density was ∼1.8-fold greater in atrial than in ventricular cells. Atrial INa was activated at command potentials ∼7 mV more negative and inactivated at conditioning potentials ∼11 mV more negative than ventricular INa. The onset of inactivation of INa was faster in atrial cells than in ventricular myocytes. Ranolazine (30 μM) inhibited INa in atrial and ventricular myocytes in a use-dependent manner consistent with preferential activated/inactivated state block. Ranolazine caused a significantly greater negative shift in voltage of half-maximal inactivation in atrial cells than in ventricular cells, the recovery from inactivation of INa was slowed by ranolazine to a greater extent in atrial myocytes than in ventricular cells, and ranolazine produced an instantaneous block that showed marked voltage dependence in atrial cells. Differences exist between rabbit atrial and ventricular myocytes in the biophysical properties of INa. The more negative voltage dependence of INa activation and inactivation, together with trapping of the drug in the inactivated channel, underlies an atrial-selective action of ranolazine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast cancer cells form primary tumors on ex vivo four-dimensional lung model.

    PubMed

    Pence, Kristi A; Mishra, Dhruva K; Thrall, Michael; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Kim, Min P

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer mortality is most common in cancer in women, and there are no ex vivo models that can capture the primary growth of tumor with fidelity to the in vivo tumor growth. In this study, we grew human breast cancer cell lines in an acellular lung matrix of the ex vivo four-dimensional lung model to determine if they form primary tumor and the extent to which they mimic the histology and characteristics of the human tumors. Rat lungs were harvested, decellularized, and placed in a bioreactor. To study the primary tumor growth, we seeded the lung via the trachea with human breast cancer cells SUM159, MCF7, or MDMB231 and perfused the pulmonary artery with oxygenated media. Lobectomies were performed and processed for hematoxylin and eosin, Ki-67, caspase-3, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor antibodies. All three cell lines grew in the ex vivo four-dimensional model and formed perfusable tumor nodules with similar histology and morphology as the primary tumors. SUM159 and MDAMB231 showed higher proliferation and apoptotic indices than MCF7. In addition, MCF7 retained its estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positivity, whereas SUM159 and MDAMB 231 did not have any staining. Overall, our study showed that human breast cancer cells can be grown on the ex vivo four-dimensional lung model, which then form primary tumor nodules that mimic the morphology and histology of the original tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacoresistant Cav 2·3 (E-type/R-type) voltage-gated calcium channels influence heart rate dynamics and may contribute to cardiac impulse conduction.

    PubMed

    Galetin, Thomas; Tevoufouet, Etienne E; Sandmeyer, Jakob; Matthes, Jan; Nguemo, Filomain; Hescheler, Jürgen; Weiergräber, Marco; Schneider, Toni

    2013-07-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels regulate cardiac automaticity, rhythmicity and excitation-contraction coupling. Whereas L-type (Cav 1·2, Cav 1·3) and T-type (Cav 3·1, Cav 3·2) channels are widely accepted for their functional relevance in the heart, the role of Cav 2·3 Ca(2+) channels expressing R-type currents remains to be elucidated. We have investigated heart rate dynamics in control and Cav 2·3-deficient mice using implantable electrocardiogram radiotelemetry and pharmacological injection experiments. Autonomic block revealed that the intrinsic heart rate does not differ between both genotypes. Systemic administration of isoproterenol resulted in a significant reduction in interbeat interval in both genotypes. It remained unaffected after administering propranolol in Cav 2·3(-|-) mice. Heart rate from isolated hearts as well as atrioventricular conduction for both genotypes differed significantly. Additionally, we identified and analysed the developmental expression of two splice variants, i.e. Cav 2·3c and Cav 2·3e. Using patch clamp technology, R-type currents could be detected in isolated prenatal cardiomyocytes and be related to R-type Ca(2+) channels. Our results indicate that on the systemic level, the pharmacologically inducible heart rate range and heart rate reserve are impaired in Cav 2·3 (-|-) mice. In addition, experiments on Langendorff perfused hearts elucidate differences in basic properties between both genotypes. Thus, Cav 2·3 does not only contribute to the cardiac autonomous nervous system but also to intrinsic rhythm propagation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Supergravity backgrounds for four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Travis

    2017-02-01

    In this note, we describe supersymmetric backgrounds for the four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As an extension of the method of Festuccia and Seiberg to sixteen supercharges in four dimensions, we utilize the coupling of the gauge theory to maximally extended conformal supergravity. Included among the fields of the conformal supergravity multiplet is the complexified coupling parameter of the gauge theory; therefore, backgrounds with spacetime varying coupling — such as appear in F-theory and Janus configurations — are naturally included in this formalism. We demonstrate this with a few examples from past literature.

  11. New supersymmetric black holes in four-dimensional N = 2 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Taniya; Tripathy, Prasanta K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the four-dimensional N = 2 supergravity theory arising from the compactification of type IIA string theory on a Calabi-Yau manifold. We analyze the supersymmetric flow equations for static, spherically symmetric, single-centered black holes. These flow equations are solved by a set of algebraic equations involving the holomorphic sections and harmonic functions. We examine black hole configurations with D0-D4-D6 charge for which the most general solution of these algebraic equations are considered. Though the black hole solution is unique for a given value of the charges, we find new phases of the black hole solutions upon varying them.

  12. Ultrafast core-loss spectroscopy in four-dimensional electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Renske M.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast core-electron energy-loss spectroscopy in four-dimensional electron microscopy as an element-specific probe of nanoscale dynamics. We apply it to the study of photoexcited graphite with femtosecond and nanosecond resolutions. The transient core-loss spectra, in combination with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, reveal the elongation of the carbon-carbon bonds, even though the overall behavior is a contraction of the crystal lattice. A prompt energy-gap shrinkage is observed on the picosecond time scale, which is caused by local bond length elongation and the direct renormalization of band energies due to temperature-dependent electron–phonon interactions. PMID:26798793

  13. Connection between the hydrogen atom and the four-dimensional oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.C.; Kibler, M.

    1985-06-01

    The connection between the three-dimensional hydrogen atom and a four-dimensional harmonic oscillator (or equivalently a coupled pair of two-dimensional harmonic oscillators) subjected to a constraint condition is further explored. In particular, the role the constraint condition plays in determining the phase relationship between the pair of two-dimensional oscillators is examined. Furthermore, the connection is discussed in a group-theoretical context involving the Lie algebras of SO(4), SO(3,1), E(3), SO(4,2), and Sp(8,R).

  14. Gravitational matter-antimatter asymmetry and four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A formulation of gravity based on the maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry is studied. The theory predicts that the gravitational force inside matter (fermions) is different from that inside antimatter. This difference could lead to the cosmic separation of matter and antimatter in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, a new gravitational long-range spin-force between two fermions is predicted, in addition to the usual Newtonian force. The geometrical foundation of such a gravitational theory is the Riemann-Cartan geometry, in which there is a torsion. The results of the theory for weak fields are consistent with previous experiments.

  15. A four-dimensional model with the fermionic determinant exactly evaluated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignaco, J. A.; Rego Monteiro, M. A.

    1986-07-01

    A method is presented to compute the fermion determinant of some class of field theories. By this method the following results of the fermion determinant in two dimensions are easily recovered: (i) Schwinger model without reference to a particular gauge. (ii) QCD in the light-cone gauge. (iii) Gauge invariant result of QCD. The method is finally applied to give an analytical solution of the fermion determinant of a four-dimensional, non-abelian, Dirac-like theory with massless fermions interacting with an external vector field through a pseudo-vectorial coupling. Fellow of the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brazil.

  16. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Q.; Waganaar, W.; Fontanese, J.; James, D.; Munsat, T.

    2016-11-01

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. Velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  17. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Qiuguang; Waganaar, Bill; Fontanese, John; James, David; Munsat, Tobin

    2016-07-08

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. As a result, velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  18. Four-dimensional dose evaluation using deformable image registration in radiotherapy for liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoon Jung, Sang; Min Yoon, Sang; Ho Park, Sung; Cho, Byungchul; Won Park, Jae; Jung, Jinhong; Park, Jin-hong; Hoon Kim, Jong; Do Ahn, Seung

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: In order to evaluate the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion on the dose delivered to the target volume and critical organs during free-breathing radiotherapy, a four-dimensional dose was evaluated using deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images were acquired for 11 patients who were treated for liver cancer. Internal target volume-based treatment planning and dose calculation (3D dose) were performed using the end-exhalation phase images. The four-dimensional dose (4D dose) was calculated based on DIR of all phase images from 4DCT to the planned image. Dosimetric parameters from the 4D dose, were calculated and compared with those from the 3D dose. Results: There was no significant change of the dosimetric parameters for gross tumor volume (p > 0.05). The increase D{sub mean} and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) for liver were by 3.1%{+-} 3.3% (p= 0.003) and 2.8%{+-} 3.3% (p= 0.008), respectively, and for duodenum, they were decreased by 15.7%{+-} 11.2% (p= 0.003) and 15.1%{+-} 11.0% (p= 0.003), respectively. The D{sub max} and gEUD for stomach was decreased by 5.3%{+-} 5.8% (p= 0.003) and 9.7%{+-} 8.7% (p= 0.003), respectively. The D{sub max} and gEUD for right kidney was decreased by 11.2%{+-} 16.2% (p= 0.003) and 14.9%{+-} 16.8% (p= 0.005), respectively. For left kidney, D{sub max} and gEUD were decreased by 11.4%{+-} 11.0% (p= 0.003) and 12.8%{+-} 12.1% (p= 0.005), respectively. The NTCP values for duodenum and stomach were decreased by 8.4%{+-} 5.8% (p= 0.003) and 17.2%{+-} 13.7% (p= 0.003), respectively. Conclusions: The four-dimensional dose with a more realistic dose calculation accounting for respiratory motion revealed no significant difference in target coverage and potentially significant change in the physical and biological dosimetric parameters in normal organs during free-breathing treatment.

  19. An accessible four-dimensional treatment of Maxwell's equations in terms of differential forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, Lucas

    2017-03-01

    Maxwell’s equations are derived in terms of differential forms in the four-dimensional Minkowski representation, starting from the three-dimensional vector calculus differential version of these equations. Introducing all the mathematical and physical concepts needed (including the tool of differential forms), using only knowledge of elementary vector calculus and the local vector version of Maxwell’s equations, the equations are reduced to a simple and elegant set of two equations for a unified quantity, the electromagnetic field. The treatment should be accessible for students taking a first course on electromagnetism.

  20. Four-dimensional quantum oscillator and magnetic monopole with U(1) dynamical group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshi, Z.; Panahi, H.; Golchehre, S. G.

    2017-09-01

    By using an appropriate transformation, it was shown that the quantum system of four-dimensional (4D) simple harmonic oscillator can describe the motion of a charged particle in the presence of a magnetic monopole field. It was shown that the Dirac magnetic monopole has the hidden algebra of U(1) symmetry and by reducing the dimensions of space, the U(1) × U(1) dynamical group for 4D harmonic oscillator quantum system was obtained. Using the group representation and based on explicit solution of the obtained differential equation, the spectrum of system was calculated.

  1. The compatible balancing approach to initialization, and four-dimensional data assimilation. [in meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1980-01-01

    A unified theoretical approach to both the four-dimensional assimilation of asynoptic data and the initialization problem is attempted. This approach relies on the derivation of certain relationships between geopotential tendencies and tendencies of the horizontal velocity field in primitive-equation models of atmospheric flow. The approach is worked out and analyzed in detail for some simple barotropic models. Certain independent results of numerical experiments for the time-continuous assimilation of real asynoptic meteorological data into a complex, baroclinic weather prediction model are discussed in the context of the present approach. Tentative inferences are drawn for practical assimilation procedures.

  2. Heat balance statistics derived from four-dimensional assimilations with a global circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S. D.; Herman, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation was conducted to develop a reliable procedure for obtaining the diabatic and vertical terms required for atmospheric heat balance studies. The method developed employs a four-dimensional assimilation mode in connection with the general circulation model of NASA's Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences. The initial analysis was conducted with data obtained in connection with the 1976 Data Systems Test. On the basis of the results of the investigation, it appears possible to use the model's observationally constrained diagnostics to provide estimates of the global distribution of virtually all of the quantities which are needed to compute the atmosphere's heat and energy balance.

  3. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Qiuguang; Waganaar, Bill; Fontanese, John; James, David; Munsat, Tobin

    2016-07-08

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. As a result, velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  4. The violation of the no-hair conjecture in four-dimensional ungauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Shahbazi, C. S.

    2014-07-01

    By choosing a particular, string-theory-inspired, special Kähler manifold, we are able to find an N=2 four-dimensional ungauged supergravity model that contains supersymmetric black hole solutions that violate the folk uniqueness theorems that are expected to hold in ungauged supergravity. The black hole solutions are regular in the sense that they have a positive mass and a unique physical singularity hidden by an event horizon. In contradistinction to most examples already known in the literature, we find our solutions in a theory without scalar potential, gaugings, or higher-order curvature terms.

  5. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui Liu, Q.; Waganaar, W.; Fontanese, J.; James, D.; Munsat, T.

    2016-11-15

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. Velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  6. Gravitational matter-antimatter asymmetry and four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A formulation of gravity based on the maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry is studied. The theory predicts that the gravitational force inside matter (fermions) is different from that inside antimatter. This difference could lead to the cosmic separation of matter and antimatter in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, a new gravitational long-range spin-force between two fermions is predicted, in addition to the usual Newtonian force. The geometrical foundation of such a gravitational theory is the Riemann-Cartan geometry, in which there is a torsion. The results of the theory for weak fields are consistent with previous experiments.

  7. Curvature-tuned electronic properties of bilayer graphene in an effective four-dimensional spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, Marco; Giambò, Roberto; Perali, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    We show that in A B stacked bilayer graphene low-energy excitations around the semimetallic points are described by massless, four-dimensional Dirac fermions. There is an effective reconstruction of the four-dimensional spacetime, including in particular the dimension perpendicular to the sheet, that arises dynamically from the physical graphene sheet and the interactions experienced by the carriers. The effective spacetime is the Eisenhart-Duval lift of the dynamics experienced by Galilei invariant Lévy-Leblond spin-1/2 particles near the Dirac points. We find that changing the intrinsic curvature of the bilayer sheet induces a change in the energy level of the electronic bands, switching from a conducting regime for negative curvature to an insulating one when curvature is positive. In particular, curving graphene bilayers allow opening or closing the energy gap between conduction and valence bands, a key effect for electronic devices. Thus, using curvature as a tunable parameter opens the way for the beginning of curvatronics in bilayer graphene.

  8. High-speed registration of three- and four-dimensional medical images by using voxel similarity.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Raj; Zagrodsky, Vladimir; Castro-Pareja, Carlos R; Walimbe, Vivek; Jagadeesh, Jogikal M

    2003-01-01

    A generalized, accurate, automatic, retrospective method of image registration for three-dimensional images has been developed. The method is based on mutual information, a specific measure of voxel similarity, and is applicable to a wide range of imaging modalities and organs, rigid or deformable. A drawback of mutual information-based image registration is long execution times. To overcome the speed problem, low-cost, customized hardware to accelerate this computationally intensive task was developed. Individual hardware accelerator units (each, in principle, 25-fold faster than a comparable software implementation) can be concatenated to perform image registration at any user-desired speed. A first-generation prototype board with two processing units provided a 12- to 16-fold increase in speed. Enhancements for increasing the speed further are being developed. These advances have enabled many nontraditional applications of image registration and have made the traditional applications more efficient. Clinical applications include fusion of computed tomographic (CT), magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomographic (PET) images of the brain; fusion of whole-body CT and PET images; fusion of four-dimensional spatiotemporal ultrasonographic (US) and single photon emission CT images of the heart; and correction of misalignment between pre- and poststress four-dimensional US images. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  9. Three- and four-dimensional visualization of magnetic resonance imaging data sets in pediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Vick, G W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of medical imaging technology in pediatric cardiology is to provide clear representations of the underlying anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system--representations that are easily understood and that facilitate clinical decision making. However, standard projective and tomographic imaging methods often yield results that are intelligible only to imaging specialists. Three- and four-dimensional reconstructions from projective and tomographic data sets are an alternative form of image display. Often, these reconstructions are more readily comprehensible as representations of the reality apparent in the operating room or the pathology laboratory than are the original data sets. Furthermore, viewing of these reconstructions is much more time efficient than viewing hundreds of separate tomographic images. Magnetic resonance imaging inherently provides three-, four-, and even higher dimensional data, and magnetic resonance data sets are commonly used to generate volumetric reconstructions. This review will focus on the practical application of magnetic resonance imaging to yield three- and four-dimensional reconstructions of pediatric cardiovascular disorders.

  10. A novel four-dimensional analytical approach for analysis of complex samples.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Susanne; Jakob, Cornelia; Hippler, Jörg; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-05-01

    A two-dimensional LC (2D-LC) method, based on the work of Erni and Frei in 1978, was developed and coupled to an ion mobility-high-resolution mass spectrometer (IM-MS), which enabled the separation of complex samples in four dimensions (2D-LC, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and mass spectrometry (MS)). This approach works as a continuous multiheart-cutting LC system, using a long modulation time of 4 min, which allows the complete transfer of most of the first - dimension peaks to the second - dimension column without fractionation, in comparison to comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Hence, each compound delivers only one peak in the second dimension, which simplifies the data handling even when ion mobility spectrometry as a third and mass spectrometry as a fourth dimension are introduced. The analysis of a plant extract from Ginkgo biloba shows the separation power of this four-dimensional separation method with a calculated total peak capacity of more than 8700. Furthermore, the advantage of ion mobility for characterizing unknown compounds by their collision cross section (CCS) and accurate mass in a non-target approach is shown for different matrices like plant extracts and coffee. Graphical abstract Principle of the four-dimensional separation.

  11. Four dimensional chaos and intermittency in a mesoscopic model of the electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafilis, Mathew P.; Frascoli, Federico; Cadusch, Peter J.; Liley, David T. J.

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of so-called four dimensional chaos in dynamical systems represented by coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations is rarely reported in the literature. In this paper, we present evidence that Liley's mesoscopic theory of the electroencephalogram (EEG), which has been used to describe brain activity in a variety of clinically relevant contexts, possesses a chaotic attractor with a Kaplan-Yorke dimension significantly larger than three. This accounts for simple, high order chaos for a physiologically admissible parameter set. Whilst the Lyapunov spectrum of the attractor has only one positive exponent, the contracting dimensions are such that the integer part of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension is three, thus giving rise to four dimensional chaos. A one-parameter bifurcation analysis with respect to the parameter corresponding to extracortical input is conducted, with results indicating that the origin of chaos is due to an inverse period doubling cascade. Hence, in the vicinity of the high order, strange attractor, the model is shown to display intermittent behavior, with random alternations between oscillatory and chaotic regimes. This phenomenon represents a possible dynamical justification of some of the typical features of clinically established EEG traces, which can arise in the case of burst suppression in anesthesia and epileptic encephalopathies in early infancy.

  12. Four dimensional chaos and intermittency in a mesoscopic model of the electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Dafilis, Mathew P; Frascoli, Federico; Cadusch, Peter J; Liley, David T J

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of so-called four dimensional chaos in dynamical systems represented by coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations is rarely reported in the literature. In this paper, we present evidence that Liley's mesoscopic theory of the electroencephalogram (EEG), which has been used to describe brain activity in a variety of clinically relevant contexts, possesses a chaotic attractor with a Kaplan-Yorke dimension significantly larger than three. This accounts for simple, high order chaos for a physiologically admissible parameter set. Whilst the Lyapunov spectrum of the attractor has only one positive exponent, the contracting dimensions are such that the integer part of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension is three, thus giving rise to four dimensional chaos. A one-parameter bifurcation analysis with respect to the parameter corresponding to extracortical input is conducted, with results indicating that the origin of chaos is due to an inverse period doubling cascade. Hence, in the vicinity of the high order, strange attractor, the model is shown to display intermittent behavior, with random alternations between oscillatory and chaotic regimes. This phenomenon represents a possible dynamical justification of some of the typical features of clinically established EEG traces, which can arise in the case of burst suppression in anesthesia and epileptic encephalopathies in early infancy.

  13. Current status of fetal neurodevelopmental assessment: Four-dimensional ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    With the latest advent of four-dimensional (4-D) ultrasound, fetal neurobehavioral or neurodevelopmental assessment can be easily and readily performed. Using this technique, typical fetal movements and behavioral patterns have become apparent in all three trimesters of pregnancy. In twin pregnancy, 4-D ultrasound facilitates the precise evaluation of inter-twin contact and intra-pair stimulation. New fetal neurobehavioral assessment tests, such as Kurjak's Antenatal Neurodevelopmental Test and the Fetal Observable Movement System, may reflect the normal and abnormal neurological development of the fetus, and will facilitate more precise assessments of fetal neurobehavior or neurodevelopment, and fetal brain and central nervous system functions. In this review article, I also discuss interesting topics regarding maternal and fetal stress, fetal pain, and fetal consciousness. Four-dimensional ultrasound has opened the door to new scientific fields, such as 'fetal neurology' and 'fetal psychology,' and fetal neurobehavioral science is at the dawn of a new era. Knowledge on fetal neurobehavior and neurodevelopment will be advanced through fetal behavioral research using this technique. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Four-dimensional modulation and coding: An alternate to frequency-reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Sleeper, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Four dimensional modulation as a means of improving communication efficiency on the band-limited Gaussian channel, with the four dimensions of signal space constituted by phase orthogonal carriers (cos omega sub c t and sin omega sub c t) simultaneously on space orthogonal electromagnetic waves are discussed. "Frequency reuse' techniques use such polarization orthogonality to reuse the same frequency slot, but the modulation is not treated as four dimensional, rather a product of two-d modulations, e.g., QPSK. It is well known that, higher dimensionality signalling affords possible improvements in the power bandwidth sense. Four-D modulations based upon subsets of lattice-packings in four-D, which afford simplification of encoding and decoding are described. Sets of up to 1024 signals are constructed in four-D, providing a (Nyquist) spectral efficiency of up to 10 bps/Hz. Energy gains over the reuse technique are in the one to three dB range t equal bandwidth.

  15. Structure and function of splice variants of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.5.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Annett; Walzik, Stefan; Blechschmidt, Steve; Haufe, Volker; Benndorf, Klaus; Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels mediate the rapid upstroke of the action potential in excitable tissues. The tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistant isoform Na(v)1.5, encoded by the SCN5A gene, is the predominant isoform in the heart. This channel plays a key role for excitability of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and for rapid impulse propagation through the specific conduction system. During recent years, strong evidence has been accumulated in support of the expression of several Na(v)1.5 splice variants in the heart, and in various other tissues and cell lines including brain, dorsal root ganglia, breast cancer cells and neuronal stem cell lines. This review summarizes our knowledge on the structure and putative function of nine Na(v)1.5 splice variants detected so far. Attention will be paid to the distinct biophysical properties of the four functional splice variants, to the pronounced tissue- and species-specific expression, and to the developmental regulation of Na(v)1.5 splicing. The implications of alternative splicing for SCN5A channelopathies, and for a better understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, are discussed.

  16. Quantification of left and right atrial kinetic energy using four-dimensional intracardiac magnetic resonance imaging flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Per M; Töger, Johannes; Heiberg, Einar; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2013-05-15

    Kinetic energy (KE) of atrial blood has been postulated as a possible contributor to ventricular filling. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the left (LA) and right (RA) atrial blood KE using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent CMR at 3 T, including a four-dimensional phase-contrast flow sequence. Mean LA KE was lower than RA KE (1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 mJ, P < 0.01). Three KE peaks were seen in both atria: one in ventricular systole, one during early ventricular diastole, and one during atrial contraction. The systolic LA peak was significantly smaller than the RA peak (P < 0.001), and the early diastolic LA peak was larger than the RA peak (P < 0.05). Rotational flow contained 46 ± 7% of total KE and conserved energy better than nonrotational flow did. The KE increase in early diastole was higher in the LA (P < 0.001). Systolic KE correlated with the combination of atrial volume and systolic velocity of the atrioventricular plane displacement (r(2) = 0.57 for LA and r(2) = 0.64 for RA). Early diastolic KE of the LA correlated with left ventricle (LV) mass (r(2) = 0.28), however, no such correlation was found in the right heart. This suggests that LA KE increases during early ventricular diastole due to LV elastic recoil, indicating that LV filling is dependent on diastolic suction. Right ventricle (RV) relaxation does not seem to contribute to atrial KE. Instead, RA KE generated during ventricular systole may be conserved in a hydraulic "flywheel" and transferred to the RV through helical flow, which may contribute to RV filling.

  17. Classification of four-dimensional real Lie bialgebras of symplectic type and their Poisson-Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi-Fardad, J.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.; Haghighatdoost, Gh.

    2017-01-01

    We classify all four-dimensional real Lie bialgebras of symplectic type and obtain the classical r-matrices for these Lie bialgebras and Poisson structures on all the associated four-dimensional Poisson-Lie groups. We obtain some new integrable models where a Poisson-Lie group plays the role of the phase space and its dual Lie group plays the role of the symmetry group of the system.

  18. Four-dimensional sonography with spatiotemporal image correlation and tomographic ultrasound imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of anomalous pulmonary venous connections.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ruan; Xie, Hong-Ning; Du, Liu; Shi, Hui-Juan; Zheng, Ju; Zhu, Yun-Xiao

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether the use of 4-dimensional (4D) sonography with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) can provide additional information with respect to 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in the prenatal diagnosis of anomalous pulmonary venous connections. The study population consisted of 10 cases that were initially suspected to have total or partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections by prenatal 2D echocardiography between January 2008 and April 2011. All 10 cases were further examined and analyzed by 4D sonography with STIC-TUI. Detailed postnatal surgery or autopsy was performed on all 10 fetuses. Total anomalous pulmonary venous connections were found in 5 cases, and a partial connection was diagnosed in 1 fetus postnatally. The remaining 4 cases were confirmed to have normal pulmonary venous connections. Four of the 5 fetuses with anomalous pulmonary venous connections had an additional major cardiac defect; 1 fetus had an isolated connection. Anomalous drainage was supracardiac to the superior vena cava in 2 cases, cardiac to the coronary sinus in 3, and partially infracardiac to the portal vein in remaining case. The pulmonary venous connections were completely and correctly visualized with 2D echocardiography in 2 of the 10 cases, partially identified in 4, and not distinguished completely in 4. Four-dimensional sonography imaging with STIC-TUI clearly visualized the connections in 9 of the 10 cases, and the remaining case was partially identified. Four-dimensional sonography with STIC-TUI facilitates visualization of pulmonary venous connections, thus supplying additional information with respect to 2D echocardiography in the prenatal diagnosis of anomalous pulmonary venous connections.

  19. Energy conditions for the four dimensional cosmological model with nonminimal derivative coupling of scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suroso, Agus; Zen, Freddy P.; Hikmawan, Getbogi

    2015-09-01

    The energy conditions is a set of linear equations of energy density ρ and pressure p which ensure the the field(s) that we used in our model is physically "reasonable". We study the energy conditions for four dimensional nonminimal derivative coupling of scalar field and curvature tensor. Considering the scalar field as a perfect fluid, we find some constraint for the coupling constant ξ in order the energy conditions is satisfied or violated. We find that strong energy conditions (SEC) is violated if -1/9H2 ≤ ξ < 1/18H2. For de Sitter solution a ∝ eH0t for some constant H0, we find that while null, weak, and dominant energy conditions violated when ξ <-[12 H02(2 +9 H02) ] -1 . The accelerating universe is exist for the power law solution (a ∝ tp for constant p) if ξ < 0.

  20. Four-dimensional tracking of spatially incoherent illuminated samples using self-interference digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Tianlong; Wan, Yuhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Dayong

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method for the four-dimensional tracking of a spatially incoherent illuminated object. Self-interference digital holography is utilized for recording the hologram of the spatially incoherent illuminated object. Three-dimensional spatial coordinates encoded in the hologram are extracted by holographic reconstruction procedure and tracking algorithms, while the time information is reserved by the single-shot configuration. Applications of the holographic tracking methods are expanded to the incoherent imaging areas. Speckles and potential damage to the samples of the coherent illuminated tracking methods are overcome. Results on the quantitative tracking of three-dimensional spatial position over time are reported. In practical, living zebra fish larva is used to demonstrate one of the applications of the method.

  1. On the integrability of four dimensional gauge theories in the omega background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Hsin, Po-Shen; Koroteev, Peter

    2013-08-01

    We continue to investigate the relationship between the infrared physics of supersymmetric gauge theories in four dimensions and various integrable models such as Gaudin, Calogero-Moser and quantum spin chains. We prove interesting dualities among some of these integrable systems by performing different, albeit equivalent, quantizations of the Seiberg-Witten curve of the four dimensional theory. We also discuss conformal field theories related to 4d gauge theories by the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa (AGT) duality and the role of conformal blocks of those CFTs in the integrable systems. As a consequence, the equivalence of conformal blocks of rank two Toda and Novikov-Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZNW) theories on the torus with punctures is found.

  2. Discrete gauge symmetries by Higgsing in four-dimensional F-theory compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer, Christoph; Palti, Eran; Till, Oskar; Weigand, Timo

    2014-12-01

    We study F-theory compactifications to four dimensions that exhibit discrete gauge symmetries. Geometrically these arise by deforming elliptic fibrations with two sections to a genus-one fibration with a bi-section. From a four-dimensional field theory perspective they are remnant symmetries from a Higgsed U(1) gauge symmetry. We implement such symmetries in the presence of an additional SU(5) symmetry and associated matter fields, giving a geometric prescription for calculating the induced discrete charge for the matter curves and showing the absence of Yukawa couplings that are forbidden by this charge. We present a detailed map between the field theory and the geometry, including an identification of the Higgs field and the massless states before and after the Higgsing. Finally we show that the Higgsing of the U(1) induces a G-flux which precisely accounts for the change in the Calabi-Yau Euler number so as to leave the D3 tadpole invariant.

  3. Nanomechanics and intermolecular forces of amyloid revealed by four-dimensional electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Anthony W P; Vanacore, Giovanni M; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2015-03-17

    The amyloid state of polypeptides is a stable, highly organized structural form consisting of laterally associated β-sheet protofilaments that may be adopted as an alternative to the functional, native state. Identifying the balance of forces stabilizing amyloid is fundamental to understanding the wide accessibility of this state to peptides and proteins with unrelated primary sequences, various chain lengths, and widely differing native structures. Here, we use four-dimensional electron microscopy to demonstrate that the forces acting to stabilize amyloid at the atomic level are highly anisotropic, that an optimized interbackbone hydrogen-bonding network within β-sheets confers 20 times more rigidity on the structure than sequence-specific sidechain interactions between sheets, and that electrostatic attraction of protofilaments is only slightly stronger than these weak amphiphilic interactions. The potential biological relevance of the deposition of such a highly anisotropic biomaterial in vivo is discussed.

  4. Portraying entanglement between molecular qubits with four-dimensional inelastic neutron scattering

    PubMed Central

    Garlatti, E.; Guidi, T.; Ansbro, S.; Santini, P.; Amoretti, G.; Ollivier, J.; Mutka, H.; Timco, G.; Vitorica-Yrezabal, I. J.; Whitehead, G. F. S.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Carretta, S.

    2017-01-01

    Entanglement is a crucial resource for quantum information processing and its detection and quantification is of paramount importance in many areas of current research. Weakly coupled molecular nanomagnets provide an ideal test bed for investigating entanglement between complex spin systems. However, entanglement in these systems has only been experimentally demonstrated rather indirectly by macroscopic techniques or by fitting trial model Hamiltonians to experimental data. Here we show that four-dimensional inelastic neutron scattering enables us to portray entanglement in weakly coupled molecular qubits and to quantify it. We exploit a prototype (Cr7Ni)2 supramolecular dimer as a benchmark to demonstrate the potential of this approach, which allows one to extract the concurrence in eigenstates of a dimer of molecular qubits without diagonalizing its full Hamiltonian. PMID:28216631

  5. Four-dimensional motility tracking of biological cells by digital holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Hong, Jisoo; Liu, Changgeng; Cross, Michael; Haynie, Donald T.; Kim, Myung K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Three-dimensional profiling and tracking by digital holography microscopy (DHM) provide label-free and quantitative analysis of the characteristics and dynamic processes of objects, since DHM can record real-time data for microscale objects and produce a single hologram containing all the information about their three-dimensional structures. Here, we have utilized DHM to visualize suspended microspheres and microfibers in three dimensions, and record the four-dimensional trajectories of free-swimming cells in the absence of mechanical focus adjustment. The displacement of microfibers due to interactions with cells in three spatial dimensions has been measured as a function of time at subsecond and micrometer levels in a direct and straightforward manner. It has thus been shown that DHM is a highly efficient and versatile means for quantitative tracking and analysis of cell motility. PMID:24699632

  6. Portraying entanglement between molecular qubits with four-dimensional inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlatti, E.; Guidi, T.; Ansbro, S.; Santini, P.; Amoretti, G.; Ollivier, J.; Mutka, H.; Timco, G.; Vitorica-Yrezabal, I. J.; Whitehead, G. F. S.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Carretta, S.

    2017-02-01

    Entanglement is a crucial resource for quantum information processing and its detection and quantification is of paramount importance in many areas of current research. Weakly coupled molecular nanomagnets provide an ideal test bed for investigating entanglement between complex spin systems. However, entanglement in these systems has only been experimentally demonstrated rather indirectly by macroscopic techniques or by fitting trial model Hamiltonians to experimental data. Here we show that four-dimensional inelastic neutron scattering enables us to portray entanglement in weakly coupled molecular qubits and to quantify it. We exploit a prototype (Cr7Ni)2 supramolecular dimer as a benchmark to demonstrate the potential of this approach, which allows one to extract the concurrence in eigenstates of a dimer of molecular qubits without diagonalizing its full Hamiltonian.

  7. New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, Per; Yin, Yihao

    2017-01-01

    We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in arXiv:1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by a sum of generalized Petrov type-D tensors that are Kerr-like or 2-brane-like in the asymptotic AdS4 region, and the twistor space connection is smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.

  8. GeoViS-Relativistic ray tracing in four-dimensional spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The optical appearance of objects moving close to the speed of light or orbiting a black hole is of interest for educational purposes as well as for scientific modeling in special and general relativity. The standard approach to visualize such settings is ray tracing in four-dimensional spacetimes where the direction of the physical propagation of light is reversed. GeoViS implements this ray tracing principle making use of the Motion4D library that handles the spacetime metrics, the integration of geodesics, and the description of objects defined with respect to local reference frames. In combination with the GeodesicViewer, GeoViS might be a valuable tool for graduate students to get a deeper understanding in the visual effects of special and general relativity.

  9. A reduced-order optimization strategy for four dimensional variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, I.; Khol, A.; Stammer, D.; Heimbach, P.

    2003-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation methods remain expensive for operational oceanography. Every optimization step requires actually one forward and one backward integration of the numerical model, and the huge dimension of the system control vector makes the convergence of the optimization procedure very slow. In this study, an order reduction is applied to the control vector in order to speed up the convergence of the optimization. The reduction is based on an Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. Some important features however can not be represented in the reduced space. We therefore propose to start the optimization in the reduced space and than continue in the full control space. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated using a simple configuration of the MIT model over the North Atlantic ocean.

  10. Modeling lung motion using consistent image registration in four-dimensional computed tomography for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Song, Joo Hyun; Christensen, Gary E.; Parikh, Parag J.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory motion is a significant source of error in conformal radiation therapy for the thorax and upper abdomen. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) has been proposed to reduce the uncertainty caused by internal respiratory organ motion. A 4D CT dataset is retrospectively reconstructed at various stages of a respiratory cycle. An important tool for 4D treatment planning is deformable image registration. An inverse consistent image registration is used to model lung motion from one respiratory stage to another during a breathing cycle. This diffeomorphic registration jointly estimates the forward and reverse transformations providing more accurate correspondence between two images. Registration results and modeled motions in the lung are shown for three example respiratory stages. The results demonstrate that the consistent image registration satisfactorily models the large motions in the lung, providing a useful tool for 4D planning and delivering.

  11. A four-dimensional primitive equation model for coupled coastal-deep ocean studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haidvogel, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype four dimensional continental shelf/deep ocean model is described. In its present form, the model incorporates the effects of finite amplitude topography, advective nonlinearities, and variable stratification and rotation. The model can be forced either directly by imposed atmospheric windstress and surface pressure distributions, and energetic mean currents imposed by the exterior oceanic circulation; or indirectly by initial distributions of shoreward propagation mesoscale waves and eddies. To avoid concerns over the appropriate specification of 'open' boundary conditions on the cross-shelf and seaward model boundaries, a periodic channel geometry (oriented along-coast) is used. The model employs a traditional finite difference expansion in the cross-shelf direction, and a Fourier (periodic) representation in the long-shelf coordinate.

  12. A new family of four-dimensional symplectic and integrable mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capel, H. W.; Sahadevan, R.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the generalisations of the Quispel, Roberts and Thompson (QRT) family of mappings in the plane leaving a rational quadratic expression invariant to the case of four variables. We assume invariance of the rational expression under a cyclic permutation of variables and we impose a symplectic structure with Poisson brackets of the Weyl type. All mappings satisfying these conditions are shown to be integrable either as four-dimensional mappings with two explicit integrals which are in involution with respect to the symplectic structure and which can also be inferred from the periodic reductions of the double-discrete versions of the modified Korteweg-deVries ( ΔΔMKdV) and sine-Gordon ( ΔΔsG) equations or by reduction to two-dimensional mappings with one integral of the symmetric QRT family.

  13. Structures of larger proteins in solution: Three- and four-dimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gronenborn, A.M.; Clore, G.M.

    1994-12-01

    Complete understanding of a protein`s function and mechanism of action can only be achieved with a knowledge of its three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution. At present, there are two methods available for determining such structures. The first method, which has been established for many years, is x-ray diffraction of protein single crystals. The second method has blossomed only in the last 5 years and is based on the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to proteins in solution. This review paper describes three- and four-dimensional NMR methods applied to protein structure determination and was adapted from Clore and Gronenborn. The review focuses on the underlying principals and practice of multidimensional NMR and the structural information obtained.

  14. Weak constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a model of the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, William J.; Smith, Polly J.; Milliff, Ralph F.; Fiechter, Jerome; Wikle, Christopher K.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.

    2016-12-01

    A new approach is explored for computing estimates of the error covariance associated with the intrinsic errors of a numerical forecast model in regions characterized by upwelling and downwelling. The approach used is based on a combination of strong constraint data assimilation, twin model experiments, linear inverse modeling, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling. The resulting model error covariance estimates Q are applied to a model of the California Current System using weak constraint four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to compute estimates of the ocean circulation. The results of this study show that the estimates of Q derived following our approach lead to demonstrable improvements in the model circulation estimates and isolate regions where model errors are likely to be important and that have been independently identified in the same model in previously published work.

  15. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT): A review of the current status and applications.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Yune; Mel, Alexandra Olimpia; Wheeler, Greg; Troupis, John M

    2015-10-01

    The applications of conventional computed tomography (CT) have been widely researched and implemented in clinical practice. A recent technological innovation in the field of CT is the emergence of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), where a three-dimensional computed tomography volume containing a moving structure is imaged over a period of time, creating a dynamic volume data set. 4DCT has previously been mainly utilised in the setting of radiation therapy planning, but with the development of wide field of view CT, 4DCT has opened major avenues in the diagnostic arena. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive narrative review of the literature regarding the current clinical applications of 4DCT. The applications reviewed include both routine diagnostic usage as well as an appraisal of the current research literature. A systematic review of the studies related to 4DCT was conducted. The Medline database was searched using the MeSH subject heading 'Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography'. After excluding non-human and non-English papers, 2598 articles were found. Further exclusion criteria were applied, including date range (since wide field of view CT was introduced in 2007), and exclusion of technical/engineering/physics papers. Further filtration of papers included identification of Review papers. This process yielded 67 papers. Of these, exclusion of papers not specifically discussing 4DCT (cone beam, 4D models) yielded 38 papers. As part of the review, the technique for 4DCT is described, with perspectives as to how it has evolved and its benefits in different clinical indications.

  16. Four-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography: Implications for Dose Painting of High-Uptake Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Killoran, Joseph H.; Chen, Aileen B.; Berbeco, Ross I.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of tumor subvolumes of high [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake as seen on clinical four-dimensional (4D) FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional FDG-PET/computed tomography scans from 13 patients taken before radiotherapy were available. The analysis was focused on regions of high uptake that are potential dose-painting targets. A total of 17 lesions (primary tumors and lymph nodes) were analyzed. On each one of the five phases of the 4D scan a classification algorithm was applied to obtain the region of highest uptake and segment the tumor volume. We looked at the behavior of both the high-uptake subvolume, called 'Boost,' and the segmented tumor volume, called 'Target.' We measured several quantities that characterize the Target and Boost volumes and quantified correlations between them. Results: The behavior of the Target could not always predict the behavior of the Boost. The shape deformation of the Boost regions was on average 133% higher than that of the Target. The gross to internal target volume expansion was on average 27.4% for the Target and 64% for the Boost, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Finally, the inhale-to-exhale phase (20%) had the highest shape deformation for the Boost regions. Conclusions: A complex relationship between the measured quantities for the Boost and Target volumes is revealed. The results suggest that in cases in which advanced therapy techniques such as dose painting are being used, a close examination of the 4D PET scan should be performed.

  17. Breathing-Synchronized Delivery: A Potential Four-Dimensional Tomotherapy Treatment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Tiezhi . E-mail: tiezhi.zhang@beaumont.edu; Lu Weiguo; Olivera, Gustavo H.; Keller, Harry; Jeraj, Robert; Manon, Rafael; Mehta, Minesh; Mackie, Thomas R.; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To introduce a four-dimensional (4D) tomotherapy treatment technique with improved motion control and patient tolerance. Methods and Materials: Computed tomographic images at 10 breathing phases were acquired for treatment planning. The full exhalation phase was chosen as the planning phase, and the CT images at this phase were used as treatment-planning images. Region of interest delineation was the same as in traditional treatment planning, except that no breathing motion margin was used in clinical target volume-planning target volume expansion. The correlation between delivery and breathing phases was set assuming a constant gantry speed and a fixed breathing period. Deformable image registration yielded the deformation fields at each phase relative to the planning phase. With the delivery/breathing phase correlation and voxel displacements at each breathing phase, a 4D tomotherapy plan was obtained by incorporating the motion into inverse treatment plan optimization. A combined laser/spirometer breathing tracking system has been developed to monitor patient breathing. This system is able to produce stable and reproducible breathing signals representing tidal volume. Results: We compared the 4D tomotherapy treatment planning method with conventional tomotherapy on a static target. The results showed that 4D tomotherapy can achieve dose distributions on a moving target similar to those obtained with conventional delivery on a stationary target. Regular breathing motion is fully compensated by motion-incorporated breathing-synchronized delivery planning. Four-dimensional tomotherapy also has close to 100% duty cycle and does not prolong treatment time. Conclusion: Breathing-synchronized delivery is a feasible 4D tomotherapy treatment technique with improved motion control and patient tolerance.

  18. Preventing Data Ambiguity in Infectious Diseases with Four-Dimensional and Personalized Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Iandiorio, Michelle J.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Trikka-Graphakos, Eleftheria; Charalampaki, Nikoletta; Sereti, Christina; Tegos, George P.; Hoogesteijn, Almira L.; Rivas, Ariel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnostic errors can occur, in infectious diseases, when anti-microbial immune responses involve several temporal scales. When responses span from nanosecond to week and larger temporal scales, any pre-selected temporal scale is likely to miss some (faster or slower) responses. Hoping to prevent diagnostic errors, a pilot study was conducted to evaluate a four-dimensional (4D) method that captures the complexity and dynamics of infectious diseases. Methods Leukocyte-microbial-temporal data were explored in canine and human (bacterial and/or viral) infections, with: (i) a non-structured approach, which measures leukocytes or microbes in isolation; and (ii) a structured method that assesses numerous combinations of interacting variables. Four alternatives of the structured method were tested: (i) a noise-reduction oriented version, which generates a single (one data point-wide) line of observations; (ii) a version that measures complex, three-dimensional (3D) data interactions; (iii) a non-numerical version that displays temporal data directionality (arrows that connect pairs of consecutive observations); and (iv) a full 4D (single line-, complexity-, directionality-based) version. Results In all studies, the non-structured approach revealed non-interpretable (ambiguous) data: observations numerically similar expressed different biological conditions, such as recovery and lack of recovery from infections. Ambiguity was also found when the data were structured as single lines. In contrast, two or more data subsets were distinguished and ambiguity was avoided when the data were structured as complex, 3D, single lines and, in addition, temporal data directionality was determined. The 4D method detected, even within one day, changes in immune profiles that occurred after antibiotics were prescribed. Conclusions Infectious disease data may be ambiguous. Four-dimensional methods may prevent ambiguity, providing earlier, in vivo, dynamic, complex, and

  19. On-board four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis: first experimental results.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Jacqueline; Godfrey, Devon; Wang, Zhiheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis (4D-DTS) for on-board analysis of motion information in three dimensions. Images of a dynamic motion phantom were reconstructed using acquisition scan angles ranging from 20 degrees (DTS) to full 360 degrees cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Projection images were acquired using an on-board imager mounted on a clinical linear accelerator. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the moving target were reconstructed for various scan angles. 3D respiratory correlated phase images were also reconstructed. For phase-based image reconstructions, the trajectory of a radiopaque marker was tracked in projection space and used to retrospectively assign respiratory phases to projections. The projections were then sorted according phase and used to reconstruct motion correlated images. By using two sets of projections centered about anterior-posterior and lateral axes, this study demonstrates how phase resolved coronal and sagittal DTS images can be used to obtain 3D motion information. Motion artifacts in 4D-DTS phase images are compared with those present in four-dimensional CT (4DCT) images. Due to the nature of data acquisition for the two modalities, superior-inferior motion artifacts are suppressed to a greater extent in 4D-DTS images compared with 4DCT. Theoretical derivations and experimental results are presented to demonstrate how optimal selection of image acquisition parameters including the frequency of projection acquisition and the phase window depend on the respiratory period. Two methods for acquiring projections are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that 4D-DTS can be used to acquire valuable kinetic information of internal anatomy just prior to radiation treatment.

  20. Aspects of compactifications and black holes in four-dimensional supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looijestijn, H. T.

    2010-09-01

    In the 20th century, theoretical physics has seen the development of General Relativity and the Standard Model of elementary particles. These theories describe, with great precision, gravity and all known matter, respectively. However, it is not possible to unite them into one, single theory. We need such a theory of quantum gravitation to study phenomena where both theories are important, such as black holes and the Big Bang. One of the leading candidates for a theory of quantum gravitation is string theory. The low-energy limit of string theory is called supergravity. This thesis studies some of the open questions in string theory, in the setting of four-dimensional supergravity. We first classify the fully supersymmetric solutions of gauged N=2 supergravity with arbitrary gaugings in the vector- and hypermultiplet sectors. We present several examples of such solutions and connect some of them to vacuum solutions of flux compactifications in string theory. The next chapter searches for black hole solutions, where the scalars in the theory are gauged. Next, we show how one can embed known black hole solutions trough spontaneous symmetry breaking. When searching for new solutions, we find solutions only in cases when the metric contains ripples and the vector multiplet scalars become ghost-like. We then show how one can obtain four-dimensional supergravities by a Scherk-Schwarz reduction of eleven-dimensional supergravity, and study its equivalence with a compactification on a seven-dimensional space. Finally, we study general aspects of NS5-brane instantons in relation to the stabilization of the volume modulus in Calabi-Yau compactifications of type II strings with fluxes, and their orientifold versions.

  1. Variation in Lung Tumour Breathing Motion between Planning Four-dimensional Computed Tomography and Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Delivery and its Dosimetric Implications: Any Role for Four-dimensional Set-up Verification?

    PubMed

    Ruben, J D; Seeley, A; Panettieri, V; Ackerly, T

    2016-01-01

    To investigate variation in tumour breathing motion (TBM) between the planning four-dimensional computed tomograph (4DCT) and treatment itself for primary or secondary lung tumours undergoing stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Sixteen consecutive patients underwent planning 4DCT at least 1 week after implantation of a fiducial marker. The maximal extent of breathing motion of the intra-tumoural fiducial was measured at 4DCT and again at delivery of each SABR fraction on the linac using stereoscopic kilovoltage imaging. Displacements of the fiducial beyond planned limits were measured in three dimensions and represented as vectors. Variation in breathing motion between the planning 4DCT and treatment, and between individual SABR fractions was analysed. Although TBM at treatment exceeded planned tumour motion limits for at least part of the course for all patients, 31% of patients remained consistently within 1 mm, 50% within 2 mm and 69% consistently within 3 mm of planned parameters. However, 19% of patients experienced TBM variation 5 mm or more beyond planned limits for at least one fraction. For all patients, the median displacement vector at treatment beyond the planned motion envelope was 1.0 mm (mean 2.0 mm, range 0-12.7 mm). Variation in TBM at treatment from 4DCT correlated neither with the magnitude of TBM at 4DCT nor with planning target volume size (rs = 0.13, P = 0.62; rs = 0.02, P = 0.94, respectively). Nor was TBM variation related to tumour type or lobar position (P = 0.35, P = 0.06, respectively). Inter-fraction TBM variation was modest, with an average standard deviation of 1.7 mm (0.3-8.7 mm). TBM variation between 4DCT and treatment and between SABR fractions was modest for most patients. However, 19% of patients experienced significant TBM variation that could be clinically relevant for those most severely affected. It seems prudent to carry out on-couch assessment of TBM at each SABR fraction to identify such patients who might benefit

  2. Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using image-based respiratory surrogate: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jing; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Paul Segars, William; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) has been widely used in radiation therapy to assess patient-specific breathing motion for determining individual safety margins. However, it has two major drawbacks: low soft-tissue contrast and an excessive imaging dose to the patient. This research aimed to develop a clinically feasible four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) technique to overcome these limitations. Methods: The proposed 4D-MRI technique was achieved by continuously acquiring axial images throughout the breathing cycle using fast 2D cine-MR imaging, and then retrospectively sorting the images by respiratory phase. The key component of the technique was the use of body area (BA) of the axial MR images as an internal respiratory surrogate to extract the breathing signal. The validation of the BA surrogate was performed using 4D-CT images of 12 cancer patients by comparing the respiratory phases determined using the BA method to those determined clinically using the Real-time position management (RPM) system. The feasibility of the 4D-MRI technique was tested on a dynamic motion phantom, the 4D extended Cardiac Torso (XCAT) digital phantom, and two healthy human subjects. Results: Respiratory phases determined from the BA matched closely to those determined from the RPM: mean (±SD) difference in phase: −3.9% (±6.4%); mean (±SD) absolute difference in phase: 10.40% (±3.3%); mean (±SD) correlation coefficient: 0.93 (±0.04). In the motion phantom study, 4D-MRI clearly showed the sinusoidal motion of the phantom; image artifacts observed were minimal to none. Motion trajectories measured from 4D-MRI and 2D cine-MRI (used as a reference) matched excellently: the mean (±SD) absolute difference in motion amplitude: −0.3 (±0.5) mm. In the 4D-XCAT phantom study, the simulated “4D-MRI” images showed good consistency with the original 4D-XCAT phantom images. The motion trajectory of the hypothesized “tumor” matched

  3. USPIO-enhanced 3D-cine self-gated cardiac MRI based on a stack-of-stars golden angle short echo time sequence: Application on mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Trotier, Aurélien J; Castets, Charles R; Lefrançois, William; Ribot, Emeline J; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudière, Eric; Miraux, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    To develop and assess a 3D-cine self-gated method for cardiac imaging of murine models. A 3D stack-of-stars (SOS) short echo time (STE) sequence with a navigator echo was performed at 7T on healthy mice (n = 4) and mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 4) injected with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles. In all, 402 spokes were acquired per stack with the incremental or the golden angle method using an angle increment of (360/402)° or 222.48°, respectively. A cylindrical k-space was filled and repeated with a maximum number of repetitions (NR) of 10. 3D cine cardiac images at 156 μm resolution were reconstructed retrospectively and compared for the two methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The golden angle images were also reconstructed with NR = 10, 6, and 3, to assess cardiac functional parameters (ejection fraction, EF) on both animal models. The combination of 3D SOS-STE and USPIO injection allowed us to optimize the identification of cardiac peaks on navigator signal and generate high CNR between blood and myocardium (15.3 ± 1.0). The golden angle method resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of the spokes inside a stack (P < 0.05), enabling reducing the acquisition time to 15 minutes. EF was significantly different between healthy and MI mice (P < 0.05). The method proposed here showed that 3D-cine images could be obtained without electrocardiogram or respiratory gating in mice. It allows precise measurement of cardiac functional parameters even on MI mice. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:355-365. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Late infectious endocarditis of surgical patch closure of atrial septal defects diagnosed by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose gated cardiac computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT): a case report.

    PubMed

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Riberi, Alberto; Habib, Gilbert; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-24

    In contrast to percutaneous atrial septal occluder device, surgical patch closure of atrial defects was known to be no infective endocarditis risk. We herein report the first case of late endocarditis of surgical patch closure of atrial septal defects occurred at 47-year after surgery. On September 2014, a 56-year-old immunocompetent French Caucasian man was admitted into the Emergency Department for 3-week history of headache, acute decrease of psychomotor performance and fever at 40 °C. The diagnosis has been evoked during his admission for the management of a brain abscess and confirmed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose gated cardiac computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT). Bacterial cultures of surgical deep samples of brain abscess were positive for Streptococcus intermedius and Aggregatibacter aphrophilus as identified by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated by antibiotics for 8 weeks and surgical patch closure removal. In summary, late endocarditis on surgical patch and on percutaneous atrial septal occluder device of atrial septal defects is rare. Cardiac imaging by the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose gated cardiac computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) could improve the diagnosis and care endocarditis on surgical patch closure of atrial septal defects while transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography remained difficult to interpret.

  5. Evaluating the four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography with varying gantry rotation speed.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, S A; Maria Das, K J; Mohamed Ali, Shajahan; Agarwal, Arpita; Mishra, Surendra P; Kumar, Shaleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the four-dimensional cone beam CT (4DCBCT) imaging with different gantry rotation speed. All the 4DCBCT image acquisitions were carried out in Elekta XVI Symmetry™ system (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). A dynamic thorax phantom with tumour mimicking inserts of diameter 1, 2 and 3 cm was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion (4 s) of the target. 4DCBCT images were acquired with different gantry rotation speeds (36°, 50°, 75°, 100°, 150° and 200° min(-1)). Owing to the technical limitation of 4DCBCT system, average cone beam CT (CBCT) images derived from the 10 phases of 4DCBCT were used for the internal target volume (ITV) contouring. ITVs obtained from average CBCT were compared with the four-dimensional CT (4DCT). In addition, the image quality of 4DCBCT was also evaluated for various gantry rotation speeds using Catphan(®) 600 (The Phantom Laboratory Inc., Salem, NY). Compared to 4DCT, the average CBCT underestimated the ITV. The ITV deviation increased with increasing gantry speed (-10.8% vs -17.8% for 36° and 200° min(-1) in 3-cm target) and decreasing target size (-17.8% vs -26.8% for target diameter 3 and 1 cm in 200° min(-1)). Similarly, the image quality indicators such as spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio and uniformity also degraded with increasing gantry rotation speed. The impact of gantry rotation speed has to be considered when using 4DCBCT for ITV definition. The phantom study demonstrated that 4DCBCT with slow gantry rotation showed better image quality and less ITV deviation. Usually, the gantry rotation period of Elekta 4DCBCT system is kept constant at 4 min (50° min(-1)) for acquisition, and any attempt of decreasing/increasing the acquisition duration requires careful investigation. In this study, the 4DCBCT images with different gantry rotation speed were evaluated.

  6. Evaluating the four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography with varying gantry rotation speed

    PubMed Central

    Maria Das, K J; Mohamed Ali, Shajahan; Agarwal, Arpita; Mishra, Surendra P; Kumar, Shaleen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the four-dimensional cone beam CT (4DCBCT) imaging with different gantry rotation speed. Methods: All the 4DCBCT image acquisitions were carried out in Elekta XVI Symmetry™ system (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). A dynamic thorax phantom with tumour mimicking inserts of diameter 1, 2 and 3 cm was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion (4 s) of the target. 4DCBCT images were acquired with different gantry rotation speeds (36°, 50°, 75°, 100°, 150° and 200° min−1). Owing to the technical limitation of 4DCBCT system, average cone beam CT (CBCT) images derived from the 10 phases of 4DCBCT were used for the internal target volume (ITV) contouring. ITVs obtained from average CBCT were compared with the four-dimensional CT (4DCT). In addition, the image quality of 4DCBCT was also evaluated for various gantry rotation speeds using Catphan® 600 (The Phantom Laboratory Inc., Salem, NY). Results: Compared to 4DCT, the average CBCT underestimated the ITV. The ITV deviation increased with increasing gantry speed (−10.8% vs −17.8% for 36° and 200° min−1 in 3-cm target) and decreasing target size (−17.8% vs −26.8% for target diameter 3 and 1 cm in 200° min−1). Similarly, the image quality indicators such as spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio and uniformity also degraded with increasing gantry rotation speed. Conclusion: The impact of gantry rotation speed has to be considered when using 4DCBCT for ITV definition. The phantom study demonstrated that 4DCBCT with slow gantry rotation showed better image quality and less ITV deviation. Advances in knowledge: Usually, the gantry rotation period of Elekta 4DCBCT system is kept constant at 4 min (50° min−1) for acquisition, and any attempt of decreasing/increasing the acquisition duration requires careful investigation. In this study, the 4DCBCT images with different gantry rotation speed were evaluated. PMID:26916281

  7. Toward four-dimensional image-guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally recurrent endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Fokdal, Lars; Ørtoft, Gitte; Hansen, Estrid S; Røhl, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate clinical outcome and feasibility of a four-dimensional image-guided adaptive brachytherapy concept in patients with locally recurrent endometrial cancer. Forty-three patients with locally recurrent endometrial cancer were included. Treatment consisted of conformal external beam radiotherapy followed by a boost using pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT). Large tumors were treated with MRI-guided interstitial BT. Small tumors were treated with CT-guided intracavitary BT. The planning aim (total external beam radiotherapy and BT) for high-risk clinical target volume was D90 > 80 Gy, whereas constraints for organs at risk were D2cc ≤ 90 Gy for bladder and D2cc ≤ 70 Gy for rectum, sigmoid, and bowel in terms of equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions. Median high-risk clinical target volume was 18 cm(3) (range, 0-91). D90 was 82 Gy (range, 77-88). D2cc to bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 67 Gy (range, 50-81), 67 Gy (range, 51-77), and 55 Gy (range, 44-68), respectively. Median followup was 30 months (6-88). Two-year local control rate was 92% (standard error [SE], 5). Disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate was 59% (SE, 8) and 78% (SE, 7), respectively. Patients with low- to intermediate-risk for recurrence had a 2-year disease-free survival rate of 72% (SE, 9) compared with 42% (SE, 12) in patients with high risk for recurrence (p = 0.04). Late morbidity Grade 3 was recorded in 5 (12%) patients. Four-dimensional image-guided adaptive brachytherapy is feasible in locally recurrent endometrial cancer. Local control rate is good. Systemic control remains a problem in patients with high risk for recurrence. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Four-dimensional reconstruction of cultural heritage sites based on photogrammetry and clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulodimos, Athanasios; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Fritsch, Dieter; Makantasis, Konstantinos; Doulamis, Anastasios; Klein, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A system designed and developed for the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of cultural heritage (CH) assets is presented. Two basic approaches are presented. The first one, resulting in an "approximate" 3-D model, uses images retrieved in online multimedia collections; it employs a clustering-based technique to perform content-based filtering and eliminate outliers that significantly reduce the performance of 3-D reconstruction frameworks. The second one is based on input image data acquired through terrestrial laser scanning, as well as close range and airborne photogrammetry; it follows a sophisticated multistep strategy, which leads to a "precise" 3-D model. Furthermore, the concept of change history maps is proposed to address the computational limitations involved in four-dimensional (4-D) modeling, i.e., capturing 3-D models of a CH landmark or site at different time instances. The system also comprises a presentation viewer, which manages the display of the multifaceted CH content collected and created. The described methods have been successfully applied and evaluated in challenging real-world scenarios, including the 4-D reconstruction of the historic Market Square of the German city of Calw in the context of the 4-D-CH-World EU project.

  9. An inventory of four-dimensional data sets for the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Terri

    1989-01-01

    The wide variety of data available to the diligent researcher and the myriad paths to obtaining it are emphasized. This inventory is an attempt to make accessible much of the four-dimensional data available in the world. In this quick-look catalog are listed separate data sets (Data Sets sections), sources of data including centers and large data bases (Sources section), and some data expected to be available in the future (Future Data section). In the Data Sets section, individual data sets are arranged alphabetically by institution, with those archived in the U.S.A. listed first, followed by those found elsewhere. The Sources section includes large data bases, centers, and directories. Sources are arranged alphabetically by country. This section is followed by a Future Data section which is a collection of data sets, experiments, and other future developments of which we are cognizant. A collection of further information and order blanks provided by some of the archiving institutions are presented in the appendix.

  10. Reconstruction and visualization of irregularly sampled three- and four-dimensional ultrasound data for cerebrovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Meairs, S; Beyer, J; Hennerici, M

    2000-02-01

    Although recent studies have demonstrated the potential value of compounded data for improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and speckle contrast for three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography, clinical applications are lacking. We investigated the potential of six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) scanhead position and orientation measurement (POM) devices for registration of in vivo multiplanar, irregularly sampled ultrasound (US) images to a regular 3-D volume space. The results demonstrate that accurate spatial and temporal registration of four-dimensional (4-D) US data can be achieved using a 6-DOF scanhead tracking system. For reconstruction of arbitrary, irregularly sampled US data, we introduce a technique based upon a weighted, ellipsoid Gaussian convolution kernel. Volume renderings of 3-D and 4-D compounded in vivo US data are presented. The results, although restricted to the field of cerebrovascular disease, will be of value to other applications of 3-D sonography, particularly those in which compounding of data through irregular sampling may provide superior information on tissue or vessel structure.

  11. Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

    2014-01-01

    Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h. PMID:24108093

  12. Two-Dimensional Lattice for Four-Dimensional N = 4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, M.; Matsuura, S.; Sugino, F.

    2011-10-01

    We construct a lattice formulation of a mass-deformed two-dimensional N = (8,8) super Yang-Mills theory with preserving two supercharges exactly. Gauge fields are represented by compact unitary link variables, and the exact supercharges on the lattice are nilpotent up to gauge transformations and SU(2)_R rotations. Due to the mass deformation, the lattice model is free from the vacuum degeneracy problem, which was encountered in earlier approaches, and flat directions of scalar fields are stabilized giving discrete minima representing fuzzy S^2. Around the trivial minimum, quantum continuum theory is obtained with no tuning, which serves a nonperturbative construction of the IIA matrix string theory. Moreover, around the minimum of k-coincident fuzzy spheres, four-dimensional N = 4 U(k) super Yang-Mills theory with two commutative and two noncommutative directions emerges. In this theory, sixteen supersymmetries are broken by the mass deformation to two. Assuming the breaking is soft, we give a scenario leading to undeformed N = 4 super Yang-Mills on R^4 without any fine tuning. As an evidence for the validity of the assumption, some computation of 1-loop radiative corrections is presented.

  13. A four-dimensional snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope for bio-imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has proven significance in bio-imaging applications and it has the ability to capture up to several hundred images of different wavelengths offering relevant spectral signatures. To use hyperspectral imaging for in vivo monitoring and diagnosis of the internal body cavities, a snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope is required. However, such reported systems provide only about 50 wavelengths. We have developed a four-dimensional snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope with a spectral range of 400-1000 nm, which can detect 756 wavelengths for imaging, significantly more than such systems. Capturing the three-dimensional datacube sequentially gives the fourth dimension. All these are achieved through a flexible two-dimensional to one-dimensional fiber bundle. The potential of this custom designed and fabricated compact biomedical probe is demonstrated by imaging phantom tissue samples in reflectance and fluorescence imaging modalities. It is envisaged that this novel concept and developed probe will contribute significantly towards diagnostic in vivo biomedical imaging in the near future.

  14. Morphogenesis of an extended phenotype: four-dimensional ant nest architecture

    PubMed Central

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Franks, Nigel R.; Robson Brown, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    Animals produce a variety of structures to modify their environments adaptively. Such structures represent extended phenotypes whose development is rarely studied. To begin to rectify this, we used micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and time-series experiments to obtain the first high-resolution dataset on the four-dimensional growth of ant nests. We show that extrinsic features within the environment, such as the presence of planes between layers of sediment, influence the architecture of Lasius flavus nests, with ants excavating horizontal tunnels along such planes. Intrinsically, the dimensions of the tunnels are associated with individual colonies, the dynamics of excavation can be explained by negative feedback and the angular distribution of tunnels is probably a result of local competition among tunnels for miners. The architecture and dynamics of ant nest excavation therefore result from local interactions of ants with one another and templates inherent in the environment. The influence of the environment on the form of structures has been documented across both biotic and abiotic domains. Our study opens up the utility of CT scanning as a technique for observing the morphogenesis of such structures. PMID:21849386

  15. A four-dimensional snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope for bio-imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has proven significance in bio-imaging applications and it has the ability to capture up to several hundred images of different wavelengths offering relevant spectral signatures. To use hyperspectral imaging for in vivo monitoring and diagnosis of the internal body cavities, a snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope is required. However, such reported systems provide only about 50 wavelengths. We have developed a four-dimensional snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope with a spectral range of 400–1000 nm, which can detect 756 wavelengths for imaging, significantly more than such systems. Capturing the three-dimensional datacube sequentially gives the fourth dimension. All these are achieved through a flexible two-dimensional to one-dimensional fiber bundle. The potential of this custom designed and fabricated compact biomedical probe is demonstrated by imaging phantom tissue samples in reflectance and fluorescence imaging modalities. It is envisaged that this novel concept and developed probe will contribute significantly towards diagnostic in vivo biomedical imaging in the near future. PMID:27044607

  16. Four-Dimensional Ultrafast Electron Microscopy: Insights into an Emerging Technique.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Aniruddha; Eliason, Jeffrey K; Sun, Jingya; Bose, Riya; Flannigan, David J; Mohammed, Omar F

    2017-01-11

    Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D-UEM) is a novel analytical technique that aims to fulfill the long-held dream of researchers to investigate materials at extremely short spatial and temporal resolutions by integrating the excellent spatial resolution of electron microscopes with the temporal resolution of ultrafast femtosecond laser-based spectroscopy. The ingenious use of pulsed photoelectrons to probe surfaces and volumes of materials enables time-resolved snapshots of the dynamics to be captured in a way hitherto impossible by other conventional techniques. The flexibility of 4D-UEM lies in the fact that it can be used in both the scanning (S-UEM) and transmission (UEM) modes depending upon the type of electron microscope involved. While UEM can be employed to monitor elementary structural changes and phase transitions in samples using real-space mapping, diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and tomography, S-UEM is well suited to map ultrafast dynamical events on materials surfaces in space and time. This review provides an overview of the unique features that distinguish these techniques and also illustrates the applications of both S-UEM and UEM to a multitude of problems relevant to materials science and chemistry.

  17. Towards a coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere four dimensional data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngodock, Hans; Carrier, Matthew; Amerault, Clark; Campbell, Timothy; Holt, Teddy; Xu, Liang; Rowley, Clark

    2015-04-01

    Individual 4dvar systems have been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for the ocean model (Navy coastal ocean model, NCOM), the wave model (simulating waves in the nearshore, SWAN) and the atmospheric component of the coupled ocean-atmosphere mesoscale prediction system (COAMPS). Although the three models within COAPMS are coupled in the forward integration, the initialization of each model is done separately. The coupled system forecast is hindered, however, by the lack of a fully coupled and dynamically balanced ocean-atmosphere analysis. A recent work by Ngodock and Carrier (2013) has highlighted this shortcoming with the NCOM-4DVAR, showing that while the NCOM-4DVAR is able to adjust the ocean state properly, the resulting ocean forecast degrades quickly due to the fact that the atmospheric state has not also been adjusted relative to the ocean observations. Likewise, . Currently, the coupled model is initialized using separate analyses for the ocean and atmosphere that do not account for observations in the adjacent fluid. The lack of a coupled analysis produces shocks in the coupled model in the form of gravity waves that degrade the information gained through DA and increase the error in the coupled forecast. The goal of this presentation is to describe ongoing developments at NRL in building a fully coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere four-dimensional variational (4dvar) data assimilation system using the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF).

  18. N = 1 supersymmetric indices and the four-dimensional A-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closset, Cyril; Kim, Heeyeon; Willett, Brian

    2017-08-01

    We compute the supersymmetric partition function of N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories with an R-symmetry on M_4\\cong M_{g,p}× {S}^1 , a principal elliptic fiber bundle of degree p over a genus- g Riemann surface, Σ g . Equivalently, we compute the generalized supersymmetric index I_{M}{_{g,p}, with the supersymmetric three-manifold M_{g,p} as the spatial slice. The ordinary N = 1 supersymmetric index on the round three-sphere is recovered as a special case. We approach this computation from the point of view of a topological A-model for the abelianized gauge fields on the base Σ g . This A-model — or A-twisted two-dimensional N = (2 , 2) gauge theory — encodes all the information about the generalized indices, which are viewed as expectations values of some canonically-defined surface defects wrapped on T 2 inside Σ g × T 2. Being defined by compactification on the torus, the A-model also enjoys natural modular properties, governed by the four-dimensional 't Hooft anomalies. As an application of our results, we provide new tests of Seiberg duality. We also present a new evaluation formula for the three-sphere index as a sum over two-dimensional vacua.

  19. Four-dimensional microscope- integrated optical coherence tomography to enhance visualization in glaucoma surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Neel Dave; Bhullar, Paramjit Kaur; Shieh, Christine; Viehland, Christian; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar Mijail; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph Adam; Toth, Cynthia Ann; Challa, Pratap; Kuo, Anthony Nanlin

    2017-01-01

    We report the first use of swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT) capable of live four-dimensional (4D) (three-dimensional across time) imaging intraoperatively to directly visualize tube shunt placement and trabeculectomy surgeries in two patients with severe open-angle glaucoma and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that was not adequately managed by medical intervention or prior surgery. We performed tube shunt placement and trabeculectomy surgery and used SS-MIOCT to visualize and record surgical steps that benefitted from the enhanced visualization. In the case of tube shunt placement, SS-MIOCT successfully visualized the scleral tunneling, tube shunt positioning in the anterior chamber, and tube shunt suturing. For the trabeculectomy, SS-MIOCT successfully visualized the scleral flap creation, sclerotomy, and iridectomy. Postoperatively, both patients did well, with IOPs decreasing to the target goal. We found the benefit of SS-MIOCT was greatest in surgical steps requiring depth-based assessments. This technology has the potential to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:28300743

  20. Subject-specific four-dimensional liver motion modeling based on registration of dynamic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Noorda, Yolanda H.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of the liver is a promising noninvasive technique for ablation of liver lesions. For the technique to be used in clinical practice, however, the issue of liver motion needs to be addressed. A subject-specific four-dimensional liver motion model is presented that is created based on registration of dynamically acquired magnetic resonance data. This model can be used for predicting the tumor motion trajectory for treatment planning and to indicate the tumor position for treatment guidance. The performance of the model was evaluated on a dynamic scan series that was not used to build the model. The method achieved an average Dice coefficient of 0.93 between the predicted and actual liver profiles and an average vessel misalignment of 3.0 mm. The model performed robustly, with a small variation in the results per subject. The results demonstrate the potential of the model to be used for MRI-guided treatment of liver lesions. Furthermore, the model can possibly be applied in other image-guided therapies, for instance radiotherapy of the liver. PMID:27493981

  1. Spatial correlation functions and dynamical exponents in very large samples of four-dimensional spin glasses.

    PubMed

    Nicolao, Lucas; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-03-01

    The study of the low temperature phase of spin glass models by means of Monte Carlo simulations is a challenging task, because of the very slow dynamics and the severe finite-size effects they show. By exploiting at the best the capabilities of standard modern CPUs (especially the streaming single instruction, multiple data extensions), we have been able to simulate the four-dimensional Edwards-Anderson model with Gaussian couplings up to sizes L=70 and for times long enough to accurately measure the asymptotic behavior. By quenching systems of different sizes to the critical temperature and to temperatures in the whole low temperature phase, we have been able to identify the regime where finite-size effects are negligible: ξ(t)≲L/7. Our estimates for the dynamical exponent (z≃1/T) and for the replicon exponent (α≃1.0 and T independent), that controls the decay of the spatial correlation in the zero overlap sector, are consistent with the replica symmetry breaking theory, but the latter differs from the theoretically conjectured value.

  2. Solutions to Yang-Mills Equations on Four-Dimensional de Sitter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Tatiana A.; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    2017-08-01

    We consider pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory on four-dimensional de Sitter space dS4 and construct a smooth and spatially homogeneous magnetic solution to the Yang-Mills equations. Slicing dS4 as R ×S3, via an SU(2)-equivariant ansatz, we reduce the Yang-Mills equations to ordinary matrix differential equations and further to Newtonian dynamics in a double-well potential. Its local maximum yields a Yang-Mills solution whose color-magnetic field at time τ ∈R is given by B˜a=-1/2 Ia/(R2cosh2τ ), where Ia for a =1 , 2, 3 are the SU(2) generators and R is the de Sitter radius. At any moment, this spatially homogeneous configuration has finite energy, but its action is also finite and of the value -1/2 j (j +1 )(2 j +1 )π3 in a spin-j representation. Similarly, the double-well bounce produces a family of homogeneous finite-action electric-magnetic solutions with the same energy. There is a continuum of other solutions whose energy and action extend down to zero.

  3. Quantification of Artifact Reduction With Real-Time Cine Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Acquisition Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Ulrich W.; Keall, Paul J.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the magnitude and frequency of artifacts in simulated four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images using three real-time acquisition methods- direction-dependent displacement acquisition, simultaneous displacement and phase acquisition, and simultaneous displacement and velocity acquisition- and to compare these methods with commonly used retrospective phase sorting. Methods and Materials: Image acquisition for the four 4D CT methods was simulated with different displacement and velocity tolerances for spheres with radii of 0.5 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2.5 cm, using 58 patient-measured tumors and respiratory motion traces. The magnitude and frequency of artifacts, CT doses, and acquisition times were computed for each method. Results: The mean artifact magnitude was 50% smaller for the three real-time methods than for retrospective phase sorting. The dose was {approx}50% lower, but the acquisition time was 20% to 100% longer for the real-time methods than for retrospective phase sorting. Conclusions: Real-time acquisition methods can reduce the frequency and magnitude of artifacts in 4D CT images, as well as the imaging dose, but they increase the image acquisition time. The results suggest that direction-dependent displacement acquisition is the preferred real-time 4D CT acquisition method, because on average, the lowest dose is delivered to the patient and the acquisition time is the shortest for the resulting number and magnitude of artifacts.

  4. A four-dimensional snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope for bio-imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-04-05

    Hyperspectral imaging has proven significance in bio-imaging applications and it has the ability to capture up to several hundred images of different wavelengths offering relevant spectral signatures. To use hyperspectral imaging for in vivo monitoring and diagnosis of the internal body cavities, a snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope is required. However, such reported systems provide only about 50 wavelengths. We have developed a four-dimensional snapshot hyperspectral video-endoscope with a spectral range of 400-1000 nm, which can detect 756 wavelengths for imaging, significantly more than such systems. Capturing the three-dimensional datacube sequentially gives the fourth dimension. All these are achieved through a flexible two-dimensional to one-dimensional fiber bundle. The potential of this custom designed and fabricated compact biomedical probe is demonstrated by imaging phantom tissue samples in reflectance and fluorescence imaging modalities. It is envisaged that this novel concept and developed probe will contribute significantly towards diagnostic in vivo biomedical imaging in the near future.

  5. Combining four dimensional variational data assimilation and particle filtering for estimating volcanic ash emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Philipp; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Estimating volcanic ash emissions is a very challenging task due to limited monitoring capacities of the ash plume and nonlinear processes in the atmosphere, which renders application of source strength and injection height estimations difficult. Most models, which estimate volcanic ash emissions, make strong simplifications of the dispersion of volcanic ash and corresponding atmospheric processes. The objective of this work is to estimate volcanic ash emissions and simulate the ensuing dispersion applying a full chemistry transport model in a hybrid approach by using its adjoint as well as an ensemble of model runs to quantify forecast uncertainties. Therefore, the four dimensional variational data assimilation version of the EURAD-IM chemistry transport model is extended to include a Sequential Importance Resampling Smoother (SIRS), introducing novel weighting and resampling strategies. In the main SIRS step the ensemble members exchange high rated emission patterns while rejecting emission patterns with low value for the forecast. The emission profiles of the ensemble members are perturbed afterwards to guarantee different emissions for all ensemble members. First identical twin experiments show the ability of the system to estimate the temporal and vertical distribution of volcanic ash emissions. The 4D-var data assimilation algorithm of the new system additionally provides quantitative emission estimation.

  6. Transmigration and phagocytosis of macrophages in an airway infection model using four-dimensional techniques.

    PubMed

    Ding, Peishan; Wu, Huimei; Fang, Lei; Wu, Ming; Liu, Rongyu

    2014-07-01

    During infection, recruited phagocytes transmigrate across the epithelium to remove the pathogens deposited on the airway surface. However, it is difficult to directly observe cellular behaviors (e.g., transmigration) in single-cell layer cultures or in live animals. Combining a three-dimensional (3D) cell coculture model mimicking airway infection with time-lapse confocal imaging as a four-dimensional technique allowed us to image the behaviors of macrophages in 3D over time. The airway infection model was moved to a glass-bottomed dish for live-cell imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using time-lapse confocal imaging, we recorded macrophages transmigrating across the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane of the inserts through the 5-μm pores in the PET membrane. Macrophages on the apical side of the insert exhibited essentially three types of movements, one of which was transmigrating across the epithelial cell monolayer and arriving at the surface of monolayer. We found that adding Staphylococcus aureus to the model increased the transmigration index but not the transmigration time of the macrophages. Only in the presence of S. aureus were the macrophages able to transmigrate across the epithelial cell monolayer. Apical-to-basal transmigration of macrophages was visualized dynamically. We also imaged the macrophages phagocytizing S. aureus deposited on the surface of the monolayer in the airway infection model. This work provides a useful tool to study the cellular behaviors of immune cells spatially and temporally during infection.

  7. Affine group representation formalism for four-dimensional, Lorentzian, quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Ching-Yi; Ita, Eyo E.; Soo, Chopin

    2013-03-01

    Within the context of the Ashtekar variables, the Hamiltonian constraint of four-dimensional pure general relativity with cosmological constant, Λ, is re-expressed as an affine algebra with the commutator of the imaginary part of the Chern-Simons functional, Q, and the positive-definite volume element. This demonstrates that the affine algebra quantization program of Klauder can indeed be applicable to the full Lorentzian signature theory of quantum gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant, and it facilitates the construction of solutions to all of the constraints. Unitary, irreducible representations of the affine group exhibit a natural Hilbert space structure, and coherent states and other physical states can be generated from a fiducial state. It is also intriguing that formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint or the Wheeler-DeWitt equation as an affine algebra requires a non-vanishing cosmological constant, and a fundamental uncertainty relation of the form {Δ{V}/{< {V}> }Δ {Q}≥ 2π Λ L^2_{Planck} (wherein V is the total volume) may apply to all physical states of quantum gravity.

  8. Simulations of four-dimensional simplicial quantum gravity as dynamical triangulation

    SciTech Connect

    Agishtein, M.E.; Migdal, A.A. )

    1992-04-20

    In this paper, Four-Dimensional Simplicial Quantum Gravity is simulated using the dynamical triangulation approach. The authors studied simplicial manifolds of spherical topology and found the critical line for the cosmological constant as a function of the gravitational one, separating the phases of opened and closed Universe. When the bare cosmological constant approaches this line from above, the four-volume grows: the authors reached about 5 {times} 10{sup 4} simplexes, which proved to be sufficient for the statistical limit of infinite volume. However, for the genuine continuum theory of gravity, the parameters of the lattice model should be further adjusted to reach the second order phase transition point, where the correlation length grows to infinity. The authors varied the gravitational constant, and they found the first order phase transition, similar to the one found in three-dimensional model, except in 4D the fluctuations are rather large at the transition point, so that this is close to the second order phase transition. The average curvature in cutoff units is large and positive in one phase (gravity), and small negative in another (antigravity). The authors studied the fractal geometry of both phases, using the heavy particle propagator to define the geodesic map, as well as with the old approach using the shortest lattice paths.

  9. A four-dimensional virtual hand brain-machine interface using active dimension selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Adam G.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) traditionally rely on a fixed, linear transformation from neural signals to an output state-space. In this study, the assumption that a BMI must control a fixed, orthogonal basis set was challenged and a novel active dimension selection (ADS) decoder was explored. Approach. ADS utilizes a two stage decoder by using neural signals to both (i) select an active dimension being controlled and (ii) control the velocity along the selected dimension. ADS decoding was tested in a monkey using 16 single units from premotor and primary motor cortex to successfully control a virtual hand avatar to move to eight different postures. Main results. Following training with the ADS decoder to control 2, 3, and then 4 dimensions, each emulating a grasp shape of the hand, performance reached 93% correct with a bit rate of 2.4 bits s-1 for eight targets. Selection of eight targets using ADS control was more efficient, as measured by bit rate, than either full four-dimensional control or computer assisted one-dimensional control. Significance. ADS decoding allows a user to quickly and efficiently select different hand postures. This novel decoding scheme represents a potential method to reduce the complexity of high-dimension BMI control of the hand.

  10. Slow gantry rotation acquisition technique for on-board four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, Jacqueline; Pan Tinsu; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) has been investigated for motion imaging in the radiotherapy treatment room. The drawbacks of 4D CBCT are long scan times and high imaging doses. The aims of this study were to develop and investigate a slow gantry rotation acquisition protocol for four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis (4D DTS) as a faster, lower dose alternative to 4D CBCT. Methods: This technique was implemented using an On-Board Imager kV imaging system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) mounted on the gantry of a linear accelerator. The general procedure for 4D DTS imaging using slow gantry rotation acquisition consists of the following steps: (1) acquire projections over a limited gantry rotation angle in a single motion with constant frame rate and gantry rotation speed; (2) generate a respiratory signal and temporally match projection images with appropriate points from the respiratory signal; (3) use the respiratory signal to assign phases to each of the projection images; (4) sort projection images into phase bins; and (5) reconstruct phase images. Phantom studies were conducted to validate theoretically derived relationships between acquisition and respiratory parameters. Optimization of acquisition parameters was then conducted by simulating lung scans using patient data. Lung tumors with approximate volumes ranging from 0.12 to 1.53 cm{sup 3} were studied. Results: A protocol for slow gantry rotation 4D DTS was presented. Equations were derived to express relationships between acquisition parameters (frame rate, phase window, and angular intervals between projections), respiratory cycle durations, and resulting acquisition times and numbers of projections. The phantom studies validated the relationships, and the patient studies resulted in determinations of appropriate acquisition parameters. The phase window must be set according to clinical goals. For 10% phase windows, we found that appropriate frame rates

  11. On correlated sources of uncertainty in four dimensional computed tomography data sets.

    PubMed

    Ehler, Eric D; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate the degree of uncertainty inherent to a given four dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) imaging modality and to test for interaction of the investigated factors (i.e., object displacement, velocity, and the period of motion) when determining the object motion coordinates, motion envelope, and the confomality in which it can be defined within a time based data series. A motion phantom consisting of four glass spheres imbedded in low density foam on a one dimensional moving platform was used to investigate the interaction of uncertainty factors in motion trajectory that could be used in comparison of trajectory definition, motion envelope definition and conformality in an optimal 4D-CT imaging environment. The motion platform allowed for a highly defined motion trajectory that could be as the ground truth in the comparison with observed motion in 4D-CT data sets. 4D-CT data sets were acquired for 9 different motion patterns. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed where the factors considered were the phantom maximum velocity, object volume, and the image intensity used to delineate the high density objects. No statistical significance was found for three factor interaction for definition of the motion trajectory, motion envelope, or Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) conformality. Two factor interactions were found to be statistically significant for the DSC for the interactions of 1) object volume and the HU threshold used for delineation and 2) the object velocity and object volume. Moreover, a statistically significant single factor direct proportionality was observed between the maximum velocity and the mean tracking error. In this work multiple factors impacting on the uncertainty in 4D data sets have been considered and some statistically significant two-factor interactions have been identified. Therefore, the detailed evaluation of errors and uncertainties in 4D imaging modalities is recommended in

  12. Development of educational programs using Dagik Earth, a four dimensional display of the Earth and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Akiya, Y.; Yoshida, D.; Odagi, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Tsugawa, T.; Takahashi, M.; Kumano, Y.; Iwasaki, S.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a four-dimensional display system of the Earth and planets to use in schools, science centers, and research institutes. It can display the Earth and planets in three-dimensional way without glasses, and the time variation of the scientific data can be displayed on the Earth and planets image. The system is named Dagik Earth, and educational programs using Dagik Earth have been developed for schools and science centers. Three dimensional displays can show the Earth and planets in exact form without any distortion, which cannot be achieved with two-dimensional display. Furthermore it can provide a sense of reality. There are several systems for the three-dimensional presentation of the Earth, such as Science on a sphere by NOAA, and Geocosmos by Miraikan, Japan. Comparing these systems, the advantage of Dagik Earth is portability and affordability. The system uses ordinary PC and PC projector. Only a spherical screen is the special equipment of Dagik Earth. Therefore Dagik Earth is easy to use in classrooms. Several educational programs have been developed and carried out in high schools, junior high schools, elementary schools and science centers. Several research institutes have used Dagik Earth in their public outreach programs to demonstrate their novel scientific results to public in an attractive way of presentation. A community of users and developers of Dagik Earth is being formed in Japan. In the presentation, the outline of Dagik Earth and the educational programs using Dagik Earth will be presented. Its future plan will also be discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Bogus Vortex Techniques with Four-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pu, Zhao-Xia; Braun, Scott A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of techniques for creating "bogus" vortices in numerical simulations of hurricanes is examined by using the Penn State/NCAR nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) and its adjoint system. A series of four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4-D VAR) experiments is conducted to generate an initial vortex for Hurricane Georges (1998) in the Atlantic Ocean by assimilating bogus sea-level pressure and surface wind information into the mesoscale numerical model. Several different strategies are tested for improving the vortex representation. The initial vortices produced by the 4-D VAR technique are able to reproduce many of the structural features of mature hurricanes. The vortices also result in significant improvements to the hurricane forecasts in terms of both intensity and track. In particular, with assimilation of only bogus sea-level pressure information, the response in the wind field is contained largely within the divergent component, with strong convergence leading to strong upward motion near the center. Although the intensity of the initial vortex seems to be well represented, a dramatic spin down of the storm occurs within the first 6 h of the forecast. With assimilation of bogus surface wind data only, an expected dominance of the rotational component of the wind field is generated, but the minimum pressure is adjusted inadequately compared to the actual hurricane minimum pressure. Only when both the bogus surface pressure and wind information are assimilated together does the model produce a vortex that represents the actual intensity of the hurricane and results in significant improvements to forecasts of both hurricane intensity and track.

  14. Impact of four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) on urban climate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Linlin; Liu, Yubao; Liu, Yuewei; Li, Lei; Jiang, Yin; Cheng, Will; Roux, Gregory

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) on urban climate analysis, which employs the NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) WRF (the weather research and forecasting model) based on climate FDDA (CFDDA) technology to develop an urban-scale microclimatology database for the Shenzhen area, a rapidly developing metropolitan located along the southern coast of China, where uniquely high-density observations, including ultrahigh-resolution surface AWS (automatic weather station) network, radio sounding, wind profilers, radiometers, and other weather observation platforms, have been installed. CFDDA is an innovative dynamical downscaling regional climate analysis system that assimilates diverse regional observations; and has been employed to produce a 5 year multiscale high-resolution microclimate analysis by assimilating high-density observations at Shenzhen area. The CFDDA system was configured with four nested-grid domains at grid sizes of 27, 9, 3, and 1 km, respectively. This research evaluates the impact of assimilating high-resolution observation data on reproducing the refining features of urban-scale circulations. Two experiments were conducted with a 5 year run using CFSR (climate forecast system reanalysis) as boundary and initial conditions: one with CFDDA and the other without. The comparisons of these two experiments with observations indicate that CFDDA greatly reduces the model analysis error and is able to realistically analyze the microscale features such as urban-rural-coastal circulation, land/sea breezes, and local-hilly terrain thermal circulations. It is demonstrated that the urbanization can produce 2.5 k differences in 2 m temperatures, delays/speeds up the land/sea breeze development, and interacts with local mountain-valley circulations.

  15. Chiral four-dimensional F-theory compactifications with SU(5) and multiple U(1)-factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Klevers, Denis; Piragua, Hernan

    2014-04-01

    We develop geometric techniques to determine the spectrum and the chiral indices of matter multiplets for four-dimensional F-theory compactifications on elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds with rank two Mordell-Weil group. The general elliptic fiber is the Calabi-Yau onefold in dP 2. We classify its resolved elliptic fibrations over a general base B. The study of singularities of these fibrations leads to explicit matter representations, that we determine both for U(1) × U(1) and SU(5) × U(1) × U(1) constructions. We determine for the first time certain matter curves and surfaces using techniques involving prime ideals. The vertical cohomology ring of these fourfolds is calculated for both cases and general formulas for the Euler numbers are derived. Explicit calculations are presented for a specific base B = ℙ3. We determine the general G 4-flux that belongs to of the resolved Calabi-Yau fourfolds. As a by-product, we derive for the first time all conditions on G 4-flux in general F-theory compactifications with a non-holomorphic zero section. These conditions have to be formulated after a circle reduction in terms of Chern-Simons terms on the 3D Coulomb branch and invoke M-theory/F-theory duality. New Chern-Simons terms are generated by Kaluza-Klein states of the circle compactification. We explicitly perform the relevant field theory computations, that yield non-vanishing results precisely for fourfolds with a non-holomorphic zero section. Taking into account the new Chern-Simons terms, all 4D matter chiralities are determined via 3D M-theory/F-theory duality. We independently check these chiralities using the subset of matter surfaces we determined. The presented techniques are general and do not rely on toric data.

  16. Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography using an on-board imager.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianfang; Xing, Lei; Munro, Peter; McGuinness, Christopher; Chao, Ming; Yang, Yong; Loo, Bill; Koong, Albert

    2006-10-01

    On-board cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has recently become available to provide volumetric information of a patient in the treatment position, and holds promises for improved target localization and irradiation dose verification. The design of currently available on-board CBCT, however, is far from optimal. Its quality is adversely influenced by many factors, such as scatter, beam hardening, and intra-scanning organ motion. In this work we quantitatively study the influence of organ motion on CBCT imaging and investigate a strategy to acquire high quality phase-resolved [four-dimensional (4D)] CBCT images based on phase binning of the CBCT projection data. An efficient and robust method for binning CBCT data according to the patient's respiratory phase derived in the projection space was developed. The phase-binned projections were reconstructed using the conventional Feldkamp algorithm to yield 4D CBCT images. Both phantom and patient studies were carried out to validate the technique and to optimize the 4D CBCT data acquisition protocol. Several factors that are important to the clinical implementation of the technique, such as the image quality, scanning time, number of projections, and radiation dose, were analyzed for various scanning schemes. The general references drawn from this study are: (i) reliable phase binning of CBCT projections is accomplishable with the aid of external or internal marker and simple analysis of its trace in the projection space, and (ii) artifact-free 4D CBCT images can be obtained without increasing the patient radiation dose as compared to the current 3D CBCT scan.

  17. Four-Dimensional Printing Hierarchy Scaffolds with Highly Biocompatible Smart Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Leng, Jinsong; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term "4D printing" refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold. Surface morphology, thermal, mechanical, and biocompatible properties as well as shape memory effects of the synthesized smart polymers and resultant porous scaffolds were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel content analysis confirmed the formation of chemical crosslinking by reacting polycaprolactone triol and castor oil with multi-isocyanate groups. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed an adjustable glass transition temperature in a range from -8°C to 35°C. Uniaxial compression testing indicated that the obtained polymers, possessing a highly crosslinked interpenetrating polymeric networks, have similar compressive modulus to polycaprolactone. Shape memory tests revealed that the smart polymers display finely tunable recovery speed and exhibit greater than 92% shape fixing at -18°C or 0°C and full shape recovery at physiological temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fabricated scaffolds revealed a graded microporous structure, which mimics the nonuniform distribution of porosity found within natural tissues. With polycaprolactone serving as a control, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation greatly increased on our novel smart polymers. The current work will significantly advance the future design and development of

  18. Visualization of Endosome Dynamics in Living Nerve Terminals with Four-dimensional Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Richard S.; Kiss, Ilona M.; Wilkinson, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) light imaging has been used to study behavior of small structures within motor nerve terminals of the thin transversus abdominis muscle of the garter snake. Raw data comprises time-lapse sequences of 3D z-stacks. Each stack contains 4-20 images acquired with epifluorescence optics at focal planes separated by 400-1,500 nm. Steps in the acquisition of image stacks, such as adjustment of focus, switching of excitation wavelengths, and operation of the digital camera, are automated as much as possible to maximize image rate and minimize tissue damage from light exposure. After acquisition, a set of image stacks is deconvolved to improve spatial resolution, converted to the desired 3D format, and used to create a 4D "movie" that is suitable for variety of computer-based analyses, depending upon the experimental data sought. One application is study of the dynamic behavior of two classes of endosomes found in nerve terminals-macroendosomes (MEs) and acidic endosomes (AEs)-whose sizes (200-800 nm for both types) are at or near the diffraction limit. Access to 3D information at each time point provides several advantages over conventional time-lapse imaging. In particular, size and velocity of movement of structures can be quantified over time without loss of sharp focus. Examples of data from 4D imaging reveal that MEs approach the plasma membrane and disappear, suggesting that they are exocytosed rather than simply moving vertically away from a single plane of focus. Also revealed is putative fusion of MEs and AEs, by visualization of overlap between the two dye-containing structures as viewed in each three orthogonal projections. PMID:24799002

  19. Novel Assessment of Renal Motion in Children as Measured via Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Sharma, Shelly; Naik, Mihir H.; Wu, Shengjie; Hua, Chiaho; Beltran, Chris; Krasin, Matthew J.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: Abdominal intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy require quantification of target and organ motion to optimize localization and treatment. Although addressed in adults, there is no available literature on this issue in pediatric patients. We assessed physiologic renal motion in pediatric patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty free-breathing pediatric patients at a median age of 8 years (range, 2-18 years) with intra-abdominal tumors underwent computed tomography simulation and four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition (slice thickness, 3 mm). Kidneys and diaphragms were contoured during eight phases of respiration to estimate center-of-mass motion. We quantified center of kidney mass mobility vectors in three dimensions: anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and superoinferior (SI). Results: Kidney motion decreases linearly with decreasing age and height. The 95% confidence interval for the averaged minima and maxima of renal motion in children younger than 9 years was 5-9 mm in the ML direction, 4-11 mm in the AP direction, and 12-25 mm in the SI dimension for both kidneys. In children older than 9 years, the same confidence interval reveals a widening range of motion that was 5-16 mm in the ML direction, 6-17 mm in the AP direction, and 21-52 mm in the SI direction. Although not statistically significant, renal motion correlated with diaphragm motion in older patients. The correlation between diaphragm motion and body mass index was borderline (r = 0.52, p = 0.0816) in younger patients. Conclusions: Renal motion is age and height dependent. Measuring diaphragmatic motion alone does not reliably quantify pediatric renal motion. Renal motion in young children ranges from 5 to 25 mm in orientation-specific directions. The vectors of motion range from 5 to 52 mm in older children. These preliminary data represent novel analyses of pediatric intra-abdominal organ motion.

  20. Evaluating four-dimensional time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring DNAPL source zone remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Christopher; Gerhard, Jason I.; Karaoulis, Marios; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Giannopoulos, Antonios

    2014-07-01

    Practical, non-invasive tools do not currently exist for mapping the remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) exhibits significant potential but has not yet become a practitioner's tool due to challenges in interpreting the survey results at real sites. This study explores the effectiveness of recently developed four-dimensional (4D, i.e., 3D space plus time) time-lapse surface ERT to monitor DNAPL source zone remediation. A laboratory experiment demonstrated the approach for mapping a changing NAPL distribution over time. A recently developed DNAPL-ERT numerical model was then employed to independently simulate the experiment, providing confidence that the DNAPL-ERT model is a reliable tool for simulating real systems. The numerical model was then used to evaluate the potential for this approach at the field scale. Four DNAPL source zones, exhibiting a range of complexity, were initially simulated, followed by modeled time-lapse ERT monitoring of complete DNAPL remediation by enhanced dissolution. 4D ERT inversion provided estimates of the regions of the source zone experiencing mass reduction with time. Results show that 4D time-lapse ERT has significant potential to map both the outline and the center of mass of the evolving treated portion of the source zone to within a few meters in each direction. In addition, the technique can provide a reasonable, albeit conservative, estimate of the DNAPL volume remediated with time: 25% underestimation in the upper 2 m and up to 50% underestimation at late time between 2 and 4 m depth. The technique is less reliable for identifying cleanup of DNAPL stringers outside the main DNAPL body. Overall, this study demonstrates that 4D time-lapse ERT has potential for mapping where and how quickly DNAPL mass changes in real time during site remediation.

  1. Muon borehole detector development for use in four-dimensional tomographic density monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flygare, Joshua

    The increase of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the correlated temperature rise has initiated research into methods of carbon sequestration. One promising possibility is to store CO2 in subsurface reservoirs of porous rock. After injection, the monitoring of the injected CO2 is of paramount importance because the CO2 plume, if escaped, poses health and environmental risks. Traditionally, seismic reflection methods are the chosen method of determining changes in the reservoir density due to CO2 injection, but this is expensive and not continuous. A potential and promising alternative is to use cosmic muon tomography to determine density changes in the reservoir over a period of time. The work I have completed was the development of a muon detector that will be capable of being deployed in boreholes and perform long-term tomography of the reservoir of interest. The detector has the required dimensions, an angular resolution of approximately 2 degrees, and is robust enough to survive the caustic nature of the fluids in boreholes, as well as temperature and pressure fluctuations. The detector design is based on polystyrene scintillating rods arrayed in alternating layers. The layers, as arranged, can provide four-dimensional (4D) tomographic data to detect small changes in density at depths up to approximately 2 kilometers. Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation code, was used to develop and optimize the detector design. Additionally, I developed a method of determining the muon flux at depth, including CO2 saturation changes in subsurface reservoirs. Preliminary experiments were performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This thesis will show the simulations I performed to determine the angular resolution and background discrimination required of the detector, the experiments to determine light transport through the polystyrene scintillating rods and fibers, and the method developed to predict muon flux changes at depth expected after injection.

  2. Four-Dimensional Printing Hierarchy Scaffolds with Highly Biocompatible Smart Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term “4D printing” refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold. Surface morphology, thermal, mechanical, and biocompatible properties as well as shape memory effects of the synthesized smart polymers and resultant porous scaffolds were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel content analysis confirmed the formation of chemical crosslinking by reacting polycaprolactone triol and castor oil with multi-isocyanate groups. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed an adjustable glass transition temperature in a range from −8°C to 35°C. Uniaxial compression testing indicated that the obtained polymers, possessing a highly crosslinked interpenetrating polymeric networks, have similar compressive modulus to polycaprolactone. Shape memory tests revealed that the smart polymers display finely tunable recovery speed and exhibit greater than 92% shape fixing at −18°C or 0°C and full shape recovery at physiological temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fabricated scaffolds revealed a graded microporous structure, which mimics the nonuniform distribution of porosity found within natural tissues. With polycaprolactone serving as a control, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation greatly increased on our novel smart polymers. The current work will significantly advance the future design and

  3. Four-dimensional computed tomographic analysis of esophageal mobility during normal respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Dieleman, Edith; Senan, Suresh . E-mail: s.senan@vumc.nl; Vincent, Andrew; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Slotman, Ben J.; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van

    2007-03-01

    Background: Chemo-radiotherapy for thoracic tumors can result in high-grade radiation esophagitis. Treatment planning to reduce esophageal irradiation requires organ motion to be accounted for. In this study, esophageal mobility was assessed using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Thoracic 4DCT scans were acquired on a 16-slice CT scanner in 29 patients. The outer esophageal wall was contoured in two extreme phases of respiration in 9 patients with nonesophageal malignancies. The displacement of the center of contour was measured at 2-cm intervals. In 20 additional patients with Stage I lung cancer, the esophagus was contoured in all 10 phases of each 4DCT at five defined anatomic levels. Both approaches were then applied to 4DCT scans of 4 patients who each had two repeat scans performed. A linear mixed effects model was constructed with fixed effects: measurement direction, measurement type, and measurement location along the cranio-caudal axis. Results: Measurement location and direction were significant descriptive parameters (Wald F-tests, p < 0.001), and the interaction term between the two was significant (p = 0.02). Medio-lateral mobility exceeded dorso-ventral mobility in the lower half of the esophagus but was of a similar magnitude in the upper half. Margins that would have incorporated all movement in medio-lateral and dorso-ventral directions were 5 mm proximally, 7 mm and 6 mm respectively in the mid-esophagus, and 9 mm and 8 mm respectively in the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The distal esophagus shows more mobility. Margins for mobility that can encompass all movement were derived for use in treatment planning, particularly for stereotactic radiotherapy.

  4. Enhancement of four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography by compressed sensing with Bregman iteration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kihwan; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Li, Tianfang; Suh, Tae-Suk; Lei, Xing

    2013-01-01

    In four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), there is a spatio-temporal tradeoff that currently limits the accuracy. The aim of this study is to develop a Bregman iteration based formalism for high quality 4D CBCT image reconstruction from a limited number of low-dose projections. The 4D CBCT problem is first divided into multiple 3D CBCT subproblems by grouping the projection images corresponding to the phases. To maximally utilize the information from the under-sampled projection data, a compressed sensing (CS) method with Bregman iterations is employed for solving each subproblem. We formulate an unconstrained optimization problem based on least-square criterion regularized by total-variation. The least-square criterion reflects the inconsistency between the measured and the estimated line integrals. Furthermore, the unconstrained problem is updated and solved repeatedly by Bregman iterations. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of simulation studies and phantom experiments, and the results are compared to those of previously implemented compressed sensing technique using other gradient-based methods as well as conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) results. The simulation and experimental studies have shown that artifact suppressed images can be obtained with as small as 41 projections per phase, which is adequate for clinical 4D CBCT reconstruction. With such small number of projections, the conventional FDK failed to yield meaningful 4D CBCT images, and CS technique using conjugate gradient was not able to recover sharp edges. The proposed method significantly reduces the radiation dose and scanning time to achieve the high quality images compared to the 4D CBCT imaging based on the conventional FDK technique and the existing CS techniques.

  5. Respiratory motion of adrenal gland metastases: Analyses using four-dimensional computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Hu, Yong; Liu, Jin; Cao, An-Ning; Ye, Lu-Xi; Zeng, Zhao-Chong

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the respiratory motion of adrenal gland metastases in three-dimensional directions using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images. From January 2013 to May 2016, 12 patients with adrenal gland metastases were included in this study. They all underwent 4DCT scans to assess respiratory motion of adrenal gland metastases in free breathing state. The 4DCT images were sorted into 10 image series according to the respiratory phase from the end inspiration to the end expiration, and then transferred to FocalSim workstation. All gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of adrenal gland metastases were drawn by a single physician and confirmed by a second. Relative coordinates of adrenal gland metastases were automatically generated to calculate adrenal gland metastases motion in different axial directions. The average respiratory motion of adrenal gland metastases in left-right (LR), cranial-caudal (CC), anterior-posterior (AP), 3-dimensional (3D) vector directions was 3.4±2.2mm, 9.5±5.5mm, 3.8±2.0mm and 11.3±5.3mm, respectively. The ratios were 58.6%±11.4% and 63.2%±12.5% when the volumes of GTVIn0% and GTV In100% were compared with volume of IGTV10phase. The volume ratio of IGTV10phase to GTV3D was 1.73±0.48. Adrenal gland metastasis is a respiration-induced moving target, and an internal target volume boundary should be provided when designing the treatment plan. The CC motion of adrenal gland metastasis is predominant and >5mm, thus motion management strategies are recommended for patients undergoing external radiotherapy for adrenal gland metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating four-dimensional time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring DNAPL source zone remediation.

    PubMed

    Power, Christopher; Gerhard, Jason I; Karaoulis, Marios; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Giannopoulos, Antonios

    2014-07-01

    Practical, non-invasive tools do not currently exist for mapping the remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) exhibits significant potential but has not yet become a practitioner's tool due to challenges in interpreting the survey results at real sites. This study explores the effectiveness of recently developed four-dimensional (4D, i.e., 3D space plus time) time-lapse surface ERT to monitor DNAPL source zone remediation. A laboratory experiment demonstrated the approach for mapping a changing NAPL distribution over time. A recently developed DNAPL-ERT numerical model was then employed to independently simulate the experiment, providing confidence that the DNAPL-ERT model is a reliable tool for simulating real systems. The numerical model was then used to evaluate the potential for this approach at the field scale. Four DNAPL source zones, exhibiting a range of complexity, were initially simulated, followed by modeled time-lapse ERT monitoring of complete DNAPL remediation by enhanced dissolution. 4D ERT inversion provided estimates of the regions of the source zone experiencing mass reduction with time. Results show that 4D time-lapse ERT has significant potential to map both the outline and the center of mass of the evolving treated portion of the source zone to within a few meters in each direction. In addition, the technique can provide a reasonable, albeit conservative, estimate of the DNAPL volume remediated with time: 25% underestimation in the upper 2m and up to 50% underestimation at late time between 2 and 4m depth. The technique is less reliable for identifying cleanup of DNAPL stringers outside the main DNAPL body. Overall, this study demonstrates that 4D time-lapse ERT has potential for mapping where and how quickly DNAPL mass changes in real time during site remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stable de Sitter vacua in four-dimensional supergravity originating from five dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Oegetbil, O.

    2008-11-15

    The five-dimensional stable de Sitter ground states in N=2 supergravity obtained by gauging SO(1,1) symmetry of the real symmetric scalar manifold (in particular, a generic Jordan family manifold of the vector multiplets) simultaneously with a subgroup R{sub s} of the R-symmetry group descend to four-dimensional de Sitter ground states under certain conditions. First, the holomorphic section in four dimensions has to be chosen carefully by using the symplectic freedom in four dimensions; second, a group contraction is necessary to bring the potential into a desired form. Under these conditions, stable de Sitter vacua can be obtained in dimensionally reduced theories (from 5D to 4D) if the semidirect product of SO(1,1) with R{sup (1,1)} together with a simultaneous R{sub s} is gauged. We review the stable de Sitter vacua in four dimensions found in earlier literature for N=2 Yang-Mills Einstein supergravity with the SO(2,1)xR{sub s} gauge group in a symplectic basis that comes naturally after dimensional reduction. Although this particular gauge group does not descend directly from five dimensions, we show that its contraction does. Hence, two different theories overlap in certain limits. Examples of stable de Sitter vacua are given for the cases: (i) R{sub s}=U(1){sub R}, (ii) R{sub s}=SU(2){sub R}, and (iii) N=2 Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theory coupled to a universal hypermultiplet. We conclude with a discussion regarding the extension of our results to supergravity theories with more general homogeneous scalar manifolds.

  8. ESTIMATION OF EMISSION ADJUSTMENTS FROM THE APPLICATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION TO PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR QUALITY MODELING. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four-dimensional data assimilation applied to photochemical air quality modeling is used to suggest adjustments to the emissions inventory of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. In this approach, a three-dimensional air quality model, coupled with direct sensitivity analys...

  9. ESTIMATION OF EMISSION ADJUSTMENTS FROM THE APPLICATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION TO PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR QUALITY MODELING. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four-dimensional data assimilation applied to photochemical air quality modeling is used to suggest adjustments to the emissions inventory of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. In this approach, a three-dimensional air quality model, coupled with direct sensitivity analys...

  10. Do Human Fetuses Anticipate Self-Oriented Actions? A Study by Four-Dimensional (4D) Ultrasonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2006-01-01

    Using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography, arm and hand movements toward the face were examined in 27 human fetuses at 19 to 35 weeks of gestation, thereby enabling the continuous monitoring of their faces and other surface features such as the extremities. More than half of the observed arm movements resulted in the hand touching the mouth…

  11. Atomic orbitals of the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom in a four-dimensional Riemann space through the path integral formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, H.; Maranon, J.; Vucetich, H.

    1983-01-15

    The Kustaanheimo--Stiefel transformation together with the well-known expansion of the kernel of an isotropic harmonic oscillator is used to generate the atomic orbitals of the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom in a four-dimensional Riemann space through the path integral formalism. Group theoretical implications of the present problem are briefly discussed.

  12. Do Human Fetuses Anticipate Self-Oriented Actions? A Study by Four-Dimensional (4D) Ultrasonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2006-01-01

    Using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography, arm and hand movements toward the face were examined in 27 human fetuses at 19 to 35 weeks of gestation, thereby enabling the continuous monitoring of their faces and other surface features such as the extremities. More than half of the observed arm movements resulted in the hand touching the mouth…

  13. Non-rigid summing of gated PET via optical flow

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.J.; Reutter, B.W.; Huesman, R.H. |

    1996-12-31

    A method for summing together datasets from gated cardiac PET acquisitions is described. Optical flow techniques are used to accurately model non-rigid motion present during the cardiac cycle so that a one-to-one mapping is found between each voxel of two gated volumes. Using this mapping, image summing can take place, producing a composite dataset with improved statistics and reduced motion-induced blur. Results using a data from a gated cardiac study on a dog are presented.

  14. Gating, enhanced gating, and beyond: information utilization strategies for motion management, applied to preclinical PET

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Respiratory gating and gate optimization strategies present solutions for overcoming image degradation caused by respiratory motion in PET and traditionally utilize hardware systems and/or employ complex processing algorithms. In this work, we aimed to advance recently emerging data-driven gating methods and introduce a new strategy for optimizing the four-dimensional data based on information contained in that data. These algorithms are combined to form an automated motion correction workflow. Methods Software-based gating methods were applied to a nonspecific population of 84 small-animal rat PET scans to create respiratory gated images. The gated PET images were then optimized using an algorithm we introduce as ‘gating+’ to reduce noise and optimize signal; the technique was also tested using simulations. Gating+ is based on a principle of only using gated information if and where it adds a net benefit, as evaluated in temporal frequency space. Motion-corrected images were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Of the small-animal PET scans, 71% exhibited quantifiable motion after software gating. The mean liver displacement was 3.25 mm for gated and 3.04 mm for gating+ images. The (relative) mean percent standard deviations measured in background ROIs were 1.53, 1.05, and 1.00 for the gated, gating+, and ungated values, respectively. Simulations confirmed that gating+ image voxels had a higher probability of being accurate relative to the corresponding ungated values under varying noise and motion scenarios. Additionally, we found motion mapping and phase decoupling models that readily extend from gating+ processing. Conclusions Raw PET data contain information about motion that is not currently utilized. In our work, we showed that through automated processing of standard (ungated) PET acquisitions, (motion-) information-rich images can be constructed with minimal risk of noise introduction. Such methods have the potential for

  15. Improved and robust detection of cell nuclei from four dimensional fluorescence images.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Md Khayrul; Yamagata, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation-free direct methods are quite efficient for automated nuclei extraction from high dimensional images. A few such methods do exist but most of them do not ensure algorithmic robustness to parameter and noise variations. In this research, we propose a method based on multiscale adaptive filtering for efficient and robust detection of nuclei centroids from four dimensional (4D) fluorescence images. A temporal feedback mechanism is employed between the enhancement and the initial detection steps of a typical direct method. We estimate the minimum and maximum nuclei diameters from the previous frame and feed back them as filter lengths for multiscale enhancement of the current frame. A radial intensity-gradient function is optimized at positions of initial centroids to estimate all nuclei diameters. This procedure continues for processing subsequent images in the sequence. Above mechanism thus ensures proper enhancement by automated estimation of major parameters. This brings robustness and safeguards the system against additive noises and effects from wrong parameters. Later, the method and its single-scale variant are simplified for further reduction of parameters. The proposed method is then extended for nuclei volume segmentation. The same optimization technique is applied to final centroid positions of the enhanced image and the estimated diameters are projected onto the binary candidate regions to segment nuclei volumes.Our method is finally integrated with a simple sequential tracking approach to establish nuclear trajectories in the 4D space. Experimental evaluations with five image-sequences (each having 271 3D sequential images) corresponding to five different mouse embryos show promising performances of our methods in terms of nuclear detection, segmentation, and tracking. A detail analysis with a sub-sequence of 101 3D images from an embryo reveals that the proposed method can improve the nuclei detection accuracy by 9% over the previous methods

  16. Dose and Position Measurements using a Novel Four-Dimensional In Vivo Dosimetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherpak, Amanda

    This work presents a comprehensive characterization of the dosimetric and position measurement characteristics as well as clinical implementation of a novel four-dimensional in vivo dosimetry system, RADPOS. Preliminary dose and position measurements were first conducted to evaluate any deviation from known characteristics of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors, MOSFETs, and electromagnetic positioning systems when they are used alone. The system was then combined with a deformable tissue equivalent lung phantom to simulate respiratory-induced tumour motion and lung deformation and to evaluate the potential use of the system as an effective quality assurance tool for 4D conformal radiotherapy. The final phase of testing involved using the RADPOS 4D in vivo dosimetry system in two different clinical trials. The first involved characterizing the breathing patterns of lung cancer patients throughout the course of treatment and measuring inter-fraction variations in skin dose. Within this framework, the feasibility of general use of the RADPOS system on patients during daily treatment fractions was also assessed. The second trial involved a modified RADPOS detector that contained a MOSFET array, allowing for dose measurements at five different points. This detector was used to measure dose and position in the prostatic urethra throughout seed implantation for transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy. It has been found that the dosimetric response is similar to that of a microMOSFET, when used alone, aside from a slightly higher variation in angular response. Position measurements can be obtained with an uncertainty of +/- 2 mm when the detector remains within a specific optimal volume with respect to the magnetic field transmitter and when interfering metal objects are kept at least 200 mm away. Combining the RADPOS system with a deformable lung equivalent phantom allowed for efficient quality assurance of 4D radiation therapy, as

  17. Interfractional Reproducibility in Pancreatic Position Based on Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Shiinoki, Takehiro; Shibuya, Keiko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Akira; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Itoh, Akio; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the interfractional positional variation of the pancreas using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) and to determine the suitable phase of respiration for dose delivery methods to account for pancreatic tumor motion. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this study. For each patient, 4D-CT scans were performed at CT simulation and three times during the course of treatment. Regions of interest were set to the intrapancreatic bile ducts as a surrogate for pancreatic position. The centroids of the regions of interest were calculated at end-inhalation and end-exhalation of the respiration phase. The ranges of respiratory motion and interfractional positional variation were evaluated in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Results: The medians of respiratory motion were 1.1 mm (range, 0.0-9.8 mm), 1.5 mm (range, 0.0-7.0 mm), and 5.0 mm (range, 0.0-12.5 mm) in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. The means {+-} SDs of the interfractional positional variation at end-inhalation were 0.9 {+-} 5.1 mm (range, -9.2 to 15.6 mm), -1.9 {+-} 3.9 mm (range, -12.8 to 6.4 mm), and -1.3 {+-} 6.9 mm (range, -15.0 to 13.7 mm) and those at end-exhalation were 0.0 {+-} 3.1 mm (range, -7.0 to 5.3 mm), -1.2 {+-} 3.9 mm (range, -11.2 to 6.7 mm), and 0.1 {+-} 3.2 mm (range, -9.9 to 5.1 mm) in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. The SDs of the interfractional positional variation in the LR and SI directions were significantly larger at end-inhalation than at end-exhalation (LR, p < 0.001; SI, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The ranges of respiratory motion during the course of treatment and the interfractional positional variation were not negligible. The interfractional positional reproducibility was higher at end-exhalation than at end-inhalation under free breathing.

  18. Four dimensional digital tomosynthesis using on-board imager for the verification of respiratory motion.

    PubMed

    Park, Justin C; Kim, Jin Sung; Park, Sung Ho; Webster, Matthew J; Lee, Soyoung; Song, William Y; Han, Youngyih

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory motion of a patient by generating four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis (4D DTS), extracting respiratory signal from patients' on-board projection data, and ensuring the feasibility of 4D DTS as a localization tool for the targets which have respiratory movement. Four patients with lung and liver cancer were included to verify the feasibility of 4D-DTS with an on-board imager. CBCT acquisition (650-670 projections) was used to reconstruct 4D DTS images and the breath signal of the patients was generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm during data acquisition. Based on the extracted signal, the projection data was divided into four phases: peak-exhale phase, mid-inhale phase, peak-inhale phase, and mid-exhale phase. The binned projection data was then used to generate 4D DTS, where the total scan angle was assigned as ±22.5° from rotation center, centered on 0° and 180° for coronal "half-fan" 4D DTS, and 90° and 270° for sagittal "half-fan" 4D DTS. The result was then compared with 4D CBCT which we have also generated with the same phase distribution. The motion of the diaphragm was evident from the 4D DTS results for peak-exhale, mid-inhale, peak-inhale and mid-exhale phase assignment which was absent in 3D DTS. Compared to the result of 4D CBCT, the view aliasing effect due to arbitrary angle reconstruction was less severe. In addition, the severity of metal artifacts, the image distortion due to presence of metal, was less than that of the 4D CBCT results. We have implemented on-board 4D DTS on patients data to visualize the movement of anatomy due to respiratory motion. The results indicate that 4D-DTS could be a promising alternative to 4D CBCT for acquiring the respiratory motion of internal organs just prior to radiotherapy treatment.

  19. Four Dimensional Digital Tomosynthesis Using on-Board Imager for the Verification of Respiratory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Justin C.; Kim, Jin Sung; Park, Sung Ho; Webster, Matthew J.; Lee, Soyoung; Song, William Y.; Han, Youngyih

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate respiratory motion of a patient by generating four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis (4D DTS), extracting respiratory signal from patients' on-board projection data, and ensuring the feasibility of 4D DTS as a localization tool for the targets which have respiratory movement. Methods and Materials Four patients with lung and liver cancer were included to verify the feasibility of 4D-DTS with an on-board imager. CBCT acquisition (650–670 projections) was used to reconstruct 4D DTS images and the breath signal of the patients was generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm during data acquisition. Based on the extracted signal, the projection data was divided into four phases: peak-exhale phase, mid-inhale phase, peak-inhale phase, and mid-exhale phase. The binned projection data was then used to generate 4D DTS, where the total scan angle was assigned as ±22.5° from rotation center, centered on 0° and 180° for coronal “half-fan” 4D DTS, and 90° and 270° for sagittal “half-fan” 4D DTS. The result was then compared with 4D CBCT which we have also generated with the same phase distribution. Results The motion of the diaphragm was evident from the 4D DTS results for peak-exhale, mid-inhale, peak-inhale and mid-exhale phase assignment which was absent in 3D DTS. Compared to the result of 4D CBCT, the view aliasing effect due to arbitrary angle reconstruction was less severe. In addition, the severity of metal artifacts, the image distortion due to presence of metal, was less than that of the 4D CBCT results. Conclusion We have implemented on-board 4D DTS on patients data to visualize the movement of anatomy due to respiratory motion. The results indicate that 4D-DTS could be a promising alternative to 4D CBCT for acquiring the respiratory motion of internal organs just prior to radiotherapy treatment. PMID:25541710

  20. Improved and Robust Detection of Cell Nuclei from Four Dimensional Fluorescence Images

    PubMed Central

    Bashar, Md. Khayrul; Yamagata, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation-free direct methods are quite efficient for automated nuclei extraction from high dimensional images. A few such methods do exist but most of them do not ensure algorithmic robustness to parameter and noise variations. In this research, we propose a method based on multiscale adaptive filtering for efficient and robust detection of nuclei centroids from four dimensional (4D) fluorescence images. A temporal feedback mechanism is employed between the enhancement and the initial detection steps of a typical direct method. We estimate the minimum and maximum nuclei diameters from the previous frame and feed back them as filter lengths for multiscale enhancement of the current frame. A radial intensity-gradient function is optimized at positions of initial centroids to estimate all nuclei diameters. This procedure continues for processing subsequent images in the sequence. Above mechanism thus ensures proper enhancement by automated estimation of major parameters. This brings robustness and safeguards the system against additive noises and effects from wrong parameters. Later, the method and its single-scale variant are simplified for further reduction of parameters. The proposed method is then extended for nuclei volume segmentation. The same optimization technique is applied to final centroid positions of the enhanced image and the estimated diameters are projected onto the binary candidate regions to segment nuclei volumes.Our method is finally integrated with a simple sequential tracking approach to establish nuclear trajectories in the 4D space. Experimental evaluations with five image-sequences (each having 271 3D sequential images) corresponding to five different mouse embryos show promising performances of our methods in terms of nuclear detection, segmentation, and tracking. A detail analysis with a sub-sequence of 101 3D images from an embryo reveals that the proposed method can improve the nuclei detection accuracy by 9 over the previous methods

  1. Four-dimensional ensemble variational data assimilation and the unstable subspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, Marc; Carrassi, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The performance of (ensemble) Kalman filters used for data assimilation in the geosciences critically depends on the dynamical properties of the evolution model. A key aspect, emphasized in the seminal work of Anna Trevisan and co-authors, is that the error covariance matrix is asymptotically supported by the unstable-neutral subspace only, i.e. it is spanned by the backward Lyapunov vectors with non- negative exponents. The analytic proof of such a property for the Kalman filter error covariance has been recently given, and in particular that of its confinement to the unstable-neutral subspace. In this paper, we first generalize those results to the case of the Kalman smoother in a linear, Gaussian and perfect model scenario. We also provide square-root formulae for the filter and smoother that make the connection with ensemble formulations of the Kalman filter and smoother, where the span of the error covariance is described in terms of the ensemble deviations from the mean. We then discuss how this neat picture is modified when the dynamics are nonlinear and chaotic, and for which analytic results are precluded or difficult to obtain. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the approximate confinement of the anomalies for both a deterministic ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and a four-dimensional ensemble variational method, the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), in a perfect model scenario. The confinement is characterized using geometrical angles that determine the relative position of the anomalies with respect to the unstable-neutral subspace. The alignment of the anomalies and of the unstable-neutral subspace is more pronounced when observation precision or frequency, as well as the data assimilation window length for the IEnKS, are increased. This leads to the increase of the data assimilation accuracy and shows that, under perfect model assumptions, spanning the full unstable-neutral subspace is sufficient to achieve satisfactorily

  2. Four dimensional variational assimilation of in-situ and remote-sensing aerosol data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieradzik, L. P.; Elbern, H.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols play an increasingly important role in atmospheric modelling. They have a strong influence on the radiative transfer balance and a significant impact on human health. Their origin is various and so are its effects. Most of the measurement sites in Europe account for an integrated aerosol load PMx (Particulate Matter of less than x μm in diameter) which does not give any qualitative information on the composition of the aerosol. Since very different constituents contribute to PMx, like e.g. mineral dust derived from desert storms or sea salt, it is necessary to make aerosol forecasts not only of load, but also type resolved. The method of four dimensional variational data assimilation (4Dvar) is a widely known technique to enhance forecast skills of CTMs (Chemistry-Transport-Models) by ingesting in-situ and, especially, remote-sensing measurements. The EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model), containing a full adjoint gas-phase model, has been expanded with an adjoint of the MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe) to optimise initial and boundary values for aerosols using 4Dvar. A forward and an adjoint radiative transfer model is driven by the EURAD-IM as mapping between BLAOT (Boundary Layer Aerosol Optical Thickness) and internal aerosol species. Furthermore, its condensation scheme has been bypassed by an HDMR (High-Dimensional-Model-Representation) to ensure differentiability. In this study both in-situ measured PMx as well as satellite retrieved aerosol optical thicknesses have been assimilated and the effect on forecast performance has been investigated. The source of BLAOT is the aerosol retrieval system SYNAER (SYNergetic AErosol Retrieval) from DLR-DFD that retrieves AOT by making use of both AATSR/SCIAMACHY and AVHRR/GOME-2 data respectively. Its strengths are a large spatial coverage, near real-time availability, and the classification of five intrinsic aerosol species, namely water-solubles, water-insolubles, soot

  3. Four dimensional variational data assimilation of species-resolved satellite-retrieved aerosol optical thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieradzik, Lars Peter; Elbern, Hendrik

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols play an increasingly important role in atmospheric modelling. They have a strong influence on the radiative transfer balance and a significant impact on human health. Their origin is various and so are its effects. Most of the measurement sites in Europe only account for an integrated aerosol load PMx (Particulate Matter of less than x μm in diameter) which does not give any qualitative information on the composition of the aerosol. Since very different constituents like mineral dust derived from desert storms and sea salt contribute to PMx it is necessary to make aerosol forcasts not only of load, but also type resolved. The source of information chosen for this study is the aerosol retrieval system SYNAER (SYNergetic AErosol Retrieval) from DLR-DFD that retrieves BLAOT (Boundary Layer Aerosol Optical Thickness) making use of both AATSR/SCIAMACHY and AVHRR/GOME-2 data respectively. Its strengths are a large spatial coverage, near real-time availability, and the classification of five intrinsic aerosol species, namely water-solubles, water-insolubles, soot, sea salt, and mineral dust which are furthermore size resolved in terms of modes. A widely known technique to enhance forecast skills of CTMs (Chemistry-Transport-Models) by ingesting in-situ and, especially, remote-sensing measurements is the method of four dimensional variational data assimilation (4Dvar). The EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model), containing a full adjoint gas-phase model, has been expanded with an adjoint of the MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe) to optimise initial and boundary values for aerosols using 4Dvar. A forward and an adjoint radiative transfer model is driven by the EURAD-IM as mapping between BLAOT and internal aerosol species. Furthermore, its condensation scheme has been bypassed by an HDMR (High-Dimensional-Model-Representation) to ensure differentiability, and a time saving online NMC-module for the generation of the background

  4. GPU-based four-dimensional general-relativistic ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchelmeister, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Ament, Marco; Wunner, Günter; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new general-relativistic ray tracer that enables image synthesis on an interactive basis by exploiting the performance of graphics processing units (GPUs). The application is capable of visualizing the distortion of the stellar background as well as trajectories of moving astronomical objects orbiting a compact mass. Its source code includes metric definitions for the Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes that can be easily extended to other metric definitions, relying on its object-oriented design. The basic functionality features a scene description interface based on the scripting language Lua, real-time image output, and the ability to edit almost every parameter at runtime. The ray tracing code itself is implemented for parallel execution on the GPU using NVidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which leads to performance improvement of an order of magnitude compared to a single CPU and makes the application competitive with small CPU cluster architectures. Program summary Program title: GpuRay4D Catalog identifier: AEMV_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 73649 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1334251 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, CUDA. Computer: Linux platforms with a NVidia CUDA enabled GPU (Compute Capability 1.3 or higher), C++ compiler, NVCC (The CUDA Compiler Driver). Operating system: Linux. RAM: 2 GB Classification: 1.5. External routines: OpenGL Utility Toolkit development files, NVidia CUDA Toolkit 3.2, Lua5.2 Nature of problem: Ray tracing in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Numerical integration of light rays, GPU-based parallel programming using CUDA, 3D

  5. A reduced-order approach to four-dimensional variational data assimilation using proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanhua; Zhu, Jiang; Navon, I. M.; Luo, Zhendong

    2007-04-01

    Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) is a powerful tool for data assimilation in meteorology and oceanography. However, a major hurdle in use of 4DVAR for realistic general circulation models is the dimension of the control space (generally equal to the size of the model state variable and typically of order 107-108) and the high computational cost in computing the cost function and its gradient that require integration model and its adjoint model.In this paper, we propose a 4DVAR approach based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). POD is an efficient way to carry out reduced order modelling by identifying the few most energetic modes in a sequence of snapshots from a time-dependent system, and providing a means of obtaining a low-dimensional description of the system's dynamics. The POD-based 4DVAR not only reduces the dimension of control space, but also reduces the size of dynamical model, both in dramatic ways. The novelty of our approach also consists in the inclusion of adaptability, applied when in the process of iterative control the new control variables depart significantly from the ones on which the POD model was based upon. In addition, these approaches also allow to conveniently constructing the adjoint model.The proposed POD-based 4DVAR methods are tested and demonstrated using a reduced gravity wave ocean model in Pacific domain in the context of identical twin data assimilation experiments. A comparison with data assimilation experiments in the full model space shows that with an appropriate selection of the basis functions the optimization in the POD space is able to provide accurate results at a reduced computational cost. The POD-based 4DVAR methods have the potential to approximate the performance of full order 4DVAR with less than 1/100 computer time of the full order 4DVAR. The HFTN (Hessian-free truncated-Newton)algorithm benefits most from the order reduction (see (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, in press)) since

  6. Target-specific optimization of four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Moiz; Pan Tinsu

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Under-sampling artifacts are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) and may compromise evaluation of target motion. Several studies have addressed scan parameter selection for minimizing under-sampling artifacts; however, the role of the target characteristics in scan parameter selection has not been investigated. In this work, the authors evaluated 4D-CBCT performance by assessing the accuracy of target motion measurements for various target sizes and motions. The results may serve as patient-specific guidelines for scan parameters selection in 4D-CBCT. Methods: The authors acquired 4D-CBCT scans of a moving phantom consisting of six water-filled sphere targets of sizes 10-37 mm, using various scan times ranging from 30 s to 3 min., setting the motion to 3-s and 6-s periods. The authors used automatic image registration to extract the target motion trajectories and evaluated these measurements for various target sizes and motions over various combinations of scan parameters including scan time, detector configuration, number of respiration phases, and reconstruction filters. Results: The most important object parameter to 4D-CBCT performance was the period of motion. Measurements for the 6-s motion were always systematically less accurate than measurements for the 3-s motion for 34 of 36 objects of various sizes and periods of motion. The 6-s motion required a greater scan time than the 3-s motion for equivalent measurement accuracy. The second most influential parameter was the target size. For the 3-s period of motion, objects larger than 13 mm were tracked with sub-millimeter accuracy with a 1-min scan time. For the 6-s period of motion, objects larger than 22-mm were tracked with sub-millimeter accuracy with a 1.5-min scan time. For all sizes and motions, temporal blurring was observed when the number of phases was fewer than 8. Offset detector configuration provided the same performance as centered detector except

  7. Dioptric power: its nature and its representation in three- and four-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F

    1997-06-01

    Dioptric power expressed in the familiar three-component form of sphere, cylinder, and axis is unsuited to mathematical and statistical treatments; there is a particular class of power that cannot be represented in the familiar form; and it is possible that sphere, cylinder, and axis will prove inadequate in future clinical and research applications in optometry and ophthalmology. Dioptric power expressed as the four-component dioptric power matrix, however, overcomes these shortcomings. The intention in this paper is to provide a definitive statement on the nature, function, and mathematical representation of dioptric power in terms of the matrix and within the limitations of paraxial or linear optics. The approach is universal in the sense that its point of departure is not power of the familiar form (that is, of thin systems) but of systems in general (thick or thin). Familiar types of power are then seen within the context of power in general. Dioptric power is defined, for systems that may be thick and astigmatic, in terms of the ray transfer matrix. A functional definition is presented for dioptric power and its components: it defines the additive contribution of incident position to emergent direction of a ray passing through the system. For systems that are thin (or thin-equivalent) it becomes possible to describe an alternative and more familiar function; for such systems dioptric power can be regarded as the increase in reduced surface curvature of a wavefront brought about by the system as the wavefront passes through it. The curvital and torsional components of the power are explored in some detail. Dioptric power, at its most general, defines a four-dimensional inner product space called dioptric power space. The familiar types of power define a three-dimensional subspace called symmetric dioptric power space. For completeness a one-dimensional antisymmetric power space is also defined: it is orthogonal in four dimensions to symmetric dioptric power

  8. Four-dimensional seismic analysis of the Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard James

    2004-12-01

    The seismic reflection method, traditionally a geologic structural imaging tool, is increasingly being utilized for petroleum reservoir monitoring purposes. Time-lapse, or four dimensional (4D) seismic reservoir monitoring is the process by which repeated 3D seismic surveys are acquired over a common area during the production of a petroleum reservoir in an effort to spatially image production related changes. While if successful, this seismic method can have a significant impact on an oil field's development plan, the sometimes subtle nature of the 4D seismic signals restricts the universal application of 4D seismic methods in all reservoirs and operating environments. To examine the potential use of 4D seismic on Canada's Grand Banks, this thesis conducts a 4D seismic analysis of the Hibernia oil field---the first example of 4D seismic technology on the Grand Banks. Due to a challenging environment (seismic and reservoir) at Hibernia for 4D seismic success, rock physics modeling predicts a subtle 4D seismic response for areas of both water and gas injection. To equalize the 4D seismic datasets, specialized poststack cross equalization including a volume event warping process is applied to two 3D post stack seismic datasets from the Hibernia oil field, a pre-production "legacy" survey acquired in 1991, and a 2001 survey. The cross equalization processing improves the repeatability of non-reservoir events fieldwide and enhances reservoir anomalies in some areas of the field. While the data contains a fair degree of noise, 4D seismic anomalies above the noise level can be imaged in areas of both water and gas injection. Through interpretation, some of these anomalies are shown to be consistent with modeled responses to water and gas injection. In addition, there is evidence that some of the seismic anomalies may be due to pore pressure changes in the reservoir. The results of the Hibernia 4D seismic analysis are then used as background for a feasibility analysis for

  9. Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing to the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    de Beurs, Derek P; Terluin, Berend; Verhaak, Peter F

    2017-01-01

    Background Efficient screening questionnaires are useful in general practice. Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a method to improve the efficiency of questionnaires, as only the items that are particularly informative for a certain responder are dynamically selected. Objective The objective of this study was to test whether CAT could improve the efficiency of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), a frequently used self-report questionnaire designed to assess common psychosocial problems in general practice. Methods A simulation study was conducted using a sample of Dutch patients visiting a general practitioner (GP) with psychological problems (n=379). Responders completed a paper-and-pencil version of the 50-item 4DSQ and a psychometric evaluation was performed to check if the data agreed with item response theory (IRT) assumptions. Next, a CAT simulation was performed for each of the four 4DSQ scales (distress, depression, anxiety, and somatization), based on the given responses as if they had been collected through CAT. The following two stopping rules were applied for the administration of items: (1) stop if measurement precision is below a predefined level, or (2) stop if more than half of the items of the subscale are administered. Results In general, the items of each of the four scales agreed with IRT assumptions. Application of the first stopping rule reduced the length of the questionnaire by 38% (from 50 to 31 items on average). When the second stopping rule was also applied, the total number of items could be reduced by 56% (from 50 to 22 items on average). Conclusions CAT seems useful for improving the efficiency of the 4DSQ by 56% without losing a considerable amount of measurement precision. The CAT version of the 4DSQ may be useful as part of an online assessment to investigate the severity of mental health problems of patients visiting a GP. This simulation study is the first step needed for the development a CAT version of the 4

  10. Finite-size scaling relations for a four-dimensional Ising model on Creutz cellular automatons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdan, Z.; Güzelsoy, E.

    2011-06-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on Creutz cellular automatons using finite lattices with linear dimensions 4 ≤ L ≤ 8. The temperature variations and finite-size scaling plots of the specific heat and the Binder parameter verify the theoretically predicted expression near the infinite lattice critical temperature for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations. Approximate values for the critical temperature of the infinite lattice of Tc(∞) = 6.6965(35), 6.6961(30), 6.6960(12), 6.6800(3), 6.6801(2), 6.6802(1) and 6.6925(22) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6921(22) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6909(2) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6822(13) (with the logarithmic factor), 6.6819(11) (with the logarithmic factor), and 6.6808(8) (with the logarithmic factor) are obtained from the intersection points of the specific heat curves, the Binder parameter curves, and straight line fits of specific heat maxima for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the results, 6.6802(1) and 6.6808(8), are in very good agreement with the results of a series expansion of Tc(∞), 6.6817(15) and 6.6802(2), the dynamic Monte Carlo value Tc(∞) = 6.6803(1), the cluster Monte Carlo value Tc(∞) = 6.680(1), and the Monte Carlo value using the Metropolis-Wolff cluster algorithm Tc(∞) = 6.6802632 ± 5 . 10-5. The average values calculated for the critical exponent of the specific heat are α =- 0.0402(15), - 0.0393(12), - 0.0391(11) with 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the result, α =- 0.0391(11), agrees with the series expansions result, α =- 0.12 ± 0.03 and the Monte Carlo result using the Metropolis-Wolff cluster algorithm, α ≥ 0 ± 0.04. However, α =- 0.0391(11) is inconsistent with the renormalization group prediction of α = 0.

  11. Respiratory motion guided four dimensional cone beam computed tomography: encompassing irregular breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ricky T.; Cooper, Benjamin J.; Kipritidis, John; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-02-01

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) images suffer from angular under sampling and bunching of projections due to a lack of feedback between the respiratory signal and the acquisition system. To address this problem, respiratory motion guided 4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient’s respiratory signal, with the aim of acquiring evenly spaced projections in a number of phase or displacement bins during the respiratory cycle. Our previous study of RMG-4DCBCT was limited to sinusoidal breathing traces. Here we expand on that work to provide a practical algorithm for the case of real patient breathing data. We give a complete description of RMG-4DCBCT including full details on how to implement the algorithms to determine when to move the gantry and when to acquire projections in response to the patient’s respiratory signal. We simulate a realistic working RMG-4DCBCT system using 112 breathing traces from 24 lung cancer patients. Acquisition used phase-based binning and parameter settings typically used on commercial 4DCBCT systems (4 min acquisition time, 1200 projections across 10 respiratory bins), with the acceleration and velocity constraints of current generation linear accelerators. We quantified streaking artefacts and image noise for conventional and RMG-4DCBCT methods by reconstructing projection data selected from an oversampled set of Catphan phantom projections. RMG-4DCBCT allows us to optimally trade-off image quality, acquisition time and image dose. For example, for the same image quality and acquisition time as conventional 4DCBCT approximately half the imaging dose is needed. Alternatively, for the same imaging dose, the image quality as measured by the signal to noise ratio, is improved by 63% on average. C-arm cone beam computed tomography systems, with an acceleration up to 200°/s2, a velocity up to 100°/s and the acquisition of 80 projections per second

  12. NOTE: An algorithm for automatic determination of the respiratory phases in four-dimensional computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshneva, T.; Muzik, J.; Alber, M.

    2006-08-01

    Recently, several techniques have been developed to improve the quality of computed tomography (CT) images of the thoracic and abdominal region that are degraded by the interference of the scanning process and respiration. Several devices for respiratory-correlated CT are available for clinical usage. They are based on the synchronization of the acquired CT image data with the respiratory motion using a signal from an external respiratory monitoring system. In this work, some practical aspects of clinical implementation of the multi-slice 4D CT scanner Somatom Sensation Open (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a respiratory gating system (RGS) AZ-733V (Anzai Medical, Tokyo, Japan) are discussed. A new algorithm developed for automatic respiratory phase determination needed for the reconstruction of the 4D CT images is presented.

  13. Prognostic value of stress-only and stress-rest normal gated SPECT imaging: higher incidence of cardiac hard events in diabetic patients who underwent full stress-rest imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaminek, Milan; Metelkova, Iva; Budikova, Miroslava; Henzlova, Lenka; Koranda, Pavel; Kincl, Vladimir; Drozdova, Adela

    2015-09-01

    The European procedural guidelines for cardiac gated SPECT imaging demonstrate considerable variability in recommended administered radiopharmaceutical activity and imaging protocols. This study compared stress-only and stress-rest protocols to evaluate the safety of stress-only imaging, and to identify characteristics of patients who need full stress-rest imaging. Patients referred for a chest pain were scheduled for stress-rest gated SPECT imaging. If the stress images were interpreted as normal according to the perfusion and left ventricular function, the examination of patients was finished and patients did not undergo the rest imaging. A total number of 1063 patients was included (mean age 61 ± 11 years). These patients have been followed for hard cardiac events, i.e. cardiac deaths or nonfatal myocardial infarction. During a follow-up of 3.2 ± 2.5 years, hard events occurred in 12 patients with normal SPECT and 59 with abnormal SPECT had hard events (0.7 vs. 3.6% /year, P < 0.001). Among the 536 patients with normal study, there was no significantly lower incidence of hard events in the subgroup of patients with stress-only imaging (0.6 vs. 0.8% /year, P = 0.641). Diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor of hard events in patients with normal SPECT (1.3 vs. 0.5%/year, P < 0.001). We found a higher incidence of hard events in diabetic patients with normal study with the necessity of full stress-rest imaging in comparison with those with stress-only imaging (1.7 vs. 0.7% /year, P < 0.001). Our results support the good prognosis of normal stress-only study. Diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor of hard events in patients with normal SPECT. Diabetic patients with normal results who required additional rest imaging had significant adverse outcome.

  14. Automated and Manual Measurements of the Aortic Annulus with ECG-Gated Cardiac CT Angiography Prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Comparison with 3D-Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Guez, David; Boroumand, Gilda; Ruggiero, Nicholas J; Mehrotra, Praveen; Halpern, Ethan Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Multimodality evaluation of the aortic annulus is generally advocated to plan for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We compared aortic annular measurements by cardiac computed tomography angiography (cCTA) to three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE), and also evaluated the use of semi-automated software for cCTA annular measurements. A retrospective cohort of 74 patients underwent 3D-TEE and electrocardiogram-gated cCTA of the heart within 30 days for TAVR planning. 3D-TEE measurements were obtained during mid-systole; cCTA measurements were obtained during late-systole (40% of R-R interval) and mid-diastole (80% of R-R interval). Annular area was measured independently by manual planimetry and with semi-automated software. cCTA measurements in systole and diastole were highly correlated for short-axis diameter (r = 0.91), long-axis diameter (r = 0.92), and annular area (r = 0.96), although systolic measurements were significantly larger (P < 0.001), most notably for the short-axis diameter. Good correlation was observed between 3D-TEE and cCTA for short-axis diameter (r = 0.84-0.90), long-axis diameter (r = 0.77-0.79), and annular area (r = 0.89-0.90). As compared to 3D-TEE, annular area is overmeasured by 28 mm(2) on systolic phase cCTA (P < 0.008), but nearly identical with 3D-TEE on diastolic phase cCTA. Semi-automated and manual cCTA annulus measurements were highly correlated in systole (r = 0.94) and diastole (r = 0.93), although the semi-automated annular area measured 11-30 mm(2) greater than manual planimetry. Of note, the 95% limits of agreement in our Bland-Altman analysis suggest that the variability in annular area estimates for individual patients between cCTA and 3D-TEE (-100.9 to 99.6 mm(2)), as well as the variability between manual and automated measurements with cCTA (-105.9 to 45.2 mm(2)), may be sufficient to alter size selection for an aortic prosthesis. Although

  15. Development of an MM5-Based Four Dimensional Variational Analysis System for Distributed Memory Multiprocessor Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrkorn, T.; Modica, G. D.; Cerniglia, M.; Ruggiero, F. H.; Michalakes, J. G.; Zou, X.

    2001-05-01

    The MM5 four-dimensional variational analysis system (4DVAR) is being updated to allow its efficient execution on parallel distributed memory computers. The previous version of the MM5 4DVAR system (Zou et al. 1998 [3]) is coded for single processor computer architectures and its nonlinear, tangent-linear, and adjoint components are based on version 1 of the MM5. In order to take advantage of the parallelization mechanisms (Michalakes 2000 [2]) already in place for the latest release (Version 3.4) of the MM5 nonlinear model (NLM), the existing (Version 1) tangent linear (TLM) and adjoint model codes are also being updated to Version 3.4. We are using the Tangent Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC; Giering and Kaminski 1988 [1]) in this process. The TAMC is a source-to-source translator that generates Fortran code for the TLM or adjoint from the Fortran code of the NLM. While it would be possible to incorporate the TAMC as part of a pre-compilation process--thus requiring the maintenance of the NLM code only--this would require that the NLM code first be modified as needed to result in the correct TLM and adjoint code output by TAMC. For the development of the MM5 adjoint, we have chosen instead to use TAMC as a development tool only, and separately maintain the TLM and adjoint versions of the model code. This approach makes it possible to minimize changes to the MM5 code as supported by NCAR. The TLM and adjoint are tested for correctness, using the standard comparison of the TLM and finite difference gradients to check for correctness of the former, and the definition of the adjoint to check for consistency of the TLM and adjoint. This testing is performed for individual subroutines (unit testing) as well as the complete model integration (unit integration testing), with objective functions designed to test different parts of the model state vector. Testing can be done for the entire model domain, or for selected model grid points. Finally, the TLM and

  16. Systematic evaluation of lung tumor motion using four-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sarudis, Sebastian; Karlsson Hauer, Anna; Nyman, Jan; Bäck, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory-induced lung tumor motion may decrease robustness and outcome of radiation therapy (RT) if not accounted for. This study provides detailed information on the motion distribution of lung tumors for a group of 126 patients treated with stereotactic body RT. Four-dimensional computed tomography scans were reviewed to assess lung tumor motion. The tumor motion was determined by the center of mass shift based on a rigid registration of the breathing phases containing the largest positional differences in the inferior-superior (IS), left-right (LR), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. The patients were divided into subgroups depending on tumor diameter (φ < 2.0 cm, 2.0 ≤ φ ≤ 5.0 cm, φ > 5.0 cm) and tumor location within the lung (upper, middle, or lower lobe). The observed motion distributions were evaluated for each group separately to assess the dependence on tumor size and location. For each tumor size, the motion pattern in each direction (IS, LR, and AP) was analyzed for every tumor moving >5 mm. Sinusoidal trigonometric functions were fitted to the measured data using the least mean square method to determine which type of function best describes the motion pattern. Tumor volumes between 1.6 and 52.3 cm(3) were evaluated. Mann-Whitney statistical tests were used for statistical analyses. The mean amplitude for the tumors in this study was 1.5 mm (LR), 2.5 mm (AP), and 6.9 mm (IS) while the maximum amplitude was 11.0 mm (LR), 9.0 mm (AP), and 53.0 mm (IS). In total, 95% of the tumors moved ≤20 mm in the IS direction, ≤3 mm in the LR direction, and ≤6 mm in the AP direction. The observed motion distributions showed no statistically significant correlation with tumor size or location within the lung except for motion in the IS direction, where the mean and maximum amplitudes significantly increased for tumors located in the middle and lower parts of the lung. The motion pattern of a tumor in

  17. Physical performance evaluation of a 256-slice CT-scanner for four-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiro; Tsunoo, Takanori; Kandatsu, Susumu; Tanada, Shuji; Aradate, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasuo; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Satoh, Kazumasa; Matsushita, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Masahiro

    2004-06-01

    We have developed a prototype 256-slice CT-scanner for four-dimensional (4D) imaging that employs continuous rotations of a cone-beam. Since a cone-beam scan along a circular orbit does not collect a complete set of data to make an exact reconstruction of a volume [three-dimensional (3D) image], it might cause disadvantages or artifacts. To examine effects of the cone-beam data collection on image quality, we have evaluated physical performance of the prototype 256-slice CT-scanner with 0.5 mm slices and compared it to that of a 16-slice CT-scanner with 0.75 mm slices. As a result, we found that image noise, uniformity, and high contrast detectability were independent of z coordinate. A Feldkamp artifact was observed in distortion measurements. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of slice sensitivity profiles (SSP) increased with z coordinate though it seemed to be caused by other reasons than incompleteness of data. With regard to low contrast detectability, smaller objects were detected more clearly at the midplane (z = 0 mm) than at z = 40 mm, though circular-band like artifacts affected detection. The comparison between the 16-slice and the 256-slice scanners showed better performance for the 16-slice scanner regarding the SSP, low contrast detectability, and distortion. The inferiorities of the 256-slice scanner in other than distortion measurement (Feldkamp artifact) seemed to be partly caused by the prototype nature of the scanner and should be improved in the future scanner. The image noise, uniformity, and high contrast detectability were almost identical for both CTs. The 256-slice scanner was superior to the 16-slice scanner regarding the PSF, though it was caused by the smaller transverse beam width of the 256-slice scanner. In order to compare both scanners comprehensively in terms of exposure dose, noise, slice thickness, and transverse spatial resolution, K=Dsigma2ha3 was calculated, where D was exposure dose (CT dose index), sigma was magnitude of

  18. Live dynamic OCT imaging of cardiac structure and function in mouse embryos with 43 Hz direct volumetric data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Singh, Manmohan; Lopez, Andrew L.; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Schill, Alexander; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient phenotyping of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos has significant implications on understanding of early mammalian heart development and congenital cardiac defects. Recent studies established optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a powerful tool for live embryonic heart imaging in various animal models. However, current four-dimensional (4D) OCT imaging of the beating embryonic heart largely relies on gated data acquisition or postacquisition synchronization, which brings errors when cardiac cycles lack perfect periodicity and is time consuming and computationally expensive. Here, we report direct 4D OCT imaging of the structure and function of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos achieved by employing a Fourier domain mode-locking swept laser source that enables ~1.5 MHz A-line rate. Through utilizing both forward and backward scans of a resonant mirror, we obtained a ~6.4 kHz frame rate, which allows for a direct volumetric data acquisition speed of ~43 Hz, around 20 times of the early-stage mouse embryonic heart rate. Our experiments were performed on mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.5. Time-resolved 3D cardiodynamics clearly shows the heart structure in motion. We present analysis of cardiac wall movement and its velocity from the primitive atrium and ventricle. Our results suggest that the combination of ultrahigh-speed OCT imaging with live embryo culture could be a useful embryonic heart phenotyping approach for mouse mutants modeling human congenital heart diseases.

  19. Four-dimensional optical multiband-OFDM for beyond 1.4 Tb/s serial optical transmission.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Batshon, Hussam G; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2011-01-17

    We propose a four-dimensional (4D) coded multiband-OFDM scheme suitable for beyond 1.4 Tb/s serial optical transport. The proposed scheme organizes the N-dimensional (ND) signal constellation points in the form of signal matrix; employs 2D-inverse FFT and 2D-FFT to perform modulation and demodulation, respectively; and exploits both orthogonal polarizations. This scheme can fully exploit advantages of OFDM to deal with chromatic dispersion, PMD and PDL effects; and multidimensional signal constellations to improve OSNR sensitivity of conventional optical OFDM. The improvement of 4D-OFDM over corresponding polarization-multiplexed QAM (with the same number of constellation points) ranges from 1.79 dB for 16 signal constellation point-four-dimensional-OFDM (16-4D-OFDM) up to 4.53 dB for 128-4D-OFDM.

  20. A construction of a large family of commuting pairs of integrable symplectic birational four-dimensional maps.

    PubMed

    Petrera, Matteo; Suris, Yuri B

    2017-02-01

    We give a construction of completely integrable four-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with cubic Hamilton functions. Applying to the corresponding pairs of commuting quadratic Hamiltonian vector fields the so called Kahan-Hirota-Kimura discretization scheme, we arrive at pairs of birational four-dimensional maps. We show that these maps are symplectic with respect to a symplectic structure that is a perturbation of the standard symplectic structure on [Formula: see text], and possess two independent integrals of motion, which are perturbations of the original Hamilton functions and which are in involution with respect to the perturbed symplectic structure. Thus, these maps are completely integrable in the Liouville-Arnold sense. Moreover, under a suitable normalization of the original pairs of vector fields, the pairs of maps commute and share the invariant symplectic structure and the two integrals of motion.

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Motion of four-dimensional rigid body around a fixed point: an elementary approach I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this letter is to give an elementary approach to the solution of Euler-Frahm equations for the Manakov four-dimensional case. For this, we use the Kötter approach and some results from the original papers by Schottky, Weber and Caspary. We hope that such an approach will be useful for the solution of the problem of an n-dimensional top.

  2. High-Performance Computing and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation: The Impact on Future and Current Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makivic, Miloje S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final technical report for the project entitled: "High-Performance Computing and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation: The Impact on Future and Current Problems", funded at NPAC by the DAO at NASA/GSFC. First, the motivation for the project is given in the introductory section, followed by the executive summary of major accomplishments and the list of project-related publications. Detailed analysis and description of research results is given in subsequent chapters and in the Appendix.

  3. Four-Dimensional Respiratory Motion-Resolved Whole Heart Coronary MR Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Piccini, Davide; Feng, Li; Bonanno, Gabriele; Coppo, Simone; Yerly, Jérôme; Lim, Ruth P.; Schwitter, Juerg; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Free-breathing whole-heart coronary MR angiography (MRA) commonly uses navigators to gate respiratory motion, resulting in lengthy and unpredictable acquisition times. Conversely, self-navigation has 100% scan efficiency, but requires motion correction over a broad range of respiratory displacements, which may introduce image artifacts. We propose replacing navigators and self-navigation with a respiratory motion-resolved reconstruction approach. Methods Using a respiratory signal extracted directly from the imaging data, individual signal-readouts are binned according to their respiratory states. The resultant series of undersampled images are reconstructed using an extradimensional golden-angle radial sparse parallel imaging (XD-GRASP) algorithm, which exploits sparsity along the respiratory dimension. Whole-heart coronary MRA was performed in 11 volunteers and four patients with the proposed methodology. Image quality was compared with that obtained with one-dimensional respiratory self-navigation. Results Respiratory-resolved reconstruction effectively suppressed respiratory motion artifacts. The quality score for XD-GRASP reconstructions was greater than or equal to self-navigation in 80/88 coronary segments, reaching diagnostic quality in 61/88 segments versus 41/88. Coronary sharpness and length were always superior for the respiratory-resolved datasets, reaching statistical significance (P < 0.05) in most cases. Conclusion XD-GRASP represents an attractive alternative for handling respiratory motion in free-breathing whole heart MRI and provides an effective alternative to self-navigation. PMID:27052418

  4. Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

    PubMed Central

    Namati, Eman; Warger, William C.; Unglert, Carolin I.; Eckert, Jocelyn E.; Hostens, Jeroen; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveoli have been studied for many years, yet no unifying hypothesis exists for their dynamic mechanics during respiration due to their miniature size (100-300 μm dimater in humans) and constant motion, which prevent standard imaging techniques from visualizing four-dimensional dynamics of individual alveoli in vivo. Here we report a new platform to image the first layer of air-filled subpleural alveoli through the use of a lightweight optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) probe that can be placed upon the pleura to move with the lung over the complete range of respiratory motion. This device enables in-vivo acquisition of four-dimensional microscopic images of alveolar airspaces (alveoli and ducts), within the same field of view, during continuous ventilation without restricting the motion or modifying the structure of the alveoli. Results from an exploratory study including three live swine suggest that subpleural alveolar air spaces are best fit with a uniform expansion (r 2 = 0.98) over a recruitment model (r 2 = 0.72). Simultaneously, however, the percentage change in volume shows heterogeneous alveolar expansion within just a 1 mm x 1 mm field of view. These results signify the importance of four-dimensional imaging tools, such as the device presented here. Quantification of the dynamic response of the lung during ventilation may help create more accurate modeling techniques and move toward a more complete understanding of alveolar mechanics. PMID:24298409

  5. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sign of CHD). MUGA Test or Cardiac MRI A MUGA (multiple gated acquisition) test shows how ... pictures of many parts of your heart. Cardiac MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a safe procedure that ...

  6. A novel four-dimensional radiotherapy planning strategy from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang; Cohen, Patrice; Xie, Huchen; Low, Daniel; Li, Diana; Rimner, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) planning from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view (ttBEV) with reliable gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation, realistic normal tissue representation, high planning accuracy and low clinical workload, we propose and validate a novel 4D conformal planning strategy based on a synthesized 3.5D computed tomographic (3.5DCT) image with a motion-compensated tumor. To recreate patient anatomy from a ttBEV in the moving tumor coordinate system for 4DRT planning (or 4D planning), the centers of delineated GTVs in all phase CT images of 4DCT were aligned, and then the aligned CTs were averaged to produce a new 3.5DCT image. This GTV-motion-compensated CT contains a motionless target (with motion artifacts minimized) and motion-blurred normal tissues (with a realistic temporal density average). Semi-automatic threshold-based segmentation of the tumor, lung and body was applied, while manual delineation was used for other organs at risk (OARs). To validate this 3.5DCT-based 4D planning strategy, five patients with peripheral lung lesions of small size (<5 cm3) and large motion range (1.2-3.5 cm) were retrospectively studied for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3D conformal radiotherapy planning tools. The 3.5DCT-based 4D plan (3.5DCT plan) with 9-10 conformal beams was compared with the 4DCT-based 4D plan (4DCT plan). The 4DCT plan was derived from multiple 3D plans based on all phase CT images, each of which used the same conformal beam configuration but with an isocenter shift to aim at the moving tumor and a minor beam aperture and weighting adjustment to maintain plan conformality. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the 4DCT plan was created with two methods: one is an integrated DVH (iDVH4D), which is defined as the temporal average of all 3D-phase-plan DVHs, and the other (DVH4D) is based on the dose distribution in a reference phase CT image by dose warping from all phase plans using the

  7. A novel four-dimensional radiotherapy planning strategy from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Cohen, Patrice; Xie, Huchen; Low, Daniel; Li, Diana; Rimner, Andreas

    2012-11-21

    To investigate the feasibility of four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) planning from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view (ttBEV) with reliable gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation, realistic normal tissue representation, high planning accuracy and low clinical workload, we propose and validate a novel 4D conformal planning strategy based on a synthesized 3.5D computed tomographic (3.5DCT) image with a motion-compensated tumor. To recreate patient anatomy from a ttBEV in the moving tumor coordinate system for 4DRT planning (or 4D planning), the centers of delineated GTVs in all phase CT images of 4DCT were aligned, and then the aligned CTs were averaged to produce a new 3.5DCT image. This GTV-motion-compensated CT contains a motionless target (with motion artifacts minimized) and motion-blurred normal tissues (with a realistic temporal density average). Semi-automatic threshold-based segmentation of the tumor, lung and body was applied, while manual delineation was used for other organs at risk (OARs). To validate this 3.5DCT-based 4D planning strategy, five patients with peripheral lung lesions of small size (<5 cm(3)) and large motion range (1.2-3.5 cm) were retrospectively studied for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3D conformal radiotherapy planning tools. The 3.5DCT-based 4D plan (3.5DCT plan) with 9-10 conformal beams was compared with the 4DCT-based 4D plan (4DCT plan). The 4DCT plan was derived from multiple 3D plans based on all phase CT images, each of which used the same conformal beam configuration but with an isocenter shift to aim at the moving tumor and a minor beam aperture and weighting adjustment to maintain plan conformality. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the 4DCT plan was created with two methods: one is an integrated DVH (iDVH(4D)), which is defined as the temporal average of all 3D-phase-plan DVHs, and the other (DVH(4D)) is based on the dose distribution in a reference phase CT image by dose warping from all phase plans using

  8. Four-Dimensional Patient Dose Reconstruction for Scanned Ion Beam Therapy of Moving Liver Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Daniel; Saito, Nami; Chaudhri, Naved; Härtig, Martin; Ellerbrock, Malte; Jäkel, Oliver; Combs, Stephanie E.; Habermehl, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the actual delivered 4-dimensional (4D) dose in treatments of patients with mobile hepatocellular cancer with scanned carbon ion beam therapy. Methods and Materials: Six patients were treated with 4 fractions to a total relative biological effectiveness (RBE)–weighted dose of 40 Gy (RBE) using a single field. Respiratory motion was addressed by dedicated margins and abdominal compression (5 patients) or gating (1 patient). 4D treatment dose reconstructions based on the treatment records and the measured motion monitoring data were performed for the single-fraction dose and a total of 17 fractions. To assess the impact of uncertainties in the temporal correlation between motion trajectory and beam delivery sequence, 3 dose distributions for varying temporal correlation were calculated per fraction. For 3 patients, the total treatment dose was formed from the fractional distributions using all possible combinations. Clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was analyzed using the volumes receiving at least 95% (V{sub 95}) and 107% (V{sub 107}) of the planned doses. Results: 4D dose reconstruction based on daily measured data is possible in a clinical setting. V{sub 95} and V{sub 107} values for the single fractions ranged between 72% and 100%, and 0% and 32%, respectively. The estimated total treatment dose to the CTV exhibited improved and more robust dose coverage (mean V{sub 95} > 87%, SD < 3%) and overdose (mean V{sub 107} < 4%, SD < 3%) with respect to the single-fraction dose for all analyzed patients. Conclusions: A considerable impact of interplay effects on the single-fraction CTV dose was found for most of the analyzed patients. However, due to the fractionated treatment, dose heterogeneities were substantially reduced for the total treatment dose. 4D treatment dose reconstruction for scanned ion beam therapy is technically feasible and may evolve into a valuable tool for dose assessment.

  9. Five-dimensional motion compensation for respiratory and cardiac motion with cone-beam CT of the thorax region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauppe, Sebastian; Hahn, Andreas; Brehm, Marcus; Paysan, Pascal; Seghers, Dieter; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We propose an adapted method of our previously published five-dimensional (5D) motion compensation (MoCo) algorithm1, developed for micro-CT imaging of small animals, to provide for the first time motion artifact-free 5D cone-beam CT (CBCT) images from a conventional flat detector-based CBCT scan of clinical patients. Image quality of retrospectively respiratory- and cardiac-gated volumes from flat detector CBCT scans is deteriorated by severe sparse projection artifacts. These artifacts further complicate motion estimation, as it is required for MoCo image reconstruction. For high quality 5D CBCT images at the same x-ray dose and the same number of projections as todays 3D CBCT we developed a double MoCo approach based on motion vector fields (MVFs) for respiratory and cardiac motion. In a first step our already published four-dimensional (4D) artifact-specific cyclic motion-compensation (acMoCo) approach is applied to compensate for the respiratory patient motion. With this information a cyclic phase-gated deformable heart registration algorithm is applied to the respiratory motion-compensated 4D CBCT data, thus resulting in cardiac MVFs. We apply these MVFs on double-gated images and thereby respiratory and cardiac motion-compensated 5D CBCT images are obtained. Our 5D MoCo approach processing patient data acquired with the TrueBeam 4D CBCT system (Varian Medical Systems). Our double MoCo approach turned out to be very efficient and removed nearly all streak artifacts due to making use of 100% of the projection data for each reconstructed frame. The 5D MoCo patient data show fine details and no motion blurring, even in regions close to the heart where motion is fastest.

  10. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE GATE, SHOWING GATE ARMS, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE GATE, SHOWING GATE ARMS, GATE PIERS, TRUNNION PIN AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  11. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, TRUNNION PIN, PIER AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING EAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  12. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS AND DAM BRIDGE, WITH ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  13. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS, GATE CHAINS AND SWITCHES, AND BRIDGE GIRDERS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  14. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS, GATE CHAINS AND SWITCHES, AND BRIDGE GIRDERS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  15. Cardiac image reconstruction on a 16-slice CT scanner using a retrospectively ECG-gated multicycle 3D back-projection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechter, Gilad; Naveh, Galit; Altman, Ami; Proksa, Roland M.; Grass, Michael

    2003-05-01

    Fast 16-slice spiral CT delivers superior cardiac visualization in comparison to older generation 2- to 8-slice scanners due to the combination of high temporal resolution along with isotropic spatial resolution and large coverage. The large beam opening of such scanners necessitates the use of adequate algorithms to avoid cone beam artifacts. We have developed a multi-cycle phase selective 3D back projection reconstruction algorithm that provides excellent temporal and spatial resolution for 16-slice CT cardiac images free of cone beam artifacts.

  16. Simulation-based validation for four- dimensional multi-channel ultrasound current source density imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Witte, Russell S

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), which has application to the heart and brain, exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect and Ohm's law to detect and map an electrical current distribution. In this study, we describe 4-D UCSDI simulations of a dipole field for comparison and validation with bench-top experiments. The simulations consider the properties of the ultrasound pulse as it passes through a conductive medium, the electric field of the injected dipole, and the lead field of the detectors. In the simulation, the lead fields of detectors and electric field of the dipole were calculated by the finite element (FE) method, and the convolution and correlation in the computation of the detected AE voltage signal were accelerated using 3-D fast Fourier transforms. In the bench-top experiment, an electric dipole was produced in a bath of 0.9% NaCl solution containing two electrodes, which injected an ac pulse (200 Hz, 3 cycles) ranging from 0 to 140 mA. Stimulating and recording electrodes were placed in a custom electrode chamber made on a rapid prototype printer. Each electrode could be positioned anywhere on an x-y grid (5 mm spacing) and individually adjusted in the depth direction for precise control of the geometry of the current sources and detecting electrodes. A 1-MHz ultrasound beam was pulsed and focused through a plastic film to modulate the current distribution inside the saline-filled tank. AE signals were simultaneously detected at a sampling frequency of 15 MHz on multiple recording electrodes. A single recording electrode is sufficient to form volume images of the current flow and electric potentials. The AE potential is sensitive to the distance from the dipole, but is less sensitive to the angle between the detector and the dipole. Multi-channel UCSDI potentially improves 4-D mapping of bioelectric sources in the body at high spatial resolution, which is especially important for diagnosing and guiding treatment of cardiac and

  17. Simulation-Based Validation for Four-Dimensional Multi-Channel Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaohui; Witte, Russell S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), which has application to the heart and brain, exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect and Ohm's law to detect and map an electrical current distribution. In this study, we describe 4-D UCSDI simulations of a dipole field for comparison and validation with bench-top experiments. The simulations consider the properties of the ultrasound pulse as it passes through a conductive medium, the electric field of the injected dipole, and the lead field of the detectors. In the simulation, the lead fields of detectors and electric field of the dipole were calculated by the finite element (FE) method, and the convolution and correlation in the computation of the detected AE voltage signal were accelerated using 3-D fast Fourier transforms. In the bench-top experiment, an electric dipole was produced in a bath of 0.9% NaCl solution containing two electrodes, which injected an ac pulse (200 Hz, 3 cycles) ranging from 0 to 140 mA. Stimulating and recording electrodes were placed in a custom electrode chamber made on a rapid prototype printer. Each electrode could be positioned anywhere on an x-y grid (5 mm spacing) and individually adjusted in the depth direction for precise control of the geometry of the current sources and detecting electrodes. A 1-MHz ultrasound beam was pulsed and focused through a plastic film to modulate the current distribution inside the saline-filled tank. AE signals were simultaneously detected at a sampling frequency of 15 MHz on multiple recording electrodes. A single recording electrode is sufficient to form volume images of the current flow and electric potentials. The AE potential is sensitive to the distance from the dipole, but is less sensitive to the angle between the detector and the dipole. Multi-channel UCSDI potentially improves 4-D mapping of bioelectric sources in the body at high spatial resolution, which is especially important for diagnosing and guiding treatment of cardiac and

  18. Systematic evaluation of four-dimensional hybrid depth scanning for carbon-ion lung therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Takuji; Inaniwa, Taku; Zenklusen, Silvan; Nakao, Minoru; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Irradiation of a moving target with a scanning beam requires a comprehensive understanding of organ motion as well as a robust dose error mitigation technique. The authors studied the effects of intrafractional respiratory motion for carbon-ion pencil beam scanning with phase-controlled rescanning on dose distributions for lung tumors. To address density variations, they used 4DCT data. Methods: Dose distributions for various rescanning methods, such as simple layer rescanning (LR), volumetric rescanning, and phase-controlled rescanning (PCR), were calculated for a lung phantom and a lung patient studies. To ensure realism, they set the scanning parameters such as scanning velocity and energy variation time to be similar to those used at our institution. Evaluation metrics were determined with regard to clinical relevance, and consisted of (i) phase-controlled rescanning, (ii) sweep direction, (iii) target motion (direction and amplitude), (iv) respiratory cycle, and (v) prescribed dose. Spot weight maps were calculated by using a beam field-specific target volume, which takes account of range variations for respective respiratory phases. To emphasize the impact of intrafractional motion on the dose distribution, respiratory gating was not used. The accumulated dose was calculated by applying a B-spline-based deformable image registration, and the results for phase-controlled layered rescanning (PCR{sub L}) and phase-controlled volumetric rescanning (PCR{sub V}) were compared. Results: For the phantom study, simple LR was unable to improve the dose distributions for an increased number of rescannings. The phase-controlled technique without rescanning (1 Multiplication-Sign PCR{sub L} and 1 Multiplication-Sign PCR{sub V}) degraded dose conformity significantly due to a reduced scan velocity. In contrast, 4 Multiplication-Sign PCR{sub L} or more significantly and consistently improved dose distribution. PCR{sub V} showed interference effects, but in general

  19. Systematic evaluation of four-dimensional hybrid depth scanning for carbon-ion lung therapy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Takuji; Inaniwa, Taku; Zenklusen, Silvan; Nakao, Minoru; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    2013-03-01

    Irradiation of a moving target with a scanning beam requires a comprehensive understanding of organ motion as well as a robust dose error mitigation technique. The authors studied the effects of intrafractional respiratory motion for carbon-ion pencil beam scanning with phase-controlled rescanning on dose distributions for lung tumors. To address density variations, they used 4DCT data. Dose distributions for various rescanning methods, such as simple layer rescanning (LR), volumetric rescanning, and phase-controlled rescanning (PCR), were calculated for a lung phantom and a lung patient studies. To ensure realism, they set the scanning parameters such as scanning velocity and energy variation time to be similar to those used at our institution. Evaluation metrics were determined with regard to clinical relevance, and consisted of (i) phase-controlled rescanning, (ii) sweep direction, (iii) target motion (direction and amplitude), (iv) respiratory cycle, and (v) prescribed dose. Spot weight maps were calculated by using a beam field-specific target volume, which takes account of range variations for respective respiratory phases. To emphasize the impact of intrafractional motion on the dose distribution, respiratory gating was not used. The accumulated dose was calculated by applying a B-spline-based deformable image registration, and the results for phase-controlled layered rescanning (PCRL) and phase-controlled volumetric rescanning (PCRV) were compared. For the phantom study, simple LR was unable to improve the dose distributions for an increased number of rescannings. The phase-controlled technique without rescanning (1×PCRL and 1×PCRV) degraded dose conformity significantly due to a reduced scan velocity. In contrast, 4×PCRL or more significantly and consistently improved dose distribution. PCRV showed interference effects, but in general also improved dose homogeneity with higher numbers of rescannings. Dose distributions with single PCRL∕PCRV with a

  20. Hemodynamic Measurement Using Four-Dimensional Phase-Contrast MRI: Quantification of Hemodynamic Parameters and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hojin; Kim, Guk Bae; Kweon, Jihoon; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Deok Hee; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements have been made to the use of time-resolved, three-dimensional phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is also named four-dimensional (4D) PC-MRI or 4D flow MRI, in the investigation of spatial and temporal variations in hemodynamic features in cardiovascular blood flow. The present article reviews the principle and analytical procedures of 4D PC-MRI. Various fluid dynamic biomarkers for possible clinical usage are also described, including wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, and relative pressure. Lastly, this article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D PC-MRI in various cardiovascular regions.

  1. Why is the World four-dimensional? Hermann Weyl’s 1955 argument and the topology of causation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bianchi, Silvia

    2017-08-01

    This paper approaches the question of space dimensionality by discussing a neglected argument proposed by Hermann Weyl in 1955. In Why is the World Four-Dimensional? (1955), Weyl offered a different argument from the one generally attributed to him and presented in Raum-Zeit-Materie. In the first sections of the paper, this new argument and its features are spelled-out, and in the last section, I shall develop some useful remarks on the concept of topology of causation that can still inform our reflection on the dimensionality of the world.

  2. Hemodynamic Measurement Using Four-Dimensional Phase-Contrast MRI: Quantification of Hemodynamic Parameters and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Hojin; Kim, Guk Bae; Kweon, Jihoon; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Deok Hee

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements have been made to the use of time-resolved, three-dimensional phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is also named four-dimensional (4D) PC-MRI or 4D flow MRI, in the investigation of spatial and temporal variations in hemodynamic features in cardiovascular blood flow. The present article reviews the principle and analytical procedures of 4D PC-MRI. Various fluid dynamic biomarkers for possible clinical usage are also described, including wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, and relative pressure. Lastly, this article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D PC-MRI in various cardiovascular regions. PMID:27390537

  3. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive α-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels are relevant for inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, C; Doll, T; Stueber, T; Herzog, C; Echtermeyer, F; Greulich, F; Rudat, C; Kispert, A; Wegner, F; Leffler, A

    2016-06-01

    The sodium channel α-subunit (Nav) Nav1.5 is regarded as the most prevalent cardiac sodium channel required for generation of action potentials in cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, Nav1.5 seems to be the main target molecule for local anesthetic (LA)-induced cardiotoxicity. However, recent reports demonstrated functional expression of several "neuronal" Nav's in cardiomyocytes being involved in cardiac contractility and rhythmogenesis. In this study, we examined the relevance of neuronal tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Nav's for inhibition of cardiac sodium channels by the cardiotoxic LAs ropivacaine and bupivacaine. Effects of LAs on recombinant Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 expressed in human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK-293) cells, and on sodium currents in murine, cardiomyocytes were investigated by whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Expression analyses were performed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice express messenger RNA (mRNA) for Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.8, and 1.9 and generate TTX-sensitive sodium currents. Tonic and use-dependent block of sodium currents in cardiomyocytes by ropivacaine and bupivacaine were enhanced by 200 nM TTX. Inhibition of recombinant Nav1.5 channels was similar to that of TTX-resistant currents in cardiomyocytes but stronger as compared to inhibition of total sodium current in cardiomyocytes. Recombinant Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 channels displayed significant differences in regard to use-dependent block by ropivacaine. Finally, bupivacaine blocked sodium currents in cardiomyocytes as well as recombinant Nav1.5 currents significantly stronger in comparison to ropivacaine. Our data demonstrate for the first time that cardiac TTX-sensitive sodium channels are relevant for inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by LAs.

  4. Design and simulation of a descent controller for strategic four-dimensional aircraft navigation. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lax, F. M.

    1975-01-01

    A time-controlled navigation system applicable to the descent phase of flight for airline transport aircraft was developed and simulated. The design incorporates the linear discrete-time sampled-data version of the linearized continuous-time system describing the aircraft's aerodynamics. Using optimal linear quadratic control techniques, an optimal deterministic control regulator which is implementable on an airborne computer is designed. The navigation controller assists the pilot in complying with assigned times of arrival along a four-dimensional flight path in the presence of wind disturbances. The strategic air traffic control concept is also described, followed by the design of a strategic control descent path. A strategy for determining possible times of arrival at specified waypoints along the descent path and for generating the corresponding route-time profiles that are within the performance capabilities of the aircraft is presented. Using a mathematical model of the Boeing 707-320B aircraft along with a Boeing 707 cockpit simulator interfaced with an Adage AGT-30 digital computer, a real-time simulation of the complete aircraft aerodynamics was achieved. The strategic four-dimensional navigation controller for longitudinal dynamics was tested on the nonlinear aircraft model in the presence of 15, 30, and 45 knot head-winds. The results indicate that the controller preserved the desired accuracy and precision of a time-controlled aircraft navigation system.

  5. Cardiac catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization; CAD - cardiac catheterization; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization; Heart valve - cardiac catheterization; Heart failure - ...

  6. A Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, B. S.; Morozov, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    We find a Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations. We also discuss an integrable deformation of the Martínez Alonso-Shabat equation.

  7. Investigating the Impact on Modeled Ozone Concentrations Using Meteorological Fields From WRF With and Updated Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Approach”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) technique in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological model has recently undergone an important update from the original version. Previous evaluation results have demonstrated that the updated FDDA approach in WRF pr...

  8. Investigating the Impact on Modeled Ozone Concentrations Using Meteorological Fields From WRF With and Updated Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Approach”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) technique in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological model has recently undergone an important update from the original version. Previous evaluation results have demonstrated that the updated FDDA approach in WRF pr...

  9. Four Dimensional Soil Moisture and Temperature Retrievals through an Assimilation Sheme by Using TRMM Satellite and In-situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, T.; Pathmathevan, M.; Li, X.

    2001-12-01

    The main objective of this scheme is to produce a regular, physically consistent four-dimensional representation of the land surface hydrological parameters from a heterogeneous array of in-situ instruments, which sample imperfectly and irregularly in space and time, by combining satellite remote sensing data. This paper mainly describes the implementation and application of advanced four-dimensional data assimilation algorithm for land surface hydrological parameters, especially soil moisture and temperature. This algorithm minimizes the penalty function, which is produced by remotely sensed passive microwave observations of brightness temperature or its dimensionless products such as Polarization Index (PI) and Index of Soil Wetness (ISW), and the numerically predicted results by a modified simple biosphere model (Sib2) with randomly generated initial stage. The application and validation was carried out for GAME-Tibet mesoscale experimental region by using satellite data and IOP (intensive observation period) fieldwork data, obtained in May-September 1998. The modified Land Surface Scheme Sib2 was used as a model operator to estimate soil moisture and temperature profiles at experimental site. These profiles can be produced by above Sib2 scheme during the freeze-thaw cycle period also. From the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Microwave Instrument (TMI), the brightness temperature observations at different frequencies and different polarizations were utilized in this study. In above four-dimensional soil moisture and temperature assimilation scheme the forward (radiative transfer) model was used as an observation operator to estimate the surface brightness temperature from soil moisture and temperature profiles. As an important point of our assimilation algorithm, we used an annealing schedule with random generation of the state vector for minimizing the penalty function, instead of using usual ad-joint models. This scheme works very well. Finally, the

  10. Comparison of Total Variation with a Motion Estimation Based Compressed Sensing Approach for Self-Gated Cardiac Cine MRI in Small Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marinetto, Eugenio; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Compressed sensing (CS) has been widely applied to prospective cardiac cine MRI. The aim of this work is to study the benefits obtained by including motion estimation in the CS framework for small-animal retrospective cardiac cine. Methods We propose a novel B-spline-based compressed sensing method (SPLICS) that includes motion estimation and generalizes previous spatiotemporal total variation (ST-TV) methods by taking into account motion between frames. In addition, we assess the effect of an optimum weighting between spatial and temporal sparsity to further improve results. Both methods were implemented using the efficient Split Bregman methodology and were evaluated on rat data comparing animals with myocardial infarction with controls for several acceleration factors. Results ST-TV with optimum selection of the weighting sparsity parameter led to results similar to those of SPLICS; ST-TV with large relative temporal sparsity led to temporal blurring effects. However, SPLICS always properly corrected temporal blurring, independently of the weighting parameter. At acceleration factors of 15, SPLICS did not distort temporal intensity information but led to some artefacts and slight over-smoothing. At an acceleration factor of 7, images were reconstructed without significant loss of quality. Conclusion We have validated SPLICS for retrospective cardiac cine in small animal, achieving high acceleration factors. In addition, we have shown that motion modelling may not be essential for retrospective cine and that similar results can be obtained by using ST-TV provided that an optimum selection of the spatiotemporal sparsity weighting parameter is performed. PMID:25350290

  11. Determination of critical linear lattice size for the four dimensional Ising model on the Creutz cellular automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilirmak, Ganimet Mülazımoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on the Creutz cellular automaton (CCA) near the infinite-lattice critical temperature for the lattice with the linear dimension 4 ⩽ L ⩽ 22. The temperature dependence of Binder parameter ( g L) are analyzed for the lattice with the linear dimension 4 ⩽ L ⩽ 22. In this study conducted highly detailed, two different types of behavior were determined as a result of varying linear lattice dimension. The infinite lattice critical temperatures are obtained to be T c = 6.6845 ± 0.0005 in interval 4 ⩽ L ⩽ 12 and T c = 6.6807 ± 0.0024 in interval 14 ⩽ L ⩽ 22. The finite and infinite lattice critical exponents for the order parameter, the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are computed from the results of simulations by using finite-size scaling relations. Critical linear lattice size have been identified as L = 14.

  12. Energy analysis of four dimensional extended hyperbolic Scarf I plus three dimensional separable trigonometric noncentral potentials using SUSY QM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Deta, U. A.; Handhika, J.

    2016-11-01

    The non-relativistic energies and wave functions of extended hyperbolic Scarf I plus separable non-central shape invariant potential in four dimensions are investigated using Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SUSY QM) Approach. The three dimensional separable non-central shape invariant angular potential consists of trigonometric Scarf II, Manning Rosen and Poschl-Teller potentials. The four dimensional Schrodinger equation with separable shape invariant non-central potential is reduced into four one dimensional Schrodinger equations through variable separation method. By using SUSY QM, the non-relativistic energies and radial wave functions are obtained from radial Schrodinger equation, the orbital quantum numbers and angular wave functions are obtained from angular Schrodinger equations. The extended potential means there is perturbation terms in potential and cause the decrease in energy spectra of Scarf I potential.

  13. Solving the four-dimensional NN-πNN equations for scalars below the meson-production threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. R.; Afnan, I. R.

    1996-10-01

    The four-dimensional NN-πNN equations are adapted to the case of scalar particles with a φ2σ interaction Lagrangian and solved for energies below the σ-production threshold. This is achieved in the approximation where φσ scattering is dominated by the s-channel φ-pole term. The importance of the removal of double counting is investigated and a detailed comparison of the results of a covariant coupled-channel formulation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder and ladder plus crossed-box approximations is presented. A brief discussion of the extension of the method to energies above the σ-production threshold is given.

  14. Sensitivity of the model error parameter specification in weak-constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jeremy A.; Daescu, Dacian N.

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the mathematical framework to evaluate the sensitivity of a forecast error aspect to the input parameters of a weak-constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilation system (w4D-Var DAS), extending the established theory from strong-constraint 4D-Var. Emphasis is placed on the derivation of the equations for evaluating the forecast sensitivity to parameters in the DAS representation of the model error statistics, including bias, standard deviation, and correlation structure. A novel adjoint-based procedure for adaptive tuning of the specified model error covariance matrix is introduced. Results from numerical convergence tests establish the validity of the model error sensitivity equations. Preliminary experiments providing a proof-of-concept are performed using the Lorenz multi-scale model to illustrate the theoretical concepts and potential benefits for practical applications.

  15. Integrated approach to the data processing of four-dimensional datasets from phase-contrast x-ray tomography.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Ashwin J; Begum Gulsoy, E; Gibbs, John W; Fife, Julie L; Voorhees, Peter W

    2014-10-06

    Phase contrast X-ray tomography (PCT) enables the study of systems consisting of elements with similar atomic numbers. Processing datasets acquired using PCT is nontrivial because of the low-pass characteristics of the commonly used single-image phase retrieval algorithm. In this study, we introduce an image processing methodology that simultaneously utilizes both phase and attenuation components of an image obtained at a single detector distance. This novel method, combined with regularized Perona-Malik filter and bias-corrected fuzzy C-means algorithm, allows for automated segmentation of data acquired through four-dimensional PCT. Using this integrated approach, the three-dimensional coarsening morphology of an Aluminum-29.9 wt% Silicon alloy can be analyzed.

  16. Testing a four-dimensional variational data assimilation method using an improved intermediate coupled model for ENSO analysis and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chuan; Wu, Xinrong; Zhang, Rong-Hua

    2016-07-01

    A four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation method is implemented in an improved intermediate coupled model (ICM) of the tropical Pacific. A twin experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of the 4D-Var data assimilation algorithm on ENSO analysis and prediction based on the ICM. The model error is assumed to arise only from the parameter uncertainty. The "observation" of the SST anomaly, which is sampled from a "truth" model simulation that takes default parameter values and has Gaussian noise added, is directly assimilated into the assimilation model with its parameters set erroneously. Results show that 4D-Var effectively reduces the error of ENSO analysis and therefore improves the prediction skill of ENSO events compared with the non-assimilation case. These results provide a promising way for the ICM to achieve better real-time ENSO prediction.

  17. Four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. II Invariant distribution of quantized field oscillators and questions on infinities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of the quantum field theory is changed by introducing a new universal probability principle into field operators: one single inherent and invariant probability distribution P(/k/) is postulated for boson and fermion field oscillators. This can be accomplished only when one treats the four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. Special relativity is too restrictive to allow such a universal probability principle. A radical length, R, appears in physics through the probability distribution P(/k/). The force between two point particles vanishes when their relative distance tends to zero. This appears to be a general property for all forces and resembles the property of asymptotic freedom. The usual infinities in vacuum fluctuations and in local interactions, however complicated they may be, are all removed from quantum field theories. In appendix A a simple finite and unitary theory of unified electroweak interactions is discussed without assuming Higgs scalar bosons.

  18. Non-critical, near extremal AdS6 background as a holographic laboratory of four dimensional YM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperstein, S.; Sonnenschein, J.

    2004-11-01

    We study certain properties of the low energy regime of a theory which resembles four dimensional YM theory in the framework of a non-critical holographic gravity dual. We use for the latter the near extremal AdS6 non-critical SUGRA. We extract the glueball spectra that associates with the fluctuations of the dilaton, one form and the graviton and compare the results to those of the critical near extremal D4 model and lattice simulations. We show an area law behavior for the Wilson loop and screening for the 't Hooft loop. The Luscher term is found to be -(3π/24L). We derive the Regge trajectories of glueballs associated with the spinning folded string configurations.

  19. Four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. II Invariant distribution of quantized field oscillators and questions on infinities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of the quantum field theory is changed by introducing a new universal probability principle into field operators: one single inherent and invariant probability distribution P(/k/) is postulated for boson and fermion field oscillators. This can be accomplished only when one treats the four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. Special relativity is too restrictive to allow such a universal probability principle. A radical length, R, appears in physics through the probability distribution P(/k/). The force between two point particles vanishes when their relative distance tends to zero. This appears to be a general property for all forces and resembles the property of asymptotic freedom. The usual infinities in vacuum fluctuations and in local interactions, however complicated they may be, are all removed from quantum field theories. In appendix A a simple finite and unitary theory of unified electroweak interactions is discussed without assuming Higgs scalar bosons.

  20. Use of Respiratory-Correlated Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography to Determine Acceptable Treatment Margins for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Seth D.; Ford, Eric C.; Duhon, Mario; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Herman, Joseph M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Respiratory-induced excursions of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma could affect dose delivery. This study quantified tumor motion and evaluated standard treatment margins. Methods and Materials: Respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography images were obtained on 30 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma; 15 of whom underwent repeat scanning before cone-down treatment. Treatment planning software was used to contour the gross tumor volume (GTV), bilateral kidneys, and biliary stent. Excursions were calculated according to the centroid of the contoured volumes. Results: The mean +- standard deviation GTV excursion in the superoinferior (SI) direction was 0.55 +- 0.23 cm; an expansion of 1.0 cm adequately accounted for the GTV motion in 97% of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Motion GTVs were generated and resulted in a 25% average volume increase compared with the static GTV. Of the 30 patients, 17 had biliary stents. The mean SI stent excursion was 0.84 +- 0.32 cm, significantly greater than the GTV motion. The xiphoid process moved an average of 0.35 +- 0.12 cm, significantly less than the GTV. The mean SI motion of the left and right kidneys was 0.65 +- 0.27 cm and 0.77 +- 0.30 cm, respectively. At repeat scanning, no significant changes were seen in the mean GTV size (p = .8) or excursion (p = .3). Conclusion: These data suggest that an asymmetric expansion of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.6 cm along the respective SI, anteroposterior, and medial-lateral directions is recommended if a respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography scan is not available to evaluate the tumor motion during treatment planning. Surrogates of tumor motion, such as biliary stents or external markers, should be used with caution.

  1. Educational and public outreach programs using four-dimensional presentation of the earth and planetary science data with Dagik Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Tsugawa, T.; Nagayama, S.; Iwasaki, S.; Odagi, Y.; Kumano, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Akiya, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing educational and public outreach programs of the earth and planetary science data using a four-dimensional digital globe system, Dagik Earth. Dagik Earth is a simple and affordable four dimensional (three dimension in space and one dimension in time) presentation system of the earth and planetary scientific results. It can display the Earth and planets in three-dimensional way without glasses, and the time variation of the scientific data can be displayed on the Earth and planets image. It is easier to handle and lower cost than similar systems such as Geocosmos by Miraikan museum, Japan and Science On a Sphere by NOAA. At first it was developed as a presentation tool for public outreach programs in universities and research institutes by earth scientists. And now it is used in classrooms of schools and science museums collaboration with school teachers and museum curators. The three dimensional display can show the Earth and planets in exact form without any distortion, which cannot be achieved with two-dimensional display. Furthermore it can provide a sense of reality. Several educational programs have been developed and carried out in high schools, junior high schools, elementary schools and science centers. Several research institutes have used Dagik Earth in their public outreach programs to demonstrate their novel scientific results to public in universities, research institutes and science cafe events. A community of users and developers of Dagik Earth is being formed in Japan. In the presentation, the outline of Dagik Earth and the educational programs using Dagik Earth will be presented.

  2. Current trends in cardiac CT in children.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac CT is increasingly utilized in children thanks to advanced scan techniques reducing cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts. Consequently, clinical indications of cardiac CT are not confined to the extracardiac evaluation and extended further to the assessment of intracardiac structures, coronary arteries, ventricular volumetry, and ventricular function. In addition, dual-energy CT allows the assessment of regional lung perfusion and ventilation. Four-dimensional airway evaluation is also useful and may be added to cardiac CT protocols. At the same time, a favorable risk-benefit ratio of cardiac CT can be achieved by means of various dose-saving techniques. Therefore, flexible scan techniques with minimal motion artifacts, low dose techniques without compromising excellent image quality, and extended clinical applications towards truly cardiac assessments constitute current trends in cardiac CT in children.

  3. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, affects several gating mechanisms to inhibit cardiac L-type (Ca(V)1.2) calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Yarotskyy, V; Elmslie, K S

    2007-10-01

    L-type calcium channels (Ca((V))1.2) play an important role in cardiac contraction. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and promising anticancer drug, has been shown to affect Ca((V))1.2 by inhibiting current amplitude and slowing activation. This research investigates the mechanism by which roscovitine inhibits Ca((V))1.2 channels. Ca((V))1.2 channels were transfected into HEK 293 cells, using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, and currents were measured using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Roscovitine slows activation at all voltages, which precludes one previously proposed mechanism. In addition, roscovitine enhances voltage-dependent, but not calcium-dependent inactivation. This enhancement resulted from both an acceleration of inactivation and a slowing of the recovery from inactivation. Internally applied roscovitine failed to affect Ca((V))1.2 currents, which supports a kinase-independent mechanism and extracellular binding site. Unlike the dihydropyridines, closed state inactivation was not affected by roscovitine. Inactivation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50)=29.5+/-12 microM, which is close to that for slow activation and inhibition. We conclude that roscovitine binds to an extracellular site on Ca((V))1.2 channels to inhibit current by both slowing activation and enhancing inactivation. Purine-based drugs could become a new option for treatment of diseases that benefit from L-channel inhibition such as cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension.

  4. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, TRUNNION PIN AND PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  5. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  6. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, affects several gating mechanisms to inhibit cardiac L-type (Ca(V)1.2) calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Yarotskyy, V; Elmslie, K S

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: L-type calcium channels (Ca (V)1.2) play an important role in cardiac contraction. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and promising anticancer drug, has been shown to affect Ca (V)1.2 by inhibiting current amplitude and slowing activation. This research investigates the mechanism by which roscovitine inhibits Ca (V)1.2 channels. Experimental approach: Ca (V)1.2 channels were transfected into HEK 293 cells, using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, and currents were measured using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Key results: Roscovitine slows activation at all voltages, which precludes one previously proposed mechanism. In addition, roscovitine enhances voltage-dependent, but not calcium-dependent inactivation. This enhancement resulted from both an acceleration of inactivation and a slowing of the recovery from inactivation. Internally applied roscovitine failed to affect Ca (V)1.2 currents, which supports a kinase-independent mechanism and extracellular binding site. Unlike the dihydropyridines, closed state inactivation was not affected by roscovitine. Inactivation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50=29.5±12 μM, which is close to that for slow activation and inhibition. Conclusions and implications: We conclude that roscovitine binds to an extracellular site on Ca (V)1.2 channels to inhibit current by both slowing activation and enhancing inactivation. Purine-based drugs could become a new option for treatment of diseases that benefit from L-channel inhibition such as cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension. PMID:17700718

  7. Investigation of four-dimensional computed tomography-based pulmonary ventilation imaging in patients with emphysematous lung regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Klinder, Tobias; Lorenz, Cristian; von Berg, Jens; Blaffert, Thomas; Loo, Billy W., Jr.; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-04-01

    A pulmonary ventilation imaging technique based on four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has advantages over existing techniques. However, physiologically accurate 4D-CT ventilation imaging has not been achieved in patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 4D-CT ventilation imaging by correlating ventilation with emphysema. Emphysematous lung regions are less ventilated and can be used as surrogates for low ventilation. We tested the hypothesis: 4D-CT ventilation in emphysematous lung regions is significantly lower than in non-emphysematous regions. Four-dimensional CT ventilation images were created for 12 patients with emphysematous lung regions as observed on CT, using a total of four combinations of two deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms: surface-based (DIRsur) and volumetric (DIRvol), and two metrics: Hounsfield unit (HU) change (VHU) and Jacobian determinant of deformation (VJac), yielding four ventilation image sets per patient. Emphysematous lung regions were detected by density masking. We tested our hypothesis using the one-tailed t-test. Visually, different DIR algorithms and metrics yielded spatially variant 4D-CT ventilation images. The mean ventilation values in emphysematous lung regions were consistently lower than in non-emphysematous regions for all the combinations of DIR algorithms and metrics. VHU resulted in statistically significant differences for both DIRsur (0.14 ± 0.14 versus 0.29 ± 0.16, p = 0.01) and DIRvol (0.13 ± 0.13 versus 0.27 ± 0.15, p < 0.01). However, VJac resulted in non-significant differences for both DIRsur (0.15 ± 0.07 versus 0.17 ± 0.08, p = 0.20) and DIRvol (0.17 ± 0.08 versus 0.19 ± 0.09, p = 0.30). This study demonstrated the strong correlation between the HU-based 4D-CT ventilation and emphysema, which indicates the potential for HU-based 4D-CT ventilation imaging to achieve high physiologic accuracy. A further study is needed to confirm these results.

  8. Four-dimensional volume-of-interest reconstruction for cone-beam computed tomography-guided radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Moiz; Balter, Peter; Pan, Tinsu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Data sufficiency are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) on linear accelerator-integrated scanners for image-guided radiotherapy. Scan times must be in the range of 4–6 min to avoid undersampling artifacts. Various image reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to accommodate undersampled data acquisitions, but these algorithms are computationally expensive, may require long reconstruction times, and may require algorithm parameters to be optimized. The authors present a novel reconstruction method, 4D volume-of-interest (4D-VOI) reconstruction which suppresses undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion for undersampled 1-min scans. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is much less computationally expensive than other 4D-CBCT algorithms. Methods: The 4D-VOI method uses respiration-correlated projection data to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) image inside a VOI containing the moving tumor, and uncorrelated projection data to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) image outside the VOI. Anatomical motion is resolved inside the VOI and blurred outside the VOI. The authors acquired a 1-min. scan of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing a moving water-filled sphere. The authors also used previously acquired 1-min scans for two lung cancer patients who had received CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The same raw data were used to test and compare the 4D-VOI reconstruction with the standard 4D reconstruction and the McKinnon-Bates (MB) reconstruction algorithms. Results: Both the 4D-VOI and the MB reconstructions suppress nearly all the streak artifacts compared with the standard 4D reconstruction, but the 4D-VOI has 3–8 times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than the MB reconstruction. In the dynamic chest phantom study, the 4D-VOI and the standard 4D reconstructions both resolved a moving sphere with an 18 mm displacement. The 4D-VOI reconstruction shows a motion blur of only 3 mm, whereas the MB

  9. Four-dimensional volume-of-interest reconstruction for cone-beam computed tomography-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Moiz; Balter, Peter; Pan, Tinsu

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Data sufficiency are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) on linear accelerator-integrated scanners for image-guided radiotherapy. Scan times must be in the range of 4-6 min to avoid undersampling artifacts. Various image reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to accommodate undersampled data acquisitions, but these algorithms are computationally expensive, may require long reconstruction times, and may require algorithm parameters to be optimized. The authors present a novel reconstruction method, 4D volume-of-interest (4D-VOI) reconstruction which suppresses undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion for undersampled 1-min scans. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is much less computationally expensive than other 4D-CBCT algorithms. Methods: The 4D-VOI method uses respiration-correlated projection data to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) image inside a VOI containing the moving tumor, and uncorrelated projection data to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) image outside the VOI. Anatomical motion is resolved inside the VOI and blurred outside the VOI. The authors acquired a 1-min. scan of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing a moving water-filled sphere. The authors also used previously acquired 1-min scans for two lung cancer patients who had received CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The same raw data were used to test and compare the 4D-VOI reconstruction with the standard 4D reconstruction and the McKinnon-Bates (MB) reconstruction algorithms. Results: Both the 4D-VOI and the MB reconstructions suppress nearly all the streak artifacts compared with the standard 4D reconstruction, but the 4D-VOI has 3-8 times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than the MB reconstruction. In the dynamic chest phantom study, the 4D-VOI and the standard 4D reconstructions both resolved a moving sphere with an 18 mm displacement. The 4D-VOI reconstruction shows a motion blur of only 3 mm, whereas the MB reconstruction

  10. Theoretical study of different features of the fission process of excited nuclei in the framework of the modified statistical model and four-dimensional dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2017-02-01

    Evaporation residue cross section, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, mass and energy distributions of fission fragments and the pre-scission neutron multiplicity for the excited compound nuclei {}168{{Y}}{{b}}, {}172{{Y}}{{b}}, {}178{{W}} and {}227{{P}}{{a}} produced in fusion reactions have been calculated in the framework of the modified statistical model and multidimensional dynamical model. In the dynamical calculations, the dynamics of fission of excited nuclei has been studied by solving three- and four-dimensional Langevin equations with dissipation generated through the chaos-weighted wall and window friction formula. Three collective shape coordinates plus the projection of total spin of the compound nucleus to the symmetry axis, K, were considered in the four-dimensional dynamical model. A non-constant dissipation coefficient of K, {γ }k, was applied in the four-dimensional dynamical calculations. A comparison of the results of the three- and four-dimensional dynamical models with the experimental data showed that the results of the four-dimensional dynamical model for the evaporation residue cross section, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, mass and energy distributions of fission fragments and the pre-scission neutron multiplicity are in better agreement with the experimental data. It was also shown that the modified statistical model can reproduce the above-mentioned experimental data by choosing appropriate values of the temperature coefficient of the effective potential, λ , and the scaling factor of the fission-barrier height, {r}s.

  11. Cardiac optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Entcheva, Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart.

  12. Cardiac optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

  13. Mitral annulus segmentation from four-dimensional ultrasound using a valve state predictor and constrained optical flow.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Robert J; Perrin, Douglas P; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Marx, Gerald R; del Nido, Pedro J; Howe, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of the shape and motion of the mitral valve annulus has proven useful in a number of applications, including pathology diagnosis and mitral valve modeling. Current methods to delineate the annulus from four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound, however, either require extensive overhead or user-interaction, become inaccurate as they accumulate tracking error, or they do not account for annular shape or motion. This paper presents a new 4D annulus segmentation method to account for these deficiencies. The method builds on a previously published three-dimensional (3D) annulus segmentation algorithm that accurately and robustly segments the mitral annulus in a frame with a closed valve. In the 4D method, a valve state predictor determines when the valve is closed. Subsequently, the 3D annulus segmentation algorithm finds the annulus in those frames. For frames with an open valve, a constrained optical flow algorithm is used to the track the annulus. The only inputs to the algorithm are the selection of one frame with a closed valve and one user-specified point near the valve, neither of which needs to be precise. The accuracy of the tracking method is shown by comparing the tracking results to manual segmentations made by a group of experts, where an average RMS difference of 1.67±0.63mm was found across 30 tracked frames.

  14. The finite-size scaling study of four-dimensional Ising model in the presence of external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdan, Ziya; Kürkçü, Cihan; Öztürk, Mustafa K.

    2014-12-01

    The four-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in external magnetic field is simulated on the Creutz cellular automaton algorithm using finite-size lattices with linear dimension 4 ≤ L ≤ 8. The critical temperature value of infinite lattice, Tc χ ( ∞ ) = 6 , 680 (1) obtained for h = 0 agrees well with the values T c ( ∞ ) ≈ 6.68 obtained previously using different methods. Moreover, h = 0.00025 in our work also agrees with all the results obtained from h = 0 in the literature. However, there are no works for h ≠ 0 in the literature. The value of the field critical exponent (δ = 3.0136(3)) is in good agreement with δ = 3 which is obtained from scaling law of Widom. In spite of the finite-size scaling relations of | M L ( t ) | and χ L ( t ) for 0 ≤ h ≤ 0.001 are verified; however, in the cases of 0.0025 ≤ h ≤ 0.1 they are not verified.

  15. Fast and exact method for computing a stack of images at various focuses from a four-dimensional light field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhabary, Ziv; Levi, Ofer; Small, Eran; Stern, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for computing a stack of images digitally focused at various lengths from a four-dimensional light field (LF). The main contribution of this work is a fast and algebraically exact method that does not require interpolation in the frequency or spatial domains as alternative methods do. The proposed imaging operator combines two-dimensional (2-D) fast Fourier transform with 2-D fractional Fourier transform and has computational complexity of O(N log N), where N is the number of pixels in the LF tesseract of dimension N=nx×ny×nu×nv. The whole method consists of unitary vector-based operations; therefore, parallel implementation is easy and can contribute additional speed up. While current state of the art methods suffer from inherent tradeoff between the reconstruction quality and computational complexity, the proposed method benefits of both low-computational complexity and high-reconstruction quality. We also offer a solution for refocusing at distances that are not included in the reconstructed images stack. For such a case, we provide a modified version of our method, which is also algebraically exact and has lower computational complexity than other exact methods.

  16. Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Seider, Michael I.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnification of the surgical field using the operating microscope facilitated profound innovations in retinal surgery in the 1970s, such as pars plana vitrectomy. Although surgical instrumentation and illumination techniques are continually developing, the operating microscope for vitreoretinal procedures has remained essentially unchanged and currently limits the surgeon's depth perception and assessment of subtle microanatomy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized clinical management of retinal pathology, and its introduction into the operating suite may have a similar impact on surgical visualization and treatment. In this article, we review the evolution of OCT for retinal surgery, from perioperative analysis to live volumetric (four-dimensional, 4D) image-guided surgery. We begin by briefly addressing the benefits and limitations of the operating microscope, the progression of OCT technology, and OCT applications in clinical/perioperative retinal imaging. Next, we review intraoperative OCT (iOCT) applications using handheld probes during surgical pauses, two-dimensional (2D) microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) of live surgery, and volumetric MIOCT of live surgery. The iOCT discussion focuses on technological advancements, applications during human retinal surgery, translational difficulties and limitations, and future directions. PMID:27409495

  17. Multi-VENC acquisition of four-dimensional phase-contrast MRI to improve precision of velocity field measurement.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hojin; Kim, Guk Bae; Kweon, Jihoon; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Namkug; Yang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims to improve precision of four-dimensional (4D) phase-contrast (PC) MRI technique by using multiple velocity encoding (VENC) parameters. The 3D flow fields in an in vitro stenosis phantom and an in vivo ascending aorta were determined using a 4D PC-MRI sequence with multiple VENC values. The velocity field obtained for large VENC was combined with that from small VENC, unless velocity data were lost by phase aliasing and phase dispersion. Noise levels of the combined velocity fields were compared with the increasing overlapping number of VENC parameters. The phantom measurement showed that the multi-VENC acquisition reduced the noise levels in radial and axial velocities (> 24 cm/s at VENC = 300 cm/s) down to 0.80 ± 0.45 cm/s and 5.60 ± 2.63 cm/s, respectively. This increased the velocity-to-noise ratio (VNR) by approximately two-fold to six-fold depending on the locations. As a result, the multi-VENC measurement could visualize the low-velocity recirculating flows more clearly. The multi-VENC measurement of 4D PC-MRI sequence increased the VNR distribution by reducing velocity noise. The improved VNR can be beneficial for investigating blood flow structures in a flow field with a high velocity dynamic range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A novel color image encryption algorithm based on genetic recombination and the four-dimensional memristive hyperchaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiu-Li; Gan, Zhi-Hua; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Miao-Hui; Chen, Yi-Ran

    2016-10-01

    Recently, many image encryption algorithms based on chaos have been proposed. Most of the previous algorithms encrypt components R, G, and B of color images independently and neglect the high correlation between them. In the paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm is introduced. The 24 bit planes of components R, G, and B of the color plain image are obtained and recombined into 4 compound bit planes, and this can make the three components affect each other. A four-dimensional (4D) memristive hyperchaotic system generates the pseudorandom key streams and its initial values come from the SHA 256 hash value of the color plain image. The compound bit planes and key streams are confused according to the principles of genetic recombination, then confusion and diffusion as a union are applied to the bit planes, and the color cipher image is obtained. Experimental results and security analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is secure and effective so that it may be adopted for secure communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203094 and 61305042), the Natural Science Foundation of the United States (Grant Nos. CNS-1253424 and ECCS-1202225), the Science and Technology Foundation of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 152102210048), the Foundation and Frontier Project of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 162300410196), the Natural Science Foundation of Educational Committee of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 14A413015), and the Research Foundation of Henan University, China (Grant No. xxjc20140006).

  19. String or branelike solutions in four-dimensional Einstein gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youngone; Kang, Gungwon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2011-10-15

    We investigate string or branelike solutions for four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant. For the case of negative cosmological constant, the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black string is the only warped stringlike solution. The general solutions for nonwarped branelike configurations are found and they are characterized by the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass density and two tensions. Interestingly, the sum of these tensions is equal to the minus of the mass density. Other than the well-known black string and soliton spacetimes, all the static solutions possess naked singularities. The time-dependent solutions can be regarded as the anti-de Sitter extension of the well-known Kasner solutions. The speciality of those static regular solutions and the implication of singular solutions are also discussed in the context of cylindrical matter collapse. For the case of positive cosmological constant, the Kasner-de Sitter spacetime appears as time-dependent solutions and all static solutions are found to be naked singular.

  20. Comparison between audio-only and audiovisual biofeedback for regulating patients' respiration during four-dimensional radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jesang; Choi, Ji Hoon; Ma, Sun Young; Jeung, Tae Sig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare audio-only biofeedback to conventional audiovisual biofeedback for regulating patients' respiration during four-dimensional radiotherapy, limiting damage to healthy surrounding tissues caused by organ movement. Materials and Methods Six healthy volunteers were assisted by audiovisual or audio-only biofeedback systems to regulate their respirations. Volunteers breathed through a mask developed for this study by following computer-generated guiding curves displayed on a screen, combined with instructional sounds. They then performed breathing following instructional sounds only. The guiding signals and the volunteers' respiratory signals were logged at 20 samples per second. Results The standard deviations between the guiding and respiratory curves for the audiovisual and audio-only biofeedback systems were 21.55% and 23.19%, respectively; the average correlation coefficients were 0.9778 and 0.9756, respectively. The regularities between audiovisual and audio-only biofeedback for six volunteers' respirations were same statistically from the paired t-test. Conclusion The difference between the audiovisual and audio-only biofeedback methods was not significant. Audio-only biofeedback has many advantages, as patients do not require a mask and can quickly adapt to this method in the clinic. PMID:26484309

  1. Evaluation of three presets for four-dimensional cone beam CT in lung radiotherapy verification by visual grading analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Vibeke N; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; McDonald, Fiona; Ahmed, Merina; Thomas, Karen; McNair, Helen A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three image acquisition presets for four-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT) to identify an optimal preset for lung tumour image quality while minimizing dose and acquisition time. Methods: Nine patients undergoing radical conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for lung cancer had verification CBCTs acquired using three presets: Preset 1 on Day 1 (11 mGy dose, 240 s acquisition time), Preset 2 on Day 2 (9 mGy dose, 133 s acquisition time) and Preset 3 on Day 3 (9 mGy dose, 67 s acquisition time). The clarity of the tumour and other thoracic structures, and the acceptability of the match, were retrospectively graded by visual grading analysis (VGA). Logistic regression was used to identify the most appropriate preset and any factors that might influence the result. Results: Presets 1 and 2 met a clinical requirement of 75% of structures to be rated “Clear” or above and 75% of matches to be rated “Acceptable” or above. Clarity is significantly affected by preset, patient, observer and structure. Match acceptability is significantly affected by preset. Conclusion: The application of VGA in this initial study enabled a provisional selection of an optimal preset (Preset 2) to be made. Advances in knowledge: This was the first application of VGA to the investigation of presets for CBCT. PMID:27109735

  2. Broad-spectrum Four-dimensional Orthogonal Electrophoresis: A Novel Comprehensively Feasible System for Protein Complexomics Investigation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Fenjie; Song, Gaoguang; Guo, Shuai; Liu, Hui; Chen, Guoqiang; Li, Zhili

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of “protein complexomics” is to separate intact protein complexes or interactional proteins without dissociation or denaturation from complex biological samples and to characterize structural subunits of protein complexes. To address these issues, we developed a novel approach termed “broad-spectrum four-dimensional orthogonal electrophoresis (BS4-DE) system,” which is composed of a nondenaturing part I and denaturing part II. Here we developed a mild acidic-native-PAGE to constitute part I, together with native-thin-layer-IEF and basic-native-PAGE, widening the range of BS4-DE system application for extremely basic proteins with the range of pI from about 8 to 11 (there are obviously 1000 kinds of proteins in this interval), and also speculated on the mechanism of separating. We first proposed ammonium hydroxide-ultrasonic protein extractive strategy as a seamless connection between part I and part II, and also speculated on the extractive mechanism. More than 4000 protein complexes could be theoretically solved by this system. Using this approach, we focus on blood rich in protein complexes which make it challenging to sera/plasma proteome study. Our results indicated that the BS4-DE system could be applied to blood protein complexomics investigation, providing a comprehensively feasible approach for disease proteomics. PMID:22375076

  3. Clocking the anisotropic lattice dynamics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by four-dimensional ultrafast transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gaolong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Zhongwen; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi

    2015-02-12

    Recent advances in the four-dimensional ultrafast transmission electron microscope (4D-UTEM) with combined spatial and temporal resolutions have made it possible to directly visualize structural dynamics of materials at the atomic level. Herein, we report on our development on a 4D-UTEM which can be operated properly on either the photo-emission or the thermionic mode. We demonstrate its ability to obtain sequences of snapshots with high spatial and temporal resolutions in the study of lattice dynamics of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). This investigation provides an atomic level description of remarkable anisotropic lattice dynamics at the picosecond timescales. Moreover, our UTEM measurements clearly reveal that distinguishable lattice relaxations appear in intra-tubular sheets on an ultrafast timescale of a few picoseconds and after then an evident lattice expansion along the radial direction. These anisotropic behaviors in the MWCNTs are considered arising from the variety of chemical bonding, i.e. the weak van der Waals bonding between the tubular planes and the strong covalent sp(2)-hybridized bonds in the tubular sheets.

  4. Clocking the anisotropic lattice dynamics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by four-dimensional ultrafast transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gaolong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Zhongwen; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in the four-dimensional ultrafast transmission electron microscope (4D-UTEM) with combined spatial and temporal resolutions have made it possible to directly visualize structural dynamics of materials at the atomic level. Herein, we report on our development on a 4D-UTEM which can be operated properly on either the photo-emission or the thermionic mode. We demonstrate its ability to obtain sequences of snapshots with high spatial and temporal resolutions in the study of lattice dynamics of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). This investigation provides an atomic level description of remarkable anisotropic lattice dynamics at the picosecond timescales. Moreover, our UTEM measurements clearly reveal that distinguishable lattice relaxations appear in intra-tubular sheets on an ultrafast timescale of a few picoseconds and after then an evident lattice expansion along the radial direction. These anisotropic behaviors in the MWCNTs are considered arising from the variety of chemical bonding, i.e. the weak van der Waals bonding between the tubular planes and the strong covalent sp2-hybridized bonds in the tubular sheets.

  5. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  6. Four-dimensional \\mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric theory with boundary as a two-dimensional complex Toda theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuan; Tan, Meng-Chwan; Vasko, Petr; Zhao, Qin

    2017-05-01

    We perform a series of dimensional reductions of the 6d, \\mathcal{N} = (2, 0) SCFT on S 2 × Σ × I × S 1 down to 2d on Σ. The reductions are performed in three steps: (i) a reduction on S 1 (accompanied by a topological twist along Σ) leading to a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on S 2 × Σ × I, (ii) a further reduction on S 2 resulting in a complex Chern-Simons theory defined on Σ × I, with the real part of the complex Chern-Simons level being zero, and the imaginary part being proportional to the ratio of the radii of S 2 and S 1, and (iii) a final reduction to the boundary modes of complex Chern-Simons theory with the Nahm pole boundary condition at both ends of the interval I, which gives rise to a complex Toda CFT on the Riemann surface Σ. As the reduction of the 6d theory on Σ would give rise to an \\mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric theory on S 2 × I × S 1, our results imply a 4d-2d duality between four-dimensional \\mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric theory with boundary and two-dimensional complex Toda theory.

  7. The quest for four-dimensional imaging in plant cell biology: it's just a matter of time

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of plant cell dynamics over time, or four-dimensional imaging (4-DI), represents a major goal of plant science. The ability to resolve structures in the third dimension within the cell or tissue during developmental events or in response to environmental or experimental stresses (i.e. 4-DI) is critical to our understanding of gene expression, post-expression modulations of macromolecules and sub-cellular system interactions. Scope Microscopy-based technologies have been profoundly integral to this type of investigation, and new and refined microscopy technologies now allow for the visualization of cell dynamics with unprecedented resolution, contrast and experimental versatility. However, certain realities of light and electron microscopy, choice of specimen and specimen preparation techniques limit the scope of readily attaining 4-DI. Today, the plant microscopist must use a combinatorial strategy whereby multiple microscopy-based investigations are used. Modern fluorescence, confocal laser scanning, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy provide effective conduits for synthesizing data detailing live cell dynamics and highly resolved snapshots of specific cell structures that will ultimately lead to 4-DI. This review provides a synopsis of such technologies available. PMID:22628381

  8. Real-time volume rendering of four-dimensional images based on three-dimensional texture mapping.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J; Kim, J S; Kim, J S; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2001-06-01

    A four-dimensional (4-D) image consists of three-dimensional (3-D) volume data that varies with time. It is used to express a deforming or moving object in virtual surgery or 4-D ultrasound. It is difficult to obtain 4-D images by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering process and the pre-processing stage necessary whenever the volume data are changed. Even when 3-D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is time-consuming in 4-D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real-time rendering based on 3-D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one that was already loaded in memory. If the brick passes the test, it is defined as 3-D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Using continuous deforming, 50 volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Realtime volume rendering based on 3-D texture mapping is currently available for personal computers.

  9. Four-Dimensional (4D) Printing: A New Evolution in Computed Tomography-Guided Stereolithographic Modeling. Principles and Application.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Hunter-Smith, David J; De-Silva, Inoka; Tham, Stephen; Spychal, Robert T; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, image-guided production of three-dimensional (3D) haptic biomodels, or rapid prototyping (RP), has transformed the way surgeons conduct preoperative planning. In contrast to earlier RP techniques such as stereolithography, 3D printing has introduced fast, affordable office-based manufacturing. We introduce the concept of 4D printing for the first time by introducing time as the fourth dimension to 3D printing. The bones of the thumb ray are 3D printed during various movements to demonstrate four-dimensional (4D) printing. Principles and validation studies are presented here. 4D computed tomography was performed using "single volume acquisition" technology to reduce the exposure to radiation. Three representative scans of each thumb movement (i.e., abduction, opposition, and key pinch) were selected and then models were fabricated using a 3D printer. For validation, the angle between the first and the second metacarpals from the 4D imaging data and the 4D-printed model was recorded and compared. We demonstrate how 4D printing accurately depicts the transition in the position of metacarpals during thumb movement. With a fourth dimension of time, 4D printing delivers complex spatiotemporal anatomical details effortlessly and may substantially improve preoperative planning. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

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