Gravitational four-fermion interaction in the early Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudenko, A. S.; Khriplovich, I. B.
2014-02-01
If torsion exists, it generates gravitational four-fermion interaction (GFFI), essential on the Planck scale. We analyze the influence of this interaction on the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology. An explicit analytic solution is derived for the problem where both the energy-momentum tensor generated by GFFI and the common ultrarelativistic energy-momentum tensor are included. We demonstrate that gravitational four-fermion interaction does not result in a Big Bounce.
Gravitational Four-Fermion Interaction in the Early Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khriplovich, I.; Rudenko, A.
If torsion exists, it generates gravitational four-fermion interaction (GFFI), essential on the Planck scale. We analyze the influence of this interaction on the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Explicit analytical solution is derived for the problem where both the energy-momentum tensor generated by GFFI and the common ultrarelativistic energy-momentum tensor are included. We demonstrate that gravitational four-fermion interaction does not result in Big Bounce.
Gravitational four-fermion interaction in the early Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khriplovich, I. B.; Rudenko, A. S.
2014-07-01
If torsion exists, it generates gravitational four-fermion interaction (GFFI), essential on the Planck scale. We analyze the influence of this interaction on the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Explicit analytical solution is derived for the problem where both the energy-momentum tensor generated by GFFI and the common ultrarelativistic energy-momentum tensor are included. We demonstrate that gravitational four-fermion interaction does not result in Big Bounce.
Asymptotic Safety of the CARTAN Induced Four-Fermion Interaction?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2015-01-01
The difference between Einstein's general relativity and its Cartan extension is analyzed within the scenario of asymptotic safety. In particular, the four-fermion interaction is studied which distinguishes the Einstein-Cartan theory from its Riemannian limit.
Big Bounce and Inflation from Gravitational Four-Fermion Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khriplovich, I. B.
2013-11-01
The four-fermion gravitational interaction is induced by torsion. It gets dominating below the Planck scale. The regular, axial-axial part of this interaction by itself does not stop the gravitational compression. However, the anomalous, vector-vector interaction results in a natural way both in big bounce and in inflation.
Four-fermion interaction from torsion as dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popławski, Nikodem J.
2012-02-01
The observed small, positive cosmological constant may originate from a four-fermion interaction generated by the spin-torsion coupling in the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble gravity if the fermions are condensing. In particular, such a condensation occurs for quark fields during the quark-gluon/hadron phase transition in the early Universe. We study how the torsion-induced four-fermion interaction is affected by adding two terms to the Dirac Lagrangian density: the parity-violating pseudoscalar density dual to the curvature tensor and a spinor-bilinear scalar density which measures the nonminimal coupling of fermions to torsion.
Gravitational four-fermion interaction and dynamics of the early Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khriplovich, I. B.; Rudenko, A. S.
2013-11-01
If torsion exists, it generates gravitational four-fermion interaction (GFFI), essential on the Planck scale. We analyze the influence of this interaction on the FriedmannLemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Explicit analytical solution is derived for the problem where both the energy-momentum tensor generated by GFFI and the common ultrarelativistic energy-momentum tensor are included. We demonstrate that gravitational four-fermion interaction does not result in Big Bounce.
Conformal window of gauge theories with four-fermion interactions and ideal walking technicolor
Fukano, Hidenori S.; Sannino, Francesco
2010-08-01
We investigate the effects of four-fermion interactions on the phase diagram of strongly interacting theories for any representation as function of the number of colors and flavors. We show that the conformal window, for any representation, shrinks with respect to the case in which the four-fermion interactions are neglected. The anomalous dimension of the mass increases beyond the unity value at the lower boundary of the new conformal window. We plot the new phase diagram which can be used, together with the information about the anomalous dimension, to propose ideal models of walking technicolor. We discover that when the extended technicolor sector, responsible for giving masses to the standard model fermions, is sufficiently strongly coupled the technicolor theory, in isolation, must have an infrared fixed point for the full model to be phenomenologically viable. Using the new phase diagram we show that the simplest one family and minimal walking technicolor models are the archetypes of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Our predictions can be verified via first principle lattice simulations.
Renormalization of high-energy Lorentz-violating four-fermion models
Anselmi, Damiano; Ciuffoli, Emilio
2010-04-15
We study the one-loop renormalization of high-energy Lorentz-violating four-fermion models. We derive general formulas and then consider a number of specific models. We study the conditions for asymptotic freedom and give a practical method to determine the asymptotic-freedom domain. We also point out that in some models the renormalization-group flow contains rational Zimmermann trajectories that might hide new symmetries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauld, Rhorry; Pecjak, Benjamin D.; Scott, Darren J.
2016-05-01
We calculate a set of one-loop corrections to h → boverline{b} and h → τ overline{τ} decays in the dimension-6 Standard Model effective field theory (SMEFT). In particular, working in the limit of vanishing gauge couplings, we calculate directly in the broken phase of the theory all large logarithmic corrections and in addition the finite corrections in the large- m t limit. Moreover, we give exact results for one-loop contributions from four-fermion operators. We obtain these corrections within an extension of the widely used on-shell renormalisation scheme appropriate for SMEFT calculations, and show explicitly how UV divergent bare amplitudes from a total of 21 different SMEFT operators are rendered finite within this scheme. As a by-product of the calculation, we also compute to one-loop order the logarithmically enhanced and finite large- m t corrections to muon decay in the limit of vanishing gauge couplings, which is necessary to implement the G F input parameter scheme within the SMEFT.
Four-fermion production in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130 and 136 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1996-02-01
Four-fermion events have been selected in a data sample of 5.8 pb -1 collected with the ALEPH detector at centre-of-mass energies of 130 and 136 GeV. The final states ℓ +ℓ -q overlineq, ℓ +ℓ -ℓ +ℓ -, ν overlineνq overlineq, and ν overlineνℓ +ℓ - have been examined. Five events are observed in the data, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions of 6.67±0.38 events from four-fermion processes and 0.14 -0.05+0.19 from background processes.
Study of neutral-current four-fermion and ZZ production in e+e- collisions at sqrt(s)= 183 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
L3 Collaboration; Acciarri, M.; Achard, P.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banicz, K.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Button, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chereau, X.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Conventi, F.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; van Dalen, J. A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; de Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournand, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gruenewald, M. W.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberría, I.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kopp, A.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kunin, A.; Lacentre, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lavorato, A.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H. J.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangeol, D.; Marchesini, P.; Marian, G.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Migani, D.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Muheim, F.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Oh, Y. D.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Park, I. H.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pedace, M.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Petrak, S.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Raja, N.; Rancoita, P. G.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruschmeier, D.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M. P.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.
1999-03-01
A study of neutral-current four-fermion processes is performed using a data sample corresponding to 55.3 pb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the L3 detector at LEP at an average centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV. The neutral-current four-fermion cross sections for final states with a pair of charged leptons plus jets and with four charged leptons are measured to be consistent with the Standard Model predictions. Events with fermion pair masses close to the Z boson mass are selected in all observable final states and the ZZ production cross section is measured to be σZZ=0.30+0.22 +0.07-0.16 -0.03 pb, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. No evidence for the existence of anomalous triple gauge boson ZZZ and ZZγ couplings is found and limits on these couplings are set.
Perturbative matching of the staggered four-fermion operators for {epsilon}'/{epsilon}
Lee, Weonjong
2001-09-01
Using staggered fermions, we calculate the perturbative corrections to the bilinear and four-fermion operators that are used in the numerical study of weak matrix elements for {epsilon}'/{epsilon}. We present results for one-loop matching coefficients between continuum operators, calculated in the naive dimensional regularization (NDR) scheme, and gauge invariant staggered fermion operators. In particular, we concentrate on Feynman diagrams of the current-current insertion type. We also present results for the tadpole improved operators. These results, combined with existing results for penguin diagrams, provide a complete one-loop renormalization of the staggered four-fermion operators. Therefore, using our results, it is possible to match a lattice calculation of K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} mixing and K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays to the continuum NDR results with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.
Relativistic interactions and realistic applications
Hoch, T.; Madland, D.; Manakos, P.; Mannel, T.; Nikolaus, B.A.; Strottman, D. |
1992-12-31
A four-fermion-coupling Lagrangian (relativistic Skyrme-type) interaction has been proposed for relativistic nuclear structure calculations. This interaction, which has the merit of simplicity, is from the outset tailored as an effective interaction for relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations. Various extensions of such a model are discussed and compared with Walecka`s meson-nucleon mean field approach. We also present results of the calculation of nuclear ground state properties with an extended (density dependent) version of the four fermion interaction in a relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation.
Study of the four-fermion final state at the Z resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Quyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kryriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; Martin, G. San; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lehner, D.; Lütjens, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, M. W.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Kim, H.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Gonzáles, S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Malsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wildish, T.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.
1995-03-01
The process e+e-→, where l is a charged or a neutral lepton and f any charged fermion, is analyzed. The study uses the ALEPH data collected at LEP from 1989 to 1993 at centre-of-mass energies between 88 and 95 GeV, corresponding to almost two million hadronic Z decays and to a total integrated luminosity of 79 pb-1. For all channels, the data agree well with the standard model expectation both in shape and normalization. The indication of an excess in thee^ + e^ - to tau ^ + tau ^ - fbar f channel, reported by ALEPH in 1991, is not confirmed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, E.; Maiani, L.; Martinelli, G.; Morelli, A.
1988-10-01
The K-pi and K-pi-pi elements of left-right four fermion operators in quenched lattice QCD at beta=6 are computed. The soft-pion relations derived from the chiral structure of the operators are checked. A large enhancement of matrix elements is observed and interpreted as the effect of a scalar octet pole in the pi-K channel. This observation has implications for the related calculation of weak matrix elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantinou, Martha; Dimopoulos, Petros; Frezzotti, Roberto; Lubicz, Vittorio; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos; Fotos Stylianou
2011-04-01
In this work we calculate the corrections to the amputated Green’s functions of four-fermion operators, in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. One of the novel aspects of our calculations is that they are carried out to second order in the lattice spacing, O(a2). We employ the Wilson/clover action for massless fermions (also applicable for the twisted mass action in the chiral limit) and a family of Symanzik improved actions for gluons. Our calculations have been carried out in a general covariant gauge. Results have been obtained for several popular choices of values for the Symanzik coefficients (Plaquette, Tree-level Symanzik, Iwasaki, TILW and DBW2 action). While our Green’s function calculations regard any pointlike four-fermion operators which do not mix with lower dimension ones, we pay particular attention to ΔF=2 operators, both parity conserving and parity violating (F stands for flavor: S, C, B). By appropriately projecting those bare Green’s functions we compute the perturbative renormalization constants for a complete basis of four-fermion operators and we study their mixing pattern. For some of the actions considered here, even O(a0) results did not exist in the literature to date. The correction terms which we calculate (along with our previous O(a2) calculation of ZΨ [M. Constantinou, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 10 (2009) 064.10.1088/1126-6708/2009/10/064][M. Constantinou, P. Dimopoulos, R. Frezzotti, G. Herdoiza, K. Jansen, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, G. C. Rossi, S. Simula, F. Stylianou, and A. Vladikas, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 08 (2010) 068.10.1007/JHEP08(2010)068][C. Alexandrou, M. Constantinou, T. Korzec, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou (unpublished).]) are essential ingredients for minimizing the lattice artifacts which are present in nonperturbative evaluations of renormalization constants with the RI'-MOM method. Our perturbative results, for the matrix elements of
Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos; Stylianou, Fotos; Dimopoulos, Petros; Frezzotti, Roberto
2011-04-01
In this work we calculate the corrections to the amputated Green's functions of four-fermion operators, in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. One of the novel aspects of our calculations is that they are carried out to second order in the lattice spacing, O(a{sup 2}). We employ the Wilson/clover action for massless fermions (also applicable for the twisted mass action in the chiral limit) and a family of Symanzik improved actions for gluons. Our calculations have been carried out in a general covariant gauge. Results have been obtained for several popular choices of values for the Symanzik coefficients (Plaquette, Tree-level Symanzik, Iwasaki, TILW and DBW2 action). While our Green's function calculations regard any pointlike four-fermion operators which do not mix with lower dimension ones, we pay particular attention to {Delta}F=2 operators, both parity conserving and parity violating (F stands for flavor: S, C, B). By appropriately projecting those bare Green's functions we compute the perturbative renormalization constants for a complete basis of four-fermion operators and we study their mixing pattern. For some of the actions considered here, even O(a{sup 0}) results did not exist in the literature to date. The correction terms which we calculate (along with our previous O(a{sup 2}) calculation of Z{sub {Psi}}[M. Constantinou, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou, J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2009) 064.][M. Constantinou, P. Dimopoulos, R. Frezzotti, G. Herdoiza, K. Jansen, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, G. C. Rossi, S. Simula, F. Stylianou, and A. Vladikas, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 068.][C. Alexandrou, M. Constantinou, T. Korzec, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou (unpublished).]) are essential ingredients for minimizing the lattice artifacts which are present in nonperturbative evaluations of renormalization constants with the RI{sup '}-MOM method. Our perturbative results, for the matrix elements of {Delta}F=2 operators and for the corresponding
Contact interactions in low scale string models with intersecting D6-branes
Chemtob, M.
2008-12-15
We evaluate the tree level four fermion string amplitudes in the TeV string mass scale models with intersecting D6-branes. The coefficient functions of contact interactions subsuming the contributions of string Regge resonance and winding mode excitations are obtained by subtracting out the contributions from the string massless and massive momentum modes. Numerical applications are developed for the standard-model-like solution of Cremades, Ibanez, and Marchesano for a toroidal orientifold with four intersecting D6-brane stacks. The chirality conserving contact interactions of the quarks and leptons are considered in applications to high-energy collider and flavor changing neutral current phenomenology. The two main free parameters consist of the string and compactification mass scales, m{sub s} and M{sub c}. Useful constraints on these parameters are derived from predictions for the Bhabha scattering differential cross section and for the observables associated to the mass shifts of the neutral meson systems K-K, B-B, D-D and the lepton number violating three-body leptonic decays of the charged leptons {mu} and {tau}.
Latent Variable Interaction Modeling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schumacker, Randall E.
2002-01-01
Used simulation to study two different approaches to latent variable interaction modeling with continuous observed variables: (1) a LISREL 8.30 program and (2) data analysis through PRELIS2 and SIMPLIS programs. Results show that parameter estimation was similar but standard errors were different. Discusses differences in ease of implementation.…
JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallin, John F.; Holincheck, Anthony; Harvey, Allen
2015-11-01
JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.
Ridge Regression for Interactive Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tate, Richard L.
1988-01-01
An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are favorable to…
Pankov, A. A.; Tsytrinov, A. V.; Paver, N.
2007-05-01
Several types of new physics scenarios are represented by contactlike effective interactions. An example is the exchange of nonstandard quanta of very large mass scales, beyond the kinematical limit for direct production set by the available collider energy. This kind of interactions can be revealed only through deviations of observables from the standard model predictions. If such deviations were observed, the relevant source should be identified among the possible models that could explain them. Here, we assess the expected 'identification reach' on the ADD model of gravity in large compactified extra dimensions, against the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interaction. As basic observables we take the differential cross sections for fermion-pair production at a 0.5-1 TeV electron-positron linear collider with both beams longitudinally polarized. For the four-fermion contact interaction, we assume a general linear combination of the individual models with definite chiralities, with arbitrary coupling constants. In this sense, the estimated identification reach on the ADD model can be considered as 'model independent'. In the analysis, we give estimates also for the expected 'discovery reaches' on the various scenarios. We emphasize the substantial role of beams polarization in enhancing the sensitivity to the contactlike interactions under consideration.
Digital quantum simulation of fermionic models with a superconducting circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barends, R.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; García-Álvarez, L.; Fowler, A. G.; Megrant, A.; Jeffrey, E.; White, T. C.; Sank, D.; Mutus, J. Y.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Solano, E.; Martinis, John M.
2015-07-01
One of the key applications of quantum information is simulating nature. Fermions are ubiquitous in nature, appearing in condensed matter systems, chemistry and high energy physics. However, universally simulating their interactions is arguably one of the largest challenges, because of the difficulties arising from anticommutativity. Here we use digital methods to construct the required arbitrary interactions, and perform quantum simulation of up to four fermionic modes with a superconducting quantum circuit. We employ in excess of 300 quantum logic gates, and reach fidelities that are consistent with a simple model of uncorrelated errors. The presented approach is in principle scalable to a larger number of modes, and arbitrary spatial dimensions.
Digital quantum simulation of fermionic models with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; García-Álvarez, L; Fowler, A G; Megrant, A; Jeffrey, E; White, T C; Sank, D; Mutus, J Y; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Hoi, I-C; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; Solano, E; Martinis, John M
2015-01-01
One of the key applications of quantum information is simulating nature. Fermions are ubiquitous in nature, appearing in condensed matter systems, chemistry and high energy physics. However, universally simulating their interactions is arguably one of the largest challenges, because of the difficulties arising from anticommutativity. Here we use digital methods to construct the required arbitrary interactions, and perform quantum simulation of up to four fermionic modes with a superconducting quantum circuit. We employ in excess of 300 quantum logic gates, and reach fidelities that are consistent with a simple model of uncorrelated errors. The presented approach is in principle scalable to a larger number of modes, and arbitrary spatial dimensions. PMID:26153660
Glaeser, J.D.; Krajewski, S.A.
1984-04-01
Improved success in finding hydrocarbons and minerals depends on developing geologic models from seismic, gravity, and magnetic data that most closely approximate real-world settings. Although data processing remains the chore of mainframe and minicomputers, interpretations and modeling of geologic and geophysical information now are best accomplished on personal computers because these computers afford the explorationist maximum freedom to shape and fine tune geophysical evaluations. Three case histories use the GEOSIM geophysical modeling systems to delineate exploration targets. The first example is Silurian Niagaran reef trends in the Michigan basin. Here, differences in seismic reef anomalies result from variations in carbonate-evaporite stratigraphy encasing the reefs, reef geometry, and reef reservoir parameters. These variations which influence real seismic-response differences can be successfully matched using appropriate geologic models in generating synthetic seismic reef anomalies. The second example applies gravity and magnetic data to seismic modeling of a Wyoming coal field. Detailed seismic stratigraphy helps locate those portions of the field having multiple seams, although it does not resolve individual economic zones. Gravity data do identify pinchout margins of multiseam zones and pinchouts between principal coals. Magnetic data are then used to delineate the burn (clinker) margin. Seismic modeling of subtle stratigraphic traps is the broader area of exploration interest contained in the first 2 examples. In the third, successfully modeled and tested examples of lateral changes in deltaic facies and of faulted, unconformity-bounded continent-margin sequences are shown to be successful guides to reinterpretation of seismic data.
E-Mentoring Interaction Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lenear, Phoebe E.
2007-01-01
Little research has been conducted on electronic mentoring. Several traditional mentoring models exist; however, due to the novelty of the research area, no theoretical e-mentoring models appear in the literature. Using Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance as the theoretical framework, this research compared mentor-protege interaction,…
Future of Neutrino Interaction Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terri, Ryan
2015-04-01
Neutrino-nucleus cross sections are one of the dominant sources of systematic errors in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. To achieve the goals of precision measurements of the mixing angles and difference of the mass eigenstates squared, and discover the mass hierarchy and CP-violating phase, the underlying neutrino interactions must be better understood. This poster will mention some recent improvements in models in the interaction generators as well as some possible future improvements for proposed experiments.
The joy of interactive modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; van Dam, Arthur; Jagers, Bert
2013-04-01
The conventional way of working with hydrodynamical models usually consists of the following steps: 1) define a schematization (e.g., in a graphical user interface, or by editing input files) 2) run model from start to end 3) visualize results 4) repeat any of the previous steps. This cycle commonly takes up from hours to several days. What if we can make this happen instantly? As most of the research done using numerical models is in fact qualitative and exploratory (Oreskes et al., 1994), why not use these models as such? How can we adapt models so that we can edit model input, run and visualize results at the same time? More and more, interactive models become available as online apps, mainly for demonstration and educational purposes. These models often simplify the physics behind flows and run on simplified model geometries, particularly when compared with state-of-the-art scientific simulation packages. Here we show how the aforementioned conventional standalone models ("static, run once") can be transformed into interactive models. The basic concepts behind turning existing (conventional) model engines into interactive engines are the following. The engine does not run the model from start to end, but is always available in memory, and can be fed by new boundary conditions, or state changes at any time. The model can be run continuously, per step, or up to a specified time. The Hollywood principle dictates how the model engine is instructed from 'outside', instead of the model engine taking all necessary actions on its own initiative. The underlying techniques that facilitate these concepts are introspection of the computation engine, which exposes its state variables, and control functions, e.g. for time stepping, via a standardized interface, such as BMI (Peckam et. al., 2012). In this work we have used a shallow water flow model engine D-Flow Flexible Mesh. The model was converted from executable to a library, and coupled to the graphical modelling
Modeling Interactions in Small Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heise, David R.
2013-01-01
A new theory of interaction within small groups posits that group members initiate actions when tension mounts between the affective meanings of their situational identities and impressions produced by recent events. Actors choose partners and behaviors so as to reduce the tensions. A computer model based on this theory, incorporating reciprocal…
Modeling intercellular interactions during carcinogenesis.
Sachs, Rainer K; Chan, Michael; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip
2005-09-01
By modulating the microenvironment of malignant or premalignant cells, inhibitory or stimulatory signals from nearby cells can play a key role in carcinogenesis. However, current commonly used quantitative models for induction of cancers by ionizing radiation focus on single cells and their progeny. Intercellular interactions are neglected or assumed to be confined to unidirectional radiation bystander effect signals from cells of the same tissue type. We here formulate a parsimoniously parameterized two-stage logistic (TSL) carcinogenesis model that incorporates some effects of intercellular interactions during the growth of premalignant cells. We show that for baseline tumor rates, involving no radiation apart from background radiation, this TSL model gives acceptable fits to a number of data sets. Specifically, it gives the same baseline hazard function, using the same number of adjustable parameters, as does the commonly used two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model, so it is automatically applicable to the many data sets on baseline cancer that have been analyzed using the TSCE model. For perturbations of baseline rates due to radiation, the models differ. We argue from epidemiological and laboratory evidence, especially results for the atomic bomb survivors, that for radiation carcinogenesis the TSL model gives results at least as realistic as the TSCE or similar models, despite involving fewer adjustable parameters in many cases. PMID:16137206
Magnetization of planar four-fermion systems
Caldas, Heron; Ramos, Rudnei O.
2009-09-15
We consider a planar system of fermions, at finite temperature and density under a static magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional plane. This magnetic field generates a Zeeman effect and then a spin polarization of the system. The critical properties are studied from the Landau's free energy. The possible observable consequences of the magnetization of planar systems such as polymer films and graphene are discussed.
Wave/current interaction model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, A. K.
1988-01-01
The wave-current interaction for the application to remote sensing data via numerical simulations and data comparison is modelled. Using the field data of surface current shear, wind condition and ambient wave spectrum, the numerical simulations of directional wave spectrum evolution were used to interpret and to compare with the aircraft data from Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) and Surface Contour Radar (SCR) across the front during Frontal Air Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX). The wave-ice interaction was inspired by the observation of large amplitude waves hundreds of kms inside the ice pack in the Weddell Sea, resulting in breakup of the ice pack. The developed analysis of processes includes the refraction of waves at the pack edge, the effects of pack compression on wave propagation, wave train stability and buckling stability in the ice pack. Sources of pack compression and interaction between wave momentum and pack compression are investigated. Viscous camping of propagating waves in the marginal ice zone are also studied. The analysis suggests an explanation for the change in wave dispersion observed from the ship and the sequence of processes that cause ice pack breakup, pressure ridge formation and the formation of open bands of water.
Modelling Positron Interactions with Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; White, R.; Buckman, S.
2011-05-01
In this work we link fundamental measurements of positron interactions with biomolecules, with the development of computer codes for positron transport and track structure calculations. We model positron transport in a medium from a knowledge of the fundamental scattering cross section for the atoms and molecules comprising the medium, combined with a transport analysis based on statistical mechanics and Monte-Carlo techniques. The accurate knowledge of the scattering is most important at low energies, a few tens of electron volts or less. The ultimate goal of this work is to do this in soft condensed matter, with a view to ultimately developing a dosimetry model for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The high-energy positrons first emitted by a radionuclide in PET may well be described by standard formulas for energy loss of charged particles in matter, but it is incorrect to extrapolate these formulas to low energies. Likewise, using electron cross-sections to model positron transport at these low energies has been shown to be in serious error due to the effects of positronium formation. Work was supported by the Australian Research Council, the Serbian Government, and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain.
Interactive Modelling of Molecular Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rustad, J. R.; Kreylos, O.; Hamann, B.
2004-12-01
The "Nanotech Construction Kit" (NCK) [1] is a new project aimed at improving the understanding of molecular structures at a nanometer-scale level by visualization and interactive manipulation. Our very first prototype is a virtual-reality program allowing the construction of silica and carbon structures from scratch by assembling them one atom at a time. In silica crystals or glasses, the basic building block is an SiO4 unit, with the four oxygen atoms arranged around the central silicon atom in the shape of a regular tetrahedron. Two silicate units can connect to each other by their silicon atoms covalently bonding to one shared oxygen atom. Geometrically, this means that two tetrahedra can link at their vertices. Our program is based on geometric representations and uses simple force fields to simulate the interaction of building blocks, such as forming/breaking of bonds and repulsion. Together with stereoscopic visualization and direct manipulation of building blocks using wands or data gloves, this enables users to create realistic and complex molecular models in short amounts of time. The NCK can either be used as a standalone tool, to analyze or experiment with molecular structures, or it can be used in combination with "traditional" molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In a first step, the NCK can create initial configurations for subsequent MD simulation. In a more evolved setup, the NCK can serve as a visual front-end for an ongoing MD simulation, visualizing changes in simulation state in real time. Additionally, the NCK can be used to change simulation state on-the-fly, to experiment with different simulation conditions, or force certain events, e.g., the forming of a bond, and observe the simulation's reaction. [1] http://graphics.cs.ucdavis.edu/~okreylos/ResDev/NanoTech
Modelling Iron-Bentonite Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, C.; Savage, D.; Benbow, S.; Wilson, J.
2009-04-01
The presence of both iron canisters and bentonitic clay in some engineered barrier system (EBS) designs for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes creates the potential for chemical interactions which may impact upon the long-term performance of the clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration. Flooding of potential radionuclide sorption sites on the clay by ferrous ions and conversion of clay to non-swelling sheet silicates (e.g. berthierine) are two possible outcomes deleterious to long-term performance. Laboratory experimental studies of the corrosion of iron in clay show that corrosion product layers are generally thin (< 1 µm) with magnetite, siderite, or ‘green rust' occurring depending upon temperature and ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In theory, incorporation of iron into clay alteration products could act as a ‘pump' to accelerate corrosion. However, the results of laboratory experiments to characterise the products of iron-bentonite interaction are less than unequivocal. The type and amounts of solid products appear to be strong functions of time, temperature, water/clay ratio, and clay and pore fluid compositions. For example, the products of high temperature experiments (> 250 °C) are dominated by chlorite, whereas lower temperatures produce berthierine, odinite, cronstedtite, or Fe-rich smectite. Unfortunately, the inevitable short-term nature of laboratory experimental studies introduces issues of metastability and kinetics. The sequential formation in time of minerals in natural systems often produces the formation of phases not predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics. Evidence from analogous natural systems suggests that the sequence of alteration of clay by Fe-rich fluids will proceed via an Ostwald step sequence. The computer code, QPAC, has been modified to incorporate processes of nucleation, growth, precursor cannibalisation, and Ostwald ripening to address the issues of the slow growth of bentonite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babu, K. S.; McKay, D. W.; Mocioiu, Irina; Pakvasa, Sandip
2016-06-01
We develop the consequences of introducing a purely leptonic, non-standard interaction (NSI) ΔL = 2, four-fermion effective Lagrangian and standard model neutrino mixing with a fourth, sterile neutrino in the analysis of short-baseline, neutrino experiments. We focus on the muon decay at rest (DAR) results from the Liquid Scintillation Neutrino Experiment (LSND) and the Karlsruhe and Rutherford medium Energy Neutrino Experiment (KARMEN), seeking a reconciliation between the two. Both v¯e appearance from v¯μ oscillation and v¯e survival after production from NSI decay of the µ+ contribute to the expected signal. This is a unique feature of our scheme. We comment on further implications of the lepton number violating interaction and sterile neutrino-standard neutrino mixing.
Method and apparatus for modeling interactions
Xavier, Patrick G.
2002-01-01
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for modeling interactions that overcomes drawbacks. The method of the present invention comprises representing two bodies undergoing translations by two swept volume representations. Interactions such as nearest approach and collision can be modeled based on the swept body representations. The present invention is more robust and allows faster modeling than previous methods.
Differential Equations Modeling Crowd Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsche, Raul; Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Garavello, Mauro; Meurer, Anne
2015-08-01
Nonlocal conservation laws are used to describe various realistic instances of crowd behaviors. First, a basic analytic framework is established through an ad hoc well-posedness theorem for systems of nonlocal conservation laws in several space dimensions interacting nonlocally with a system of ODEs. Numerical integrations show possible applications to the interaction of different groups of pedestrians and also with other agents.
TOUGH Pitzer Ion-Interaction Model
2008-10-23
The TOUGHREACT Pitzer ion-interaction model version was developed based on the previous versions of TOUGHREACT. The main extensions include the Pitzer ion-interaction model for ionic activity calculation of solutions over a broad range of concentrations and the coupling of the vapor-pressure-lowering effect of salinity to phase partitioning.
The Volume Field Model about Strong Interaction and Weak Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Rongwu
2016-03-01
For a long time researchers have believed that strong interaction and weak interaction are realized by exchanging intermediate particles. This article proposes a new mechanism as follows: Volume field is a form of material existence in plane space, it takes volume-changing motion in the form of non-continuous motion, volume fields have strong interaction or weak interaction between them by overlapping their volume fields. Based on these concepts, this article further proposes a ``bag model'' of volume field for atomic nucleus, which includes three sub-models of the complex structure of fundamental body (such as quark), the atom-like structure of hadron, and the molecule-like structure of atomic nucleus. This article also proposes a plane space model and formulates a physics model of volume field in the plane space, as well as a model of space-time conversion. The model of space-time conversion suggests that: Point space-time and plane space-time convert each other by means of merging and rupture respectively, the essence of space-time conversion is the mutual transformations of matter and energy respectively; the process of collision of high energy hadrons, the formation of black hole, and the Big Bang of universe are three kinds of space-time conversions.
On the Triple Interacting Dark Energy Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Peng; Huang, Yong-Chang
2013-07-01
Three aspects of the triple interacting dark energy model are studied. The relation between two types of the triple interacting dark energy models is investigated first. Then, the concrete forms of the interacting terms are given by supposing ratios between different energy components is stationary. Furthermore, the stability of the triple interacting dark energy model with different transfer terms is studied in detail, and the complete table of relations between the stability and the transfer terms is given, we find that only models with transformation between matter and dark energy proportional to ρc or ρDE, while the transformation between radiation and matter is not proportional to ρR, are stable against perturbation, which give strong restriction on the model building of the triple interacting.
Computational modeling of laser-tissue interaction
London, R.A.; Amendt, P.; Bailey, D.S.; Eder, D.C.; Maitland, D.J.; Glinsky, M.E.; Strauss, M.; Zimmerman, G.B.
1996-05-01
Computational modeling can play an important role both in designing laser-tissue interaction experiments and in understanding the underlying mechanisms. This can lead to more rapid and less expensive development if new procedures and instruments, and a better understanding of their operation. We have recently directed computer programs and associated expertise developed over many years to model high intensity laser-matter interactions for fusion research towards laser-tissue interaction problem. A program called LATIS is being developed to specifically treat laser-tissue interaction phenomena, such as highly scattering light transport, thermal coagulation, and hydrodynamic motion.
Modeling opinion interactions in a BBS community
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, F.; Liu, Y.
2010-11-01
This paper is devoted to apply agent based models to real opinion interactions in a bulletin board system (BBS) community. By analyzing a real BBS community, we reveal some empirical features of opinion interactions on the Web. Then, we propose a simple opinion model that bears both general characteristics of traditional opinion models, and some real interacting rules on the Web. The model simulates a group of agents representing Web users participating to a discussion. Simulation results show some dynamical regimes consistent with empirical facts, and offer some possible explanations for the emergence of some real features. Our work implies the possibility of building simple agent based models to simulate computer-mediated interactions on the Web.
Search for contact interactions in the reactions e + e -→ l + l - and e + e -→γγ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Li.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Fellous, R. El; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemmling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Helley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Trier, H.; Della Maria, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, J.; Chen, W.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.
1993-06-01
Contact interactions are searched for using the differential cross sections for the reactions e + e -→ e + e -, e + e -→ µ + µ -, e + e -→ τ + τ - and e + e -→γγ measured at 12 energies around the Z peak and corresponding to about 20 pb-1 of cumulated luminosity. Four-fermion contact term models assuming various chiralities of lepton currents are fitted to the lepton data and lower limits on the energy scale Λ of such terms are set at 95% c.l. The limits vary in the range 0.9 4.7 TeV, depending on the model and on the lepton flavour. The eeγγ contact terms are searched for assuming various chiralities. Limits on the energy scale Λ between 79 and 130 GeV are extracted from the data. The results are compared and combined with those reported at lower energies.
SABRINA - an interactive geometry modeler for MCNP
West, J.T.; Murphy, J. )
1988-01-01
One of the most difficult tasks when analyzing a complex three-dimensional system with Monte Carlo is geometry model development. SABRINA attempts to make the modeling process more user-friendly and less of an obstacle. It accepts both combinatorial solid bodies and MCNP surfaces and produces MCNP cells. The model development process in SABRINA is highly interactive and gives the user immediate feedback on errors. Users can view their geometry from arbitrary perspectives while the model is under development and interactively find and correct modeling errors. An example of a SABRINA display is shown. It represents a complex three-dimensional shape.
Modeling of laser interactions with composite materials
Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Boley, Charles D.
2013-05-07
In this study, we develop models of laser interactions with composite materials consisting of fibers embedded within a matrix. A ray-trace model is shown to determine the absorptivity, absorption depth, and optical power enhancement within the material, as well as the angular distribution of the reflected light. We also develop a macroscopic model, which provides physical insight and overall results. We show that the parameters in this model can be determined from the ray trace model.
Key Results of Interaction Models with Centering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Afshartous, David; Preston, Richard A.
2011-01-01
We consider the effect on estimation of simultaneous variable centering and interaction effects in linear regression. We technically define, review, and amplify many of the statistical issues for interaction models with centering in order to create a useful and compact reference for teachers, students, and applied researchers. In addition, we…
Instructional systems development model for interactive videodisc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, J. O.; Tuttle, D. M.; Gibbons, A. S.
1983-12-01
This is the third and final report on an Instructional Systems Development Model for Videodisc Training Delivery Systems with Interactive Capability. The report reviews the current state of the art, and describes two videodiscs made for the project, with lessons learned from them. Each block of the Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development (IPISD) is described in terms of the new opportunities and requirements of interactive videodisc. A separate report, "Interactive Videodisc Design and Production Workshop Guide,' presents a step by step procedure for making interactive videodiscs.
Lattice Gas Model with Nonlocal Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Shankar P.
We analyze the nature of the hydrodynamic modes in a Lattice Gas Automata (LGA) model defined on a hexagonal lattice and having nonlocal interactions of attractive and repulsive type simultaneously. The model is similar in spirit to the liquid gas model of Appert and Zaleski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1 (1990)]. The phase diagram for the model is computed using the kinetic pressure. The dynamics is studied with a mean field type approach in the Boltzmann approximation ignoring effects of correlated collisions. We compute the transport coefficients and the speed of sound propagation. The presence of attractive interactions show increase in the transport coefficients at intermediate densities.
Modeling of Laser Material Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrison, Barbara
2009-03-01
Irradiation of a substrate by laser light initiates the complex chemical and physical process of ablation where large amounts of material are removed. Ablation has been successfully used in techniques such as nanolithography and LASIK surgery, however a fundamental understanding of the process is necessary in order to further optimize and develop applications. To accurately describe the ablation phenomenon, a model must take into account the multitude of events which occur when a laser irradiates a target including electronic excitation, bond cleavage, desorption of small molecules, ongoing chemical reactions, propagation of stress waves, and bulk ejection of material. A coarse grained molecular dynamics (MD) protocol with an embedded Monte Carlo (MC) scheme has been developed which effectively addresses each of these events during the simulation. Using the simulation technique, thermal and chemical excitation channels are separately studied with a model polymethyl methacrylate system. The effects of the irradiation parameters and reaction pathways on the process dynamics are investigated. The mechanism of ablation for thermal processes is governed by a critical number of bond breaks following the deposition of energy. For the case where an absorbed photon directly causes a bond scission, ablation occurs following the rapid chemical decomposition of material. The study provides insight into the influence of thermal and chemical processes in polymethyl methacrylate and facilitates greater understanding of the complex nature of polymer ablation.
Pharmacodynamic interaction models in pediatric anesthesia.
Hannam, Jacqueline A; Anderson, Brian J
2015-10-01
Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models are important tools for summarizing drug dose, concentration, and effect relationships. Co-administration of drugs may alter PK and PD relationships. Traditional methods of evaluating PD interactions include using isoboles, shifts in dose-response curves, or interaction indices based on parameters of potency derived from separate monotherapy and combination therapy analyses. These methods provide an estimation of the magnitude of effect for dose or concentration combinations, but they do not inform us on the time course of that effect, or its associated variability. A better way to investigate PD interactions is to use modeling, and to take advantage of the benefits of population analyses. A population analysis is a statistical method in which a model describing the typical (or population) response, and the variability between individuals within that population, is developed. Models for monotherapy, derived using a population approach, can be combined and extended to incorporate PD interactions between two or more drugs. The purpose of this article was to provide a general road map for understanding and interpreting PD interaction models, including the 'response surface' models. Several types of response surface models exist, and here we review these with examples taken from the literature. We also consider current and future applications for this type of analysis for clinical anesthesia and pediatrics. PMID:26240956
The Spiral-Interactive Program Evaluation Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu
1988-01-01
Describes the spiral interactive program evaluation model, which is designed to evaluate vocational-technical education programs in secondary schools in Nigeria. Program evaluation is defined; utility oriented and process oriented models for evaluation are described; and internal and external evaluative factors and variables that define each…
Method and apparatus for modeling interactions
Xavier, Patrick G.
2000-08-08
A method and apparatus for modeling interactions between bodies. The method comprises representing two bodies undergoing translations and rotations by two hierarchical swept volume representations. Interactions such as nearest approach and collision can be modeled based on the swept body representations. The present invention can serve as a practical tool in motion planning, CAD systems, simulation systems, safety analysis, and applications that require modeling time-based interactions. A body can be represented in the present invention by a union of convex polygons and convex polyhedra. As used generally herein, polyhedron includes polygon, and polyhedra includes polygons. The body undergoing translation can be represented by a swept body representation, where the swept body representation comprises a hierarchical bounding volume representation whose leaves each contain a representation of the region swept by a section of the body during the translation, and where the union of the regions is a superset of the region swept by the surface of the body during translation. Interactions between two bodies thus represented can be modeled by modeling interactions between the convex hulls of the finite sets of discrete points in the swept body representations.
Independent pair parton interactions model of hadron interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dremin, I. M.; Nechitailo, V. A.
2004-08-01
A model of independent pair parton interactions is proposed, according to which hadron interactions are represented by a set of independent binary parton collisions. The final multiplicity distribution is described by a convolution of the negative binomial distributions in each of the partonic collisions. As a result, it is given by a weighted sum of negative binomial distributions with parameters multiplied by the number of active pairs. Its shape and moments are considered. Experimental data on multiplicity distributions in high energy pp¯ processes are well fitted by these distributions. Predictions for the CERN Large Hadron Collider and higher energies are presented. The difference between e+e- and pp¯ processes is discussed.
An experiment with interactive planning models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beville, J.; Wagner, J. H.; Zannetos, Z. S.
1970-01-01
Experiments on decision making in planning problems are described. Executives were tested in dealing with capital investments and competitive pricing decisions under conditions of uncertainty. A software package, the interactive risk analysis model system, was developed, and two controlled experiments were conducted. It is concluded that planning models can aid management, and predicted uses of the models are as a central tool, as an educational tool, to improve consistency in decision making, to improve communications, and as a tool for consensus decision making.
A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.
2000-01-01
There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.
Quark interchange model of baryon interactions
Maslow, J.N.
1983-01-01
The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.
Quark Interchange Model of Baryon Interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslow, Joel Neal
The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point -like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and we assume that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (qq) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of Yn scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.
Interactive Visual Analysis within Dynamic Ocean Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butkiewicz, T.
2012-12-01
The many observation and simulation based ocean models available today can provide crucial insights for all fields of marine research and can serve as valuable references when planning data collection missions. However, the increasing size and complexity of these models makes leveraging their contents difficult for end users. Through a combination of data visualization techniques, interactive analysis tools, and new hardware technologies, the data within these models can be made more accessible to domain scientists. We present an interactive system that supports exploratory visual analysis within large-scale ocean flow models. The currents and eddies within the models are illustrated using effective, particle-based flow visualization techniques. Stereoscopic displays and rendering methods are employed to ensure that the user can correctly perceive the complex 3D structures of depth-dependent flow patterns. Interactive analysis tools are provided which allow the user to experiment through the introduction of their customizable virtual dye particles into the models to explore regions of interest. A multi-touch interface provides natural, efficient interaction, with custom multi-touch gestures simplifying the otherwise challenging tasks of navigating and positioning tools within a 3D environment. We demonstrate the potential applications of our visual analysis environment with two examples of real-world significance: Firstly, an example of using customized particles with physics-based behaviors to simulate pollutant release scenarios, including predicting the oil plume path for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. Secondly, an interactive tool for plotting and revising proposed autonomous underwater vehicle mission pathlines with respect to the surrounding flow patterns predicted by the model; as these survey vessels have extremely limited energy budgets, designing more efficient paths allows for greater survey areas.
Global quantitative modeling of chromatin factor interactions.
Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G
2014-03-01
Chromatin is the driver of gene regulation, yet understanding the molecular interactions underlying chromatin factor combinatorial patterns (or the "chromatin codes") remains a fundamental challenge in chromatin biology. Here we developed a global modeling framework that leverages chromatin profiling data to produce a systems-level view of the macromolecular complex of chromatin. Our model ultilizes maximum entropy modeling with regularization-based structure learning to statistically dissect dependencies between chromatin factors and produce an accurate probability distribution of chromatin code. Our unsupervised quantitative model, trained on genome-wide chromatin profiles of 73 histone marks and chromatin proteins from modENCODE, enabled making various data-driven inferences about chromatin profiles and interactions. We provided a highly accurate predictor of chromatin factor pairwise interactions validated by known experimental evidence, and for the first time enabled higher-order interaction prediction. Our predictions can thus help guide future experimental studies. The model can also serve as an inference engine for predicting unknown chromatin profiles--we demonstrated that with this approach we can leverage data from well-characterized cell types to help understand less-studied cell type or conditions. PMID:24675896
Modeling Systems Involving Interactions Between Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, A. B.
2005-05-01
When we think of numerical models, `simulation modeling' often comes to mind: The modeler strives to include as many of the processes operating in the system of interest, and in as much detail, as is practical. The goal is typically to make accurate quantitative predictions. However, numerical models can also play an explanatory role. The goal of explaining a poorly understood phenomenon is often best pursued with an `exploratory' model (Murray 2002, 2003), in which a modeler minimizes the processes included and the level of detail, to try to determine what mechanisms-and what aspects of those mechanisms-are essential. These strategies are closely associated with different approaches to modeling processes across temporal and spatial scales. Simulation models often involve `explicit numerical reductionism'-the direct representation of interactions at scales as small as possible. Parameterizing sub-grid-scale processes is often seen as an unfortunate necessity, to be avoided if possible. On the other hand, when devising an exploratory model, a top-down strategy is often employed; an effort is made to represent only the effects that much smaller-scale processes have on the scale of interest. This approach allows investigation of the interactions between the emergent variables and structures that most directly explain many complex behaviors. As a caricature, we don't investigate water-wave phenomena by simulating molecular collisions. In addition, basing a model on processes at much smaller scales than those of the phenomena of interest leads to the concern that model imperfections may propagate up through the scales; that if the small-scale processes are not treated very accurately, the key interactions that emerge at larger scales may not occur as they do in the natural system. However, this risk can be bypassed by basing a model directly on larger-scale interactions, and examining which of these interactions might cause a phenomenon. For this reason, it has been
Ciliary motion modeling, and dynamic multicilia interactions
Gueron, Shay; Liron, Nadav
1992-01-01
This paper presents a rigorous and accurate modeling tool for ciliary motion. The hydrodynamics analysis, originally suggested by Lighthill (1975), has been modified to remove computational problems. This approach is incorporated into a moment-balance model of ciliary motion in place of the previously used hydrodynamic analyses, known as Resistive Force Theory. The method is also developed to include the effect of a plane surface at the base of the cilium, and the effect of the flow fields produced by neighboring cilia. These extensions were not possible with previous work using the Resistive Force Theory hydrodynamics. Performing reliable simulations of a single cilium as well as modeling multicilia interactions is now possible. The result is a general method which could now be used for detailed modeling of the mechanisms for generating ciliary beat patterns and patterns of metachronal interactions in arrays of cilia. A computer animation technique was designed and applied to display the results. PMID:19431847
Phase transition and critical behavior of d=3 chiral fermion models with left-right asymmetry
Gies, Holger; Janssen, Lukas; Rechenberger, Stefan; Scherer, Michael M.
2010-01-15
We investigate the critical behavior of three-dimensional relativistic fermion models with a U(N{sub L}){sub L} x U(1){sub R} chiral symmetry reminiscent of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the standard model of particle physics. We classify all possible four-fermion interaction terms and the corresponding discrete symmetries. For sufficiently strong correlations in a scalar parity-conserving channel, the system can undergo a second-order phase transition to a chiral-symmetry broken phase, which is a 3d analog of the electroweak phase transition. We determine the critical behavior of this phase transition in terms of the critical exponent {nu} and the fermion and scalar anomalous dimensions for N{sub L{>=}}1. Our models define new universality classes that can serve as prototypes for studies of strongly correlated chiral fermions.
Interaction Effects in Growth Modeling: A Full Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wen, Zhonglin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai
2002-01-01
Points out two concerns with recent research by F. Li and others (2000) and T. Duncan and others (1999) that extended the structural equation model of latent interactions developed by K. Joreskog and F. Yang (1996) to latent growth modeling. Used mathematical derivation and a comparison of alternative models fitted to simulated data to develop a…
ISAM - an Interactive Service for Asteroid Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartczak, P.; Marciniak, A.
2011-10-01
We present an interactive web service for past and future physical ephemeris of polyhedral asteroid shape models obtained mainly with the lightcurve inversion method. Our tool allows for plane-of-sky views of the models, that can be then compared with asteroid images obtained using different techniques like occultations, radar or thermal infrared. Additionally, lightcurves, animated views, and stereoscopic images can be generated by the users. The service is available at the address: http://isam.astro.amu.edu.pl
Modelling hadronic interactions in HEP MC generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skands, Peter
2015-08-01
HEP event generators aim to describe high-energy collisions in full exclusive detail. They combine perturbative matrix elements and parton showers with dynamical models of less well-understood phenomena such as hadronization, diffraction, and the so-called underlying event. We briefly summarise some of the main concepts relevant to the modelling of soft/inclusive hadron interactions in MC generators, in particular PYTHIA, with emphasis on questions recently highlighted by LHC data.
Aerosol Climate Interactions in Climate System Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiehl, J. T.
2002-12-01
Aerosols are widely recognized as an important process in Earth's climate system. Observations over the past decade have improved our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols. Recently, field observations have highlighted the pervasiveness of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols are of particular interest, since they alter the vertical distribution of shortwave radiative heating between the surface and atmosphere. Given this increased knowledge of aerosols from various field programs, interest is focusing on how to integrate this understanding into global climate models. These types of models provide the best tool available to comprehensively study the potential effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system. Results from climate system model simulations that include aerosol effects will be presented to illustrate key aerosol climate interactions. These simulations employ idealized and realistic distributions of absorbing aerosols. The idealized aerosol simulations provide insight into the role of aerosol shortwave absorption on the global hydrologic cycle. The realistic aerosol distributions provide insight into the local response of aerosol forcing in the Indian subcontinent region. Emphasis from these simulations will be on the hydrologic cycle, since water availability is of emerging global environmental concern. This presentation will also consider what more is needed to significantly improve our ability to model aerosol processes in climate system models. Uncertainty in aerosol climate interactions remains a major source of uncertainty in our ability to project future climate change. Focus will be on interactions between aerosols and various physical, chemical and biogeochemical aspects of the Earth system.
Algebraic Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, Andrew T.
2012-01-01
The results of a series of Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) simulations are compared to each other over a wide range of operating conditions. It is found that the PaSR results can be simulated by a PSR solution with just an adjusted chemical reaction rate. A simple expression has been developed that gives the required change in reaction rate for a PSR solution to simulate the PaSR results. This expression is the basis of a simple turbulence-chemistry interaction model. The interaction model that has been developed is intended for use with simple one-step global reaction mechanisms and for steady-state flow simulations. Due to the simplicity of the model there is very little additional computational cost in adding it to existing CFD codes.
Secret neutrino interactions: a pseudoscalar model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth Hansen, Rasmus; Tram, Thomas
2016-05-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments point towards the existence of additional mostly sterile neutrino mass eigenstates in the eV mass range. At the same time, such sterile neutrinos are disfavoured by cosmology (Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure), unless they can be prevented from being thermalised in the early Universe. To this aim, we introduce a model of sterile neutrino secret interactions mediated by a new light pseudoscalar: The new interactions can accomodate sterile neutrinos in the early Universe, providing a good fit to all the up to date cosmological data.
Peppytides: Interactive Models of Polypeptide Chains
Zuckermann, Ron; Chakraborty, Promita; Derisi, Joe
2014-10-28
Peppytides are scaled, 3D-printed models of polypeptide chains that can be folded into accurate protein structures. Designed and created by Berkeley Lab Researcher, Promita Chakraborty, and Berkeley Lab Senior Scientist, Dr. Ron Zuckermann, Peppytides are accurate physical models of polypeptide chains that anyone can interact with and fold intro various protein structures - proving to be a great educational tool, resulting in a deeper understanding of these fascinating structures and how they function. Build your own Peppytide model and learn about how nature's machines fold into their intricate architectures!
Peppytides: Interactive Models of Polypeptide Chains
Zuckermann, Ron; Chakraborty, Promita; Derisi, Joe
2014-01-21
Peppytides are scaled, 3D-printed models of polypeptide chains that can be folded into accurate protein structures. Designed and created by Berkeley Lab Researcher, Promita Chakraborty, and Berkeley Lab Senior Scientist, Dr. Ron Zuckermann, Peppytides are accurate physical models of polypeptide chains that anyone can interact with and fold intro various protein structures - proving to be a great educational tool, resulting in a deeper understanding of these fascinating structures and how they function. Build your own Peppytide model and learn about how nature's machines fold into their intricate architectures!
Atomistic modeling of dislocation-interface interactions
Wang, Jian; Valone, Steven M; Beyerlein, Irene J; Misra, Amit; Germann, T. C.
2011-01-31
Using atomic scale models and interface defect theory, we first classify interface structures into a few types with respect to geometrical factors, then study the interfacial shear response and further simulate the dislocation-interface interactions using molecular dynamics. The results show that the atomic scale structural characteristics of both heterophases and homophases interfaces play a crucial role in (i) their mechanical responses and (ii) the ability of incoming lattice dislocations to transmit across them.
An earthquake model with interacting asperities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Lane R.
2010-09-01
A model is presented that treats an earthquake as the failure of asperities in a manner consistent with modern concepts of sliding friction. The mathematical description of the model includes results for elliptical and circular asperities, oblique tectonic slip, static and dynamic solutions for slip on the fault, stress intensity factors, strain energy and second-order moment tensor. The equations that control interaction of asperities are derived and solved both in a quasi-static tectonic mode when none of the asperities are in the process of failing and a dynamic failure mode when asperities are failing and sending out slip pulses that can trigger failure of additional asperities. The model produces moment rate functions for each asperity failure so that, given an appropriate Green function, the radiation of elastic waves is a straightforward calculation. The model explains an observed scaling relationship between repeat time and seismic moment for repeating seismic events and is consistent with the properties of pseudo-tachylites treated as fossil asperities. Properties of the model are explored with simulations of seismic activity that results when a section of the fault containing a spatial distribution of asperities is subjected to tectonic slip. The simulations show that the failure of a group of strongly interacting asperities satisfies the same scaling relationship as the failure of individual asperities, and that realistic distributions of asperities on a fault plane lead to seismic activity consistent with probability estimates for the interaction of asperities and predicted values of the Gutenberg-Richter a and b values. General features of the model are the exterior crack solution as a theoretical foundation, a heterogeneous state of stress and strength on the fault, dynamic effects controlled by propagating slip pulses and radiated elastic waves with a broad frequency band.
Method of and apparatus for modeling interactions
Budge, Kent G.
2004-01-13
A method and apparatus for modeling interactions can accurately model tribological and other properties and accommodate topological disruptions. Two portions of a problem space are represented, a first with a Lagrangian mesh and a second with an ALE mesh. The ALE and Lagrangian meshes are constructed so that each node on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh is in a known correspondence with adjacent nodes in the ALE mesh. The interaction can be predicted for a time interval. Material flow within the ALE mesh can accurately model complex interactions such as bifurcation. After prediction, nodes in the ALE mesh in correspondence with nodes on the surface of the Lagrangian mesh can be mapped so that they are once again adjacent to their corresponding Lagrangian mesh nodes. The ALE mesh can then be smoothed to reduce mesh distortion that might reduce the accuracy or efficiency of subsequent prediction steps. The process, from prediction through mapping and smoothing, can be repeated until a terminal condition is reached.
Nagaoka's atomic model and hyperfine interactions.
Inamura, Takashi T
2016-01-01
The prevailing view of Nagaoka's "Saturnian" atom is so misleading that today many people have an erroneous picture of Nagaoka's vision. They believe it to be a system involving a 'giant core' with electrons circulating just outside. Actually, though, in view of the Coulomb potential related to the atomic nucleus, Nagaoka's model is exactly the same as Rutherford's. This is true of the Bohr atom, too. To give proper credit, Nagaoka should be remembered together with Rutherford and Bohr in the history of the atomic model. It is also pointed out that Nagaoka was a pioneer of understanding hyperfine interactions in order to study nuclear structure. PMID:27063182
Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cockett, R.
2012-12-01
Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.
Comments on interactions in the SUSY models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Reshetnyak, Alexander; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2016-07-01
We consider special supersymmetry (SUSY) transformations with m generators overleftarrow{s}_α , for some class of models and study the physical consequences when making the Grassmann-odd transformations to form an Abelian supergroup with finite parameters and a set of group-like elements with finite parameters being functionals of the field variables. The SUSY-invariant path integral measure within conventional quantization scheme leads to the appearance of the Jacobian under a change of variables generated by such SUSY transformations, which is explicitly calculated. The Jacobian implies, first of all, the appearance of trivial interactions in the transformed action, and, second, the presence of a modified Ward identity which reduces to the standard Ward identities in the case of constant parameters. We examine the case of the {N}=1 and N=2 supersymmetric harmonic oscillators to illustrate the general concept by a simple free model with (1, 1) physical degrees of freedom. It is shown that the interaction terms U_{tr} have a corresponding SUSY-exact form: U_{tr}= big (V_{(1)}overleftarrow{s}; V_{(2)}overleftarrow{bar{s}} overleftarrow{s}big ) generated naturally under such generalized formulation. We argue that the case of a non-trivial interaction cannot be obtained in such a way.
A Formulation of the Interactive Evaluation Model
Walsh, Peter J.; Awad-Edwards, Roger; Engelhardt, K. G.; Perkash, Inder
1985-01-01
The development of highly technical devices for specialized users requires continual feedback from potential users to the project team designing the device to assure that a useful product will result. This necessity for user input is the basis for the Interactive Evaluation Model which has been applied to complex computer assisted robotic aids for individuals with disabilities and has wide application to the development of a variety of technical devices. We present a preliminary mathematical formulation of the Interactive Evaluation Model which maximizes the rate of growth toward success, at a constant cost rate, of the efforts of a team having the diverse expertises needed to produce a complex technical product. Close interaction is simulated by a growth rate which is a multiplicative product involving the number of participants within a given class of necessary expertise and evaluation is included by demanding that users form one of the necessary classes. In the multipliers, the number of class participants is raised to a power termed the class weight exponent. In the simplest case, the optimum participant number varies as the ratio of the class weight exponent to the average class cost. An illustrative example, based on our experience with medical care assistive aids, shows the dramatic cost reduction possible with users on the team.
Soft interaction model and the LHC data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gotsman, E.; Levin, E.; Maor, U.
2012-05-01
Most models for soft interactions which were proposed prior to the measurements at the LHC, are only marginally compatible with LHC data, the Gotsma-Levin-Maor model has the same deficiency. In this paper we investigate possible causes of the problem, by considering separate fits to the high energy (W>500GeV), and low energy (W<500GeV) data. Our new results are moderately higher than our previous predictions. Our results for total and elastic cross sections are systematically lower that the recent Totem and Alice published values, while our results for the inelastic and forward slope agree with the data. If with additional experimental data, the errors are reduced, while the central cross section values remain unchanged, we will need to reconsider the physics on which our model is built.
On dark degeneracy and interacting models
Carneiro, S.; Borges, H.A. E-mail: humberto@ufba.br
2014-06-01
Cosmological background observations cannot fix the dark energy equation of state, which is related to a degeneracy in the definition of the dark sector components. Here we show that this degeneracy can be broken at perturbation level by imposing two observational properties on dark matter. First, dark matter is defined as the clustering component we observe in large scale structures. This definition is meaningful only if dark energy is unperturbed, which is achieved if we additionally assume, as a second condition, that dark matter is cold, i.e. non-relativistic. As a consequence, dark energy models with equation-of-state parameter −1 ≤ ω < 0 are reduced to two observationally distinguishable classes with ω = −1, equally competitive when tested against observations. The first comprises the ΛCDM model with constant dark energy density. The second consists of interacting models with an energy flux from dark energy to dark matter.
Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models
Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.
2004-03-23
The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model
Interacting damage models mapped onto Ising and percolation models.
Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R
2005-04-01
We introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasi-static fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, we obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. We demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, we show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory and that damage models with a local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard Ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. We also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, we also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model to standard
Modeling selective local interactions with memory
Galante, Amanda; Levy, Doron
2012-01-01
Recently we developed a stochastic particle system describing local interactions between cyanobacteria. We focused on the common freshwater cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp., which are coccoidal bacteria that utilize group dynamics to move toward a light source, a motion referred to as phototaxis. We were particularly interested in the local interactions between cells that were located in low to medium density areas away from the front. The simulations of our stochastic particle system in 2D replicated many experimentally observed phenomena, such as the formation of aggregations and the quasi-random motion of cells. In this paper, we seek to develop a better understanding of group dynamics produced by this model. To facilitate this study, we replace the stochastic model with a system of ordinary differential equations describing the evolution of particles in 1D. Unlike many other models, our emphasis is on particles that selectively choose one of their neighbors as the preferred direction of motion. Furthermore, we incorporate memory by allowing persistence in the motion. We conduct numerical simulations which allow us to efficiently explore the space of parameters, in order to study the stability, size, and merging of aggregations. PMID:24244060
Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.
2009-01-01
Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…
An interactive program for software reliability modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farr, W. H.; Smith, O. D.
1984-01-01
With the tremendous growth in computer software, the demand has arisen for producing cost effective reliable software. Over the last 10 years an area of research has developed which attempts to address this problem by estimating a program's current reliability by modeling either the times between error detections or the error counts in past testing periods. A new tool for interactive software reliability analysis using the computer is described. This computer program allows the user to perform a complete reliability analysis using any of eight well-known models appearing in the literature. Some of the capabilities of the program are illustrated by means of an analysis of a set of simulated error data.
Interaction of Mastoparan with Model Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haloot, Justin
2010-10-01
The use of antimicrobial agents began during the 20th century to reduce the effects of infectious diseases. Since the 1990s, antimicrobial resistance has become an ever-increasing global problem. Our laboratory recently found that small antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have potent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms including antibiotic resistant organisms. These AMPs are potential therapeutic agents against the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. AMPs are small peptides produced by plants, insects and animals. Several hypotheses concede that these peptides cause some type of structural perturbations and increased membrane permeability in bacteria however, how AMPs kill bacteria remains unclear. The goal of this study was to design an assay that would allow us to evaluate and monitor the pore forming ability of an AMP, Mastoparan, on model membrane structures called liposomes. Development of this model will facilitate the study of how mastoparan and related AMPs interact with the bacterial membrane.
A simple model for studying interacting networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.
2011-03-01
Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.
LSST Survey Data: Models for EPO Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, J. K.; Borne, K. D.
2007-12-01
The potential for education and public outreach with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is as far reaching as the telescope itself. LSST data will be available to the public, giving anyone with a web browser a movie-like window on the Universe. The LSST project is unique in designing its data management and data access systems with the public and community users in mind. The enormous volume of data to be generated by LSST is staggering: 30 Terabytes per night, 10 Petabytes per year. The final database of extracted science parameters from the images will also be enormous -- 50-100 Petabytes -- a rich gold mine for data mining and scientific discovery potential. LSST will also generate 100,000 astronomical alerts per night, for 10 years. The LSST EPO team is examining models for EPO interaction with the survey data, particularly in how the community (amateurs, teachers, students, and general public) can participate in the discovery process. We will outline some of our models of community interaction for inquiry-based science using the LSST survey data, and we invite discussion on these topics.
Retention modelling in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.
Euerby, Melvin R; Hulse, Jennifer; Petersson, Patrik; Vazhentsev, Andrey; Kassam, Karim
2015-12-01
The retention behaviour of acidic, basic and quaternary ammonium salts and polar neutral analytes has been evaluated on acidic, basic and neutral hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases as a function of HILIC operating parameters such as MeCN content, buffer concentration, pH and temperature. Numerous empirical HILIC retention models (existing and newly developed ones) have been assessed for their ability to describe retention as a function of the HILIC operating parameters investigated. Retention models have been incorporated into a commercially available retention modelling programme (i.e. ACD/LC simulator) and their accuracy of retention prediction assessed. The applicability of HILIC modelling using these equations has been demonstrated in the two-dimensional isocratic (i.e. buffer concentration versus MeCN content modelling) and one-dimensional gradient separations for a range of analytes of differing physico-chemical properties on the three stationary phases. The accuracy of retention and peak width prediction was observed to be comparable to that reported in reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) retention modelling. Intriguingly, our results have confirmed that the use of gradient modelling to predict HILIC isocratic conditions and vice versa is not reliable. A relative ranking of the importance of the retention and selectivity of HILIC operating parameters has been determined using statistical approaches. For retention, the order of importance was observed to be organic content > stationary phase > temperature ≈ mobile phase pH (i.e. pH 3-6 which mainly effects the ionization of the analyte) ≈ buffer concentration. For selectivity, the nature of the stationary phase > mobile phase pH > buffer concentration > temperature > organic content. PMID:26563113
Modeling mechanical interactions between cancerous mammary acini
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jeffrey; Liphardt, Jan; Rycroft, Chris
2015-03-01
The rules and mechanical forces governing cell motility and interactions with the extracellular matrix of a tissue are often critical for understanding the mechanisms by which breast cancer is able to spread through the breast tissue and eventually metastasize. Ex vivo experimentation has demonstrated the the formation of long collagen fibers through collagen gels between the cancerous mammary acini responsible for milk production, providing a fiber scaffolding along which cancer cells can disorganize. We present a minimal mechanical model that serves as a potential explanation for the formation of these collagen fibers and the resultant motion. Our working hypothesis is that cancerous cells induce this fiber formation by pulling on the gel and taking advantage of the specific mechanical properties of collagen. To model this system, we employ a new Eulerian, fixed grid simulation method to model the collagen as a nonlinear viscoelastic material subject to various forces coupled with a multi-agent model to describe individual cancer cells. We find that these phenomena can be explained two simple ideas: cells pull collagen radially inwards and move towards the tension gradient of the collagen gel, while being exposed to standard adhesive and collision forces.
Interactions of Model Cell Membranes with Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Angelo, S. M.; Camesano, T. A.; Nagarajan, R.
2011-12-01
The same properties that give nanoparticles their enhanced function, such as high surface area, small size, and better conductivity, can also alter the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. Ultimately, many of these nanomaterials will be released into the environment, and can cause cytotoxic effects to environmental bacteria, aquatic organisms, and humans. Previous results from our laboratory suggest that nanoparticles can have a detrimental effect on cells, depending on nanoparticle size. It is our goal to characterize the properties of nanomaterials that can result in membrane destabilization. We tested the effects of nanoparticle size and chemical functionalization on nanoparticle-membrane interactions. Gold nanoparticles at 2, 5,10, and 80 nm were investigated, with a concentration of 1.1x1010 particles/mL. Model cell membranes were constructed of of L-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), which has negatively charged lipid headgroups. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to measure frequency changes at different overtones, which were related to mass changes corresponding to nanoparticle interaction with the model membrane. In QCM-D, a lipid bilayer is constructed on a silicon dioxide crystal. The crystals, oscillate at different harmonic frequencies depending upon changes in mass or energy dissipation. When mass is added to the crystal surface, such as through addition of a lipid vesicle solution, the frequency change decreases. By monitoring the frequency and dissipation, we could verify that a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) formed on the silica surface. After formation of the SLB, the nanoparticles can be added to the system, and the changes in frequency and dissipation are monitored in order to build a mechanistic understanding of nanoparticle-cell membrane interactions. For all of the smaller nanoparticles (2, 5, and 10 nm), nanoparticle addition caused a loss of mass from the lipid bilayer, which appears to be due to the formation of holes
Modelling of relativistic laser-plasma interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berwick, Stuart James
In order to characterise the propagation and stability of linearly polarised laser pulses of arbitrary intensity interacting with underdense plasma, a one-dimensional, fully relativistic, covariant electron fluid model is derived. As a first step, the model is Lorentz transformed into a frame moving with the group velocity of the laser pulse. A linear instability analysis is undertaken which generates an infinite hierarchy of homogeneous mode-coupling equations describing the decay of the laser pump via stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS), stimulated Raman back scattering (SRBS) and the relativistic modulational instability (RMI). SRFS and RMI are seen to merge into a hybrid instability at high intensities (1>1018Wcm-2) and a 6-wave analysis (rather than the conventional 3 or 4-wave) is required to accurately predict growth. Next, an Eulerian fluid code is developed in order to evolve the full non- linear equations. The method of characteristics is used to integrate the electromagnetic wave equation and a predictor-corrector algorithm is used to integrate the equations of continuity and momentum. After testing, this code is used to simulate the propagation and stability of ultra-short (<200fs), 'table-top' and cos2 modulated laser pulses of relativistic intensities in underdense plasma. Comparison is made to the predictions of the dispersion relation and growth rates obtained in each case are reconciled. The spatiotemporal behaviour is discussed with reference to the results of a 3-wave WKB model of the interaction. The importance of seeding mechanisms, pulse shape and relativity on the evolution of the instabilities is also discussed.
Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.
Helikar, Tomáš; Cutucache, Christine E; Dahlquist, Lauren M; Herek, Tyler A; Larson, Joshua J; Rogers, Jim A
2015-03-01
While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology) class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology. PMID:25790483
SABRINA: an interactive solid geometry modeling program for Monte Carlo
West, J.T.
1985-01-01
SABRINA is a fully interactive three-dimensional geometry modeling program for MCNP. In SABRINA, a user interactively constructs either body geometry, or surface geometry models, and interactively debugs spatial descriptions for the resulting objects. This enhanced capability significantly reduces the effort in constructing and debugging complicated three-dimensional geometry models for Monte Carlo Analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fierro, Annalisa; de Candia, Antonio; Coniglio, Antonio
2002-02-01
The frustrated lattice gas model is studied in the quenched version where the interactions are quenched random variables, and in the annealed version where the interactions are allowed to evolve in time with a suitable kinetic constraint. The dynamical nonlinear susceptibility, recently introduced by Donati et al, is evaluated. In the annealed version we observe a behaviour very similar to the results for the p-spin models in mean field, and those for a Lennard-Jones mixture as found by Donati et al. In the quenched version we observe a substantially different behaviour of the dynamical susceptibility. The results suggest that the behaviour of the dynamical susceptibility in the annealed model can be interpreted as the imprint of the thermodynamic transition present in the quenched model and signalled by the divergence of the static nonlinear susceptibility. A similar mechanism might also be present in glassy systems.
Geodynamo Modeling of Core-Mantle Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Angular momentum exchange between the Earth's mantle and core influences the Earth's rotation on time scales of decades and longer, in particular in the length of day (LOD) which have been measured with progressively increasing accuracy for the last two centuries. There are four possible coupling mechanisms for transferring the axial angular momentum across the core-mantle boundary (CMB): viscous, magnetic, topography, and gravitational torques. Here we use our scalable, modularized, fully dynamic geodynamo model for the core to assess the importance of these torques. This numerical model, as an extension of the Kuang-Bloxham model that has successfully simulated the generation of the Earth's magnetic field, is used to obtain numerical results in various physical conditions in terms of specific parameterization consistent with the dynamical processes in the fluid outer core. The results show that depending on the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle and the amplitude of the boundary topography at CMB, both magnetic and topographic couplings can contribute significantly to the angular momentum exchange. This implies that the core-mantle interactions are far more complex than has been assumed and that there is unlikely a single dominant coupling mechanism for the observed decadal LOD variation.
Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael
2015-10-01
In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.
Modeling of molten-fuel-moderator interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diab, Aya K.
CANDU reactors are pressurized heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor designs. During commissioning of nuclear power plants a range of possible accidents must be considered to assure the plants' robust design. Consider a complete channel blockage in the CANDU reactor. Such an extreme flow blockage event would result in fuel overheating, pressure tube failure, partial melting of fuel rods and possible molten fuel-moderator interactions (MFMI). The MFMI phenomenon would occur immediately after tube rupture, and would involve a mixture of steam, hydrogen and molten fuel being ejected into the surrounding moderator water in the form of a high-pressure vapor bubble mixture. This bubble mixture would accelerate the surrounding denser water, causing interfacial mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface. As a result of these interfacial instabilities, water is entrained into the growing two-phase bubble mixture with the attendant mass and heat transfer; e.g., water vaporization, fuel oxidation. A comprehensive model is developed to investigate these complex phenomena resulting from a postulated complete flow blockage and complete pressure tube failure. This dynamic model serves as a baseline to characterize the pressure response due to a pressure tube rupture and the associated MFMI phenomena. Theoretical modeling of these interrelated complex phenomena is not known a priori and therefore a semi-empirical approach is adopted. Consequently, experimental work is being proposed as part of the thesis work to verify key hypotheses regarding these interfacial fluid instabilities, such as the entrainment fraction into the rapidly expanding bubble.
Interaction of arginine oligomer with model membrane
Yi, Dandan . E-mail: yi_dandan@yahoo.com.cn; Guoming, Li; Gao, Li; Wei, Liang
2007-08-10
Short oligomers of arginine (R8) have been shown to cross readily a variety of biological barriers. A hypothesis was put forward that inverted micelles form in biological membranes in the presence of arginine oligomer peptides, facilitating their transfer through the membranes. In order to define the role of peptide-lipid interaction in this mechanism, we prepared liposomes as the model membrane to study the ability of R8 inducing calcein release from liposomes, the fusion of liposomes, R8 binding to liposomes and membrane disturbing activity of the bound R8. The results show that R8 binding to liposome membrane depends on lipid compositions, negative surface charge density and interior water phase pH values of liposomes. R8 has no activity to induce the leakage of calcein from liposomes or improve liposome fusion. R8 does not permeabilize through the membrane spontaneously. These peptides delivering drugs through membranes may depend on receptors and energy.
Calculating the Annihilation Rate of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Vaidya, Varun
2015-05-01
We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial-state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double-log accuracy in terms of two initial-state partial-wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by finding the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four-fermion operator. The effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. However, for lighter WIMP masses relevant for the thermal relic scenario, leading-log resummation modifies the Sudakov factors only at the 10% level. Furthermore, given comparably sized Sommerfeld factors, the total effect of radiative corrections on the semi-inclusive photon annihilation rate is found to be percent level. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.
Calculating the annihilation rate of weakly interacting massive particles.
Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z; Vaidya, Varun
2015-05-29
We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial-state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double-log accuracy in terms of two initial-state partial-wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by finding the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four-fermion operator. The effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. However, for lighter WIMP masses relevant for the thermal relic scenario, leading-log resummation modifies the Sudakov factors only at the 10% level. Furthermore, given comparably sized Sommerfeld factors, the total effect of radiative corrections on the semi-inclusive photon annihilation rate is found to be percent level. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed. PMID:26066424
Institute for Multiscale Modeling of Biological Interactions
Paulaitis, Michael E; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand; Lenhoff, Abraham
2009-12-26
The Institute for Multiscale Modeling of Biological Interactions (IMMBI) has two primary goals: Foster interdisciplinary collaborations among faculty and their research laboratories that will lead to novel applications of multiscale simulation and modeling methods in the biological sciences and engineering; and Building on the unique biophysical/biology-based engineering foundations of the participating faculty, train scientists and engineers to apply computational methods that collectively span multiple time and length scales of biological organization. The success of IMMBI will be defined by the following: Size and quality of the applicant pool for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellows; Academic performance; Quality of the pre-doctoral and post-doctoral research; Impact of the research broadly and to the DOE (ASCR program) mission; Distinction of the next career step for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellows; and Faculty collaborations that result from IMMBI activities. Specific details about accomplishments during the three years of DOE support for IMMBI have been documented in Annual Progress Reports (April 2005, June 2006, and March 2007) and a Report for a National Academy of Sciences Review (October 2005) that were submitted to DOE on the dates indicated. An overview of these accomplishments is provided.
Interactive Model Visualization for NET-VISA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzma, H. A.; Arora, N. S.
2013-12-01
NET-VISA is a probabilistic system developed for seismic network processing of data measured on the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). NET-VISA is composed of a Generative Model (GM) and an Inference Algorithm (IA). The GM is an explicit mathematical description of the relationships between various factors in seismic network analysis. Some of the relationships inside the GM are deterministic and some are statistical. Statistical relationships are described by probability distributions, the exact parameters of which (such as mean and standard deviation) are found by training NET-VISA using recent data. The IA uses the GM to evaluate the probability of various events and associations, searching for the seismic bulletin which has the highest overall probability and is consistent with a given set of measured arrivals. An Interactive Model Visualization tool (IMV) has been developed which makes 'peeking into' the GM simple and intuitive through a web-based interfaced. For example, it is now possible to access the probability distributions for attributes of events and arrivals such as the detection rate for each station for each of 14 phases. It also clarifies the assumptions and prior knowledge that are incorporated into NET-VISA's event determination. When NET-VISA is retrained, the IMV will be a visual tool for quality control both as a means of testing that the training has been accomplished correctly and that the IMS network has not changed unexpectedly. A preview of the IMV will be shown at this poster presentation. Homepage for the IMV IMV shows current model file and reference image.
Supervisor's Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John; McCaw, William P.
2014-01-01
The Supervisor's Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships (SIMOR) integrates two models addressed in the leadership literature and then highlights the importance of relationships. The Supervisor's Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships combines the modified Hersey and Blanchard model of situational leadership, the…
Experimental modelling of outburst flood - bed interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrivick, J. L.; Xie, Z.; Sleigh, A.; Hubbard, M.
2009-04-01
Outburst floods are a sudden release and advancing wave of water and sediment, with a peak discharge that is often several orders of magnitude greater than perennial flows. Common outburst floods from natural sources include those from glacial and moraine-impounded lakes, freshwater dyke and levee bursts, volcanic debris dams, landslides, avalanches, coastal bay-bars, and those from tree or vegetation dams. Outburst flood hazards are regularly incorporated into risk assessments for urban, coastal and mountainous areas, for example. Outburst flood hazards are primarily due to direct impacts, caused by a frontal surge wave, from debris within a flow body, and from the mass and consistency of the flows. A number of secondary impacts also pose hazards, including widespread deposition of sediment and blocked tributary streams. It is rapid landscape change, which is achieved the mobilization and redistribution of sediment that causes one of the greatest hazards due to outburst floods. The aim of this project is therefore to parameterise hydrodynamic - sedimentary interactions in experimental outburst floods. Specifically, this project applies laboratory flume modelling, which offers a hitherto untapped opportunity for examining complex interactions between water and sediment within outburst floods. The experimental set-up is of a tradition lock-gate design with a straight 4 m long tank. Hydraulics are scaled at 1:20 froude scale and the following controls on frontal wave flow-bed interactions and hence on rapid landscape change are being investigated: 1. Pre-existing mobile sediment effects, fixed bed roughness effects, sediment concentration effects, mobile bed effects. An emphasis is being maintained on examining the downstream temporal and spatial change in physical character of the water / sediment frontal wave. Facilities are state-of-the-art with a fully-automated laser bed-profiler to measure bed elevation after a run, Seatek arrays to measure transient flow
Relationship between X(5) models and the interacting boson model
Barea, Jose; Arias, Jose M.; Garcia-Ramos, Jose Enrique
2010-08-15
The connections between the X(5) models [the original X(5) using an infinite square well, X(5)-{beta}{sup 8}, X(5)-{beta}{sup 6}, X(5)-{beta}{sup 4}, and X(5)-{beta}{sup 2}], based on particular solutions of the geometrical Bohr Hamiltonian with harmonic potential in the {gamma} degree of freedom, and the interacting boson model (IBM) are explored. This work is the natural extension of the work presented in Garcia-Ramos and Arias, Phys. Rev. C 77, 054307 (2008) for the E(5) models. For that purpose, a quite general one- and two-body IBM Hamiltonian is used and a numerical fit to the different X(5) model energies is performed; then the obtained wave functions are used to calculate B(E2) transition rates. It is shown that within the IBM one can reproduce well the results for energies and B(E2) transition rates obtained with all these X(5) models, although the agreement is not so impressive as for the E(5) models. From the fitted IBM parameters the corresponding energy surface can be extracted and, surprisingly, only the X(5) case corresponds in the moderately large N limit to an energy surface very close to the one expected for a critical point, whereas the rest of models are situated a little further away.
The Interaction of Courseware Development and Implementation: Functions and Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mahler, William A.
1976-01-01
A discussion of how the interaction of design and content of curricular materials determine their possible applications. A review of functions and models is presented for interactive curriculum development for computer based instructional systems. (HB)
A User Modeling System for Personalized Interaction and Tailored Retrieval in Interactive IR.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelly, Diane; Belkin, Nicholas J.
2002-01-01
Presents a user modeling system for personalized interaction and tailored retrieval that tracks interactions over time, represents multiple information needs, allows for changes in information needs, acquires and updates the user model automatically, and accounts for contextual factors. Describes three models: general behavioral, personal…
3D Models of Stellar Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.
2014-04-01
Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.
Modeling Interactions of Erythromycin Derivatives with Ribosomes.
Shishkina, A V; Makarova, T M; Tereshchenkov, A G; Makarov, G I; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A
2015-11-01
Using a method of static simulation, a series of erythromycin A analogs was designed with aldehyde functions introduced instead of one of the methyl substituents in the 3'-N-position of the antibiotic that was potentially capable of forming a covalent bond with an amino group of one of the nucleotide residues of the 23S rRNA in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Similar interaction is observed for antibiotics of the tylosin series, which bind tightly to the large ribosomal subunit and demonstrate high antibacterial activity. Binding of novel erythromycin derivatives with the bacterial ribosome was investigated with the method of fluorescence polarization. It was found that the erythromycin analog containing a 1-methyl-3-oxopropyl group in the 3'-N-position demonstrates the best binding. Based on the ability to inhibit protein biosynthesis, it is on the same level as erythromycin, and it is significantly better than desmethyl-erythromycin. Molecular dynamic modeling of complexes of the derivatives with ribosomes was conducted to explain the observed effects. PMID:26615442
Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling.
Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang
2016-06-21
The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508
Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.
Interaction Strength and a Generalized Bak-Sneppen Evolution Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Cai, Xu
2002-10-01
The Bak-Sneppen evolution model is generalized in terms of a new concept and quantity: interaction strength. Based on a quantitative definition, the interaction strength describes the strength of the interaction between the nearest-neighbour individuals in the model. Self-organized criticality is observed for the generalized model with ten different values of interaction strength. The gap equation governing the self-organization is derived. It is also found that the self-organized threshold depends on the value of the interaction strength.
A Dynamic Model of Group Interaction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauer, Connie L.; And Others
A theory of group interaction with a focus on the trajectories of relevant variables as they change over time is developed in this paper. The four major components of the group interaction process (communication, conflict, involvement, and centralization) are presented and conceptually defined, and the nature of their interdependence is discussed.…
String coupling and interactions in type IIB matrix model
Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi
2009-05-15
We investigate the interactions of closed strings in a IIB matrix model. The basic interaction of the closed superstring is realized by the recombination of two intersecting strings. Such interaction is investigated in a IIB matrix model via two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the IR limit. By estimating the probability of the recombination, we identify the string coupling g{sub s} in the IIB matrix model. We confirm that our identification is consistent with matrix string theory.
Cosmic Ray Interaction Models: an Overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostapchenko, Sergey
2016-07-01
I review the state-of-the-art concerning the treatment of high energy cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, discussing in some detail the underlying physical concepts and the possibilities to constrain the latter by current and future measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. The relation of basic characteristics of hadronic interactions tothe properties of nuclear-electromagnetic cascades induced by primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere is addressed.
Interactive Multimedia and Model-based Learning in Biology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buckley, Barbara C.
2000-01-01
Documents a case of model-building in biology through microanalysis of one student's interaction with "Science for Living: The Circulatory System (SFL)", an interactive multimedia resource prototype for research. Describes the student's learning goals, gains, and activities with particular attention to interactions with representations, then…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, James G.; Jorgensen, Sally
1989-01-01
Examines the relationship between instructional technology and cognition and discusses interactions between the learner and instructional media. Models of the learning process are described, including reactive, proactive, and interactive models; examples of each are given; and their implications for instructional design are suggested. (LRW)
Modeling laser beam-rock interaction.
Leong, K. H.
2003-07-23
The optimal use of lasers requires the understanding of the primary parameters pertinent to laser beam-material interactions. Basically, the laser beam is a heat source that can be controlled to deliver a wide range in intensities and power. When interacting with a material, reflection at the surface, and transmission and absorption through the material occur. The material interaction process is governed by the irradiance (power/unit area) of the incident beam and the interaction time resulting in an amount of heat/energy applied to the material per unit area. The laser beam is a flexible heat source where its intensity and interaction with materials can be controlled by varying the power and size of the beam or the interaction time. For any material, a minimum amount of energy has to be absorbed for the material to be ablated by the laser beam, i.e., a solid has to be heated to liquefy and then vaporize. Under certain conditions, the photon energy may be able to break the molecular bonds of the material directly. In general, the energy absorbed is needed to vaporize the material and account for any heat that may be conducted away. Consequently, the interaction is a heat transfer problem. The relevant parameters are the heat flux and total heat input to the material. The corresponding parameters for the laser beam- material interaction are the irradiance of the beam and the interaction time. The product of these two parameters is the energy applied per unit area. A high irradiance beam may be able to ablate a material rapidly without significant heat transfer to surrounding areas. For drilling or cutting materials, a high intensity beam is required for laser ablation with minimal heat lost to the surrounding areas. However, at high beam irradiance (>1 GW cm{sup -2} for Nd:YAG beams), plasma formed from ionization of gases and vapor will partially absorb or diffract the beam. Reduced penetration of the material results. Similarly, in welding using CO2 lasers where
Search for contact interactions in the dielectron channel in p-p collisions at √s=8
Lamichhane, Pramod
2013-01-01
A possible explanation of mass hierarchy, which is not explained by the Standard Model, is that quarks and leptons are composite objects made of more fundamental particles known as preons. The existence of preons will be manifest as a four fermion contact interaction in the annihilation of a quark and anti-quark, in a p-p collision, producing positron-electron pairs. At high mass, such pairs are also produced from off-shell Z and γ bosons. This thesis provides a detailed discussion of the analysis strategy to study these processes using the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The study utilizes data recorded in 2012 at √s = 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb^{-1}. The dielectron mass spectrum above 300 GeV shows no significant deviation from the prediction of the Standard Model. In the framework of the left-left iso-scalar model of eeqq contact interactions, 95\\% CL lower limits on the energy scale parameter are found for destructive (13.1 TeV) and constructive (18.3 TeV) interference between the contact and standard model amplitudes. These limits are the most stringent to date.
A Social Interaction Model of Reading. Technical Report No. 218.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruce, Bertram
A model for the levels of social interaction between author and reader provides a framework for examining the devices through which the author engages the reader. An important aspect of this model is the creation of additional levels of social interaction involving, for example, an "implied author" and an "implied reader." Newly created characters…
Academic Examinations and Anxiety: The Interaction Model Empirically Tested.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Phillips, J. Bryan; Endler, Norman S.
1982-01-01
Tested the person-by-situation interaction model of anxiety. Male (N=28) and female (N=79) university students served as subjects. Results were interpreted as providing support for the multidimensionality of A-Trait and further validation of the interaction model of anxiety. (Author)
Kinetic Modeling of the Moon-Solar Wind Plasma Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatemi, S.; Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Holmstrom, M.; Farrell, W. M.
2016-05-01
We use a three-dimensional self-consistent hybrid model of plasma (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) to study solar wind plasma interaction with the Moon. We have studied lunar wake, interaction with crustal fields, and lunar interior with our model.
Cyberdemocracy and Online Politics: A New Model of Interactivity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferber, Paul; Foltz, Franz; Pugliese, Rudy
2007-01-01
Building on McMillan's two-way model of interactivity, this study presents a three-way model of interactive communication, which is used to assess political Web sites' progress toward the ideals of cyberdemocracy and the fostering of public deliberation. Results of a 3-year study of state legislature Web sites, an analysis of the community…
Gollapinni, Sowjanya
2012-01-01
The standard model fails to explain the variety of observed quark and lepton avors and their masses suggesting that there might exist a more fundamental basis. If quarks and leptons are composite particles made up of more basic constituents, a new physics interaction in the form of a four-fermion contact interaction arises between them. Experimentally the signal is manifest as a deviation from the standard model prediction in the high-mass tail for the invariant mass distribution of the opposite-sign dimuon pairs. The Large Hadron Collider accelerator at the Center for European Nuclear Research is built to explore new physics possibilities from proton-proton collisions occurring at the world's highest center-of-mass energy. This thesis discusses in detail a search strategy for a new physics possibility based on a left-handed current model of contact interactions. Based on 5.3 fb^{-1} of 2011 data as collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector, exclusion lower limits at 95% con dence level are set on the compositeness energy scale , for both destructive and constructive interferences of the new physics with the standard model Drell-Yan process. These limits form the most stringent limits to date and exceed the current published limits signi cantly.
Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Som, S.; Sil, A.
2014-08-01
Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.
Polymer Interaction in a Model Bioblend
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
EBU/PS blends of varying compositions were investigated using TGA, MDSC, and FTIR-PAS methods. The goal of the investigation was that of probing for the presence or lack of intermolecular interactions between the two polymers. The TGA investigation showed at least one blend composition with better...
Developing Interactive Instructional Materials: A Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henderson, Craig; And Others
Many colleges and departments at Tennessee Technological University, as well as most other major universities, are progressing toward more interactive instructional materials. The benefits of implementing instructional technology are numerous and diverse. However, because of increasingly austere budgets, a focused and cost-effective approach to…
Turbulent Chemical Interaction Models in NCC: Comparison
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, Andrew T.; Liu, Nan-Suey
2006-01-01
The performance of a scalar PDF hydrogen-air combustion model in predicting a complex reacting flow is evaluated. In addition the results are compared to those obtained by running the same case with the so-called laminar chemistry model and also a new model based on the concept of mapping partially stirred reactor data onto perfectly stirred reactor data. The results show that the scalar PDF model produces significantly different results from the other two models, and at a significantly higher computational cost.
A new interaction potential for swarming models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrillo, J. A.; Martin, S.; Panferov, V.
2013-10-01
We consider a self-propelled particle system which has been used to describe certain types of collective motion of animals, such as fish schools and bird flocks. Interactions between particles are specified by means of a pairwise potential, repulsive at short ranges and attractive at longer ranges. The exponentially decaying Morse potential is a typical choice, and is known to reproduce certain types of collective motion observed in nature, particularly aligned flocks and rotating mills. We introduce a class of interaction potentials, that we call Quasi-Morse, for which flock and rotating mills states are also observed numerically, however in that case the corresponding macroscopic equations allow for explicit solutions in terms of special functions, with coefficients that can be obtained numerically without solving the particle evolution. We compare the obtained solutions with long-time dynamics of the particle systems and find a close agreement for several types of flock and mill solutions.
Modeling Microbiological Interactions with Hydrothermal Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoehler, Tori
2006-01-01
All organisms require energy. Characterizing and quantifying the biological demand for energy places constraints on the possible interactions of organisms with each other and with the environment. This talk will consider energetic and mass transfer constraints on the ecology of hydrothermal vent microbes. Following a general introduction to the biological energy requirements and their link to environmental conditions, energy constraints will be applied to several vent-relevant case studies.
The GOURD model of human-computer interaction
Goldbogen, G.
1996-12-31
This paper presents a model, the GOURD model, that can be used to measure the goodness of {open_quotes}interactivity{close_quotes} of an interface design and qualifies how to improve the design. The GOURD model describes what happens to the computer and to the human during a human-computer interaction. Since the interaction is generally repeated, the traversal of the model repeatedly is similar to a loop programming structure. Because the model measures interaction over part or all of the application, it can also be used as a classifier of the part or the whole application. But primarily, the model is used as a design guide and a predictor of effectiveness.
Learning probabilistic document template models via interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadullin, Ildus; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan
2013-03-01
Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.
Proton-neutron interacting boson model under random two-body interactions
Yoshida, N.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.
2009-12-15
The low-lying states of sd-boson systems in the presence of random two-body interactions are studied in the proton-neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2). The predominance of spin-zero ground states is confirmed, and a very prominent maximum F-spin dominance in ground states is found. It turns out that the requirement of random interactions with F-spin conservation intensifies the above predominance. Collective motion in the low-lying states is discussed.
MODELING DISPERSANT INTERACTIONS WITH OIL SPILLS
EPA is developing a model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill Model (ERO3S) and associated databases to simulate the impacts of dispersants on oil slicks. Because there are features of oil slicks that align naturally with major concepts of object-oriented programmi...
Close Human Interaction Recognition Using Patch-Aware Models.
Yu Kong; Yun Fu
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing human interactions with close physical contact from videos. Due to ambiguities in feature-to-person assignments and frequent occlusions in close interactions, it is difficult to accurately extract the interacting people. This degrades the recognition performance. We, therefore, propose a hierarchical model, which recognizes close interactions and infers supporting regions for each interacting individual simultaneously. Our model associates a set of hidden variables with spatiotemporal patches and discriminatively infers their states, which indicate the person that the patches belong to. This patch-aware representation explicitly models and accounts for discriminative supporting regions for individuals, and thus overcomes the problem of ambiguities in feature assignments. Moreover, we incorporate the prior for the patches to deal with frequent occlusions during interactions. Using the discriminative supporting regions, our model builds cleaner features for individual action recognition and interaction recognition. Extensive experiments are performed on the BIT-Interaction data set and the UT-Interaction data set set #1 and set #2, and validate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26561435
Role of interactions and damage in a cohesive fracture model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gran, Josesph; Rundle, John; Turcotte, Donald; Klein, William
2012-02-01
We study the influences of local and long range interactions in a numerical model of tensile fracture. Our model simulates fracture events on a 2D square lattice plane with a Metropolis algorithm. We chose a Hamiltonian that is written as a function of the crack separation (offset field) and includes contributions from an external field, interactions, as well as a cohesive energy across the crack surfaces. Included in our study is both a ferromagnetic-type (attractive) and antiferromagnetic-type (repulsive) interactions. We test both of these interactions individually as well as a hybrid interaction in which over a short range the interaction is antiferromagnetic and in the long range the interaction becomes ferromagnetic. This dual interaction approximates a Lennard-Jones potential. We also propose a characterization of damage and investigate the increase of damage in time for fractures occurring by a static-load as well as a time-dependent load. Damaged sites do not interact with neighboring sites and cannot hold any load. We compare our damage model to previous studies of fiber-bundle models.
Effective Interactions from No Core Shell Model
Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Navratil, P.; Vary, J. P.
2008-11-11
We construct the many-body effective Hamiltonian for pf-shell by carrying out 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}. NCSM calculations at the 2-body cluster level. We demonstrate how the effective Hamiltonian derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials for the 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} NCSM space should be modified to properly account for the many-body correlations produced by truncating to the major pf-shell. We obtain two-body effective interactions for the pf-shell by using direct projection and use them to reproduce the results of large scale NCSM for other light Ca isotopes.
Modelling refractive index changes due to molecular interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varma, Manoj
2016-03-01
There are a large number of sensing techniques which use optical changes to monitor interactions between molecules. In the absence of fluorophores or other labels, the basic signal transduction mechanism relies on refractive index changes arising from the interactions of the molecules involved. A quantitative model incorporating molecular transport, reaction kinetics and optical mixing is presented which reveals important insights concerning the optimal detection of molecular interactions optically. Although conceptually simple, a comprehensive model such as this has not been reported anywhere. Specifically, we investigate the pros and cons of detecting molecular interactions in free solution relative to detecting molecular interactions on surfaces using surface bound receptor molecules such as antibodies. The model reveals that the refractive index change produced in surface based sensors is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that from interactions in free solution. On the other hand, the model also reveals that it is indeed possible to distinguish specific molecular interactions from non-specific ones based on free-solution bulk refractometry without any washing step necessary in surface based sensors. However, the refractive index change for free solution interactions predicted by the model is smaller than 10-7 RIU, even for large proteins such as IgG in sufficiently high concentrations. This value is smaller than the typical 10-6 RIU detection limit of most state of the art optical sensing techniques therefore requiring techniques with substantially higher index sensitivity such as Back Scattering Interferometry.
Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo
2013-03-01
The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.
Strong coupling theory for interacting lattice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanescu, Tudor D.; Kotliar, Gabriel
2004-11-01
We develop a strong coupling approach for a general lattice problem. We argue that this strong coupling perspective represents the natural framework for a generalization of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The main result of this analysis is twofold: (1) It provides the tools for a unified treatment of any nonlocal contribution to the Hamiltonian. Within our scheme, nonlocal terms such as hopping terms, spin-spin interactions, or nonlocal Coulomb interactions are treated on equal footing. (2) By performing a detailed strong-coupling analysis of a generalized lattice problem, we establish the basis for possible clean and systematic extensions beyond DMFT. To this end, we study the problem using three different perspectives. First, we develop a generalized expansion around the atomic limit in terms of the coupling constants for the nonlocal contributions to the Hamiltonian. By analyzing the diagrammatics associated with this expansion, we establish the equations for a generalized dynamical mean-field theory. Second, we formulate the theory in terms of a generalized strong coupling version of the Baym-Kadanoff functional. Third, following Pairault, Sénéchal, and Tremblay [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5389 (1998)], we present our scheme in the language of a perturbation theory for canonical fermionic and bosonic fields and we establish the interpretation of various strong coupling quantities within a standard perturbative picture.
Approaches to modelling hydrology and ecosystem interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silberstein, Richard P.
2014-05-01
As the pressures of industry, agriculture and mining on groundwater resources increase there is a burgeoning un-met need to be able to capture these multiple, direct and indirect stresses in a formal framework that will enable better assessment of impact scenarios. While there are many catchment hydrological models and there are some models that represent ecological states and change (e.g. FLAMES, Liedloff and Cook, 2007), these have not been linked in any deterministic or substantive way. Without such coupled eco-hydrological models quantitative assessments of impacts from water use intensification on water dependent ecosystems under changing climate are difficult, if not impossible. The concept would include facility for direct and indirect water related stresses that may develop around mining and well operations, climate stresses, such as rainfall and temperature, biological stresses, such as diseases and invasive species, and competition such as encroachment from other competing land uses. Indirect water impacts could be, for example, a change in groundwater conditions has an impact on stream flow regime, and hence aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews previous work examining models combining ecology and hydrology with a view to developing a conceptual framework linking a biophysically defensable model that combines ecosystem function with hydrology. The objective is to develop a model capable of representing the cumulative impact of multiple stresses on water resources and associated ecosystem function.
RF models for plasma-surface interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Thomas; Smithe, David; Lin, Ming-Chieh; Kruger, Scott; Stoltz, Peter
2013-09-01
Computational models for DC and oscillatory (RF-driven) sheath potentials, arising at metal or dielectric-coated surfaces in contact with plasma, are developed within the VSim code and applied in parameter regimes characteristic of fusion plasma experiments and plasma processing scenarios. Results from initial studies quantifying the effects of various dielectric wall coating materials and thicknesses on these sheath potentials, as well as on the ensuing flux of plasma particles to the wall, are presented. As well, the developed models are used to model plasma-facing ICRF antenna structures in the ITER device; we present initial assessments of the efficacy of dielectric-coated antenna surfaces in reducing sputtering-induced high-Z impurity contamination of the fusion reaction. Funded by U.S. DoE via a Phase I SBIR grant, award DE-SC0009501.
Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ornek, Funda
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…
Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: The Interactive Activation Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elman, Jeffrey L.; McClelland, James L.
Research efforts to model speech perception in terms of a processing system in which knowledge and processing are distributed over large numbers of highly interactive--but computationally primative--elements are described in this report. After discussing the properties of speech that demand a parallel interactive processing system, the report…
Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping
2010-01-01
In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…
Self-consistent Models of Strong Interaction with Chiral Symmetry
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Nambu, Y.; Pascual, P.
1963-04-01
Some simple models of (renormalizable) meson-nucleon interaction are examined in which the nucleon mass is entirely due to interaction and the chiral ( gamma {sub 5}) symmetry is "broken'' to become a hidden symmetry. It is found that such a scheme is possible provided that a vector meson is introduced as an elementary field. (auth)
AIC, BIC, Bayesian evidence against the interacting dark energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szydłowski, Marek; Krawiec, Adam; Kurek, Aleksandra; Kamionka, Michał
2015-01-01
Recent astronomical observations have indicated that the Universe is in a phase of accelerated expansion. While there are many cosmological models which try to explain this phenomenon, we focus on the interacting CDM model where an interaction between the dark energy and dark matter sectors takes place. This model is compared to its simpler alternative—the CDM model. To choose between these models the likelihood ratio test was applied as well as the model comparison methods (employing Occam's principle): the Akaike information criterion (AIC), the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and the Bayesian evidence. Using the current astronomical data: type Ia supernova (Union2.1), , baryon acoustic oscillation, the Alcock-Paczynski test, and the cosmic microwave background data, we evaluated both models. The analyses based on the AIC indicated that there is less support for the interacting CDM model when compared to the CDM model, while those based on the BIC indicated that there is strong evidence against it in favor of the CDM model. Given the weak or almost non-existing support for the interacting CDM model and bearing in mind Occam's razor we are inclined to reject this model.
One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fan, Yale
2011-01-01
We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…
Mathematical Model Of Nerve/Muscle Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hannaford, Blake
1990-01-01
Phasic Excitation/Activation (PEA) mathematical model simulates short-term nonlinear dynamics of activation and control of muscle by nerve. Includes electronic and mechanical elements. Is homeomorphic at level of its three major building blocks, which represent motoneuron, dynamics of activation of muscle, and mechanics of muscle.
MODELING CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN ANAEROBIC BIOFILM SYSTEMS
Rigorous steady-state models of acetate- and methanol-utilizing methanogenic biofilms are developed taking into account the mass transfer of neutral and ionic species, pH changes within the biofilm, pH-dependent Monod kinetics, chemical equilibrium,, electronueutrality, gas produ...
Models: Electric and Magnetic Interactions, Teacher's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karplus, Robert
The unit presented in this teacher's guide is one of two developed for the sixth and final year in the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) curriculum. The concept of a scientific model is introduced in this unit with activities directed toward increasing student understanding of electric and magnetic phenomena through concrete experience…
Interacting-boson model. Physical basis and applications
Jolos, R.V.; Lemberg, I.K.; Mikhailov, V.M.
1985-03-01
The basis of the interacting-boson model and of the various modifications of it is reviewed together with its application to the description of the energy-level spectra and probabilities of electromagnetic transitions in even--even nuclei.
An Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al-Ibrahim, Abdul Rahman H.
1982-01-01
The Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development calls for curriculum reform and innovation to be cybernetic so that all aspects of curriculum planning get adequate attention. (CJ)
A Study of Fan Stage/Casing Interaction Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente
2003-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the performance of several existing and new, blade-case interactions modeling capabilities that are compatible with the large system simulations used to capture structural response during blade-out events. Three contact models are examined for simulating the interactions between a rotor bladed disk and a case: a radial and linear gap element and a new element based on a hydrodynamic formulation. The first two models are currently available in commercial finite element codes such as NASTRAN and have been showed to perform adequately for simulating rotor-case interactions. The hydrodynamic model, although not readily available in commercial codes, may prove to be better able to characterize rotor-case interactions.
Animal models of gene-nutrient interactions.
Reed, Danielle R
2008-12-01
Food intake of humans is governed by the food's nutritional value and pleasing taste, but also by other factors such as food cost and availability, cultural imperatives, and social status. The biological determinants of human food intake are not easily parsed from these other factors, making them hard to study against the whirligig aspects of human life in a modern age. The study of animals provides a useful alternative. Humans have a history of studying animal food intake, for agricultural reasons (e.g., pigs and cows), and for personal reasons (e.g., dogs and cats), and these practical concerns have been joined with the appreciation that other models can teach us the principles of behavior, genetics, and nutrition. Thus there is a steady use of the traditional animal models in this type of research, as well as growth in the use of other systems such as worms and flies. Rats and mice occupy a special niche as animal models for two reasons; first, they share with humans a love of the same types of food, and second, they are the target of a number of well-developed genetic tools. The available genetic tools that make mice a popular model include a well-annotated genome (Mouse Build 37), profiles of RNA expression from many tissues, a diverse panel of inbred strains, and the ability to manipulate genes in the whole animal, including removing a gene only in specific tissues (e.g., Cre-lox system). Mice have been harnessed to find genotypes that contribute to sweet-liking, and other studies are underway to understand how genetic variation might at least partially explain other puzzles of human appetites. Animal models provide a way to study the genetic determinants of food selection with experimental rigor and therefore complement human genetics studies. PMID:19037208
Application of large eddy interaction model to a mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, S. N. B.
1989-01-01
The large eddy interaction model (LEIM) is a statistical model of turbulence based on the interaction of selected eddies with the mean flow and all of the eddies in a turbulent shear flow. It can be utilized as the starting point for obtaining physical structures in the flow. The possible application of the LEIM to a mixing layer formed between two parallel, incompressible flows with a small temperature difference is developed by invoking a detailed similarity between the spectra of velocity and temperature.
Modeling of metal interaction geometries for protein-ligand docking.
Seebeck, Birte; Reulecke, Ingo; Kämper, Andreas; Rarey, Matthias
2008-05-15
The accurate modeling of metal coordination geometries plays an important role for structure-based drug design applied to metalloenzymes. For the development of a new metal interaction model, we perform a statistical analysis of metal interaction geometries that are relevant to protein-ligand complexes. A total of 43,061 metal sites of the Protein Data Bank (PDB), containing amongst others magnesium, calcium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, cadmium, cobalt, and nickel, were evaluated according to their metal coordination geometry. Based on statistical analysis, we derived a model for the automatic calculation and definition of metal interaction geometries for the purpose of molecular docking analyses. It includes the identification of the metal-coordinating ligands, the calculation of the coordination geometry and the superposition of ideal polyhedra to identify the optimal positions for free coordination sites. The new interaction model was integrated in the docking software FlexX and evaluated on a data set of 103 metalloprotein-ligand complexes, which were extracted from the PDB. In a first step, the quality of the automatic calculation of the metal coordination geometry was analyzed. In 74% of the cases, the correct prediction of the coordination geometry could be determined on the basis of the protein structure alone. Secondly, the new metal interaction model was tested in terms of predicting protein-ligand complexes. In the majority of test cases, the new interaction model resulted in an improved docking accuracy of the top ranking placements. PMID:18041759
Model for interacting instabilities and texture dynamics of patterns.
Das, A; Kumar, K; Ganesh, N
2001-07-01
A simple model to study interacting instabilities and textures of resulting patterns for thermal convection is presented. The model, consisting of a twelve-mode dynamical system derived for periodic square lattice, describes convective patterns in the form of stripes and patchwork quilt. The interaction between stationary zigzag stripes and standing patchwork quilt pattern leads to spatiotemporal patterns of twisted patchwork quilt. Textures of these patterns, which depend strongly on Prandtl number, are investigated numerically using the model. The model also shows an interesting possibility of a multicritical point, where stability boundaries of four different structures meet. PMID:11461385
Improved simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in catchment models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
teklesadik, aklilu; van Griensven, Ann; Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke
2016-04-01
Groundwater storage can have a significant contribution to stream flow, therefore a thorough understanding of the groundwater surface water interaction is of prime important when doing catchment modeling. The aim of this study is to improve the simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in a catchment model of the upper Zenne River basin located in Belgium. To achieve this objective we used the "Groundwater-Surface water Flow" (GSFLOW) modeling software, which is an integration of the surface water modeling tool "Precipitation and Runoff Modeling system" (PRMS) and the groundwater modeling tool MODFLOW. For this case study, the PRMS model and MODFLOW model were built and calibrated independently. The PRMS upper Zenne River basin model is divided into 84 hydrological response units (HRUs) and is calibrated with flow data at the Tubize gauging station. The spatial discretization of the MODFLOW upper Zenne groundwater flow model consists of 100m grids. Natural groundwater divides and the Brussels-Charleroi canal are used as boundary conditions for the MODFLOW model. The model is calibrated using piezometric data. The GSFLOW results were evaluated against a SWAT model application and field observations of groundwater-surface water interactions along a cross section of the Zenne River and riparian zone. The field observations confirm that there is no exchange of groundwater beyond the Brussel-Charleroi canal and that the interaction at the river bed is relatively low. The results show that there is a significant difference in the groundwater simulations when using GSFLOW versus SWAT. This indicates that the groundwater component representation in the SWAT model could be improved and that a more realistic implementation of the interactions between groundwater and surface water is advisable. This could be achieved by integrating SWAT and MODFLOW.
Modeling the interaction of ultrasound with pores
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Parthasarathi, Sanjai
1991-01-01
Factors that affect ultrasonic velocity sensing of density during consolidation of metal powders are examined. A comparison is made between experimental results obtained during the final stage of densification and the predictions of models that assume either a spherical or a spheroidal pore shape. It is found that for measurements made at low frequencies during the final stage of densification, relative density (pore fraction) and pore shape are the two most important factors determining the ultrasonic velocity, the effect of pore size is negligible.
Modelling the interaction between bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts.
Beke, Gabor; Stano, Matej; Klucar, Lubos
2016-09-01
A mathematical model simulating the interaction between bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts has been developed. It is based on other known models describing this type of interaction, enhanced with an ability to model the system influenced by other environmental factor such as pH and temperature. This could be used for numerous estimations of growth rate, when the pH and/or the temperature of the environment are not constant. The change of pH or the temperature greatly affects the specific growth rate which has an effect on the final results of the simulation. Since the model aims on practical application and easy accessibility, an interactive website has been developed where users can run simulations with their own parameters and easily calculate and visualise the result of simulation. The web simulation is accessible at the URL http://www.phisite.org/model. PMID:27393678
Interaction field modeling of mini-UAV swarm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, William W.; Ro, Kapseong; Szu, Harold
2006-05-01
A behavior-based, simple interaction model inspired by molecular interaction field depicted by the Lennard-Jones function is examined for the averaged interaction in swarming. The modeled kinematic equation of motion contains only one variable, instead of a multiple state variable dependence a more complete dynamics entails. The model assumes a spatial distribution of the potential associate with the swarm. The model has been applied to examine the formation of swarm and the results are reported. The modeling can be reflected in an equilibrium theory for the operation of a swarm of mini-UAVs pioneered by Szu, where every member serves the mission while exploiting other's loss, resulting in a zero-sum game among the team members.
Particle-Turbulence Interaction Model for Aluminum Combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Neeraj; Calhoon, William; Tomes, Jeremy
2011-06-01
Particle-turbulence interactions will have a substantial impact on the performance of thermobaric explosives that rely on the particle combustion for secondary heat release. Modeling these interactions from a fundamental perspective is very difficult and intractable for large-scale problems of practical interest. Alternatively, these interactions may be modeled from a macroscopic perspective that seeks to account for the probability distribution function (PDF) of variables within the modeled laminar burning rate for the particulates. Such a formulation would account for the first order effect of turbulent fluctuations on the burning rate within a computationally affordable model. This paper will describe the development of such a model for aluminum particle combustion in both the diffusion and kinetic burning regimes. This formulation is based on an assumed PDF method that may be parameterized into a database that may be deployed within a flow solver. As a result, the formulation is computational efficient and affordable for large-scale simulations.
New generation of exploration tools: interactive modeling software and microcomputers
Krajewski, S.A.
1986-08-01
Software packages offering interactive modeling techniques are now available for use on microcomputer hardware systems. These packages are reasonably priced for both company and independent explorationists; they do not require users to have high levels of computer literacy; they are capable of rapidly completing complex ranges of sophisticated geologic and geophysical modeling tasks; and they can produce presentation-quality output for comparison with real-world data. For example, interactive packages are available for mapping, log analysis, seismic modeling, reservoir studies, and financial projects as well as for applying a variety of statistical and geostatistical techniques to analysis of exploration data. More importantly, these packages enable explorationists to directly apply their geologic expertise when developing and fine-tuning models for identifying new prospects and for extending producing fields. As a result of these features, microcomputers and interactive modeling software are becoming common tools in many exploration offices. Gravity and magnetics software programs illustrate some of the capabilities of such exploration tools.
Predicting genetic interactions from Boolean models of biological networks.
Calzone, Laurence; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei
2015-08-01
Genetic interaction can be defined as a deviation of the phenotypic quantitative effect of a double gene mutation from the effect predicted from single mutations using a simple (e.g., multiplicative or linear additive) statistical model. Experimentally characterized genetic interaction networks in model organisms provide important insights into relationships between different biological functions. We describe a computational methodology allowing us to systematically and quantitatively characterize a Boolean mathematical model of a biological network in terms of genetic interactions between all loss of function and gain of function mutations with respect to all model phenotypes or outputs. We use the probabilistic framework defined in MaBoSS software, based on continuous time Markov chains and stochastic simulations. In addition, we suggest several computational tools for studying the distribution of double mutants in the space of model phenotype probabilities. We demonstrate this methodology on three published models for each of which we derive the genetic interaction networks and analyze their properties. We classify the obtained interactions according to their class of epistasis, dependence on the chosen initial conditions and the phenotype. The use of this methodology for validating mathematical models from experimental data and designing new experiments is discussed. PMID:25958956
Towards a Revised Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Surface Interaction Model
D.P. Stotler
2005-06-09
The components of the neutral- and plasma-surface interaction model used in the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2 are reviewed. The idealized surfaces and processes handled by that model are inadequate for accurately simulating neutral transport behavior in present day and future fusion devices. We identify some of the physical processes missing from the model, such as mixed materials and implanted hydrogen, and make some suggestions for improving the model.
Modeling Human Dynamics of Face-to-Face Interaction Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo
2013-04-01
Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents that perform a random walk in a two-dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.
A random interacting network model for complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Bedartha; Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Ambika, G.; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-12-01
We propose a RAndom Interacting Network (RAIN) model to study the interactions between a pair of complex networks. The model involves two major steps: (i) the selection of a pair of nodes, one from each network, based on intra-network node-based characteristics, and (ii) the placement of a link between selected nodes based on the similarity of their relative importance in their respective networks. Node selection is based on a selection fitness function and node linkage is based on a linkage probability defined on the linkage scores of nodes. The model allows us to relate within-network characteristics to between-network structure. We apply the model to the interaction between the USA and Schengen airline transportation networks (ATNs). Our results indicate that two mechanisms: degree-based preferential node selection and degree-assortative link placement are necessary to replicate the observed inter-network degree distributions as well as the observed inter-network assortativity. The RAIN model offers the possibility to test multiple hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying network interactions. It can also incorporate complex interaction topologies. Furthermore, the framework of the RAIN model is general and can be potentially adapted to various real-world complex systems.
A random interacting network model for complex networks
Goswami, Bedartha; Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Ambika, G.; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
We propose a RAndom Interacting Network (RAIN) model to study the interactions between a pair of complex networks. The model involves two major steps: (i) the selection of a pair of nodes, one from each network, based on intra-network node-based characteristics, and (ii) the placement of a link between selected nodes based on the similarity of their relative importance in their respective networks. Node selection is based on a selection fitness function and node linkage is based on a linkage probability defined on the linkage scores of nodes. The model allows us to relate within-network characteristics to between-network structure. We apply the model to the interaction between the USA and Schengen airline transportation networks (ATNs). Our results indicate that two mechanisms: degree-based preferential node selection and degree-assortative link placement are necessary to replicate the observed inter-network degree distributions as well as the observed inter-network assortativity. The RAIN model offers the possibility to test multiple hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying network interactions. It can also incorporate complex interaction topologies. Furthermore, the framework of the RAIN model is general and can be potentially adapted to various real-world complex systems. PMID:26657032
A random interacting network model for complex networks.
Goswami, Bedartha; Shekatkar, Snehal M; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Ambika, G; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
We propose a RAndom Interacting Network (RAIN) model to study the interactions between a pair of complex networks. The model involves two major steps: (i) the selection of a pair of nodes, one from each network, based on intra-network node-based characteristics, and (ii) the placement of a link between selected nodes based on the similarity of their relative importance in their respective networks. Node selection is based on a selection fitness function and node linkage is based on a linkage probability defined on the linkage scores of nodes. The model allows us to relate within-network characteristics to between-network structure. We apply the model to the interaction between the USA and Schengen airline transportation networks (ATNs). Our results indicate that two mechanisms: degree-based preferential node selection and degree-assortative link placement are necessary to replicate the observed inter-network degree distributions as well as the observed inter-network assortativity. The RAIN model offers the possibility to test multiple hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying network interactions. It can also incorporate complex interaction topologies. Furthermore, the framework of the RAIN model is general and can be potentially adapted to various real-world complex systems. PMID:26657032
Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holincheck, Anthony J.; Wallin, John F.; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M.; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C.; Parrish, Michael
2016-06-01
The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of citizen scientists, we sample 105 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the simulation parameters generated by the project. They are now publicly available in electronic format at http://data.galaxyzoo.org/mergers.html. Though our best-fitting model parameters are not an exact match to previously published models, our method for determining uncertainty measurements will aid future comparisons between models. The dynamical clocks from our models agree with previous results of the time since the onset of star formation from starburst models in interacting systems and suggest that tidally induced star formation is triggered very soon after closest approach.
Evaluating Differential Effects Using Regression Interactions and Regression Mixture Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung
2015-01-01
Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This article focuses on understanding regression mixture models, which are relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their…
Toward a Model of Teacher-Learner Interaction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snow, Richard E.
A model of informational interaction between teachers and learners has been developed and the first facet for its taxonomy derived. The model focuses on the internal cognitive events of teaching and learning in human beings generally, rather than on the specific roles of instructor and student. Teacher-learner communication is described in terms…
Modeling Local Interactions during the Motion of Cyanobacteria
Galante, Amanda; Wisen, Susanne; Bhaya, Devaki; Levy, Doron
2012-01-01
Synechocystis sp., a common unicellular freshwater cyanobacterium, has been used as a model organism to study phototaxis, an ability to move in the direction of a light source. This microorganism displays a number of additional characteristics such as delayed motion, surface dependence, and a quasi-random motion, where cells move in a seemingly disordered fashion instead of in the direction of the light source, a global force on the system. These unexplained motions are thought to be modulated by local interactions between cells such as intercellular communication. In this paper, we consider only local interactions of these phototactic cells in order to mathematically model this quasi-random motion. We analyze an experimental data set to illustrate the presence of quasi-random motion and then derive a stochastic dynamic particle system modeling interacting phototactic cells. The simulations of our model are consistent with experimentally observed phototactic motion. PMID:22713858
Modeling symbiosis by interactions through species carrying capacities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.
2012-08-01
We introduce a mathematical model of symbiosis between different species by taking into account the influence of each species on the carrying capacities of the others. The modeled entities can pertain to biological and ecological societies or to social, economic and financial societies. Our model includes three basic types: symbiosis with direct mutual interactions, symbiosis with asymmetric interactions, and symbiosis without direct interactions. In all cases, we provide a complete classification of all admissible dynamical regimes. The proposed model of symbiosis turned out to be very rich, as it exhibits four qualitatively different regimes: convergence to stationary states, unbounded exponential growth, finite-time singularity, and finite-time death or extinction of species.
Modelling of dynamic soil-structure-ice interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karna, Tuomo
A computer model was developed for evaluating the dynamic ice-structure interaction. The effects of soil structure interaction are included in the model. The program can be used in the analysis of events, where an offshore structure is subjected to the action of drifting ice sheets or massive ice features like an iceberg. The new approach is based on a generalized modeling of the ice crushing process which takes into account the dependence of ice load on relative displacement and relative velocity between the ice edge and the structure. A substructure technique, where separate equations are set up for each of the interacting medium, is considered. A zonal approach is applied while modeling the ice failure processes. The effects of nonsimultaneous crushing are considered.
Primary care access improvement: an empowerment-interaction model.
Ledlow, G R; Bradshaw, D M; Shockley, C
2000-05-01
Improving community primary care access is a difficult and dynamic undertaking. Realizing a need to improve appointment availability, a systematic approach based on measurement, empowerment, and interaction was developed. The model fostered exchange of information and problem solving between interdependent staff sections within a managed care system. Measuring appointments demanded but not available proved to be a credible customer-focused approach to benchmark against set goals. Changing the organizational culture to become more sensitive to changing beneficiary needs was a paramount consideration. Dependent-group t tests were performed to compare the pretreatment and posttreatment effect. The empowerment-interaction model significantly improved the availability of routine and wellness-type appointments. The availability of urgent appointments improved but not significantly; a better prospective model needs to be developed. In aggregate, appointments demanded but not available (empowerment-interaction model) were more than 10% before the treatment and less than 3% with the treatment. PMID:10826388
Monitoring and modeling human interactions with ecosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milesi, Cristina
With rapidly increasing consumption rates and global population, there is a growing interest in understanding how to balance human activities with the other components of the Earth system. Humans alter ecosystem functioning with land cover changes, greenhouse gas emissions and overexploitation of natural resources. On the other side, climate and its inherent interannual variability drive global Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the base of energy for all trophic levels, shaping humans' distribution on the land surface and their sensitivity to natural and accelerated patterns of variation in ecosystem processes. In this thesis, I analyzed anthropogenic influences on ecosystems and ecosystems impacts on humans through a multi-scale approach. Anthropogenic influences were analyzed with a special focus on urban ecosystems, the living environment of nearly half of the global population and almost 90% of the population in the industrialized countries. A poorly quantified aspect of urban ecosystems is the biogeochemistry of urban vegetation, intensively managed through fertilization and irrigation. In chapter 1, adapting the ecosystem model Biome-BGC, I simulated the growth of turf grasses across the United States, and estimated their potential impact on the continental water and carbon budget. Using a remote sensing-based approach, I also developed a methodology to estimate the impact of land cover changes due to urbanization on the regional photosynthetic capacity (chapter 2), finding that low-density urbanization can retain high levels of net primary productivity, although at the expense of inefficient sprawl. One of the feedbacks of urbanization is the urban heat island effect, which I analyzed in conjunction with a remote sensing based estimate of fractional impervious surface area, showing how this is related to increases in land surface temperatures, independently from geographic location and population density (chapter 3). Finally, in chapter 4, I described the
A Pairwise Preferential Interaction Model for Understanding Peptide Aggregation
Kang, Myungshim
2010-01-01
A pairwise preferential interaction model (PPIM), based on Kirkwood–Buff integrals, is developed to quantify and characterize the interactions between some of the functional groups commonly observed in peptides. The existing experimental data are analyzed to determine the preferential interaction (PI) parameters for different amino acid and small peptide systems in aqueous solutions. The PIs between the different functional groups present in the peptides are then isolated and quantified by assuming simple pairwise additivity. The PPIM approach provides consistent estimates for the pair interactions between the same functional groups obtained from different solute molecules. Furthermore, these interactions appear to be chemically intuitive. It is argued that this type of approach can provide valuable information concerning specific functional group correlations which could give rise to peptide aggregation. PMID:20694045
Meson exchange current (MEC) models in neutrino interaction generators
Katori, Teppei
2015-05-15
Understanding of the so-called 2 particle-2 hole (2p-2h) effect is an urgent program in neutrino interaction physics for current and future oscillation experiments. Such processes are believed to be responsible for the event excesses observed by recent neutrino experiments. The 2p-2h effect is dominated by the meson exchange current (MEC), and is accompanied by a 2-nucleon emission from the primary vertex, instead of a single nucleon emission from the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interaction. Current and future high resolution experiments can potentially nail down this effect. For this reason, there are world wide efforts to model and implement this process in neutrino interaction simulations. In these proceedings, I would like to describe how this channel is modeled in neutrino interaction generators.
Geodemographics and spatial interaction: an integrated model for higher education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singleton, A. D.; Wilson, A. G.; O'Brien, O.
2012-04-01
Spatial interaction modelling and geodemographic analysis have each developed as quite separate research traditions. In this paper, we present an integrated model that harnesses the power of spatial interaction modelling to behavioural insights derived from a geodemographic classification. This approach is applied to the modelling of participation in higher education (HE). A novel feature of the paper is the integration of national schools, colleges and HE data; a national model is then calibrated and tested against actual recorded flows of students into HE. The model is implemented within a Java framework and is presented as a first step towards providing a quantitative tool that can be used by HE stakeholders to explore policies relating to such topics as widening access to under-represented groups.
Realistic models of pion-exchange three-nucleon interactions
Pieper, Steven C.; Pandharipande, V. R.; Wiringa, R. B.; Carlson, J.
2001-07-01
We present realistic models of pion-exchange three-nucleon interactions obtained by fitting the energies of all the 17 bound or narrow states of 3{<=}A{<=}8 nucleons, calculated with less than 2% error using the Green's function Monte Carlo method. The models contain two-pion-exchange terms due to {pi}N scattering in S and P waves, three-pion-exchange terms due to ring diagrams with one {Delta} in the intermediate states, and a phenomenological repulsive term to take into account relativistic effects, the suppression of the two-pion-exchange two-nucleon interaction by the third nucleon, and other effects. The models have five parameters, consisting of the strength of the four interactions and the short-range cutoff. The 17 fitted energies are insufficient to determine all of them uniquely. We consider five models, each having three adjustable parameters and assumed values for the other two. They reproduce the observed energies with an rms error <1% when used together with the Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon interaction. In one of the models the {pi}N S-wave scattering interaction is set to zero; in all others it is assumed to have the strength suggested by chiral effective-field theory. One of the models also assumes that the {pi}N P-wave scattering interaction has the strength suggested by effective-field theories, and the cutoff is adjusted to fit the data. In all other models the cutoff is taken to be the same as in the v{sub 18} interaction. The effect of relativistic boost correction to the two-nucleon interaction on the strength of the repulsive three-nucleon interaction is estimated. Many calculated properties of A{<=}8 nuclei, including radii, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole moments, isobaric analog energy differences, etc., are tabulated. Results obtained with only Argonne v{sub 8}' and v{sub 18} interactions are also reported. In addition, we present results for seven- and eight-body neutron drops in external potential wells.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Shaojing; Konold, Timothy R.; Fan, Xitao
2011-01-01
Interest in testing interaction terms within the latent variable modeling framework has been on the rise in recent years. However, little is known about the influence of nonnormality and model misspecification on such models that involve latent variable interactions. The authors used Mattson's data generation method to control for latent variable…
A Model for a Quantum Level System-Apparatus Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, Paul
2016-01-01
A quantum system is investigated which consists of a two-state spin which interacts with a model apparatus consisting of a large number of bosons. The Hamiltonian which describes the interaction of system and apparatus is defined and the evolution of an initial state of the two by means of an evolution operator over time is calculated. Some insights into the nature of such measurement processes can be made.
Giant dipole resonances in the interacting boson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholtz, F. G.; Hahne, F. J. W.
1983-03-01
Giant dipole resonances, represented by p bosons, are introduced into the interacting boson model. For nuclei with SU(3) symmetry the dipole is split by the interactions into two main parts, with any further fragmentation being generally small. The Raman scattering to side bands tends to be very small. This agrees with recent measurements on Er. Supported by the National Accelerator Centre, CSIR, Faure, South Africa.
Multinucleon Ejection Model for Two Body Current Neutrino Interactions
Sobczyk, Jan T.; /Fermilab
2012-06-01
A model is proposed to describe nucleons ejected from a nucleus as a result of two-body-current neutrino interactions. The model can be easily implemented in Monte Carlo neutrino event generators. Various possibilities to measure the two-body-current contribution are discussed. The model can help identify genuine charge current quasielastic events and allow for a better determination of the systematic error on neutrino energy reconstruction in neutrino oscillation experiments.
Dynamic model of target charging by short laser pulse interactions.
Poyé, A; Dubois, J-L; Lubrano-Lavaderci, F; D'Humières, E; Bardon, M; Hulin, S; Bailly-Grandvaux, M; Ribolzi, J; Raffestin, D; Santos, J J; Nicolaï, Ph; Tikhonchuk, V
2015-10-01
A model providing an accurate estimate of the charge accumulation on the surface of a metallic target irradiated by a high-intensity laser pulse of fs-ps duration is proposed. The model is confirmed by detailed comparisons with specially designed experiments. Such a model is useful for understanding the electromagnetic pulse emission and the quasistatic magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction experiments. PMID:26565356
Dynamic model of target charging by short laser pulse interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poyé, A.; Dubois, J.-L.; Lubrano-Lavaderci, F.; D'Humières, E.; Bardon, M.; Hulin, S.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ribolzi, J.; Raffestin, D.; Santos, J. J.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2015-10-01
A model providing an accurate estimate of the charge accumulation on the surface of a metallic target irradiated by a high-intensity laser pulse of fs-ps duration is proposed. The model is confirmed by detailed comparisons with specially designed experiments. Such a model is useful for understanding the electromagnetic pulse emission and the quasistatic magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction experiments.
Towards an interactive electromechanical model of the heart
Talbot, Hugo; Marchesseau, Stéphanie; Duriez, Christian; Sermesant, Maxime; Cotin, Stéphane; Delingette, Hervé
2013-01-01
In this work, we develop an interactive framework for rehearsal of and training in cardiac catheter ablation, and for planning cardiac resynchronization therapy. To this end, an interactive and real-time electrophysiology model of the heart is developed to fit patient-specific data. The proposed interactive framework relies on two main contributions. First, an efficient implementation of cardiac electrophysiology is proposed, using the latest graphics processing unit computing techniques. Second, a mechanical simulation is then coupled to the electrophysiological signals to produce realistic motion of the heart. We demonstrate that pathological mechanical and electrophysiological behaviour can be simulated. PMID:24427533
A model of nonautonomous dynamics driven by repeated harmonic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zagrebnov, V. A.; Tamura, H.
2016-06-01
We consider an exactly solvable model of nonautonomous W*-dynamics driven by repeated harmonic interaction. The dynamics is Hamiltonian and quasifree. Because of inelastic interaction in the large-time limit, it leads to relaxation of initial states to steady states. We derive the explicit entropy production rate accompanying this relaxation. We also study the evolution of different subsystems to elucidate their eventual correlations and convergence to equilibriums. In conclusion, we prove that the W*-dynamics manifests a universal stationary behavior in a short-time interaction limit.
The growth of structure in interacting dark energy models
Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Maartens, Roy; Schaefer, Bjoern Malte E-mail: roy.maartens@port.ac.uk
2009-07-01
If dark energy interacts with dark matter, there is a change in the background evolution of the universe, since the dark matter density no longer evolves as a{sup −3}. In addition, the non-gravitational interaction affects the growth of structure. In principle, these changes allow us to detect and constrain an interaction in the dark sector. Here we investigate the growth factor and the weak lensing signal for a new class of interacting dark energy models. In these models, the interaction generalises the simple cases where one dark fluid decays into the other. In order to calculate the effect on structure formation, we perform a careful analysis of the perturbed interaction and its effect on peculiar velocities. Assuming a normalization to today's values of dark matter density and overdensity, the signal of the interaction is an enhancement (suppression) of both the growth factor and the lensing power, when the energy transfer in the background is from dark matter to dark energy (dark energy to dark matter)
Estimation of exposure to toxic releases using spatial interaction modeling
2011-01-01
Background The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data are frequently used to estimate a community's exposure to pollution. However, this estimation process often uses underdeveloped geographic theory. Spatial interaction modeling provides a more realistic approach to this estimation process. This paper uses four sets of data: lung cancer age-adjusted mortality rates from the years 1990 through 2006 inclusive from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, TRI releases of carcinogens from 1987 to 1996, covariates associated with lung cancer, and the EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model. Results The impact of the volume of carcinogenic TRI releases on each county's lung cancer mortality rates was calculated using six spatial interaction functions (containment, buffer, power decay, exponential decay, quadratic decay, and RSEI estimates) and evaluated with four multivariate regression methods (linear, generalized linear, spatial lag, and spatial error). Akaike Information Criterion values and P values of spatial interaction terms were computed. The impacts calculated from the interaction models were also mapped. Buffer and quadratic interaction functions had the lowest AIC values (22298 and 22525 respectively), although the gains from including the spatial interaction terms were diminished with spatial error and spatial lag regression. Conclusions The use of different methods for estimating the spatial risk posed by pollution from TRI sites can give different results about the impact of those sites on health outcomes. The most reliable estimates did not always come from the most complex methods. PMID:21418644
Analyzing models for interactions of aptamers to proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Dilson; Missailidis, Sotiris
2014-10-01
We have devised an experimental and theoretical model, based on fluorescent spectroscopy and molecular modelling, to describe the interaction of aptamer (selected against various protein targets) with proteins and albumins in particular. This model, described in this work, has allowed us to decipher the nature of the interactions between aptamers and albumins, the binding site of the aptamers to albumins, the potential role of primer binding to the albumin and expand to the ability of albumin to carry aptamers in the bloodstream, providing data to better understand the level of free aptamer for target binding. We are presenting the study of a variety of aptamers, including those against the MUC1 tumour marker, heparanase and human kallikrein 6 with bovine and human serum albumins and the effect these interactions may have on the bioavailability of the aptamer for target-specific binding and therapeutic activity.
Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji
2007-12-01
Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.
Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clif
2014-01-01
The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are t to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.
Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clifford A.
2014-01-01
The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are fit to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.
An Opinion Interactive Model Based on Individual Persuasiveness
Zhou, Xin; Chen, Bin; Liu, Liang; Ma, Liang; Qiu, Xiaogang
2015-01-01
In order to study the formation process of group opinion in real life, we put forward a new opinion interactive model based on Deffuant model and its improved models in this paper because current models of opinion dynamics lack considering individual persuasiveness. Our model has following advantages: firstly persuasiveness is added to individual's attributes reflecting the importance of persuasiveness, which means that all the individuals are different from others; secondly probability is introduced in the course of interaction which simulates the uncertainty of interaction. In Monte Carlo simulation experiments, sensitivity analysis including the influence of randomness, initial persuasiveness distribution, and number of individuals is studied at first; what comes next is that the range of common opinion based on the initial persuasiveness distribution can be predicted. Simulation experiment results show that when the initial values of agents are fixed, no matter how many times independently replicated experiments, the common opinion will converge at a certain point; however the number of iterations will not always be the same; the range of common opinion can be predicted when initial distribution of opinion and persuasiveness are given. As a result, this model can reflect and interpret some phenomena of opinion interaction in realistic society. PMID:26508911
A pairwise interaction model for multivariate functional and longitudinal data
Chiou, Jeng-Min; Müller, Hans-Georg
2016-01-01
Functional data vectors consisting of samples of multivariate data where each component is a random function are encountered increasingly often but have not yet been comprehensively investigated. We introduce a simple pairwise interaction model that leads to an interpretable and straightforward decomposition of multivariate functional data and of their variation into component-specific processes and pairwise interaction processes. The latter quantify the degree of pairwise interactions between the components of the functional data vectors, while the component-specific processes reflect the functional variation of a particular functional vector component that cannot be explained by the other components. Thus the proposed model provides an extension of the usual notion of a covariance or correlation matrix for multivariate vector data to functional data vectors and generates an interpretable functional interaction map. The decomposition provided by the model can also serve as a basis for subsequent analysis, such as study of the network structure of functional data vectors. The decomposition of the total variance into componentwise and interaction contributions can be quantified by an \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$R^2$\\end{document}-like decomposition. We provide consistency results for the proposed methods and illustrate the model by applying it to sparsely sampled longitudinal data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, examining the relationships between body mass index and blood fats. PMID:27279664
Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in interacting dark energy models
Olivares, German; Pavon, Diego; Atrio-Barandela, Fernando
2008-05-15
Models with dark energy decaying into dark matter have been proposed in cosmology to solve the coincidence problem. We study the effect of such coupling on the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. The interaction changes the rate of evolution of the metric potentials and the growth rate of matter density perturbations and modifies the integrated Sachs-Wolfe component of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies, enhancing the effect. Cross correlation of galaxy catalogs with cosmic microwave background maps provides a model-independent test to constrain the interaction. We particularize our analysis for a specific interacting model and show that galaxy catalogs with median redshifts z{sub m}=0.1-0.9 can rule out models with an interaction parameter strength of c{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.1 better than 99.95% confidence level. Values of c{sup 2}{<=}0.01 are compatible with the data and may account for the possible discrepancy between the fraction of dark energy derived from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe 3 yr data and the fraction obtained from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Measuring the fraction of dark energy by these two methods could provide evidence of an interaction.
Interacting boson models for N˜Z nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Isacker, P.
2011-05-01
This contribution discusses the use of boson models in the description of N˜Z nuclei. A brief review is given of earlier attempts, initiated by Elliott and co-workers, to extend the interacting boson model of Arima and Iachello by the inclusion of neutron-proton s and d bosons with T = 1 (IBM-3) as well as T = 0 (IBM-4). It is argued that for the N˜Z nuclei that are currently studied experimentally, a different approach is needed which invokes aligned neutron-proton pairs with angular momentum J = 2j and isospin T = 0. This claim is supported by an analysis of shell-model wave functions in terms of pair states. Results of this alternative version of the interacting boson model are compared with shell-model calculations in the 1g9/2 shell.
Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grames, J.; Prskawetz, A.; Grass, D.; Blöschl, G.
2015-06-01
Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy and water. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre et al., 2013; Viglione et al., 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. In order to build this first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events, we transform an existing descriptive stochastic model into an optimal deterministic model. The intermediate step is to formulate and simulate a descriptive deterministic model. We develop a periodic water function to approximate the former discrete stochastic time series of rainfall events. Due to the non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function the long-term path of consumption and investment will be periodic.
Model of mobile agents for sexual interactions networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, M. C.; Lind, P. G.; Herrmann, H. J.
2006-02-01
We present a novel model to simulate real social networks of complex interactions, based in a system of colliding particles (agents). The network is build by keeping track of the collisions and evolves in time with correlations which emerge due to the mobility of the agents. Therefore, statistical features are a consequence only of local collisions among its individual agents. Agent dynamics is realized by an event-driven algorithm of collisions where energy is gained as opposed to physical systems which have dissipation. The model reproduces empirical data from networks of sexual interactions, not previously obtained with other approaches.
Spatial-temporal modeling of interactive image interpretation.
Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Li; Bischof, Walter F
2009-01-01
We consider the problem of spatial-temporal modeling of interactive image interpretation. The interactive process is composed of a sequential prediction step and a change detection step. Combining the two steps leads to a semi-automatic predictor that can be applied to a time-series, yields good predictions, and requests new human input when a change point is detected. The model can effectively capture changes of image features and gradually adapts to them. We propose an online framework that naturally addresses these problems in a unified manner. Our empirical study with a synthetic data set and a road tracking dataset demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:19814907
Constraining interacting dark energy models with latest cosmological observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Dong-Mei; Wang, Sai
2016-08-01
The local measurement of H0 is in tension with the prediction of ΛCDM model based on the Planck data. This tension may imply that dark energy is strengthened in the late-time Universe. We employ the latest cosmological observations on CMB, BAO, LSS, SNe, H(z) and H0 to constrain several interacting dark energy models. Our results show no significant indications for the interaction between dark energy and dark matter. The H0 tension can be moderately alleviated, but not totally released.
Strong zero modes and eigenstate phase transitions in the XYZ/interacting Majorana chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fendley, Paul
2016-07-01
I explicitly construct a strong zero mode in the XYZ chain or, equivalently, Majorana wires coupled via a four-fermion interaction. The strong zero mode is an operator that pairs states in different symmetry sectors, resulting in identical spectra up to exponentially small finite-size corrections. Such pairing occurs in the Ising/Majorana fermion chain and possibly in strongly disordered many-body localized phases. The proof here shows that the strong zero mode occurs in a clean interacting system, and that it possesses some remarkable structure—despite being a rather elaborate operator, it squares to the identity. Eigenstate phase transitions separate regions with different strong zero modes.
Interactive Reliability Model for Whisker-toughened Ceramics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palko, Joseph L.
1993-01-01
Wider use of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) will require the development of advanced structural analysis technologies. The use of an interactive model to predict the time-independent reliability of a component subjected to multiaxial loads is discussed. The deterministic, three-parameter Willam-Warnke failure criterion serves as the theoretical basis for the reliability model. The strength parameters defining the model are assumed to be random variables, thereby transforming the deterministic failure criterion into a probabilistic criterion. The ability of the model to account for multiaxial stress states with the same unified theory is an improvement over existing models. The new model was coupled with a public-domain finite element program through an integrated design program. This allows a design engineer to predict the probability of failure of a component. A simple structural problem is analyzed using the new model, and the results are compared to existing models.
A simple probabilistic model of multibody interactions in proteins.
Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe; Hamelryck, Thomas
2013-08-01
Protein structure prediction methods typically use statistical potentials, which rely on statistics derived from a database of know protein structures. In the vast majority of cases, these potentials involve pairwise distances or contacts between amino acids or atoms. Although some potentials beyond pairwise interactions have been described, the formulation of a general multibody potential is seen as intractable due to the perceived limited amount of data. In this article, we show that it is possible to formulate a probabilistic model of higher order interactions in proteins, without arbitrarily limiting the number of contacts. The success of this approach is based on replacing a naive table-based approach with a simple hierarchical model involving suitable probability distributions and conditional independence assumptions. The model captures the joint probability distribution of an amino acid and its neighbors, local structure and solvent exposure. We show that this model can be used to approximate the conditional probability distribution of an amino acid sequence given a structure using a pseudo-likelihood approach. We verify the model by decoy recognition and site-specific amino acid predictions. Our coarse-grained model is compared to state-of-art methods that use full atomic detail. This article illustrates how the use of simple probabilistic models can lead to new opportunities in the treatment of nonlocal interactions in knowledge-based protein structure prediction and design. PMID:23468247
A viscous-inviscid interaction model of jet entrainment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilmoth, R. G.; Dash, S. M.
1981-01-01
A viscous-inviscid interaction model for predicting jet entrainment effects on axisymmetric, nozzle afterbodies at subsonic speeds is presented. The model is based on a displacement thickness correction to the inviscid jet boundary that accounts for mixing-induced streamline deflections in the inviscid region. The displacement correction is shown to be related to the local mass entrainment rate and, for thin mixing layers, the model is shown to be analogous to displacement models used in conventional boundary-layer interaction theory. A method is presented for computing the entrainment rate by an overlaid mixing layer model that accounts for the nonsimilar behavior and pressure gradients occurring in the near field region. An iterative scheme for coupling the model to analyses for the external inviscid flow, the external boundary layer, and the inviscid jet exhaust is also given. Results are presented that illustrate the qualitative behavior of the entrainment interaction under various flow conditions and that demonstrate the validity of the model by comparisons with experiment.
Stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library-Version 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacate, Matthew O.; Evenson, William E.
2016-02-01
The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) provides a set of routines to assist in the development and application of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The library provides routines written in the C programming language that (1) read a text description of a model for fluctuating hyperfine fields, (2) set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the system depends, and (3) find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix so that theoretical spectra of experimental techniques that measure hyperfine interactions can be calculated. The optimized vector and matrix operations of the BLAS and LAPACK libraries are utilized. The original version of SHIML constructed and solved Blume matrices for methods that measure hyperfine interactions of nuclear probes in a single spin state. Version 2 provides additional support for methods that measure interactions on two different spin states such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. Example codes are provided to illustrate the use of SHIML to (1) generate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the special case of polycrystalline samples when anisotropy terms of higher order than A22 can be neglected and (2) generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples for pure dipole or pure quadrupole transitions.
Current noise of the interacting resonant level model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, T. J.; Kennes, D. M.; Meden, V.
2016-02-01
We study the zero-frequency current noise of the interacting resonant level model for arbitrary bias voltages using a functional renormalization group approach. For this we extend the existing nonequilibrium scheme by deriving and solving flow equations for the current-vertex functions. On-resonance artificial divergences of the latter found in lowest-order perturbation theory in the two-particle interaction are consistently removed. Away from resonance they are shifted to higher orders. This allows us to gain a comprehensive picture of the current noise in the scaling limit. At high bias voltages, the current noise exhibits a universal power-law decay, whose exponent is, to leading order in the interaction, identical to that of the current. The effective charge on resonance is analyzed in detail, employing properties of the vertex correction. We find that it is only modified to second or higher order in the two-particle interaction.
Modeling Active Mechanosensing in Cell-Matrix Interactions.
Chen, Bin; Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian
2015-01-01
Cells actively sense the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, such as its rigidity, morphology, and deformation. The cell-matrix interaction influences a range of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation, among others. This article aims to review some of the recent progress that has been made in modeling mechanosensing in cell-matrix interactions at different length scales. The issues discussed include specific interactions between proteins, the structure and mechanosensitivity of focal adhesions, the cluster effects of the specific binding, the structure and behavior of stress fibers, cells' sensing of substrate stiffness, and cell reorientation on cyclically stretched substrates. The review concludes by looking toward future opportunities in the field and at the challenges to understanding active cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26098510
Interactive modelling with stakeholders in two cases in flood management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leskens, Johannes; Brugnach, Marcela
2013-04-01
New policies on flood management called Multi-Level Safety (MLS), demand for an integral and collaborative approach. The goal of MLS is to minimize flood risks by a coherent package of protection measures, crisis management and flood resilience measures. To achieve this, various stakeholders, such as water boards, municipalities and provinces, have to collaborate in composing these measures. Besides the many advances this integral and collaborative approach gives, the decision-making environment becomes also more complex. Participants have to consider more criteria than they used to do and have to take a wide network of participants into account, all with specific perspectives, cultures and preferences. In response, sophisticated models are developed to support decision-makers in grasping this complexity. These models provide predictions of flood events and offer the opportunity to test the effectiveness of various measures under different criteria. Recent model advances in computation speed and model flexibility allow stakeholders to directly interact with a hydrological hydraulic model during meetings. Besides a better understanding of the decision content, these interactive models are supposed to support the incorporation of stakeholder knowledge in modelling and to support mutual understanding of different perspectives of stakeholders To explore the support of interactive modelling in integral and collaborate policies, such as MLS, we tested a prototype of an interactive flood model (3Di) with respect to a conventional model (Sobek) in two cases. The two cases included the designing of flood protection measures in Amsterdam and a flood event exercise in Delft. These case studies yielded two main results. First, we observed that in the exploration phase of a decision-making process, stakeholders participated actively in interactive modelling sessions. This increased the technical understanding of complex problems and the insight in the effectiveness of various
Coarse-Grained Models for Protein-Cell Membrane Interactions
Bradley, Ryan; Radhakrishnan, Ravi
2015-01-01
The physiological properties of biological soft matter are the product of collective interactions, which span many time and length scales. Recent computational modeling efforts have helped illuminate experiments that characterize the ways in which proteins modulate membrane physics. Linking these models across time and length scales in a multiscale model explains how atomistic information propagates to larger scales. This paper reviews continuum modeling and coarse-grained molecular dynamics methods, which connect atomistic simulations and single-molecule experiments with the observed microscopic or mesoscale properties of soft-matter systems essential to our understanding of cells, particularly those involved in sculpting and remodeling cell membranes. PMID:26613047
Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation
Wu Dianliang; Zhu Hongmin
2010-05-21
Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.
An exotic k-essence interpretation of interactive cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forte, Mónica
2016-01-01
We define a generalization of scalar fields with non-canonical kinetic term which we call exotic k-essence or, briefly, exotik. These fields are generated by the global description of cosmological models with two interactive fluids in the dark sector and under certain conditions they correspond to usual k-essences. The formalism is applied to the cases of constant potential and of inverse square potential and also we develop the purely exotik version for the modified holographic Ricci type (MHR) of dark energy, where the equations of state are not constant. With the kinetic function F=1+mx and the inverse square potential we recover, through the interaction term, the identification between k-essences and quintessences of an exponential potential, already known for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I geometries. Worked examples are shown that include the self-interacting MHR and also models with crossing of the phantom divide line (PDL).
Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin
2010-05-01
Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.
One-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turban, Loïc
2016-09-01
We study the spin-1/2 Ising chain with multispin interactions K involving the product of m successive spins, for general values of m. Using a change of spin variables the zero-field partition function of a finite chain is obtained for free and periodic boundary conditions and we calculate the two-spin correlation function. When placed in an external field H the system is shown to be self-dual. Using another change of spin variables the one-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions in a field is mapped onto a zero-field rectangular Ising model with first-neighbour interactions K and H. The 2D system, with size m × N/m, has the topology of a cylinder with helical BC. In the thermodynamic limit N/m\\to ∞ , m\\to ∞ , a 2D critical singularity develops on the self-duality line, \\sinh 2K\\sinh 2H=1.
Making Transporter Models for Drug-Drug Interaction Prediction Mobile.
Ekins, Sean; Clark, Alex M; Wright, Stephen H
2015-10-01
The past decade has seen increased numbers of studies publishing ligand-based computational models for drug transporters. Although they generally use small experimental data sets, these models can provide insights into structure-activity relationships for the transporter. In addition, such models have helped to identify new compounds as substrates or inhibitors of transporters of interest. We recently proposed that many transporters are promiscuous and may require profiling of new chemical entities against multiple substrates for a specific transporter. Furthermore, it should be noted that virtually all of the published ligand-based transporter models are only accessible to those involved in creating them and, consequently, are rarely shared effectively. One way to surmount this is to make models shareable or more accessible. The development of mobile apps that can access such models is highlighted here. These apps can be used to predict ligand interactions with transporters using Bayesian algorithms. We used recently published transporter data sets (MATE1, MATE2K, OCT2, OCTN2, ASBT, and NTCP) to build preliminary models in a commercial tool and in open software that can deliver the model in a mobile app. In addition, several transporter data sets extracted from the ChEMBL database were used to illustrate how such public data and models can be shared. Predicting drug-drug interactions for various transporters using computational models is potentially within reach of anyone with an iPhone or iPad. Such tools could help prioritize which substrates should be used for in vivo drug-drug interaction testing and enable open sharing of models. PMID:26199424
An Information Search Model of Evaluative Concerns in Intergroup Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vorauer, Jacquie D.
2006-01-01
In an information search model, evaluative concerns during intergroup interaction are conceptualized as a joint function of uncertainty regarding and importance attached to out-group members' views of oneself. High uncertainty generally fosters evaluative concerns during intergroup exchanges. Importance depends on whether out-group members'…
Imaging Models of Valuation During Social Interaction in Humans
Kishida, Kenneth T.; Montague, P. Read
2012-01-01
The role of dopamine neurons in value-guided behavior has been described in computationally explicit terms. These developments have motivated new model-based probes of reward processing in healthy humans, and in recent years these same models have also been used to design and understand neural responses during simple social exchange. These latter applications have opened up the possibility of identifying new endophenotypes characteristic of biological substrates underlying psychiatric disease. In this report, we review model-based approaches to functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy individuals and the application of these paradigms to psychiatric disorders. We show early results from the application of model-based human interaction at three disparate levels: 1) interaction with a single human, 2) interaction within small groups, and 3) interaction with signals generated by large groups. In each case, we show how reward-prediction circuitry is engaged by abstract elements of each paradigm with blood oxygen level– dependent imaging as a read-out; and, in the last case (i.e., signals generated by large groups) we report on direct electrochemical dopamine measurements during decision making in humans. Lastly, we discuss how computational approaches can be used to objectively assess and quantify elements of complex and hidden social decision-making processes. PMID:22507699
Moment Testing for Interaction Terms in Structural Equation Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mooijaart, Ab; Satorra, Albert
2012-01-01
Starting with Kenny and Judd ("Psychol. Bull." 96:201-210, 1984) several methods have been introduced for analyzing models with interaction terms. In all these methods more information from the data than just means and covariances is required. In this paper we also use more than just first- and second-order moments; however, we are aiming to…
Bilingual Parents' Modeling of Pragmatic Language Use in Multiparty Interactions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.
2011-01-01
Parental input represents an important source of language socialization. Particularly in bilingual contexts, parents may model pragmatic language use and metalinguistic strategies to highlight language differences. The present study examines multiparty interactions involving 28 bilingual English- and Marathi-speaking parent-child pairs in the…
Modeling seasonal interactions in the population dynamics of migratory birds
Runge, M.C.; Marra, P.P.
2005-01-01
Understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds requires understanding the relevant biological events that occur during breeding, migratory, and overwintering periods. The few available population models for passerine birds focus on breeding-season events, disregard or oversimplify events during nonbreeding periods, and ignore interactions that occur between periods of the annual cycle. Identifying and explicitly incorporating seasonal interactions into population models for migratory birds could provide important insights about when population limitation actually occurs in the annual cycle. We present a population model for the annual cycle of a migratory bird, based on the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) but more generally applicable, that examines the importance of seasonal interactions by incorporating: (1) density dependence during the breeding and winter seasons, (2) a carry-over effect of winter habitat on breeding-season productivity, and (3) the effects of behavioral dominance on seasonal and habitat specific demographic rates. First, we show that habitat availability on both the wintering and breeding grounds can strongly affect equilibrium population size and sex ratio. Second, sex ratio dynamics, as mediated by behavioral dominance, can affect all other aspects of population dynamics. Third, carry-over effects can be strong, especially when winter events are limiting. These results suggest that understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds may require more consideration of the seasonal interactions induced by carry-over effects and density dependence in multiple seasons. This model provides a framework in which to explore more fully these seasonal dynamics and a context for estimation of life history parameters.
Modeling attacker-defender interactions in information networks.
Collins, Michael Joseph
2010-09-01
The simplest conceptual model of cybersecurity implicitly views attackers and defenders as acting in isolation from one another: an attacker seeks to penetrate or disrupt a system that has been protected to a given level, while a defender attempts to thwart particular attacks. Such a model also views all non-malicious parties as having the same goal of preventing all attacks. But in fact, attackers and defenders are interacting parts of the same system, and different defenders have their own individual interests: defenders may be willing to accept some risk of successful attack if the cost of defense is too high. We have used game theory to develop models of how non-cooperative but non-malicious players in a network interact when there is a substantial cost associated with effective defensive measures. Although game theory has been applied in this area before, we have introduced some novel aspects of player behavior in our work, including: (1) A model of how players attempt to avoid the costs of defense and force others to assume these costs; (2) A model of how players interact when the cost of defending one node can be shared by other nodes; and (3) A model of the incentives for a defender to choose less expensive, but less effective, defensive actions.
Interactive graphical model building using telepresence and virtual reality
Cooke, C.; Stansfield, S.
1993-10-01
This paper presents a prototype system developed at Sandia National Laboratories to create and verify computer-generated graphical models of remote physical environments. The goal of the system is to create an interface between an operator and a computer vision system so that graphical models can be created interactively. Virtual reality and telepresence are used to allow interaction between the operator, computer, and remote environment. A stereo view of the remote environment is produced by two CCD cameras. The cameras are mounted on a three degree-of-freedom platform which is slaved to a mechanically-tracked, stereoscopic viewing device. This gives the operator a sense of immersion in the physical environment. The stereo video is enhanced by overlaying the graphical model onto it. Overlay of the graphical model onto the stereo video allows visual verification of graphical models. Creation of a graphical model is accomplished by allowing the operator to assist the computer in modeling. The operator controls a 3-D cursor to mark objects to be modeled. The computer then automatically extracts positional and geometric information about the object and creates the graphical model.
The effect of model uncertainty on cooperation in sensorimotor interactions
Grau-Moya, J.; Hez, E.; Pezzulo, G.; Braun, D. A.
2013-01-01
Decision-makers have been shown to rely on probabilistic models for perception and action. However, these models can be incorrect or partially wrong in which case the decision-maker has to cope with model uncertainty. Model uncertainty has recently also been shown to be an important determinant of sensorimotor behaviour in humans that can lead to risk-sensitive deviations from Bayes optimal behaviour towards worst-case or best-case outcomes. Here, we investigate the effect of model uncertainty on cooperation in sensorimotor interactions similar to the stag-hunt game, where players develop models about the other player and decide between a pay-off-dominant cooperative solution and a risk-dominant, non-cooperative solution. In simulations, we show that players who allow for optimistic deviations from their opponent model are much more likely to converge to cooperative outcomes. We also implemented this agent model in a virtual reality environment, and let human subjects play against a virtual player. In this game, subjects' pay-offs were experienced as forces opposing their movements. During the experiment, we manipulated the risk sensitivity of the computer player and observed human responses. We found not only that humans adaptively changed their level of cooperation depending on the risk sensitivity of the computer player but also that their initial play exhibited characteristic risk-sensitive biases. Our results suggest that model uncertainty is an important determinant of cooperation in two-player sensorimotor interactions. PMID:23945266
The Soliton-Soliton Interaction in the Chiral Dilaton Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantovani-Sarti, Valentina; Park, Byung-Yoon; Vento, Vicente
2013-10-01
We study the interaction between two B = 1 states in the Chiral Dilaton Model where baryons are described as nontopological solitons arising from the interaction of chiral mesons and quarks. By using the hedgehog solution for B = 1 states we construct, via a product ansatz, three possible B = 2 configurations to analyse the role of the relative orientation of the hedgehog quills in the dynamics of the soliton-soliton interaction and investigate the behavior of these solutions in the range of long/intermediate distance. One of the solutions is quite binding due to the dynamics of the π and σ fields at intermediate distance and should be used for nuclear matter studies. Since the product ansatz break down as the two solitons get close, we explore the short range distance regime with a model that describes the interaction via a six-quark bag ansatz. We calculate the interaction energy as a function of the inter-soliton distance and show that for small separations the six quarks bag, assuming a hedgehog structure, provides a stable bound state that at large separations connects with a special configuration coming from the product ansatz.
Incorporating groundwater-surface water interaction into river management models.
Valerio, Allison; Rajaram, Harihar; Zagona, Edith
2010-01-01
Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flows in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Although a number of groundwater-surface water models exist, they are seldom integrated with river operation/management models. A link between the object-oriented river and reservoir operations model, RiverWare, and the groundwater model, MODFLOW, was developed to incorporate groundwater-surface water interaction processes, such as river seepage/gains, riparian evapotranspiration, and irrigation return flows, into a rule-based water allocations model. An explicit approach is used in which the two models run in tandem, exchanging data once in each computational time step. Because the MODFLOW grid is typically at a finer resolution than RiverWare objects, the linked model employs spatial interpolation and summation for compatible communication of exchanged variables. The performance of the linked model is illustrated through two applications in the Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico where overappropriation impacts endangered species habitats. In one application, the linked model results are compared with historical data; the other illustrates use of the linked model for determining management strategies needed to attain an in-stream flow target. The flows predicted by the linked model at gauge locations are reasonably accurate except during a few very low flow periods when discrepancies may be attributable to stream gaging uncertainties or inaccurate documentation of diversions. The linked model accounted for complex diversions, releases, groundwater pumpage, irrigation return flows, and seepage between the groundwater system and canals/drains to achieve a schedule of releases that satisfied the in-stream target flow. PMID:20412319
Topological interactions in the Higgsless model at the LHC
Perelstein, Maxim; Qi Yonghui
2010-07-01
Topological quantum interactions, namely, Chern-Simons terms and global Wess-Zumino terms, arise naturally in theories with extra dimensions of space compactified on orbifolds. If the extra dimensions become manifest at the TeV scale, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could observe signatures of topological interactions. Decays of Kaluza-Klein excitations of neutral electroweak gauge bosons into pairs of neutral standard model gauge bosons, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0} and Z{sup 0{gamma}}, would provide a clean signature, since such decays do not occur at tree level. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for discovering such decays at the LHC, in the context of the Higgsless model of electroweak symmetry breaking. We identify the form of the relevant topological interactions, and estimate their strength. We find that in the minimal version of the model, the signal may be observed with about 100 fb{sup -1} of data at the LHC using the Drell-Yan production process of the Kaluza-Klein gauge bosons. In addition, it is likely that the ultraviolet completion of the model would contain additional massive fermions, which can significantly enhance the signal. With two additional fermion multiplets, observation of the topological decay modes at the 3-sigma level would be possible with about 100 fb{sup -1} of data using the highly model-independent vector-boson fusion production channel.
An educational interactive numerical model of the Chesapeake Bay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouch, Jessica R.; Shen, Yuzhong; Austin, Jay A.; Dinniman, Michael S.
2008-03-01
Scientists use sophisticated numerical models to study ocean circulation and other physical systems, but the complex nature of such simulation software generally make them inaccessible to non-expert users. In principle, however, numerical models represent an ideal teaching tool, allowing users to model the response of a complex system to changing conditions. We have designed an interactive simulation program that allows a casual user to control the forcing conditions applied to a numerical ocean circulation model using a graphical user interface, and to observe the results in real-time. This program is implemented using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) applied to the Chesapeake Bay. Portions of ROMS were modified to facilitate user interaction, and the user interface and visualization capabilities represent new software development. The result is an interactive simulation of the Chesapeake Bay environment that allows a user to control wind speed and direction along with the rate of flow from the rivers that feed the bay. The simulation provides a variety of visualizations of the response of the system, including water height, velocity, and salinity across horizontal and vertical planes.
Evaluating differential effects using regression interactions and regression mixture models
Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung
2015-01-01
Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This paper focuses on understanding regression mixture models, a relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their formulation, and their assumptions are compared using Monte Carlo simulations and real data analysis. The capabilities of regression mixture models are described and specific issues to be addressed when conducting regression mixtures are proposed. The paper aims to clarify the role that regression mixtures can take in the estimation of differential effects and increase awareness of the benefits and potential pitfalls of this approach. Regression mixture models are shown to be a potentially effective exploratory method for finding differential effects when these effects can be defined by a small number of classes of respondents who share a typical relationship between a predictor and an outcome. It is also shown that the comparison between regression mixture models and interactions becomes substantially more complex as the number of classes increases. It is argued that regression interactions are well suited for direct tests of specific hypotheses about differential effects and regression mixtures provide a useful approach for exploring effect heterogeneity given adequate samples and study design. PMID:26556903
Head Motion Modeling for Human Behavior Analysis in Dyadic Interaction
Xiao, Bo; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Baucom, Brian; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a computational study of head motion in human interaction, notably of its role in conveying interlocutors’ behavioral characteristics. Head motion is physically complex and carries rich information; current modeling approaches based on visual signals, however, are still limited in their ability to adequately capture these important properties. Guided by the methodology of kinesics, we propose a data driven approach to identify typical head motion patterns. The approach follows the steps of first segmenting motion events, then parametrically representing the motion by linear predictive features, and finally generalizing the motion types using Gaussian mixture models. The proposed approach is experimentally validated using video recordings of communication sessions from real couples involved in a couples therapy study. In particular we use the head motion model to classify binarized expert judgments of the interactants’ specific behavioral characteristics where entrainment in head motion is hypothesized to play a role: Acceptance, Blame, Positive, and Negative behavior. We achieve accuracies in the range of 60% to 70% for the various experimental settings and conditions. In addition, we describe a measure of motion similarity between the interaction partners based on the proposed model. We show that the relative change of head motion similarity during the interaction significantly correlates with the expert judgments of the interactants’ behavioral characteristics. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed head motion model, and underscore the promise of analyzing human behavioral characteristics through signal processing methods. PMID:26557047
Traumatization and chronic pain: a further model of interaction
Egloff, Niklaus; Hirschi, Anna; von Känel, Roland
2013-01-01
Up to 80% of patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder are suffering from “unexplained” chronic pain. Theories about the links between traumatization and chronic pain have become the subject of increased interest over the last several years. We will give a short summary about the existing interaction models that emphasize particularly psychological and behavioral aspects of this interaction. After a synopsis of the most important psychoneurobiological mechanisms of pain in the context of traumatization, we introduce the hypermnesia–hyperarousal model, which focuses on two psychoneurobiological aspects of the physiology of learning. This hypothesis provides an answer to the hitherto open question about the origin of pain persistence and pain sensitization following a traumatic event and also provides a straightforward explanatory model for educational purposes. PMID:24231792
Traumatization and chronic pain: a further model of interaction.
Egloff, Niklaus; Hirschi, Anna; von Känel, Roland
2013-01-01
Up to 80% of patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder are suffering from "unexplained" chronic pain. Theories about the links between traumatization and chronic pain have become the subject of increased interest over the last several years. We will give a short summary about the existing interaction models that emphasize particularly psychological and behavioral aspects of this interaction. After a synopsis of the most important psychoneurobiological mechanisms of pain in the context of traumatization, we introduce the hypermnesia-hyperarousal model, which focuses on two psychoneurobiological aspects of the physiology of learning. This hypothesis provides an answer to the hitherto open question about the origin of pain persistence and pain sensitization following a traumatic event and also provides a straightforward explanatory model for educational purposes. PMID:24231792
Interaction of sulpiride and serum albumin: Modeling from spectrofluorimetric data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Silva, Dilson
2015-12-01
We have applied the fluorescence quenching modeling to study the process of interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine (BSA). Albumin is more abundant protein in blood and it emits fluorescence when excited by 260-295 nm. Sulpiride is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of many psychiatric disorders. As sulpiride is fluorescent, we developed a mathematical model to analyzing the interaction of two fluorescent substances. This model was able to separate the albumin fluorescence from the quencher fluorescence. Results have shown that sulpiride quenches the fluorescence of both albumins by a static process, due to the complex formation drugalbumin. The association constants calculated for sulpiride-HSA was 2.20 (± 0.08) × 104 M-1 at 37° C, and 5.46 (± 0.20) × 104 M-1, 25 ° C, and the primary binding site to sulpiride in the albumin is located closer to the subdomain IB.
Using Agent Based Modeling (ABM) to Develop Cultural Interaction Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drucker, Nick; Jones, Phillip N.
2012-01-01
Today, most cultural training is based on or built around "cultural engagements" or discrete interactions between the individual learner and one or more cultural "others". Often, success in the engagement is the end or the objective. In reality, these interactions usually involve secondary and tertiary effects with potentially wide ranging consequences. The concern is that learning culture within a strict engagement context might lead to "checklist" cultural thinking that will not empower learners to understand the full consequence of their actions. We propose the use of agent based modeling (ABM) to collect, store, and, simulating the effects of social networks, promulgate engagement effects over time, distance, and consequence. The ABM development allows for rapid modification to re-create any number of population types, extending the applicability of the model to any requirement for social modeling.
ANNIE - INTERACTIVE PROCESSING OF DATA BASES FOR HYDROLOGIC MODELS.
Lumb, Alan M.; Kittle, John L.
1985-01-01
ANNIE is a data storage and retrieval system that was developed to reduce the time and effort required to calibrate, verify, and apply watershed models that continuously simulate water quantity and quality. Watershed models have three categories of input: parameters to describe segments of a drainage area, linkage of the segments, and time-series data. Additional goals for ANNIE include the development of software that is easily implemented on minicomputers and some microcomputers and software that has no special requirements for interactive display terminals. Another goal is for the user interaction to be based on the experience of the user so that ANNIE is helpful to the inexperienced user and yet efficient and brief for the experienced user. Finally, the code should be designed so that additional hydrologic models can easily be added to ANNIE.
Model Checking for Verification of Interactive Health IT Systems
Butler, Keith A.; Mercer, Eric; Bahrami, Ali; Tao, Cui
2015-01-01
Rigorous methods for design and verification of health IT systems have lagged far behind their proliferation. The inherent technical complexity of healthcare, combined with the added complexity of health information technology makes their resulting behavior unpredictable and introduces serious risk. We propose to mitigate this risk by formalizing the relationship between HIT and the conceptual work that increasingly typifies modern care. We introduce new techniques for modeling clinical workflows and the conceptual products within them that allow established, powerful modeling checking technology to be applied to interactive health IT systems. The new capability can evaluate the workflows of a new HIT system performed by clinicians and computers to improve safety and reliability. We demonstrate the method on a patient contact system to demonstrate model checking is effective for interactive systems and that much of it can be automated. PMID:26958166
Molecular interactions between gold nanoparticles and model cell membranes.
Hu, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Zhan
2015-04-21
The interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and cells are of huge interest because NPs have been extensively researched for biomedical applications. For the cellular entry of NPs, it remains unclear how the cell membrane molecules respond to the exposure of NPs due to a lack of appropriate surface/interface-sensitive techniques to study NP-cell membrane interactions in situ in real time. In this study, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to examine the interactions between lipid bilayers (serving as model mammalian cell membranes) and Au NPs of four different sizes with the same mass, or the same NP number, or the same NP surface area. It was found that lipid flip-flop was induced by Au NPs of all four sizes. Interestingly, the lipid flip-flop rate was found to increase as the Au NP size increased with respect to the same particle number or the same NP surface area. However, the induced lipid flip-flop rate was the same for Au NPs with different sizes with the same mass, which was interpreted by the same "effective surface contact area" between Au NPs and the model cell membrane. We believe that this study provided the first direct observation of the lipid flip-flop induced by the interactions between Au NPs and the model mammalian cell membrane. PMID:25776800
Modeling variation in interaction strength between barnacles and fucoids
Dudgeon, Steve
2009-01-01
The strength by which species interact can vary throughout their ontogeny, as environments vary in space and time, and with the density of their populations. Characterizing strengths of interaction in situ for even a small number of species is logistically difficult and may apply only to those conditions under which the estimates were derived. We sought to combine data from field experiments estimating interaction strength of life stages of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, on germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum, with a model that explored the consequences of variability at per capita and per population levels to the abundance of year-old algal recruits. We further simulated how this interaction affected fucoid germling abundance as the timing of their respective settlements varied relative to one another, as occurs regionally across the Gulf of Maine, USA. Juvenile S. balanoides have a weak estimated per capita effect on germlings. Germling populations are sensitive to variation in per capita effects of juvenile barnacles because of the typically large population sizes of the latter. However, high mortality of juvenile barnacles weakens the population interaction strength over time. Adult barnacles probably weakly facilitate fucoid germlings, but greater survival of adults sustains the strength of that interaction at the population level. Germling abundance is positively associated with densities of adult barnacles and negatively associated with that of juvenile barnacles. Metamorphosing cyprid larvae have the strongest per capita effect on germling abundance, but the interaction between the two stages is so short-lived that germling abundance is altered little. Variation in the timing of barnacle and A. nodosum settlement relative to one another had very little influence on the abundance of yearling germlings. Interactions between barnacles and germlings may influence the demographic structure of A. nodosum populations and the persistence of fucoid
Exact cosmological solutions of models with an interacting dark sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavan, A. B.; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Micheletti, Sandro M. R.; de Souza, J. C. C.; Abdalla, E.
2012-11-01
In this work we extend the first order formalism for cosmological models that present an interaction between a fermionic and a scalar field. Cosmological exact solutions describing universes filled with interacting dark energy and dark matter have been obtained. Viable cosmological solutions with an early period of decelerated expansion followed by late acceleration have been found, notably one which presents a dark matter component dominating in the past and a dark energy component dominating in the future. In another one, the dark energy alone is the responsible for both periods, similar to a Chaplygin gas case. Exclusively accelerating solutions have also been obtained.
A nonlinear Bloch model for Coulomb interaction in quantum dots
Bidegaray-Fesquet, Brigitte Keita, Kole
2014-02-15
In this paper, we first derive a Coulomb Hamiltonian for electron–electron interaction in quantum dots in the Heisenberg picture. Then we use this Hamiltonian to enhance a Bloch model, which happens to be nonlinear in the density matrix. The coupling with Maxwell equations in case of interaction with an electromagnetic field is also considered from the Cauchy problem point of view. The study is completed by numerical results and a discussion about the advisability of neglecting intra-band coherences, as is done in part of the literature.
Mathematical Modeling of Tumor Cell Growth and Immune System Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rihan, Fathalla A.; Safan, Muntaser; Abdeen, Mohamed A.; Abdel-Rahman, Duaa H.
In this paper, we provide a family of ordinary and delay differential equations to describe the dynamics of tumor-growth and immunotherapy interactions. We explore the effects of adoptive cellular immunotherapy on the model and describe under what circumstances the tumor can be eliminated. The possibility of clearing the tumor, with a strategy, is based on two parameters in the model: the rate of influx of the effector cells, and the rate of influx of IL2. The critical tumor-growth rate, below which endemic tumor does not exist, has been found. One can use the model to make predictions about tumor-dormancy.
Exactly solvable relativistic model with the anomalous interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, Elena; Messina, Antonino; Nikitin, A. G.
2010-04-01
A special class of Dirac-Pauli equations with time-like vector potentials of an external field is investigated. An exactly solvable relativistic model describing the anomalous interaction of a neutral Dirac fermion with a cylindrically symmetric external electromagnetic field is presented. The related external field is a superposition of the electric field generated by a charged infinite filament and the magnetic field generated by a straight line current. In the nonrelativistic approximation the considered model is reduced to the integrable Pron’ko-Stroganov model.
Modelling of electromagnetic wave interactions with the human body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Man-Faï; Wiart, Joe
2005-07-01
Electromagnetic modelling plays a more and more important role in the study of complex systems involving Maxwell phenomena, such as the interactions of radiowaves with the human body. Simulation then becomes a credible means in decision making, related to the engineering of complex electromagnetic systems. To increase confidence in the models with respect to reality, validation and uncertainty estimation methods are needed. The different dimensions of model validation are illustrated through dosimetry, i.e., quantification of human exposure to electromagnetic waves. To cite this article: M.-F. Wong, J. Wiart, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).
A model of interaction between anticorruption authority and corruption groups
Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A.
2015-03-10
The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game.
Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, W.; Pelletier, J. D.; Duffin, K.; Ormand, C. J.; Hung, W.; Iverson, E. A.; Shernoff, D.; Zhai, X.; Chowdary, A.
2013-12-01
Earth science educators need interactive tools to engage and enable students to better understand how Earth systems work over geologic time scales. The evolution of landforms is ripe for interactive, inquiry-based learning exercises because landforms exist all around us. The Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon (WILSIM-GC, http://serc.carleton.edu/landform/) is a continuation and upgrade of the simple cellular automata (CA) rule-based model (WILSIM-CA, http://www.niu.edu/landform/) that can be accessed from anywhere with an Internet connection. Major improvements in WILSIM-GC include adopting a physically based model and the latest Java technology. The physically based model is incorporated to illustrate the fluvial processes involved in land-sculpting pertaining to the development and evolution of one of the most famous landforms on Earth: the Grand Canyon. It is hoped that this focus on a famous and specific landscape will attract greater student interest and provide opportunities for students to learn not only how different processes interact to form the landform we observe today, but also how models and data are used together to enhance our understanding of the processes involved. The latest development in Java technology (such as Java OpenGL for access to ubiquitous fast graphics hardware, Trusted Applet for file input and output, and multithreaded ability to take advantage of modern multi-core CPUs) are incorporated into building WILSIM-GC and active, standards-aligned curricula materials guided by educational psychology theory on science learning will be developed to accompany the model. This project is funded NSF-TUES program.
A qualitative model of human interaction with complex dynamic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, Ronald A.
1987-01-01
A qualitative model describing human interaction with complex dynamic systems is developed. The model is hierarchical in nature and consists of three parts: a behavior generator, an internal model, and a sensory information processor. The behavior generator is responsible for action decomposition, turning higher level goals or missions into physical action at the human-machine interface. The internal model is an internal representation of the environment which the human is assumed to possess and is divided into four submodel categories. The sensory information processor is responsible for sensory composition. All three parts of the model act in consort to allow anticipatory behavior on the part of the human in goal-directed interaction with dynamic systems. Human workload and error are interpreted in this framework, and the familiar example of an automobile commute is used to illustrate the nature of the activity in the three model elements. Finally, with the qualitative model as a guide, verbal protocols from a manned simulation study of a helicopter instrument landing task are analyzed with particular emphasis on the effect of automation on human-machine performance.
A Qualitative Model of Human Interaction with Complex Dynamic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, Ronald A.
1987-01-01
A qualitative model describing human interaction with complex dynamic systems is developed. The model is hierarchical in nature and consists of three parts: a behavior generator, an internal model, and a sensory information processor. The behavior generator is responsible for action decomposition, turning higher level goals or missions into physical action at the human-machine interface. The internal model is an internal representation of the environment which the human is assumed to possess and is divided into four submodel categories. The sensory information processor is responsible for sensory composition. All three parts of the model act in consort to allow anticipatory behavior on the part of the human in goal-directed interaction with dynamic systems. Human workload and error are interpreted in this framework, and the familiar example of an automobile commute is used to illustrate the nature of the activity in the three model elements. Finally, with the qualitative model as a guide, verbal protocols from a manned simulation study of a helicopter instrument landing task are analyzed with particular emphasis on the effect of automation on human-machine performance.
Deciphering Supramolecular Structures with Protein-Protein Interaction Network Modeling
Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Yoda, Takao; Shirai, Tsuyoshi
2015-01-01
Many biological molecules are assembled into supramolecules that are essential to perform complicated functions in the cell. However, experimental information about the structures of supramolecules is not sufficient at this point. We developed a method of predicting and modeling the structures of supramolecules in a biological network by combining structural data of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and interaction data in IntAct databases. Templates for binary complexes in IntAct were extracted from PDB. Modeling was attempted by assembling binary complexes with superposed shared subunits. A total of 3,197 models were constructed, and 1,306 (41% of the total) contained at least one subunit absent from experimental structures. The models also suggested 970 (25% of the total) experimentally undetected subunit interfaces, and 41 human disease-related amino acid variants were mapped onto these model-suggested interfaces. The models demonstrated that protein-protein interaction network modeling is useful to fill the information gap between biological networks and structures. PMID:26549015
Modeling the interaction between flow and highly flexible aquatic vegetation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dijkstra, J. T.; Uittenbogaard, R. E.
2010-12-01
Aquatic vegetation has an important role in estuaries and rivers by acting as bed stabilizer, filter, food source, and nursing area. However, macrophyte populations worldwide are under high anthropogenic pressure. Protection and restoration efforts will benefit from more insight into the interaction between vegetation, currents, waves, and sediment transport. Most aquatic plants are very flexible, implying that their shape and hence their drag and turbulence production depend on the flow conditions. We have developed a numerical simulation model that describes this dynamic interaction between very flexible vegetation and a time-varying flow, using the sea grass Zostera marina as an example. The model consists of two parts: an existing 1DV k-ɛ turbulence model simulating the flow combined with a new model simulating the bending of the plants, based on a force balance that takes account of both vegetation position and buoyancy. We validated this model using observations of positions of flexible plastic strips and of the forces they are subjected to, as well as hydrodynamic measurements. The model predicts important properties like the forces on plants, flow velocity profiles, and turbulence characteristics well. Although the validation data are limited, the results are sufficiently encouraging to consider our model to be of generic value in studying flow processes in fields of flexible vegetation.
Interactive agent based modeling of public health decision-making.
Parks, Amanda L; Walker, Brett; Pettey, Warren; Benuzillo, Jose; Gesteland, Per; Grant, Juliana; Koopman, James; Drews, Frank; Samore, Matthew
2009-01-01
Agent-based models have yielded important insights regarding the transmission dynamics of communicable diseases. To better understand how these models can be used to study decision making of public health officials, we developed a computer program that linked an agent-based model of pertussis with an agent-based model of public health management. The program, which we call the Public Health Interactive Model & simulation (PHIMs) encompassed the reporting of cases to public health, case investigation, and public health response. The user directly interacted with the model in the role of the public health decision-maker. In this paper we describe the design of our model, and present the results of a pilot study to assess its usability and potential for future development. Affinity for specific tools was demonstrated. Participants ranked the program high in usability and considered it useful for training. Our ultimate goal is to achieve better public health decisions and outcomes through use of public health decision support tools. PMID:20351907
Particle-Surface Interaction Model and Method of Determining Particle-Surface Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, David W. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A method and model of predicting particle-surface interactions with a surface, such as the surface of a spacecraft. The method includes the steps of: determining a trajectory path of a plurality of moving particles; predicting whether any of the moving particles will intersect a surface; predicting whether any of the particles will be captured by the surface and/or; predicting a reflected trajectory and velocity of particles reflected from the surface.
A solvable model of hard rods with gravitational interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champion, M.; Alastuey, A.
2015-01-01
We consider a simple 1D model of hard rods with gravitational interactions. First, we consider the situation where the sytem is enclosed in a box with finite size and we exactly compute the equilibrium thermodynamical quantities. Thanks to the confining nature of gravity in 1D which prevents evaporation, the box can be released and we can study an open system with its center of mass fixed. Then, we exactly compute the corresponding equilibrium density profile within the microcanonical ensemble. All those analytical results are discussed in connection with the general issue of ensemble inequivalences for systems with long-range interactions. They also provide specific tests for the reliability of the hydrostatic approach combined with a mean-field treatment of gravitational interactions. In particular, the hydrostatic approach is shown to fail for energies close to the collapse energy where a core-halo structure emerges.
Model-independent analyses of dark-matter particle interactions
Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.
2015-03-24
A model-independent treatment of dark-matter particle elastic scattering has been developed, yielding the most general interaction for WIMP-nucleon low-energy scattering, and the resulting amplitude has been embedded into the nucleus, taking into account the selection rules imposed by parity and time-reversal. One finds that, in contrast to the usual spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation, the resulting cross section contains six independent nuclear response functions, three of which are associated with possible velocity-dependent interactions. We find that current experiments are four orders of magnitude more sensitive to derivative couplings than is apparent in the standard SI/SD treatment, which necessarily associated such interactions withmore » cross sections proportional to v2T ~ 10⁻⁶, where vT is the WIMP velocity relative to the center of mass of the nuclear target.« less
Model-independent analyses of dark-matter particle interactions
Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.
2015-03-24
A model-independent treatment of dark-matter particle elastic scattering has been developed, yielding the most general interaction for WIMP-nucleon low-energy scattering, and the resulting amplitude has been embedded into the nucleus, taking into account the selection rules imposed by parity and time-reversal. One finds that, in contrast to the usual spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation, the resulting cross section contains six independent nuclear response functions, three of which are associated with possible velocity-dependent interactions. We find that current experiments are four orders of magnitude more sensitive to derivative couplings than is apparent in the standard SI/SD treatment, which necessarily associated such interactions with cross sections proportional to v^{2}_{T} ~ 10⁻⁶, where v_{T} is the WIMP velocity relative to the center of mass of the nuclear target.
Modeling the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marceau, Vincent; Noël, Pierre-André; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.
2011-08-01
Epidemics seldom occur as isolated phenomena. Typically, two or more viral agents spread within the same host population and may interact dynamically with each other. We present a general model where two viral agents interact via an immunity mechanism as they propagate simultaneously on two networks connecting the same set of nodes. By exploiting a correspondence between the propagation dynamics and a dynamical process performing progressive network generation, we develop an analytical approach that accurately captures the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks. The formalism allows for overlay networks with arbitrary joint degree distribution and overlap. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, we consider a hypothetical delayed intervention scenario in which an immunizing agent is disseminated in a host population to hinder the propagation of an undesirable agent (e.g., the spread of preventive information in the context of an emerging infectious disease).
Models of atmosphere-ecosystem-hydrology interactions: Approaches and testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schimel, David S.
1992-01-01
Interactions among the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and the hydrological cycle have been the subject of investigation for many years, although most of the research has had a regional focus. The topic is broad, including the effects of climate and hydrology on vegetation, the effects of vegetation on hydrology, the effects of the hydrological cycle on the atmosphere, and interactions of the cycles via material flux such as solutes and trace gases. The intent of this paper is to identify areas of critical uncertainty, discuss modeling approaches to resolving those problems, and then propose techniques for testing. I consider several interactions specifically to illustrate the range of problems. These areas are as follows: (1) cloud parameterizations and the land surface, (2) soil moisture, and (3) the terrestrial carbon cycle.
Adapting GOMS to Model Human-Robot Interaction
Drury, Jill; Scholtz, Jean; Kieras, David
2007-03-09
Human-robot interaction (HRI) has been maturing in tandem with robots’ commercial success. In the last few years HRI researchers have been adopting—and sometimes adapting—human-computer interaction (HCI) evaluation techniques to assess the efficiency and intuitiveness of HRI designs. For example, Adams (2005) used Goal Directed Task Analysis to determine the interaction needs of officers from the Nashville Metro Police Bomb Squad. Scholtz et al. (2004) used Endsley’s (1988) Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique to determine robotic vehicle supervisors’ awareness of when vehicles were in trouble and thus required closer monitoring or intervention. Yanco and Drury (2004) employed usability testing to determine (among other things) how well a search-andrescue interface supported use by first responders. One set of HCI tools that has so far seen little exploration in the HRI domain, however, is the class of modeling and evaluation techniques known as formal methods.
Parameter uncertainty and interaction in complex environmental models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spear, Robert C.; Grieb, Thomas M.; Shang, Nong
1994-11-01
Recently developed models for the estimation of risks arising from the release of toxic chemicals from hazardous waste sites are inherently complex both structurally and parametrically. To better understand the impact of uncertainty and interaction in the high-dimensional parameter spaces of these models, the set of procedures termed regional sensitivity analysis has been extended and applied to the groundwater pathway of the MMSOILS model. The extension consists of a tree-structured density estimation technique which allows the characterization of complex interaction in that portion of the parameter space which gives rise to successful simulation. Results show that the parameter space can be partitioned into small, densely populated regions and relatively large, sparsely populated regions. From the high-density regions one can identify the important or controlling parameters as well as the interaction between parameters in different local areas of the space. This new tool can provide guidance in the analysis and interpretation of site-specific application of these complex models.
Modeling the Interactions Between Multiple Crack Closure Mechanisms at Threshold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.
2003-01-01
A fatigue crack closure model is developed that includes interactions between the three closure mechanisms most likely to occur at threshold; plasticity, roughness, and oxide. This model, herein referred to as the CROP model (for Closure, Roughness, Oxide, and Plasticity), also includes the effects of out-of plane cracking and multi-axial loading. These features make the CROP closure model uniquely suited for, but not limited to, threshold applications. Rough cracks are idealized here as two-dimensional sawtooths, whose geometry induces mixed-mode crack- tip stresses. Continuum mechanics and crack-tip dislocation concepts are combined to relate crack face displacements to crack-tip loads. Geometric criteria are used to determine closure loads from crack-face displacements. Finite element results, used to verify model predictions, provide critical information about the locations where crack closure occurs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Froese, Tom; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A.
2010-03-01
This paper continues efforts to establish a mutually informative dialogue between psychology and evolutionary robotics in order to investigate the dynamics of social interaction. We replicate a recent simulation model of a minimalist experiment in perceptual crossing and confirm the results with significantly simpler artificial agents. A series of psycho-physical tests of their behaviour informs a hypothetical circuit model of their internal operation. However, a detailed study of the actual internal dynamics reveals this circuit model to be unfounded, thereby offering a tale of caution for those hypothesising about sub-personal processes in terms of behavioural observations. In particular, it is shown that the behaviour of the agents largely emerges out of the interaction process itself rather than being an individual achievement alone. We also extend the original simulation model in two novel directions in order to test further the extent to which perceptual crossing between agents can self-organise in a robust manner. These modelling results suggest new hypotheses that can become the basis for further psychological experiments.
Brachypodium as an emerging model for cereal–pathogen interactions
Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Schneebeli, Katharina; Hsia, M. Mandy; Gardiner, Donald M.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Manners, John M.; Ayliffe, Mick; Watt, Michelle; Vogel, John P.; Henry, Robert J.; Kazan, Kemal
2015-01-01
Background Cereal diseases cause tens of billions of dollars of losses annually and have devastating humanitarian consequences in the developing world. Increased understanding of the molecular basis of cereal host–pathogen interactions should facilitate development of novel resistance strategies. However, achieving this in most cereals can be challenging due to large and complex genomes, long generation times and large plant size, as well as quarantine and intellectual property issues that may constrain the development and use of community resources. Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium) with its small, diploid and sequenced genome, short generation time, high transformability and rapidly expanding community resources is emerging as a tractable cereal model. Scope Recent research reviewed here has demonstrated that brachypodium is either susceptible or partially susceptible to many of the major cereal pathogens. Thus, the study of brachypodium–pathogen interactions appears to hold great potential to improve understanding of cereal disease resistance, and to guide approaches to enhance this resistance. This paper reviews brachypodium experimental pathosystems for the study of fungal, bacterial and viral cereal pathogens; the current status of the use of brachypodium for functional analysis of cereal disease resistance; and comparative genomic approaches undertaken using brachypodium to assist characterization of cereal resistance genes. Additionally, it explores future prospects for brachypodium as a model to study cereal–pathogen interactions. Conclusions The study of brachypodium–pathogen interactions appears to be a productive strategy for understanding mechanisms of disease resistance in cereal species. Knowledge obtained from this model interaction has strong potential to be exploited for crop improvement. PMID:25808446
Modeling light-sound interaction in nanoscale cavities and waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pennec, Yan; Laude, Vincent; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Oudich, Mourad; El Jallal, Said; Beugnot, Jean Charles; Escalante, Jose M.; Martínez, Alejandro
2014-12-01
The interaction of light and sound waves at the micro and nanoscale has attracted considerable interest in recent years. The main reason is that this interaction is responsible for a wide variety of intriguing physical phenomena, ranging from the laser-induced cooling of a micromechanical resonator down to its ground state to the management of the speed of guided light pulses by exciting sound waves. A common feature of all these phenomena is the feasibility to tightly confine photons and phonons of similar wavelengths in a very small volume. Amongst the different structures that enable such confinement, optomechanical or phoxonic crystals, which are periodic structures displaying forbidden frequency band gaps for light and sound waves, have revealed themselves as the most appropriate candidates to host nanoscale structures where the light-sound interaction can be boosted. In this review, we describe the theoretical tools that allow the modeling of the interaction between photons and acoustic phonons in nanoscale structures, namely cavities and waveguides, with special emphasis in phoxonic crystal structures. First, we start by summarizing the different optomechanical or phoxonic crystal structures proposed so far and discuss their main advantages and limitations. Then, we describe the different mechanisms that make light interact with sound, and show how to treat them from a theoretical point of view. We then illustrate the different photon-phonon interaction processes with numerical simulations in realistic phoxonic cavities and waveguides. Finally, we introduce some possible applications which can take enormous benefit from the enhanced interaction between light and sound at the nanoscale.
Limitations of Gene × Environment Interaction Models in Psychiatry
Munafò, Marcus R.; Zammit, Stanley; Flint, Jonathan
2016-01-01
Background Psychiatric disorders run in families, and early twin, family and adoption studies confirmed that this was due in part to shared genetic inheritance. While candidate gene studies largely failed to reliably identify genetic variants associated with psychiatric disorders, genomewide association studies are beginning to do so. However, the proportion of phenotypic variance explained remains well below what would be expected from previous heritability estimates. Scope We review possible reasons for this “missing heritability”, and in particular whether incorporating gene by environment interactions into our models will substantially improve our understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders, and inform clinical perceptions and practice. Findings We discuss potential limitations of the gene by environment interaction approach. In particular, we discuss whether these are likely to be a major contributor to psychiatric disorders at the level of the specific interaction (as opposed to at an aggregate level). Conclusions Gene by environment interaction studies offered initial promise that a far greater proportion of phenotypic variance could be explained by incorporating measures of environmental exposures into genetic studies. However, in our opinion there are few (if any) clear examples of gene by environment interactions in psychiatry, and their scope for informing either our understanding of disease pathology or clinical practice remains limited at present. PMID:24828285
Network-theoretic approach to model vortex interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nair, Aditya; Taira, Kunihiko
2014-11-01
We present a network-theoretic approach to describe a system of point vortices in two-dimensional flow. By considering the point vortices as nodes, a complete graph is constructed with edges connecting each vortex to every other vortex. The interactions between the vortices are captured by the graph edge weights. We employ sparsification techniques on these graph representations based on spectral theory to construct sparsified models of the overall vortical interactions. The edge weights are redistributed through spectral sparsification of the graph such that the sum of the interactions associated with each vortex is maintained constant. In addition, sparse configurations maintain similar spectral properties as the original setup. Through the reduction in the number of interactions, key vortex interactions can be highlighted. Identification of vortex structures based on graph sparsification is demonstrated with an example of clusters of point vortices. We also evaluate the computational performance of sparsification for large collection of point vortices. Work supported by US Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0386) and US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (YIP: FA9550-13-1-0183).
Modeling the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.
2016-09-01
Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the model considers the saturated nonlinear infection rate and linear cure rate without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next model considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third model incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure rate and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last model is an extension of the third model in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four models have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed models show that introduction of immune response and cure rate strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth model vis-a-vis other models. The analytical findings of each model have been exemplified by
Explicit modeling of human-object interactions in realistic videos.
Prest, Alessandro; Ferrari, Vittorio; Schmid, Cordelia
2013-04-01
We introduce an approach for learning human actions as interactions between persons and objects in realistic videos. Previous work typically represents actions with low-level features such as image gradients or optical flow. In contrast, we explicitly localize in space and track over time both the object and the person, and represent an action as the trajectory of the object w.r.t. to the person position. Our approach relies on state-of-the-art techniques for human detection, object detection, and tracking. We show that this results in human and object tracks of sufficient quality to model and localize human-object interactions in realistic videos. Our human-object interaction features capture the relative trajectory of the object w.r.t. the human. Experimental results on the Coffee and Cigarettes dataset, the video dataset of, and the Rochester Daily Activities dataset show that 1) our explicit human-object model is an informative cue for action recognition; 2) it is complementary to traditional low-level descriptors such as 3D--HOG extracted over human tracks. We show that combining our human-object interaction features with 3D-HOG improves compared to their individual performance as well as over the state of the art. PMID:22889819
Spin-orbit interaction in relativistic nuclear structure models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebran, J.-P.; Mutschler, A.; Khan, E.; Vretenar, D.
2016-08-01
Relativistic self-consistent mean-field (SCMF) models naturally account for the coupling of the nucleon spin to its orbital motion, whereas nonrelativistic SCMF methods necessitate a phenomenological ansatz for the effective spin-orbit potential. Recent experimental studies aim to explore the isospin properties of the effective spin-orbit interaction in nuclei. SCMF models are very useful in the interpretation of the corresponding data; however, standard relativistic mean-field and nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock models use effective spin-orbit potentials with different isovector properties, mainly because exchange contributions are not treated explicitly in the former. The impact of exchange terms on the effective spin-orbit potential in relativistic mean-field models is analyzed, and it is shown that it leads to an isovector structure similar to the one used in standard nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock models. Data on the isospin dependence of spin-orbit splittings in spherical nuclei could be used to constrain the isovector-scalar channel of relativistic mean-field models. The reproduction of the empirical kink in the isotope shifts of even Pb nuclei by relativistic effective interactions points to the occurrence of pseudospin symmetry in the single-neutron spectra in these nuclei.
Dark Matter in the Heavens and at Colliders: Models and Constraints
Primulando, Reinard
2012-08-01
In this dissertation, we investigate various aspects of dark matter detection and model building. Motivated by the cosmic ray positron excess observed by PAMELA, we construct models of decaying dark matter to explain the excess. Specifically we present an explicit, TeV-scale model of decaying dark matter in which the approximate stability of the dark matter candidate is a consequence of a global symmetry that is broken only by instanton-induced operators generated by a non-Abelian dark gauge group. Alternatively, the decaying operator can arise as a Planck suppressed correction in a model with an Abelian discrete symmetry and vector-like states at an intermediate scale that are responsible for generating lepton Yukawa couplings. A flavor-nonconserving dark matter decay is also considered in the case of fermionic dark matter. Assuming a general Dirac structure for the four-fermion contact interactions of interest, the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra were studied. We show that good fits to the current data can be obtained for both charged-leptonflavor- conserving and flavor-violating decay channels. Motivated by a possible excess of gamma rays in the galactic center, we constructed a supersymmetric leptophilic higgs model to explain the excess. Finally, we consider an improvement on dark matter collider searches using the Razor analysis, which was originally utilized for supersymmetry searches by the CMS collaboration.
Detection of Drug-Drug Interactions by Modeling Interaction Profile Fingerprints
Vilar, Santiago; Uriarte, Eugenio; Santana, Lourdes; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Friedman, Carol
2013-01-01
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) constitute an important problem in postmarketing pharmacovigilance and in the development of new drugs. The effectiveness or toxicity of a medication could be affected by the co-administration of other drugs that share pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic pathways. For this reason, a great effort is being made to develop new methodologies to detect and assess DDIs. In this article, we present a novel method based on drug interaction profile fingerprints (IPFs) with successful application to DDI detection. IPFs were generated based on the DrugBank database, which provided 9,454 well-established DDIs as a primary source of interaction data. The model uses IPFs to measure the similarity of pairs of drugs and generates new putative DDIs from the non-intersecting interactions of a pair. We described as part of our analysis the pharmacological and biological effects associated with the putative interactions; for example, the interaction between haloperidol and dicyclomine can cause increased risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia. First, we evaluated the method through hold-out validation and then by using four independent test sets that did not overlap with DrugBank. Precision for the test sets ranged from 0.4–0.5 with more than two fold enrichment factor enhancement. In conclusion, we demonstrated the usefulness of the method in pharmacovigilance as a DDI predictor, and created a dataset of potential DDIs, highlighting the etiology or pharmacological effect of the DDI, and providing an exploratory tool to facilitate decision support in DDI detection and patient safety. PMID:23520498
Exploring host–microbiota interactions in animal models and humans
Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.
2013-01-01
The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host–microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host–microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793
Interactive simulation of embolization coils: modeling and experimental validation.
Dequidt, Jérémie; Marchal, Maud; Duriez, Christian; Kerien, Erwan; Cotin, Stéphane
2008-01-01
Coil embolization offers a new approach to treat aneurysms. This medical procedure is namely less invasive than an open-surgery as it relies on the deployment of very thin platinum-based wires within the aneurysm through the arteries. When performed intracranially, this procedure must be particularly accurate and therefore carefully planned and performed by experienced radiologists. A simulator of the coil deployment represents an interesting and helpful tool for the physician by providing information on the coil behavior. In this paper, an original modeling is proposed to obtain interactive and accurate simulations of coil deployment. The model takes into account geometric nonlinearities and uses a shape memory formulation to describe its complex geometry. An experimental validation is performed in a contact-free environment to identify the mechanical properties of the coil and to quantitatively compare the simulation with real data. Computational performances are also measured to insure an interactive simulation. PMID:18979807
Stochastic Local Interaction (SLI) model: Bridging machine learning and geostatistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hristopulos, Dionissios T.
2015-12-01
Machine learning and geostatistics are powerful mathematical frameworks for modeling spatial data. Both approaches, however, suffer from poor scaling of the required computational resources for large data applications. We present the Stochastic Local Interaction (SLI) model, which employs a local representation to improve computational efficiency. SLI combines geostatistics and machine learning with ideas from statistical physics and computational geometry. It is based on a joint probability density function defined by an energy functional which involves local interactions implemented by means of kernel functions with adaptive local kernel bandwidths. SLI is expressed in terms of an explicit, typically sparse, precision (inverse covariance) matrix. This representation leads to a semi-analytical expression for interpolation (prediction), which is valid in any number of dimensions and avoids the computationally costly covariance matrix inversion.
Thermosphere-ionosphere coupling - An experiment in interactive modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Roble, Raymond G.
1990-01-01
Using the NCAR thermosphere general circulation model, a series of controlled experiments is performed to investigate the interactive coupling between ionospheric plasma densities and thermospheric neutral winds. The interaction is accomplished by parameterizing the F layer peak height, h(m)F2, in an empirical ionospheric model in terms of the meridional wind, v(south), and by forcing the h(m)F2 and the v(south) parameters to remain mutually coupled in a dynamical calculation. It was found that mutual coupling between forcing and meridional wind is weak during the daytime when the F layer exhibits a broad vertical structure. At night, when the F2 layer is more localized, the neutral dynamical structure is dependent on whether forcing is significantly above or below the altitude (about 275-300 km) at which ion drag effectively competes with viscosity in the neutral momentum balance.
Beyond-standard-model tensor interaction and hadron phenomenology
Courtoy, Aurore; Baessler, Stefan; Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Liuti, Simonetta
2015-10-15
Here, we evaluate the impact of recent developments in hadron phenomenology on extracting possible fundamental tensor interactions beyond the standard model. We show that a novel class of observables, including the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions, and the transversity parton distribution function can contribute to the constraints on this quantity. Experimental extractions of the tensor hadronic matrix elements, if sufficiently precise, will provide a, so far, absent testing ground for lattice QCD calculations.
Beyond-Standard-Model Tensor Interaction and Hadron Phenomenology.
Courtoy, Aurore; Baeßler, Stefan; González-Alonso, Martín; Liuti, Simonetta
2015-10-16
We evaluate the impact of recent developments in hadron phenomenology on extracting possible fundamental tensor interactions beyond the standard model. We show that a novel class of observables, including the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions, and the transversity parton distribution function can contribute to the constraints on this quantity. Experimental extractions of the tensor hadronic matrix elements, if sufficiently precise, will provide a, so far, absent testing ground for lattice QCD calculations. PMID:26550868
Modeling of Interaction of Hydraulic Fractures in Complex Fracture Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kresse, O. 2; Wu, R.; Weng, X.; Gu, H.; Cohen, C.
2011-12-01
A recently developed unconventional fracture model (UFM) is able to simulate complex fracture network propagation in a formation with pre-existing natural fractures. Multiple fracture branches can propagate at the same time and intersect/cross each other. Each open fracture exerts additional stresses on the surrounding rock and adjacent fractures, which is often referred to as "stress shadow" effect. The stress shadow can cause significant restriction of fracture width, leading to greater risk of proppant screenout. It can also alter the fracture propagation path and drastically affect fracture network patterns. It is hence critical to properly model the fracture interaction in a complex fracture model. A method for computing the stress shadow in a complex hydraulic fracture network is presented. The method is based on an enhanced 2D Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) with correction for finite fracture height. The computed stress field is compared to 3D numerical simulation in a few simple examples and shows the method provides a good approximation for the 3D fracture problem. This stress shadow calculation is incorporated in the UFM. The results for simple cases of two fractures are presented that show the fractures can either attract or expel each other depending on their initial relative positions, and compares favorably with an independent 2D non-planar hydraulic fracture model. Additional examples of both planar and complex fractures propagating from multiple perforation clusters are presented, showing that fracture interaction controls the fracture dimension and propagation pattern. In a formation with no or small stress anisotropy, fracture interaction can lead to dramatic divergence of the fractures as they tend to repel each other. However, when stress anisotropy is large, the fracture propagation direction is dominated by the stress field and fracture turning due to fracture interaction is limited. However, stress shadowing still has a strong effect
Turbulence radiation interaction modeling in hydrocarbon pool fire simulations
BURNS,SHAWN P.
1999-12-01
The importance of turbulent fluctuations in temperature and species concentration in thermal radiation transport modeling for combustion applications is well accepted by the radiation transport and combustion communities. A number of experimental and theoretical studies over the last twenty years have shown that fluctuations in the temperature and species concentrations may increase the effective emittance of a turbulent flame by as much as 50% to 300% over the value that would be expected from the mean temperatures and concentrations. With the possibility of such a large effect on the principal mode of heat transfer from a fire, it is extremely important for fire modeling efforts that turbulence radiation interaction be well characterized and possible modeling approaches understood. Toward this end, this report seeks to accomplish three goals. First, the principal turbulence radiation interaction closure terms are defined. Second, an order of magnitude analysis is performed to understand the relative importance of the various closure terms. Finally, the state of the art in turbulence radiation interaction closure modeling is reviewed. Hydrocarbon pool fire applications are of particular interest in this report and this is the perspective from which this review proceeds. Experimental and theoretical analysis suggests that, for this type of heavily sooting flame, the turbulent radiation interaction effect is dominated by the nonlinear dependence of the Planck function on the temperature. Additional effects due to the correlation between turbulent fluctuations in the absorptivity and temperature may be small relative to the Planck function effect for heavily sooting flames. This observation is drawn from a number of experimental and theoretical discussions. Nevertheless, additional analysis and data is needed to validate this observation for heavily sooting buoyancy dominated plumes.
A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge
The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree
Geometry and Texture Measures for Interactive Virtualized Reality Indoor Modeler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thangamania, K.; Ichikari, R.; Okuma, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kurata, T.
2015-05-01
This paper discusses the algorithm to detect the distorted textures in the virtualized reality indoor models and automatically generate the necessary 3D planes to hold the undistorted textures. Virtualized reality (VR) interactive indoor modeler, our previous contribution enables the user to interactively create their desired indoor VR model from a single 2D image. The interactive modeler uses the projective texture mapping for mapping the textures over the manually created 3D planes. If the user has not created the necessary 3D planes, then the texture that belong to various objects are projected to the available 3D planes, which leads to the presence of distorted textures. In this paper, those distorted textures are detected automatically by the suitable principles from the shape from texture research. The texture distortion features such as the slant, tilt and the curvature parameters are calculated from the 2D image by means of affine transformation measured between the neighboring texture patches within the single image. This kind of affine transform calculation from a single image is useful in the case of deficient multiple view images. The usage of superpixels in clustering the textures corresponding to different objects, reduces the modeling labor cost. A standby database also stores the repeated basic textures that are found in the indoor model, and provides texture choices for the distorted floor, wall and other regions. Finally, this paper documents the prototype implementation and experiments with the automatic 3D plane creation and distortion detection with the above mentioned principles in the virtualized reality indoor environment.
Boldness by habituation and social interactions: a model.
Oosten, Johanneke E; Magnhagen, Carin; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K
2010-04-01
Most studies of animal personality attribute personality to genetic traits. But a recent study by Magnhagen and Staffan (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 57:295-303, 2005) on young perch in small groups showed that boldness, a central personality trait, is also shaped by social interactions and by previous experience. The authors measured boldness by recording the duration that an individual spent near a predator and the speed with which it fed there. They found that duration near the predator increased over time and was higher the higher the average boldness of other group members. In addition, the feeding rate of shy individuals was reduced if other members of the same group were bold. The authors supposed that these behavioral dynamics were caused by genetic differences, social interactions, and habituation to the predator. However, they did not quantify exactly how this could happen. In the present study, we therefore use an agent-based model to investigate whether these three factors may explain the empirical findings. We choose an agent-based model because this type of model is especially suited to study the relation between behavior at an individual level and behavioral dynamics at a group level. In our model, individuals were either hiding in vegetation or feeding near a predator, whereby their behavior was affected by habituation and by two social mechanisms: social facilitation to approach the predator and competition over food. We show that even if we start the model with identical individuals, these three mechanisms were sufficient to reproduce the behavioral dynamics of the empirical study, including the consistent differences among individuals. Moreover, if we start the model with individuals that already differ in boldness, the behavioral dynamics produced remained the same. Our results indicate the importance of previous experience and social interactions when studying animal personality empirically. PMID:20351762
Modeling of flap endonuclease interactions with DNA substrate.
Allawi, Hatim T; Kaiser, Michael W; Onufriev, Alexey V; Ma, Wu-Po; Brogaard, Andrew E; Case, David A; Neri, Bruce P; Lyamichev, Victor I
2003-05-01
Structure-specific 5' nucleases play an important role in DNA replication and repair uniquely recognizing an overlap flap DNA substrate and processing it into a DNA nick. However, in the absence of a high-resolution structure of the enzyme/DNA complex, the mechanism underlying this recognition and substrate specificity, which is key to the enzyme's function, remains unclear. Here, we propose a three-dimensional model of the structure-specific 5' flap endonuclease from Pyrococcus furiosus in its complex with DNA. The model is based on the known X-ray structure of the enzyme and a variety of biochemical and molecular dynamics (MD) data utilized in the form of distance restraints between the enzyme and the DNA. Contacts between the 5' flap endonuclease and the sugar-phosphate backbone of the overlap flap substrate were identified using enzyme activity assays on substrates with methylphosphonate or 2'-O-methyl substitutions. The enzyme footprint extends two to four base-pairs upstream and eight to nine base-pairs downstream of the cleavage site, thus covering 10-13 base-pairs of duplex DNA. The footprint data are consistent with a model in which the substrate is bound in the DNA-binding groove such that the downstream duplex interacts with the helix-hairpin-helix motif of the enzyme. MD simulations to identify the substrate orientation in this model are consistent with the results of the enzyme activity assays on the methylphosphonate and 2'-O-methyl-modified substrates. To further refine the model, 5' flap endonuclease variants with alanine point substitutions at amino acid residues expected to contact phosphates in the substrate and one deletion mutant were tested in enzyme activity assays on the methylphosphonate-modified substrates. Changes in the enzyme footprint observed for two point mutants, R64A and R94A, and for the deletion mutant in the enzyme's beta(A)/beta(B) region, were interpreted as being the result of specific interactions in the enzyme/DNA complex
An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing
2016-09-01
The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.
Model-based description of environment interaction for mobile robots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borghi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Carlo; Pagello, Enrico; Vianello, Marco
1999-01-01
We consider a mobile robot that attempts to accomplish a task by reaching a given goal, and interacts with its environment through a finite set of actions and observations. The interaction between robot and environment is modeled by Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDP). The robot takes its decisions in presence of uncertainty about the current state, by maximizing its reward gained during interactions with the environment. It is able to self-locate into the environment by collecting actions and perception histories during the navigation. To make the state estimation more reliable, we introduce an additional information in the model without adding new states and without discretizing the considered measures. Thus, we associate to the state transition probabilities also a continuous metric given through the mean and the variance of some significant sensor measurements suitable to be kept under continuous form, such as odometric measurements, showing that also such unreliable data can supply a great deal of information to the robot. The overall control system of the robot is structured as a two-levels layered architecture, where the low level implements several collision avoidance algorithms, while the upper level takes care of the navigation problem. In this paper, we concentrate on how to use POMDP models at the upper level.
Analyzing Groundwater-Vegetation Interactions using a Dynamic Agroecosystem Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soylu, M. E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Loheide, S. P.
2012-12-01
Groundwater is a crucial source of water for vegetation, especially in arid and semiarid environments in many regions around the world and its availability controls the distribution and the physiology of plant species. However, the impact of groundwater on vegetation is not completely understood mainly due to the limited ability of current models to simulate groundwater and vegetation interactions. Existing land surface models (LSM) simulate water and energy fluxes among soil-vegetation-atmosphere systems in a process-based way, but lack a detailed simulation of soil water movement in the unsaturated zone, particularly when groundwater is present. Furthermore, there are only a few available LSM and/or process based vegetation models that can simulate agroecosystems, which are as important to understand as natural ecosystems considering they occupy approximately 40% of the global land surface. On the other hand, current physically-based, variably-saturated soil water flux models are able to accurately simulate water movement in the unsaturated zone. However, they often lack a detailed plant physiology component making it difficult to understand plant responses to both variations in energy fluxes and upward capillary fluxes in shallow groundwater environments. To connect these two different model types, the objectives of this study are (1) to incorporate an advanced dynamic agroecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) and a variably saturated soil water flow model (Hydrus-1D) into a single framework that is capable of simulating groundwater and plant/crop system interactions in a fully, physically-based fashion, and (2) to apply this model using observed climate records to better understand the responses of managed and natural ecosystems to varied water table depths under inter-annual climate forcing conditions. The model results show that as the water table becomes shallower, (1) soil temperature decreases due to the moisture content driven effects on the thermal diffusivity of
Modeling of High-Energy Pulsed Laser Interactions with Coupons
Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M
2003-02-06
We describe a computational model of laser-materials interactions in the regime accessed by the solid state heat capacity lasers (SSHCLs) built at LLNL. We show that its predictions compare quite favorably with coupon experiments by the 10 kW SSHCL at LLNL. The body of this paper describes the following topics, listed by section number: (2) model in quiescent air, (3) comparison with experiments in quiescent air, (4) effects of air flow, (5) comparison with experiments involving air flow, (6) importance of material properties, (7) advantage of pulsed lasers over CW lasers, and (8) conclusions and recommendations.
Diffuse-interface modeling of three-phase interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jang Min; Anderson, Patrick D.
2016-05-01
In this work, a numerical model is developed to study the three-phase interactions which take place when two immiscible drops suspended in a third immiscible liquid are brought together. The diffuse-interface model coupled with the hydrodynamic equations is solved by a standard finite element method. Partial and complete engulfing between two immiscible drops is studied, and the effects of several parameters are discussed. In the partial-engulfing case, two stages of wetting and pulling are identified, which qualitatively agrees with the experiment. In the complete-engulfing case, three stages of wetting and/or penetration, pulling, and spreading are identified.
Computational modeling of RNA 3D structures and interactions.
Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M
2016-04-01
RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in 3D structure modeling of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein 3D structure modeling. PMID:26689764
Tight-binding model for hydrogen-silicon interactions
Min, B.J.; Lee, Y.H.; Wang, C.Z.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 )
1992-03-15
We have developed an empirical tight-binding model for use in molecular-dynamics simulations to study hydrogen-silicon systems. The hydrogen-silicon interaction is constructed to reproduce the electronic energy levels and vibration frequencies of silane (SiH{sub 4}). Further use of the model in the studies of disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and of hydrogen on the Si(111) surface also yields results in good agreement with first-principles calculations and experiments.
Reduced order modeling of fluid/structure interaction.
Barone, Matthew Franklin; Kalashnikova, Irina; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Brake, Matthew Robert
2009-11-01
This report describes work performed from October 2007 through September 2009 under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development project titled 'Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid/Structure Interaction.' This project addresses fundamental aspects of techniques for construction of predictive Reduced Order Models (ROMs). A ROM is defined as a model, derived from a sequence of high-fidelity simulations, that preserves the essential physics and predictive capability of the original simulations but at a much lower computational cost. Techniques are developed for construction of provably stable linear Galerkin projection ROMs for compressible fluid flow, including a method for enforcing boundary conditions that preserves numerical stability. A convergence proof and error estimates are given for this class of ROM, and the method is demonstrated on a series of model problems. A reduced order method, based on the method of quadratic components, for solving the von Karman nonlinear plate equations is developed and tested. This method is applied to the problem of nonlinear limit cycle oscillations encountered when the plate interacts with an adjacent supersonic flow. A stability-preserving method for coupling the linear fluid ROM with the structural dynamics model for the elastic plate is constructed and tested. Methods for constructing efficient ROMs for nonlinear fluid equations are developed and tested on a one-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction equation. These methods are combined with a symmetrization approach to construct a ROM technique for application to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
A computer model of solar panel-plasma interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooke, D. L.; Freeman, J. W.
1980-01-01
High power solar arrays for satellite power systems are presently being planned with dimensions of kilometers, and with tens of kilovolts distributed over their surface. Such systems face many plasma interaction problems, such as power leakage to the plasma, particle focusing, and anomalous arcing. These effects cannot be adequately modeled without detailed knowledge of the plasma sheath structure and space charge effects. Laboratory studies of 1 by 10 meter solar array in a simulated low Earth orbit plasma are discussed. The plasma screening process is discussed, program theory is outlined, and a series of calibration models is presented. These models are designed to demonstrate that PANEL is capable of accurate self consistant space charge calculations. Such models include PANEL predictions for the Child-Langmuir diode problem.
Estimation and Model Selection for Finite Mixtures of Latent Interaction Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsu, Jui-Chen
2011-01-01
Latent interaction models and mixture models have received considerable attention in social science research recently, but little is known about how to handle if unobserved population heterogeneity exists in the endogenous latent variables of the nonlinear structural equation models. The current study estimates a mixture of latent interaction…
How to model the interaction of charged Janus particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hieronimus, Reint; Raschke, Simon; Heuer, Andreas
2016-08-01
We analyze the interaction of charged Janus particles including screening effects. The explicit interaction is mapped via a least square method on a variable number n of systematically generated tensors that reflect the angular dependence of the potential. For n = 2 we show that the interaction is equivalent to a model previously described by Erdmann, Kröger, and Hess (EKH). Interestingly, this mapping is for n = 2 not able to capture the subtleties of the interaction for small screening lengths. Rather, a larger number of tensors has to be used. We find that the characteristics of the Janus type interaction plays an important role for the aggregation behavior. We obtained cluster structures up to the size of 13 particles for n = 2 and 36 and screening lengths κ-1 = 0.1 and 1.0 via Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of the screening length is analyzed and the structures are compared to results for an electrostatic-type potential and for the multipole-expanded Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We find that a dipole-like potential (EKH or dipole DLVO approximation) is not able to sufficiently reproduce the anisotropy effects of the potential. Instead, a higher order expansion has to be used to obtain cluster structures that are compatible with experimental observations. The resulting minimum-energy clusters are compared to those of sticky hard sphere systems. Janus particles with a short-range screened interaction resemble sticky hard sphere clusters for all considered particle numbers, whereas for long-range screening even very small clusters are structurally different.
Agent Based Modeling of Human Gut Microbiome Interactions and Perturbations
Shashkova, Tatiana; Popenko, Anna; Tyakht, Alexander; Peskov, Kirill; Kosinsky, Yuri; Bogolubsky, Lev; Raigorodskii, Andrei; Ischenko, Dmitry; Alexeev, Dmitry; Govorun, Vadim
2016-01-01
Background Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the human health. It is involved in the digestion and protects the host against external pathogens. Examination of the intestinal microbiome interactions is required for understanding of the community influence on host health. Studies of the microbiome can provide insight on methods of improving health, including specific clinical procedures for individual microbial community composition modification and microbiota correction by colonizing with new bacterial species or dietary changes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we report an agent-based model of interactions between two bacterial species and between species and the gut. The model is based on reactions describing bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides to acetate and propionate and fermentation of acetate to butyrate. Antibiotic treatment was chosen as disturbance factor and used to investigate stability of the system. System recovery after antibiotic treatment was analyzed as dependence on quantity of feedback interactions inside the community, therapy duration and amount of antibiotics. Bacterial species are known to mutate and acquire resistance to the antibiotics. The ability to mutate was considered to be a stochastic process, under this suggestion ratio of sensitive to resistant bacteria was calculated during antibiotic therapy and recovery. Conclusion/Significance The model confirms a hypothesis of feedbacks mechanisms necessity for providing functionality and stability of the system after disturbance. High fraction of bacterial community was shown to mutate during antibiotic treatment, though sensitive strains could become dominating after recovery. The recovery of sensitive strains is explained by fitness cost of the resistance. The model demonstrates not only quantitative dynamics of bacterial species, but also gives an ability to observe the emergent spatial structure and its alteration, depending on various feedback mechanisms
Making Other Worlds: Modelling Past Interactions of Agriculture and Erosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wainwright, J.
2012-04-01
It is argued that the understanding of past agricultural erosion has been greatly simplified because conceptual or numerical models have been used that emphasize the technical aspects of the erosion process, fail to recognize the spatial and temporal scaling of the erosion, and especially ignore the idea that such erosion is the result of multiple, interacting decisions made by people. While there have been significant developments in the first two of these areas over the last decade, there has been little explicit recognition of the third of these limitations. This problem is a consequence of the very different disciplinary approaches that are needed. One method that can be used to address this limitation is that of agent-based modelling. Agent-based models permit an explicit representation of how individuals or groups of individuals interact with each other and their environment. Furthermore, environmental changes can be fed back into agent behaviour, and other potential controls such as climate variations can be assessed. The CYBEROSION modelling framework has been developed to take this approach and evaluate patterns of erosion due to past land-use decision-making. Examples will be drawn from case studies in the Neolithic and Bronze Age, largely from the Mediterranean region. The emphasis is on modelling as a heuristic approach to understanding, rather than necessarily as a predictive tool. In particular, it provides guidance in relation to which parts of existing discipline-bound knowledge are needed to produce an explicit, interdisciplinary understanding of patterns of landscape change as a result of changing agricultural practice. Results from the case studies demonstrate how complex spatio-temporal patterns of past erosion can arise from relatively simple, local interactions between people and their environment. To conclude, will also be an assessment of more modern examples, as well as of related literature in archaeology, and geoarchaeology, and a
Galaxies and Genes: How to Model Interacting Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harfst, Stefan; Gerds, Christoph; Theis, Christian
The observed features of interacting galaxies (e.g. tidal tails) provide a lot of information on the dynamics of such a system. Dark matter halos, for example, play an important rôle for the dynamical evolution of galaxies so that they should obviously have perceptible effects on the interaction. Unfortunately, the problem of modeling interacting galaxies from observational data suffers from an extended parameter space. Recently it has been shown that a Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be applied to this problem (Wahde 1998; Theis 1999). The general idea of a GA is to mimic natural evolution: A population of individuals which correspond to single points in parameter space (i.e. single N-body simulations) is evolved according to the principle of ``survival of the fittest''. The fitness is calculated by a comparison of observed intensities with the numerical model. New populations are created by ``sexual reproduction'' whereas individuals with a higher fitness reproduce themselves more often. This breeding process is repeated until a sufficient fit is achieved. Until now the GA has been applied to a chosen reference model (i.e. a preferred set of parameters) as in the case of NGC 4449 (Theis 1999). An automatic procedure for the selection of a suitable set of parameters on the basis of observational data is highly desirable. A first step in order to achieve this goal is an ``idealized'' observation which can be computed from a self-consistent N-body simulation. By this not only the parameters of the interaction are in control but one can also adjust the quality of the observational data allowing to check the general applicability of the GA to observational data.
Laboratory modeling and analysis of aircraft-lightning interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, C. D.; Trost, T. F.
1982-01-01
Modeling studies of the interaction of a delta wing aircraft with direct lightning strikes were carried out using an approximate scale model of an F-106B. The model, which is three feet in length, is subjected to direct injection of fast current pulses supplied by wires, which simulate the lightning channel and are attached at various locations on the model. Measurements are made of the resulting transient electromagnetic fields using time derivative sensors. The sensor outputs are sampled and digitized by computer. The noise level is reduced by averaging the sensor output from ten input pulses at each sample time. Computer analysis of the measured fields includes Fourier transformation and the computation of transfer functions for the model. Prony analysis is also used to determine the natural frequencies of the model. Comparisons of model natural frequencies extracted by Prony analysis with those for in flight direct strike data usually show lower damping in the in flight case. This is indicative of either a lightning channel with a higher impedance than the wires on the model, only one attachment point, or short streamers instead of a long channel.
Confronting effective models for deconfinement in dense quark matter with lattice data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Jens O.; Brauner, Tomáš; Naylor, William R.
2015-12-01
Ab initio numerical simulations of the thermodynamics of dense quark matter remain a challenge. Apart from the infamous sign problem, lattice methods have to deal with finite volume and discretization effects as well as with the necessity to introduce sources for symmetry-breaking order parameters. We study these artifacts in the Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model and compare its predictions to existing lattice data for cold and dense two-color matter with two flavors of Wilson quarks. To achieve even qualitative agreement with lattice data requires the introduction of two novel elements in the model: (i) explicit chiral symmetry breaking in the effective contact four-fermion interaction, referred to as the chiral twist, and (ii) renormalization of the Polyakov loop. The feedback of the dense medium to the gauge sector is modeled by a chemical-potential-dependent scale in the Polyakov-loop potential. In contrast to previously used analytical Ansätze, we determine its dependence on the chemical potential from lattice data for the expectation value of the Polyakov loop. Finally, we propose adding a two-derivative operator to our effective model. This term acts as an additional source of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, mimicking an analogous term in the lattice Wilson action.
The Development in modeling Tibetan Plateau Land/Climate Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Yongkang; Liu, Ye; li, qian; Maheswor Shrestha, Maheswor; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Cox, Peter; Sun, shufen; Koike, Toshio
2015-04-01
Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an important role in influencing the continental and planetary scale climate, including East Asian and South Asian monsoon, circulation and precipitation over West Pacific and Indian Oceans. The numerical study has identified TP as the area with strongest land/atmosphere interactions over the midlatitude land. The land degradation there has also affected the monsoon precipitation in TP along the monsoon pathway. The water cycle there affects water sources for major Asian river systems, which include the Tarim, Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yellow, and Yangtze Rivers. Despite the importance of TP land process in the climate system, the TP land surface processes are poorly modeled due to lack of data available for model validation. To better understand, simulate, and project the role of Tibetan Plateau land surface processes, better parameterization of the Tibetan Land surface processes have been developed and evaluated. The recently available field measurement there and satellite observation have greatly helped this development. This paper presents these new developments and preliminary results using the newly developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, frozen soil model, and glacier model. In recent CMIP5 simulation, the CMIP5 models with dynamic vegetation model show poor performance in simulating the TP vegetation and climate. To better simulate the TP vegetation condition and its interaction with climate, we have developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4/Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID), based on water, carbon, and energy balance. The simulated vegetation variables are updates, driven by carbon assimilation, allocation, and accumulation, as well as competition between plant functional types. The model has been validated with the station data, including those measured over the TP
Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coogan, L. A.
2013-12-01
Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that
Periodic Striped Ground States in Ising Models with Competing Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert
2016-06-01
We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions, with short range ferromagnetic and long range, power-law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. We let J be the ratio between the strength of the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interactions. The competition between these two kinds of interactions induces the system to form domains of minus spins in a background of plus spins, or vice versa. If the decay exponent p of the long range interaction is larger than d + 1, with d the space dimension, this happens for all values of J smaller than a critical value J c (p), beyond which the ground state is homogeneous. In this paper, we give a characterization of the infinite volume ground states of the system, for p > 2d and J in a left neighborhood of J c (p). In particular, we prove that the quasi-one-dimensional states consisting of infinite stripes (d = 2) or slabs (d = 3), all of the same optimal width and orientation, and alternating magnetization, are infinite volume ground states. Our proof is based on localization bounds combined with reflection positivity.
Modeling Callisto's Interaction with the Jovian Magnetospheric Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liuzzo, L.; Feyerabend, M.; Simon, S.; Motschmann, U. M.
2015-12-01
The interaction of the Jovian magnetospheric environment with an atmosphere and induced dipole at Callisto is investigated by applying a hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulation code. Callisto is unique among the Galilean satellites in its interaction with the ambient magnetospheric plasma as the gyroradii of the impinging plasma and pickup ions are large compared to the size of the moon. A kinetic representation of the ions is therefore mandatory to adequately describe the resulting asymmetries in the electromagnetic fields and the deflection of the plasma flow near Callisto. When Callisto is embedded in the magnetodisk lobes of Jupiter, a dipolar magnetic field is generated via induction in a subsurface ocean. This field creates an obstacle to the impinging magnetospheric plasma flow at the moon. However, when Callisto is located near the center of the Jovian current sheet, local magnetic perturbations due to the magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction are more than twice the strength of the background field and may therefore obscure any magnetic signal generated via induction in a subsurface ocean. Our simulations demonstrate that the deflection of the magnetospheric plasma into Callisto's wake cannot alone explain the plasma density enhancement of two orders of magnitude measured in the wake of the interaction region during Galileo flybys of the moon. However, through inclusion of an ionosphere around Callisto, modeled densities in the wake are consistent with in situ measurements.
Freed by interaction kinetic states in the Harper model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2015-12-01
We study the problem of two interacting particles in a one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice of the Harper model. We show that a short or long range interaction between particles leads to emergence of delocalized pairs in the non-interacting localized phase. The properties of these freed by interaction kinetic states (FIKS) are analyzed numerically including the advanced Arnoldi method. We find that the number of sites populated by FIKS pairs grows algebraically with the system size with the maximal exponent b = 1, up to a largest lattice size N = 10 946 reached in our numerical simulations, thus corresponding to a complete delocalization of pairs. For delocalized FIKS pairs the spectral properties of such quasiperiodic operators represent a deep mathematical problem. We argue that FIKS pairs can be detected in the framework of recent cold atom experiments [M. Schreiber et al., Science 349, 842 (2015)] by a simple setup modification. We also discuss possible implications of FIKS pairs for electron transport in the regime of charge-density wave and high T c superconductivity.
Resonating valence bond wave functions and classical interacting dimer models.
Damle, Kedar; Dhar, Deepak; Ramola, Kabir
2012-06-15
We relate properties of nearest-neighbor resonating valence-bond (NNRVB) wave functions for SU(g) spin systems on two-dimensional bipartite lattices to those of fully packed interacting classical dimer models on the same lattice. The interaction energy can be expressed as a sum of n-body potentials V(n), which are recursively determined from the NNRVB wave function on finite subgraphs of the original lattice. The magnitude of the n-body interaction V(n) (n>1) is of order O(g(-(n-1))) for small g(-1). The leading term is a two-body nearest-neighbor interaction V2(g) favoring two parallel dimers on elementary plaquettes. For SU(2) spins, using our calculated value of V2(g=2), we find that the long-distance behavior of the bond-energy correlation function is dominated by an oscillatory term that decays as 1/|r|α with α≈1.22. This result is in remarkable quantitative agreement with earlier direct numerical studies of the corresponding wave function, which give α≈1.20. PMID:23004328
Modeling the Interaction between AFM Tips and Pinned Surface Nanobubbles.
Guo, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yawei; Xiao, Qianxiang; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Xianren
2016-01-26
Although the morphology of surface nanobubbles has been studied widely with different AFM modes, AFM images may not reflect the real shapes of the nanobubbles due to AFM tip-nanobubble interactions. In addition, the interplay between surface nanobubble deformation and induced capillary force has not been well understood in this context. In our work we used constraint lattice density functional theory to investigate the interaction between AFM tips and pinned surface nanobubbles systematically, especially concentrating on the effects of tip hydrophilicity and shape. For a hydrophilic tip contacting a nanobubble, its hydrophilic nature facilitates its departure from the bubble surface, displaying a weak and intermediate-range attraction. However, when the tip squeezes the nanobubble during the approach process, the nanobubble shows an elastic effect that prevents the tip from penetrating the bubble, leading to a strong nanobubble deformation and repulsive interactions. On the contrary, a hydrophobic tip can easily pierce the vapor-liquid interface of the nanobubble during the approach process, leading to the disappearance of the repulsive force. In the retraction process, however, the adhesion between the tip and the nanobubble leads to a much stronger lengthening effect on nanobubble deformation and a strong long-range attractive force. The trends of force evolution from our simulations agree qualitatively well with recent experimental AFM observations. This favorable agreement demonstrates that our model catches the main intergradient of tip-nanobubble interactions for pinned surface nanobubbles and may therefore provide important insight into how to design minimally invasive AFM experiments. PMID:26751634
Harnessing your GPU for interactive immersive oceanographic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, A. J.; Moore, C. W.
2011-12-01
We report on recent success using GPU for interactive Lagrangian (fish) and Eulerian (tsunami) modeling of marine systems. Lagrangian analyses based on numerical float tracks are a fundamental tool in hydrodynamic and marine biological modeling. In particular, spatially-explicit individual-based models (IBMs) can be used to explore how changes in coastal circulation affect fish recruitment, and 3D viewing of the results leads to new insights regarding the effects of behavior on spatial path. One limit to the usefulness of this modeling approach is the latency between submission of a run and examination of the results, especially when a large (i.e. statistically meaningful) number of individuals are being tracked through finely resolved current and scalar fields. Since float tracking is an inherently parallel problem, the hundreds of cores available in modern graphics cards (GPU) can readily increase the performance of suitably adapted code by two orders of magnitude at low cost. This offers a way forward to achieve interactive submission/examination of IBMs (and float tracks in general), even on a laptop computer. Latency is an even larger issue in tsunami forecasting, where there is a need to run simple deep-ocean shallow water wave models in real time, particularly during an event when tsunamigenic earthquake events occur outside known fault zones. This problem, too, lends itself to dramatic speedup via GPU, given a suitable parallel algorithm for the shallow water solver. Here we demonstrate successful model speedup using GPU-adapted code for: 1) a spatially explicit IBM prototype, based on pre-stored circulation model output for the Bering Sea; 2) real-time runs of tsunami propagation. In both cases, results will be presented using the stereo-immersive capabilities of the graphics card, for 3D animation.
Porphyromonas gingivalis-host interactions in a Drosophila melanogaster model.
Igboin, Christina O; Tordoff, Kevin P; Moeschberger, Melvin L; Griffen, Ann L; Leys, Eugene J
2011-01-01
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative obligate anaerobe that has been implicated in the etiology of adult periodontitis. We recently introduced a Drosophila melanogaster killing model for examination of P. gingivalis-host interactions. In the current study, the Drosophila killing model was used to characterize the host response to P. gingivalis infection by identifying host components that play a role during infection. Drosophila immune response gene mutants were screened for altered susceptibility to killing by P. gingivalis. The Imd signaling pathway was shown to be important for the survival of Drosophila infected by nonencapsulated P. gingivalis strains but was dispensable for the survival of Drosophila infected by encapsulated P. gingivalis strains. The P. gingivalis capsule was shown to mediate resistance to killing by Drosophila antimicrobial peptides (Imd pathway-regulated cecropinA and drosocin) and human beta-defensin 3. Drosophila thiol-ester protein II (Tep II) and Tep IV and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homolog Eiger were also involved in the immune response against P. gingivalis infection, while the scavenger receptors Eater and Croquemort played no roles in the response to P. gingivalis infection. This study demonstrates that the Drosophila killing model is a useful high-throughput model for characterizing the host response to P. gingivalis infection and uncovering novel interactions between the bacterium and the host. PMID:21041486
Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient
Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl
2015-04-01
A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.
Modeling the interactions between pathogenic bacteria, bacteriophage and immune response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Chung Yin (Joey); Weitz, Joshua S.
The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in the use of bacteriophage (phage), or virus that infects bacteria, as a therapeutic agent against bacterial infections. However, little is known about the theoretical mechanism by which phage therapy may work. In particular, interactions between the bacteria, the phage and the host immune response crucially influences the outcome of the therapy. Few models of phage therapy have incorporated all these three components, and existing models suffer from unrealistic assumptions such as unbounded growth of the immune response. We propose a model of phage therapy with an emphasis on nonlinear feedback arising from interactions with bacteria and the immune response. Our model shows a synergistic effect between the phage and the immune response which underlies a possible mechanism for phage to catalyze the elimination of bacteria even when neither the immune response nor phage could do so alone. We study the significance of this effect for different parameters of infection and immune response, and discuss its implications for phage therapy.
RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis
2010-01-01
This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!
Change point testing in logistic regression models with interaction term.
Fong, Youyi; Di, Chongzhi; Permar, Sallie
2015-04-30
A threshold effect takes place in situations where the relationship between an outcome variable and a predictor variable changes as the predictor value crosses a certain threshold/change point. Threshold effects are often plausible in a complex biological system, especially in defining immune responses that are protective against infections such as HIV-1, which motivates the current work. We study two hypothesis testing problems in change point models. We first compare three different approaches to obtaining a p-value for the maximum of scores test in a logistic regression model with change point variable as a main effect. Next, we study the testing problem in a logistic regression model with the change point variable both as a main effect and as part of an interaction term. We propose a test based on the maximum of likelihood ratios test statistic and obtain its reference distribution through a Monte Carlo method. We also propose a maximum of weighted scores test that can be more powerful than the maximum of likelihood ratios test when we know the direction of the interaction effect. In simulation studies, we show that the proposed tests have a correct type I error and higher power than several existing methods. We illustrate the application of change point model-based testing methods in a recent study of immune responses that are associated with the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV-1. PMID:25612253
Reduced quasilinear models for energetic particles interaction with Alfvenic eigenmodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghantous, Katy
The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) and the 1.5D reduced models are able to predict the effect of Alfvenic eigenmodes' interaction with energetic particles in burning plasmas. This interaction can result in energetic-particle losses that can damage the first wall, deteriorate the plasma performance, and even prevent ignition. The 1.5D model assumes a broad spectrum of overlapping modes and, based on analytic expressions for the growth and damping rates, calculates the pressure profiles that the energetic particles relax to upon interacting with the modes. 1.5D is validated with DIII-D experiments and predicted neutron losses consistent with observation. The model is employed to predict alpha-particle fusion-product losses in a large-scale operational parameter-space for burning plasmas. The LBQ model captures the interaction both in the regime of isolated modes as well as in the conventional regime of overlapping modes. Rules were established that allow quasilinear equations to replicate the expected steady-state saturation levels of isolated modes. The fitting formula is improved and the model is benchmarked with a Vlasov code, BOT. The saturation levels are accurately predicted and the mode evolution is well-replicated in the case of steady-state evolution where the collisions are high enough that coherent structures do not form. When the collisionality is low, oscillatory behavior can occur. LBQ can also exhibit non-steady behavior, but the onset of oscillations occurs for much higher collisional rates in BOT than in LBQ. For certain parameters of low collisionality, hole-clump creation and frequency chirping can occur which are not captured by the LBQ model. Also, there are cases of non-steady evolution without chirping which is possible for LBQ to study. However the results are inconclusive since the periods and amplitudes of the oscillations in the mode evolution are not well-replicated. If multiple modes exist, they can grow to the point of overlap which
A Human View Model for Socio-Technical Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Handley, Holly A.; Tolk, Andreas
2012-01-01
The Human View was developed as an additional architectural viewpoint to focus on the human part of a system. The Human View can be used to collect and organize data in order to understand how human operators interact and impact the other elements of a system. This framework can also be used to develop a model to describe how humans interact with each other in network enabled systems. These socio-technical interactions form the foundation of the emerging area of Human Interoperability. Human Interoperability strives to understand the relationships required between human operators that impact collaboration across networked environments, including the effect of belonging to different organizations. By applying organizational relationship concepts from network theory to the Human View elements, and aligning these relationships with a model developed to identify layers of coalition interoperability, the conditions for different levels for Human Interoperability for network enabled systems can be identified. These requirements can then be captured in the Human View products to improve the overall network enabled system.
Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.
Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A
2015-08-15
Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25998000
Group chase and escape model with chasers' interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Takuya; Nakamura, Tomomichi; Ohira, Toru
2016-04-01
Group chase and escape is a new direction of studying collective behaviors merged with the traditional mathematical problems of chases and escapes proposed by Kamimura and Ohira in 2010. In their model, the chasers recognize only the escapees and pursue the nearest neighbor escapee, and the escapees recognize only the chasers and flee from the nearest neighbor chaser. We call the basic moving rule the nearest opponent interaction (NOI) strategy. In this paper we introduce a new strategy in the model. It is a local interaction that the chasers do not get too close each other, where we call the chasers' local interaction (CLI) strategy. The result of comparisons of the two strategies shows that when the number of the chasers is relatively small compared to the number of the escapees, the trapping time by the CLI strategy is much shorter than that by the NOI strategy. On the other hand, when the number of the chasers is larger than that of the escapees, this advantage of the CLI strategy does not appear. Also, we find that although chasers form clusters (spatial aggregates of chasers) when we apply the NOI strategy, the clusters appear less when we apply the CLI strategy.
Baryon-Baryon Interactions ---Nijmegen Extended-Soft-Core Models---
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rijken, T. A.; Nagels, M. M.; Yamamoto, Y.
We review the Nijmegen extended-soft-core (ESC) models for the baryon-baryon (BB) interactions of the SU(3) flavor-octet of baryons (N, Lambda, Sigma, and Xi). The interactions are basically studied from the meson-exchange point of view, in the spirit of the Yukawa-approach to the nuclear force problem [H. Yukawa, ``On the interaction of Elementary Particles I'', Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan 17 (1935), 48], using generalized soft-core Yukawa-functions. These interactions are supplemented with (i) multiple-gluon-exchange, and (ii) structural effects due to the quark-core of the baryons. We present in some detail the most recent extended-soft-core model, henceforth referred to as ESC08, which is the most complete, sophisticated, and successful interaction-model. Furthermore, we discuss briefly its predecessor the ESC04-model [Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. C 73 (2006), 044007; Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, Ph ys. Rev. C 73 (2006), 044008; Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, nucl-th/0608074]. For the soft-core one-boson-exchange (OBE) models we refer to the literature [Th. A. Rijken, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quebec, 1974, ed. R. J. Slobodrian, B. Cuec and R. Ramavataram (Presses Universitè Laval, Quebec, 1975), p. 136; Th. A. Rijken, Ph. D. thesis, University of Nijmegen, 1975; M. M. Nagels, Th. A. Rijken and J. J. de Swart, Phys. Rev. D 17 (1978), 768; P. M. M. Maessen, Th. A. Rijken and J. J. de Swart, Phys. Rev. C 40 (1989), 2226; Th. A. Rijken, V. G. J. Stoks and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. C 59 (1999), 21; V. G. J. Stoks and Th. A. Rijken, Phys. Rev. C 59 (1999), 3009]. All ingredients of these latter models are also part of ESC08, and so a description of ESC08 comprises all models so far in principle. The extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions consist of local- and non-local-potentials due to (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of
Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grames, Johanna; Grass, Dieter; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günther
2015-04-01
Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy, water and population dynamics. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre, 2013, Viglione, 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This is the first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events: Investments in defense capital can avoid floods even when the water level is high, but on the other hand such investment competes with investment in productive capital and hence may reduce the level of consumption. When floods occur, the flood damage therefore depends on the existing defense capital. The aim is to find an optimal tradeoff between investments in productive versus defense capital such as to optimize the stream of consumption in the long-term. We assume a non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function (Yevjevich et.al. 1990, Zakaria 2001) which implies that the long-term equilibrium will be periodic . With our model we aim to derive mechanisms that allow consumption smoothing in the long term, and at the same time allow for optimal investment in flood defense to maximize economic output. We choose an aggregate welfare function that depends on the consumption level of the society as the objective function. I.e. we assume a social planer with perfect foresight that maximizes the aggregate welfare function. Within our model framework we can also study whether the path and level of defense capital (that protects people from floods) is related to the time preference rate of the social planner. Our model also allows to investigate how the frequency
A Network Synthesis Model for Generating Protein Interaction Network Families
Sahraeian, Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim; Yoon, Byung-Jun
2012-01-01
In this work, we introduce a novel network synthesis model that can generate families of evolutionarily related synthetic protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks. Given an ancestral network, the proposed model generates the network family according to a hypothetical phylogenetic tree, where the descendant networks are obtained through duplication and divergence of their ancestors, followed by network growth using network evolution models. We demonstrate that this network synthesis model can effectively create synthetic networks whose internal and cross-network properties closely resemble those of real PPI networks. The proposed model can serve as an effective framework for generating comprehensive benchmark datasets that can be used for reliable performance assessment of comparative network analysis algorithms. Using this model, we constructed a large-scale network alignment benchmark, called NAPAbench, and evaluated the performance of several representative network alignment algorithms. Our analysis clearly shows the relative performance of the leading network algorithms, with their respective advantages and disadvantages. The algorithm and source code of the network synthesis model and the network alignment benchmark NAPAbench are publicly available at http://www.ece.tamu.edu/bjyoon/NAPAbench/. PMID:22912671
Kernel Method Based Human Model for Enhancing Interactive Evolutionary Optimization
Zhao, Qiangfu; Liu, Yong
2015-01-01
A fitness landscape presents the relationship between individual and its reproductive success in evolutionary computation (EC). However, discrete and approximate landscape in an original search space may not support enough and accurate information for EC search, especially in interactive EC (IEC). The fitness landscape of human subjective evaluation in IEC is very difficult and impossible to model, even with a hypothesis of what its definition might be. In this paper, we propose a method to establish a human model in projected high dimensional search space by kernel classification for enhancing IEC search. Because bivalent logic is a simplest perceptual paradigm, the human model is established by considering this paradigm principle. In feature space, we design a linear classifier as a human model to obtain user preference knowledge, which cannot be supported linearly in original discrete search space. The human model is established by this method for predicting potential perceptual knowledge of human. With the human model, we design an evolution control method to enhance IEC search. From experimental evaluation results with a pseudo-IEC user, our proposed model and method can enhance IEC search significantly. PMID:25879050
Interaction of multiple biomimetic antimicrobial polymers with model bacterial membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baul, Upayan; Kuroda, Kenichi; Vemparala, Satyavani
2014-08-01
Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, interaction of multiple synthetic random copolymers based on methacrylates on prototypical bacterial membranes is investigated. The simulations show that the cationic polymers form a micellar aggregate in water phase and the aggregate, when interacting with the bacterial membrane, induces clustering of oppositely charged anionic lipid molecules to form clusters and enhances ordering of lipid chains. The model bacterial membrane, consequently, develops lateral inhomogeneity in membrane thickness profile compared to polymer-free system. The individual polymers in the aggregate are released into the bacterial membrane in a phased manner and the simulations suggest that the most probable location of the partitioned polymers is near the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) clusters. The partitioned polymers preferentially adopt facially amphiphilic conformations at lipid-water interface, despite lacking intrinsic secondary structures such as α-helix or β-sheet found in naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides.
Probabilistic Multi-Factor Interaction Model for Complex Material Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.
2008-01-01
The Multi-Factor Interaction Model (MFIM) is used to evaluate the divot weight (foam weight ejected) from the launch external tanks. The multi-factor has sufficient degrees of freedom to evaluate a large number of factors that may contribute to the divot ejection. It also accommodates all interactions by its product form. Each factor has an exponent that satisfies only two points the initial and final points. The exponent describes a monotonic path from the initial condition to the final. The exponent values are selected so that the described path makes sense in the absence of experimental data. In the present investigation, the data used was obtained by testing simulated specimens in launching conditions. Results show that the MFIM is an effective method of describing the divot weight ejected under the conditions investigated.
Probabilistic Multi-Factor Interaction Model for Complex Material Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.
2008-01-01
The Multi-Factor Interaction Model (MFIM) is used to evaluate the divot weight (foam weight ejected) from the launch external tanks. The multi-factor has sufficient degrees of freedom to evaluate a large number of factors that may contribute to the divot ejection. It also accommodates all interactions by its product form. Each factor has an exponent that satisfies only two points, the initial and final points. The exponent describes a monotonic path from the initial condition to the final. The exponent values are selected so that the described path makes sense in the absence of experimental data. In the present investigation the data used was obtained by testing simulated specimens in launching conditions. Results show that the MFIM is an effective method of describing the divot weight ejected under the conditions investigated.
Interactions of model biomolecules. Benchmark CC calculations within MOLCAS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urban, Miroslav; PitoÅák, Michal; Neogrády, Pavel; Dedíková, Pavlína; Hobza, Pavel
2015-01-01
We present results using the OVOS approach (Optimized Virtual Orbitals Space) aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the Coupled Cluster calculations. This approach allows to reduce the total computer time required for large-scale CCSD(T) calculations about ten times when the original full virtual space is reduced to about 50% of its original size without affecting the accuracy. The method is implemented in the MOLCAS computer program. When combined with the Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals and suitable parallelization it allows calculations which were formerly prohibitively too demanding. We focused ourselves to accurate calculations of the hydrogen bonded and the stacking interactions of the model biomolecules. Interaction energies of the formaldehyde, formamide, benzene, and uracil dimers and the three-body contributions in the cytosine - guanine tetramer are presented. Other applications, as the electron affinity of the uracil affected by solvation are also shortly mentioned.
Interaction of multiple biomimetic antimicrobial polymers with model bacterial membranes
Baul, Upayan Vemparala, Satyavani; Kuroda, Kenichi
2014-08-28
Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, interaction of multiple synthetic random copolymers based on methacrylates on prototypical bacterial membranes is investigated. The simulations show that the cationic polymers form a micellar aggregate in water phase and the aggregate, when interacting with the bacterial membrane, induces clustering of oppositely charged anionic lipid molecules to form clusters and enhances ordering of lipid chains. The model bacterial membrane, consequently, develops lateral inhomogeneity in membrane thickness profile compared to polymer-free system. The individual polymers in the aggregate are released into the bacterial membrane in a phased manner and the simulations suggest that the most probable location of the partitioned polymers is near the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) clusters. The partitioned polymers preferentially adopt facially amphiphilic conformations at lipid-water interface, despite lacking intrinsic secondary structures such as α-helix or β-sheet found in naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides.
Interactions of model biomolecules. Benchmark CC calculations within MOLCAS
Urban, Miroslav; Pitoňák, Michal; Neogrády, Pavel; Dedíková, Pavlína; Hobza, Pavel
2015-01-22
We present results using the OVOS approach (Optimized Virtual Orbitals Space) aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the Coupled Cluster calculations. This approach allows to reduce the total computer time required for large-scale CCSD(T) calculations about ten times when the original full virtual space is reduced to about 50% of its original size without affecting the accuracy. The method is implemented in the MOLCAS computer program. When combined with the Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals and suitable parallelization it allows calculations which were formerly prohibitively too demanding. We focused ourselves to accurate calculations of the hydrogen bonded and the stacking interactions of the model biomolecules. Interaction energies of the formaldehyde, formamide, benzene, and uracil dimers and the three-body contributions in the cytosine – guanine tetramer are presented. Other applications, as the electron affinity of the uracil affected by solvation are also shortly mentioned.
Interacting ghost dark energy models with variable G and Λ
Sadeghi, J.; Farahani, H.; Khurshudyan, M.; Movsisyan, A. E-mail: martiros.khurshudyan@nano.cnr.it E-mail: h.farahani@umz.ac.ir
2013-12-01
In this paper we consider several phenomenological models of variable Λ. Model of a flat Universe with variable Λ and G is accepted. It is well known, that varying G and Λ gives rise to modified field equations and modified conservation laws, which gives rise to many different manipulations and assumptions in literature. We will consider two component fluid, which parameters will enter to Λ. Interaction between fluids with energy densities ρ{sub 1} and ρ{sub 2} assumed as Q = 3Hb(ρ{sub 1}+ρ{sub 2}). We have numerical analyze of important cosmological parameters like EoS parameter of the composed fluid and deceleration parameter q of the model.
Cloud-radiation interactions and their parameterization in climate models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
This report contains papers from the International Workshop on Cloud-Radiation Interactions and Their Parameterization in Climate Models met on 18-20 October 1993 in Camp Springs, Maryland, USA. It was organized by the Joint Working Group on Clouds and Radiation of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. Recommendations were grouped into three broad areas: (1) general circulation models (GCMs), (2) satellite studies, and (3) process studies. Each of the panels developed recommendations on the themes of the workshop. Explicitly or implicitly, each panel independently recommended observations of basic cloud microphysical properties (water content, phase, size) on the scales resolved by GCMs. Such observations are necessary to validate cloud parameterizations in GCMs, to use satellite data to infer radiative forcing in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface, and to refine the process models which are used to develop advanced cloud parameterizations.
Modeling the interaction between convection and nonthermal ion outflows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M.; Lotko, W.
2015-03-01
Initial demonstrations of an ionosphere/polar wind model including a phenomenological treatment of transverse heating by wave particle interactions (WPIs) are presented. Tests with fixed WPI parameters in a designated heating region on the dayside with time-varying convection show that the parameters of the resulting nonthermal ion outflow are strongly coupled to the convection. The hemispheric outflow rate is positively correlated with the convection speed with a time delay related to the travel time to the upper boundary. Increases in convection increase the thermal plasma access to the heating region, both by increasing the upflow associated with frictional heating and by increasing the horizontal transport. The average parallel velocities and energies of the escaping nonthermal ions are anticorrelated with the convection speed due to the finite dwell time in the heating region. The computationally efficient model can be readily coupled into global geospace modeling frameworks in the future.
Vapor mediated droplet interactions - models and mechanisms (Part 2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu
2014-11-01
When deposited on clean glass a two-component binary mixture of propylene glycol and water is energetically inclined to spread, as both pure liquids do. Instead the mixture forms droplets stabilized by evaporation induced surface tension gradients, giving them unique properties such as negligible hysteresis. When two of these special droplets are deposited several radii apart they attract each other. The vapor from one droplet destabilizes the other, resulting in an attraction force which brings both droplets together. We present a flux-based model for droplet stabilization and a model which connects the vapor profile to net force. These simple models capture the static and dynamic experimental trends, and our fundamental understanding of these droplets and their interactions allowed us to build autonomous fluidic machines.
On the earthquake predictability of fault interaction models
Marzocchi, W; Melini, D
2014-01-01
Space-time clustering is the most striking departure of large earthquakes occurrence process from randomness. These clusters are usually described ex-post by a physics-based model in which earthquakes are triggered by Coulomb stress changes induced by other surrounding earthquakes. Notwithstanding the popularity of this kind of modeling, its ex-ante skill in terms of earthquake predictability gain is still unknown. Here we show that even in synthetic systems that are rooted on the physics of fault interaction using the Coulomb stress changes, such a kind of modeling often does not increase significantly earthquake predictability. Earthquake predictability of a fault may increase only when the Coulomb stress change induced by a nearby earthquake is much larger than the stress changes caused by earthquakes on other faults and by the intrinsic variability of the earthquake occurrence process. PMID:26074643
An interactive three-dimensional nose model for rhinosurgery.
Heppt, Werner Johannes; Godbersen, Heinrich; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2013-04-01
The motivation behind the development of a new interactive three-dimensional (3D) model of the cartilaginous and bony framework of the nose originated from the significant demand for sophisticated patient communication and for accurate documentation of the surgical steps in rhinoplasty. Basically, the model consists of three features--the viewer function, the freehand function, and default applications--enabling the surgeon to replicate fundamental compilations of findings and to graphically document operative measures easily. The user is able to save all graphics in two-dimensional format and allocate them to patient files. Because the application was designed to be sufficiently universal without being too complex, the 3D model provides a well-balanced mix between freehand and default functions, representing the consistent development of currently available tools. PMID:23564244
Cloud-radiation interactions and their parameterization in climate models
1994-11-01
This report contains papers from the International Workshop on Cloud-Radiation Interactions and Their Parameterization in Climate Models met on 18--20 October 1993 in Camp Springs, Maryland, USA. It was organized by the Joint Working Group on Clouds and Radiation of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. Recommendations were grouped into three broad areas: (1) general circulation models (GCMs), (2) satellite studies, and (3) process studies. Each of the panels developed recommendations on the. themes of the workshop. Explicitly or implicitly, each panel independently recommended observations of basic cloud microphysical properties (water content, phase, size) on the scales resolved by GCMs. Such observations are necessary to validate cloud parameterizations in GCMs, to use satellite data to infer radiative forcing in the atmosphere and at the earth`s surface, and to refine the process models which are used to develop advanced cloud parameterizations.
Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caputa, Krzysztof
Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere
Phospholipid interactions in model membrane systems. I. Experiments on monolayers.
Mingins, J; Stigter, D; Dill, K A
1992-01-01
We study the lateral headgroup interactions among phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules and among phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecules in monolayers and extend our previous models. In this paper, we present an extensive set of pressure-area isotherms and surface potential experiments on monolayers of phospholipids ranging from 14 to 22 carbons in length at the n-heptane/water interface, over a wide range of temperature, salt concentration, and pH on the acid side. The pressure data presented here are a considerable extension of previous data (1) to higher surface densities, comprehensively checked for monolayer loss, and include new data on PE molecules. We explore surface densities ranging from extremely low to intermediate, near to the main phase transition, in which range the surface pressures and potentials are found to be independent of the chain length. Thus, these data bear directly on the headgroup interactions. These interactions are observed to be independent of ionic strength. PC and PE molecules differ strongly in two respects: (a) the lateral repulsion among PC molecules is much stronger than for PE, and (b) the lateral repulsion among PC molecules increases strongly with temperature whereas PE interactions are almost independent of temperature. Similarly, the surface potential for PC is found to increase with temperature whereas for PE it does not. In this and the following paper we show that these data from dilute to semidilute monolayers are consistent with a theoretical model that predicts that, independent of coverage, for PC the P-N+ dipole is oriented slightly into the oil phase because of the hydrophobicity of the methyl groups, increasingly so with temperature, whereas for PE the P-N+ dipole is directed into the water phase. PMID:1617140
Parametric Model for Astrophysical Proton-Proton Interactions and Applications
Karlsson, Niklas
2007-01-01
Observations of gamma-rays have been made from celestial sources such as active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts and supernova remnants as well as the Galactic ridge. The study of gamma rays can provide information about production mechanisms and cosmic-ray acceleration. In the high-energy regime, one of the dominant mechanisms for gamma-ray production is the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of ultra-relativistic cosmic-ray nuclei and interstellar matter. Presented here is a parametric model for calculations of inclusive cross sections and transverse momentum distributions for secondary particles--gamma rays, e^{±}, v_{e}, $\\bar{v}$_{e}, v_{μ} and $\\bar{μ}$_{e}--produced in proton-proton interactions. This parametric model is derived on the proton-proton interaction model proposed by Kamae et al.; it includes the diffraction dissociation process, Feynman-scaling violation and the logarithmically rising inelastic proton-proton cross section. To improve fidelity to experimental data for lower energies, two baryon resonance excitation processes were added; one representing the Δ(1232) and the other multiple resonances with masses around 1600 MeV/c^{2}. The model predicts the power-law spectral index for all secondary particle to be about 0.05 lower in absolute value than that of the incident proton and their inclusive cross sections to be larger than those predicted by previous models based on the Feynman-scaling hypothesis. The applications of the presented model in astrophysics are plentiful. It has been implemented into the Galprop code to calculate the contribution due to pion decays in the Galactic plane. The model has also been used to estimate the cosmic-ray flux in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on HI, CO and gamma-ray observations. The transverse momentum distributions enable calculations when the proton distribution is anisotropic. It is shown that the gamma-ray spectrum and flux due to a
Interactive model evaluation tool based on IPython notebook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balemans, Sophie; Van Hoey, Stijn; Nopens, Ingmar; Seuntjes, Piet
2015-04-01
In hydrological modelling, some kind of parameter optimization is mostly performed. This can be the selection of a single best parameter set, a split in behavioural and non-behavioural parameter sets based on a selected threshold or a posterior parameter distribution derived with a formal Bayesian approach. The selection of the criterion to measure the goodness of fit (likelihood or any objective function) is an essential step in all of these methodologies and will affect the final selected parameter subset. Moreover, the discriminative power of the objective function is also dependent from the time period used. In practice, the optimization process is an iterative procedure. As such, in the course of the modelling process, an increasing amount of simulations is performed. However, the information carried by these simulation outputs is not always fully exploited. In this respect, we developed and present an interactive environment that enables the user to intuitively evaluate the model performance. The aim is to explore the parameter space graphically and to visualize the impact of the selected objective function on model behaviour. First, a set of model simulation results is loaded along with the corresponding parameter sets and a data set of the same variable as the model outcome (mostly discharge). The ranges of the loaded parameter sets define the parameter space. A selection of the two parameters visualised can be made by the user. Furthermore, an objective function and a time period of interest need to be selected. Based on this information, a two-dimensional parameter response surface is created, which actually just shows a scatter plot of the parameter combinations and assigns a color scale corresponding with the goodness of fit of each parameter combination. Finally, a slider is available to change the color mapping of the points. Actually, the slider provides a threshold to exclude non behaviour parameter sets and the color scale is only attributed to the
Modeling of Fluid-Membrane Interaction in Cellular Microinjection Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Diaz, Jhon; Olgac, Nejat; Fan, Tai-Hsi
2009-11-01
Cellular microinjection is a well-accepted method to deliver matters such as sperm, nucleus, or macromolecules into biological cells. To improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization and to establish the ideal operating conditions for a novel computer controlled rotationally oscillating intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology, we investigate the fluid-membrane interactions in the ICSI procedure. The procedure consists of anchoring the oocyte (a developing egg) using a holding pipette, penetrating oocyte's zona pellucida (the outer membrane) and the oolemma (the plasma or inner membrane) using an injection micropipette, and finally to deliver sperm into the oocyte for fertilization. To predict the large deformation of the oocyte membranes up to the piercing of the oolemma and the motion of fluids across both membranes, the dynamic fluid-pipette-membrane interactions are formulated by the coupled Stokes' equations and the continuum membrane model based on Helfrich's energy theory. A boundary integral model is developed to simulate the transient membrane deformation and the local membrane stress induced by the longitudinal motion of the injection pipette. The model captures the essential features of the membranes shown on optical images of ICSI experiments, and is capable of suggesting the optimal deformation level of the oolemma to start the rotational oscillations for piercing into the oolemma.
Collaborative modelling for interactive participation in urban flood risk management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evers, M.
2012-04-01
This paper presents an attempt to enhance the role of local stakeholders in dealing with urban floods. The concept is based on the DIANE-CM project (Decentralised Integrated Analysis and Enhancement of Awareness through Collaborative Modelling and Management of Flood Risk) of the ERANET CRUE programme. The main objective of the project was to develop and test the advanced methodology for enhancing the resilience of the local communities to flooding by a participative and interactive approach. Through collaborative modelling, a social learning process was initiated which will enhance the social capacity of the stakeholders due to the interaction process. The other aim of the project was to better understand how data from hazard and vulnerability analyses and improved maps, as well as from the near real time flood prediction, can be used to initiate a public dialogue (i.e. collaborative mapping and planning activities) in order to carry out more informed and shared decision making processes and to enhance flood risk awareness - which will improve the flood resilience situation. The concept of collaborative modelling was applied in two case studies: (1) the Roding river/Cranbrook catchment in the UK, with focus on pluvial flooding, and (2) the Alster catchment in Germany, with focus on fluvial flooding.
Determining Interactions in PSA models: Application to a Space PSA
C. Smith; E. Borgonovo
2010-06-01
This paper addresses use of an importance measure interaction study of a probabilistic risk analysis (PSA) performed for a hypothetical aerospace lunar mission. The PSA methods used in this study follow the general guidance provided in the NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment Procedures Guide for NASA Managers and Practitioners. For the PSA portion, we used phased-based event tree and fault tree logic structures are used to model a lunar mission, including multiple phases (from launch to return to the Earth surface) and multiple critical systems. Details of the analysis results are not provided in this paper – instead specific basic events are denoted by number (e.g., the first event is 1, the second is 2, and so on). However, in the model, we used approximately 150 fault trees and over 800 basic events. Following analysis and truncation of cut sets, we were left with about 400 basic events to evaluate. We used this model to explore interactions between different basic events and systems. These sensitivity studies provide high-level insights into features of the PSA for the hypothetical lunar mission.
Local interaction modeling for acousto-ultrasonic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, B. C.; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.
2002-07-01
Damage detection in metallic structures has been the subject of many investigations. Recent developments have shown applications of acousto-ultrasonic and Lamb wave testing. Lamb wave inspection is based on theory of longitudinal waves propagating in plates. In general, the principles of acousto-ultrasonic and Lamb wave inspection techniques are similar. Damage in a structure is identified by a change in the output signal. Previous studies show that even simple input signals can lead to complex output waves, which are difficult to interpret. It is clear that knowledge and understanding of wave propagation in analyzed structures can ease the interpretation of damage detection results. The paper reports an application of local interaction modeling of acousto-ultrasonic waves in metallic structures. The focus of the analysis is on one-dimensional interactions between different material boundaries. This includes modeling of acousto-ultrasonic waves in piezoceramic, adhesive glue and copper in an actuator/sensor configuration. The study also involves experimental validation of the simulation results. The method shows the potential for modeling of acousto-ultrasonic waves in complex media for damage detection applications.
Modeling Dark Energy Through AN Ising Fluid with Network Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luongo, Orlando; Tommasini, Damiano
2014-12-01
We show that the dark energy (DE) effects can be modeled by using an Ising perfect fluid with network interactions, whose low redshift equation of state (EoS), i.e. ω0, becomes ω0 = -1 as in the ΛCDM model. In our picture, DE is characterized by a barotropic fluid on a lattice in the equilibrium configuration. Thus, mimicking the spin interaction by replacing the spin variable with an occupational number, the pressure naturally becomes negative. We find that the corresponding EoS mimics the effects of a variable DE term, whose limiting case reduces to the cosmological constant Λ. This permits us to avoid the introduction of a vacuum energy as DE source by hand, alleviating the coincidence and fine tuning problems. We find fairly good cosmological constraints, by performing three tests with supernovae Ia (SNeIa), baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. Finally, we perform the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) selection criteria, showing that our model is statistically favored with respect to the Chevallier-Polarsky-Linder (CPL) parametrization.
Turbulence Modeling for Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lillard, Randolph P.
2011-01-01
Accurate aerodynamic computational predictions are essential for the safety of space vehicles, but these computations are of limited accuracy when large pressure gradients are present in the flow. The goal of the current project is to improve the state of compressible turbulence modeling for high speed flows with shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI). Emphasis will be placed on models that can accurately predict the separated region caused by the SWTBLI. These flows are classified as nonequilibrium boundary layers because of the very large and variable adverse pressure gradients caused by the shock waves. The lag model was designed to model these nonequilibrium flows by incorporating history effects. Standard one- and two-equation models (Spalart Allmaras and SST) and the lag model will be run and compared to a new lag model. This new model, the Reynolds stress tensor lag model (lagRST), will be assessed against multiple wind tunnel tests and correlations. The basis of the lag and lagRST models are to preserve the accuracy of the standard turbulence models in equilibrium turbulence, when the Reynolds stresses are linearly related to the mean strain rates, but create a lag between mean strain rate effects and turbulence when nonequilibrium effects become important, such as in large pressure gradients. The affect this lag has on the results for SWBLI and massively separated flows will be determined. These computations will be done with a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. This code solves the RANS equations on overset grids. It was used for this study for its ability to input very complex geometries into the flow solver, such as the Space Shuttle in the full stack configuration. The model was successfully implemented within two versions of the OVERFLOW code. Results show a substantial improvement over the baseline models for transonic separated flows. The results are mixed for the SWBLI assessed. Separation predictions are not as good as the
Current advancements and challenges in soil-root interactions modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnepf, Andrea; Huber, Katrin; Abesha, Betiglu; Meunier, Felicien; Leitner, Daniel; Roose, Tiina; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry
2015-04-01
Roots change their surrounding soil chemically, physically and biologically. This includes changes in soil moisture and solute concentration, the exudation of organic substances into the rhizosphere, increased growth of soil microorganisms, or changes in soil structure. The fate of water and solutes in the root zone is highly determined by these root-soil interactions. Mathematical models of soil-root systems in combination with non-invasive techniques able to characterize root systems are a promising tool to understand and predict the behaviour of water and solutes in the root zone. With respect to different fields of applications, predictive mathematical models can contribute to the solution of optimal control problems in plant recourse efficiency. This may result in significant gains in productivity, efficiency and environmental sustainability in various land use activities. Major challenges include the coupling of model parameters of the relevant processes with the surrounding environment such as temperature, nutrient concentration or soil water content. A further challenge is the mathematical description of the different spatial and temporal scales involved. This includes in particular the branched structures formed by root systems or the external mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi. Here, reducing complexity as well as bridging between spatial scales is required. Furthermore, the combination of experimental and mathematical techniques may advance the field enormously. Here, the use of root system, soil and rhizosphere models is presented through a number of modelling case studies, including image based modelling of phosphate uptake by a root with hairs, model-based optimization of root architecture for phosphate uptake from soil, upscaling of rhizosphere models, modelling root growth in structured soil, and the effect of root hydraulic architecture on plant water uptake efficiency and drought resistance.
Current Advancements and Challenges in Soil-Root Interactions Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnepf, A.; Huber, K.; Abesha, B.; Meunier, F.; Leitner, D.; Roose, T.; Javaux, M.; Vanderborght, J.; Vereecken, H.
2014-12-01
Roots change their surrounding soil chemically, physically and biologically. This includes changes in soil moisture and solute concentration, the exudation of organic substances into the rhizosphere, increased growth of soil microorganisms, or changes in soil structure. The fate of water and solutes in the root zone is highly determined by these root-soil interactions. Mathematical models of soil-root systems in combination with non-invasive techniques able to characterize root systems are a promising tool to understand and predict the behaviour of water and solutes in the root zone. With respect to different fields of applications, predictive mathematical models can contribute to the solution of optimal control problems in plant recourse efficiency. This may result in significant gains in productivity, efficiency and environmental sustainability in various land use activities. Major challenges include the coupling of model parameters of the relevant processes with the surrounding environment such as temperature, nutrient concentration or soil water content. A further challenge is the mathematical description of the different spatial and temporal scales involved. This includes in particular the branched structures formed by root systems or the external mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi. Here, reducing complexity as well as bridging between spatial scales is required. Furthermore, the combination of experimental and mathematical techniques may advance the field enormously. Here, the use of root system, soil and rhizosphere models is presented through a number of modelling case studies, including image based modelling of phosphate uptake by a root with hairs, model-based optimization of root architecture for phosphate uptake from soil, upscaling of rhizosphere models, modelling root growth in structured soil, and the effect of root hydraulic architecture on plant water uptake efficiency and drought resistance.
Probabilistic Usage of the Multi-Factor Interaction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, Christos C.
2008-01-01
A Multi-Factor Interaction Model (MFIM) is used to predict the insulating foam mass expulsion during the ascending of a space vehicle. The exponents in the MFIM are evaluated by an available approach which consists of least squares and an optimization algorithm. These results were subsequently used to probabilistically evaluate the effects of the uncertainties in each participating factor in the mass expulsion. The probabilistic results show that the surface temperature dominates at high probabilities and the pressure which causes the mass expulsion at low probabil
The linear interaction model of personality effects in health communication.
Dutta-Bergman, Mohan Jyoti
2003-01-01
The recent growth of research in message tailoring has opened up new avenues for researchers to use personality variables for message delivery. This article builds on research on idiocentrism and self-monitoring to propose a framework for message appeal construction. Based on a scheme for appeal categorization borrowed from commercial marketing, the article suggests that low and high idiocentrics differ from each other in the way they respond to appeal types. Similarly, significant differences are demonstrated between low and high self-monitors in the realm of their response to message appeals. A linear interaction model is proposed to document the combined effects of self-monitoring and idiocentrism. PMID:12553779
Magnetosphere-thermosphere coupling - An experiment in interactive modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Harel, Moshe
1989-01-01
The present use of the Rice convection model to investigate the electrodynamic coupling of the thermosphere to the inner magnetosphere encompasses the effects of EUV-driven and convection-driven neutral winds under quasi-equilibrium conditions. Convection-driven winds are included self-consistently and interactively; a steady-state wind parameterization is written analytically in terms of the electrostatic potential, which is in turn included in a closed-loop calculation for the electric potential itself. The simulations conducted show that, as the neutral system approaches a quasi-equilibrium state, the neutral winds play a much more significant role.
Computational models of neuron-astrocyte interaction in epilepsy
Volman, Vladislav; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
2012-01-01
Astrocytes actively shape the dynamics of neurons and neuronal ensembles by affecting several aspects critical to neuronal function, such as regulating synaptic plasticity, modulating neuronal excitability, and maintaining extracellular ion balance. These pathways for astrocyte-neuron interaction can also enhance the information-processing capabilities of brains, but in other circumstances may lead the brain on the road to pathological ruin. In this article, we review the existing computational models of astrocytic involvement in epileptogenesis, focusing on their relevance to existing physiological data. PMID:23060780
An interacting loop model of solar flare bursts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emslie, A. G.
1981-01-01
As a result of the strong heating produced at chromospheric levels during a solar flare burst, the local gas pressure can transiently attain very large values in certain regions. The effectiveness of the surrounding magnetic field at confining this high pressure plasma is therefore reduced and the flaring loop becomes free to expand laterally. In so doing it may drive magnetic field lines into neighboring, nonflaring, loops in the same active region, causing magnetic reconnection to take place and triggering another flare burst. The features of this interacting loop model are found to be in good agreement with the energetics and time structure of flare associated solar hard X-ray bursts.
Modeling the initial conditions of interacting galaxy pairs using Identikit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortazavi, S. Alireza; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Barnes, Joshua E.; Snyder, Gregory F.
2016-01-01
We develop and test an automated technique to model the dynamics of interacting galaxy pairs. We use Identikit as a tool for modelling and matching the morphology and kinematics of the interacting pairs of equal-mass galaxies. In order to reduce the effect of subjective human judgement, we automate the selection of phase space regions used to match simulations to data, and we explore how selection of these regions affects the random uncertainties of parameters in the best-fitting model. In this work, we use an independent set of GADGET SPH simulations as input data to determine the systematic bias in the measured encounter parameters based on the known initial conditions of these simulations. We test both cold gas and young stellar components in the GADGET simulations to explore the effect of choosing H I versus H α as the line-of-sight velocity tracer. We find that we can group the results into tests with good, fair, and poor convergence based on the distribution of parameters of models close to the best-fitting model. For tests with good and fair convergence, we rule out large fractions of parameter space and recover merger stage, eccentricity, pericentric distance, viewing angle, and initial disc orientations within 3σ of the correct value. All of tests on prograde-prograde systems have either good or fair convergence. The results of tests on edge-on discs are less biased than face-on tests. Retrograde and polar systems do not converge and may require constraints from regions other than the tidal tails and bridges.
QSAR Modeling and Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions.
Zakharov, Alexey V; Varlamova, Ekaterina V; Lagunin, Alexey A; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Muratov, Eugene N; Fourches, Denis; Kuz'min, Victor E; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Tropsha, Alexander; Nicklaus, Marc C
2016-02-01
Severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the fourth leading cause of fatality in the U.S. with more than 100,000 deaths per year. As up to 30% of all ADRs are believed to be caused by drug-drug interactions (DDIs), typically mediated by cytochrome P450s, possibilities to predict DDIs from existing knowledge are important. We collected data from public sources on 1485, 2628, 4371, and 27,966 possible DDIs mediated by four cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 for 55, 73, 94, and 237 drugs, respectively. For each of these data sets, we developed and validated QSAR models for the prediction of DDIs. As a unique feature of our approach, the interacting drug pairs were represented as binary chemical mixtures in a 1:1 ratio. We used two types of chemical descriptors: quantitative neighborhoods of atoms (QNA) and simplex descriptors. Radial basis functions with self-consistent regression (RBF-SCR) and random forest (RF) were utilized to build QSAR models predicting the likelihood of DDIs for any pair of drug molecules. Our models showed balanced accuracy of 72-79% for the external test sets with a coverage of 81.36-100% when a conservative threshold for the model's applicability domain was applied. We generated virtually all possible binary combinations of marketed drugs and employed our models to identify drug pairs predicted to be instances of DDI. More than 4500 of these predicted DDIs that were not found in our training sets were confirmed by data from the DrugBank database. PMID:26669717
Interaction between subducting plates: results from numerical and analogue modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiraly, Agnes; Capitanio, Fabio A.; Funiciello, Francesca; Faccenna, Claudio
2016-04-01
The tectonic setting of the Alpine-Mediterranean area is achieved during the late Cenozoic subduction, collision and suturing of several oceanic fragments and continental blocks. In this stage, processes such as interactions among subducting slabs, slab migrations and related mantle flow played a relevant role on the resulting tectonics. Here, we use numerical models to first address the mantle flow characteristic in 3D. During the subduction of a single plate the strength of the return flow strongly depends on the slab pull force, that is on the plate's buoyancy, however the physical properties of the slab, such as density, viscosity or width, do not affect largely the morphology of the toroidal cell. Instead, dramatic effects on the geometry and the dynamics of the toroidal cell result in models where the thickness of the mantle is varied. The vertical component of the vorticity vector is used to define the characteristic size of the toroidal cell, which is ~1.2-1.3 times the mantle depth. This latter defines the range of viscous stress propagation through the mantle and consequent interactions with other slabs. We thus further investigate on this setup where two separate lithospheric plates subduct in opposite sense, developing opposite polarities and convergent slab retreat, and model different initial sideways distance between the plates. The stress profiles in time illustrate that the plates interacts when slabs are at the characteristic distance and the two slabs toroidal cells merge. Increased stress and delayed slab migrations are the results. Analogue models of double-sided subduction show similar maximum distance and allow testing the additional role of stress propagated through the plates. We use a silicon plate subducting on its two opposite margins, which is either homogeneous or comprises oceanic and continental lithospheres, differing in buoyancy. The modeling results show that the double-sided subduction is strongly affected by changes in plate
The Monash Simple Climate Model: An interactive climate model for teaching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dommenget, Dietmar
2015-04-01
The Monash university interactive simple climate model is a web-based interface that allows students and the general public to explore the physical simulation of the climate system with a real global climate model. It is based on the Globally Resolved Energy Balance (GREB) model that simulates most of the main physical processes in the climate system in a very simplistic way and therefore allows very fast and simple climate model simulations. Despite its simplicity the model simulates the mean climate and its response to external forcings, such as doubling of the CO2 concentrations very realistically. The Monash simple climate model web-interface allows you to explore thousands of experiments, scenarios and tutorials in an interactive way. You can do some entertaining and educational puzzles about the interaction of climate dynamics. By turning switches OFF and ON you control physical processes in the climate system ansd see how the interaction of the processes builds up the climate. By testing a number of experiments you learn about the interactions in the climate system and thereby figure out which switch controls what process in the climate system. The presentation will illustrate how this web-base tool works and what are the possibilities in teaching students with this tool are.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volovik, G. E.; Zubkov, M. A.
2015-09-01
We consider the scenario in which the light Higgs scalar boson appears as the pseudo-Goldstone boson. We discuss examples in both condensed matter and relativistic field theory. In 3He -B the symmetry breaking gives rise to four Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and 14 Higgs modes. At lower energy one of the four NG modes becomes the Higgs boson with a small mass. This is the mode measured in experiments with the longitudinal NMR, and the Higgs mass corresponds to the Leggett frequency MH=ℏΩB . The formation of the Higgs mass is the result of the violation of the hidden spin-orbit symmetry at low energy. In this scenario the symmetry-breaking energy scale Δ (the gap in the fermionic spectrum) and the Higgs mass scale MH are highly separated: MH≪Δ . On the particle physics side we consider the model inspired by the models of Refs. Cheng et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (014) 095] and Fukano et al. [Phys. Rev. D 90, 055009 (2014)]. At high energies the SU(3) symmetry is assumed which relates the left-handed top and bottom quarks to the additional fermion χL. This symmetry is softly broken at low energies. As a result the only C P -even Goldstone boson acquires a mass and may be considered as a candidate for the 125 GeV scalar boson. We consider a condensation pattern different from that typically used in top-seesaw models, where the condensate ⟨t¯ LχR⟩ is off-diagonal. In our case the condensates are mostly diagonal. Unlike the work of Cheng et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (014) 095] and Fukano et al. [Phys. Rev. D 90, 055009 (2014)], the explicit mass terms are absent and the soft breaking of SU(3) symmetry is given solely by the four-fermion terms. This reveals a complete analogy with 3He, where there is no explicit mass term and the spin-orbit interaction has the form of the four-fermion interaction.
PREFACE: Singular interactions in quantum mechanics: solvable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dell'Antonio, Gianfausto; Exner, Pavel; Geyler, Vladimir
2005-06-01
This issue comprises two dozen research papers which are all in one sense or another devoted to models in which the interaction is singular and sharply localized; a typical example is a quantum particle interacting with a family of δ-type potentials. Such an idealization usually makes analysis of their properties considerably easier, sometimes allowing us to reduce it to a simple algebraic problem—this is why one speaks about solvable models. The subject can be traced back to the early days of quantum mechanics; however, the progress in this field was slow and uneven until the 1960s, mostly because singular interactions are often difficult to deal with mathematically and intuitive arguments do not work. After overcoming the initial difficulties the `classical' theory of point interactions was developed, and finally summarized in 1988 in a monograph by Albeverio, Gesztesy, Høegh-Krohn, and Holden, which you will find quoted in numerous places within this issue. A reliable way to judge theories is to observe the progress they make within one or two decades. In this case there is no doubt that the field has witnessed a continuous development and covered areas which nobody had thought of when the subject first emerged. The reader may see it in the second edition of the aforementioned book which was published by AMS Chelsea only recently and contained a brief survey of these new achievements. It is no coincidence that this topical issue appears at the same time; it has been conceived as its counterpart and a forum at which fresh results in the field can demonstrated. Let us briefly survey the contents of the issue. While the papers included have in common the basic subject, they represent a broad spectrum philosophically as well as technically, and any attempt to classify them is somewhat futile. Nevertheless, we will divide them into a few groups. The first comprises contributions directly related to the usual point-interaction ideology. M Correggi and one of the
Shell-model phenomenology of low-momentum interactions
Schwenk, Achim; Zuker, Andres P.
2006-12-15
The first detailed comparison of the low-momentum interaction V{sub lowk} with G matrices is presented. We use overlaps to measure quantitatively the similarity of shell-model matrix elements for different cutoffs and oscillator frequencies. Over a wide range, all sets of V{sub lowk} matrix elements can be approximately obtained from a universal set by a simple scaling. In an oscillator mean-field approach, V{sub lowk} reproduces satisfactorily many features of the single-particle and single-hole spectra on closed-shell nuclei, in particular through remarkably good splittings between spin-orbit partners on top of harmonic oscillator closures. The main deficiencies of pure two-nucleon interactions are associated with binding energies and with the failure to ensure magicity for the extruder-intruder closures. Here, calculations including three-nucleon interactions are most needed. V{sub lowk} makes it possible to define directly a meaningful unperturbed monopole Hamiltonian, for which the inclusion of three-nucleon forces is tractable.
Finite-range model potentials for resonant interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deb, Bimalendu
2016-03-01
We show that it is possible to model two-body resonant interactions at low energy with a class of finite-range potentials based on the methods of Jost and Kohn. These potentials are expressed in terms of the effective range r0 and the s-wave scattering length as. We derive continuum solutions of these potentials. By writing V±(r) = V0(r) + V±ɛ(r), where the sign + (‑) refers to positive(negative) scattering length, V0(r) is of the form of Pöschl-Teller potential and V±ɛ is expressed as a power series of the small parameter ɛ = (1 ‑ 2r0 /as)‑1 ‑ 1 when as is large, we derive Green’s function of V0(r). Using the Green’s function, solutions of V±(r) for |as|≫ r0 can be obtained numerically by treating V±ɛ(r) as a perturbation. We describe the threshold behavior of scattering phase shift for V0(r). This study may be important for developing a better understanding of physics of strongly interacting ultracold atomic gases with tunable interactions.
Theory and modeling of particles with DNA-mediated interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licata, Nicholas A.
2008-05-01
In recent years significant attention has been attracted to proposals which utilize DNA for nanotechnological applications. Potential applications of these ideas range from the programmable self-assembly of colloidal crystals, to biosensors and nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms. In Chapter I we introduce the system, which generically consists of colloidal particles functionalized with specially designed DNA markers. The sequence of bases on the DNA markers determines the particle type. Due to the hybridization between complementary single-stranded DNA, specific, type-dependent interactions can be introduced between particles by choosing the appropriate DNA marker sequences. In Chapter II we develop a statistical mechanical description of the aggregation and melting behavior of particles with DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter III a model is proposed to describe the dynamical departure and diffusion of particles which form reversible key-lock connections. In Chapter IV we propose a method to self-assemble nanoparticle clusters using DNA scaffolds. A natural extension is discussed in Chapter V, the programmable self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters where the desired cluster geometry is encoded using DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter VI we consider a nanoparticle based drug delivery platform for targeted, cell specific chemotherapy. In Chapter VII we present prospects for future research: the connection between DNA-mediated colloidal crystallization and jamming, and the inverse problem in self-assembly.
Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations
Avramidis, K. A.
2015-12-15
In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.
Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avramidis, K. A.
2015-12-01
In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.
Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja
2016-05-01
Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO2 (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO2 has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=-21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.
An Interactional Model of the Call for Survey Participation
Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Garbarski, Dana; Freese, Jeremy; Maynard, Douglas W.
2013-01-01
Previous research has proposed that the actions of sample members may provide encouraging, discouraging, or ambiguous interactional environments for interviewers soliciting participation in surveys. In our interactional model of the recruitment call that brings together the actions of interviewers and sample members, we examine features of actions that may contribute to an encouraging or discouraging environment in the opening moments of the call. Using audio recordings from the 2004 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study and an innovative design that controls for sample members’ estimated propensity to participate in the survey, we analyze an extensive set of interviewers’ and sample members’ actions, the characteristics of those actions, and their sequential location in the interaction. We also analyze whether a sample member’s subsequent actions (e.g., a question about the length of the interview or a “wh-type” question) constitute an encouraging, discouraging, or ambiguous environment within which the interviewer must produce her next action. Our case-control design allows us to analyze the consequences of actions for the outcome of the call. PMID:24976648
Host-Pathogen Interactions Made Transparent with the Zebrafish Model
Meijer, Annemarie H; Spaink, Herman P
2011-01-01
The zebrafish holds much promise as a high-throughput drug screening model for immune-related diseases, including inflammatory and infectious diseases and cancer. This is due to the excellent possibilities for in vivo imaging in combination with advanced tools for genomic and large scale mutant analysis. The context of the embryo’s developing immune system makes it possible to study the contribution of different immune cell types to disease progression. Furthermore, due to the temporal separation of innate immunity from adaptive responses, zebrafish embryos and larvae are particularly useful for dissecting the innate host factors involved in pathology. Recent studies have underscored the remarkable similarity of the zebrafish and human immune systems, which is important for biomedical applications. This review is focused on the use of zebrafish as a model for infectious diseases, with emphasis on bacterial pathogens. Following a brief overview of the zebrafish immune system and the tools and methods used to study host-pathogen interactions in zebrafish, we discuss the current knowledge on receptors and downstream signaling components that are involved in the zebrafish embryo’s innate immune response. We summarize recent insights gained from the use of bacterial infection models, particularly the Mycobacterium marinum model, that illustrate the potential of the zebrafish model for high-throughput antimicrobial drug screening. PMID:21366518
The Plasmasphere-Magnetosphere Interactions (PMI) Modeling Challenge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inan, U. S.; Spasojevic, M.; Goldstein, J.
2011-12-01
We announce and present some preliminary results of the Plasmasphere-Magnetoshere Interactions (PMI) focus group's modeling challenge. As one of over a dozen active focus groups of the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) program that is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the GEM PMI focus group concentrates on how magnetospheric processes are regulated by plasmaspheric dynamics (and vice versa). The goal of the PMI challenge is to assess the performance of a representative set of GEM community models in reproducing key plasmaspheric density and wave observations. Two events were chosen for the PMI challenge, one disturbed interval and one quiet interval: (1) a moderate storm on 9-10 June 2001, and (2) a quiet interval of recovery and flux tube refilling during February 2001. Several quantitative metrics will be used to rate model performance with an overall score, and with second-tier metric scores versus space and time (or storm phase) that reveal areas of best and worst model performance in capturing key physical processes. Participation in this ongoing effort is invited from the entire space physics community.
A THC Simulator for Modeling Fluid-Rock Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamidi, Sahar; Galvan, Boris; Heinze, Thomas; Miller, Stephen
2014-05-01
Fluid-rock interactions play an essential role in many earth processes, from a likely influence on earthquake nucleation and aftershocks, to enhanced geothermal system, carbon capture and storage (CCS), and underground nuclear waste repositories. In THC models, two-way interactions between different processes (thermal, hydraulic and chemical) are present. Fluid flow influences the permeability of the rock especially if chemical reactions are taken into account. On one hand solute concentration influences fluid properties while, on the other hand, heat can affect further chemical reactions. Estimating heat production from a naturally fractured geothermal systems remains a complex problem. Previous works are typically based on a local thermal equilibrium assumption and rarely consider the salinity. The dissolved salt in fluid affects the hydro- and thermodynamical behavior of the system by changing the hydraulic properties of the circulating fluid. Coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical models (THC) are important for investigating these processes, but what is needed is a coupling to mechanics to result in THMC models. Although similar models currently exist (e.g. PFLOTRAN), our objective here is to develop algorithms for implementation using the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computer architecture to be run on GPU clusters. To that aim, we present a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a fully coupled non-isothermal non-reactive solute flow. The thermal part of the simulation models heat transfer processes for either local thermal equilibrium or nonequilibrium cases, and coupled to a non-reactive mass transfer described by a non-linear diffusion/dispersion model. The flow process of the model includes a non-linear Darcian flow for either saturated or unsaturated scenarios. For the unsaturated case, we use the Richards' approximation for a mixture of liquid and gas phases. Relative permeability and capillary pressure are determined by the van Genuchten relations
Bifurcation analysis of a photoreceptor interaction model for Retinitis Pigmentosa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camacho, Erika T.; Radulescu, Anca; Wirkus, Stephen
2016-09-01
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is the term used to describe a diverse set of degenerative eye diseases affecting the photoreceptors (rods and cones) in the retina. This work builds on an existing mathematical model of RP that focused on the interaction of the rods and cones. We non-dimensionalize the model and examine the stability of the equilibria. We then numerically investigate other stable modes that are present in the system for various parameter values and relate these modes to the original problem. Our results show that stable modes exist for a wider range of parameter values than the stability of the equilibrium solutions alone, suggesting that additional approaches to preventing cone death may exist.
Interactive display of molecular models using a microcomputer system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egan, J. T.; Macelroy, R. D.
1980-01-01
A simple, microcomputer-based, interactive graphics display system has been developed for the presentation of perspective views of wire frame molecular models. The display system is based on a TERAK 8510a graphics computer system with a display unit consisting of microprocessor, television display and keyboard subsystems. The operating system includes a screen editor, file manager, PASCAL and BASIC compilers and command options for linking and executing programs. The graphics program, written in USCD PASCAL, involves the centering of the coordinate system, the transformation of centered model coordinates into homogeneous coordinates, the construction of a viewing transformation matrix to operate on the coordinates, clipping invisible points, perspective transformation and scaling to screen coordinates; commands available include ZOOM, ROTATE, RESET, and CHANGEVIEW. Data file structure was chosen to minimize the amount of disk storage space. Despite the inherent slowness of the system, its low cost and flexibility suggests general applicability.
Actin - Lysozyme Interactions in Model Cystic Fibrosis Sputum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, Lori; Slimmer, Scott; Angelini, Thomas; Wong, Gerard C. L.
2003-03-01
Cystic fibrosis sputum is a complex fluid consisting of mucin (a glycoprotein), lysozyme (a cationic polypeptide), water, salt, as well as a high concentration of a number of anionic biological polyelectrolytes such as DNA and F-actin. The interactions governing these components are poorly understood, but may have important clinical consequences. For example, the formation of these biological polyelectrolytes into ordered gel phases may contribute significantly to the observed high viscosity of CF sputum. In this work, a number of model systems containing actin, lysozyme, and KCl were created to simulate CF sputum in vitro. These model systems were studied using small angle x-ray scattering and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was supported by NSF DMR-0071761, the Beckman Young Investigator Program, and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.
Double scaling in tensor models with a quartic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dartois, Stéphane; Gurau, Razvan; Rivasseau, Vincent
2013-09-01
In this paper we identify and analyze in detail the subleading contributions in the 1 /N expansion of random tensors, in the simple case of a quartically interacting model. The leading order for this 1 /N expansion is made of graphs, called melons, which are dual to particular triangulations of the D-dimensional sphere, closely related to the "stacked" triangulations. For D < 6 the subleading behavior is governed by a larger family of graphs, hereafter called cherry trees, which are also dual to the D-dimensional sphere. They can be resummed explicitly through a double scaling limit. In sharp contrast with random matrix models, this double scaling limit is stable. Apart from its unexpected upper critical dimension 6, it displays a singularity at fixed distance from the origin and is clearly the first step in a richer set of yet to be discovered multi-scaling limits.
Multilayer adsorption model for the protein-ligand interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, L. M.; Garcia, M.; Perez-Rodriguez, M.; Taboada, P.; Ruso, J. M.; Mosquera, V.
2001-05-01
In the present work we present a theoretical formalism based on the combination of the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller multilayer adsorption model with an electrolytic adsorbate, and the results are used to predict binding isotherms of several synthetic penicillin drugs onto human serum albumin. The occurrence of adsorption maxima in these binding processes is correctly predicted by this noncooperative binding model and it is demonstrated to be due to the ionic character of the adsorbate. The effect of the hydrophobic interactions between adsorbate monomers on the value of the maximum number of adsorbed particles is also a matter of study, and it is proven that this number increases with increasing hydrophobic character of the adsorbate.
Bilingual parents’ modeling of pragmatic language use in multiparty interactions
Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.
2013-01-01
Parental input represents an important source of language socialization. Particularly in bilingual contexts, parents may model pragmatic language use and metalinguistic strategies to highlight language differences. The present study examines multiparty interactions involving 28 bilingual English- and Marathi-speaking parent-child pairs in the presence of monolingual bystanders (children’s mean ages: 3;2 and 4;6). Their language use was analyzed during three sessions: parent and child alone, parent and child with the English speaker, and parent and child with the Marathi speaker. Parents demonstrated pragmatic differentiation by using relatively more of the bystander’s language; however, children did not show this sensitivity. Further, parents used a variety of strategies to discuss language differences, such as providing and requesting translations; children translated most often in response to explicit requests. The results indicate that parents model pragmatic language differentiation as well as metalinguistic talk that may contribute to children’s metalinguistic awareness. PMID:24086092
Protein-lipid interactions in bilayer membranes: A lattice model
Pink, David A.; Chapman, Dennis
1979-01-01
A lattice model has been developed to study the effects of intrinsic membrane proteins upon the thermodynamic properties of a lipid bilayer membrane. We assume that only nearest-neighbor van der Waals and steric interactions are important and that the polar group interactions can be represented by effective pressure—area terms. Phase diagrams, the temperature T0, which locates the gel—fluid melting, the transition enthalpy, and correlations were calculated by mean field and cluster approximations. Average lipid chain areas and chain areas when the lipid is in a given protein environment were obtained. Proteins that have a “smooth” homogeneous surface (“cholesterol-like”) and those that have inhomogeneous surfaces or that bind lipids specifically were considered. We find that T0 can vary depending upon the interactions and that another peak can appear upon the shoulder of the main peak which reflects the melting of a eutectic mixture. The transition enthalpy decreases generally, as was found before, but when a second peak appears departures from this behavior reflect aspects of the eutectic mixture. We find that proteins have significant nonzero probabilities for being adjacent to one another so that no unbroken “annulus” of lipid necessarily exists around a protein. If T0 does not increase much, or decreases, with increasing c, then lipids adjacent to a protein cannot all be all-trans on the time scale (10-7 sec) of our system. Around a protein the lipid correlation depth is about one lipid layer, and this increases with c. Possible consequences of ignoring changes in polar group interactions due to clustering of proteins are discussed. PMID:286996
Bayesian Safety Risk Modeling of Human-Flightdeck Automation Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.
2015-01-01
Usage of automatic systems in airliners has increased fuel efficiency, added extra capabilities, enhanced safety and reliability, as well as provide improved passenger comfort since its introduction in the late 80's. However, original automation benefits, including reduced flight crew workload, human errors or training requirements, were not achieved as originally expected. Instead, automation introduced new failure modes, redistributed, and sometimes increased workload, brought in new cognitive and attention demands, and increased training requirements. Modern airliners have numerous flight modes, providing more flexibility (and inherently more complexity) to the flight crew. However, the price to pay for the increased flexibility is the need for increased mode awareness, as well as the need to supervise, understand, and predict automated system behavior. Also, over-reliance on automation is linked to manual flight skill degradation and complacency in commercial pilots. As a result, recent accidents involving human errors are often caused by the interactions between humans and the automated systems (e.g., the breakdown in man-machine coordination), deteriorated manual flying skills, and/or loss of situational awareness due to heavy dependence on automated systems. This paper describes the development of the increased complexity and reliance on automation baseline model, named FLAP for FLightdeck Automation Problems. The model development process starts with a comprehensive literature review followed by the construction of a framework comprised of high-level causal factors leading to an automation-related flight anomaly. The framework was then converted into a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) using the Hugin Software v7.8. The effects of automation on flight crew are incorporated into the model, including flight skill degradation, increased cognitive demand and training requirements along with their interactions. Besides flight crew deficiencies, automation system
Interactive training model of TRIZ for mechanical engineers in China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Runhua; Zhang, Huangao
2014-03-01
Innovation is a process of taking an original idea and converting it into a business value, in which the engineers face some inventive problems which can be solved hardly by experience. TRIZ, as a new theory for companies in China, provides both conceptual and procedural knowledge for finding and solving inventive problems. Because the government plays a leading role in the diffusion of TRIZ, too many companies from different industries are waiting to be trained, but the quantity of the trainers mastering TRIZ is incompatible with that requirement. In this context, to improve the training effect, an interactive training model of TRIZ for the mechanical engineers in China is developed and the implementation in the form of training classes is carried out. The training process is divided into 6 phases as follows: selecting engineers, training stage-1, finding problems, training stage-2, finding solutions and summing up. The government, TRIZ institutions and companies to join the programs interact during the process. The government initiates and monitors a project in form of a training class of TRIZ and selects companies to join the programs. Each selected companies choose a few engineers to join the class and supervises the training result. The TRIZ institutions design the training courses and carry out training curriculum. With the beginning of the class, an effective communication channel is established by means of interview, discussion face to face, E-mail, QQ and so on. After two years training practices, the results show that innovative abilities of the engineers to join and pass the final examinations increased distinctly, and most of companies joined the training class have taken congnizance of the power of TRIZ for product innovation. This research proposes an interactive training model of TRIZ for mechanical engineers in China to expedite the knowledge diffusion of TRIZ.
Interactive system for quick modeling of aircraft surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mudur, S. P.; Khandekar, Dilip R.
1990-08-01
The precise specification of surface geometry of an aircraft is one of the most important and major activities inits design. An initial design, defined by the fundamental requirements, is iteratively analysed and modified till a satisfactory configuration is obtained. Very often in the early stages the need to rapidly make modifications to the geometry for immediate analysis overrides the stringency of smoothness and correctness ofthe surfaces. This paper describes the design of an interactive system which enables the designer to quickly specify the surface geometry and to modify it easily and rapidly. In particular, the software engineering aspects are emphasized. The system uses B-splines for the representation of complex geometry. Surfaces of revolution, required to model certain parts ofthe aircraft, and other simple geometric primitives are also supported. Apart from the usual modeller facilities, features such as camber, twist and form constraints such as tangent or curvature control at a point, etc., are also provided. The system enables easy input and rapid editing of geomeiry through the use of a number of innovative concepts which aim at simplifying and speeding up the man-machine interaction. Multiple window display of entities, augmented by plots of curvature, cross sections etc. provide the visualization tool necessary to assist the designer in decision making.
Modeling plasma/material interactions during a tokamak disruption
Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.
1994-10-01
Disruptions in tokamak reactors are still of serious concern and present a potential obstacle for successful operation and reliable design. Erosion of plasma-facing materials due to thermal energy dump during a disruption can severely limit the lifetime of these components, therefore diminishing the economic feasibility of the reactor. A comprehensive disruption erosion model which takes into account the interplay of major physical processes during plasma-material interaction has been developed. The initial burst of energy delivered to facing-material surfaces from direct impact of plasma particles causes sudden ablation of these materials. As a result, a vapor cloud is formed in front of the incident plasma particles. Shortly thereafter, the plasma particles are stopped in the vapor cloud, heating and ionizing it. The energy transmitted to the material surfaces is then dominated by photon radiation. It is the dynamics and the evolution of this vapor cloud that finally determines the net erosion rate and, consequently, the component lifetime. The model integrates with sufficient detail and in a self-consistent way, material thermal evolution response, plasma-vapor interaction physics, vapor hydrodynamics, and radiation transport in order to realistically simulate the effects of a plasma disruption on plasma-facing components. Candidate materials such as beryllium and carbon have been analyzed. The dependence of the net erosion rate on disruption physics and various parameters was analyzed and is discussed.
Interactions of PAMAM dendrimers with negatively charged model biomembranes.
Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Porcar, Lionel; Martel, Anne; Coker, Helena; Lundberg, Dan; Chang, Debby P; Soltwedel, Olaf; Barker, Robert; Nylander, Tommy
2014-11-13
We have investigated the interactions between cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of generation 4 (G4), a potential gene transfection vector, with net-anionic model biomembranes composed of different ratios of zwitterionic phosphocholine (PC) and anionic phospho-L-serine (PS) phospholipids. Two types of model membranes were used: solid-supported bilayers, prepared with lipids carrying palmitoyl-oleoyl (PO) and diphytanoyl (DPh) acyl chains, and free-standing bilayers, formed at the interface between two aqueous droplets in oil (droplet interface bilayers, DIBs) using the DPh-based lipids. G4 dendrimers were found to translocate through POPC:POPS bilayers deposited on silica surfaces. The charge density of the bilayer affects translocation, which is reduced when the ionic strength increases. This shows that the dendrimer-bilayer interactions are largely controlled by their electrostatic attraction. The structure of the solid-supported bilayers remains intact upon translocation of the dendrimer. However, the amount of lipids in the bilayer decreases and dendrimer/lipid aggregates are formed in bulk solution, which can be deposited on the interfacial layers upon dilution of the system with dendrimer-free solvent. Electrophysiology measurements on DIBs confirm that G4 dendrimers cross the lipid membranes containing PS, which then become more permeable to ions. The obtained results have implications for PAMAM dendrimers as delivery vehicles to cells. PMID:25310456
A minimal model of predator–swarm interactions
Chen, Yuxin; Kolokolnikov, Theodore
2014-01-01
We propose a minimal model of predator–swarm interactions which captures many of the essential dynamics observed in nature. Different outcomes are observed depending on the predator strength. For a ‘weak’ predator, the swarm is able to escape the predator completely. As the strength is increased, the predator is able to catch up with the swarm as a whole, but the individual prey is able to escape by ‘confusing’ the predator: the prey forms a ring with the predator at the centre. For higher predator strength, complex chasing dynamics are observed which can become chaotic. For even higher strength, the predator is able to successfully capture the prey. Our model is simple enough to be amenable to a full mathematical analysis, which is used to predict the shape of the swarm as well as the resulting predator–prey dynamics as a function of model parameters. We show that, as the predator strength is increased, there is a transition (owing to a Hopf bifurcation) from confusion state to chasing dynamics, and we compute the threshold analytically. Our analysis indicates that the swarming behaviour is not helpful in avoiding the predator, suggesting that there are other reasons why the species may swarm. The complex shape of the swarm in our model during the chasing dynamics is similar to the shape of a flock of sheep avoiding a shepherd. PMID:24598204
Development of an interactive anatomical three-dimensional eye model.
Allen, Lauren K; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D
2015-01-01
The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a digital, interactive, three-dimensional (3D) model of the muscles and cranial nerves of the oculomotor system. Development of the 3D model utilized data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) dataset that was refined using multiple forms of 3D software. The model was then paired with a virtual user interface in order to create a novel 3D learning tool for the human oculomotor system. Development of the virtual eye model was done while attempting to adhere to the principles of cognitive load theory (CLT) and the reduction of extraneous load in particular. The detailed approach, digital tools employed, and the CLT guidelines are described herein. PMID:25228501
Modeling interactions of soliton trains. Effects of external potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todorov, M. D.; Gerdjikov, V. S.; Kyuldjiev, A. V.
2014-11-01
The effects of several types of external potentials on the Manakov soliton interactions using the perturbed complex Toda chain (PCTC) model are analyzed. We use three classes of potentials: i) harmonic ii) periodic and iii) combinations of well-type potentials with small depth. In doing this we demonstrate how the potentials can change the asymptotic regimes of the soliton trains. Wide-well external potentials are easier to implement in experiments on Bose-Einstein condensates and can be used to control the soliton motion in a given direction and to achieve a predicted motion of the optical pulse. A general feature of the conducted numerical experiments is that the predictions of both CTC and PCTC match very well with the Manakov model numerics for long-time evolution, often much longer than expected. This means that PCTC is reliable dynamical model for predicting the evolution of the multisoliton solutions of Manakov model in adiabatic approximation. We also compare scalar soliton trains with the Manakov trains with compatible initial parameters.
Wave-current interactions: model development and preliminary results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayet, Clement; Lyard, Florent; Ardhuin, Fabrice
2013-04-01
The coastal area concentrates many uses that require integrated management based on diagnostic and predictive tools to understand and anticipate the future of pollution from land or sea, and learn more about natural hazards at sea or activity on the coast. The realistic modelling of coastal hydrodynamics needs to take into account various processes which interact, including tides, surges, and sea state (Wolf [2008]). These processes act at different spatial scales. Unstructured-grid models have shown the ability to satisfy these needs, given that a good mesh resolution criterion is used. We worked on adding a sea state forcing in a hydrodynamic circulation model. The sea state model is the unstructured version of WAVEWATCH III c (Tolman [2008]) (which version is developed at IFREMER, Brest (Ardhuin et al. [2010]) ), and the hydrodynamic model is the 2D barotropic module of the unstructured-grid finite element model T-UGOm (Le Bars et al. [2010]). We chose to use the radiation stress approach (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart [1964]) to represent the effect of surface waves (wind waves and swell) in the barotropic model, as previously done by Mastenbroek et al. [1993]and others. We present here some validation of the model against academic cases : a 2D plane beach (Haas and Warner [2009]) and a simple bathymetric step with analytic solution for waves (Ardhuin et al. [2008]). In a second part we present realistic application in the Ushant Sea during extreme event. References Ardhuin, F., N. Rascle, and K. Belibassakis, Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean, Ocean Modelling, 20 (1), 35-60, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.001, 2008. Ardhuin, F., et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (9), 1917-1941, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1, 2010. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and
Conveying Lava Flow Hazards Through Interactive Computer Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, D.; Edwards, H. K.; Harnish, E. P.
2007-12-01
As part of an Information Sciences senior class project, a software package of an interactive version of the FLOWGO model was developed for the Island of Hawaii. The software is intended for use in an ongoing public outreach and hazards awareness program that educates the public about lava flow hazards on the island. The design parameters for the model allow an unsophisticated user to initiate a lava flow anywhere on the island and allow it to flow down-slope to the shoreline while displaying a timer to show the rate of advance of the flow. The user is also able to modify a range of input parameters including eruption rate, the temperature of the lava at the vent, and crystal fraction present in the lava at the source. The flow trajectories are computed using a 30 m digital elevation model for the island and the rate of advance of the flow is estimated using the average slope angle and the computed viscosity of the lava as it cools in either a channel (high heat loss) or lava tube (low heat loss). Even though the FLOWGO model is not intended to, and cannot, accurately predict the rate of advance of a tube- fed or channel-fed flow, the relative rates of flow advance for steep or flat-lying terrain convey critically important hazard information to the public: communities located on the steeply sloping western flanks of Mauna Loa may have no more than a few hours to evacuate in the face of a threatened flow from Mauna Loa's southwest rift whereas communities on the more gently sloping eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea may have weeks to months to prepare for evacuation. Further, the model also can show the effects of loss of critical infrastructure with consequent impacts on access into and out of communities, loss of electrical supply, and communications as a result of lava flow implacement. The interactive model has been well received in an outreach setting and typically generates greater involvement by the participants than has been the case with static maps
Yi, Nengjun; Shriner, Daniel; Banerjee, Samprit; Mehta, Tapan; Pomp, Daniel; Yandell, Brian S.
2007-01-01
We extend our Bayesian model selection framework for mapping epistatic QTL in experimental crosses to include environmental effects and gene–environment interactions. We propose a new, fast Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to explore the posterior distribution of unknowns. In addition, we take advantage of any prior knowledge about genetic architecture to increase posterior probability on more probable models. These enhancements have significant computational advantages in models with many effects. We illustrate the proposed method by detecting new epistatic and gene–sex interactions for obesity-related traits in two real data sets of mice. Our method has been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim (http://www.qtlbim.org) to facilitate the general usage of the Bayesian methodology for genomewide interacting QTL analysis. PMID:17483424
Fluid-Rock Interaction Models: Code Release and Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolton, E. W.
2006-12-01
Numerical models our group has developed for understanding the role of kinetic processes during fluid-rock interaction will be released free to the public. We will also present results that highlight the importance of kinetic processes. The author is preparing manuals describing the numerical methods used, as well as "how-to" guides for using the models. The release will include input files, full in-line code documentation of the FORTRAN source code, and instructions for use of model output for visualization and analysis. The aqueous phase (weathering) and supercritical (mixed-volatile metamorphic) fluid flow and reaction models for porous media will be released separately. These codes will be useful as teaching and research tools. The codes may be run on current generation personal computers. Although other codes are available for attacking some of the problems we address, unique aspects of our codes include sub-grid-scale grain models to track grain size changes, as well as dynamic porosity and permeability. Also, as the flow field can change significantly over the course of the simulation, efficient solution methods have been developed for the repeated solution of Poisson-type equations that arise from Darcy's law. These include sparse-matrix methods as well as the even more efficient spectral-transform technique. Results will be presented for kinetic control of reaction pathways and for heterogeneous media. Codes and documentation for modeling intra-grain diffusion of trace elements and isotopes, and exchange of these between grains and moving fluids will also be released. The unique aspect of this model is that it includes concurrent diffusion and grain growth or dissolution for multiple mineral types (low-diffusion regridding has been developed to deal with the moving-boundary problem at the fluid/mineral interface). Results for finite diffusion rates will be compared to batch and fractional melting models. Additional code and documentation will be released
Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC)
Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Peters, Len K.
2008-07-03
This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC), with a special focus on addressing the long-standing issues associated with solving the dynamic partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic gases (HNO3, HCl, and NH3) to size-distributed atmospheric aerosol particles. The coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE) for dynamic gas-particle mass transfer are extremely stiff, and the available numerical techniques are either too expensive or produce oscillatory and/or inaccurate steady-state solutions. These limitations are overcome in MOSAIC, which couples an accurate and computationally efficient thermodynamic module [Zaveri et al., 2005a,b] with a new dynamic gas-particle partitioning module described here. The algorithm involves time-split integrations of non-volatile and semi-volatile species, and a new concept of “dynamic pH” and an adaptive time-stepping scheme hold the key to smooth, accurate, and efficient solutions over the entire relative humidity range. MOSAIC is found to be in excellent agreement with a benchmark version of the model that uses LSODES (a Gear solver) for rigorously integrating the stiff ODEs. The steady-state MOSAIC results for monodisperse aerosol test cases are also in excellent agreement with those obtained with the benchmark equilibrium model AIM. MOSAIC is also evaluated within a 3-D model, and the average CPU speed is estimated to be over 100 times faster than the dynamic aerosol model MADM [Pilinis et al., 2000]. These results suggest that MOSAIC is highly attractive for use in 3-D aerosol and air quality models in which both accuracy and efficiency are critically important.
Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grames, Johanna; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Grass, Dieter; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter
2016-04-01
Recently socio-hydrology models have been proposed to analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters such as floods. Complementary to these descriptive models, we develop a dynamic optimization model, where the inter-temporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This interdisciplinary approach matches with the goals of Panta Rhei i.e. to understand feedbacks between hydrology and society. It enables new perspectives but also shows limitations of each discipline. Young scientists need mentors from various scientific backgrounds to learn their different research approaches and how to best combine them such that interdisciplinary scientific work is also accepted by different science communities. In our socio-hydrology model we apply a macro-economic decision framework to a long-term flood-scenario. We assume a standard macro-economic growth model where agents derive utility from consumption and output depends on physical capital that can be accumulated through investment. To this framework we add the occurrence of flooding events which will destroy part of the capital. We identify two specific periodic long term solutions and denote them rich and poor economies. Whereas rich economies can afford to invest in flood defense and therefore avoid flood damage and develop high living standards, poor economies prefer consumption instead of investing in flood defense capital and end up facing flood damages every time the water level rises. Nevertheless, they manage to sustain at least a low level of physical capital. We identify optimal investment strategies and compare simulations with more frequent and more intense high water level events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamura, Ryo; Tanaka, Shu
2013-11-01
We study the phase transition behavior of a frustrated Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. The model has three types of interactions: the ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interaction J1 and antiferromagnetic third nearest-neighbor interaction J3 in each triangular layer and the ferromagnetic interlayer interaction J⊥. Frustration comes from the intralayer interactions J1 and J3. We focus on the case that the order parameter space is SO(3)×C3. We find that the model exhibits a first-order phase transition with breaking of the SO(3) and C3 symmetries at finite temperature. We also discover that the transition temperature increases but the latent heat decreases as J⊥/J1 increases, which is opposite to the behavior observed in typical unfrustrated three-dimensional systems.
Theory and modeling of particles with DNA-mediated interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licata, Nicholas A.
In recent years significant attention has been attracted to proposals which utilize DNA for nanotechnological applications. Potential applications of these ideas range from the programmable self-assembly of colloidal crystals, to biosensors and nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms. In Chapter I we introduce the system, which generically consists of colloidal particles functionalized with specially designed DNA markers. The sequence of bases on the DNA markers determines the particle type. Due to the hybridization between complementary single-stranded DNA, specific, type-dependent interactions can be introduced between particles by choosing the appropriate DNA marker sequences. In Chapter II we develop a statistical mechanical description of the aggregation and melting behavior of particles with DNA-mediated interactions. A quantitative comparison between the theory and experiments is made by calculating the experimentally observed melting profile. In Chapter III a model is proposed to describe the dynamical departure and diffusion of particles which form reversible key-lock connections. The model predicts a crossover from localized to diffusive behavior. The random walk statistics for the particles' in plane diffusion is discussed. The lateral motion is analogous to dispersive transport in disordered semiconductors, ranging from standard diffusion with a renormalized diffusion coefficient to anomalous, subdiffusive behavior. In Chapter IV we propose a method to self-assemble nanoparticle clusters using DNA scaffolds. An optimal concentration ratio is determined for the experimental implementation of our self-assembly proposal. A natural extension is discussed in Chapter V, the programmable self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters where the desired cluster geometry is encoded using DNA-mediated interactions. We determine the probability that the system self-assembles the desired cluster geometry, and discuss the connections to jamming in granular and colloidal
Incorporating swarm data into plasma models and plasma surface interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makabe, Toshiaki
2009-10-01
Since the mid-1980s, modeling of non-equilibrium plasmas in a collisional region driven at radio frequency has been developed at pressure greater than ˜Pa. The collisional plasma has distinct characteristics induced by a quantum property of each of feed gas molecules through collisions with electrons or heavy particles. That is, there exists a proper function caused by chemically active radicals, negative-ions, and radiations based on a molecular quantum structure through short-range interactions mainly with electrons. This differs from high-density, collisionless plasma controlled by the long-range Coulomb interaction. The quantum property in the form of the collision cross section is the first essential through swarm parameters in order to investigate the collisional plasma structure and to predict the function. These structure and function, of course, appear under a self- organized spatiotemporal distribution of electrons and positive ions subject to electromagnetic theory, i.e., bulk-plasma and ion-sheath. In a plasma interacting with a surface, the flux, energy and angle of particles incident on a surface are basic quantities. It will be helpful to learn the limits of the swarm data in a quasi-equilibrium situation and to find a way out of the difficulty, when we predict the collisional plasma, the function, and related surface processes. In this talk we will discuss some of these experiences in the case of space and time varying radiofrequency plasma and the micro/nano-surface processes. This work is partly supported by Global-COE program in Keio University, granted by MEXT Japan.
Modelling Sea Ice and Surface Wave Interactions in Polar Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosekova, L.; Aksenov, Y.; Coward, A.; Williams, T.; Bertino, L.; Nurser, A. J. G.
2015-12-01
In the Polar Oceans, the surface ocean waves break up sea ice cover and create the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), an area between the sea-ice free ocean and pack ice characterized by highly fragmented ice. This band of sea ice cover is undergoing dramatic changes due to sea ice retreat, with a widening of up to 39% in the Arctic Ocean reported over the last three decades and projections predicting a continuing increase. The surface waves, sea ice and ocean interact in the MIZ through multiple complex feedbacks and processes which are not accounted for in any of the present-day climate models. To address this issue, we present a model development which implements surface ocean wave effects in the global Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) NEMO, coupled to the CICE sea ice model. Our implementation takes into account a number of physical processes specific to the MIZ dynamics. Incoming surface waves are attenuated due to scattering and energy dissipation induced by the presence of ice cover, which is in turn fragmented in response to flexural stresses. This fragmentation modifies the floe size distribution and impacts the sea ice thermodynamics by increasing lateral melting and thus affecting momentum and heat transfer between sea ice and the upper ocean. In addition, the dynamics of the sea ice is modified by a combined rheology that takes into account floe collisions and allows for a more realistic representation of the MIZ. We present results from the NEMO OGCM at 1 and 0.25 degree resolution with a wave-ice interaction module. The module introduces two new diagnostics previously unavailable in OGCM's: surface wave spectra in sea ice covered areas, and floe size distribution (FSD) due to wave-induced fragmentation. We evaluate the sea ice and wave simulations with available observational estimates, and analyze the impact of these MIZ processes on the ocean and sea ice state. We focus on ocean mixing, stratification, circulation and the role of the MIZ in ocean
The XY model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
D'Souza, Ransell
2014-04-24
One can get spin-orbit interaction of the magnetic ions, besides the strong Heisenberg interaction, known as the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. We show the effect of the DM interaction on the excitation spectrum. We also show here the magnetic Susceptibility and ferroelectric polarization of the system in a longitudinal magnetic field.
Efficient quantum modeling of inelastic interactions in nanodevices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Y.; Lannoo, M.; Cavassilas, N.; Luisier, M.; Bescond, M.
2016-05-01
This paper presents an efficient direct quantum method to model inelastic scattering in nanoelectronic structures including degenerate band extrema. It couples the Born series expansion of the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) to an analytic continuation based on the Padé approximant technique. Using a two-band k .p Hamiltonian, we analyze the electron transport through a linear chain in the presence of both optical and acoustic phonons. Results are consistently compared with the usual, computationally expensive, self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA). We find that our approach provides a much better convergence for both types of phonons in the presence of strong multiband coupling. The calculation of the current to the fifth order in the interactions is sufficient to reproduce the influence of all considered phonon interactions. We also show that the method can be applied to the calculation of the density of carriers which depicts however a slower convergence rate than the current. The capability to efficiently calculate both current and carrier density represents a clear advantage in a context of increasing request for atomistic quantum simulations.
Tool/tissues interaction modeling for transluminal angioplasty simulation.
Le Fol, T; Haigron, P; Lucas, A
2007-01-01
In this paper, a simulation environment is described for balloon dilation during percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. It means simulating tool/tissues interactions involved in the inflation of a balloon by considering patient specific data. In this context, three main behaviors have been identified: soft tissues, crush completely under the effect of the balloon, calcified plaques, do not admit any deformation but could move in deformable structures and blood vessel wall and organs, try to find their original forms. A deformable soft tissue model is proposed, based on the Enhanced ChainMail method to take into account tissues deformation during dilatation. We improved the original ChainMail method with a "forbidden zone" step to facilitate tool/tissues interactions. The simulation was implemented using five key steps: 1) initialization of balloon parameters; 2) definition of the data structure; 3) dilatation of the balloon and displacement approximation; 4) final position estimation by an elastic relaxation; and 5) interpolation step for visualization. Preliminary results obtained from patient CT data are reported. PMID:18002311
A coupled hidden Markov model for disease interactions.
Sherlock, Chris; Xifara, Tatiana; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike
2013-08-01
To investigate interactions between parasite species in a host, a population of field voles was studied longitudinally, with presence or absence of six different parasites measured repeatedly. Although trapping sessions were regular, a different set of voles was caught at each session, leading to incomplete profiles for all subjects. We use a discrete time hidden Markov model for each disease with transition probabilities dependent on covariates via a set of logistic regressions. For each disease the hidden states for each of the other diseases at a given time point form part of the covariate set for the Markov transition probabilities from that time point. This allows us to gauge the influence of each parasite species on the transition probabilities for each of the other parasite species. Inference is performed via a Gibbs sampler, which cycles through each of the diseases, first using an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings step to sample from the conditional posterior of the covariate parameters for that particular disease given the hidden states for all other diseases and then sampling from the hidden states for that disease given the parameters. We find evidence for interactions between several pairs of parasites and of an acquired immune response for two of the parasites. PMID:24223436
Parallel algorithms for interactive manipulation of digital terrain models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, E. W.; Mcallister, D. F.; Nagaraj, V.
1988-01-01
Interactive three-dimensional graphics applications, such as terrain data representation and manipulation, require extensive arithmetic processing. Massively parallel machines are attractive for this application since they offer high computational rates, and grid connected architectures provide a natural mapping for grid based terrain models. Presented here are algorithms for data movement on the massive parallel processor (MPP) in support of pan and zoom functions over large data grids. It is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated real-time performance of graphics functions on grids that were equal in size to the physical dimensions of the MPP. When the dimensions of a data grid exceed the processing array size, data is packed in the array memory. Windows of the total data grid are interactively selected for processing. Movement of packed data is needed to distribute items across the array for efficient parallel processing. Execution time for data movement was found to exceed that for arithmetic aspects of graphics functions. Performance figures are given for routines written in MPP Pascal.
Computational modeling of fluid structural interaction in arterial stenosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bali, Leila; Boukedjane, Mouloud; Bahi, Lakhdar
2013-12-01
Atherosclerosis affects the arterial blood vessels causing stenosis because of which the artery hardens resulting in loss of elasticity in the affected region. In this paper, we present: an approach to model the fluid-structure interaction through such an atherosclerosis affected region of the artery, The blood is assumed as an incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid, and the vessel wall was treated as a thick-walled, incompressible and isotropic material with uniform mechanical properties. The numerical simulation has been studied in the context of The Navier-Stokes equations for an interaction with an elastic solid. The study of fluid flow and wall motion was initially carried out separately, Discretized forms of the transformed wall and flow equations, which are coupled through the boundary conditions at their interface, are obtained by control volume method and simultaneously to study the effects of wall deformability, solutions are obtained for both rigid and elastic walls. The results indicate that deformability of the wall causes an increase in the time average of pressure drop, but a decrease in the maximum wall shear stress. Displacement and stress distributions in the wall are presented.
Simulations of Bluff Body Flow Interaction for Noise Source Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Medi R.; Lockard David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Catherine B.
2006-01-01
The current study is a continuation of our effort to characterize the details of flow interaction between two cylinders in a tandem configuration. This configuration is viewed to possess many of the pertinent flow features of the highly interactive unsteady flow field associated with the main landing gear of large civil transports. The present effort extends our previous two-dimensional, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations to three dimensions using a quasilaminar, zonal approach, in conjunction with a two-equation turbulence model. Two distinct separation length-to-diameter ratios of L/D = 3.7 and 1.435, representing intermediate and short separation distances between the two cylinders, are simulated. The Mach 0.166 simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of Re = 1.66 105 to match the companion experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. Extensive comparisons with the measured steady and unsteady surface pressure and off-surface particle image velocimetry data show encouraging agreement. Both prominent and some of the more subtle trends in the mean and fluctuating flow fields are correctly predicted. Both computations and the measured data reveal a more robust and energetic shedding process at L/D = 3.7 in comparison with the weaker shedding in the shorter separation case of L/D = 1.435. The vortex shedding frequency based on the computed surface pressure spectra is in reasonable agreement with the measured Strouhal frequency.
Interactions of multiquark states in the chromodielectric model
Martens, Gunnar; Greiner, Carsten; Leupold, Stefan; Mosel, Ulrich
2006-05-01
We investigate 4-quark (qqqq) systems as well as multiquark states with a large number of quarks and antiquarks using the chromodielectric model. In the former type of systems the flux distribution and the corresponding energy of such systems for planar and nonplanar geometries are studied. From the comparison to the case of two independent qq-strings we deduce the interaction potential between two strings. We find an attraction between strings and a characteristic string flip if there are two degenerate string combinations between the four particles. The interaction shows no strong Van-der-Waals forces and the long range behavior of the potential is well described by a Yukawa potential, which might be confirmed in future lattice calculations. The multiquark states develop an inhomogeneous porous structure even for particle densities large compared to nuclear matter constituent quark densities. We present first results of the dependence of the system on the particle density pointing towards a percolation type of transition from a hadronic matter phase to a quark matter phase. The critical energy density is found at {epsilon}{sub c}=1.2 GeV/fm{sup 3}.
Interacting varying ghost dark energy models in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, Martiros; Khurshudyan, Amalya; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2015-06-01
Motivated by recent developments in Cosmology we would like to consider an extension of the Ghost DE which we will name as varying Ghost DE. Ghost DE like other models was introduced recently as a possible way to explain accelerated expansion of the Universe. For the phenomenological origin of the varying Ghost dark energy in our Universe we can suggest an existence of some unknown dynamics between the Ghost Dark energy and a fluid which evaporated completely making sense of the proposed effect. Moreover, we assume that this was in the epochs and scales which are unreachable by present-day experiments, like in very early Universe. In this study we will investigate the model for cosmological validity. We will apply observational and causality constraints to illuminate physically correct behavior of the model from the phenomenological one. We saw that an interaction between the varying Ghost DE and cold DM (CDM) also provides a solution to the cosmological coincidence problem. And we found that the Ghost DE behaves as a fluid-like matter in early Universe.
Shape coexistence in the microscopically guided interacting boson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, K.; Otsuka, T.; Van Isacker, P.
2016-02-01
Shape coexistence has been a subject of great interest in nuclear physics for many decades. In the context of the nuclear shell model, intruder excitations may give rise to remarkably low-lying excited {0}+ states associated with different intrinsic shapes. In heavy open-shell nuclei, the dimension of the shell-model configuration space that includes such intruder excitations becomes exceedingly large, thus requiring a drastic truncation scheme. Such a framework has been provided by the interacting boson model (IBM). In this article we address the phenomenon of shape coexistence and its relevant spectroscopy from the point of view of the IBM. A special focus is placed on the method developed recently which makes use of the link between the IBM and the self-consistent mean-field approach based on the nuclear energy density functional. The method is extended to deal with various intruder configurations associated with different equilibrium shapes. We assess the predictive power of the method and suggest possible improvements and extensions, by considering illustrative examples in the neutron-deficient Pb region, where shape coexistence has been experimentally studied.
A physical model of sensorimotor interactions during locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Theresa J.; Lewis, M. Anthony
2012-08-01
In this paper, we describe the development of a bipedal robot that models the neuromuscular architecture of human walking. The body is based on principles derived from human muscular architecture, using muscles on straps to mimic agonist/antagonist muscle action as well as bifunctional muscles. Load sensors in the straps model Golgi tendon organs. The neural architecture is a central pattern generator (CPG) composed of a half-center oscillator combined with phase-modulated reflexes that is simulated using a spiking neural network. We show that the interaction between the reflex system, body dynamics and CPG results in a walking cycle that is entrained to the dynamics of the system. We also show that the CPG helped stabilize the gait against perturbations relative to a purely reflexive system, and compared the joint trajectories to human walking data. This robot represents a complete physical, or ‘neurorobotic’, model of the system, demonstrating the usefulness of this type of robotics research for investigating the neurophysiological processes underlying walking in humans and animals.
Fluid-Structure interaction modeling in deformable porous arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakerzadeh, Rana; Zunino, Paolo
2015-11-01
A computational framework is developed to study the coupling of blood flow in arteries interacting with a poroelastic arterial wall featuring possibly large deformations. Blood is modeled as an incompressible, viscous, Newtonian fluid using the Navier-Stokes equations and the arterial wall consists of a thick material which is modeled as a Biot system that describes the mechanical behavior of a homogeneous and isotropic elastic skeleton, and connecting pores filled with fluid. Discretization via finite element method leads to the system of nonlinear equations and a Newton-Raphson scheme is adopted to solve the resulting nonlinear system through consistent linearization. Moreover, interface conditions are imposed on the discrete level via mortar finite elements or Nitsche's coupling. The discrete linearized coupled FSI system is solved by means of a splitting strategy, which allows solving the Navier-Stokes and Biot equations separately. The numerical results investigate the effects of proroelastic parameters on the pressure wave propagation in arteries, filtration of incompressible fluids through the porous media, and the structure displacement. The fellowship support from the Computational Modeling & Simulation PhD program at University of Pittsburgh for Rana Zakerzadeh is gratefully acknowledged.
Modelling of cutting tool - soil interaction - part I: contact behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nardin, A.; Zavarise, G.; Schrefler, B. A.
The unknown interaction of the cutting tools with geological settings represents an interesting problem for the excavation machinery industry. To simplify the non-linear aspects involved in the numerical analysis of such phenomena a strategy for an accurate soil modelling has to be defined. A possible approach is the discrete one, by considering the soil as an assembly of rigid spheres. In this work this strategy is adopted. The basic idea is to concentrate at the contact level between the spheres the real mechanical behaviour of the soil. For this purpose suitable contact models have been developed, where specific elasto-plastic laws have been implemented in the node-to-segment contact formulation. The framework for the plastic behaviour consists of a failure criterion, a one-dimensional, rate-independent elasto-plastic flow rule for the normal and the tangential force and a non-linear yield criterion. The final aim of this paper is to develop mechanical models to study the behaviour of stiff soils and rocks under different loading conditions.
Timing Interactions in Social Simulations: The Voter Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Miguel, Maxi San
The recent availability of huge high resolution datasets on human activities has revealed the heavy-tailed nature of the interevent time distributions. In social simulations of interacting agents the standard approach has been to use Poisson processes to update the state of the agents, which gives rise to very homogeneous activity patterns with a well defined characteristic interevent time. As a paradigmatic opinion model we investigate the voter model and review the standard update rules and propose two new update rules which are able to account for heterogeneous activity patterns. For the new update rules each node gets updated with a probability that depends on the time since the last event of the node, where an event can be an update attempt (exogenous update) or a change of state (endogenous update). We find that both update rules can give rise to power law interevent time distributions, although the endogenous one more robustly. Apart from that for the exogenous update rule and the standard update rules the voter model does not reach consensus in the infinite size limit, while for the endogenous update there exist a coarsening process that drives the system toward consensus configurations.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 2. Element B: Flow interaction experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Murthy, S. N. B.; Sullivan, J. P.
1986-10-01
The design process was improved and the efficiency, life, and maintenance costs of the turbine engine hot section was enhanced. Recently, there has been much emphasis on the need for improved numerical codes for the design of efficient combustors. For the development of improved computational codes, there is a need for an experimentally obtained data base to be used at test cases for the accuracy of the computations. The purpose of Element-B is to establish a benchmark quality velocity and scalar measurements of the flow interaction of circular jets with swirling flow typical of that in the dome region of annular combustor. In addition to the detailed experimental effort, extensive computations of the swirling flows are to be compared with the measurements for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of current and advanced turbulence and scalar transport models.
Microwave modeling of laser plasma interactions. Final report
Not Available
1983-08-01
For a large laser fusion targets and nanosecond pulse lengths, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and self-focusing are expected to be significant problems. The goal of the contractual effort was to examine certain aspects of these physical phenomena in a wavelength regime (lambda approx.5 cm) more amenable to detailed diagnostics than that characteristic of laser fusion (lambda approx.1 micron). The effort was to include the design, fabrication and operation of a suitable experimental apparatus. In addition, collaboration with Dr. Neville Luhmann and his associates at UCLA and with Dr. Curt Randall of LLNL, on analysis and modelling of the UCLA experiments was continued. Design and fabrication of the TRW experiment is described under ''Experiment Design'' and ''Experimental Apparatus''. The design goals for the key elements of the experimental apparatus were met, but final integration and operation of the experiment was not accomplished. Some theoretical considerations on the interaction between Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Self-Focusing are also presented.
Configuration based Collisional-Radiative Model including configuration interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busquet, Michel
2007-11-01
Atomic levels mixing through Configuration Interaction (CI) yields important effects. It transfers oscillator strengthes from allowed lines to forbidden lines, and produces strong shift and broadening of line arrays, although the total emissivity is almost insensitive to CI, being proportional to the average wave number. However for hi Z material, like Xe or Sn (potential xuv-ray source for micro-lithography), a non-LTE calculation accounting for all relevant levels wiill be untractable with billions of states. The model we constructed, CAVCRM (caf'e-crème), is a non-LTE C.R.M. where states are configurations but it includes C.I. to give full richness of spectral quantities, using the latest version of the HULLAC-v9 suite of codes and our newly developped algorithm for large set of states with as many as 50,000 states [1]. [1] M.Klapisch et al, this conference
Polyelectrolyte Structure and Interactions in Model Cystic Fibrosis Sputum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slimmer, Scott; Angelini, Thomas; Liang, Hongjun; Butler, John; Wong, Gerard C. L.
2002-03-01
Cystic fibrosis sputum is a complex fluid consisting of a number of components, including mucin (a glycoprotein), lysozyme (a cationic polypeptide), water, salt, as well as a high concentration of a number of anionic biological polyelectrolytes such as DNA and F-actin. The interactions governing these components are poorly understood, but may have important clinical consequences. For example, the formation of these biological polyelectrolytes into ordered gel phases may contribute significantly to the observed high viscosity of CF sputum. In this work, a number of model systems were created to simulate CF sputum in vitro, in order to elucidate the contributions of the different components. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was supported by NSF DMR-0071761, DOE DEFG02-91ER45439, the Beckman Young Investigator Program, and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.
Beam-beam interaction models with a small stochastic perturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoud, Gamal M.
1995-02-01
In this work, we study a class of differential equations, which may be used to model the beam-beam interaction in particle accelerators, in the presence of a small stochastic perturbation z(t): ẍ + ω 02x + ɛ 2λg( dotx) + ɛ 2 f(x)p(ω 0t) = ɛ 2z(t) . The method of stochastic averaging is used to derive a Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation describing the probability density for the amplitude of the solutions. In the case g( dotx) = dotx, an odd polynomial f( x) = k3x3 + k5x5 + ⋯ and p( ω0t) = cos ω0t, we obtain the exact stationary probability density function and the first and second moments for the amplitude of the solutions. Numerical simulation shows very good agreement with the analytical results of this study.
NPLOT: an Interactive Plotting Program for NASTRAN Finite Element Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, G. K.; Mcentire, K. J.
1985-01-01
The NPLOT (NASTRAN Plot) is an interactive computer graphics program for plotting undeformed and deformed NASTRAN finite element models. Developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the program provides flexible element selection and grid point, ASET and SPC degree of freedom labelling. It is easy to use and provides a combination menu and command driven user interface. NPLOT also provides very fast hidden line and haloed line algorithms. The hidden line algorithm in NPLOT proved to be both very accurate and several times faster than other existing hidden line algorithms. A fast spatial bucket sort and horizon edge computation are used to achieve this high level of performance. The hidden line and the haloed line algorithms are the primary features that make NPLOT different from other plotting programs.
Modeling Stromal-Epithelial Interactions in Disease Progression
Strand, Douglas W.; Hayward, Simon W.
2014-01-01
The role of tumor stroma in progression to malignancy has become the subject of intense experimental and clinical interest. The stromal compartment of organs is composed of all the non-epithelial cell types and maintains the proper architecture and nutrient levels required for epithelial and, ultimately, organ function. The composition of the reactive stroma surrounding tumors is vastly different from normal stromal tissue. Stromal phenotype can be correlated with, and predictive of, disease recurrence. In addition, the stroma is now seen as a legitimate target for therapeutic intervention. Although much has been learned about the role of the stromal compartment in development and disease in recent years, a number of key questions remain. Here we review how some of these questions are beginning to be addressed using new models of stromal-epithelial interaction. PMID:20587339
Exploring the Hubbard model: the interplay of geometry and interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbuquois, Rémi; Messer, Michael; Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Görg, Frederik; Greif, Daniel; Huber, Sebastian; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-05-01
The nature of the ground state of many-body systems not only depends on the relative strength of kinetic and interaction energies, but also on the geometry imposed by the Hamiltonian. We show here two different experiments performed with ultracold fermions, where the geometry of the optical lattice strongly influences the many-body state. In the Ionic Hubbard model, a new energy scale associated with the breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice can be tuned to shift from a Mott insulating to a band insulating state. In the spin sector as well, the geometry of the lattice also plays an important role. Even above the transition temperature, the influence of the lattice geometry is revealed by nearest-neighbour (NN) magnetic correlations, and provides key insights on their formation.
Description of Exotic Nuclei with the Interacting Boson Model
Boeyuekata, M.; Van Isacker, P.; Uluer, I.
2008-11-11
Even--even nuclei in the A{approx}100 mass region are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). The study includes energy spectra and electric quadrupole transition properties of zirconium, molybdenum, ruthenium and palladium isotopes with neutron number N{>=}54. A global parametrization of the IBM-1 hamiltonian is found leading to a description of 301 collective levels in 30 nuclei with a root-mean-square deviation from the observed level energies of 119 keV. The geometric character of the nuclei can be visualized by plotting the potential energy surface V({beta},{gamma}) obtained from the IBM-1 hamiltonian in the classical limit. The parametrization established on the basis of known elements is then used to predict properties of the unknown, neutron-rich isotopes {sup 106}Zr, {sup 112}Mo, {sup 116}Ru and {sup 120}Pd.
A model for analysis of the nurse-patient interactive process (MAIP).
Moreira, A S; Rodrigues, A R; Coler, M S
1997-08-01
A model for analysis of the nurse-patient interactive process (MAIP), based on the analysis of the content of that interaction, is proposed as a method for determining appropriate psychosocial nursing diagnoses for the patient. The model focuses on the qualitative aspects of the phenomenon of interaction. The MAIP permits a systematic analysis of the nurse-patient interaction, and in turn will provide guidance for the professional in their actions in the interactive process. PMID:9362833
Models of interacting supernovae and their spectral diversity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Audit, Edouard; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni
2016-05-01
Using radiation hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we explore the origin of the spectral diversity of interacting supernovae (SNe) of Type IIn. We revisit SN 1994W and investigate the dynamical configurations that can give rise to spectra with narrow lines at all times. We find that a standard ˜10 M⊙ 1051 erg SN ejecta ramming into a 0.4 M⊙ dense circumstellar material is inadequate for SN 1994W, as it leads to the appearance of broad lines at late times. This structure, however, generates spectra that exhibit the key morphological changes seen in SN 1998S. For SN 1994W, we consider a completely different configuration, which involves the interaction at a large radius of a low-mass inner shell with a high-mass outer shell. Such a structure may arise in an 8-12 M⊙ star from a nuclear flash (e.g. of Ne) followed within a few years by core collapse. Our simulations show that the large mass of the outer shell leads to the complete braking of the inner shell material, the formation of a slow dense shell, and the powering of a luminous SN IIn, even for a low inner shell energy. Early on, our model line profiles are typical of SNe IIn, exhibiting narrow cores and broad electron-scattering wings. As observed in SN 1994W, they also remain narrow at late times. Our SN 1994W model invokes two low-energy ejections, both atypical of observed massive stars, and illustrates the diversity of configurations leading to SNe IIn. These results also highlight the importance of spectra to constrain the dynamical properties and understand the origin of SNe IIn.
Application of Core Dynamics Modeling to Core-Mantle Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuang, Weijia
2003-01-01
Observations have demonstrated that length of day (LOD) variation on decadal time scales results from exchange of axial angular momentum between the solid mantle and the core. There are in general four core-mantle interaction mechanisms that couple the core and the mantle. Of which, three have been suggested likely the dominant coupling mechanism for the decadal core-mantle angular momentum exchange, namely, gravitational core-mantle coupling arising from density anomalies in the mantle and in the core (including the inner core), the electromagnetic coupling arising from Lorentz force in the electrically conducting lower mantle (e.g. D-layer), and the topographic coupling arising from non-hydrostatic pressure acting on the core-mantle boundary (CMB) topography. In the past decades, most effort has been on estimating the coupling torques from surface geomagnetic observations (kinematic approach), which has provided insights on the core dynamical processes. In the meantime, it also creates questions and concerns on approximations in the studies that may invalidate the corresponding conclusions. The most serious problem is perhaps the approximations that are inconsistent with dynamical processes in the core, such as inconsistencies between the core surface flow beneath the CMB and the CMB topography, and that between the D-layer electric conductivity and the approximations on toroidal field at the CMB. These inconsistencies can only be addressed with numerical core dynamics modeling. In the past few years, we applied our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent and Three-dimensional) core dynamics model to study core-mantle interactions together with geodynamo simulation, aiming at assessing the effect of the dynamical inconsistencies in the kinematic studies on core-mantle coupling torques. We focus on topographic and electromagnetic core-mantle couplings and find that, for the topographic coupling, the consistency between the core flow and the CMB topography is
The display of molecular models with the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egan, J. T.; Hart, J.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.
1982-01-01
A visualization of molecular models can lead to a clearer understanding of the models. Sophisticated graphics devices supported by minicomputers make it possible for the chemist to interact with the display of a very large model, altering its structure. In addition to user interaction, the need arises also for other ways of displaying information. These include the production of viewgraphs, film presentation, as well as publication quality prints of various models. To satisfy these needs, the display capability of the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS) has been enhanced to provide a wide range of graphics and plotting capabilities. Attention is given to an overview of the AIMS system, graphics hardware used by the AIMS display subsystem, a comparison of graphics hardware, the representation of molecular models, graphics software used by the AIMS display subsystem, the display of a model obtained from data stored in molecule data base, a graphics feature for obtaining single frame permanent copy displays, and a feature for producing multiple frame displays.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Ronald
2000-01-01
Describes the Digital Learning Interactive textbook which allows instructors to customize an online textbook to meet the needs of the instructor and the students. Discusses the features and components aimed at engaging students in the Digital Learning Interactive text. (CMK)
Models of Yukawa interaction in the two Higgs doublet model, and their collider phenomenology
Aoki, Mayumi; Kanemura, Shinya; Yagyu, Kei; Tsumura, Koji
2009-07-01
Possible models of Yukawa interaction are discussed in the two Higgs doublet model (THDM) under the discrete symmetry imposed to avoid the flavor changing neutral current at the leading order. It is known that there are four types of such models corresponding to the possible different assignment of charges for the discrete symmetry on quarks and leptons. We first examine the decay properties of Higgs bosons in each type model, and summarize constraints on the models from current experimental data. We then shed light on the differences among these models in collider phenomenology. In particular, we mainly discuss the so-called type-II THDM and type-X THDM. The type-II THDM corresponds to the model with the same Yukawa interaction as the minimal supersymmetric standard model. On the other hand, in the type-X THDM, additional Higgs bosons can predominantly decay into leptons. This scenario may be interesting because of the motivation for a light charged Higgs boson scenario such as in the TeV-scale model of neutrinos, dark matter, and baryogenesis. We study how we can distinguish the type-X THDM from the minimal supersymmetric standard model at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider.
Probabilistic Multi-Factor Interaction Model for Complex Material Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.
2010-01-01
Complex material behavior is represented by a single equation of product form to account for interaction among the various factors. The factors are selected by the physics of the problem and the environment that the model is to represent. For example, different factors will be required for each to represent temperature, moisture, erosion, corrosion, etc. It is important that the equation represent the physics of the behavior in its entirety accurately. The Multi-Factor Interaction Model (MFIM) is used to evaluate the divot weight (foam weight ejected) from the external launch tanks. The multi-factor has sufficient degrees of freedom to evaluate a large number of factors that may contribute to the divot ejection. It also accommodates all interactions by its product form. Each factor has an exponent that satisfies only two points - the initial and final points. The exponent describes a monotonic path from the initial condition to the final. The exponent values are selected so that the described path makes sense in the absence of experimental data. In the present investigation, the data used were obtained by testing simulated specimens in launching conditions. Results show that the MFIM is an effective method of describing the divot weight ejected under the conditions investigated. The problem lies in how to represent the divot weight with a single equation. A unique solution to this problem is a multi-factor equation of product form. Each factor is of the following form (1 xi/xf)ei, where xi is the initial value, usually at ambient conditions, xf the final value, and ei the exponent that makes the curve represented unimodal that meets the initial and final values. The exponents are either evaluated by test data or by technical judgment. A minor disadvantage may be the selection of exponents in the absence of any empirical data. This form has been used successfully in describing the foam ejected in simulated space environmental conditions. Seven factors were required
Baldo, M.; Lombardo, U.; Saperstein, E.E.; Zverev, M.V.
1995-09-01
The problem of pairing in semi-infinite nuclear matter is considered in the Brueckner approach. Equations for effective pairing interaction in semi-infinite matter are derived for the case of the separable representation of realistic NN interaction. The propagator of two noninteracting particles in a semi-infinite potential well is calculated numerically. The equation for effective interaction is solved for a model 8-shaped NN interaction, which correctly reproduces NN scattering in the low-energy limit. 15 refs., 10 figs.
Flow interaction experiment. Volume 2: Aerothermal modeling, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Murthy, S. N. B.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational study is reported for the flow of a turbulent jet discharging into a rectangular enclosure. The experimental configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets are investigated to provide a better understanding of the flow field in an annular combustor. A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. Major features of the flow field include recirculation, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. A significant result from this study is the effect the primary jets have on the flow field. The primary jets are seen to create statistically larger recirculation zones and higher turbulence levels. In addition, a technique called marker nephelometry is used to provide mean concentration values in the model combustor. Computations are performed using three levels of turbulence closures, namely k-epsilon model, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM) closure. Two different numerical schemes are applied. One is the lower-order power-law differencing scheme (PLDS) and the other is the higher-order flux-spline differencing scheme (FSDS). A comparison is made of the performance of these schemes. The numerical results are compared with experimental data. For the cases considered in this study, the FSDS is more accurate than the PLDS. For a prescribed accuracy, the flux-spline scheme requires a far fewer number of grid points. Thus, it has the potential for providing a numerical error-free solution, especially for three-dimensional flows, without requiring an excessively fine grid. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained, the deficiencies regarding the modeled dissipation rate (epsilon) equation, pressure-strain correlation model, and the inlet epsilon profile and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to
Flow interaction experiment. Volume 1: Aerothermal modeling, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Murthy, S. N. B.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational study is reported for the flow of a turbulent jet discharging into a rectangular enclosure. The experimental configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets are investigated to provide a better understanding of the flow field in an annular combustor. A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. Major features of the flow field include recirculation, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. A significant result from this study is the effect the primary jets have on the flow field. The primary jets are seen to create statistically larger recirculation zones and higher turbulence levels. In addition, a technique called marker nephelometry is used to provide mean concentration values in the model combustor. Computations are performed using three levels of turbulence closures, namely k-epsilon model, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM) closure. Two different numerical schemes are applied. One is the lower-order power-law differencing scheme (PLDS) and the other is the higher-order flux-spline differencing scheme (FSDS). A comparison is made of the performance of these schemes. The numerical results are compared with experimental data. For the cases considered in this study, the FSDS is more accurate than the PLDS. For a prescribed accuracy, the flux-spline scheme requires a far fewer number of grid points. Thus, it has the potential for providing a numerical error-free solution, especially for three-dimensional flows, without requiring an excessively fine grid. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained, the deficiencies regarding the modeled dissipation rate (epsilon) equation, pressure-strain correlation model, and the inlet epsilon profile and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to
Coupling Ecology and River Dynamics using a Simplified Interaction Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longjas, A.; Czuba, J. A.; Schwenk, J.; Danesh Yazdi, M.; Hansen, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.
2013-12-01
Quantifying how changes in streamflow and sediment affect riverine life is an important component of river basin management and stream restoration efforts, especially under human and climate-induced changes affecting many basins around the world. In the Midwestern US, drastic changes in mussel populations have been witnessed over the past decade begging quantitative understanding of cause and effect and attribution of these changes to the concurrent changes in streamflow and sediment loads to the rivers. Previous empirical analyses have attempted to explore mussel abundance with habitat associations and bulk hydrologic and geomorphic attributes as predictors but results showed relatively weak relationships and low predictive power. In this work, we developed a process-based model that incorporates water-sediment-mussel interactions using functional relationships and predicts the long-term trends of suspended-sediment, chlorophyll-a and mussel population using a daily streamflow record. We applied the model to the Minnesota River Basin, which has experienced significant changes in precipitation and runoff, increased sediment delivery, and decreasing mussel populations. Our model captures the general dynamics of the system and provides a better predictor of mussel populations than predictions based on geomorphic (e.g. upstream drainage area, slope) and hydraulic variables (e.g. 2-year recurrence interval peak streamflow, depth, width, cross sectional area, velocity, and Froude number) alone. To highlight the utility of our model, we tested possible scenarios that illustrate (1) how climate and land-use change may undermine the resilience of mussel populations and (2) how management efforts can allow mussel populations to recover.
Siegel, E.; Kandikar, M.; Dowlatabadi, H.
1995-12-31
The importance of biosphere-climate interactions for energy and moisture balances and major biogeochemical cycles is well recognized. Climate change is expected to alter the functioning and distribution of major ecosystems. These changes have been investigated using global vegetation transfer models.
Quantitative Model of microRNA-mRNA interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noorbakhsh, Javad; Lang, Alex; Mehta, Pankaj
2012-02-01
MicroRNAs are short RNA sequences that regulate gene expression and protein translation by binding to mRNA. Experimental data reveals the existence of a threshold linear output of protein based on the expression level of microRNA. To understand this behavior, we propose a mathematical model of the chemical kinetics of the interaction between mRNA and microRNA. Using this model we have been able to quantify the threshold linear behavior. Furthermore, we have studied the effect of internal noise, showing the existence of an intermediary regime where the expression level of mRNA and microRNA has the same order of magnitude. In this crossover regime the mRNA translation becomes sensitive to small changes in the level of microRNA, resulting in large fluctuations in protein levels. Our work shows that chemical kinetics parameters can be quantified by studying protein fluctuations. In the future, studying protein levels and their fluctuations can provide a powerful tool to study the competing endogenous RNA hypothesis (ceRNA), in which mRNA crosstalk occurs due to competition over a limited pool of microRNAs.
A Mars Dust Model with Interactive Dynamics, Radiation, and Microphysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartwick, Victoria; Toon, O. Brian
2014-11-01
Variability of the present day Martian climate is dominated by globally enveloping dust storms that recur with a frequency of approximately three years. Small-scale aeolian processes predictably generate local seasonal storms. However, factors that enhance local storm strength and grow local phenomenon to global scales are poorly understood. Research with Martian general circulation models (GCM) has recently demonstrated a strong correlation between dust storm generation, strength and long-term stability and the global distribution of dust reservoirs and their temporal permanence. Here we present results from the NCAR Mars Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) coupled with a fully interactive dust microphysics scheme. Dust devil lifting and saltation wind driven lifting are parameterized in the emission scheme. Mass is distributed into 20 size bins with a radius range of 0.1 to 8 microns. The initial radial size distribution is log-normal with a sigma value of 1.5. Dust is allowed to advect horizontally and is removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition. Dust also impacts the radiative heating rate, as do water clouds.The large number of dust bins allows for the opportunity to track the size distribution of dust deposits and investigate the long term stability of dust source regions as a function of particle size.
A Mars Dust Model with Interactive Dynamics, Radiation, and Microphysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartwick, V.; Toon, B.
2014-12-01
Variability of the present day Martian climate is dominated by globally enveloping dust storms that recur with a frequency of approximately three years. Small-scale aeolian processes predictably generate local seasonal storms. However, factors that enhance local storm strength and grow local phenomenon to global scales are poorly understood. Research with Martian general circulation models (GCM) has recently demonstrated a strong correlation between dust storm generation, strength and long-term stability and the global distribution of dust reservoirs and their temporal permanence. Here we present results from the NCAR Mars Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) coupled with a fully interactive dust microphysics scheme. Dust devil lifting and saltation wind driven lifting are parameterized in the emission scheme. Mass is distributed into 20 size bins with a radius range of 0.1 to 8 microns. The initial radial size distribution is log-normal with a sigma value of 1.5. Dust is allowed to advect horizontally and is removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition. Dust also impacts the radiative heating rate, as do water clouds.The large number of dust bins allows for the opportunity to track the size distribution of dust deposits and investigate the long term stability of dust source regions as a function of particle size.
Mechanical model of the Lorentz force and Coulomb interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriyev, Valery
2008-09-01
The centripetal and Coriolis accelerations experienced by a cart traveling over a rotating turntable are usually calculated proceeding from the known kinematics of the problem. Respective forces can be regarded as due to the entrainment of the cart in the moving solid environs. We extend the approach to the general case of a particle entrained in the flow of the surrounding medium. The expression for the driving force on the particle obtained from the kinematics of the entrainment prescribed appears to be isomorphic to the Lorentz and Coulomb force on a positive electric charge. The inverse direction of the electromagnetic force on a negative charge implies that a growing applied flow induces the upstream motion of the particle. A possible microscopic mechanism for it may be the Magnus force dynamics of a kink in a vortex tangle. The loop on a straight vortex filament can be taken as a model of the electron, the loop with a cavitation models the positron. The Lorentz force is concerned with the Coriolis acceleration. The Coulomb interaction is due to the centripetal or centrifugal force that arises in the turbophoresis of the kink in the perturbation field generated in the medium by the center of pressure.
Simulation and modeling techniques for parachute fluid-structure interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Keith Robert
This thesis is on advanced flow simulation and modeling techniques for fluid-structure interactions (FSI) encountered in parachute systems. The main fluid dynamics solver is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) finite element formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flows. The DSD/SST formulation, which was introduced earlier for flow computations involving moving boundaries and interfaces, gives us the capability to handle parachute structural deformations. The structural dynamics solver is based on a total Lagrangian finite element formulation of the equilibrium equations for a "tension structure" composed of membranes, cables, and concentrated masses. The fluid and structure are coupled iteratively within a nonlinear iteration loop, with multiple nonlinear iterations improving the convergence of the coupled system. Unstructured mesh generation and mesh moving techniques for handling of parachute deformations are developed and/or adapted to address the challenges posed by the coupled problem. The FSI methodology was originally implemented on the Thinking Machines CM-5 supercomputer and is now actively used on the CRAY T3E-1200. Applications to a variety of round and cross parachutes used by the US Army are presented, and different stages of the parachute operations, including inflation and terminal descent, are modeled.
Modeling propellant combustion interacting with an eroding solid surface
Buckingham, A.C.
1980-05-06
A computatonal model of turbulent combustion flow acting on and influenced by an eroding wall surface is introduced. The combustion flow field is particle laden. Significant particulate mass loading occurs in the immediate neighborhood of the wall as a result of erosion products issuing from the deteriorating solid surface. In addition, cases are considered in which a substantial particle mass loading develops near the wall as a result of finely divided (sub micron diameter) particulates such as TiO/sub 2/ and talcum powder which are added to suppress erosion. In addition to statistical turbulent field particle flow interaction, the model includes multi-component molecular diffusion processes, and gas phase, gas/surface and or solid surface chemical reactions. Results indicate that despite the unsteady flow conditions, a limiting erosion rate is approached. This occurs as a result of the effective blowing off of the issing vapor phase products. The blowing reduces the gradients driving the incident combustion heat and mass transfer. An analogy is drawn to unsteady, ablative, heat transfer and thermal/material response in hypersonic aerodynamics. Surfaces investigated, at present, include bare steel and refractory metal coated steel walls.
Kinetic models for in vivo interaction of radioligand and neuroreceptors
Holland, M.J.C. )
1990-02-26
Estimating the amount of nonspecifically bound ligand is required for the analysis of kinetic data derived from in vivo studies of radioligand-neuroreceptor interactions. Most models assume that nonspecific binding is nonsaturable and rapidly reversible and, therefore, represent nonspecific binding as a constant fraction of the radioligand present in a given tissue compartment. This treatment of nonspecific binding predicts that all brain regions will exhibit similar levels of nonspecific binding subject only to differences in blood flow, and is used to justify the practice of estimating specific binding in receptor-rich regions by subtracting the total radioligand in receptor-poor regions from that found in the receptor-rich region. In reality, however, nonspecific binding is probably heterogeneous in character. Some of it may not exhibit very rapid kinetics relative to specific binding to receptors; some of it may be irreversible. When computer simulations are performed using a model which treats nonspecific binding as a separate compartment with its own kinetic parameters rather than as a constant fraction of the radioligand in extracellular fluid, predicted levels of nonspecific binding differ in receptor-rich and receptor-poor regions, suggesting that using receptor-poor regions to estimate nonspecific binding may not be justified.
Modeling Wave-Ice Interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orzech, Mark; Shi, Fengyan; Bateman, Sam; Veeramony, Jay; Calantoni, Joe
2015-04-01
The small-scale (O(m)) interactions between waves and ice floes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) are investigated with a coupled model system. Waves are simulated with the non-hydrostatic finite-volume model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012) and ice floes are represented as bonded collections of smaller particles with the discrete element system LIGGGHTS (Kloss et al., 2012). The physics of fluid and ice are recreated as authentically as possible, to allow the coupled system to supplement and/or substitute for more costly and demanding field experiments. The presentation will first describe the development and validation of the coupled system, then discuss the results of a series of virtual experiments in which ice floe and wave characteristics are varied to examine their effects on energy dissipation, MIZ floe size distribution, and ice pack retreat rates. Although Wadhams et al. (1986) suggest that only a small portion (roughly 10%) of wave energy entering the MIZ is reflected, dissipation mechanisms for the remaining energy have yet to be delineated or measured. The virtual experiments are designed to focus on specific properties and processes - such as floe size and shape, collision and fracturing events, and variations in wave climate - and measure their relative roles the transfer of energy and momentum from waves to ice. Questions to be examined include: How is energy dissipated by ice floe collisions, fracturing, and drag, and how significant is the wave attenuation associated with each process? Do specific wave/floe length scale ratios cause greater wave attenuation? How does ice material strength affect the rate of wave energy loss? The coupled system will ultimately be used to test and improve upon wave-ice parameterizations for large-scale climate models. References: >Kloss, C., C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker (2012). Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD-DEM. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics 12(2/3), 140-152. >Ma, G
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seal, Kala Chand; Przasnyski, Zbigniew H.; Leon, Linda A.
2010-01-01
Do students learn to model OR/MS problems better by using computer-based interactive tutorials and, if so, does increased interactivity in the tutorials lead to better learning? In order to determine the effect of different levels of interactivity on student learning, we used screen capture technology to design interactive support materials for…
Modelling Surface water-groundwater interaction in New Zealand: Model development and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jing; McMillan, Hilary; Zammit, Christian; Horrell, Graeme
2015-04-01
Most rivers worldwide have a strong interaction with groundwater when they leave the mountains and flow over alluvial plains before flowing into the seas or disappearing in the deserts. In New Zealand, typically rivers lose water to the groundwater in the upper plains and generally gain water from the groundwater in the lower plains. The New Zealand national hydrological model (TopNet), based on TopModel concepts, has been developed during the past 12 years for flood prediction and water resources assessment at National and regional scales. Its previous applications across New Zealand outlined that the current conceptualisation is failing to model the river and groundwater interaction due to its over-simplified groundwater process. In this study, a more realistic conceptualisation of surface water groundwater interaction is implemented in the national hydrologic model. This is done by adding an additional groundwater store to the current conceptualisation to simulate groundwater flow and interaction with rivers (i.e. losing and gaining) and to provide the ability to incorporate local information (e.g. flow and groundwater). The updated conceptualisation has been applied to a watershed in the Canterbury region of South Island of New Zealand where a strong interaction between the river and groundwater has been documented and a large number of flow measurement sites and information along the river main stream is available. Results show the simulations fit quite well to flow measurement and explains the river dynamics quite well. This indicates that the updated model might be used at national scale to improve the simulation of hydrological processes in flat areas where groundwater processes are important.
Pattern formation through spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberti, Tommaso; Primavera, Leonardo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo
2015-04-01
The Daisyworld model is based on a hypothetical planet, like the Earth, which receives the radiant energy coming from a Sun-like star, and populated by two kinds of identical plants differing by their colour: white daisies reflecting light and black daisies absorbing light. The interactions and feedbacks between the collective biota of the planet and the incoming radiation form a self-regulating system where the conditions for life are maintained. We investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model where a spatial dependency on latitude is introduced, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitude and a simple greenhouse model are included. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can generate some equilibrium patterns which can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate new equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions. The extension to spatial Daisyworld gives room to the possibility of inhomogeneous solar forcing in a curved planet, with explicit differences between poles and equator and the direct use of the heat diffusion equation. As a first approach, to describe a spherical planet, we consider the temperature T(θ,t) and the surface coverage as depending only on time and on latitude θ (-90° ≤ θ ≤ 90°). A second step is the introduction of the greenhouse effect in the model, the process by which outgoing infrared radiation is partly screened by greenhouse gases. This effect can be described by relaxing the black-body radiation hypothesis and by introducing a grayness function g(T) in the heat equation. As a third step, we consider a latitude dependence of the Earth's conductivity, χ = χ(θ). Considering these terms, using spherical coordinates and symmetry with respect to θ, the modified Daisyworld equations reduce to the
Hartree-Fock Mean-Field Models Using Separable Interactions
Stevenson, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strayer, M.R.
1999-06-28
An effective two-body nuclear interaction is presented which is a sum of terms separable in coordinate space. Calculations are made using this interaction of some doubly closed-shell spherical nuclei using many-body perturbation theory with the Hartree-Fock state as a reference state. It is demonstrated that the interaction gives good bulk properties in finite nuclei.
Assessing Spurious Interaction Effects in Structural Equation Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harring, Jeffrey R.; Weiss, Brandi A.; Li, Ming
2015-01-01
Several studies have stressed the importance of simultaneously estimating interaction and quadratic effects in multiple regression analyses, even if theory only suggests an interaction effect should be present. Specifically, past studies suggested that failing to simultaneously include quadratic effects when testing for interaction effects could…
Experimental modelling of flow - bed interactions in Jökulhlaups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrivick, J. L.; Xie, Z.; Sleigh, A.; Hubbard, M.
2009-04-01
Jökulhlaups (glacial outburst floods) are a sudden release and advancing wave of water and sediment from a glacier, with a peak discharge that is often several orders of magnitude greater than perennial flows. Jökulhlaup hazards are regularly incorporated into risk assessments for glaciated areas because the associated flood hazards are numerous. Jökulhlaup hazards are primarily due to direct impacts, caused by a frontal surge wave, from debris within a flow body, and from the mass and consistency of the flows. A number of secondary impacts also pose hazards, including widespread deposition of sediment and blocked tributary streams. It is rapid landscape change, which is achieved the mobilization and redistribution of sediment that causes one of the greatest hazards due to jökulhlaups. However, direct measurement of such phenomena is virtually impossible. The aim of this project is therefore to parameterise hydrodynamic - sedimentary interactions in experimental jökulhlaups. Specifically, this project applies laboratory flume modelling, which offers a hitherto untapped opportunity for examining complex interactions between water and sediment within outburst floods. The experimental set-up is of a tradition lock-gate design with a straight 4 m long tank. Hydraulics are scaled at 1:20 froude scale and the following controls on frontal wave flow-bed interactions and hence on rapid landscape change are being investigated: 1. Pre-existing mobile sediment effects, fixed bed roughness effects, sediment concentration effects, mobile bed effects. An emphasis is being maintained on examining the downstream temporal and spatial change in physical character of the water / sediment frontal wave. Facilities are state-of-the-art with a fully-automated laser bed-profiler to measure bed elevation after a run, Seatek arrays to measure transient flow depths, 0.5 Hz Ultrasonic Velocimeter Profiling to measure within-flow velocities, and Ultrasonic High-Concentration Meter (UHCM
Modeling neuron-glia interactions: from parametric model to neuromorphic hardware.
Ghaderi, Viviane S; Allam, Sushmita L; Ambert, N; Bouteiller, J-M C; Choma, J; Berger, T W
2011-01-01
Recent experimental evidence suggests that glial cells are more than just supporting cells to neurons - they play an active role in signal transmission in the brain. We herein propose to investigate the importance of these mechanisms and model neuron-glia interactions at synapses using three approaches: A parametric model that takes into account the underlying mechanisms of the physiological system, a non-parametric model that extracts its input-output properties, and an ultra-low power, fast processing, neuromorphic hardware model. We use the EONS (Elementary Objects of the Nervous System) platform, a highly elaborate synaptic modeling platform to investigate the influence of astrocytic glutamate transporters on postsynaptic responses in the detailed micro-environment of a tri-partite synapse. The simulation results obtained using EONS are then used to build a non-parametric model that captures the essential features of glutamate dynamics. The structure of the non-parametric model we use is specifically designed for efficient hardware implementation using ultra-low power subthreshold CMOS building blocks. The utilization of the approach described allows us to build large-scale models of neuron/glial interaction and consequently provide useful insights on glial modulation during normal and pathological neural function. PMID:22255113
Interactive 4D Visualization of Sediment Transport Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butkiewicz, T.; Englert, C. M.
2013-12-01
Coastal sediment transport models simulate the effects that waves, currents, and tides have on near-shore bathymetry and features such as beaches and barrier islands. Understanding these dynamic processes is integral to the study of coastline stability, beach erosion, and environmental contamination. Furthermore, analyzing the results of these simulations is a critical task in the design, placement, and engineering of coastal structures such as seawalls, jetties, support pilings for wind turbines, etc. Despite the importance of these models, there is a lack of available visualization software that allows users to explore and perform analysis on these datasets in an intuitive and effective manner. Existing visualization interfaces for these datasets often present only one variable at a time, using two dimensional plan or cross-sectional views. These visual restrictions limit the ability to observe the contents in the proper overall context, both in spatial and multi-dimensional terms. To improve upon these limitations, we use 3D rendering and particle system based illustration techniques to show water column/flow data across all depths simultaneously. We can also encode multiple variables across different perceptual channels (color, texture, motion, etc.) to enrich surfaces with multi-dimensional information. Interactive tools are provided, which can be used to explore the dataset and find regions-of-interest for further investigation. Our visualization package provides an intuitive 4D (3D, time-varying) visualization of sediment transport model output. In addition, we are also integrating real world observations with the simulated data to support analysis of the impact from major sediment transport events. In particular, we have been focusing on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on the Redbird Artificial Reef Site, offshore of Delaware Bay. Based on our pre- and post-storm high-resolution sonar surveys, there has significant scour and bedform migration around the
Modeling interactions between Antarctic Instability and Surface Mass Balance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritz, Catherine; Agosta, Cecile; Peyaud, Vincent; Durand, Gael; Fettweis, Xavier; Favier, Vincent; Gallée, Hubert
2015-04-01
In the context of future global warming, Antarctic contribution to sea level rise (SLR) depends on several processes leading to opposite impacts. First, under a warming climate, precipitation is supposed to increase, inducing a plausible negative impact on SLR. Contrary to the Greenland ice sheet case, ablation should stay a marginal process at least on grounded ice. Second, oceanic warming and/or surface ponding on ice shelves may trigger a Marine Ice Sheet Instability by reducing the backforce they exert on outlet glaciers. Once engaged on such a self-entertained retreat a large positive contribution to SLR may be expected. This dynamic process is already going on in the Admundsen sea sector. Although these two processes (surface mass balance -- SMB -- and ice dynamics) have been modeled separately to infer sea level contribution, little work has been done to study their interactions. In this presentation we focus on how grounding line retreat can affect estimation of SMB in the future and the related contribution to sea level change. To evaluate the shift of precipitation pattern while the steep surface slope region migrates inward due to the grounding line retreat, we simulate surface mass balance on various surface topographies of the Antarctic ice sheet. Each ice sheet topography is obtained with an ice sheet model (GRISLI) in which grounding line retreat is parameterized according to glaciological considerations. Because we are looking at coastal changes, a high resolution is needed for the atmospheric model and here we use the regional circulation model MAR with a resolution of 40 km. The preliminary results show that the topographic change induces a shift in the precipitation pattern as high accumulation regions tend to follow the slope break at the ice sheet / shelf transition. This affects the calculation of total SMB on the grounded ice sheet (and sea level contribution) and its amplitude is related to the amplitude of the retreat. In our simulations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilic, Eylem; Güler, Çetin; Çelik, H. Eray; Tatli, Cemal
2015-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors which might affect the intention to use interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by university students, using Technology Acceptance Model by the structural equation modeling approach. The following hypothesis guided the current study: H1. There is a positive relationship between IWB…
COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii
2014-05-01
field by Gudmundsson & Arnorsson [3] and by Icelandic partners of the COTHERM project suggests that the concept of partial equilibrium with instantaneous precipitation of secondary minerals is not sufficient to satisfactorily describe the experimental data. Considering kinetic controls also for secondary minerals appears as indispensable to properly describe the geothermal system evolution using a reactive transport modelling approach [4]. [1] Kulik D.A., Wagner T., Dmytrieva S.V., Kosakowski G., Hingerl F.F., Chudnenko K.V., Berner U., 2013. GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package: revised algorithm and GEMS3K numerical kernel for coupled simulation codes. Computational Geosciences 17, 1-24. http://gems.web.psi.ch. [2] Palandri, J.L., Kharaka, Y.K., 2004. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modelling. U.S.Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, pp. 1-64. [3] Gudmundsson B.T., Arnorsson S., 2005. Secondary mineral-fluid equilibria in the Krafla and Namafjall geothermal systems, Iceland. Applied Geochememistry 20, 1607-1625. [4] Kosakowski, G., & Watanabe, N., 2013. OpenGeoSys-Gem: A numerical tool for calculating geochemical and porosity changes in saturated and partially saturated media. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2013.11.008
AIDE, A SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPING INTERACTIVE USER INTERFACES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS
Recent progress in environmental science and engineering has seen increasing use of interactive interfaces for computer models. nitial applications centered on the use of interactive software to assist in building complicated input sequences required by batch programs. rom these ...
Non-bonded interactions between model pesticides and organo-mineral surfaces have been studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The minimum energy conformations and relative binding energies for the interaction of atrazine...
Optimization Model for Web Based Multimodal Interactive Simulations
Halic, Tansel; Ahn, Woojin; De, Suvranu
2015-01-01
This paper presents a technique for optimizing the performance of web based multimodal interactive simulations. For such applications where visual quality and the performance of simulations directly influence user experience, overloading of hardware resources may result in unsatisfactory reduction in the quality of the simulation and user satisfaction. However, optimization of simulation performance on individual hardware platforms is not practical. Hence, we present a mixed integer programming model to optimize the performance of graphical rendering and simulation performance while satisfying application specific constraints. Our approach includes three distinct phases: identification, optimization and update. In the identification phase, the computing and rendering capabilities of the client device are evaluated using an exploratory proxy code. This data is utilized in conjunction with user specified design requirements in the optimization phase to ensure best possible computational resource allocation. The optimum solution is used for rendering (e.g. texture size, canvas resolution) and simulation parameters (e.g. simulation domain) in the update phase. Test results are presented on multiple hardware platforms with diverse computing and graphics capabilities to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26085713
Global wave modeling of electron interactions with fast magnetosonic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, E. F.; Batchelor, D. B.; Murakami, M.
Electron interactions with fast magnetosonic waves are of interest for both direct electron heating and fast-wave current drive (FWCD) in tokamaks. Here the authors apply the full-wave ICRF code PICES to examples of both of these applications. To realistically account for the actual D-shaped magnetic geometry of present-day tokamaks, PICES is interfaced with the 3-D MHD equilibrium code VMEC. Likewise, to correctly model the real toroidal structure of both source and image currents in ICRF current drive antennas, PICES is interfaced with the 2-D recessed antenna impedance code RANT. Both current drive and electron heating by fast waves can be strongly altered through modification of the kappa(sub (parallel))-spectrum by the poloidal magnetic field. A poloidal mode expansion in PICES allows such variations in kappa(sub (parallel)) to be included correctly. In this paper, comparisons are made to observations of the direct electron heating profile on TFTR and to the FWCD efficiency on DIII-D. They also extrapolate to make predictions for future tokamaks such as TPX and ITER.
Cortical oscillatory dynamics in a social interaction model.
Knyazev, Gennady G; Slobodskoj-Plusnin, Jaroslav Y; Bocharov, Andrey V; Pylkova, Liudmila V
2013-03-15
In this study we sought to investigate cortical oscillatory dynamics accompanying three major kinds of social behavior: aggressive, friendly, and avoidant. Behavioral and EEG data were collected in 48 participants during a computer game modeling social interactions with virtual 'persons'. 3D source reconstruction and independent component analysis were applied to EEG data. Results showed that social behavior was partly reactive and partly proactive with subject's personality playing an important role in shaping this behavior. Most salient differences were found between avoidance and approach behaviors, whereas the two kinds of approach behavior (i.e., aggression and friendship) did not differ from each other. Comparative to avoidance, approach behaviors were associated with higher induced responses in most frequency bands which were mostly observed in cortical areas overlapping with the default mode network. The difference between approach- and avoidance-related oscillatory dynamics was more salient in subjects predisposed to approach behaviors (i.e., in aggressive or sociable subjects) and was less pronounced in subjects predisposed to avoidance behavior (i.e., in high trait anxiety scorers). There was a trend to higher low frequency phase-locking in motor area in approach than in avoid condition. Results are discussed in light of the concept linking induced responses with top-down and evoked responses with bottom-up processes. PMID:23254174
Discrete Variational Approach for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, J. Paxon; Shadwick, B. A.
2014-10-01
The traditional approach for fluid models of laser-plasma interactions begins by approximating fields and derivatives on a grid in space and time, leading to difference equations that are manipulated to create a time-advance algorithm. In contrast, by introducing the spatial discretization at the level of the action, the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations have particular differencing approximations that will exactly satisfy discrete versions of the relevant conservation laws. For example, applying a spatial discretization in the Lagrangian density leads to continuous-time, discrete-space equations and exact energy conservation regardless of the spatial grid resolution. We compare the results of two discrete variational methods using the variational principles from Chen and Sudan and Brizard. Since the fluid system conserves energy and momentum, the relative errors in these conserved quantities are well-motivated physically as figures of merit for a particular method. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY-1104683.
Ring current-atmosphere interactions model with stormtime magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vapirev, Alexander Emilov
An improved version of the ring current-atmosphere interactions kinetic model (RAM) is presented in this thesis. The recent stormtime empirical model T04s and the IGRF model are used to represent the Earth's external and internal magnetic fields respectively. Particle drifts, losses due to charge exchange with geocoronal hydrogen and atmospheric losses are included in the model as they are considered the main mechanisms of ring current development and its following decay. A numerical technique for bounce-averaging along the field lines is introduced and results for the calculated bounce-averaged hydrogen densities and magnetic gradient-curvature drift velocities (general case) for the moderate storm of April 21-25, 2001, are presented. A comparison in the calculations between T04s and a dipole field shows that the bounce-averaged hydrogen density for T04s differs with ˜ 5% from that for a dipole field for quiet time and it may become 30% smaller for disturbed conditions on the nightside for L > 4. The gradient-curvature velocities for T04s at large L-shells are ˜ 20% higher on the nightside and 20% lower on the dayside than those for a dipole field for quiet time. For disturbed conditions they are respectively ˜ 200% higher and 20% lower than the dipole values. The contribution of the cross-B term to the magnetic drift is ˜ 5%. Results for the time evolution of the trapped equatorial flux for H+, He+, and O+ ions for various particle energies and pitch angles obtained by the new model with a non-dipole field (RAM-ND) are presented. The new computations for the April 2001 storm using a Volland-Stern convection model show a slight continued increase in the flux and the total ring current energy for the three ion species even after the storm main phase. A higher increase in the flux is observed towards the dusk side for the RAM-ND model compared to RAM due the difference in the charge exchange rates and the azimuthal drifts for the two different geomagnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cushman, Paula P.
1993-01-01
Research will be undertaken in this contract in the area of Modeling Resource and Facilities Enhancement to include computer, technical and educational support to NASA investigators to facilitate model implementation, execution and analysis of output; to provide facilities linking USRA and the NASA/EADS Computer System as well as resident work stations in ESAD; and to provide a centralized location for documentation, archival and dissemination of modeling information pertaining to NASA's program. Additional research will be undertaken in the area of Numerical Model Scale Interaction/Convective Parameterization Studies to include implementation of the comparison of cloud and rain systems and convective-scale processes between the model simulations and what was observed; and to incorporate the findings of these and related research findings in at least two refereed journal articles.
Modelling of groundwater-vegetation interactions in a tidal marsh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Pei; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.
2013-07-01
Wetting and drying due to tidal fluctuations affect soil conditions and hence plant growth in tidal marshes. Here, a coupled one-dimensional model was developed to simulate interacting groundwater flow and plant growth in these wetlands. The simulation results revealed three characteristic zones of soil conditions for plant growth along a cross-creek section subjected to the combined influences of spring-neap tides and evapotranspiration: (1) a near-creek zone affected by semi-diurnal tides over the whole spring-neap cycle, where the soil is well aerated although the plant growth could be slightly limited by the local water content dropping periodically below the wilting point on the ebb tide; (2) a less well-drained zone where drainage occurs only during neap tides (for which the daily inundation is absent) and plant growth is aeration-limited; and (3) an interior zone where evapotranspiration determines the soil-water saturation. Plant growth dynamics, which depend on these soil conditions, lead to spatial biomass distributions that are consistent with the characteristic zonation. The simulations shed light on the feedback mechanism for groundwater-vegetation interactions in the marsh system. It was demonstrated that the growth of pioneer plants can improve the soil aeration condition as a result of transpiration. The strength of this feedback varies spatially in accordance with the three characteristic zones of soil-water saturation. However, the development of another species in the marsh system is likely to be more complicated than suggested by the "positive feedback" mechanism proposed previously, due to the influence of inter-species competition. The feedback effects are generally more complex, involving both plant growth enhancement and inhibition depending on the combined influence of the intra- and inter-species competition, the ecosystem's carrying capacity and plant transpiration. These findings demonstrate the interplay of ecological and hydrological
Modelling land-atmosphere interactions in tropical African wetlands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadson, S.
2012-04-01
Wetlands interact with the climate system in two ways. First, the availability of water at the land surface introduces important feedbacks on climate via surface fluxes of energy and water [1]. Over wet surfaces, high daytime evaporation rates and suppressed sensible heat fluxes induce a shallower, moister planetary boundary layer, which affects atmospheric instability and favours the initiation of new storms [2]. Second, wetlands form a key link between the hydrological and carbon cycles, via anoxic degradation of organic matter to release methane (CH4). Wetlands are the largest, but least well quantified, single source of CH4, with recent emission estimates ranging from 105-278 Tg yr-1, ~75% of which comes from the tropics [3]. Although the emissions of methane from boreal wetlands and lakes are less than those from tropical wetlands [3], their size and remoteness pose significant challenges to the quantification of their feedbacks to regional and global climate. In this paper, I present a summary of recent work on modelling hydrological and biogeochemical aspects of wetland formation and the associated land-atmosphere feedbacks in African and boreal environments. We have added an overbank inundation model to the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). Sub-grid topographic data were used to derive a two-parameter frequency distribution of inundated areas. Our predictions of inundated area are in good agreement with observed estimates of the extent of inundation obtained using satellite infrared and microwave remote sensing [4,5]. The model predicts significant evaporative losses from the inundated region accounting for doubling of the total land-atmosphere water flux during periods of greatest flooding. I also present new parameterisations of methane generation from wetlands. 1. Koster, R.D., et al., 2004, Science, 305(5687): 1138-40. 2. Taylor, C.M., 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37: L05406. 3. US EPA, 2010, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Natural
A latent profile analysis of the Five Factor Model of personality: Modeling trait interactions.
Merz, Erin L; Roesch, Scott C
2011-12-01
Interactions among the dimensions of the Five Factor Model (FFM) have not typically been evaluated in mental health research, with the extant literature focusing on bivariate relationships with psychological constructs of interest. This study used latent profile analysis to mimic higher-order interactions to identify homogenous personality profiles using the FFM, and also examined relationships between resultant profiles and affect, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and coping efficacy. Participants (N = 371) completed self-report and daily diary questionnaires. A 3-profile solution provided the best fit to the data; the profiles were characterized as well-adjusted, reserved, and excitable. The well-adjusted group reported better psychological functioning in validation analyses. The reserved and excitable groups differed on anxiety, with the excitable group reporting generally higher anxiety than the reserved group. Latent profile analysis may be a parsimonious way to model personality heterogeneity. PMID:21984857
A latent profile analysis of the Five Factor Model of personality: Modeling trait interactions
Merz, Erin L.; Roesch, Scott C.
2011-01-01
Interactions among the dimensions of the Five Factor Model (FFM) have not typically been evaluated in mental health research, with the extant literature focusing on bivariate relationships with psychological constructs of interest. This study used latent profile analysis to mimic higher-order interactions to identify homogenous personality profiles using the FFM, and also examined relationships between resultant profiles and affect, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and coping efficacy. Participants (N = 371) completed self-report and daily diary questionnaires. A 3-profile solution provided the best fit to the data; the profiles were characterized as well-adjusted, reserved, and excitable. The well-adjusted group reported better psychological functioning in validation analyses. The reserved and excitable groups differed on anxiety, with the excitable group reporting generally higher anxiety than the reserved group. Latent profile analysis may be a parsimonious way to model personality heterogeneity. PMID:21984857
MODELING STREAM-AQUIFIER INTERACTIONS WITH LINEAR RESPONSE FUNCTIONS
The problem of stream-aquifer interactions is pertinent to conjunctive-use management of water resources and riparian zone hydrology. Closed form solutions are derived for stream-aquifer interactions in rates and volumes expressed as convolution integrals of impulse response and ...
A Dual Aspect Process Model of Intensive Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Firth, Graham
2009-01-01
Intensive Interaction is an empirically researched approach to developing fundamental communication and sociability for people with severe and profound learning disabilities and/or autism. However, it is the author's contention that certain aspects of Intensive Interaction are not universally conceptualised in a uniform manner, and that there are…
Narrative-Based Interactive Learning Environments from Modelling Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yearwood, John; Stranieri, Andrew
2007-01-01
Narrative and story telling has a long history of use in structuring, organising and communicating human experience. This paper describes a narrative based interactive intelligent learning environment which aims to elucidate practical reasoning using interactive emergent narratives that can be used in training novices in decision making. Its…
Bianchi type I Universe and interacting ghost scalar fields models of dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossienkhani, H.
2016-04-01
We suggest a correspondence between interacting ghost dark energy model with the quintessence, tachyon and K-essence scalar field in a non-isotropic universe. This correspondence allows to reconstruct the potential and the dynamics for the scalar field of the interacting ghost dark energy model, which describe accelerated expansion of the universe. Our numerical result show the effects of the interaction and anisotropic on the evolutionary behavior the ghost scalar field models.
New Mechanism for the Enhancement of sd Dominance in Interacting Boson Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dukelsky, J.; Pittel, S.
2001-05-01
We introduce an exactly solvable model for interacting bosons that extend up to high spin and interact through a repulsive pairing force. The model exhibits a phase transition to a state with almost complete sd dominance. The repulsive pairing interaction that underlies the model has a natural microscopic origin in the Pauli exclusion principle between constituent nucleons. As such, repulsive pairing between bosons seems to provide a new mechanism for the enhancement of sd dominance, giving further support for the validity of the sd interacting boson model.
Experience with turbulence interaction and turbulence-chemistry models at Fluent Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhury, D.; Kim, S. E.; Tselepidakis, D. P.; Missaghi, M.
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses (1) turbulence modeling: challenges in turbulence modeling, desirable attributes of turbulence models, turbulence models in FLUENT, and examples using FLUENT; and (2) combustion modeling: turbulence-chemistry interaction and FLUENT equilibrium model. As of now, three turbulence models are provided: the conventional k-epsilon model, the renormalization group model, and the Reynolds-stress model. The renormalization group k-epsilon model has broadened the range of applicability of two-equation turbulence models. The Reynolds-stress model has proved useful for strongly anisotropic flows such as those encountered in cyclones, swirlers, and combustors. Issues remain, such as near-wall closure, with all classes of models.
Zhou, Xiangmin; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Yunhe; Burke, Dan; Konchada, Vamsi; Sweet, Robert
2011-01-01
Laser-tissue interaction is a multi-physics phenomenon not yet mathematically describable and computationally predictable. It is a challenge to model the laser-tissue interaction for real time laser Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) simulation which requires the laser-tissue interaction model to be computationally efficient and accurate. Under the consideration and enforcement of the thermodynamic first law and treating the laser-tissue interaction as a gray-box, utilizing the sensitivity analysis of some key parameters that will affect the laser intensity on the tissue surface with respect to the tissue vaporization rate, a phenomenological model of laser-tissue interaction is developed. The developed laser-tissue interaction model has been implemented for a laser BPH simulator and achieves real time performance (more than 30 frames per second). The model agrees well with the available experimental data. PMID:21335893
MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES
The interactions between agrochemicals and organo-mineral surfaces were studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), 2,4-D (1, 2-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and DD...
Interaction of peptides with cell membranes: insights from molecular modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhen-lu; Ding, Hong-ming; Ma, Yu-qiang
2016-03-01
The investigation of the interaction of peptides with cell membranes is the focus of active research. It can enhance the understanding of basic membrane functions such as membrane transport, fusion, and signaling processes, and it may shed light on potential applications of peptides in biomedicine. In this review, we will present current advances in computational studies on the interaction of different types of peptides with the cell membrane. Depending on the properties of the peptide, membrane, and external environment, the peptide-membrane interaction shows a variety of different forms. Here, on the basis of recent computational progress, we will discuss how different peptides could initiate membrane pores, translocate across the membrane, induce membrane endocytosis, produce membrane curvature, form fibrils on the membrane surface, as well as interact with functional membrane proteins. Finally, we will present a conclusion summarizing recent progress and providing some specific insights into future developments in this field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Priesack, E.
2012-04-01
Climate change causes altering distributions of meteorological factors influencing plant growth and its interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Recent studies show, that uncertainties in regional and global climate simulations are also caused by lacking descriptions of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Therefore, we couple a mechanistic soil-plant model to a regional climate and forecast model. The detailed simulation of the water and energy exchanges, especially the transpiration of grassland and forests stands, are the key features of the modelling framework. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) (Skamarock 2008) is an open source mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. The WRF model was modified in a way, to either choose its native, static land surface model NOAH or the mechanistic eco-system model Expert-N 5.0 individually for every single grid point within the simulation domain. The Expert-N 5.0 modelling framework provides a highly modular structure, enabling the development and use of a large variety of different plant and soil models, including heat transfer, nitrogen uptake/turnover/transport as well as water uptake/transport and crop management. To represent the key landuse types grassland and forest, we selected two mechanistic plant models: The Hurley Pasture model (Thornley 1998) and a modified TREEDYN3 forest simulation model (Bossel 1996). The models simulate plant growth, water, nitrogen and carbon flows for grassland and forest stands. A mosaic approach enables Expert-N to use high resolution land use data e.g. CORINE Land Cover data (CLC, 2006) for the simulation, making it possible to simulate different land use distributions within a single grid cell. The coupling results are analyzed for plausibility and compared with the results of the default land surface model NOAH (Fei Chen and Jimy Dudhia 2010). We show differences between the mechanistic and the static model coupling, with focus on the feedback effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Saurabh; Johnson, P. R.; Tiesinga, Eite
2016-04-01
We show that, for ultracold neutral bosonic atoms held in a three-dimensional periodic potential or optical lattice, a Hubbard model with dominant, attractive three-body interactions can be generated. In fact, we derive that the effect of pairwise interactions can be made small or zero starting from the realization that collisions occur at the zero-point energy of an optical lattice site and the strength of the interactions is energy dependent from effective-range contributions. We determine the strength of the two- and three-body interactions for scattering from van der Waals potentials and near Fano-Feshbach resonances. For van der Waals potentials, which for example describe scattering of alkaline-earth atoms, we find that the pairwise interaction can only be turned off for species with a small negative scattering length, leaving the 88Sr isotope a possible candidate. Interestingly, for collisional magnetic Feshbach resonances this restriction does not apply and there often exist magnetic fields where the two-body interaction is small. We illustrate this result for several known narrow resonances between alkali-metal atoms as well as chromium atoms. Finally, we compare the size of the three-body interaction with hopping rates and describe limits due to three-body recombination.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pratt, D. T.
1984-01-01
An interactive computer code for simulation of a high-intensity turbulent combustor as a single point inhomogeneous stirred reactor was developed from an existing batch processing computer code CDPSR. The interactive CDPSR code was used as a guide for interpretation and direction of DOE-sponsored companion experiments utilizing Xenon tracer with optical laser diagnostic techniques to experimentally determine the appropriate mixing frequency, and for validation of CDPSR as a mixing-chemistry model for a laboratory jet-stirred reactor. The coalescence-dispersion model for finite rate mixing was incorporated into an existing interactive code AVCO-MARK I, to enable simulation of a combustor as a modular array of stirred flow and plug flow elements, each having a prescribed finite mixing frequency, or axial distribution of mixing frequency, as appropriate. Further increase the speed and reliability of the batch kinetics integrator code CREKID was increased by rewriting in vectorized form for execution on a vector or parallel processor, and by incorporating numerical techniques which enhance execution speed by permitting specification of a very low accuracy tolerance.
Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J.
2016-01-01
Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and ﬁxed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be speciﬁed interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-speciﬁcation language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous ﬂexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our ﬁeld. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com. [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:27235697
Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Lartillot, Nicolas; Moore, Brian R; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik
2016-07-01
Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and ﬁxed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be speciﬁed interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-speciﬁcation language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous ﬂexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our ﬁeld. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.]. PMID:27235697
An immune system-tumour interactions model with discrete time delay: Model analysis and validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piotrowska, Monika Joanna
2016-05-01
In this article a generalised mathematical model describing the interactions between malignant tumour and immune system with discrete time delay incorporated into the system is considered. Time delay represents the time required to generate an immune response due to the immune system activation by cancer cells. The basic mathematical properties of the considered model, including the global existence, uniqueness, non-negativity of the solutions, the stability of steady sates and the possibility of the existence of the stability switches, are investigated when time delay is treated as a bifurcation parameter. The model is validated with the sets of the experimental data and additional numerical simulations are performed to illustrate, extend, interpret and discuss the analytical results in the context of the tumour progression.
Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.
1983-05-01
The Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program designed to provide rapid assessments of the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. The main body of this document consists of 28 examples of IRDAM input and output, representing various types of accidents and releases. These examples are intended to provide a basis for comparison with other models or for testing IRDAM itself. Figures are included which show dose rates calculated by IRDAM for each scenario. Figures are also included which show calculations made using the computer codes WRAITH (Scherpelz, Borst and Hoenes, 1980) and RADPUR (Dabbert, et. al., 1982). Two other companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The User's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Reactor Accident Assessment Methods (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 2) describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dani, I.; Tahiri, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.
2016-08-01
In this paper we study, using mean field theory (MFT), the effect of the anisotropic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction on the phase diagrams of the spin-half Ashkin-Teller model on hypercubic lattice. Different new phase diagrams are found by varying the anisotropy of DM interaction. The multicritical behavior is studied as a function of four-spin interaction coefficient J4 /J1 and for two fixed values of spin interaction coefficient J2 /J1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, X.; Unger, N.
2015-04-01
The land biosphere, atmospheric chemistry and climate are inextricably interconnected. We describe the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model, a land carbon cycle model that has been developed for coupling to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2 global chemistry-climate model. The YIBs model adapts routines from the mature TRIFFID and CASA models to simulate interactive carbon assimilation, allocation, and autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Dynamic daily leaf area index is simulated based on carbon allocation and temperature- and drought-dependent prognostic phenology. YIBs incorporates a semi-mechanistic ozone vegetation damage scheme. Here, we validate the present day YIBs land carbon fluxes for three increasingly complex configurations: (i) off-line local site-level (ii) off-line global forced with WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data) meteorology (iii) on-line coupled to the NASA ModelE2 (NASA ModelE2-YIBs). Off-line YIBs has hourly and on-line YIBs has half-hourly temporal resolution. The large observational database used for validation includes carbon fluxes from 145 flux tower sites and multiple satellite products. At the site level, YIBs simulates reasonable seasonality (correlation coefficient R > 0.8) of gross primary productivity (GPP) at 121 out of 145 sites with biases in magnitude ranging from -19 to 7% depending on plant function type. On the global scale, the off-line model simulates an annual GPP of 125 ± 3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of -2.5 ± 0.7 Pg C for 1982-2011, with seasonality and spatial distribution consistent with the satellite observations. We assess present day global ozone vegetation damage using the off-line YIBs configuration. Ozone damage reduces global GPP by 2-5% annually with regional extremes of 4-10% in East Asia. The on-line model simulates annual GPP of 123 ± 1 Pg C and NEE of -2.7 ± 0.7 Pg C. NASA ModelE2-YIBs is a
A componential model of human interaction with graphs: 1. Linear regression modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gillan, Douglas J.; Lewis, Robert
1994-01-01
Task analyses served as the basis for developing the Mixed Arithmetic-Perceptual (MA-P) model, which proposes (1) that people interacting with common graphs to answer common questions apply a set of component processes-searching for indicators, encoding the value of indicators, performing arithmetic operations on the values, making spatial comparisons among indicators, and repsonding; and (2) that the type of graph and user's task determine the combination and order of the components applied (i.e., the processing steps). Two experiments investigated the prediction that response time will be linearly related to the number of processing steps according to the MA-P model. Subjects used line graphs, scatter plots, and stacked bar graphs to answer comparison questions and questions requiring arithmetic calculations. A one-parameter version of the model (with equal weights for all components) and a two-parameter version (with different weights for arithmetic and nonarithmetic processes) accounted for 76%-85% of individual subjects' variance in response time and 61%-68% of the variance taken across all subjects. The discussion addresses possible modifications in the MA-P model, alternative models, and design implications from the MA-P model.
Study of {beta}-Decay in the Proton-Neutron Interacting Boson-Fermion Model
Zuffi, L.; Brant, S.; Yoshida, N.
2006-04-26
We study {beta}-decay in odd-A nuclei together with the energy levels and other properties in the proton-neutron interacting-boson-fermion model. We also report on the preliminary results in the odd-odd nuclei in the proton-neutron interacting boson-fermion-fermion model.
Interactions of Metacognition with Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Efklides, Anastasia
2011-01-01
Metacognition, motivation, and affect are components of self-regulated learning (SRL) that interact. The "metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning" (the MASRL model) distinguishes two levels of functioning in SRL, namely, the Person level and the Task x Person level. At the Person level interactions between trait-like…
Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Latent Variable Model with Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cudeck, Robert; Harring, Jeffrey R.; du Toit, Stephen H. C.
2009-01-01
There has been considerable interest in nonlinear latent variable models specifying interaction between latent variables. Although it seems to be only slightly more complex than linear regression without the interaction, the model that includes a product of latent variables cannot be estimated by maximum likelihood assuming normality.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A.
2006-01-01
The present study examined how adolescents' and their romantic partners' romantic working models and relational styles were related to their interactions with each other. Sixty-five couples (M age=18.1 years) were observed interacting. Romantic working models were assessed in interviews about their romantic experiences; romantic styles were…
A Model for Infall-Outflow Interactions in Protostellar Disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Velusamy, W. Langer T.
1997-01-01
Recently we have shown(sup 1,2) from (sup 12)CO and C(sup 18)O OVRO-MMA observations evidence of infall-outflow interactions in the Young Stellar Object IRS1 in B5. We present new data obtained with the OVRO-MMA in (sup 13)CO(2-1) and (1-0) to trace the full extent of this infall-outflow interaction region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.; Michałowski, T.; Antonini, P.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Crippa, R.; Esseiva, N.; Fagas, M.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Hein Bertelsen, R. P.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Kamiński, K.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Manzini, F.; Michałowski, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Paschke, A.; Polińska, M.; Poncy, R.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Sobkowiak, K.; Stasik, M.; Starczewski, S.; Velichko, F.; Wucher, H.; Zafar, T.
2012-09-01
Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar occultations, or space probe imaging. Aims: During our ongoing work to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters, there appeared a need for displaying the model plane-of-sky orientations for specific epochs to compare models from different techniques. It would also be instructive to be able to track how the complex lightcurves are produced by various asteroid shapes. Methods: Basing our analysis on an extensive photometric observational dataset, we obtained eight asteroid models with the convex lightcurve inversion method. To enable comparison of the photometric models with those from other observing/modelling techniques, we created an on-line service where we allow the inversion models to be orientated interactively. Results: Our sample of objects is quite representative, containing both relatively fast and slow rotators with highly and lowly inclined spin axes. With this work, we increase the sample of asteroid spin and shape models based on disk-integrated photometry to over 200. Three of the shape models obtained here are confirmed by the stellar occultation data; this also allowed independent determinations of their sizes to be made. Conclusions: The ISAM service can be widely exploited for past and future asteroid observations with various, complementary techniques and for asteroid dimension determination. http://isam.astro.amu.edu.pl Photometric data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/545/A131
Krishnan, Kannan; Haddad, Sami; Béliveau, Martin; Tardif, Robert
2002-12-01
The available data on binary interactions are yet to be considered within the context of mixture risk assessment because of our inability to predict the effect of a third or a fourth chemical in the mixture on the interacting binary pairs. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models represent a potentially useful framework for predicting the consequences of interactions in mixtures of increasing complexity. This article highlights the conceptual basis and validity of PBPK models for extrapolating the occurrence and magnitude of interactions from binary to more complex chemical mixtures. The methodology involves the development of PBPK models for all mixture components and interconnecting them at the level of the tissue where the interaction is occurring. Once all component models are interconnected at the binary level, the PBPK framework simulates the kinetics of all mixture components, accounting for the interactions occurring at various levels in more complex mixtures. This aspect was validated by comparing the simulations of a binary interaction-based PBPK model with experimental data on the inhalation kinetics of m-xylene, toluene, ethyl benzene, dichloromethane, and benzene in mixtures of varying composition and complexity. The ability to predict the kinetics of chemicals in complex mixtures by accounting for binary interactions alone within a PBPK model is a significant step toward the development of interaction-based risk assessment for chemical mixtures. PMID:12634130
The Asthma Dialogues: A Model of Interactive Education for Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrow, Robert; Fletcher, Jason; Mulvihill, Michael; Park, Heidi
2007-01-01
Introduction: A gap exists between asthma guidelines and actual care delivered. We developed an educational intervention using simulated physician-patient encounters as part of a project to improve asthma management by community-based primary care providers. We hypothesized that this type of skills-based interactive training would improve…
Instructional Systems Development Model for Interactive Videodisc. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, J. Olin; And Others
This third and final report on a 3-year project, which developed authoring and production procedures for interactive videodisc based on the Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development (IPISD), reviews the current state of the art, provides an overview of the project, and describes two videodiscs made for the project and the…
Modeling Heterogeneity in Social Interaction Processes Using Multilevel Survival Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, James
2006-01-01
More than 15 years ago, survival or hazard regression analyses were introduced to psychology (W. Gardner & W. A. Griffin, 1989; W. A. Griffin & W. Gardner, 1989) as powerful methodological tools for studying real time social interaction processes among dyads. Almost no additional published applications have appeared, although such data are…
An interacting dark energy model with nonminimal derivative coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozari, Kourosh; Behrouz, Noushin
2016-09-01
We study cosmological dynamics of an extended gravitational theory that gravity is coupled non-minimally with derivatives of a dark energy component and there is also a phenomenological interaction between the dark energy and dark matter. Depending on the direction of energy flow between the dark sectors, the phenomenological interaction gets two different signs. We show that this feature affects the existence of attractor solution, the rate of growth of perturbations and stability of the solutions. By considering an exponential potential as a self-interaction potential of the scalar field, we obtain accelerated scaling solutions that are attractors and have the potential to alleviate the coincidence problem. While in the absence of the nonminimal derivative coupling there is no attractor solution for phantom field when energy transfers from dark matter to dark energy, we show an attractor solution exists if one considers an explicit nonminimal derivative coupling for phantom field in this case of energy transfer. We treat the cosmological perturbations in this setup with details to show that with phenomenological interaction, perturbations can grow faster than the minimal case.
Modelling the interaction of steroid receptors with endocrine disrupting chemicals
D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Salvi, Erika; Fossa, Paola; Milanesi, Luciano; Rovida, Ermanna
2005-01-01
Background The organic polychlorinated compounds like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane with its metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyls are a class of highly persistent environmental contaminants. They have been recognized to have detrimental health effects both on wildlife and humans acting as endocrine disrupters due to their ability of mimicking the action of the steroid hormones, and thus interfering with hormone response. There are several experimental evidences that they bind and activate human steroid receptors. However, despite the growing concern about the toxicological activity of endocrine disrupters, molecular data of the interaction of these compounds with biological targets are still lacking. Results We have used a flexible docking approach to characterize the molecular interaction of seven endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors in the ligand-binding domain. All ligands docked in the buried hydrophobic cavity corresponding to the hormone steroid pocket. The interaction was characterized by multiple hydrophobic contacts involving a different number of residues facing the binding pocket, depending on ligands orientation. The EDC ligands did not display a unique binding mode, probably due to their lipophilicity and flexibility, which conferred them a great adaptability into the hydrophobic and large binding pocket of steroid receptors. Conclusion Our results are in agreement with toxicological data on binding and allow to describe a pattern of interactions for a group of ECD to steroid receptors suggesting the requirement of a hydrophobic cavity to accommodate these chlorine carrying compounds. Although the affinity is lower than for hormones, their action can be brought about by a possible synergistic effect. PMID:16351736
MODELING TOOLS FOR GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS
This project develops algorithms for simulating the dynamic interactions between surface water and ground water in rivers and riparian streams. The algorithms rely on physically based linear response functions which describe the exchange rates and volumes of water between the str...
Modelling interactions of carbon dioxide, forests, and climate
Luxmoore, R.J.; Baldocchi, D.D.
1994-09-01
Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising and forests and climate is changing! This combination of fact and premise may be evaluated at a range of temporal and spatial scales with the aid of computer simulators describing the interrelationships between forest vegetation, litter and soil characteristics, and appropriate meteorological variables. Some insights on the effects of climate on the transfers of carbon and the converse effect of carbon transfer on climate are discussed as a basis for assessing the significance of feedbacks between vegetation and climate under conditions of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Three main classes of forest models are reviewed. These are physiologically-based models, forest succession simulators based on the JABOWA model, and ecosystem-carbon budget models that use compartment transfer rates with empirically estimated coefficients. Some regression modeling approaches are also outlined. Energy budget models applied to forests and grasslands are also reviewed. This review presents examples of forest models; a comprehensive discussion of all available models is not undertaken.
A DIAGENETIC MODEL FOR SEDIMENT-SEAGRASS INTERACTIONS
The objective of this modeling effort was to better understand the dynamic relationship between seagrass beds and their sedimentary environment using a diagenetic model. The model was developed and optimized for sediments in the Laguna Madre, TX, which is one of the world's larg...
Evaluation of Brief Intervention Models by the Hill Interaction Matrix
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silbergeld, Sam; And Others
1977-01-01
To assess two group models being developed in the Mental Health Study Center, NIMH, this paper compares HIM data from these models with norms from a previous study. By contrasting HIM results from groups of married couples, young adolescents, and parents and teachers, one obtains a better understanding of the effectiveness of these models. (Author)
Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banaem, Hossein Y.; Ahmadian, Alireza; Saberi, Hooshangh; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Khodadad, Davood
2011-10-01
In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.
Model-experiment interaction to improve representation of phosphorus limitation in land models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norby, R. J.; Yang, X.; Cabugao, K. G. M.; Childs, J.; Gu, L.; Haworth, I.; Mayes, M. A.; Porter, W. S.; Walker, A. P.; Weston, D. J.; Wright, S. J.
2015-12-01
Carbon-nutrient interactions play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon cycle responses to atmospheric and climatic change. None of the CMIP5 models has included routines to represent the phosphorus (P) cycle, although P is commonly considered to be the most limiting nutrient in highly productive, lowland tropical forests. Model simulations with the Community Land Model (CLM-CNP) show that inclusion of P coupling leads to a smaller CO2 fertilization effect and warming-induced CO2 release from tropical ecosystems, but there are important uncertainties in the P model, and improvements are limited by a dearth of data. Sensitivity analysis identifies the relative importance of P cycle parameters in determining P availability and P limitation, and thereby helps to define the critical measurements to make in field campaigns and manipulative experiments. To improve estimates of P supply, parameters that describe maximum amount of labile P in soil and sorption-desorption processes are necessary for modeling the amount of P available for plant uptake. Biochemical mineralization is poorly constrained in the model and will be improved through field observations that link root traits to mycorrhizal activity, phosphatase activity, and root depth distribution. Model representation of P demand by vegetation, which currently is set by fixed stoichiometry and allometric constants, requires a different set of data. Accurate carbon cycle modeling requires accurate parameterization of the photosynthetic machinery: Vc,max and Jmax. Relationships between the photosynthesis parameters and foliar nutrient (N and P) content are being developed, and by including analysis of covariation with other plant traits (e.g., specific leaf area, wood density), we can provide a basis for more dynamic, trait-enabled modeling. With this strong guidance from model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, field studies are underway in Puerto Rico and Panama to collect model-relevant data on P
Divol, L; Berger, R; Meezan, N; Froula, D H; Dixit, S; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H
2007-11-08
We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed us to benchmark our hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA[2]. As a result of this effort, we can use with much confidence these simulations as input parameters for our LPI simulation code pF3d[3]. In this paper, we show that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, whole beam three-dimensional linear kinetic modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements(SBS thresholds, reflectivity values and the absence of measurable SRS). This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations. These simulations accurately predicted the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.
Divol, L.; Berger, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Froula, D. H.; Dixit, S.; Michel, P.; London, R.; Strozzi, D.; Ross, J.; Williams, E. A.; Still, B.; Suter, L. J.; Glenzer, S. H.
2008-05-15
New experimental capabilities [Froula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 085001 (2007)] have been developed to study laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester). By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV was created. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed to benchmark hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA [Meezan et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 056304 (2007)]. As a result of this effort, these simulations can be used with much confidence as input parameters for the LPI simulation code PF3D [Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 4337 (1998)]. In this paper, it is shown that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, whole beam three-dimensional linear kinetic modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements (SBS thresholds, reflectivity values, and the absence of measurable stimulated Raman scattering). This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations. These simulations accurately predicted the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.
Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Stine, Andrew; Labhasetwar, Vinod
2009-01-01
The transport of drugs or drug delivery systems across the cell membrane is a complex biological process, often difficult to understand because of its dynamic nature. In this regard, model lipid membranes, which mimic many aspects of cell-membrane lipids, have been very useful in helping investigators to discern the roles of lipids in cellular interactions. One can use drug-lipid interactions to predict pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, such as their transport, biodistribution, accumulation, and hence efficacy. These interactions can also be used to study the mechanisms of transport, based on the structure and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of drug molecules. In recent years, model lipid membranes have also been explored to understand their mechanisms of interactions with peptides, polymers, and nanocarriers. These interaction studies can be used to design and develop efficient drug delivery systems. Changes in the lipid composition of cells and tissue in certain disease conditions may alter biophysical interactions, which could be explored to develop target-specific drugs and drug delivery systems. In this review, we discuss different model membranes, drug-lipid interactions and their significance, studies of model membrane interactions with nanocarriers, and how biophysical interaction studies with lipid model membranes could play an important role in drug discovery and drug delivery. PMID:19432455
Interaction of Boron Nitride Nanosheets with Model Cell Membranes.
Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gaston, Nicola
2016-06-01
Boron nitride nanomaterials have attracted attention for biomedical applications, due to their improved biocompatibility when compared with carbon nanomaterials. Recently, graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets have been shown, both experimentally and computationally, to destructively extract phospholipids from Escherichia coli. Boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) have exciting potential biological and environmental applications, for example the ability to remove oil from water. These applications are likely to increase the exposure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes to BNNSs. Yet, despite their promise, the interaction between BNNSs and cell membranes has not yet been investigated. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to demonstrate that BNNSs are spontaneously attracted to the polar headgroups of the lipid bilayer. The BNNSs do not passively cross the lipid bilayer, most likely due to the large forces experienced by the BNNSs. This study provides insight into the interaction of BNNSs with cell membranes and may aid our understanding of their improved biocompatibility. PMID:26934705