Science.gov

Sample records for fourth generation solution

  1. Fourth-generation storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, J. N.

    1999-11-16

    It seems clear that a linac-driven free-electron laser is the accepted prototype of a fourth-generation facility. This raises two questions: can a storage ring-based light source join the fourth generation? Has the storage ring evolved to its highest level of performance as a synchrotrons light source? The answer to the second question is clearly no. The author thinks the answer to the first question is unimportant. While the concept of generations has been useful in motivating thought and effort towards new light source concepts, the variety of light sources and their performance characteristics can no longer be usefully summed up by assignment of a ''generation'' number.

  2. The fourth generation in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Zwirner, F.

    1985-12-01

    We consider model-independent constraints on the fourth-generation fermion masses and the magnitude of the D-term contribution to the scalar masses. We find that the ratio of vacuum expectation values is limited to the range 1/5 <~ ν2/ν 1 <~ 4.5. We compute the mass spectrum in the class of models where the only source of soft supersymmetry breaking is the gaugino mass m1/2. The lightest charged scalar turns out to be the fourth-generation slepton, which may be ligth enough to be pair-produced at LEP. The present PETRA bound on new charged particles implies that m1/2 >~ 150 GeV. A general feature of the four-generation models is thus a heavy spectrum of sparticles. On leave from International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy.

  3. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  4. Long lived fourth generation and the Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keung, Wai-Yee; Schwaller, Pedro

    2011-06-01

    A chiral fourth generation is a simple and well motivated extension of the standard model, and has important consequences for Higgs phenomenology. Here we consider a scenario where the fourth generation neutrinos are long lived and have both a Dirac and Majorana mass term. Suchneutrinoscanbeaslightas40GeVandcanbethedominant decay mode of the Higgs boson for Higgs masses below the W-boson threshold. We study the effect of the Majorana mass term on the Higgs branching fractions and reevaluate the Tevatron constraints on the Higgs mass. We discuss the prospects for the LHC to detect the semi-invisible Higgs decays into fourth generation neutrino pairs. Under the assumption that the lightest fourth generation neutrino is stable, its thermal relic density can be up to 20% of the observed dark matter density in the universe. This is in agreement with current constraints on the spin dependent neutrino-neutron cross section, but can be probed by the next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments.

  5. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  6. CP violation in fourth generation quark decays

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Hou Weishu

    2009-10-01

    We show that, if a fourth generation is discovered at the Tevatron or LHC, one could study CP violation (CPV) in b{sup '}{yields}s decays. Asymmetries could reach 30% for b{sup '}{yields}sZ for m{sub b{sup '}} < or approx. 350 GeV, while it could be greater than 50% for b{sup '}{yields}s{gamma} and extend to higher m{sub b{sup '}}. Branching ratios are 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5}, and CPV measurement requires tagging. Once measured, however, the CPV phase can be extracted with little theoretical uncertainty.

  7. Search for fourth generation neutral heavy leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    A search for fourth generation neutral heavy leptons ({nu}{sub 4}) in W decays was carried out the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV. The {nu}{sub 4} is assumed to be produced via mixing with the first generation neutrino only. We looked for a three electron final state event topology. The data used in this analysis represent 12.2 pb{sup {minus}1} taken during the 1992--1993 run. No candidates were found. We set a preliminary limit beyond the LEP limit for the considered mixing case on the {vert_bar}U{sub e4}{vert_bar}{sup 2} {minus} m{sub {nu}4} plane.

  8. Fourth-generation Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1994-09-01

    Conceptual designs for fourth-generation crew-carrying Mars transfer and excursion vehicles, fully integrated to state-of-the-art standards, are presented. The resulting vehicle concepts are sized for six crew members, and can support all opposition and conjunction opportunities in or after 2014. The modular, reusable transfer ship is launched to Earth orbit on six 185-ton-class boosters and assembled there robotically. Its dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines use liquid hydrogen propollant. The payload consists of a microgravity habitation system and an expendable lift-to-drag = 1.6 lander capable of aeromaneuvering to sites within +/- 20 deg of the equator. This lander can deliver either an expendable, storable-bipropellant crew-carrying ascent vehicle, or 40 tons of cargo, and it is capable of limited surface mobility to support base buildup. Multiple cargo landers sent ahead on robotic transfer vehicles deliver the supplies and equipment required for long-duration surface missions.

  9. Static solutions for fourth order gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William

    2010-11-15

    The Lichnerowicz and Israel theorems are extended to higher order theories of gravity. In particular it is shown that Schwarzschild is the unique spherically symmetric, static, asymptotically flat, black-hole solution, provided the spatial curvature is less than the quantum gravity scale outside the horizon. It is then shown that in the presence of matter (satisfying certain positivity requirements), the only static and asymptotically flat solutions of general relativity that are also solutions of higher order gravity are the vacuum solutions.

  10. Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for a fourth generation of quarks produced singly or in pairs in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1 recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. A novel strategy has been developed for a combined search for quarks of the up and down type in decay channels with at least one isolated muon or electron. Limits on the mass of the fourth-generation quarks and the relevant Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements are derived in the context of a simple extension of the standard model with a sequential fourth generation of fermions. The existence of mass-degenerate fourth-generation quarks with masses below 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level for minimal off-diagonal mixing between the third- and the fourth-generation quarks. With a mass difference of 25 GeV between the quark masses, the obtained limit on the masses of the fourth-generation quarks shifts by about ±20GeV. These results significantly reduce the allowed parameter space for a fourth generation of fermions.

  11. Toward a fourth generation of health planning.

    PubMed

    May, J J

    1982-05-01

    With federal funding for health planning on the decline, local efforts are under way to replace the health planning structure being dismantled at the federal level. The next generation of health planning will be shaped by the federal government's desire for homogeneity in planning efforts, the inseparability of planning and regulation, the likely diminution of the current anti-regulatory fervor, and the need for individual institutions and their leadership to bear more risk than they have in the past.

  12. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  13. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  14. Fourth Generation Warfare and Its Impact on the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In 1989, the authors of an article entitled, "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation ," offered a glimpse of the future rooted in the...decline of the West in a world rife with cultural conflicts and the powerful influences of a form of cultural Marxism known as political correctness...were combining in America to create conditions for a new generation of warfare. Their vision included a form of warfare that bypassed the military

  15. Final Report for CORBA for Fourth Generation Language

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2005-06-28

    The standard for object based networking is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). However, CORBA is not available for Fourth Generation Languages (4GL's) such as Visual Numerics? PV-WAVE or Research Systems? Interactive Data Language (RSI-IDL), which are widely used by scientists and engineers for data visualization and analysis. The proposed work would provide a set of tools to allow 4GL's to interoperate with CORBA.

  16. Symmetries, Large Leptonic Mixing and a Fourth Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I.

    2002-12-01

    We show that large leptonic mixing occurs most naturally in the framework of the Sandard Model just by adding a fourth generation. One can then construct a small Z4 discrete symmetry, instead of the large S4L × S4R, which requires that the neutrino as well as the charged lepton mass matrices be proportional to a 4 × 4 democratic mass matrix, where all entries are equal to unity. Without considering the see-saw mechanism, or other more elaborate extensions of the SM, and contrary to the case with only 3 generations, large leptonic mixing is obtained when the symmetry is broken.

  17. Nanopore-based fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications.

  18. Hybrid fourth generation: Technicolor with top-seesaw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, Hidenori S.; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2012-05-01

    We consider a model combining technicolor with the top-quark condensation. As a concrete model for technicolor, we use the minimal walking technicolor, and this will result in the appearance of a novel fourth generation whose leptons constitute a usual weak doublet while the QCD quarks are vectorlike singlets under the weak interactions. We carry out an analysis of the mass spectra and precision measurement constraints, and find the model viable. We contrast the model with present LHC data and discuss the future prospects.

  19. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNLs mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  20. Third Generation Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; Why We Need a Fourth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The first mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, spironolactone, was developed almost 60 years ago to treat primary aldosteronism and pathological edema. Its use waned in part due to its lack of selectivity. Subsequently knowledge of the scope of MR function was expanded along with clinical evidence of the therapeutic importance of MR antagonists to prevent the ravages of inappropriate MR activation. Forty-two years elapsed between the first and MR-selective second generation of MR antagonists. Fifteen years later, despite serious shortcomings of the existing antagonists, a third generation antagonist has yet to be marketed. Progress has been slowed by the lack of appreciation of the large variety of cell types that express the MR and its diverse cell-type-specific actions, as well as its uniquely complex interactions actions at the molecular level. New MR antagonists should preferentially target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of MR and perhaps its excitatory effects on sympathetic nervous system, but not the renal tubular epithelium or neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. This review briefly describes efforts to develop a third generation MR antagonist and why fourth generation antagonists and selective agonists based on structural determinants of tissue and ligand-specific MR activation should be contemplated. PMID:26466326

  1. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  2. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  3. Emerging technologies and fourth generation issues in cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael W; Ackerman, George; Dines, Joshua S; Grande, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The goals of successful cartilage repair include reducing pain, improving symptoms, and long-term function; preventing early osteoarthritis and subsequent total knee replacements; and rebuilding hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue. Current methods such as microfracture, osteoarticular autograft transfer system, mosaicplasty, and autologous chondrocyte implantation are somewhat successful in regenerating cartilage; however, they also have significant limitations. The future of fourth generation cartilage repair focuses on gene therapy, the use of stem cells (bone marrow, adipose, or muscle derived), and tissue engineering. Emerging techniques include creating elastin-like polymers derived from native elastin sequences to serve as biocompatible scaffolds; using hydrogels to obtain a homogeneous distribution of cells within a 3-dimensional matrix; and using nonviral gene delivery via nucleofection to allow mesenchymal stem cells the ability to express osteogenic growth factors. Although many of the techniques mentioned have yet to be used in a cartilage regeneration model, we have tried to anticipate how methods used in other specialties may facilitate improved cartilage repair.

  4. Toward a Fourth Generation of Disparities Research to Achieve Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S.; Garza, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Achieving health equity, driven by the elimination of health disparities, is a goal of Healthy People 2020. In recent decades, the improvement in health status has been remarkable for the U.S. population as a whole. However, racial and ethnic minority populations continue to lag behind whites with a quality of life diminished by illness from preventable chronic diseases and a life span cut short by premature death. We examine a conceptual framework of three generations of health disparities research to understand (a) data trends, (b) factors driving disparities, and (c) solutions for closing the gap. We propose a new, fourth generation of research grounded in public health critical race praxis, utilizing comprehensive interventions to address race, racism, and structural inequalities and advancing evaluation methods to foster our ability to eliminate disparities. This new generation demands that we address the researcher’s own biases as part of the research process. PMID:21219164

  5. Higgs phenomenology in warped extra dimensions with a fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    We study a warped extra-dimension scenario where the standard model fields lie in the bulk, with the addition of a fourth family of fermions. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the Higgs couplings with fermions in the flavor anarchy ansatz. Even without a fourth family, these couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices. The presence of the fourth family typically enhances the misalignment effects and we show that one should expect them to be highly nonsymmetrical in the (34) intergenerational mixing. The radiative corrections from the new fermions and their flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs affect negligibly known experimental precision measurements such as the oblique parameters and Z{yields}bb or Z{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. On the other hand, {Delta}F=1, 2 processes, mediated by tree-level Higgs exchange, as well as radiative corrections to b{yields}s{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e{gamma} put some generic pressure on the allowed size of the flavor-violating couplings. But more importantly, these couplings will alter the Higgs decay patterns as well as those of the new fermions, and produce very interesting new signals associated to Higgs phenomenology in high energy colliders. These signals might become very important indirect signals for these type of models as they would be present even when the KK mass scale is high and no heavy KK particle is discovered.

  6. A Fourth-Order Spline Collocation Approach for the Solution of a Boundary Layer Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayfy, Khoury, S.

    2011-09-01

    A finite element approach, based on cubic B-spline collocation, is presented for the numerical solution of a class of singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems that possess a boundary layer at one or two end points. Due to the existence of a layer, the problem is handled using an adaptive spline collocation approach constructed over a non-uniform Shishkin-like meshes, defined via a carefully selected generating function. To tackle the case of nonlinearity, if it exists, an iterative scheme arising from Newton's method is employed. The rate of convergence is verified to be of fourth-order and is calculated using the double-mesh principle. The efficiency and applicability of the method are demonstrated by applying it to a number of linear and nonlinear examples. The numerical solutions are compared with both analytical and other existing numerical solutions in the literature. The numerical results confirm that this method is superior when contrasted with other accessible approaches and yields more accurate solutions.

  7. Fourth Generation of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies: Promise and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Ke, Rongqin; Mignardi, Marco; Hauling, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats

    2016-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the emergence of the fourth-generation sequencing technologies that preserve the spatial coordinates of RNA and DNA sequences with up to subcellular resolution, thus enabling back mapping of sequencing reads to the original histological context. This information is used, for example, in two current large-scale projects that aim to unravel the function of the brain. Also in cancer research, fourth-generation sequencing has the potential to revolutionize the field. Cancer Research UK has named "Mapping the molecular and cellular tumor microenvironment in order to define new targets for therapy and prognosis" one of the grand challenges in tumor biology. We discuss the advantages of sequencing nucleic acids directly in fixed cells over traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, the limitations and challenges that these new methods have to face to become broadly applicable, and the impact that the information generated by the combination of in situ sequencing and NGS methods will have in research and diagnostics.

  8. All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source.

    PubMed

    Khudus, Muhammad I M Abdul; Lee, Timothy; De Lucia, Francesco; Corbari, Costantino; Sazio, Pier; Horak, Peter; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2016-09-19

    All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. Light from a fully fiberized high power master oscillator power amplifier is launched into a periodically poled silica fiber generating the second harmonic. The output is then sent through two optical microfibers that generate the third and fourth harmonic, respectively, via four wave mixing (FWM). For a large range of pump wavelengths in the silica optical transmission window, phase matched FWM can be achieved in the microfibers at two different diameters with relatively wide fabrication tolerances of up to +/-5 nm. Our simulations indicate that by optimizing the second harmonic generation efficiency and the diameters and lengths of the two microfibers, conversion efficiencies to the fourth harmonic in excess of 25% are theoretically achievable.

  9. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joseph M.; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Conclusion: Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1. PMID:26558545

  10. Engineering Task Plan for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-06-20

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the activities associated with the installation of cabinets containing corrosion monitoring equipment on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The new cabinets (one per tank) will be installed adjacent to existing corrosion probes already installed in riser WST-RISER-016 on both tanks. The corrosion monitoring equipment to be installed utilizes the technique of electrochemical noise (EN) for monitoring waste tank corrosion. Typically, EN consists of low frequency (4 Hz) and small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A typical EN based corrosion-monitoring system measures instantaneous fluctuations in corrosion current and potential between three nominally identical electrodes of the material of interest immersed in the environment of interest. Time-dependent fluctuations in corrosion current are described by electrochemical current noise, and time-dependent fluctuations of corrosion potential are described by electrochemical noise. The corrosion monitoring systems are designed to detect the onset of localized corrosion phenomena if tank conditions should change to allow these phenomena to occur. In addition to the EN technique, the systems also facilitate the use of the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) technique to collect uniform corrosion rate information. LPR measures the linearity at the origin of the polarization curve for overvoltages up to a few millivolts away from the rest potential or natural corrosion potential. The slope of the current vs. voltage plot gives information on uniform corrosion rates.

  11. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolone-resistant mycobacterial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; Meyer, Jay J; Espandar, Ladan

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of mycobacterial keratitis resistant to fourth-generation fluoroquinolones after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with fourth-generation fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. While receiving moxifloxacin post LASIK, the patient was diagnosed with moxifloxacin-resistant Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis. Culture susceptibilities revealed isolates resistant to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, and treatment with topical amikacin and clarithromycin with oral doxycycline and clarithromycin along with flap amputation was necessary to control the infection. This case demonstrates the potential limitations in the coverage of these antibiotic agents.

  12. SCALS: a fourth-generation study of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joe; Hughes, Gemma; Lynch, Jenni; A'Court, Christine; Hinder, Sue; Fahy, Nick; Byrne, Emma; Finlayson, Alexander; Sorell, Tom; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research to date into assisted living technologies broadly consists of 3 generations: technical design, experimental trials and qualitative studies of the patient experience. We describe a fourth-generation paradigm: studies of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context. Fourth-generation studies are necessarily organic and emergent; they view technology as part of a dynamic, networked and potentially unstable system. They use co-design methods to generate and stabilise local solutions, taking account of context. Methods and analysis SCALS (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions) consists (currently) of 5 organisational case studies, each an English health or social care organisation striving to introduce technology-supported services to support independent living in people with health and/or social care needs. Treating these cases as complex systems, we seek to explore interdependencies, emergence and conflict. We employ a co-design approach informed by the principles of action research to help participating organisations establish, refine and evaluate their service. To that end, we are conducting in-depth ethnographic studies of people's experience of assisted living technologies (micro level), embedded in evolving organisational case studies that use interviews, ethnography and document analysis (meso level), and exploring the wider national and international context for assisted living technologies and policy (macro level). Data will be analysed using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval for the first 4 case studies has been granted. An important outcome will be lessons learned from individual co-design case studies. We will document the studies’ credibility and rigour, and assess the transferability of findings to other settings while also recognising unique aspects of the contexts in which they were generated

  13. Applying Fourth Generation Management to Access Services: Reinventing Customer Service and Process Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    Are librarians doing all they can to ensure that customer services are delivered with the customer in mind? Librarians are great at helping, but we sometimes need help with identifying customers, defining their needs, developing services, and reviewing the processes behind the services. Fourth Generation Management provides new insight for…

  14. Thinking beyond Measurement, Description and Judgment: Fourth Generation Evaluation in Family-Centered Pediatric Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Katherine Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although pediatric healthcare organizations have widely implemented the philosophy of family-centered care (FCC), evaluators and health professionals have not explored how to preserve the philosophy of FCC in evaluation processes. Purpose: To illustrate how fourth generation evaluation, in theory, could facilitate collaboration between…

  15. MSSM extension with a mirror fourth generation, neutrino magnetic moments, and CERN LHC signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2008-10-01

    Recent analyses have shown that a sequential fourth generation can be consistent with precision electroweak data. We consider the possibility that the new generation could be a mirror generation with V+A rather than V-A interactions. Specifically we consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with a light mirror generation. Implications of this extension are explored. One consequence is an enhancement of the {tau} neutrino magnetic moment by several orders of magnitude consistent with the current limits on the magnetic moment of the {tau}. The masses of the mirror generation arise due to electroweak symmetry breaking, and if a mirror generation exists its mass spectrum must lie below a TeV, and thus should be discovered at the LHC. Mirror particles and mirror sparticles produce many characteristic signatures which should be detectable at the LHC. Heavy Higgs boson decays into mirror particles and an analysis of the forward-backward asymmetries can distinguish a mirror generation from a sequential fourth generation. The validity of the model can thus be tested at the LHC. A model of the type discussed here could arise from a more unified structure such as grand unification or strings where a mirror generation escapes the survival hypothesis, i.e., a generation and a mirror generation do not tie up to acquire a mass of size M{sub GUT} or M{sub string} due to a symmetry, and thus remain massless down to the electroweak scale.

  16. Fourth-generation effect on CP violation in Bd hadronic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasuike, Tsutom; Hattori, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Wakaizumi, Seiichi

    1990-03-01

    Du, Dunietz, and Wu examined CP violation in partial-decay-rate asymmetries of neutral b-flavored mesons in the standard Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model. We calculate in the four-generation model the same CP asymmetry in Bd hadronic decays in light of the large Bd-B¯d mixing obtained by the ARGUS and CLEO Collaborations. The general 4×4 KM matrix proposed by Botella and Chau is used. The effect of the fourth generation on asymmetry is found to be sizable for various mixings of the fourth with the preceding three generations, changing signs of the asymmetry in the modes b¯-->ūud¯ and b¯-->c¯cd¯, and enhancing magnitudes in the modes b¯-->ūcd¯ and b¯-->c¯ud¯ from their standard-model predictions.

  17. Exclusive B→ρl+l- decay in the standard model with fourth-generation quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynali, K.; Bashiry, V.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the influence of the fourth generation of quarks on the branching ratio, the CP asymmetry, and the polarization asymmetries in B→ρℓ+ℓ- decay. Taking |Vt'dVt'b|˜0.001 with phase about 10°, which is consistent with the sin⁡2ϕ1 of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the Bd mixing parameter ΔmBd, we obtain that for both (μ,τ) channels the branching ratio is increased and the magnitude of CP asymmetry and polarization asymmetries decreased by the mass and mixing parameters of the 4th generation of quarks. These results can serve as a good tool to search for new physics effects, precisely, to search for the fourth generation of quarks (t',b') via its indirect manifestations in loop diagrams.

  18. Heavy bino dark matter and collider signals in the MSSM with vectorlike fourth-generation particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohammad; Feng, Jonathan L.; Iwamoto, Sho; Lillard, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    MSSM4G models, in which the minimal supersymmetric standard model is extended to include vectorlike copies of standard model particles, are promising possibilities for weak-scale supersymmetry. In particular, two models, called QUE and QDEE, realize the major virtues of supersymmetry (naturalness consistent with the 125 GeV Higgs boson, gauge coupling unification, and thermal relic neutralino dark matter) without the need for fine-tuned relations between particle masses. We determine the implications of these models for dark matter and collider searches. The QUE and QDEE models revive the possibility of heavy bino dark matter with mass in the range 300-700 GeV, which is not usually considered. Dark matter direct detection cross sections are typically below current limits, but are naturally expected above the neutrino floor and may be seen at next-generation experiments. Indirect detection prospects are bright at the Cherenkov Telescope Array, provided the fourth-generation leptons have mass above 350 GeV or decay to taus. In a completely complementary way, discovery prospects at the LHC are dim if the fourth-generation leptons are heavy or decay to taus, but are bright for fourth-generation leptons with masses below 350 GeV that decay either to electrons or to muons. We conclude that the combined set of direct detection, CTA, and LHC experiments will discover or exclude these MSSM4G models in the coming few years, assuming the Milky Way has an Einasto dark matter profile.

  19. Results for the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    2016-01-11

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Fourth Quarter CY15 Tank 50H samples were obtained on October 29, 2015 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on October 30, 2015. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan.

  20. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high ``transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  1. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, G. ); Kim, C.S. )

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  2. Similar solutions for viscous hypersonic flow over a slender three-fourths-power body of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin-Shun

    1987-01-01

    For hypersonic flow with a shock wave, there is a similar solution consistent throughout the viscous and inviscid layers along a very slender three-fourths-power body of revolution The strong pressure interaction problem can then be treated by the method of similarity. Numerical calculations are performed in the viscous region with the edge pressure distribution known from the inviscid similar solutions. The compressible laminar boundary-layer equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting two-point boundary value problem is then solved by the Runge-Kutta method with a modified Newton's method for the corresponding boundary conditions. The effects of wall temperature, mass bleeding, and body transverse curvature are investigated. The induced pressure, displacement thickness, skin friction, and heat transfer due to the previously mentioned parameters are estimated and analyzed.

  3. Power-Law Type Solutions of Fourth-Order Gravity for Multidimensional Bianchi i Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprasse, H.; Demaret, J.; Gatermann, K.; Melenk, H.

    This paper is devoted to the application of computer algebra to the study of solutions of the field equations derived from a non-linear Lagrangian, as suggested by recently proposed unified theories. More precisely, we restrict ourselves to the most general quadratic Lagrangian, i.e. containing quadratic contributions in the different curvature tensors exclusively. The corresponding field equations are then fourth-order in the metric tensor components. The cosmological models studied are the simplest ones in the class of spatially homogeneous but anisotropic models, i.e. Bianchi I models. For these models, we consider only power-law type solutions of the field equations. All the solutions of the associated system of algebraic equations are found, using computer algebra, from a search of its Groebner bases. While, in space dimension d=3, the Einsteinian-Kasner metric is still the most general power-law type solution, for d>3, no solution, other than the Minkowski space-time, is common to the three systems of equations corresponding to the three contributions to the Lagrangian density. In the case of a pure Riemann-squared contribution to the Lagrangian (suggested by a recent calculation of the effective action for the heterotic string), the possibility exists to realize a splitting of the d-dimensional space into a (d-3)-dimensional internal space and a physical 3-dimensional space, the latter expanding in time as a power bigger than 2 (about 4.5 when d=9).

  4. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Russia using a variety of grid systems and turbulence models for the June 2009 4th Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic configuration for this workshop was a new subsonic transport model, the Common Research Model, designed using a modern approach for the wing and included a horizontal tail. The fourth workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and incremental drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal tail configurations. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with earlier workshops using the statistical framework.

  5. A Vector-Like Fourth Generation with A Discrete Symmetry From Split-UED

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Seong Chan; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Split-UED allows for the possibility that the lowest lying KK excitations of the Standard Model fermions can be much lighter than the corresponding gauge or Higgs KK states. This can happen provided the fermion bulk masses are chosen to be large, in units of the inverse compactification radius, 1/R, and negative. In this setup, all of the other KK states would be effectively decoupled from low energy physics. Such a scenario would then lead to an apparent vector-like fourth generation with an associated discrete symmetry that allows us to accommodate a dark matter candidate. In this paper the rather unique phenomenology presented by this picture will be examined.

  6. Infective endocarditis due to Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of β-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours.

  7. Picosecond x-ray diagnostics for third and fourth generation synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeCamp, Matthew

    2016-03-30

    In the DOE-EPSCoR State/National Laboratory partnership grant ``Picosecond x-ray diagnostics for third and fourth generation synchrotron sources'' Dr. DeCamp set forth a partnership between the University of Delaware and Argonne National Laboratory. This proposal aimed to design and implement a series of experiments utilizing, or improving upon, existing time-domain hard x-ray spectroscopies at a third generation synchrotron source. Specifically, the PI put forth three experimental projects to be explored in the grant cycle: 1) implementing a picosecond ``x-ray Bragg switch'' using a laser excited nano-structured metallic film, 2) designing a robust x-ray optical delay stage for x-ray pump-probe studies at a hard x-ray synchrotron source, and 3) building/installing a laser based x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source for two-color x-ray pump-probe studies.

  8. Fourth Generation of Next‐Generation Sequencing Technologies: Promise and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Rongqin; Mignardi, Marco; Hauling, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this review, we discuss the emergence of the fourth‐generation sequencing technologies that preserve the spatial coordinates of RNA and DNA sequences with up to subcellular resolution, thus enabling back mapping of sequencing reads to the original histological context. This information is used, for example, in two current large‐scale projects that aim to unravel the function of the brain. Also in cancer research, fourth‐generation sequencing has the potential to revolutionize the field. Cancer Research UK has named “Mapping the molecular and cellular tumor microenvironment in order to define new targets for therapy and prognosis” one of the grand challenges in tumor biology. We discuss the advantages of sequencing nucleic acids directly in fixed cells over traditional next‐generation sequencing (NGS) methods, the limitations and challenges that these new methods have to face to become broadly applicable, and the impact that the information generated by the combination of in situ sequencing and NGS methods will have in research and diagnostics. PMID:27406789

  9. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and

  10. A Little Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem: A Vector-like Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rajendran, Surjeet; Saraswat, Prashant; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-04-06

    We present a simple solution to the little hierarchy problem in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: a vectorlike fourth generation. With O(1) Yukawa couplings for the new quarks, the Higgs mass can naturally be above 114 GeV. Unlike a chiral fourth generation, a vectorlike generation can solve the little hierarchy problem while remaining consistent with precision electroweak and direct production constraints, and maintaining the success of the grand unified framework. The new quarks are predicted to lie between 300-600 GeV and will thus be discovered or ruled out at the LHC. This scenario suggests exploration of several novel collider signatures.

  11. Third- and fourth-generation implantable cardioverter defibrillators: current status and future development.

    PubMed

    Saksena, S; Diaz, M L; Varanasi, S; Mathew, P; Berg, J; Krol, R B; Kaushik, R R

    1994-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy has become the mainstay of therapy for patients with a history of sudden cardiac death or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The current generation of ICDs used for secondary prevention combines features for tachycardia reversion with demand ventricular pacing, antitachycardia pacing, programmable shock therapy, and tachycardia events memory. Although demand pacing and defibrillation is indicated for primary prevention usage of ICDs, the application of antitachycardia pacing modes is more controversial. High energy cardioversion and defibrillation shocks remaining the mainstay of sudden death prevention will be redefined as more effective defibrillation shock modes and lead systems are developed. Fourth-generation ICD systems accomplished a significant reduction of device size and almost universal success using an endocardial lead configuration and pectoral implant. A variety of new directions of ICD therapy in clinical practice such as primary prevention applications and the adjunctive role of antiarrhythmic drug therapy are currently being examined in clinical trials. The concepts underlying initiation of tachyarrhythmias are being studied to develop new approaches to tachycardia prevention. These include rate support, subthreshold stimulation, and multiple site pacing. The current developments of ICD therapy promise continued growth of this technology.

  12. A Validated Open-Source Multisolver Fourth-Generation Composite Femur Model.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Alisdair R; Rose, Hannah; Gill, Harinderjit S

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic biomechanical test specimens are frequently used for preclinical evaluation of implant performance, often in combination with numerical modeling, such as finite-element (FE) analysis. Commercial and freely available FE packages are widely used with three FE packages in particular gaining popularity: abaqus (Dassault Systèmes, Johnston, RI), ansys (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA), and febio (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT). To the best of our knowledge, no study has yet made a comparison of these three commonly used solvers. Additionally, despite the femur being the most extensively studied bone in the body, no freely available validated model exists. The primary aim of the study was primarily to conduct a comparison of mesh convergence and strain prediction between the three solvers (abaqus, ansys, and febio) and to provide validated open-source models of a fourth-generation composite femur for use with all the three FE packages. Second, we evaluated the geometric variability around the femoral neck region of the composite femurs. Experimental testing was conducted using fourth-generation Sawbones® composite femurs instrumented with strain gauges at four locations. A generic FE model and four specimen-specific FE models were created from CT scans. The study found that the three solvers produced excellent agreement, with strain predictions being within an average of 3.0% for all the solvers (r2 > 0.99) and 1.4% for the two commercial codes. The average of the root mean squared error against the experimental results was 134.5% (r2 = 0.29) for the generic model and 13.8% (r2 = 0.96) for the specimen-specific models. It was found that composite femurs had variations in cortical thickness around the neck of the femur of up to 48.4%. For the first time, an experimentally validated, finite-element model of the femur is presented for use in three solvers. This model is freely available online along with all the supporting validation data.

  13. Generating solutions to the Einstein field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contopoulos, I. G.; Esposito, F. P.; Kleidis, K.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Witten, L.

    2016-11-01

    Exact solutions to the Einstein field equations may be generated from already existing ones (seed solutions), that admit at least one Killing vector. In this framework, a space of potentials is introduced. By the use of symmetries in this space, the set of potentials associated to a known solution is transformed into a new set, either by continuous transformations or by discrete transformations. In view of this method, and upon consideration of continuous transformations, we arrive at some exact, stationary axisymmetric solutions to the Einstein field equations in vacuum, that may be of geometrical or/and physical interest.

  14. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  15. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Langping; Huang Lei; Xie Zhiwen; Wang Xiaofeng; Tang Baoyin

    2008-02-15

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder.

  16. Higgs Properties in the Fourth Generation MSSM: Boosted Signals Over the 3G Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.C.; Hewett, J.L.; Ismail, A.; Le, M.-P.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    The generalization of the MSSM to the case of four chiral fermion generations (4GMSSM) can lead to significant changes in the phenomenology of the otherwise familiar Higgs sector. In most of the 3GMSSM parameter space, the lighter CP-even h is {approx} 115-125 GeV and mostly Standard Model-like while H,A,H{sup {+-}} are all relatively heavy. Furthermore, the ratio of Higgs vevs, tan {beta}, is relatively unconstrained. In contrast to this, in the 4GMSSM, heavy fourth generation fermion loops drive the masses of h,H,H{sup {+-}} to large values while the CP-odd boson, A, can remain relatively light and tan {beta} is restricted to the range 1/2 {approx}< tan {beta} {approx}< 2 due to perturbativity requirements on Yukawa couplings. We explore this scenario in some detail, concentrating on the collider signatures of the light CP-odd Higgs at both the Tevatron and LHC. We find that while gg {yields} A may lead to a potential signal in the {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} channel at the LHC, A may first be observed in the {gamma}{gamma} channel due to a highly loop-enhanced cross section that can be more than an order of magnitude greater than that of a SM Higgs for A masses of {approx} 115-120 and tan {beta} < 1. We find that the CP-even states h,H are highly mixed and can have atypical branching fractions. Precision electroweak constraints, particularly for the light A parameter space region, are examined in detail.

  17. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

    1992-01-01

    TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

  18. Investigating the quality of video consultations performed using fourth generation (4G) mobile telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Caffery, Liam J; Smith, Anthony C

    2015-09-01

    The use of fourth-generation (4G) mobile telecommunications to provide real-time video consultations were investigated in this study with the aims of determining if 4G is a suitable telecommunications technology; and secondly, to identify if variation in perceived audio and video quality were due to underlying network performance. Three patient end-points that used 4G Internet connections were evaluated. Consulting clinicians recorded their perception of audio and video quality using the International Telecommunications Union scales during clinics with these patient end-points. These scores were used to calculate a mean opinion score (MOS). The network performance metrics were obtained for each session and the relationships between these metrics and the session's quality scores were tested. Clinicians scored the quality of 50 hours of video consultations, involving 36 clinic sessions. The MOS for audio was 4.1 ± 0.62 and the MOS for video was 4.4 ± 0.22. Image impairment and effort to listen were also rated favourably. There was no correlation between audio or video quality and the network metrics of packet loss or jitter. These findings suggest that 4G networks are an appropriate telecommunication technology to deliver real-time video consultations. Variations in quality scores observed during this study were not explained by the packet loss and jitter in the underlying network. Before establishing a telemedicine service, the performance of the 4G network should be assessed at the location of the proposed service. This is due to known variability in performance of 4G networks.

  19. EAI045: The fourth-generation EGFR inhibitor overcoming T790M and C797S resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhang; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong

    2017-01-28

    The third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), AZD9291 (osimertinib) and CO-1686 (rociletinib) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are highly active against T790M positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance develops rapidly. EGFR C797S mutation was reported to be a leading mechanism of resistance to the third-generation inhibitors. The C797S mutation appears to be an ideal target for overcoming the acquired resistance to the third-generation inhibitors. This review summarizes the latest development on the discovery of a fourth-generation EGFR TKI, EAI045.3.

  20. [A fourth-generation doctor - Hans Selye and his origins from Felvidék (today Slovakia)].

    PubMed

    Kiss, László

    2016-08-01

    Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333.

  1. Shock Effect or Ships Passing in the Night: The Role of Armored Forces in Fourth Generation Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-23

    underwhelming conventional military foe with the capability to inflict tremendous damage by other means, without appearing the bully or oppressor...over 100 injured, in the lobby of a hotel in Netanya, when a suicide bomber blew himself up as guests sat down to the traditional Passover Seder.81...as a Microcosm The refugee camp in Jenin had a “gruesome” reputation as the “Palestinian Suicide Capital.”86 Fourth Generation warriors such as

  2. Turbo product codes and their application in the fourth-generation mobile communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yejun; Zhu, Guangxi; Liu, Ying Zhuang; Liu, Jian

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we firstly present turbo product codes (TPCs) for forward error correction (FEC) coding, including TPCs encoding process and decoding principle, and then compare TPCs with turbo convolutional codes (TCCs) error coding solution. The performance of TPCs is shown to be closer to the Shannon limit than TCCs. Secondly, we introduce TPCs" application in the 4th generation (4G) mobile communication system which is being developed in our country at present. The concept of TPC-OFDM system which promises higher code rate than conventional OFDM is first modified. Finally, simulation results show that the simplified 4G uplink systems offer Bit Error Rate of nearly 0 over IMT-2000 channel at Eb/N0 > 15dB.

  3. MARS-a project of the diffraction-limited fourth generation X-ray source based on supermicrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulipanov, G. N.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Vinokurov, N. A.

    2001-07-01

    The new approach for the fourth generation X-ray source-Multiturn Accelerator-Recuperator Source (MARS)-was proposed recently. The installation consists of the radiofrequency (RF) multiturn accelerator (similar to the race-track microtron) and long undulator(s). After passing through the undulator(s) the electron beam is decelerated in the same RF accelerating structure. Such energy recovery reduces dramatically the radiation hazard and decreases the required RF power. In this paper we present a more detail explanation of this scheme, and specify further the parameter limitations and requirements for the accelerator.

  4. Fourth-Generation Progestins Inhibit 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 and Modulate the Biosynthesis of Endogenous Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Louw-du Toit, Renate; Perkins, Meghan S.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Africander, Donita

    2016-01-01

    Progestins used in contraception and hormone replacement therapy are synthetic compounds designed to mimic the actions of the natural hormone progesterone and are classed into four consecutive generations. The biological actions of progestins are primarily determined by their interactions with steroid receptors, and factors such as metabolism, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and the regulation of endogenous steroid hormone biosynthesis are often overlooked. Although some studies have investigated the effects of select progestins on a few steroidogenic enzymes, studies comparing the effects of progestins from different generations are lacking. This study therefore explored the putative modulatory effects of progestins on de novo steroid synthesis in the adrenal by comparing the effects of select progestins from the respective generations, on endogenous steroid hormone production by the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that the fourth-generation progestins, nestorone (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NoMAC) and drospirenone (DRSP), unlike the progestins selected from the first three generations, modulate the biosynthesis of several endogenous steroids. Subsequent assays performed in COS-1 cells expressing human 3βHSD2, suggest that these progestins modulate the biosynthesis of steroid hormones by inhibiting the activity of 3βHSD2. The Ki values determined for the inhibition of human 3βHSD2 by NES (9.5 ± 0.96 nM), NoMAC (29 ± 7.1 nM) and DRSP (232 ± 38 nM) were within the reported concentration ranges for the contraceptive use of these progestins in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that newer, fourth-generation progestins may exert both positive and negative physiological effects via the modulation of endogenous steroid hormone biosynthesis. PMID:27706226

  5. Fourth-order solutions of nonlinear two-point boundary value problems by Newton-HSSOR iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Jumat; Hasan, Mohd. Khatim; Othman, Mohamed; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the Half-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (HSSOR) iterative method together with Newton scheme namely Newton-HSSOR is investigated in solving the nonlinear systems generated from the fourth-order half-sweep finite difference approximation equation for nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The Newton scheme is proposed to linearize the nonlinear system into the form of linear system. On top of that, we also present the basic formulation and implementation of Newton-HSSOR iterative method. For comparison purpose, combinations between the Full-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (FSGS) and Full-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (FSSOR) iterative methods with Newton scheme, which are indicated as Newton-FSGS and Newton-FSSOR methods respectively have been implemented numerically. Numerical experiments of two problems are given to illustrate that the Newton-HSSOR method is more superior compared with the tested methods.

  6. Cosmic ray electron and positron excesses from a fourth generation heavy Majorana neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco E-mail: sannino@cp3-origins.net

    2011-08-01

    Unexpected features in the energy spectra of cosmic rays electrons and positrons have been recently observed by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT satellite experiments, opening to the exciting possibility of an indirect manifestation of new physics. A TeV-scale fourth lepton family is a natural extension of the Standard Model leptonic sector (also linked to the hierarchy problem in Minimal Walking Technicolor models). The heavy Majorana neutrino of this setup mixes with Standard Model charged leptons through a weak charged current interaction. Here, we first study analytically the energy spectrum of the electrons and positrons originated in the heavy Majorana neutrino decay modes, also including polarization effects. We then compare the prediction of this model with the experimental data, exploiting both the standard direct method and our recently proposed Sum Rules method. We find that the decay modes involving the tau and/or the muon charged leptons as primary decay products fit well the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT lepton excesses while there is tension with respect to the antiproton to proton fraction constrained by PAMELA.

  7. Automatic Generation of Analytic Equations for Vibrational and Rovibrational Constants from Fourth-Order Vibrational Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Devin A.; Gong, Justin Z.; Stanton, John F.

    2014-06-01

    The derivation of analytic expressions for vibrational and rovibrational constants, for example the anharmonicity constants χij and the vibration-rotation interaction constants α^B_r, from second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) can be accomplished with pen and paper and some practice. However, the corresponding quantities from fourth-order perturbation theory (VPT4) are considerably more complex, with the only known derivations by hand extensively using many layers of complicated intermediates and for rotational quantities requiring specialization to orthorhombic cases or the form of Watson's reduced Hamiltonian. We present an automatic computer program for generating these expressions with full generality based on the adaptation of an existing numerical program based on the sum-over-states representation of the energy to a computer algebra context. The measures taken to produce well-simplified and factored expressions in an efficient manner are discussed, as well as the framework for automatically checking the correctness of the generated equations.

  8. Towards a "fourth generation" of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: creating contexts for effective community mobilisation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the "reach" and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider "task shifting" agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the "health enabling social environment". We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater

  9. Biomechanical comparison of the human cadaveric pelvis with a fourth generation composite model.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Brandon L; Attia, Tarik; Backstein, David; Safir, Oleg; Willett, Thomas L; Kuzyk, Paul R T

    2016-02-29

    The use of cadavers for orthopaedic biomechanics research is well established, but presents difficulties to researchers in terms of cost, biosafety, availability, and ease of use. High fidelity composite models of human bone have been developed for use in biomechanical studies. While several studies have utilized composite models of the human pelvis for testing orthopaedic reconstruction techniques, few biomechanical comparisons of the properties of cadaveric and composite pelves exist. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of cadaveric pelves to those of the 4th generation composite model. An Instron ElectroPuls E10000 mechanical testing machine was used to load specimens with orientation, boundary conditions and degrees of freedom that approximated those occurring during the single legged phase of walking, including hip abductor force. Each specimen was instrumented with strain gauge rosettes. Overall specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated from the test data. Composite specimens showed significantly higher overall stiffness and slightly less overall variability between specimens (composite K=1448±54N/m, cadaver K=832±62N/m; p<0.0001). Strains measured at specific sites in the composite models and cadavers were similar (but did differ) only when the applied load was scaled to overall construct stiffness. This finding regarding strain distribution and the difference in overall stiffness must be accounted for when using these composite models for biomechanics research. Altering the cortical wall thickness or tuning the elastic moduli of the composite material may improve future generations of the composite model.

  10. UV by the fourth harmonic generation of compact side-pumped Yb:YAG laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Brian; McIntosh, Chris; Hays, Alan; Dilazaro, Tom; Goldberg, Lew

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact, side pumped passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser that was operated in a burst mode with pump durations of 2-4 ms at low duty cycles. Intra-pump pulse Q-switched pulse repetition frequencies varied from 5-20 kHz depending on the transmission of the Cr:YAG saturable absorber, which was varied from 70% to 94%. Pump duration, pulse repetition frequency and output coupler reflectivity were optimized to yield maximum Yb:YAG laser average power and laser efficiency, while providing sufficient peak intensity, typically 0.3-1 MW, to enable efficient forth harmonic generation (FHG). Pulse energies and durations were in ranges of 0.3-1.8 mJ and 1.5-7ns, respectively, dependent on the unbleached transmission of the Cr:YAG saturable absorber. We achieved an optical efficiency of greater than 15% for the Yb:YAG laser. Extra-cavity 515 nm second harmonic generation (SHG) was achieved using a 5mm long KTP crystal. The 515 nm light was then frequency doubled by focusing it into a 7mm long BBO crystal, resulting in a 15% conversion efficiency from 1030nm to 257.5 nm, with an average UV power greater than 100 mW.

  11. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  12. Are dialysis adequacy indices independent of solute generation rate?

    PubMed

    Waniewski, Jacek; Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    KT/V is by definition independent of solute generation rate. Alternative dialysis adequacy indices (DAIs) such as equivalent renal clearance (EKR), standard KT/V (stdKT/V), and solute removal index (SRI) are estimated as the ratio of solute mass removed to an average solute mass in the body or solute concentration in blood; both nominator and denominator in these formulas depend on the solute generation rate. Our objective was to investigate whether and under which conditions the alternative DAIs are independent of solute generation rate. By using general compartment modeling, we show that for the metabolically stable patient (in whom the solute generated during the dialysis cycle, typically, 1 week, is equal to the solute removed from the body), DAIs estimated for the dialysis cycle are in general independent of the average solute generation rate (although they may depend on the pattern of oscillations in the generation rate). However, the alternative adequacy parameters (such as EKR, stdKT/V, and SRI) may depend on solute generation rate for metabolically unstable patients.

  13. The 3D Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Berger, Marsha J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on 3-dimensional Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the design cycle; Cartesian grid strategy; structured body fit; grid generation; prolate spheroid; and ONERA M6 wing.

  14. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for fourth-order elliptic equations of Kirchhoff type with critical growth in ℝN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sihua; Zhang, Jihui

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we deal with the existence and multiplicity of solutions for fourth-order elliptic equations of Kirchhoff type with critical nonlinearity: -ε4 Δ2 u + ε4 a + b ∫ ℝN |∇ u|)2 d x Δ u + V ( x ) u = |u| 2* * - 2 u + h ( x , u ) , (t, x) ∈ ℝ × ℝN. By using Lions' second concentration-compactness principle and concentration-compactness principle at infinity to prove that (PS) condition holds locally and by variational method, we prove that it has at least one solution and for any m ∈ ℕ, it has at least m pairs of solutions.

  15. Acceleration of the effect of solute on the entropy-volume cross fluctuation density in aqueous 2-butoxyethanol, 1-propanol, and glycerol: the fourth derivative of Gibbs energy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koh; Baluja, Shipra; Inaba, Akira; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-06-07

    Using a differential pressure perturbation calorimetry developed by us recently [K. Yoshida, S. Baluja, A. Inaba, K. Tozaki, and Y. Koga, "Experimental determination of third derivative of G (III): Differential pressure perturbation calorimetry (II)," J. Solution Chem. (in press)], we experimentally determined the partial molar S-V cross fluctuation density of solute B, (SV)δ(B) , in binary aqueous solutions for B = 1-propanol (1P) and glycerol (Gly). This third derivative of G provides information about the effect of solute B on the S-V cross fluctuation density, (SV)δ, in aqueous solution as the concentration of B varies. Having determined (SV)δ(B) by better than 1% uncertainty, we evaluated for the first time the fourth derivative quantity (SV)δ(B-B) = N(∂(SV)δ(B) ∕∂n(B)) for B = 1P and Gly graphically without resorting to any fitting functions within several percent. This model-free quantity gives information about the acceleration of the effect of solute B on (SV)δ. By comparing fourth derivative quantities, (SV)δ(B-B) , among B = 1P, Gly, and 2-butoxyethanol obtained previously, the distinction of the effect of solute on H(2)O becomes clearer than before when only the third derivative quantities were available.

  16. Acceleration of the effect of solute on the entropy-volume cross fluctuation density in aqueous 2-butoxyethanol, 1-propanol, and glycerol: The fourth derivative of Gibbs energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Koh; Baluja, Shipra; Inaba, Akira; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-06-01

    Using a differential pressure perturbation calorimetry developed by us recently [K. Yoshida, S. Baluja, A. Inaba, K. Tozaki, and Y. Koga, "Experimental determination of third derivative of G (III): Differential pressure perturbation calorimetry (II)," J. Solution Chem. (in press)], we experimentally determined the partial molar S-V cross fluctuation density of solute B, SVδB, in binary aqueous solutions for B = 1-propanol (1P) and glycerol (Gly). This third derivative of G provides information about the effect of solute B on the S-V cross fluctuation density, SVδ, in aqueous solution as the concentration of B varies. Having determined SVδB by better than 1% uncertainty, we evaluated for the first time the fourth derivative quantity SVδB-B = N(∂SVδB /∂nB) for B = 1P and Gly graphically without resorting to any fitting functions within several percent. This model-free quantity gives information about the acceleration of the effect of solute B on SVδ. By comparing fourth derivative quantities, SVδB-B, among B = 1P, Gly, and 2-butoxyethanol obtained previously, the distinction of the effect of solute on H2O becomes clearer than before when only the third derivative quantities were available.

  17. Evaluation of seismic design spectrum based on UHS implementing fourth-generation seismic hazard maps of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ali; Hasan, Rafiq; Pekau, Oscar A.

    2016-12-01

    Two recent developments have come into the forefront with reference to updating the seismic design provisions for codes: (1) publication of new seismic hazard maps for Canada by the Geological Survey of Canada, and (2) emergence of the concept of new spectral format outdating the conventional standardized spectral format. The fourth -generation seismic hazard maps are based on enriched seismic data, enhanced knowledge of regional seismicity and improved seismic hazard modeling techniques. Therefore, the new maps are more accurate and need to incorporate into the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) for its next edition similar to its building counterpart National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). In fact, the code writers expressed similar intentions with comments in the commentary of CHBCD 2006. During the process of updating codes, NBCC, and AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington (2009) lowered the probability level from 10 to 2% and 10 to 5%, respectively. This study has brought five sets of hazard maps corresponding to 2%, 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years developed by the GSC under investigation. To have a sound statistical inference, 389 Canadian cities are selected. This study shows the implications of the changes of new hazard maps on the design process (i.e., extent of magnification or reduction of the design forces).

  18. Bioactive compounds of fourth generation gamma-irradiated Typhoniumflagelliforme Lodd. mutants based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianipar, N. F.; Purnamaningsih, R.; Rosaria

    2016-08-01

    Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd.) is an Indonesian anticancer medicinal plant. The natural genetic diversity of rodent tuber is low due to vegetative propagation. Plant's genetic diversity has to be increased for obtaining clones which contain a high amount of anticancer compounds. In vitro calli were irradiated with 6 Gy of gamma ray to produce in vitro mutant plantlets. Mutant plantlets were acclimated and propagated in a greenhouse. This research was aimed to identify the chemical compounds in the leaves and tubers ofthe fourth generation of rodent tuber's vegetative mutant clones (MV4) and control plantsby using GC- MS method. Leaves and tubers of MV4 each contained 2 and 5 anticancer compounds which quantities were higher compared to control plants. MV4 leaves contained 5 new anticancer compounds while its tubers contained 3 new anticancer compounds which were not found in control. The new anticancer compounds in leaves were hexadecanoic acid, stigmast-5-en-3-ol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, farnesol isomer a, and oleic acid while the new anticancer compounds in tubers were alpha tocopherol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, and beta-elemene. Rodent tuber mutant clones are very potential to be developed into anticancer drugs.

  19. Exterior metric approach to a charged axially symmetric celestial body: the fourth-order approximate solutions of Einstein--Maxwell equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Qi-huang

    1988-12-01

    Starting with the general expression of a static state axisymmetric metric and using the principle of equivalence and the Maccullagh formula, the Einstein--Maxwell equations of a charged axisymmetric celestial body are obtained. Next, using the method of undetermined coefficients these equations are solved up to fourth-order approximate. These sets of solutions are generally appropriate for all kinds of charged axisymmetric celestial bodies.

  20. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  1. Direct Generation of Electric Currents from Flowing Neutral Ionic Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have discovered a new method of generating electric currents, directly from high pressure-induced flow of neutral ionic solutions. The mechanism is that the cations and anions have different flow velocities, if their atomic masses are dramatically different, due to different accelerations generated from the high applied pressure. The generated electric current is very sensitive to the strengths of the applied pressure, and it might be potentially used for detection of atomic masses and pressures. PMID:24187520

  2. Emergent Understandings: Multilingual Fourth Grade Students Generating Close Readings and Multimodal Responses to Global and Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Michelle Medlin; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present findings from a yearlong ethnographic research study that examines the development of critical literacy within two urban fourth grade classrooms in Tennessee. This study examines how young second language learners in English-dominant classrooms learn to read critically, write, and construct multimodal…

  3. An Overview of a Trajectory-Based Solution for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing: Fourth Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fourth major revision to an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This airborne self-spacing concept is trajectory-based, allowing for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. Because this algorithm is trajectory-based, it also has the inherent ability to support required-time-of-arrival (RTA) operations. This algorithm was also designed specifically to support a standalone, non-integrated implementation in the spacing aircraft. Revisions to this algorithm were based on a change to the expected operational environment.

  4. Invariant Solutions for the Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Flow of a Fourth-Grade Fluid Induced Due to the Impulsive Motion of a Flat Porous Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Taha; Magan, A. B.; Mahomed, F. M.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the time-dependent flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fourth-grade fluid over an infinite porous plate. The flow is caused by the motion of the porous plate in its own plane with an impulsive velocity V( t). The governing nonlinear problem is solved by invoking the Lie group theoretic approach and a numerical technique. Travelling wave solutions of the forward and backward type, together with a steady state solution, form the basis of our analytical analysis. Further, the closed-form solutions are also compared against numerical results. The essential features of the embedded parameters are described. In particular, the physical significance of the plate suction/injection and magnetic field is studied.

  5. Hydrogen generation by electrolysis of aqueous organic solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device for electrolysis of an aqueous solution of an organic fuel. The electrolyte is a solid-state polymer membrane with anode and cathode catalysts on both surfaces for electro-oxidization and electro-reduction. A low-cost and portable hydrogen generator can be made based on the device with organic fuels such as methanol.

  6. Hydrogen generation by electrolysis of aqueous organic solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A device for electrolysis of an aqueous solution of an organic fuel. The electrolyte is a solid-state polymer membrane with anode and cathode catalysts on both surfaces for electro-oxidization and electro-reduction. A low-cost and portable hydrogen generator can be made based on the device with organic fuels such as methanol.

  7. FOURTH SEMINAR TO THE MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Algebraic solution of the synthesis problem for coded sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leukhin, Anatolii N.

    2005-08-01

    The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups.

  8. Generation of inkjet droplet of suspension in polymer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hansol; Kim, Chongyoup

    2015-05-01

    In the present study the generation of inkjet drops of suspensions of spherical particles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution in 1-heptanol is investigated experimentally. The particle size was 2 µm and the particle volume fraction was in the range of 0-0.18. The molecular weight of PVP was 1,300 kg/mol and the concentration was 0-4,000 ppm. The diffusive wave spectroscopy measurement shows that the PVP solution has a weak elasticity. The extensional viscosity measurement reveals that both the polymer solution and the suspension show strain hardening behavior. The jetting experiments show that the drop velocity of the suspension is larger than that of the polymer solution without particles. The difference in drop velocity is ascribed to the combined effect of the extensional viscosity and shear viscosity. The drop size of the suspension is larger than the drop size of the polymer solution without particles at the same driving voltage even though the viscosity of the suspension is larger. This difference is ascribed to the change in the free surface shape near the nozzle exit due to the viscosity difference and the increased inertial term due to the density increase by the addition of particles. Because the surface tensions of the fluids tested here are the same, the effect of surface tension force cannot be examined even though the force analysis shows that the surface tension force is larger than the other forces such as extensional and convective forces.

  9. Sensitivity to oscillation with a sterile fourth generation neutrino from ultralow threshold neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Gao, Yu; Kubik, Andrew; Mahapatra, Rupak; Mirabolfathi, Nader; Strigari, Louis E.; Walker, Joel W.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss prospects for probing short-range sterile neutrino oscillation using neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering with ultralow energy (˜10 - 100 eV ) recoil threshold cryogenic Ge detectors. The analysis is performed in the context of a specific and contemporary reactor-based experimental proposal, developed in cooperation with the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University, and references developing technology based upon economical and scalable detector arrays. The baseline of the experiment is substantially shorter than existing measurements, as near as about 2 m from the reactor core, and is moreover variable, extending continuously up to a range of about 10 m. This proximity and variety combine to provide extraordinary sensitivity to a wide spectrum of oscillation scales, while facilitating the tidy cancellation of leading systematic uncertainties in the reactor source and environment. With 100 eV sensitivity, for exposures on the order of 200 kg .y , we project an estimated sensitivity to first and fourth neutrino oscillation with a mass gap Δ m2˜1 eV2 at an amplitude sin22 θ ˜10-1, or Δ m2˜0.2 eV2 at unit amplitude. Larger exposures, around 5000 kg .y , together with 10 eV sensitivity are capable of probing more than an additional order of magnitude in amplitude.

  10. Search for a fourth generation b'-quark at LEP-II at sqrt{s}= 196 209 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oliveira, O.; Oliveira, S. M.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Santos, R.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2007-04-01

    A search for the pair production of fourth generation b’-quarks was performed using data taken by the DELPHI detector at LEP-II. The analysed data were collected at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 196 to 209 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 420 pb-1. No evidence for a signal was found. Upper limits on BR(b’→bZ) and BR(b’→cW) were obtained for b’ masses ranging from 96 to 103 GeV/c 2. These limits, together with the theoretical branching ratios predicted by a sequential four generations model, were used to constrain the value of R_{text{CKM}}=|V_{cb‧/V_{text{tb‧V_{tb}}|, where Vcb‧, Vtb‧ and Vtb are elements of the extended CKM matrix.

  11. Grid generation for the solution of partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    A general survey of grid generators is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are generated. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid generation techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid generation and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe solution behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid generators and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.

  12. Grid generation for the solution of partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    A general survey of grid generators is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are generated. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid generation techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid generation and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe solution behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid generators and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.

  13. Fully solution-processed, transparent organic power-generating polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Wei-Yu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2017-03-01

    We fabricate transparent organic power-generating polarizer by all solution process. Based on the conventional indium–tin-oxide-coated glass as the bottom cathode, the subsequent layers are prepared by a combination of solution processing methods. Sprayed silver nanowires film serves as the top anode and can transmit greater than 80% of the visible light with sheet resistance of 16 Ω/□. By adopting the quasi-bilayer structure for the photoactive layer composed of rubbed polymer donors to produce anisotropic optical property underneath fullerene acceptors, the finished device demonstrates a power conversion efficiency of 1.36% with unpolarized light, a dichroic ratio of 3.2, and a high short circuit current ratio of 2.6 with polarized light. Our proposed fabrication procedures of devices take into account not only the cost-effective production, but also the flexibility of devices for applying in flexible, scalable circuits to advance the development of future technology.

  14. Fourth generation CP violation effects on B-->Kpi, phiK, and rhoK in next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Li, Hsiang-nan; Mishima, Satoshi; Nagashima, Makiko

    2007-03-30

    We study the effect from a sequential fourth generation quark on penguin-dominated two-body nonleptonic B meson decays in the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD formalism. With an enhancement of the color-suppressed tree amplitude and possibility of a new CP phase in the electroweak penguin amplitude, we can account better for A(CP)(B(0)-->K+ pi-)-A(CP)(B+-->K+ pi0). Taking |V(t's)V(t'b)| approximately 0.02 with a phase just below 90 degrees, which is consistent with the b-->sl+ l- rate and the B(s) mixing parameter Deltam(B)(s), we find a downward shift in the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of B(0)-->K(S)(pi 0) and phi(K)(S). The predicted behavior for B(0)-->rho(0)(K)(S) is opposite.

  15. Search for a fourth generation t' Quark in p ̄p collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guo, F; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S

    2011-08-19

    We present a search for pair production of a fourth generation t' quark and its antiparticle, followed by their decays to a W boson and a jet, based on an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb(-1) of proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96  TeV collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set upper limits on the t' ̄t' production cross section that exclude at the 95% C.L. a t' quark that decays exclusively to W+jet with a mass below 285 GeV. We observe a small excess in the μ+jets channel which reduces the mass range excluded compared to the expected limit of 320 GeV in the absence of a signal.

  16. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg→H→W+W- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Álvarez González, B.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Ancu, L. S.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Backusmayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barreto, J.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, G.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Behari, S.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benitez, J. A.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Blocker, C.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boisvert, V.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Bose, T.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brubaker, E.; Bu, X. B.; Buchholz, D.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Calfayan, P.; Calpas, B.; Calvet, S.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Cammin, J.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Carrera, E.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudhary, B.; Christoudias, T.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Cihangir, S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Clutter, J.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Croc, A.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, A.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; Davies, T.; de, K.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; de Lorenzo, G.; Deluca, C.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; D'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Devaughan, K.; di Canto, A.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dorland, T.; Dube, S.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Fuess, S.; Furic, I.; Gadfort, T.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gillberg, D.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Guo, F.; Guo, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hall, I.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, M.; Hedin, D.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirosky, R.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huske, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ito, A. S.; Ivanov, A.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; James, E.; Jamin, D.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jesik, R.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, W.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Kato, Y.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kephart, R.; Kermiche, S.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Khatidze, D.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, L.; Kirsch, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kohli, J. M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurata, M.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lammers, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Landsberg, G.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebrun, P.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipeles, E.; Lipton, R.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lovas, L.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lungu, G.; Lyon, A. L.; Lysak, R.; Lys, J.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; MacQueen, D.; Madar, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Mal, P. K.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Maravin, Y.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McCarthy, R.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Menzione, A.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Mesropian, C.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Moulik, T.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Muanza, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Mulhearn, M.; Muller, Th.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neubauer, S.; Neustroev, P.; Nielsen, J.; Nilsen, H.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Obrant, G.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Onoprienko, D.; Orava, R.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Osterberg, K.; Otero Y Garzón, G. J.; Owen, M.; Padilla, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Pangilinan, M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramanov, A. A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S.-J.; Park, S. K.; Parks, B.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Patwa, A.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Peiffer, T.; Pellett, D. E.; Penning, B.; Penzo, A.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Piegaia, R.; Pinera, L.; Piper, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pol, M.-E.; Polozov, P.; Pondrom, L.; Popov, A. V.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Protopopescu, S.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ranjan, N.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Redondo, I.; Renkel, P.; Renton, P.; Renz, M.; Rescigno, M.; Rich, P.; Richter, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Ristori, L.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Rutherford, B.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savage, G.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwarz, T.; Schwienhorst, R.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Sekaric, J.; Semenov, A.; Severini, H.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Simak, V.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sirotenko, V.; Sisakyan, A.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Soha, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Somalwar, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sopczak, A.; Sorin, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soustruznik, K.; Spurlock, B.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; Stark, J.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strang, M. A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Ströhmer, R.; Strologas, J.; Strom, D.; Strycker, G. L.; Stutte, L.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Svoisky, P.; Taffard, A.; Takahashi, M.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tanasijczuk, A.; Tang, J.; Taylor, W.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tiller, B.; Tipton, P.; Titov, M.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Tsybychev, D.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tuchming, B.; Tu, Y.; Tully, C.; Turini, N.; Tuts, P. M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unalan, R.; Uozumi, S.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; van Remortel, N.; Varelas, N.; Varganov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilanova, D.; Vilar, R.; Vint, P.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wahl, H. D.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Warchol, J.; Waters, D.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Weinberger, M.; Weinelt, J.; Wester, W. C., III; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, P.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wobisch, M.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wolfe, H.; Wood, D. R.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Würthwein, F.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Yacoob, S.; Yagil, A.; Yamada, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, W.-C.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Yoh, J.; Yoo, H. D.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, J.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zelitch, S.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, T.; Zheng, Y.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2010-07-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg→H→W+W- in pp¯ collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at s=1.96TeV. With 4.8fb-1 of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4fb-1 at D0, the 95% confidence level upper limit on σ(gg→H)×B(H→W+W-) is 1.75 pb at mH=120GeV, 0.38 pb at mH=165GeV, and 0.83 pb at mH=200GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% confidence level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 GeV.

  17. Free radical generation by ultrasound in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Riesz, P; Berdahl, D; Christman, C L

    1985-01-01

    The physical principles underlying the oscillatory behavior of minute gas bubbles in liquids exposed to ultrasound are reviewed. Results from mathematical analyses suggest that these oscillations sometimes become unstable leading to transient cavitation in which a bubble violently collapses during a single acoustic half-cycle producing high temperatures and pressures. The role that micronuclei, resonant bubble size, and rectified diffusion play in the initiation of transient cavitation is explained. Evidence to support these theoretical predictions is presented with particular emphasis on sonoluminescence which provides some non-chemical evidence for the formation of free radicals. Acoustic methods for conducting sonochemical investigations are discussed. In aqueous solutions transient cavitation initially generates hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals which may recombine to form hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide or may react with solutes in the gas phase, at the gas-liquid boundary or in the bulk of the solution. The analogies and differences between sonochemistry and ionizing radiation chemistry are explored. The use of spin trapping and electron spin resonance to identify hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals conclusively and to detect transient cavitation produced by continuous wave and by pulsed ultrasound is described in detail. The study of the chemical effects of cavitation in organic liquids is a relatively unexplored area which has recently become the subject of renewed interest. Examples of the decomposition of solvent and solute, of ultrasonically initiated free-radical polymerization and polymer degradation are presented. Spin trapping has been used to identify radicals in organic liquids, in polymer degradation and in the decomposition of organometallic compounds. PMID:3007091

  18. Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.

  19. Evaluation of the third- and fourth-generation GOCE Earth gravity field models with Australian terrestrial gravity data in spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian; Pail, Roland; Claessens, Sten

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013, the fourth generation of European Space Agency's (ESA) global gravity field models, DIR4 (Bruinsma et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010b) and TIM4 (Migliaccio et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010), generated from the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) gravity observation satellite was released. We evaluate the models using an independent ground truth data set of gravity anomalies over Australia. Combined with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity, a new gravity model is obtained that is used to perform comparisons with GOCE models in spherical harmonics. Over Australia, the new gravity model proves to have significantly higher accuracy in the degrees below 120 as compared to EGM2008 and seems to be at least comparable to the accuracy of this model between degree 150 and degree 260. Comparisons in terms of residual quasi-geoid heights, gravity disturbances, and radial gravity gradients evaluated on the ellipsoid and at approximate GOCE mean satellite altitude ( km) show both fourth generation models to improve significantly w.r.t. their predecessors. Relatively, we find a root-mean-square improvement of 39 % for the DIR4 and 23 % for TIM4 over the respective third release models at a spatial scale of 100 km (degree 200). In terms of absolute errors, TIM4 is found to perform slightly better in the bands from degree 120 up to degree 160 and DIR4 is found to perform slightly better than TIM4 from degree 170 up to degree 250. Our analyses cannot confirm the DIR4 formal error of 1 cm geoid height (0.35 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200. The formal errors of TIM4, with 3.2 cm geoid height (0.9 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200, seem to be realistic. Due to combination with GRACE and SLR data, the DIR models, at satellite altitude, clearly

  20. High-power ultraviolet 278 nm laser from fourth-harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser in CsB3O5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhichao; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guochun; Bo, Yong; Liu, Shanshan; Xie, Shiyong; Xu, Yiting; Zong, Nan; Li, Fangqin; Liu, Biaolong; Xu, Jialin; Peng, Qinjun; Zhang, Jingyuan; Cui, Dafu; Wu, Yicheng; Xu, Zuyan

    2012-06-15

    We demonstrate a high-power UV 278 nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation (FHG) of a 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser in a nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal CsB3O5 (CBO) for the first time, to our best knowledge. A 30 W level diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1112 nm with beam quality factor M2=1.2 was used as the fundamental light source at a pulse width of 500 ns. With an LiB3O5 crystal, the 1112 nm laser was first frequency-doubled to 556 nm with an average output power of 13.5 W. It was then frequency doubled again in a CBO crystal to obtain the FHG output at 278 nm. The maximum average output power of the 278 nm laser is up to 1.5 W. The results demonstrated that CBO crystal is a promising NLO material for UV high-power lasers below 300 nm.

  1. Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, in complex with manganese, inhibits proteasome activity and induces the apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Wang, Huannan; Bao, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Cefepime (FEP), which is a member of the fourth-generation cephalosporin class, has been extensively studied as a biochemical and antimicrobial reagent in recent years. Manganese (Mn) is important in the biochemical and physiological processes of many living organisms, and it is also high expressed in some tumor tissues. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the proteasome-inhibitory and anti-proliferative properties of 8 metal complexes (FEP‑Cu, FEP-Zn, FEP-Co, FEP-Ni, FEP-Cd, FEP-Cr, FEP-Fe, FEP-Mn) in MDA-MB‑231 human breast cancer cells. The FEP-Mn complex was found to be more potent in its ability to inhibit cell proliferation and proteasome activity than the other compounds tested. Moreover, the FEP-Mn complex inhibited proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity and induced the apoptosis of breast cancer cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the MCF-10A cells were much less sensitive to the FEP complexes compared with the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. These results demonstrated that the FEP-Mn(II) complex has the potential to act as a proteasome inhibitor and apoptosis inducer and therefore has possible future applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  2. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg{yields}H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Artikov, A.; Budagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Glagolev, V.; Golovanov, G.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Malyshev, V. L.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Semenov, A.; Simonenko, A.; Sisakyan, A.

    2010-07-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg{yields}H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} in pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% confidence level upper limit on {sigma}(gg{yields}H)xB(H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H}=120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H}=165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H}=200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% confidence level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 GeV.

  3. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg -> H -> W^+W^- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys. /Dubna, JINR /Oklahoma U. /Michigan State U. /Tata Inst. /Illinois U., Chicago /Florida State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /St. Petersburg, INP /Illinois U., Urbana /Sao Paulo, IFT /Munich U. /University Coll. London /Oxford U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Duke U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Chonnam Natl. U. /Florida U. /Osaka City U.

    2010-05-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.o6 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of itnegrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% Confidence Level upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, they exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 Gev.

  4. Fourth Generation CP Violation Effects on B{yields}K{pi}, {phi}K, and {rho}K in Next-to-Leading-Order Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Weishu; Li Hsiangnan; Mishima, Satoshi; Nagashima, Makiko

    2007-03-30

    We study the effect from a sequential fourth generation quark on penguin-dominated two-body nonleptonic B meson decays in the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD formalism. With an enhancement of the color-suppressed tree amplitude and possibility of a new CP phase in the electroweak penguin amplitude, we can account better for A{sub CP}(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})-A{sub CP}(B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}). Taking |V{sub t{sup '}}{sub s}V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b}|{approx}0.02 with a phase just below 90 deg., which is consistent with the b{yields}sl{sup +}l{sup -} rate and the B{sub s} mixing parameter {delta}m{sub B{sub s}}, we find a downward shift in the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of B{sup 0}{yields}K{sub S}{pi}{sup 0} and {phi}K{sub S}. The predicted behavior for B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}K{sub S} is opposite.

  5. Search for pair produced fourth-generation up-type quarks in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV with a lepton in the final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.

    2012-12-01

    The results of a search for the pair production of a fourth-generation up-type quark (t‧) in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV are presented, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 5.0 fb-1 collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the LHC. The t‧ quark is assumed to decay exclusively to a W boson and a b quark. Events with a single isolated electron or muon, missing transverse momentum, and at least four hadronic jets, of which at least one must be identified as a b jet, are selected. No significant excess of events over standard model expectations is observed. Upper limits for the t‧tbar‧ production cross section at 95% confidence level are set as a function of t‧ mass, and t‧-quark production for masses below 570 GeV is excluded. The search is equally sensitive to nonchiral heavy quarks decaying to Wb. In this case, the results can be interpreted as upper limits on the production cross section times the branching fraction to Wb.

  6. Generating generalized G{sub D-2} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, N.; Lopez, L. A.; Feinstein, A.

    2008-06-15

    We show how one can systematically construct vacuum solutions to Einstein field equations with D-2 commuting Killing vectors in D>4 dimensions. The construction uses Einstein-scalar field seed solutions in four dimensions and is performed both for the case when all the Killing directions are spacelike, as well as when one of the Killing vectors is timelike. The later case corresponds to generalizations of stationary axially symmetric solutions to higher dimensions. Some examples representing generalizations of known higher dimensional stationary solutions are discussed in terms of their rod structure and horizon locations and deformations.

  7. Adaptive Grid Generation for Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    RETURN 65 Bibliography 1. Thompson , J . F ., "A Survey of Grid Generation Tecniques in Computational Fluid Dynamics," AIAA Paper No. 83-0447, 1-36...edited by K. N. Ghia and U. Ghia. ASME FED, 5: 35-47 (1983). 3. Thompson , J . F ., Thames, F. C., and Mastin, C. W., "Automated Numerical Generation...Equations," Numerical Grid Generation, Edited by J. F. Thompson. New York: North Holland, 1982. 10. Thompson , J . F ., and Mastin, C. W., "Grid Generation

  8. Different Solutions for the Generator-accelerator Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.

    The most important part of the particle accelerators [1] - is the power generator together with the whole feeding system [2]. All types of generators, such as klystrons, magnetrons, solid state generators cover their own field of power and pulse length values. For the last couple of year the Inductive Output Tubes (IOT) becomes very popular because of their comparative construction simplicity: it represents the klystron output cavity with the grid modulated electron beam injected in it. Now such IOTs are used with the superconductive particle accelerators at 700 MHz operating frequency with around 1MW output power. Higher frequencies problem - is the inability to apply high frequency modulated voltage to the grid. Thus we need to figure out some kind of RF gun. But this article is about the first steps of the geometry and beam dynamics simulation in the six beam S-band IOT, which will be used with the compact biperiodic accelerating structure.

  9. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Efficient solutions for low-temperature singlet-oxygen generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Valerii I.; Karyshev, V. D.; Katulin, V. A.; Kirilin, A. V.; Kisletsov, A. V.; Konnov, S. A.; Kupriyanov, N. L.; Medvedev, A. M.; Nadezhina, T. N.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental investigations were made of the physicochemical characteristics of the active solutions for a chemical generator in an oxygen-iodine laser. A strong temperature dependence of the viscosity of the solution was observed. The influence of this factor on the operation of the singlet-oxygen generator and the laser is discussed. The cyclic operation of a laser with efficient neutralization of the reagents and the addition of an alkali is simulated. It is shown that hydrogen peroxide may be 50% utilized when the temperature of the solution is no higher than - 30 °C. A method of preparing a solution for an iodine laser with a low freezing point (between - 30 °C and - 40 °C) is developed. It is shown that an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide with a concentration of 25-40% is suitable.

  10. Generation of unstructured grids and Euler solutions for complex geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehner, Rainald; Parikh, Paresh; Salas, Manuel D.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms are described for the generation and adaptation of unstructured grids in two and three dimensions, as well as Euler solvers for unstructured grids. The main purpose is to demonstrate how unstructured grids may be employed advantageously for the economic simulation of both geometrically as well as physically complex flow fields.

  11. Generation of Protein Crystals Using a Solution-Stirring Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Niino, Ai; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Warizaya, Masaichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2004-06-01

    Crystals of bovine adenosine deaminase (ADA) were grown over a two week period in the presence of an inhibitor, whereas ADA crystals did not form using conventional crystallization methods when the inhibitor was excluded. To obtain ADA crystals in the absence of the inhibitor, a solution-stirring technique was used. The crystals obtained using this technique were found to be of high quality and were shown to have high structural resolution for X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of this study indicate that the stirring technique is a useful method for obtaining crystals of proteins that do not crystallize using conventional techniques.

  12. Structural and functional consequences of the presence of a fourth disulfide bridge in the scorpion short toxins: solution structure of the potassium channel inhibitor HsTX1.

    PubMed Central

    Savarin, P.; Romi-Lebrun, R.; Zinn-Justin, S.; Lebrun, B.; Nakajima, T.; Gilquin, B.; Menez, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the potassium channel inhibitor HsTX1, using nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular modeling. This protein belongs to the scorpion short toxin family, which essentially contains potassium channel blockers of 29 to 39 amino acids and three disulfide bridges. It is highly active on voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channels. Furthermore, it has the particularity to possess a fourth disulfide bridge. We show that HsTX1 has a fold similar to that of the three-disulfide-bridged toxins and conserves the hydrophobic core found in the scorpion short toxins. Thus, the fourth bridge has no influence on the global conformation of HsTX1. Most residues spatially analogous to those interacting with voltage-gated potassium channels in the three-disulfide-bridged toxins are conserved in HsTX1. Thus, we propose that Tyr21, Lys23, Met25, and Asn26 are involved in the biological activity of HsTX1. As an additional positively charged residue is always spatially close to the aromatic residue in toxins blocking the voltage-gated potassium channels, and as previous mutagenesis experiments have shown the critical role played by the C-terminus in HsTX1, we suggest that Arg33 is also important for the activity of the four disulfide-bridged toxin. Docking calculations confirm that, if Lys23 and Met25 interact with the GYGDMH motif of Kv1.3, Arg33 can contact Asp386 and, thus, play the role of the additional positively charged residue of the toxin functional site. This original configuration of the binding site of HsTX1 for Kv1.3, if confirmed experimentally, offers new structural possibilities for the construction of a molecule blocking the voltage-gated potassium channels. PMID:10631983

  13. The dependence of radiolytic H2 generation of the nitrate concentration in high-level solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.; Bibler, N.E.

    1991-11-19

    The rate at which hydrogen is produced from the radiolysis of high-activity waste solutions depends on the radiation dose rate to the solution and the concentration of nitrate ion in solution. At a constant dose rate, the hydrogen generation rate decreases as the nitrate ion concentration increases. Using previously measured rates of hydrogen production, an equation has been derived which calculates the hydrogen generation rate when the nitrate ion concentration is known. The hydrogen generation rate from this equation can be used to more accurately predict hydrogen production in waste tanks than is currently obtained assuming a fixed generation rate. The current fixed rate underestimates the hydrogen produced in dilute waste solutions.

  14. Generating Erler-Schnabl-type solution for the tachyon vacuum in cubic superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldo Arroyo, E.

    2010-11-01

    We study a new set of identity-based solutions to analyze the problem of tachyon condensation in open bosonic string field theory and cubic superstring field theory. Even though these identity-based solutions seem to be trivial, it turns out that after performing a suitable gauge transformation, we are left with the known Erler-Schnabl-type solutions which correctly reproduce the value of the D-brane tension. This result shows explicitly that a seemingly trivial solution can generate a non-trivial configuration which precisely represents the tachyon vacuum.

  15. Photochemical method for generating superoxide radicals (O.sub.2.sup.-) in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Holroyd, Richard A.; Bielski, Benon H. J.

    1980-01-01

    A photochemical method and apparatus for generating superoxide radicals (ub.2.sup.-) in an aqueous solution by means of a vacuum-ultraviolet lamp of simple design. The lamp is a microwave powered rare gas device that emits far-ultraviolet light. The lamp includes an inner loop of high purity quartz tubing through which flows an oxygen-saturated sodium formate solution. The inner loop is designed so that the solution is subjected to an intense flux of far-ultraviolet light. This causes the solution to photodecompose and form the product radical (O.sub.2.sup.-).

  16. Analytical solution for the diffusion of a capacitor discharge generated magnetic field pulse in a conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grants, Ilmārs; Bojarevičs, Andris; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-06-01

    Powerful forces arise when a pulse of a magnetic field in the order of a few tesla diffuses into a conductor. Such pulses are used in electromagnetic forming, impact welding of dissimilar materials and grain refinement of solidifying alloys. Strong magnetic field pulses are generated by the discharge current of a capacitor bank. We consider analytically the penetration of such pulse into a conducting half-space. Besides the exact solution we obtain two simple self-similar approximate solutions for two sequential stages of the initial transient. Furthermore, a general solution is provided for the external field given as a power series of time. Each term of this solution represents a self-similar function for which we obtain an explicit expression. The validity range of various approximate analytical solutions is evaluated by comparison to the exact solution.

  17. Far-out thinking: generating solutions to distant analogies promotes relational thinking.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Michael S; Wu, Aaron; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible to induce a mind-set that will affect relational thinking in a subsequent reasoning task involving unrelated materials? We investigated whether evaluating the validity of verbal analogies (Experiment 1a) or generating solutions for them (Experiment 1b) could induce a relational mind-set that would transfer to an unrelated picture-mapping task. The verbal analogies were based on either near or far semantic relations. We found that generating (but not evaluating) solutions for semantically distant analogies increased the proportion of relational mappings on the transfer task, even after we controlled for fluid intelligence and response time. Solving near analogies did not produce transfer. Generation of solutions to far analogies appears to provide a potent method for triggering a mind-set that can enhance relational thinking in a different task.

  18. A grid generation and flow solution method for the Euler equations on unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.K. )

    1994-01-01

    A grid generation and flow solution algorithm for the Euler equations on unstructured grids is presented. The grid generation scheme utilizes Delaunay triangulation and self-generates the field points for the mesh based on cell aspect ratios and allows for clustering near solid surfaces. The flow solution method is an implicit algorithm in which the linear set or equations arising at each time step is solved using a Gauss Seidel procedure which is completely vectorizable. In addition, a study is conducted to examine the number of subiterations required for good convergence of the overall algorithm. Grid generation results are shown in two dimensions for a NACA 0012 airfoil as well as two-element configuration. Flow solution results are shown for two-dimensional flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil and for a two-element configuration in which the solution has been obtained through an adaptation procedure and compared to an exact solution. Preliminary three-dimensional results are also shown in which subsonic flow over a business jet is computed. 31 refs. 30 figs.

  19. Grid generation and flow solution method for Euler equations on unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. Kyle

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation and flow solution algorithm for the Euler equations on unstructured grids is presented. The grid generation scheme, which uses Delaunay triangulation, generates the field points for the mesh based on cell aspect ratios and allows clustering of grid points near solid surfaces. The flow solution method is an implicit algorithm in which the linear set of equations arising at each time step is solved using a Gauss-Seidel procedure that is completely vectorizable. Also, a study is conducted to examine the number of subiterations required for good convergence of the overall algorithm. Grid generation results are shown in two dimensions for an NACA 0012 airfoil as well as a two element configuration. Flow solution results are shown for a two dimensional flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil and for a two element configuration in which the solution was obtained through an adaptation procedure and compared with an exact solution. Preliminary three dimensional results also are shown in which the subsonic flow over a business jet is computed.

  20. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Technical report series on global modeling and data assimilation. Volume 2: Direct solution of the implicit formulation of fourth order horizontal diffusion for gridpoint models on the sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yong; Moorthi, S.; Bates, J. Ray; Suarez, Max J.

    1994-01-01

    High order horizontal diffusion of the form K Delta(exp 2m) is widely used in spectral models as a means of preventing energy accumulation at the shortest resolved scales. In the spectral context, an implicit formation of such diffusion is trivial to implement. The present note describes an efficient method of implementing implicit high order diffusion in global finite difference models. The method expresses the high order diffusion equation as a sequence of equations involving Delta(exp 2). The solution is obtained by combining fast Fourier transforms in longitude with a finite difference solver for the second order ordinary differential equation in latitude. The implicit diffusion routine is suitable for use in any finite difference global model that uses a regular latitude/longitude grid. The absence of a restriction on the timestep makes it particularly suitable for use in semi-Lagrangian models. The scale selectivity of the high order diffusion gives it an advantage over the uncentering method that has been used to control computational noise in two-time-level semi-Lagrangian models.

  2. Discretization error estimation and exact solution generation using the method of nearby problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Andrew J.; Raju, Anil; Kurzen, Matthew J.; Roy, Christopher John; Phillips, Tyrone S.

    2011-10-01

    The Method of Nearby Problems (MNP), a form of defect correction, is examined as a method for generating exact solutions to partial differential equations and as a discretization error estimator. For generating exact solutions, four-dimensional spline fitting procedures were developed and implemented into a MATLAB code for generating spline fits on structured domains with arbitrary levels of continuity between spline zones. For discretization error estimation, MNP/defect correction only requires a single additional numerical solution on the same grid (as compared to Richardson extrapolation which requires additional numerical solutions on systematically-refined grids). When used for error estimation, it was found that continuity between spline zones was not required. A number of cases were examined including 1D and 2D Burgers equation, the 2D compressible Euler equations, and the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization error estimation results compared favorably to Richardson extrapolation and had the advantage of only requiring a single grid to be generated.

  3. Fourth Annual Progress Report on the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind Generator: Final Report for the Period 1 April 1979 - 31 August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Minardi, J. E.; Lawson, M. O.; Wattendorf, F. L.

    1981-08-01

    Conventional wind energy systems are limited in wind turbine diameter by allowable rotor stresses at power levels of several megawatts. In contrast, the Electrofluid Dynamic (EFD) wind driven generator has no fundamental limits on cross sectional area. It is a direct energy conversion device which employs unipolar charged particles transported by the wind against a retarding voltage gradient to a high potential. As no moving parts are exposed to the wind, extremely large power units may be feasible.

  4. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers with fourth and fifth generation dentin-bonding systems on carious and normal dentin substrates: An in vitro shear bond strength analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giriyappa, Ramesh H; Chandra, B Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin would yield strengths that are lower than bond strengths achievable when bonded to normal dentin. Dentin-bonding systems used in this study were fourth and fifth generation as well as self-etching primers. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were selected of which 24 were caries-affected teeth and the remaining were noncarious teeth. Random sampling was done with eight teeth in each group based on the bonding system used. In caries-affected teeth, the soft, stainable, caries-infected dentin was excavated using a caries detector dye whereas the hard, caries-affected, nonstainable dentin was retained. All the teeth were subsequently mounted in a suitable acrylic mould. Prepared teeth were restored with a single composite resin, using three different dentin bonding systems. These prepared specimens were transferred to a Hounsfield tensometer to measure the shear bond strength. The results obtained were analyzed using Anova, Student's unpaired t-test, and Student Neuman Keulis test. Results: The results showed that the self-etching primer required the highest mean shear load compared to the fifth and fourth generation dentin-bonding systems in both normal dentin and caries-affected dentin. Conclusion: Bond strength to dentin depends on whether the dentinal tubule is open or occluded. Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that bond strength to caries-affected dentin was low compared to normal dentin. PMID:20351973

  5. Current oscillations generated by precipitate formation in the mixing zone between two solutions inside a nanopore.

    PubMed

    Yusko, Erik C; Billeh, Yazan N; Mayer, Michael

    2010-11-17

    Unlike biological protein pores in lipid membranes, nanopores fabricated in synthetic materials can withstand a wide range of environmental conditions including the presence of organic solvents. This capability expands the potential of synthetic nanopores to monitor chemical reactions occurring at the interface between solutions of organic and aqueous character. In this work, nanopores fabricated in borosilicate glass or silicon nitride connected a predominantly organic solvent to an aqueous solvent, thereby generating a mixing zone between these solutions inside the pore. This configuration was exploited to precipitate small organic molecules with low aqueous solubility inside the nanopores, and concomitantly, to monitor this precipitation by the decrease of the ionic conductance through the nanopores over time. Hence, this method provides a means to induce and investigate the formation of nanoprecipitates or nanoparticles. Interestingly, precipitates with a slight electric charge were cleared from the pore, causing the conductance of the pore to return to its original value. This process repeated, resulting in stable oscillations of the ionic current. Although such oscillations might be useful in fluidic logic circuits, few conditions capable of generating oscillations in ionic currents have been reported. The frequency and amplitude of oscillations could be tuned by changing the concentration of the precipitating molecule, the pH of the electrolyte, and the applied potential bias. In addition to generating oscillations, nanopores that separate two different solutions may be useful for monitoring and mediating chemical reactions in the mixing zone between two solutions.

  6. Microbial fuel cells: the effects of configurations, electrolyte solutions, and electrode materials on power generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengxiang; Sharma, Yogesh; Lei, Yu; Li, Baikun; Zhou, Qixing

    2010-01-01

    This objective of this study is to conduct a systematic investigation of the effects of configurations, electrolyte solutions, and electrode materials on the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC). A comparison of voltage generation, power density, and acclimation period of electrogenic bacteria was performed for a variety of MFCs. In terms of MFC configuration, membrane-less two-chamber MFCs (ML-2CMFC) had lower internal resistance, shorter acclimation period, and higher voltage generation than the conventional two-chamber MFCs (2CMFC). In terms of anode solutions (as electron donors), the two-chamber MFCs fed with anaerobic treated wastewater (AF-2CMFCs) had the power density 19 times as the two-chamber MFCs fed with acetate (NO(3)(-)2CMFCs). In terms of cathode solutions (as electron acceptors), AF-2CMFCs with ferricyanide had higher voltage generation than that of ML-2CMFCs with nitrate (NO(3)(-)ML-2CMFCs). In terms of electrode materials, ML-2CMFCs with granular-activated carbon as the electrode (GAC-ML-2CMFCs) had a power density 2.5 times as ML-2CMFCs with carbon cloth as the electrode. GAC-ML-2CMFCs had the highest columbic efficiency and power output among all the MFCs tested, indicating that the high surface area of GAC facilitate the biofilm formation, accelerate the degradation of organic substrates, and improve power generation.

  7. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.

    PubMed

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen.

  8. Dependence of third-harmonic generation on melanin concentration in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tung-Yu; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Yuan; Zhuo, Zong-Yan; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we performed theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of third harmonic generation (THG) in melanin solution with different concentrations. As predicted by theory, only THG at glass/solution interface was observed due to Guoy phase shift effect. We have shown that this interfacial THG intensity is strongly affected by index matching condition between the two media, leading to minimal THG at a certain melanin concentration. By fitting the dependence of THG intensity versus melanin concentration, linear and nonlinear electric susceptibilities of melanin are obtained, providing a valuable tool to characterize optical properties of biological molecules.

  9. Sum frequency generation surface spectra of ice, water, and acid solution investigated by an exciton model.

    PubMed

    Buch, V; Tarbuck, T; Richmond, G L; Groenzin, H; Li, I; Shultz, M J

    2007-11-28

    A new computational scheme is presented for calculation of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra, based on the exciton model for OH bonds. The scheme is applied to unified analysis of the SFG spectra in the OH-stretch region of the surfaces of ice, liquid water, and acid solution. A significant role of intermolecularly coupled collective modes is pointed out. SFG intensity amplification observed for acid solutions in the H-bonded OH-stretch region is reproduced qualitatively and accounted for by enhanced orientational preference "into the surface" of the H(2)O bisectors within the hydronium solvation shell.

  10. Physical properties of basic hydrogen peroxide solutions for use in singlet oxygen generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshin, Victor V.; Kalinovsky, V. V.; Konovalov, V. V.; Nikolaev, V. D.; Sobolev, R. E.; Shornikov, L. N.

    1998-12-01

    The physical properties of basic hydrogen peroxide solutions (BHP) such as viscosity, density, and freezing temperature as well as their variation during laser operation have been experimentally investigated. In these experiments (30 - 50%) commercial hydrogen peroxides have been used, containing stabilizers and an alkali of the following composition: 81.5% KOH and 5.5% K2CO3. The use of these substances for generation of singlet oxygen in the COIL has shown their good ability to operate. Consideration has been given to the possibilities of the basic hydrogen peroxide solutions recovery during the industrial COIL operation.

  11. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  12. Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems. In this workshop, as in previous workshops, the problems were devised to gauge the technological advancement of computational techniques to calculate all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from the fundamental governing equations. A variety of benchmark problems have been previously solved ranging from simple geometries with idealized acoustic conditions to test the accuracy and effectiveness of computational algorithms and numerical boundary conditions; to sound radiation from a duct; to gust interaction with a cascade of airfoils; to the sound generated by a separating, turbulent viscous flow. By solving these and similar problems, workshop participants have shown the technical progress from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The fourth CAA workshop emphasized the application of CAA methods to the solution of realistic problems. The workshop was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 20 to 22, 2003. At that time, workshop participants presented their solutions to problems in one or more of five categories. Their solutions are presented in this proceedings along with the comparisons of their solutions to the benchmark solutions or experimental data. The five categories for the benchmark problems were as follows: Category 1:Basic Methods. The numerical computation of sound is affected by, among other issues, the choice of grid used and by the boundary conditions. Category 2:Complex Geometry. The ability to compute the sound in the presence of complex geometric surfaces is important in practical applications of CAA. Category 3:Sound Generation by Interacting With a Gust. The practical application of CAA for computing noise generated by turbomachinery involves the modeling of the noise source mechanism as a

  13. The Navier-Stokes equation and solution generating symmetries from holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkeley, Joel; Berman, David S.

    2013-04-01

    The fluid-gravity correspondence provides us with explicit spacetime metrics that are holographically dual to (non-)relativistic nonlinear hydrodynamics. The vacuum Einstein equations, in the presence of a Killing vector, possess solution-generating symmetries known as spacetime Ehlers transformations. These form a subgroup of the larger generalized Ehlers group acting on spacetimes with arbitrary matter content. We apply this generalized Ehlers group, in the presence of Killing isometries, to vacuum metrics with hydrodynamic duals to develop a formalism for solution-generating transformations of incompressible Navier-Stokes fluids. Using this we provide examples of a linear energy scaling from RG flow under vanishing vorticity, and a set of {{{Z}}_2} symmetries for fixed viscosity.

  14. A Modified Thermodynamics Method to Generate Exact Solutions of Einstein Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hong-Wei; Yang, Jin-Bo; He, Tang-Mei; Zhang, Jing-Yi

    2017-01-01

    We modify the method to generate the exact solutions of the Einstein equations basing on the laws of thermodynamics. Firstly, the Komar mass is used to take the place of the Misner-Sharp energy which is used in the original methods, and then several exact solutions of Einstein equations are obtained, including the black hole solution which surrounded by quintessence. Moreover, the geometry surface gravity defined by Komar mass is obtained. Secondly, we use both the Komar mass and the ADM mass to modify such method, and the similar results are obtained. Moreover, with some generalize added to the definition of the ADM mass, our method can be generalized to global monopole sapcetime.

  15. A novel quaternary solid solution photo-absorber material for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tiantian; Liu, Zhifeng; Yan, Weiguo; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xueqi; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Junkai; Han, Jianhua

    2015-09-14

    We report a novel quaternary solid solution (Ag-Cu-Sb-S or ACSS) serving as a photo-absorber material in the photoelectrochemical field for the first time, and ZnO/ACSS nanoarrays exhibited a photocurrent density of 4.45 mA cm(-2). The research indicates that ZnO/ACSS composite structures have enormous potential in PEC hydrogen generation systems.

  16. Solution Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron Generator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    A new solution synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide solution containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant solution. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from solution. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron generator power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron generator application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  17. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  18. Hydrogen peroxide generation in a model paediatric parenteral amino acid solution.

    PubMed

    Brawley, V; Bhatia, J; Karp, W B

    1993-12-01

    1. Parenteral amino acid solutions undergo photooxidation, which may be an important factor in total parenteral nutrition-associated hepatic dysfunction. Light-exposed parenteral solutions containing amino acids, in addition to vitamins and trace minerals, generate free radicals, which, in turn, may contribute to this type of injury. This study examined the characteristics of H2O2 production in a parenteral amino acid solution modelled on a commercially available paediatric parenteral amino acid solution. 2. The solution was exposed to light in the presence of riboflavin-5'-monophosphate (riboflavin), and peroxide formation in the presence and absence of catalase (H2O2 formation) was assayed using potassium iodide/molybdate. 3. Peak H2O2 production occurred at a light intensity of 8 microW cm-2 nm-1 in the 425-475 nm waveband and was linear to 2 h of light exposure. H2O2 production reached 500 mumol/l at 24 h. 4. H2O2 was directly related to a riboflavin concentration of up to 20 mumol/l and was maximal at 30 mumol/l. 5. H2O2 production was greatest in the amino acid/riboflavin solution at a pH of between 5 and 6. 6. Under the conditions of light exposure intensity, light exposure time, riboflavin concentration and pH found during the administration of parenteral nutrition in neonatal intensive care units, net H2O2 production occurs in solutions modelled on a paediatric parenteral amino acid preparation.

  19. The Fourth (A)ATSR Data Reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Philippe; Cocevar, Pauline; Done, Fay; Aatsr Quality Working Group

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to inform users of the upcoming Fourth Reprocessing of ATSR-1, ATSR-2 and AATSR data. The main objective of the Fourth Reprocessing is to generate (A)ATSR Level 1B data products in a similar format to SLSTR products from Sentinel-3. In this way, users can easily access the 20-year dataset from the ERS and ENVISAT (A)ATSR missions and carry the analysis forward into the Sentinel era. In addition to the product format change, the dataset will build on the improvements implemented in the Third Reprocessing, and will contain further improvements and enhancements, as described below.

  20. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Barakat, A. I.; Anastasio, C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - e.g., superoxide (•O2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (•OH) - followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS generated from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the generation of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). Our results show that the urban PM generally generates much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH generation. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to generate a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm), primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically generates more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (78 ± 15)% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction solution, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH generation. By measuring calibration curves of HOOH generation from copper, and quantifying copper

  1. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Barakat, A. I.; Anastasio, C.

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - e.g., superoxide (•O2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (•OH) - followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS generated from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the generation of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). Our results show that the urban PM generally generates much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH generation. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to generate a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm), primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically generates more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (78±15)% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction solution, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH generation. By measuring calibration curves of HOOH generation from copper, and quantifying copper

  2. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  3. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T-wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I

    2015-06-01

    Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their generation is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to generate elastic parabolic equation solutions that demonstrate generation and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation solutions are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations.

  4. Simultaneous solution-based generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film by femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liangdong; Keszler, Douglas A.; Fang, Chong; Saha, Sumit; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Yanli

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film from triphenyl bismuth in methanol. Upon ultraviolet (267 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation of the solution, a thin film of elemental bismuth forms on the inner side of the sample cuvette, confirmed by detection of the coherent A{sub 1g} optical phonon mode of crystalline bismuth at ∼90 cm{sup −1}. Probe pulses at 267 and 400 nm are used to elucidate the excited state potential energy surface and photochemical reaction coordinate of triphenyl bismuth in solution with femtosecond resolution. The observed phonon mode blueshifts with increasing irradiation time, likely due to the gradual thickening of nascent bismuth thin film to ∼80 nm in 90 min. From transient absorption with the 400 nm probe, we observe a dominant ∼4 ps decay time constant of the excited-state absorption signal, which is attributed to a characteristic metal-ligand bond-weakening/breaking intermediate enroute to crystalline metallic thin film from the solution precursor molecules. Our versatile optical setup thus opens an appealing avenue to characterize the laser-induced crystallization process in situ and prepare high-quality thin films and nanopatterns directly from solution phase.

  5. Removal of petroleum sulfonate from aqueous solutions using freshly generated magnesium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinghai; Wu, Tao; Li, Yujiang; Sun, Dejun; Zhang, Guochen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Guopeng; Zhang, Miaoli

    2012-06-15

    Freshly generated magnesium hydroxide (FGMH), produced by adding water-soluble magnesium salts to highly alkaline solutions, was used to remove anionic surfactant petroleum sulfonate (PS) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, PS concentration, and temperature. The results showed that FGMH displayed excellent treatment efficiency for PS in the pH range 12.0-13.0. The maximum PS removal efficiency was reached within 60 s. The best dosage of magnesium chloride was 2.0 g/L. The adsorption capacity of FGMH for PS decreased as the temperature increased from 303 K to 333 K. The adsorption process was exothermic. The removal mechanism of PS by FGMH may be a coagulation-adsorption process involving a combination of flocculation, adsorption, charge neutralization, and netting catch affection. The results of this study showed that FGMH can be effectively used to treat surfactant wastewaters.

  6. Fourth Generation War: Paradigm for Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    success. They operate in comparatively smaller groups to carry out special or unusual high- risk missions (Cohen, 1978). 14 5. Operations a... exposure reinforces the image of Special Forces glorified through motion pictures. In the focus on DA, other important actions in the realm of Special...All human progress builds on the accumulated wisdom of the ages. Space flight would not be possible without the accumulated bank of basic physics

  7. Fourth Generation Warfare and the Cultural Divide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    from religion and culture. Semantics aside, war is instinctual in man. Sigmund Freud said, “Humans have only two types of instincts, those which seek...to preserve and unite…and those which seek to destroy and kill.”5 Though many disagree with Freud on other topics, history has proven him correct...a century ago,” says Steyn, “If secularism’s starting point is that this is all there is, it’s no surprise that, consciously or not, they invest in

  8. Fourth-Generation War and Other Myths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    to collapse it from within by means of an ill-defined psycho- cultural " judo throw" of sorts.’ Instead of this fanciful approach, what terrorist...the victims overall were Muslims.9 Still, even its tactics are not the psychological " judo throw" envisioned by 4GW theorists, but an attempt to

  9. Cultural dissonance among generations: a solution-focused approach with East Asian elders and their families.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mo Yee; Mjelde-Mossey, LeeAnn

    2004-10-01

    In traditional East Asian cultures, high value is assigned to family harmony and filial piety coupled with the expectation that elders will be honored and obeyed. A lifetime of such expectations shapes how elders perceive their role and status in the family. Problems can arise when younger, less traditional, generations do not share these expectations. This article describes a solution-focused approach that facilitates the family in creating a beneficial harmony in situations of cultural dissonance. Family members are empowered to draw on personal strengths in which multiple worldviews and values of individual members are recognized, incorporated, and negotiated.

  10. Combined CDF and D0 upper limits on $gg\\to H\\to W^+W^-$ and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models with up to 8.2 fb$^{-1}$ of data

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Doug; /Tufts U.

    2011-08-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the processes gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} and gg {yields} H {yields} ZZ in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. With 8.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 8.1 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.01 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.40 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.47 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 124 and 286 GeV.

  11. [Influence of buffer solutions on the performance of microbial fuel cell electricity generation].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Lin; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Ding, Qing

    2011-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a potential green technology due to its application in wastewater treatment and renewable energy generation. Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) has been commonly used in MFC studies to maintain a suitable pH for electricity generating bacteria and/or to increase the solution conductivity. However, it has some drawbacks using PBS in MFC: One is that the addition of a high concentration of phosphate buffer in MFCs is expensive, especially for the application in wastewater treatment; the other is that phosphates can contribute to the eutrophication conditions of water bodies if the effluents are discharged without the removal of phosphates. By adding PBS buffer as the comparison, the study investigated the effect of borax buffer and in the absence of buffer on the performance of electrical power, coulomb efficiency and effluent pH. 200 mmol/L PBS was the best, conductivity was 1.973 mS/cm,the maximum power density was 36.4 mW/m2 and the maximum coulomb efficiency was 2.92%, effluent pH was almost at (7.00 +/- 0.05). 100 mmol/L borax buffer solution, conductivity was 1.553 mS/cm; the maximum power density was 26.2 mW/m2 coulomb efficiency of 6.26%, which was 2.14 times to PBS and greatly increased the electron recovery efficiency with the effluent pH was (7.35 +/- 0.05). While free buffer solution conductivity was 0.314 mS/cm, maximum power density was 27.64 mW/m2; coulomb efficiency was 2.82% and the effluent pH of approximately 7.43. The electrolyte which in absence of buffer solution conductivity was 1/6 of adding PBS buffer, 1/5 of borax buffer, while its power density lower 8.76 mW/mr2 than adding PBS and higher 1.24 mW/m2 than borax buffer. The results showed that adding the suitable concentration of borax buffer may improve the electron recovery efficiency and under batch conditions, MFC run successfully without adding buffer solution to MFC.

  12. Kirschmann's Fourth Law.

    PubMed

    Bosten, J M; Mollon, J D

    2012-01-15

    Kirschmann's Fourth Law states that the magnitude of simultaneous color contrast increases with the saturation of the inducing surround, but that the rate of increase reduces as saturation increases. Others since Kirschmann have agreed and disagreed. Here we show that the form of the relationship between simultaneous color contrast and inducer saturation depends on the method of measurement. Functions were measured by four methods: (i) asymmetric matching with a black surround, (ii) asymmetric matching with a surround metameric to equal energy white, (iii) dichoptic matching, and (iv) nulling an induced sinusoidal modulation. Results from the asymmetric matching conditions agreed with Kirschmann, whereas results from nulling and from dichoptic matching showed a more linear increase in simultaneous contrast with the saturation of the inducer. We conclude that the method certainly affects the conclusions reached, and that there may not be any "fair" way of measuring simultaneous contrast.

  13. Simulation of Solute Flow and Transport in a Geostatistically Generated Fractured Porous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assteerawatt, A.; Helmig, R.; Haegland, H.; Bárdossy, A.

    2007-12-01

    Fractured aquifer systems have provided important natural resources such as petroleum, gas, water and geothermal energy and have also been recently under investigation for their suitability as storage sites for high-level nuclear waste. The resource exploitation and potential utilization have led to extensive studies aiming of understanding, characterizing and finally predicting the behavior of fractured aquifer systems. By applying a discrete model approach to study flow and transport processes, fractures are determined discretely and the effect of individual fractures can be explicitly investigated. The critical step for the discrete model is the generation of a representative fracture network since the development of flow paths within a fractured system strongly depends on its structure. The geostatistical fracture generation (GFG) developed in this study aims to create a representative fracture network, which combines the spatial structures and connectivity of a fracture network, and the statistical distribution of fracture geometries. The spatial characteristics are characterized from indicator fields, which are evaluated from fracture trace maps. A global optimization, Simulated annealing, is utilized as a generation technique and the spatial characteristics are formulated to its objective function. We apply the GFG to a case study at a Pliezhausen field block, which is a sandstone of a high fracture density. The generated fracture network from the GFG are compared with the statistically generated fracture network in term of structure and hydraulic behavior. As the GFG is based on a stochastic concept, several realizations of the same descriptions can be generated, hence, an overall behavior of the fracture-matrix system have to be investigated from various realizations which leads to a problem of computational demand. In order to overcome this problem, a streamline method for a solute transport in a fracture porous system is presented. The results obtained

  14. Poor performance of the determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo fourth-generation rapid test for detection of acute infections in a National Household Survey in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Duong, Yen T; Mavengere, Yvonne; Patel, Hetal; Moore, Carole; Manjengwa, Julius; Sibandze, Dumile; Rasberry, Christopher; Mlambo, Charmaine; Li, Zhi; Emel, Lynda; Bock, Naomi; Moore, Jan; Nkambule, Rejoice; Justman, Jessica; Reed, Jason; Bicego, George; Ellenberger, Dennis L; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2014-10-01

    Fourth-generation HIV rapid tests (RTs) claim to detect both p24 antigen (Ag) and HIV antibodies (Ab) for early identification of acute infections, important for targeting prevention and reducing HIV transmission. In a nationally representative household survey in Swaziland, 18,172 adults, age 18 to 49 years, received home-based HIV rapid testing in 2010 and 2011. Of the 18,172 individuals, 5,822 (32.0%) were Ab positive (Ab(+)) by the Determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ab combo test, and 5,789 (99.4%) of those were confirmed to be reactive in the Uni-Gold test. Determine combo identified 12 individuals as having acute infections (Ag(+)/Ab negative [Ab(-)]); however, none had detectable HIV-1 RNA and 8 of 12 remained HIV negative at their 6-week follow-up visit (4 were lost to follow-up). All RT-nonreactive samples were pooled and tested by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to identify acute infections. NAAT identified 13 (0.1%) of the 12,338 HIV antibody-negative specimens as HIV RNA positive, with RNA levels ranging from 300 to >10,000,000 copies/ml. However, none of them were Ag(+) by Determine combo. Follow-up testing of 12 of the 13 NAAT-positive individuals at 6 months demonstrated 12 seroconversions (1 individual was lost to follow-up). Therefore, the Determine combo test had a sensitivity of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 28) and positive predictive value of 0% for the detection of acute infections. The ability of the 4th-generation Determine combo to detect antigen was very poor in Swaziland. Thus, the Determine combo test does not add any value to the current testing algorithm; rather, it adds additional costs and complexity to HIV diagnosis. The detection of acute HIV infections may need to rely on other testing strategies.

  15. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs)-2. Are free hydroxyl radicals generated in aqueous solutions?

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2011-11-01

    A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: (1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control samples, (2) a strong correlation between the concentration of DMPO-OH adducts and EPFRs per gram of particles, and (3) a slow, constant growth of DMPO-OH concentration over a period of days in solution containing 50 μg/mL EPFRs particles + DMPO (150 mM) + reagent balanced by 200 μL phosphate buffered (pH = 7.4) saline. However, failure to form secondary radicals using standard scavengers, such as ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, sodium formate, and sodium azide, suggests free hydroxyl radicals may not have been generated in solution. This suggests surface-bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals were generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both the EPFRs and Cu(II)O. Toxicological studies clearly indicate these bound free radicals promote various types of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease normally attributed to unbound free radicals; however, the exact chemical mechanism deserves further study in light of the implication of formation of bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals.

  16. Computing confidence intervals on solution costs for stochastic grid generation expansion problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, David L..; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2010-12-01

    A range of core operations and planning problems for the national electrical grid are naturally formulated and solved as stochastic programming problems, which minimize expected costs subject to a range of uncertain outcomes relating to, for example, uncertain demands or generator output. A critical decision issue relating to such stochastic programs is: How many scenarios are required to ensure a specific error bound on the solution cost? Scenarios are the key mechanism used to sample from the uncertainty space, and the number of scenarios drives computational difficultly. We explore this question in the context of a long-term grid generation expansion problem, using a bounding procedure introduced by Mak, Morton, and Wood. We discuss experimental results using problem formulations independently minimizing expected cost and down-side risk. Our results indicate that we can use a surprisingly small number of scenarios to yield tight error bounds in the case of expected cost minimization, which has key practical implications. In contrast, error bounds in the case of risk minimization are significantly larger, suggesting more research is required in this area in order to achieve rigorous solutions for decision makers.

  17. Fourth order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1994-01-01

    Fourth order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the fourth order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  18. Electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide from dissolved oxygen in acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhimin; Chang, Jih-Hsing; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was electro-generated in a parallel-plate electrolyzer by reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO) in acidic solutions containing dilute supporting electrolyte. Operational parameters such as cathodic potential, oxygen purity and mass flow rate, cathode surface area. pH, temperature, and inert supporting electrolyte concentration were systematically investigated as to improve the Faradic current efficiency of H2O2 generation. Results indicate that significant self-decomposition of H2O2 only occurs at high pH (> 9) and elevated temperatures (> 23 degrees C). Results also indicate that the optimal conditions for H2O2 generation are cathodic potential of -0.5 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), oxygen mass flow rate of 8.2 x 10(-2) mol/min, and pH 2. Under the optimal conditions, the average current density and average current efficiency are 6.4A/m2 and 81%, respectively. However, when air is applied at the optimal flow rate of oxygen, the average current density markedly decreases to 2.1 A/m2, while the average current efficiency slightly increases to 90%. The limiting current density is 6.4 A/m2, which is independent of cathode geometry and surface area. H2O2 generation is favored at low temperatures. In the concentration range studied (0.01-0.25 M), the inert supporting electrolyte (NaClO4) affects the total potential drop of the electrolyzer, but does not affect the net generation rate of H2O2.

  19. The corrosion effect of ozonated seawater solution on titanium in polymer generated crevice environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leveillee, S.Y.

    1998-01-01

    Two different tests were designed to evaluate the reaction of various polymers and grade-2 titanium in ozonated seawater in conjunction with a comparative analysis in an aerated seawater solution. The first was a weight loss test measuring the weight change of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene and Teflon{trademark} in both ozonated and aerated artificial seawater baths. The second test was designed to induce crevice corrosion on the titanium test samples using various crevice generating materials in both ozonated and aerated solutions. The materials used to create the crevices were grade-2 titanium washers, PVC, Polyethylene, Saran and Teflon{trademark}. The weight loss test showed that all three polymers lost weight in the ozonated bath. The results of the titanium washer crevice test provided no indication of corrosion or surface discoloration in either the ozonated or aerated solutions. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis found no fluorine, chlorine or other corrosion product. The PVC samples in the aerated bath also showed no signs of corrosion, but the PVC samples in the ozonated tank had light brown rings of surface discoloration. One of the ozonated PVC samples did show evidence of chlorine in the corrosion product. The outer circumference of the ozonated PVC washers exhibited the same type bleaching effect as in the weight loss samples, but the whitening of these samples were more pronounced. The polyethylene samples under aeration showed no discoloration or presence of fluorine or chlorine. The polyethylene crevice samples in the ozonated solution all exhibited the distinct brilliant blue color of titanium oxide. Fluorine was found in the corrosion product on only one of the samples. Chlorine was found on the surface of one of the other corrosion coupons. The results of the Teflon{trademark} crevice samples substantiated the previous Rensselaer study.

  20. Effect of silver nanoparticles on luminescent and generation properties of rhodamine 6G in aqueous alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeinidenov, A. K.; Ibrayev, N. Kh.; Gladkova, V. K.

    2016-12-01

    The plasmon effect that silver nanoparticles have on the luminiscent and generation properties of rhodamine 6G molecules in aqueous alcohol solutions is studied. It is found that the intensities of absorption and emission increase when silver nanoparticles are added to aqueous solutions of rhodamine 6G. It is shown that upon the laser photoexcitation of aqueous solutions of rhodamine 6G dye, spontaneous fluorescence occurs that is converted into stimulated laser emission as the pump power grows. It is found that an increase in intensity and a drop in the generation threshold of stimulated emission are observed when silver nanoparticles are added to a solution of rhodamine 6G. It is shown that the dependence of absorbance, the intensity of fluorescence, and the dye's generation of stimulated emission on the concentration of silver nanoparticles in solution falls as the proportion of alcohol grows.

  1. Influence on the generation of disinfection byproducts in a tannic acid solution by aluminum ions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Xin; Chen, Hongbin

    2016-08-17

    Aluminum (Al) commonly exists in natural waters, and its salts are often used as coagulants in drinking water treatment. Therefore, associated with the security of drinking water, functions of Al ions (Al(3+)) on generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) should not be ignored. This study focuses on DBPs and the carcinogenic factor of chlorinated water samples after the addition of Al(3+) with different Al(3+)/initial tannic acid molar ratios. The results imply that Al(3+) acts as a promoter of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and an inhibitor of trihalomethanes (THMs) when tannic acid is selected as model compound of natural organic matter during chlorination. Depending on the results of size exclusion chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometer, an equilibrium system can be assumed between hydrolysis and flocculation in tannic acid solution with Al(3+). Furthermore, influences on the equilibrium system for Al(3+) addition may result in various effects on generation and distribution ratios of THMs and HAAs during chlorination. Finally, according to the analyses of a fluorescence spectrophotometer, it is demonstrated that the presence of Al(3+) helps to increase precursors of DBPs (humic acid-like organics) and then improve the generation of DBPs.

  2. [Electricity generation using high concentration terephthalic acid solution by microbial fuel cell].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye-Jie; Song, Tian-Shun; Xu, Yuan; Chen, Ying-Wen; Zhu, She-Min; Shen, Shu-Bao

    2009-04-15

    The high concentration terephthalic acid (TA) solution as the substrate of microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied to generate electricity. The open circuit voltage was 0.54 V after inoculating for 210 h with anaerobic activated sludge, which proved that TA can be the substrate of microbial fuel cell to generate electricity. The influence of pH and substrate concentration on generating electricity was studied deeply. The voltage output of external resistance (R = 1,000 Omega) was the highest when pH was 8.0. It increased as the substrate concentration increasing and tended towards a maximum value. The maximum voltage output Umax was 0.5 V and Ks was 785.2 mg/L by Monod equation regression. When the substrate concentration (according to COD) was 4000 mg/L, the maximum power density was 96.3 mW/m2, coulomb efficiency was 2.66% and COD removal rate was 80.3%.

  3. Nonrelativistic analysis of solutions of Einstein's equations and generation of their new exact solutions with required Newtonian and Non-Newtonian limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppel, A.

    1987-10-01

    In section 1, a brief survey about the development of investigations in the field of nonrelativistic (NR) limits of solutions for Einstein's gravitational field equations in Tartu starting from the pioneering works by H.Keres [1-5] is presented. In sect.2, basic principles of the general approach to "NR analysis" of relativistic solutions of gravitational field equations elaborated by the author (see also [15-19,23]) are given. In sect 3, basic formulae of a new simple method (see [25-26]) for calculating Hansen's mass and current (angular momentum) s-pole moments of any asymptotically flat (AF) stationary axisymmetric (SAS) metric are presented. The formulae (3.17-18) that enable to determine the NR analogs of these relativistic AF SAS vacuum metrics may have the non-Newtonian NR limit,i.e., when current (angular momentum) s-pole moments are preserved in the NR limits well. In sect. 4, a combined method for calculating NR limits and multipole structure to analyse modern generation techniques of new exact AF SAS vacuum solutions of Einstein's equations is used. In this way, the change of the multipole structure and NR limit, induced by the generation procedure, will be determined, even without any explicit generation of solutions, and, under certain conditions, some recipes for the generation of solutions with the required relativistic and NR multipole structure can be obtained as well. Thereby, certain new ways of solving the problem formulated by H. Keres for generation new solutions with the required NR (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) limits are provided. Sect 5 gives explicit analytical formulae (3.1,5.16-27) for a new exact AF SAS vacuum metric obtained under certain restrictions (see(5.12)) by Neugebauer's generation method [31], in case N=1, when the seed solution is static and has the dipole term only (see formulae (4.4-5),(5.1-9)). After the generation has been carried out an Ehlers' transformation (see (3.14),(5.10)) is used. In octupole approximation, the

  4. Accelerated corrosion of steam generator tubes by solutes concentrated in defects by boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashmore, C.B.; Hurdus, M.H.; Mead, A.P.; Silver, P.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion and deposition processes have been studied at defects (holes of 125, 250 and 500 ..mu..m diameter) in steam generator tubes at high heat flux (440-690 kW/m/sup 2/) under realistic conditions (350/sup 0/C, 17.6 MPa). The occurrence of accelerated corrosion and deposition was found to depend on defect geometry, whilst the pattern of corrosion attack and deposition depended on the nature of the solute. Where the depth/diameter ratio of a defect was less than or equal to1 neither accelerated corrosion nor significant deposition was observed. When this ratio was greater than or equal to2 the corrosion rate was increased by up to twenty fold and deposits were formed. Of the four water chemistry situations investigated (AVT, alkali fault, acid sulphate fault, neutral chloride fault), accelerated corrosion was observed in only the alkali and acid sulphate fault cases. In the alkali case, the rate of corrosion increased with distance into a defect. For acid sulphate, corrosion reached a maximum, part way into a defect, and then decreased. The absence of accelerated corrosion under neutral chloride conditions agrees with the findings of other workers. Porous deposits of the least soluble compounds present in the water were formed at the point of maximum entry of water into defects. A cyclic boiling mechanism, with the defect acting as a bubble nucleation site, is best able to explain the observed results. A model based on this mechanism predicts that threshold levels of solute are necessary before concentrated solutions can be formed in defects.

  5. A flexible solution for the next generation EPON with hybrid bidirectional 1Gbps and 10Gbps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weixun; Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Hui; Ji, Yuefeng

    2007-11-01

    Ethernet PON (EPON) has been proved to be a successful technology among all the standardized PON systems [1, 2], in terms of its cost-effective and large bandwidth virtue. And EPON has become a network of a choice for subscriber oriented digital service delivery, taking over the market previously dominated by DSL. However, with the development of advanced video services, the bandwidth capacity of current EPON seems to be not well suited for the future large deployment of triple-play services. Many researches are now taken about the Next Generation EPON; and the recent 10G EPON system standardization effort in the IEEE [3] results a lot of interest in the evolution of current PON systems towards high data rate system capable of providing a future-proof platform for delivery of personalized triple-play services. In this paper, a novel architecture of TDM-based 10GE-PON system is proposed. It combines the GE-PON and 10GE-PON systems, and provides symmetric 1Gbps/10Gbps or asymmetric access simultaneously. According to the results of the simulation on the system throughput and latency performance, the system is verified to be one solution and an important step from 1Gbit/s to 10Gbit/s for the Next Generation EPON.

  6. Use of numerically generated body-fitted coordinate systems for solution of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Thames, F. C.; Shanks, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that can treat the unsteady laminar flow about bodies of arbitrary shape, such as two-dimensional airfoils, multiple airfoils, and submerged hydrofoils, as naturally as it can deal with the flow about simple bodies. The solution is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. The curvilinear coordinates are generated as the solution of two elliptical partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, one coordinate being specified to be constant on each of the boundaries, and a distribution of the other being specified along the boundaries. The solution compares excellently with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semiinfinite flat plate.

  7. Atmospheric plasma generates oxygen atoms as oxidizing species in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar Hefny, Mohamed; Pattyn, Cedric; Lukes, Petr; Benedikt, Jan

    2016-10-01

    A remote microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (µAPPJ) with He, He/H2O, He/O2, and He/O2/H2O gas mixtures was used to study the transport of reactive species from the gas phase into the liquid and the following aqueous phase chemistry. The effects induced by the µAPPJ in water were quantitatively studied using phenol as a chemical probe and by measuring H2O2 concentration and pH values. These results were combined with the analysis of the absolute densities of the reactive species and the modeling of convective/diffusion transport and recombination reactions in the effluent of the plasma jet. Additionally, modified plasma jets were used to show that the role of emitted photons in aqueous chemistry is negligible for these plasma sources. The fastest phenol degradation was measured for the He/O2 plasma, followed by He/H2O, He/O2/H2O, and He plasmas. The modeled quantitative flux of O atoms into the liquid in the He/O2 plasma case was highly comparable with the phenol degradation rate and showed a very high transfer efficiency of reactive species from the plasma into the liquid, where more than half of the O atoms leaving the jet nozzle entered the liquid. The results indicate that the high oxidative effect of He/O2 plasma was primarily due to solvated O atoms, whereas OH radicals dominated the oxidative effects induced in water by plasmas with other gas mixtures. These findings help to understand, in a quantitative way, the complex interaction of cold atmospheric plasmas with aqueous solutions and will allow a better understanding of the interaction of these plasmas with water or buffered solutions containing biological macromolecules, microorganisms, or even eukaryotic cells. Additionally, the µAPPJ He/O2 plasma source seems to be an ideal tool for the generation of O atoms in aqueous solutions for any future studies of their reactivity.

  8. Chemical luminescence measurement of singlet oxygen generated by photodynamic therapy in solutions in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shiming; Xing, Da; Zhou, Jing; Qin, Yanfang; Chen, Qun

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that utilizes optical energy to activate a photosensitizer drug in a target tissue. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as 1O2 and superoxide, are believed to be the major cytotoxic agents involved in PDT. Although current PDT dosimetry mostly involves measurements of light and photosensitizer doses delivered to a patient, the quantification of ROS production during a treatment would be the ultimate dosimetry of PDT. Technically, it is very difficult and expensive to directly measure the fluorescence from 1O2, due to its extreme short lifetime and weak signal strength. In this paper, Photofrin(R) and 635nm laser were used to generate 1O2 and superoxide in a PDT in solution. Compound 3,7- dihydro-6-{4-[2-(N"-(5-fluoresceinyl) thioureido) ethoxy] phenyl}-2- methylimidazo{1,2-a} pyrazin-3-one sodium salt,an Cyp- ridina luciferin analog commonly referred as FCLA, was used as a chemical reporter of ROS. The 532nm chemiluminescence (CL) from the reaction of the FCLA and ROS was detected with a photon multiplier tube (PMT) system operating at single photon counting mode. With the setup, we have made detections of ROS generated by PDT in real time. By varying the amount of conventional PDT dosage (photosensitizer concentration, light irradiation fluence and its delivery rate) and the amount of FCLA, the intensity of CL and its consumption rate were investigated. The results show that the intensity and temporal profile of CL are highly related to the PDT treatment parameters. This suggests that FCLA CL may provide a highly potential alternative for ROS detection during PDT.

  9. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  10. On line vapor generation of osmium based on solution cathode glow discharge for the determination by ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenli; Huang, Chunying; He, Qian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Zhifu; Zhang, Suicheng; Hu, Shenghong

    2013-03-15

    A novel plasma induced vapor generation method is proposed to determine osmium in solutions. Without any chemical oxidizing agents, osmium ion can be readily converted to volatile osmium tetraoxide vapor in the solution cathode glow discharge (SCGD) system. The generated osmium vapor is then transported to inductively coupled plasma for determination by optical emission spectrometry. The influences of background electrolyte, carrier gas flow rate, sample flow rate, ICP power and discharge current were investigated. The analytical performances of this proposed technique were evaluated under optimized conditions. The detection limit of Os was calculated to be 0.51 ng mL(-1). The reproducibility, expressed as the relative standard deviation (n=11) of a 2.0 μg mL(-1) standard solution, was 1.9%. This SCGD induced vapor generation is sensitive and simple, oxidation reagents free, providing an alternative analytical method for measuring Os in geological or environmental water samples.

  11. New data for aerosols generated by releases of pressurized powders and solutions in static air

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Sutter, S.L.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop radioactive source-term estimation methods. Experiments measuring the mass airborne and particle size distribution of aerosols produced by pressurized releases were run. Carbon dioxide was used to pressurize uranine solutions to 50, 250, and 500 psig before release. The mass airborne from these experiments was higher than for comparable air-pressurized systems, but not as great as expected based on the amount of gas dissolved in the liquid and the volume of liquid ejected from the release equipment. Flashing sprays of uranine at 60, 125, and 240 psig produced a much larger source term than all other pressurized releases performed under this program. Low-pressure releases of depleted uranium dioxide at 9, 17.5, and 24.5 psig provided data in the energy region between 3-m spills and 50-psig pressurized releases.

  12. Generation of naphthoquinone radical anions by electrospray ionization: solution, gas-phase, and computational chemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Vessecchi, Ricardo; Naal, Zeki; Lopes, José N C; Galembeck, Sérgio E; Lopes, Norberto P

    2011-06-02

    Radical anions are present in several chemical processes, and understanding the reactivity of these species may be described by their thermodynamic properties. Over the last years, the formation of radical ions in the gas phase has been an important issue concerning electrospray ionization mass spectrometry studies. In this work, we report on the generation of radical anions of quinonoid compounds (Q) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The balance between radical anion formation and the deprotonated molecule is also analyzed by influence of the experimental parameters (gas-phase acidity, electron affinity, and reduction potential) and solvent system employed. The gas-phase parameters for formation of radical species and deprotonated species were achieved on the basis of computational thermochemistry. The solution effects on the formation of radical anion (Q(•-)) and dianion (Q(2-)) were evaluated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry analysis and the reduction potentials compared with calculated electron affinities. The occurrence of unexpected ions [Q+15](-) was described as being a reaction between the solvent system and the radical anion, Q(•-). The gas-phase chemistry of the electrosprayed radical anions was obtained by collisional-induced dissociation and compared to the relative energy calculations. These results are important for understanding the formation and reactivity of radical anions and to establish their correlation with the reducing properties by electrospray ionization analyses.

  13. Hydrogen generation in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells using a heat-regenerated salt solution.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Cusick, Roland D; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m(3) H(2)/m(3)·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H(2)/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes.

  14. Simultaneous pollutant removal and electricity generation in denitrifying microbial fuel cell with boric acid-borate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shaohui; Li, Meng; Wei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A double-chamber denitrifying microbial fuel cell (MFC), using boric acid-borate buffer solution as an alternative to phosphate buffer solution, was set up to investigate the influence of buffer solution concentration, temperature and external resistance on electricity generation and pollutant removal efficiency. The result revealed that the denitrifying MFC with boric acid-borate buffer solution was successfully started up in 51 days, with a stable cell voltage of 205.1 ± 1.96 mV at an external resistance of 50 Ω. Higher concentration of buffer solution favored nitrogen removal and electricity generation. The maximum power density of 8.27 W/m(3) net cathodic chamber was obtained at a buffer solution concentration of 100 mmol/L. An increase in temperature benefitted electricity generation and nitrogen removal. A suitable temperature for this denitrifying MFC was suggested to be 25 °C. Decreasing the external resistance favored nitrogen removal and organic matter consumption by exoelectrogens.

  15. A package for 3-D unstructured grid generation, finite-element flow solution and flow field visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald

    1990-01-01

    A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid generation, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid generation program, called VGRID3D, generates grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element generation is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free solution. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow solutions were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.

  16. Modifying Cadzow's algorithm to generate the optimal TLS-solution for the structured EIV-Model of a similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffrin, B.; Neitzel, F.; Uzun, S.; Mahboub, V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, Felus and Schaffrin discussed the problem of a Structured Errors-in-Variables (EIV) Model in the context of a parameter adjustment for a classical similarity transformation. Their proposal, however, to perform a Total Least-Squares (TLS) adjustment, followed by a Cadzow step to imprint the proper structure, would not always guarantee the identity of this solution with the optimal Structured TLS solution, particularly in view of the residuals. Here, an attempt will be made to modify the Cadzow step in order to generate the optimal solution with the desired structure as it would, for instance, also result from a traditional LS-adjustment within an iteratively linearized Gauss-Helmert Model (GHM). Incidentally, this solution coincides with the (properly) Weighted TLS solution which does not need a Cadzow step.

  17. Dark Coulomb binding of heavy neutrinos of fourth family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Laletin, M. N.

    2015-11-01

    Direct dark matter searches put severe constraints on the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These constraints cause serious troubles for the model of stable neutrino of fourth generation with mass around 50GeV. Though the calculations of primordial abundance of these particles make them in the charge symmetric case a sparse subdominant component of the modern dark matter, their presence in the universe would exceed the current upper limits by several orders of the magnitude. However, if quarks and leptons of fourth generation possess their own Coulomb-like y-interaction, recombination of pairs of heavy neutrinos and antineutrinos and their annihilation in the “neutrinium” atoms can play important role in their cosmological evolution, reducing their modern abundance far below the experimental upper limits. The model of stable fourth generation assumes that the dominant part of dark matter is explained by excessive Ū antiquarks, forming (ŪŪŪ)-- charged clusters, bound with primordial helium in nuclear-interacting O-helium (OHe) dark atoms. The y charge conservation implies generation of the same excess of fourth generation neutrinos, potentially dangerous WIMP component of this scenario. We show that due to y-interaction recombination of fourth neutrinos with OHe hides these WIMPs from direct WIMP searches, leaving the negligible fraction of free neutrinos, what makes their existence compatible with the experimental constraints.

  18. Comparison of solution-based exome capture methods for next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Techniques enabling targeted re-sequencing of the protein coding sequences of the human genome on next generation sequencing instruments are of great interest. We conducted a systematic comparison of the solution-based exome capture kits provided by Agilent and Roche NimbleGen. A control DNA sample was captured with all four capture methods and prepared for Illumina GAII sequencing. Sequence data from additional samples prepared with the same protocols were also used in the comparison. Results We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for quality control, short read alignment, variant identification and annotation of the sequence data. In our analysis, a larger percentage of the high quality reads from the NimbleGen captures than from the Agilent captures aligned to the capture target regions. High GC content of the target sequence was associated with poor capture success in all exome enrichment methods. Comparison of mean allele balances for heterozygous variants indicated a tendency to have more reference bases than variant bases in the heterozygous variant positions within the target regions in all methods. There was virtually no difference in the genotype concordance compared to genotypes derived from SNP arrays. A minimum of 11× coverage was required to make a heterozygote genotype call with 99% accuracy when compared to common SNPs on genome-wide association arrays. Conclusions Libraries captured with NimbleGen kits aligned more accurately to the target regions. The updated NimbleGen kit most efficiently covered the exome with a minimum coverage of 20×, yet none of the kits captured all the Consensus Coding Sequence annotated exons. PMID:21955854

  19. Optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.

  20. The Contributions of Working Memory and Executive Functioning to Problem Representation and Solution Generation in Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kerry; Ng, Ee Lynn; Ng, Swee Fong

    2009-01-01

    Solving algebraic word problems involves multiple cognitive phases. The authors used a multitask approach to examine the extent to which working memory and executive functioning are associated with generating problem models and producing solutions. They tested 255 11-year-olds on working memory (Counting Recall, Letter Memory, and Keep Track),…

  1. White-light emission from solid carbon in aqueous solution during hydrogen generation induced by nanosecond laser pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Ikuko; Yamamoto, Shota; Maeda, Kosuke

    2016-07-01

    We previously discovered a novel method of hydrogen generation from high-grade charcoal in an aqueous solution using nanosecond laser pulse irradiation. In this paper, white-light emission during this reaction is reported: A broad spectrum over the visible range is observed above a threshold excitation energy density. The white-light emission is a simultaneous product of the hydrogen generation reaction and is attributed to blackbody radiation in accordance with Planck's Law at a temperature above 3800 K. Consequently, we propose that hydrogen generation induced by laser irradiation proceeds similarly to classical coal gasification, which features reactions at high pressure and high temperature.

  2. High order accurate solutions of viscous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, Eli

    1993-01-01

    We consider a fourth order extension to MacCormack's scheme. The original extension was fourth order only for the inviscid terms but was second order for the viscous terms. We show how to modify the viscous terms so that the scheme is uniformly fourth order in the spatial derivatives. Applications are given to some boundary layer flows. In addition, for applications to shear flows the effect of the outflow boundary conditions are very important. We compare the accuracy of several of these different boundary conditions for both boundary layer and shear flows. Stretching at the outflow usually increases the oscillations in the numerical solution but the addition of a filtered sponge layer (with or without stretching) reduces such oscillations. The oscillations are generated by insufficient resolution of the shear layer. When the shear layer is sufficiently resolved then oscillations are not generated and there is less of a need for a nonreflecting boundary condition.

  3. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  4. Generation of Radio Frequency Plasma in High-Conductivity NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Mukasa, Shinobu; Honjoya, Naoki; Okumura, Hidehiko; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2012-10-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on RF plasma within a ceramic tube placed on an insulating plate in dense NaCl solution (1.7-24.5 S m-1). RF power was applied between two electrodes, and the insulating plate was placed between them. Upon performing spectroscopic measurements, we observed H and OH lines as well as strong Na lines in the emission spectra of RF plasma. Colored solution containing methylene blue was exposed to the plasma. The absorbance spectra of the colored solution before and after exposure to RF plasma clearly show that obvious degradation of methylene blue was realized.

  5. Fourth Way in Action: Teacher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers are often looking for solutions to develop their educational systems in today's highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley's Fourth Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA…

  6. Hyperbolic Prismatic Grid Generation and Solution of Euler Equations on Prismatic Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, S. A.; Chattot, JJ; Hafez, M. M.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyperbolic grid generation method is used to generate prismatic grids and an approach using prismatic grids to solve the Euler equations is presented. The theory of the stability and feasibility of the hyperbolic grid generation method is presented. The hyperbolic grid generation method of Steger et al for structured grids is applied to a three dimensional triangularized surface definition to generate a grid that is unstructured on each successive layer. The grid, however, retains structure in the body-normal direction and has a computational cell shaped like a triangular prism. In order to take advantage of the structure in the normal direction, a finite-volume scheme that treats the unknowns along the normal direction implicitly is introduced and the flow over a sphere is simulated.

  7. Importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating patterned layer in a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Park, Hongsik; Choe, Eunji; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Jaehoon; Song, Seong-Ho

    2016-03-01

    We report the importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating a patterned organic semiconductor layer through a solution process. The inherent and the relative surface energies of the substrate can be effectively controlled using polydimethylsiloxane in combination with an UV/ozone treatment. The controlled inherent surface energy in each region, as well as the high-order difference of relative surface energy, plays a significant role in generating the patterned layer. In addition, the patterned metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure shows a lower lateral current than the non-patterned MSM structure because the current path is limited.

  8. Solution of Poisson equations for 3-dimensional grid generations. [computations of a flow field over a thin delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method for generating three dimensional, finite difference grids about complicated geometries by using Poisson equations is developed. The inhomogenous terms are automatically chosen such that orthogonality and spacing restrictions at the body surface are satisfied. Spherical variables are used to avoid the axis singularity, and an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) solution scheme is used to accelerate the computations. Computed results are presented that show the capability of the method. Since most of the results presented have been used as grids for flow-field computations, this is indicative that the method is a useful tool for generating three-dimensional grids about complicated geometries.

  9. A molecular copper catalyst for electrochemical water reduction with a large hydrogen-generation rate constant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peili; Wang, Mei; Yang, Yong; Yao, Tianyi; Sun, Licheng

    2014-12-08

    The copper complex [(bztpen)Cu](BF4)2 (bztpen=N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethylenediamine) displays high catalytic activity for electrochemical proton reduction in acidic aqueous solutions, with a calculated hydrogen-generation rate constant (k(obs)) of over 10000 s(-1). A turnover frequency (TOF) of 7000 h(-1) cm(-2) and a Faradaic efficiency of 96% were obtained from a controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) experiment with [(bztpen)Cu](2+) in pH 2.5 buffer solution at -0.90 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) over two hours using a glassy carbon electrode. A mechanism involving two proton-coupled reduction steps was proposed for the dihydrogen generation reaction catalyzed by [(bztpen)Cu](2+).

  10. Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, F. J.

    A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (α, n) reactions between the α particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious α disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

  11. A comparison of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in ambient particle extracts and laboratory metal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including superoxide ( rad O 2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and rad OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory solutions containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory solutions we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and rad OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and rad OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe solutions there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of rad OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and rad OH. In both laboratory copper solutions and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to rad OH: e.g., HOOH generation is approximately 30-60 times faster than rad OH generation. The formation of HOOH and rad OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3% and 8% of HOOH converted to rad OH after 4 and 24 h of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than rad OH, since rad OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation.

  12. Second harmonic generation from silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution with different protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Hoang M.; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    Nanometer-sized metallic colloidal particles with plasmonic resonances in the visible range are widely investigated for their attractive optical properties as sensors, for imaging and cancer treatment. Their second-order nonlinear optical properties are remarkably high. In this work, silver colloidal solutions have been synthesized by a simple and quick method in aqueous solutions with different protective agents (PVA, PVP). The first hyperpolarizability β values of Ag per atom and per particle for nanospheres at 1064 nm have been measured. Silver nanoparticles, which possess intense visible region surface plasmon absorption bands, prove to be excellent nonlinear scatterers.

  13. Generation of nanoparticles of controlled size using ultrasonic piezoelectric oscillators in solution.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ian K; Higginbotham, Andrew; Baker, Shenda M; Donnelly, T D

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a device that can produce chitosan nanoparticles in a tunable size range from 50-300 nm with small size dispersion. A piezoelectric oscillator operated at megahertz frequencies is used to aerosolize a solution containing dissolved chitosan. The solvent is then evaporated from the aerosolized droplets in a heat pipe, leaving monodisperse nanoparticles to be collected. The nanoparticle size is controlled both by the concentration of the dissolved polymer and by the size of the aerosol droplets that are created. Our device can be used with any polymer or polymer/therapeutic combination that can be prepared in a homogeneous solution and vaporized.

  14. mHealth in pediatrics-finding healthcare solutions for the next generation.

    PubMed

    Niksch, Alisa L

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have begun to transform the way clinicians deliver healthcare, with goals of greater patient engagement and improved health outcomes. However, the unique needs of pediatric populations are commonly neglected when novel technologies are designed. Constantly changing size and evolving developmental capabilities present a challenge for development of effective mHealth solutions for children. Parents and the greater healthcare community have a greater role in child health, placing demands on new technology to provide connected models of care. This summary provides the landscape of challenges and opportunities presented by the growing population of children who could be optimal candidates for properly tailored mHealth solutions.

  15. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  16. Fiber optic sensor solutions for increase of efficiency and availability of electric power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Villnow, M.

    2010-09-01

    Multiple fiber optic sensors have been developed for strain, vibration, temperature, magnetic field and air flow measurement in electric power generators. This paper describes the recent state of development and reports about todays field experience.

  17. Numerical solution of moving boundary problem for deposition process in solid fuel gas generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokhov, V. M.; Dorofeenko, S. O.; Sharov, M. S.; Toktaliev, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Moving boundary problem in application to process of depositions formation in gas generator are considered. Gas generator, as a part of fuel preparation system of high-speed vehicle, convert solid fuel into multicomponent multiphase mixture, which further burned down in combustion chamber. Mathematical model of two-phase “gas-solid particles” flow, including Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in gas generator and mass, impulse conservations laws for elementary depositions layer are proposed. Verification of proposed mathematical model for depositions mass in gas generator conditions is done. Further possible improvements of proposed model, based on more detail accounting of particle-wall interaction and wall's surface adhesion properties are analyzed.

  18. Buoyant plumes from solute gradients generated by non-motile Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. R.; Brown, R. B.; Todd, P.; Nelson, E. S.; Klaus, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic mixing in bacterial populations due to bacterial chemotaxis is a well-described phenomenon known as bioconvection. Here we report the observation of buoyant plumes that result in hydrodynamic mixing, but in contrast to bioconvection the plumes form in the absence of bacterial motility. We propose that the buoyant flow originates from solute gradients created by bacterial metabolism, similar to solute-induced buoyant flow around growing protein crystals. In our experiments, metabolically-active non-motile Escherichia coli were layered along the bottom of flat-bottomed containers. The E. coli consumed glucose in the medium creating a lighter fluid beneath a heavier fluid. The situation is an example of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in which a lighter fluid pushes on a heavier one. We developed a numerical model to study the effect of E. coli nutrient consumption and by-product excretion on extracellular solute gradients. The model solutions showed reduced-density fluid along the bottom of the fluid domain leading to buoyant plumes, which were qualitatively similar to the experimental plumes. We also used scaling analyses to study the dependence of plume formation on container size and cell size, and to investigate the effect of reduced gravity, such as the microgravity conditions encountered during spaceflight.

  19. Buoyant plumes from solute gradients generated by non-motile Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Benoit, M R; Brown, R B; Todd, P; Nelson, E S; Klaus, D M

    2008-12-10

    The effect of hydrodynamic mixing in bacterial populations due to bacterial chemotaxis is a well-described phenomenon known as bioconvection. Here we report the observation of buoyant plumes that result in hydrodynamic mixing, but in contrast to bioconvection the plumes form in the absence of bacterial motility. We propose that the buoyant flow originates from solute gradients created by bacterial metabolism, similar to solute-induced buoyant flow around growing protein crystals. In our experiments, metabolically-active non-motile Escherichia coli were layered along the bottom of flat-bottomed containers. The E. coli consumed glucose in the medium creating a lighter fluid beneath a heavier fluid. The situation is an example of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in which a lighter fluid pushes on a heavier one. We developed a numerical model to study the effect of E. coli nutrient consumption and by-product excretion on extracellular solute gradients. The model solutions showed reduced-density fluid along the bottom of the fluid domain leading to buoyant plumes, which were qualitatively similar to the experimental plumes. We also used scaling analyses to study the dependence of plume formation on container size and cell size, and to investigate the effect of reduced gravity, such as the microgravity conditions encountered during spaceflight.

  20. The New Generation of Uranium In Situ Recovery Facilities: Design Improvements Should Reduce Radiological Impacts Relative to First Generation Uranium Solution Mining Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium In Situ Leaching / In Situ Recovery (ISL / ISR - also referred to as 'solution mining'), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and are expected to make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since the mid 1970's. However, current designs are expected to result in less radiological wastes and emissions relative to these 'first' generation plants (which were designed, constructed and operated through the 1980's). These early designs typically used alkaline leach chemistries in situ including use of ammonium carbonate which resulted in groundwater restoration challenges, open to air recovery vessels and high temperature calcining systems for final product drying vs the 'zero emissions' vacuum dryers as typically used today. Improved containment, automation and instrumentation control and use of vacuum dryers in the design of current generation plants are expected to reduce production of secondary waste byproduct material, reduce Radon emissions and reduce potential for employee exposure to uranium concentrate aerosols at the back end of the milling process. In Situ Recovery in the U.S. typically involves the circulation of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing (gaseous oxygen e.g) and complexing agents (carbon

  1. Generation of Volatile Cadmium and Zinc Species Based on Solution Anode Glow Discharge Induced Plasma Electrochemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Liu, Zhifu; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Yao, Siqi; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2017-02-27

    In this study, a novel high efficiency vapor generation strategy was proposed on the basis of solution anode glow discharge for the determination of Cd and Zn by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In this approach, a glow discharge microplasma was acted as a gaseous cathode to initiate the plasma electrochemical vapor generation of Cd and Zn. Cadmium/zinc ions could be converted into molecular species efficiently at the plasma-liquid interface from a supporting electrolyte (HCl, pH = 3.2). It was found that the overall efficiency of the plasma electrochemical vapor generation (PEVG) system was much higher than the conventional electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) and HCl-KBH4 system. With no requirement for other reducing reagents, this new approach enabled us to detect Cd and Zn with detection limits as low as 0.003 μg L(-1) for Cd and 0.3 μg L(-1) for Zn. Good repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD), n = 5) was 2.4% for Cd (0.1 μg L(-1)) and 1.7% for Zn (10 μg L(-1)) standard. The accuracy of the proposed method was successfully validated through analysis of cadmium in reference material of stream sediment (GBW07311), soil (GBW07401), rice (GBW10045), and zinc in a simulated water sample (GSB 07-1184-2000). Replacing a metal electrode with a plasma offers the advantage of eliminating potential interactions between the species in liquid and the electrode, which solves the issues associated with electrode encountered in conventional EcHG. The ability to initiate electrochemical vapor generation reactions at the plasma-liquid interface opens a new approach for chemical vapor generation based on interactions between plasma gas-phase electrons and solutions.

  2. mHealth in pediatrics-finding healthcare solutions for the next generation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have begun to transform the way clinicians deliver healthcare, with goals of greater patient engagement and improved health outcomes. However, the unique needs of pediatric populations are commonly neglected when novel technologies are designed. Constantly changing size and evolving developmental capabilities present a challenge for development of effective mHealth solutions for children. Parents and the greater healthcare community have a greater role in child health, placing demands on new technology to provide connected models of care. This summary provides the landscape of challenges and opportunities presented by the growing population of children who could be optimal candidates for properly tailored mHealth solutions. PMID:28293567

  3. Science and fourth grade students: An analysis of California's fourth National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Cecelia Francisco

    The purpose of this study was to examine science assessment data as generated by the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and through the analysis of four research variables: teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, and student characteristics, determine their relationship to science achievement of fourth grade students (Cavanagh, 2006) in the state of California. All children are born ready and willing to learn but as they progress to and through the primary grades, many lose their natural curiosity and enthusiasm for learning (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994). By the fourth grade, the performance of most children in the United States (U.S. Department of Education, 2004b) is below what it should be for the nation and is below the achievement levels of children in competing countries (Carnegie Corporation of New York). We must trust children to learn if given the chance (Bush, 2008). The analysis of these research variables found that there are relationships between teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, student characteristics and science achievement of fourth grade students in the state of California. Revelation of these relationships provide a deeper understanding of the science achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged school children. The utilization of these findings in the classroom will lead to increasing science achievement in all student groups and notably help to decrease the achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged students. Policy changes are suggested at the district, regional, and national levels to close the international achievement gap.

  4. Search for the fourth standard model family

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2011-03-01

    Existence of the fourth family follows from the basics of the standard model (SM) and the actual mass spectrum of the third family fermions. We discuss possible manifestations of the fourth SM family at existing and future colliders. The LHC and Tevatron potentials to discover the fourth SM family have been compared. The scenario with dominance of the anomalous decay modes of the fourth-family quarks has been considered in detail.

  5. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  6. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  7. Distributed Storage Inverter and Legacy Generator Integration Plus Renewable Solution for Microgrids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION ...ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The following organizations and individuals contributed to the success of the “ Distributed Storage Inverter and Legacy Generator Integration

  8. Kinetic solution for the generation of magnetic fields via the Biermann Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeffler, Kevin; Loureiro, Nuno; Silva, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments with intense lasers are probing the dynamics of self-generated large scale magnetic fields with unprecedented detail. In these scenarios the Biermann battery effect is critical to understand the field dynamics. Similar dynamics play an essential role in astrophysical magnetic field generation. In our previous work, particle-in-cell simulations were used to investigate the formation of magnetic fields in plasmas with perpendicular electron density and temperature gradients, showing the development of both the Biermann battery, and the smaller scale Weibel instability (due to an electron temperature anisotropy). Now, a general kinetic theoretical model for the generation of the Biermann battery is presented, which shows agreement with both fluid models and our simulations, and predicts, for an arbitrary temperature and density distribution, the generation of the temperature anisotropies exhibited in the simulations. The anisotropy grows as (tvthe /LT) 2, where vthe is the thermal velocity of the electrons, and LT is the length scale of a linearly varying temperature gradient. Furthermore, we see signs of the Weibel instability in collisionless regimes where these anisotropies should occur in present experimental configurations.

  9. Generation expansion planning: an analysis of techniques to expedite the approach to an optimal solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lubbers, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is an analysis of techniques which can be used to expedite the approach to an optimal plan for the installation of new generating units in an electric utility system, using the WASP (Wein Automatic System Planning) program. The objectives are three-fold: to present the details and results of a sensitivity study performed using WASP; to analyze and overcome the logistical problems resulting in the excessive computation time required to complete a generation expansion study using WASP; and to compare WASP's results with those of another widely used generation expansion planning program - OGP (Optimized Generation Planning) - and to analyze how the differing modelling methodologies impact those results. The first objective was accomplished by providing a detailed description of the collection and preparation of input data for a sensitivity study and by reporting on trends noted when various economic and peak load growth data were varied. Accomplishment of the second objective led to the demonstration of three techniques for expediting WASP analyses, namely: employing a yearly optimization scheme, involving the weighting of the objective function with estimated operation and capital costs incurred during a static operation period, to arrive at an initial expansion plan; modelling generating units as a single block of capacity in order to decrease computation time with little sacrifice in precision; and using the static operation period to reduce end effects of the dynamic optimization. The third objective was accomplished through the comparison of the results of a sample planning study carried out using both WASP and OGP. Despite several areas in which modelling methodologies differed, startingly similar results were obtained.

  10. Generation of multicomponent polymer blend microparticles using droplet evaporation technique and modeling evaporation of binary droplet containing nonvolatile solute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Venkat Narayan

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the generation of nano- and micrometer scale multicomponent polymer particles with specifically tailored mechanical, electrical and optical properties. As only a few polymer-polymer pairs are miscible, the set of multicomponent polymer systems achievable by conventional methods, such as melt blending, is severely limited in property ranges. Therefore, researchers have been evaluating synthesis methods that can arbitrarily blend immiscible solvent pairs, thus expanding the range of properties that are practical. The generation of blended microparticles by evaporating a co-solvent from aerosol droplets containing two dissolved immiscible polymers in solution seems likely to exhibit a high degree of phase uniformity. A second important advantage of this technique is the formation of nano- and microscale particulates with very low impurities, which are not attainable through conventional solution techniques. When the timescale of solvent evaporation is lower than that of polymer diffusion and self-organization, phase separation is inhibited within the atto- to femto-liter volume of the droplet, and homogeneous blends of immiscible polymers can be produced. We have studied multicomponent polymer particles generated from highly monodisperse micrordroplets that were produced using a Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator (VOAG). The particles are characterized for both external and internal morphology along with homogeneity of the blends. Ultra-thin slices of polymer particles were characterized by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and the degree of uniformity was examined using an Electron Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). To further establish the homogeneity of the polymer blend microparticles, differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure the glass transition temperature of the microparticles obtained. These results have its significance in the field of particulate encapsulation. Also, better control of the

  11. Localized nano-solid-solution induced by Cu doping in ZnS for efficient solar hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Naixu; Zhang, Longzhou; Zhou, Jiancheng; Jing, Dengwei; Sun, Yueming

    2014-08-14

    Nanosized photocatalysts have been shown to be important to many modern photocatalytic reactions. Control of the microstructure of the nanocrystals enables regulation of their optical properties and enhancement of specific reactions. Here, Cu(2+)-doped ZnS nanosphere photocatalysts with hierarchical nanostructures and controllable sizes were synthesized via a facile wet-chemical reaction. We demonstrated that small amounts of Cu(2+) doping could give rise to the formation of a variety of localized, nanosized Cu(1-x)Zn(x)S solid solutions that are separated by a continuous ZnS medium. The nano-solid-solutions have predictable band structures and an average size of several nanometers, which ensure facile generation of electron-hole pairs by visible light irradiation and quick migration of the photo-generated charges to the interfaces. With Ru as a cocatalyst, the as-prepared 0.5 mol% Cu(2+)-doped ZnS nanospheres showed a high H2 evolution rate of 1.03 mmol h(-1), corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 26.2% at 425 nm. A hierarchical surface structure with a large surface area is considered crucial for the increased activity. Our work not only showed that the non-toxic metal chalcogenides achieve high efficiency but also provides a new concept of localized nano-solid-solution for photocatalytic applications.

  12. Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2012-04-01

    This study provided an early effort to investigate the draw solutions as catholytes, FO membrane conditions, and backwash for membrane cleaning in an osmotic microbial fuel cell (OsMFC). The results demonstrated that sodium chloride was a suitable candidate as a catholyte solute with good performance in both electricity generation and water flux, although its pH required buffering via acid addition. Adding a small amount of hydrochloric acid decreased the catholyte pH from 9.0 to 2.5 and increased the current generation by 50%, but did not affect water flux. It was also found that the fouled FO membrane improved electricity generation but lost the function of water flux. The damaged FO membrane resulted in a water flux of 0.39 LMH, much lower than 2-3 LMH with a new FO membrane. Backwash with adding NaCl (0.2-0.5M) into the anolyte was examined but did not obviously alleviate membrane fouling.

  13. Generation of hydroxyl radicals from ambient fine particles in a surrogate lung fluid solution.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin H; Dillner, Ann M; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-02-01

    While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (*OH), few studies have quantified *OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of *OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol *OH mg(-1)-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles generated *OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at generating *OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in *OH production: on average (+/-sigma), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming *OH) to the SLF removed (90 +/- 5) % of *OH generation. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of *OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of *OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts.

  14. Generation of Hydroxyl Radicals from Ambient Fine Particles in a Surrogate Lung Fluid Solution

    PubMed Central

    Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin; Dillner, Ann M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (·OH), few studies have quantified ·OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of ·OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol ·OH mg−1-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles generated ·OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at generating ·OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in ·OH production: on average (± σ), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming ·OH) to the SLF removed (90 ± 5) % of ·OH generation. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of ·OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of ·OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts. PMID:19245037

  15. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from hydriodic acid using methylammonium lead iodide in dynamic equilibrium with aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunghak; Chang, Woo Je; Lee, Chan Woo; Park, Sangbaek; Ahn, Hyo-Yong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2017-01-01

    The solar-driven splitting of hydrohalic acids (HX) is an important and fast growing research direction for H2 production. In addition to the hydrogen, the resulting chemicals (X2/X3-) can be used to propagate a continuous process in a closed cycle and are themselves useful products. Here we present a strategy for photocatalytic hydrogen iodide (HI) splitting using methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) in an effort to develop a cost-effective and easily scalable process. Considering that MAPbI3 is a water-soluble ionic compound, we exploit the dynamic equilibrium of the dissolution and precipitation of MAPbI3 in saturated aqueous solutions. The I- and H+ concentrations of the aqueous solution are determined to be the critical parameters for the stabilization of the tetragonal MAPbI3 phase. Stable and efficient H2 production under visible light irradiation was demonstrated. The solar HI splitting efficiency of MAPbI3 was 0.81% when using Pt as a cocatalyst.

  16. Generation of Hydroxyl Radicals from Dissolved Transition Metals in Surrogate Lung Fluid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Vidrio, Edgar; Jung, Heejung; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological research has linked exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) to several adverse health effects, including cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite these links, the mechanisms by which PM causes adverse health effects are poorly understood. The generation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) through transition metal-mediated pathways is one of the main hypotheses for PM toxicity. In order to better understand the ability of particulate transition metals to produce ROS, we have quantified the amounts of ·OH produced from dissolved iron and copper in a cell-free, surrogate lung fluid (SLF). We also examined how two important biological molecules, citrate and ascorbate, affect the generation of ·OH by these metals. We have found that Fe(II) and Fe(III) produce little ·OH in the absence of ascorbate and citrate, but that they efficiently make ·OH in the presence of ascorbate and this is further enhanced when citrate is also added. In the presence of ascorbate, with or without citrate, the oxidation state of iron makes little difference on the amount of ·OH formed after 24 hours. In the case of Cu(II), the production of ·OH is greatly enhanced in the presence of ascorbate, but is inhibited by the addition of citrate. The mechanism for this effect is unclear, but appears to involve formation of a citrate-copper complex that is apparently less reactive than free, aquated copper in either the generation of HOOH or in the Fenton-like reaction of copper with HOOH to make ·OH. By quantifying the amount of ·OH that Fe and Cu can produce in surrogate lung fluid, we have provided a first step into being able to predict the amounts of ·OH that can be produced in the human lung from exposure to PM containing known amounts of transition metals. PMID:19148304

  17. Generation of Hydroxyl Radicals from Dissolved Transition Metals in Surrogate Lung Fluid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, Edgar; Jung, Heejung; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological research has linked exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) to several adverse health effects, including cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite these links, the mechanisms by which PM causes adverse health effects are poorly understood. The generation of hydroxyl radical (.OH) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) through transition metal-mediated pathways is one of the main hypotheses for PM toxicity. In order to better understand the ability of particulate transition metals to produce ROS, we have quantified the amounts of .OH produced from dissolved iron and copper in a cell-free, surrogate lung fluid (SLF). We also examined how two important biological molecules, citrate and ascorbate, affect the generation of .OH by these metals. We have found that Fe(II) and Fe(III) produce little .OH in the absence of ascorbate and citrate, but that they efficiently make .OH in the presence of ascorbate and this is further enhanced when citrate is also added. In the presence of ascorbate, with or without citrate, the oxidation state of iron makes little difference on the amount of .OH formed after 24 hours. In the case of Cu(II), the production of .OH is greatly enhanced in the presence of ascorbate, but is inhibited by the addition of citrate. The mechanism for this effect is unclear, but appears to involve formation of a citrate-copper complex that is apparently less reactive than free, aquated copper in either the generation of HOOH or in the Fenton-like reaction of copper with HOOH to make .OH. By quantifying the amount of .OH that Fe and Cu can produce in surrogate lung fluid, we have provided a first step into being able to predict the amounts of .OH that can be produced in the human lung from exposure to PM containing known amounts of transition metals.

  18. Dual solutions of radiative MHD nanofluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet with heat generation/absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naramgari, Sandeep; Sulochana, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the heat and mass transfer in thermophoretic radiative hydromagnetic nanofluid flow over an exponentially stretching porous sheet embedded in porous medium with internal heat generation/absorption, viscous dissipation and suction/injection effects. The governing partial differential equations of the flow are converted into nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. Runge-Kutta-based shooting technique is employed to yield the numerical solutions for the model. The effect of non-dimensional parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. The physical quantities of interest local skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are calculated and presented through tables.

  19. PtRu-LiCoO 2—an efficient catalyst for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Palanichamy; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Chang-Soo

    Hydrogen generation by the hydrolysis of aqueous sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) solutions is studied using IRA-400 anion resin dispersed Pt, Ru catalysts and lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) supported Pt, Ru and PtRu catalysts. The performance of the LiCoO 2 supported catalysts is better than that of ion-exchange resin dispersed catalysts. There is a marked concentration dependence on the performance of the LiCoO 2 supported catalysts and the hydrogen generation rate decreases if the borohydride concentration is increased beyond 10 wt.%. The efficiency of PtRu-LiCoO 2 is almost double that of either Ru-LiCoO 2 or Pt-LiCoO 2 for NaBH 4 concentrations up to 10 wt.%.

  20. Solution to automatic generation control problem using firefly algorithm optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller.

    PubMed

    Debbarma, Sanjoy; Saikia, Lalit Chandra; Sinha, Nidul

    2014-03-01

    Present work focused on automatic generation control (AGC) of a three unequal area thermal systems considering reheat turbines and appropriate generation rate constraints (GRC). A fractional order (FO) controller named as I(λ)D(µ) controller based on crone approximation is proposed for the first time as an appropriate technique to solve the multi-area AGC problem in power systems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA) is used for the simultaneous optimization of the gains and other parameters such as order of integrator (λ) and differentiator (μ) of I(λ)D(µ) controller and governor speed regulation parameters (R). The dynamic responses corresponding to optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller gains, λ, μ, and R are compared with that of classical integer order (IO) controllers such as I, PI and PID controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller provides more improved dynamic responses and outperforms the IO based classical controllers. Further, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the so optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller to wide changes in system loading conditions and size and position of SLP. Proposed controller is also found to have performed well as compared to IO based controllers when SLP takes place simultaneously in any two areas or all the areas. Robustness of the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller is also tested against system parameter variations.

  1. Structural variation discovery in the cancer genome using next generation sequencing: Computational solutions and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Biao; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Morrison, Carl D.; Odunsi, Adekunle O.; Qin, Maochun; Wei, Lei; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Somatic Structural Variations (SVs) are a complex collection of chromosomal mutations that could directly contribute to carcinogenesis. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has emerged as the primary means of interrogating the SVs of the cancer genome in recent investigations. Sophisticated computational methods are required to accurately identify the SV events and delineate their breakpoints from the massive amounts of reads generated by a NGS experiment. In this review, we provide an overview of current analytic tools used for SV detection in NGS-based cancer studies. We summarize the features of common SV groups and the primary types of NGS signatures that can be used in SV detection methods. We discuss the principles and key similarities and differences of existing computational programs and comment on unresolved issues related to this research field. The aim of this article is to provide a practical guide of relevant concepts, computational methods, software tools and important factors for analyzing and interpreting NGS data for the detection of SVs in the cancer genome. PMID:25849937

  2. Potentially Low Cost Solution to Extend Use of Early Generation Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tonna, Joseph E.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Lewin, Matthew R.; Saandari, Namjilmaa; Wintermark, Max

    2010-01-01

    In preparing a case report on Brown-Séquard syndrome for publication, we made the incidental finding that the inexpensive, commercially available three-dimensional (3D) rendering software we were using could produce high quality 3D spinal cord reconstructions from any series of two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images. This finding raises the possibility that spinal cord imaging capabilities can be expanded where bundled 2D multi-planar reformats and 3D reconstruction software for CT are not available and in situations where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is either not available or appropriate (e.g. metallic implants). Given the worldwide burden of trauma and considering the limited availability of MRI and advanced generation CT scanners, we propose an alternative, potentially useful approach to imaging spinal cord that might be useful in areas where technical capabilities and support are limited. PMID:21293767

  3. Coarse-grained simulations of an active filament propelled by a self-generated solute gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Debarati; Thakur, Snigdha

    2016-03-01

    A self-propelling semiflexible filament exhibits a variety of dynamical states depending on the flexibility and activity of the filament. Here we investigate the dynamics of such an active filament using a bead-spring model with the explicit hydrodynamic interactions. The activity in the filament is incorporated by inserting chemically active dimers at regular intervals along the chain. The chemical reactions at the catalytic bead of the dimer produces a self-generated concentration gradient and gives sufficient fuel to exhibit self-propulsion for the filament. Depending upon the rigidity and the configuration, the polymeric filament exhibits three distinct types of spontaneous motion, namely, rotational, snaking, and translational motion. The self-propulsion velocity of the filament for various rigidity and sizes has been calculated, and the factors affecting the propulsion are identified.

  4. Second harmonic generation studies in L-alanine single crystals grown from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomadevi, Shanmugam; Pandiyan, Krishnamoorthy

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine of dimensions 2×1.1×0.5 cm3 were grown by evaporation method using deionised water as a solvent. The morphology of the grown crystals had (1 2 0) and (0 1 1) as their prominent faces. UV-vis-near IR spectrum shows the transparency range of L-alanine crystal available for frequency doubling from 250 to 1400 nm. Phase-matched second harmonic generation was observed in L-alanine sample by using 7 ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with OPO set up. In the present work, phase matching was achieved by angle and wavelength tuning. The angular and spectral phase-matching bandwidths were determined experimentally for a 1.5 mm thick L-alanine crystal and the results have been compared with their theoretical results. Further the possible reasons for the broadening of SHG spectrum have been discussed.

  5. What controls the composition and the structure of nanomaterials generated by laser ablation in liquid solution?

    PubMed

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2013-03-07

    Laser ablation synthesis in liquid solution (LASiS) is a "green" technique that gives access to the preparation of a library of nanomaterials. Bare noble metal spherical particles, multiphase core-shell oxides, metal-semiconductor heterostructures, layered organometallic compounds and other complex nanostructures can be obtained with the same experimental set up, just by varying a few synthetic parameters. How to govern such versatility is one of the current challenges of LASiS and requires a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in the synthesis. In this perspective, the fundamental mechanisms of laser ablation in liquids are summarized, organized according to their temporal sequence and correlated with relevant examples taken from the library of nanomaterials disclosed by LASiS, in order to show how synthesis parameters influence the composition and the structure of products. The resulting framework suggests that, to date, much attention has been devoted to the physical aspects of laser-matter interaction and to the characterization of the final products of the synthesis. Conversely, the clarification of chemical processes active during LASiS deserves more research efforts and requires the synergy among multiple investigation techniques.

  6. International perspectives on the physical inactivity crisis--structural solutions over evidence generation?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian; Finegood, Diane T; Matsudo, Victor

    2009-10-01

    Many programs to increase physical activity have been evaluated in developed countries, where 'leisure time physical activity' is the most frequent domain for interventions. In developing countries, and also with reference to global obesity prevention, different kinds of interventions targeting 'total physical activity' are needed. This requires efforts across agencies and sectors, and in the domains of work, active transport, reduced sitting time, as well as leisure time physical activity promotion. In considering possible solutions, this commentary examined the use of complex systems, where integrated efforts across sectors and agencies might, in combination, contribute to increasing total physical activity. The key sets of actions required globally to increase physical activity were, in our opinion, [i] efforts to disseminate individual-level behavior change programs to reach much larger populations rather than volunteers, [ii] social marketing and mass communication campaigns to change social norms in the community and among professionals and policymakers, [iii] efforts to influence the social and physical environment to make them more conducive to physical activity, and [iv] the development and implementation of national physical activity plans and strategies, with sufficient timelines and resources to achieve measurable change.

  7. Effective Hydrogen Generation from the Hydrogen Sulfide Solution by using Stratified Type Photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Tohji, K.

    2008-02-25

    Stratified type photocatalyst with the extremely higher photocatalytic activities can be synthesized by using the chemical reaction between the Na{sub 2}S solution and Cd(OH){sub 2} precursors. This type of photocatalyst has the specific morphology which constructed by the nano-sized and capsule like formed structure, and the metal concentration was gradually changed in its wall. The 'charge gradient' was formed at the metal sulfide and oxide/hydroxide junction in the wall, which favored for the separation of the photo excited electron-hole pair. Consequently, stratified type photocatalyst shows the high catalytic activity than the usual nano CdS particles. By the addition of sulfur compound into the bio reactor contained the sulfur reducing bacteria, the H{sub 2}S gas concentration can increased to about 1000 times enlarge than the usual condition. Therefore, we can conclude that the enhancement of the H{sub 2}S gas evolved from the bio reactor was successfully achievement, and we don't need to afraid the shortage risk of H{sub 2}S supply. These H{sub 2}S gas concentration can enlarged to 80% by using A type zeorite. Especially, Ca-A type zeorite is considered as the suitable material.

  8. Solution-processed solar cells based on inorganic bulk heterojunctions with evident hole contribution to photocurrent generation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zeliang; Liu, Changwen; Pan, Guoxing; Meng, Weili; Yue, Wenjin; Chen, Junwei; Zhou, Xun; Zhang, Fapei; Wang, Mingtai

    2015-05-14

    To develop solution-processed and novel device structures is of great importance for achieving advanced and low-cost solar cells. In this paper, we report the solution-processed solar cells based on inorganic bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) featuring a bulk crystalline Sb2S3 absorbing layer interdigitated with a TiO2 nanoarray as an electron transporter. A solution-processed amorphous-to-crystalline transformation strategy is used for the preparation of Sb2S3/TiO2-BHJs. Steady-state and dynamic results demonstrate that the crystalline structure in the Sb2S3 absorbing layer is crucial for efficient devices, and a better Sb2S3 crystallization favors a higher device performance by increasing the charge collection efficiency for a higher short-circuit current, due to reduced interfacial and bulk charge recombinations, and enhancing the open-circuit voltage and fill factor with the reduced defect states in the Sb2S3 layer as well. Moreover, an evident contribution to photocurrent generation from the photogenerated holes in the Sb2S3 layer is revealed by experimental and simulated dynamic data. These results imply a kind of potential non-excitonic BHJ for energy conversion.

  9. Ion Beam Generation from an Electrolyte Solution Containing Polyatomic Cations and Anions for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Watanabe, Kouji; Saito, Naoaki; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nakanaga, Taisuke; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Kurokawa, Akira; Ichimura, Shingo; Tomita, Mitsuhiro

    2009-12-01

    A solution-type ion beam source was fabricated to utilize polyatomic anions as well as polyatomic cations that are stable in solutions. The ion source consists of an electrospray section at atmospheric pressure and a vacuum section with a differential pumping system. To demonstrate the beam generation of cations or anions, ethanol solution containing a room-temperature molten salt (i.e., an ionic liquid) was tested. The ionic liquid, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, consists of a polyatomic cation, [C8H20ON]+, and a polyatomic anion, [C2F6NO4S2]-. Ions produced at atmospheric pressure were passed through an aperture into a vacuum chamber and then transported to a target. The effects of the aperture dimensions were investigated in the range from 50 to 200 µm in diameter and 0.25 to 1 mm in thickness. The ratio of current passing through the aperture into the vacuum chamber to the total electrosprayed current was on the order of 10-3 to 10-5. The ratio increased with increasing aperture diameter. A reduction in the aperture thickness also improved the ratio. Beam current increased with applied voltage in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. It was demonstrated that stable negative-ion beams as well as positive-ion beams on the order of pA were produced.

  10. Next generation sequencing of CLU, PICALM and CR1: pitfalls and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Medway, Christopher; Shi, Hui; Brown, Kristelle; Lowe, James; Mann, David; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Kalsheker, Noor; Passmore, Peter; Morgan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    CLU, PICALM and CR1 were identified as genetic risk factors for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in two large genome wide association studies (GWAS) published in 2009, but the variants that convey this alteration in disease risk, and how the genes relate to AD pathology is yet to be discovered. A next generation sequencing (NGS) project was conducted targeting CLU, CR1 and PICALM, in 96 AD samples (8 pools of 12), in an attempt to discover rare variants within these AD associated genes. Inclusion of repetitive regions in the design of the SureSelect capture lead to significant issues in alignment of the data, leading to poor specificity and a lower than expected depth of coverage. A strong positive correlation (0.964, p<0.001) was seen between NGS and 1000 genome project frequency estimates. Of the ~170 "novel" variants detected in the genes, seven SNPs, all of which were present in multiple sample pools, were selected for validation by Sanger sequencing. Two SNPs were successfully validated by this method, and shown to be genuine variants, while five failed validation. These spurious SNP calls occurred as a result of the presence of small indels and mononucleotide repeats, indicating such features should be regarded with caution, and validation via an independent method is important for NGS variant calls.

  11. Exact iterative solution of second harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched structures.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ming-Liang; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2010-03-29

    A versatile and accurate approach that combines a numerical iteration technique and a transfer-matrix method (TMM) is developed to solve the general problem of second harmonic generation (SHG) with pump depletion in quasi-phase-matched (QPM) nonlinear optical structures. We derive the iterative formulae from the nonlinear coupled wave equations and obtain the intensity distribution of fundamental wave and second harmonic wave by TMM. The approach shows quick numerical convergence of iteration and maintains perfect conservation of total energy. The simulation results show that the model coincides with the one under undepleted pump approximation very well when the SHG efficiency is small (well below 15%) and agrees very well with the effective nonlinear susceptibility model in handling general SHG problems even when the conversion efficiency is high up to 100%. Our method is applicable to general nonlinear optical structures, such as periodic, quasi-periodic, and aperiodic QPM structures, photonic crystals, and micro-cavities that might involve complicated modulation on the linear and nonlinear susceptibility.

  12. Next-generation sequencing techniques for eukaryotic microorganisms: sequencing-based solutions to biological problems.

    PubMed

    Nowrousian, Minou

    2010-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, large-scale sequencing has been revolutionized by the development of several so-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. These have drastically increased the number of bases obtained per sequencing run while at the same time decreasing the costs per base. Compared to Sanger sequencing, NGS technologies yield shorter read lengths; however, despite this drawback, they have greatly facilitated genome sequencing, first for prokaryotic genomes and within the last year also for eukaryotic ones. This advance was possible due to a concomitant development of software that allows the de novo assembly of draft genomes from large numbers of short reads. In addition, NGS can be used for metagenomics studies as well as for the detection of sequence variations within individual genomes, e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (indels), or structural variants. Furthermore, NGS technologies have quickly been adopted for other high-throughput studies that were previously performed mostly by hybridization-based methods like microarrays. This includes the use of NGS for transcriptomics (RNA-seq) or the genome-wide analysis of DNA/protein interactions (ChIP-seq). This review provides an overview of NGS technologies that are currently available and the bioinformatics analyses that are necessary to obtain information from the flood of sequencing data as well as applications of NGS to address biological questions in eukaryotic microorganisms.

  13. ULTRACOATINGS: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through Next-Generation Nanocoatings

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Qu, J.; Higdon, C. III

    2011-09-30

    This industry-driven project was the result of a successful response by Eaton Corporation to a DOE/ITP Program, Grand Challenge, industry call. It consisted of a one-year effort in which ORNL participated in the area of friction and wear testing. In addition to Eaton Corporation and ORNL (CRADA), the project team included: Ames Laboratory, who developed the underlying concept for titanium- zirconium-boron (TZB) based nanocomposite coatings; Borg-Warner Morse TEC, an automotive engine timing chain manufacturer in Ithaca, New York, with its own proprietary hard coating; and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., a dry-solids pump manufacturer in San Fernando Valley, California. This report focuses only on the portion of work that was conducted by ORNL, in a CRADA with Eaton Corporation. A comprehensive final report for the entire effort, which ended in September 2010, has been prepared for DOE by the team. The term 'ultracoatings' derives from the ambitious technical target for the new generation of nanocoatings. As applications, Eaton was specifically considering a fuel pump and a gear application in which the product of the contact pressure and slip velocity during operation of mating surfaces, commonly called the 'PV value', was equal to or greater than 70,000 MPa-m/s. This ambitious target challenges the developers of coatings to produce material capable of strong bonding to the substrate, as well as high wear resistance and the ability to maintain sliding friction at low, energy-saving levels. The partners in this effort were responsible for the selection and preparation of such candidate ultracoatings, and ORNL used established tribology testing capabilities to help screen these candidates for performance. This final report summarizes ORNL's portion of the nanocomposite coatings development effort and presents both generated data and the analyses that were used in the course of this effort. Initial contact stress and speed calculations showed that laboratory tests

  14. An integrated evaluation of thirteen modelling solutions for the generation of hourly values of air relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregaglio, Simone; Donatelli, Marcello; Confalonieri, Roberto; Acutis, Marco; Orlandini, Simone

    2010-11-01

    The availability of hourly air relative humidity (HARH) data is a key requirement for the estimation of epidemic dynamics of plant fungal pathogens, in particular for the simulation of both the germination of the spores and the infection process. Most of the existing epidemic forecasting models require these data as input directly or indirectly, in the latter case for the estimation of leaf wetness duration. In many cases, HARH must be generated because it is not available in historical series and when there is the need to simulate epidemics either on a wide scale or with different climate scenarios. Thirteen modelling solutions (MS) for the generation of this variable were evaluated, with different input requirements and alternative approaches, on a large dataset including several sites and years. A composite indicator was developed using fuzzy logic to compare and to evaluate the performances of the models. The indicator consists of four modules: Accuracy, Correlation, Pattern and Robustness. Results showed that when available, daily maximum and minimum air relative humidity data substantially improved the estimation of HARH. When such data are not available, the choice of the MS is crucial, given the difference in predicting skills obtained during the analysis, which allowed a clear detection of the best performing MS. This study represents the first step of the creation of a robust modelling chain coupling the MS for the generation of HARH and disease forecasting models, including the systematic validation of each step of the simulation.

  15. Bi-enzyme synergetic catalysis to in situ generate coreactant of peroxydisulfate solution for ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Niu, Huan; Cao, Yaling; Liu, Huijing

    2012-01-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of α-1-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed based on the in situ bi-enzymatic reaction to generate coreactant of peroxydisulfate for signal amplification. In this work, AuNPs were electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, which promoted the electron transfer. Then, L-cysteine and another layer of AuNPs were, respectively assembled onto the modified electrode surface, which formed the multilayer films for amplifying the ECL signal of peroxydisulfate and immobilizing antibody. At last, glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were employed to block the nonspecific binding sites. When proper amounts of glucose were added in the detection solution, GOD catalyzed the oxidation of glucose to generate H(2)O(2), which could be further catalyzed by HRP to generate O(2) for the signal amplification. The linear range for AFP detection was 0.001-100 ng mL(-1), with a low detection limit of 3.3 × 10(-4) ng mL(-1). The novel strategy has the advantages of simplicity, sensitivity, good selectivity and reproducibility which might hold a new promise for highly sensitive bioassays applied in clinical detection.

  16. Wind turbines using self-excited three-phase induction generators: an innovative solution for voltage-frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudny, J. F.; Pusca, R.; Roisse, H.

    2008-08-01

    A considerable number of communities throughout the world, most of them isolated, need hybrid energy solutions either for rural electrification or for the reduction of diesel use. Despite several research projects and demonstrations which have been conducted in recent years, wind-diesel technology remains complex and much too costly. Induction generators are the most robust and common for wind energy systems but this option is a serious challenge for electrical regulation. When a wind turbine is used in an off-grid configuration, either continuously or intermittently, precise and robust regulation is difficult to attain. The voltage parameter regulation option, as was experienced at several remote sites (on islands and in the arctic for example), is a safe, reliable and relatively simple technology, but does not optimize the wave quality and creates instabilities. These difficulties are due to the fact that no theory is available to describe the system, due to the inverse nature of the problem. In order to address and solve the problem of the unstable operation of this wind turbine generator, an innovative approach is described, based on a different induction generator single phase equivalent circuit.

  17. Scale-invariant scalar spectrum from the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, an exactly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbation generated during de Sitter spacetime is found from the gravity model of the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term. The nonminimal derivative coupling term generates a healthy (ghost-free) fourth-order derivative term, while the fourth-order term provides an unhealthy (ghost) fourth-order derivative term. The Harrison-Zel’dovich spectrum obtained from Fourier transforming the fourth-order propagator in de Sitter space is recovered by computing the power spectrum in its momentum space directly. It shows that this model provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum, in addition to the Lee-Wick scalar theory.

  18. Power electronic solutions for interfacing offshore wind turbine generators to medium voltage DC collection grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Michael T.

    Here in the early 21st century humanity is continuing to seek improved quality of life for citizens throughout the world. This global advancement is providing more people than ever with access to state-of-the-art services in areas such as transportation, entertainment, computing, communication, and so on. Providing these services to an ever-growing population while considering the constraints levied by continuing climate change will require new frontiers of clean energy to be developed. At the time of this writing, offshore wind has been proven as both a politically and economically agreeable source of clean, sustainable energy by northern European nations with many wind farms deployed in the North, Baltic, and Irish Seas. Modern offshore wind farms are equipped with an electrical system within the farm itself to aggregate the energy from all turbines in the farm before it is transmitted to shore. This collection grid is traditionally a 3-phase medium voltage alternating current (MVAC) system. Due to reactive power and other practical constraints, it is preferable to use a medium voltage direct current (MVDC) collection grid when siting farms >150 km from shore. To date, no offshore wind farm features an MVDC collection grid. However, MVDC collection grids are expected to be deployed with future offshore wind farms as they are sited further out to sea. In this work it is assumed that many future offshore wind farms may utilize an MVDC collection grid to aggregate electrical energy generated by individual wind turbines. As such, this work presents both per-phase and per-pole power electronic converter systems suitable for interfacing individual wind turbines to such an MVDC collection grid. Both interfaces are shown to provide high input power factor at the wind turbine while providing DC output current to the MVDC grid. Common mode voltage stress and circulating currents are investigated, and mitigation strategies are provided for both interfaces. A power sharing

  19. Third ventriculostomy and fourth ventricle outlets obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Enrique; de Notaris, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Indeed, blockage of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie and of the aqueduct results in a "trapped" fourth ventricle. Continued cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production within the fourth ventricle leads to cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. We could not, until now, understand the phenomenon, mainly on exploring endoscopically the permeability of the whole aqueduct. In adults, we call this condition the functional trapped fourth ventricle because in none of our cases have we found physical obstruction of CSF flow. Third ventricle-fourth ventriculostomy is by far the most frequently used technique for cannulation of the aqueduct in a trapped fourth ventricle. In our reported cases, we have introduced a silicone tube stent from below after accessing the fourth ventricle through a small suboccipital craniectomy, ascending it on the aqueduct in order to reach the third ventricle. Management of this infrequently isolated fourth ventricle, but communicated with the rest of ventricular system, remains a challenge for neurosurgeons. Lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology makes it difficult to treat a problem that we do not understand.

  20. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  1. Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

  2. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose.

  3. Fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yacheng; Xu, Runzhang

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we study the initial boundary value problem for fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms. First we introduce a family of potential wells and prove the invariance of some sets and vacuum isolating of solutions. Then we obtain a threshold result of global existence and nonexistence. Finally we discuss the global existence of solutions for the problem with critical initial condition I(u0)[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, E(0)=d. So the Esquivel-Avila's results are generalized and improved.

  4. Career Development Intervention in Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ruth

    This paper contains a unit of six career awareness lessons for use by elementary guidance counselors with fourth grade students. Prepared to be used with fourth graders in a middle class small community elementary school in Wisconsin, the unit is based on developmental needs that have been identified for this age group. It is intended to be both…

  5. Osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M D; Tulipan, N; Whetsell, W O

    1989-04-01

    Meningiomas of the fourth ventricle are rare neoplasms. Only meningothelial and fibroblastic subtypes, purportedly arising from the tela choroidea, have been described. In this report we describe clinical, neuroradiological and pathological findings in a 52-year-old man with mild hydrocephalus produced by a large, calcified, osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

  6. Hydrogen generation from catalytic hydrolysis of alkaline sodium borohydride solution using attapulgite clay-supported Co-B catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hongjing; Guo, Qingjie; Xu, Dongyan

    An attapulgite clay-supported cobalt-boride (Co-B) catalyst used in portable fuel cell fields is prepared in this paper by impregnation-chemical reduction method. The cost of attapulgite clay is much lower compared with some other inert carriers, such as activated carbon and carbon nanotube. Its microstructure and catalytic activity are analyzed in this paper. The effects of NaOH concentration, NaBH 4 concentration, reacting temperature, catalyst loadings and recycle times on the performance of the catalysts in hydrogen production from alkaline NaBH 4 solutions are investigated. Furthermore, characteristics of these catalysts are carried out in SEM, XRD and TEM analysis. The high catalytic activity of the catalyst indicates that it is a promising and practical catalyst. Activation energy of hydrogen generation using such catalysts is estimated to be 56.32 kJ mol -1. In the cycle test, from the 1st cycle to the 9th cycle, the average hydrogen generation rate decreases gradually from 1.27 l min -1 g -1 Co-B to 0.87 l min -1 g -1 Co-B.

  7. Robust generation of transgenic mice by simple hypotonic solution mediated delivery of transgene in testicular germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Abul; Ganguli, Nirmalya; Jain, Subodh K; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Sarkar, Rajesh Kumar; Choubey, Mayank; Shukla, Mansi; Sarkar, Hironmoy; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to decipher gene sequences has increased enormously with the advent of modern sequencing tools, but the ability to divulge functions of new genes have not increased correspondingly. This has caused a remarkable delay in functional interpretation of several newly found genes in tissue and age specific manner, limiting the pace of biological research. This is mainly due to lack of advancements in methodological tools for transgenesis. Predominantly practiced method of transgenesis by pronuclear DNA-microinjection is time consuming, tedious, and requires highly skilled persons for embryo-manipulation. Testicular electroporation mediated transgenesis requires use of electric current to testis. To this end, we have now developed an innovative technique for making transgenic mice by giving hypotonic shock to male germ cells for the gene delivery. Desired transgene was suspended in hypotonic Tris-HCl solution (pH 7.0) and simply injected in testis. This resulted in internalization of the transgene in dividing germ-cells residing at basal compartment of tubules leading to its integration in native genome of mice. Such males generated transgenic progeny by natural mating. Several transgenic animals can be generated with minimum skill within short span of time by this easily adaptable novel technique. PMID:27933305

  8. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  9. On Comparison of Series and Numerical Solutions for Flow of Eyring-Powell Fluid with Newtonian Heating And Internal Heat Generation/Absorption.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat generation/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical solutions. Series solution is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical solution is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy solution with numerical solution is also tabulated. Both solutions are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters.

  10. On Comparison of Series and Numerical Solutions for Flow of Eyring-Powell Fluid with Newtonian Heating And Internal Heat Generation/Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat generation/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical solutions. Series solution is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical solution is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy solution with numerical solution is also tabulated. Both solutions are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters. PMID:26402366

  11. Special polynomials associated with the fourth order analogue to the Painlevé equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.; Demina, Maria V.

    2007-04-01

    Rational solutions of the fourth order analogue to the Painlevé equations are classified. Special polynomials associated with the rational solutions are introduced. The structure of the polynomials is found. Formulae for their coefficients and degrees are derived. It is shown that special solutions of the Fordy Gibbons, the Caudrey Dodd Gibbon and the Kaup Kupershmidt equations can be expressed through solutions of the equation studied.

  12. A fourth-order box method for solving the boundary layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, S. F.

    1977-01-01

    A fourth order box method for calculating high accuracy numerical solutions to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations is presented. The method is the natural extension of the second order Keller Box scheme to fourth order and is demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations. Numerical results for high accuracy test cases show the method to be significantly faster than other higher order and second order methods.

  13. Facile Preparation of Highly Conductive Metal Oxides by Self-Combustion for Solution-Processed Thermoelectric Generators.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-03-02

    Highly conductive indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were successfully fabricated via a self-combustion reaction for application in solution-processed thermoelectric devices. Self-combustion efficiently facilitates the conversion of soluble precursors into metal oxides by lowering the required annealing temperature of oxide films, which leads to considerable enhancement of the electrical conductivity of IZO thin films. Such enhanced electrical conductivity induced by exothermic heat from a combustion reaction consequently yields high performance IZO thermoelectric films. In addition, the effect of the composition ratio of In to Zn precursors on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of the IZO thin films was investigated. IZO thin films with a composition ratio of In:Zn = 6:2 at the low annealing temperature of 350 °C showed an enhanced electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor of 327 S cm(-1), 50.6 μV K(-1), and 83.8 μW m(-1) K(-2), respectively. Moreover, the IZO thin film prepared at an even lower temperature of 300 °C retained a large power factor of 78.7 μW m(-1) K(-2) with an electrical conductivity of 168 S cm(-1). Using the combustive IZO precursor, a thermoelectric generator consisting of 15 legs was fabricated by a printing process. The thermoelectric array generated a thermoelectric voltage of 4.95 mV at a low temperature difference (5 °C). We suggest that the highly conductive IZO thin films by self-combustion may be utilized for fabricating n-type flexible printed thermoelectric devices.

  14. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  15. Green solution: 120W ArF immersion light source supporting the next-generation multiple-pattering lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazaki, Takahito; Ohta, Takeshi; Ishida, Keisuke; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Kurosu, Akihiko; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2015-03-01

    The difficulty of EUV lithography system development has prolonged the industry's dependence on ArF excimer lasers to realize further advancements in lithography process technologies. Smaller CD with reduced cost requires tighter specifications, and the potential extension to 450mm wafers introduces extremely difficult performance challenges on lasers. One of the most important features of the next generation lasers will be the ability to support green operations while further improving cost of ownership and performance. For example, electricity consumption costs and the dependence on rare gases, such as neon and helium, will become critical considerations for HVM process going forward. As a laser vendor, Gigaphoton continues to innovate and develop solutions that address these important issues. The latest model GT64A with its field-proven, twin-chamber platform has reduced environmental impact while upgrading performance and power. A variety of green technologies are employed on the GT64A. The first is the reduction of gas usage. Parameters, such as input power and gas pressure are closely monitored during operations and fed back to the injection/exhaust gas controller system. By applying a special algorithm, the laser gas consumption can be reduced by up to 50%. More than 96% of the gas used by the lasers is neon. Another rare gas that requires attention is Helium. Recently the unstable supply of helium became a serious worldwide issue. To cope with this situation, Gigaphoton is developing lasers that support completely helium-free operations.

  16. Heat Generation/Absorption Effects in a Boundary Layer Stretched Flow of Maxwell Nanofluid: Analytic and Numeric Solutions.

    PubMed

    Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Analysis has been done to investigate the heat generation/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM) has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion "Db" and thermophoresis effects "Dt" occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic solutions are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis.

  17. Heat Generation/Absorption Effects in a Boundary Layer Stretched Flow of Maxwell Nanofluid: Analytic and Numeric Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Analysis has been done to investigate the heat generation/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM) has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion “Db” and thermophoresis effects “Dt” occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic solutions are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis. PMID:26115101

  18. AFRRI Reports, Fourth Quarter 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    hydrochloride (Parke-Davis, Detroit, MI), xylazine (Hayer Lockhart, Exposure to ionizing radiation causes changes in core Shawnee, KS), and...8217 solution at 37 or 45°C for 10 min, and pH, was D-(+)- glucosamine chloride. In bicarbonate-buffered Na then measured at 37*C every 2 min for 10 min using... glucosamine brane. Aliquots of NH4Cl (1-8 mM) were then added, chloride (Sigma). and alkalinization of the cells was measured. Buffering power

  19. Fourth lepton family is natural in technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Imagine discovering a new fourth family of leptons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but no signs of an associated fourth family of quarks. What would that imply? An intriguing possibility is that the new fermions needed to compensate for the new leptons gauge anomalies simultaneously address the big hierarchy problem of the standard model. A natural way to accomplish such a scenario is to have the Higgs itself be a composite of these new fermions. This is the setup we are going to investigate in this paper using as a template minimal walking technicolor. We analyze a general heavy neutrino mass structure with and without mixing with the standard model families. We also analyze the LHC potential to observe the fourth lepton family in tandem with the new composite Higgs dynamics. We finally introduce a model uniting the fourth lepton family and the technifermion sector at higher energies.

  20. Definition and use of Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment: A novel approach to generate, explore and decide on sustainable solutions for wicked problems.

    PubMed

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; Wintersen, Arjen; Devilee, Jeroen; Swartjes, Frank A

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment (SfSA), provides practical guidance formatted as a versatile process framework, and illustrates its utility for solving a wicked environmental management problem. Society faces complex and increasingly wicked environmental problems for which sustainable solutions are sought. Wicked problems are multi-faceted, and deriving of a management solution requires an approach that is participative, iterative, innovative, and transparent in its definition of sustainability and translation to sustainability metrics. We suggest to add the use of a solution-focused approach. The SfSA framework is collated from elements from risk assessment, risk governance, adaptive management and sustainability assessment frameworks, expanded with the 'solution-focused' paradigm as recently proposed in the context of risk assessment. The main innovation of this approach is the broad exploration of solutions upfront in assessment projects. The case study concerns the sustainable management of slightly contaminated sediments continuously formed in ditches in rural, agricultural areas. This problem is wicked, as disposal of contaminated sediment on adjacent land is potentially hazardous to humans, ecosystems and agricultural products. Non-removal would however reduce drainage capacity followed by increased risks of flooding, while contaminated sediment removal followed by offsite treatment implies high budget costs and soil subsidence. Application of the steps in the SfSA-framework served in solving this problem. Important elements were early exploration of a wide 'solution-space', stakeholder involvement from the onset of the assessment, clear agreements on the risk and sustainability metrics of the problem and on the interpretation and decision procedures, and adaptive management. Application of the key elements of the SfSA approach eventually resulted in adoption of a novel sediment management policy. The stakeholder

  1. Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S. |

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak{trademark}) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume (< 1 mL) of saline then provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m by concentration of the high eluant volumes obtained by elution of clinical-scale (1 Ci) generators. This new approach also works very effectively to obtain high specific volume solutions of rhenium-188 (> 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator.

  2. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  3. High-Resolution Mapping of the Drosophila Fourth Chromosome Using Site-Directed Terminal Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Sousa-Neves, Rui; Lukacsovich, Tamas; Mizutani, Claudia Mieko; Locke, John; Podemski, Lynn; Marsh, J. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    For more than 80 years, the euchromatic right arm of the Drosophila fourth chromosome (101F-102F) has been one of the least genetically accessible regions of the fly genome despite the fact that many important genes reside there. To improve the mapping of genes on the fourth chromosome, we describe a strategy to generate targeted deficiencies and we describe 13 deficiencies that subdivide the 300 kb between the cytological coordinates 102A6 and 102C1 into five discrete regions plus a 200-kb region from 102C1 to 102D6. Together these deficiencies substantially improve the mapping capabilities for mutant loci on the fourth chromosome. PMID:15466427

  4. Hybrid texture generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kazunori; Nakajima, Masayuki

    1995-04-01

    A method is given for synthesizing a texture by using the interface of a conventional drawing tool. The majority of conventional texture generation methods are based on the procedural approach, and can generate a variety of textures that are adequate for generating a realistic image. But it is hard for a user to imagine what kind of texture will be generated simply by looking at its parameters. Furthermore, it is difficult to design a new texture freely without a knowledge of all the procedures for texture generation. Our method offers a solution to these problems, and has the following four merits: First, a variety of textures can be obtained by combining a set of feature lines and attribute functions. Second, data definitions are flexible. Third, the user can preview a texture together with its feature lines. Fourth, people can design their own textures interactively and freely by using the interface of a conventional drawing tool. For users who want to build this texture generation method into their own programs, we also give the language specifications for generating a texture. This method can interactively provide a variety of textures, and can also be used for typographic design.

  5. Anion complexation with cyanobenzoyl substituted first and second generation tripodal amide receptors: crystal structure and solution studies.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Najbul; Gogoi, Abhijit; Das, Gopal

    2015-09-14

    Anion complexation properties of two new tripodal amide receptors have been extensively studied here. Two tripodal receptors have been synthesized from the reaction of cyanobenzoyl acid chloride with two tri-amine building blocks such as (i) tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and (ii) tris(2-(4-aminophenoxy)ethyl)amine, which resulted in the first (L1) and second (L2) generation tripodal amides respectively. A detailed comparison of their coordination behavior with anions is also described by crystallographic and solution state experiments. The crystal structure demonstrates various types of spatial orientations of tripodal arms in two receptors and concomitantly interacts with anions distinctively. Intramolecular H-bonding between amide N–H and CO prevents opening of the receptor cavity in the crystal, which leads to a locked conformation of L1 having C(3v) symmetry and makes amide hydrogen unavailable for the anion which results in side cleft anion binding. However, in L2 we conveniently shift the anion binding sites to a distant position which increases cavity size as well as rules out any intramolecular H-bonding between amide N–H and CO. The crystal structure shows a different orientation of the arms in L2; it adopts a quasi-planar arrangement with C(2v) symmetry. In the crystal structure two arms are pointed in the same direction and while extending the contact the third arm is H-bonded with the apical N-atom through a –CN group, making a pseudo capsular cavity where the anion interacts. Most importantly spatial reorientation of the receptor L2 from a C(2v) symmetry to a folded conformation with a C(3v) symmetry was observed only in the presence of an octahedral SiF6(2-) anion and forms a sandwich type complex. Receptors L1 and L2 are explored for their solution state anion binding abilities. The substantial changes in chemical shifts were observed for the amide (-NH) and aromatic hydrogen (-CH) (especially for F(-)), indicating the role of these hydrogens in

  6. Fourth Generation Warfare in Chile: Illicit Drug Trafficking Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile – PDI). Carabineros de Chile is the uniformed Chilean national police force created in...Chile also has an investigative police force, the Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile, PDI). This is the civil police... Investigaciones de Chile Homepage, http://www.investigaciones.cl/ (accessed February 20, 2011). 56 CONACE Homepage http://www.conacedrogas.cl/portal

  7. Reexamining Fourth Generation War as a Paradigm for Future War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Overpopulation , Tribalism, and Disease are Rapidly Destroying the Social Fabric of Our Planet,” Atlantic Monthly, February 1, 1994. 82 Thomas Barnett...Coming Anarchy: How Scarcity, Crime, Overpopulation , Tribalism, and Disease are Rapidly Destroying the Social Fabric of Our Planet.” Atlantic Monthly

  8. Transplantation of storm-generated coral fragments to enhance Caribbean coral reefs: A successful method but not a solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.; Ward, G.

    2012-01-01

    In response to dramatic losses of reef-building corals and ongoing lack of recovery, a small-scale coral transplant project was initiated in the Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands) in 1999 and was followed for 12 years. The primary objectives were to (1) identify a source of coral colonies for transplantation that would not result in damage to reefs, (2) test the feasibility of transplanting storm-generated coral fragments, and (3) develop a simple, inexpensive method for transplanting fragments that could be conducted by the local community. The ultimate goal was to enhance abundance of threatened reef-building species on local reefs. Storm-produced coral fragments of two threatened reef-building species [Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Acroporidae)] and another fast-growing species [Porites porites (Poritidae)] were collected from environments hostile to coral fragment survival and transplanted to degraded reefs. Inert nylon cable ties were used to attach transplanted coral fragments to dead coral substrate. Survival of 75 reference colonies and 60 transplants was assessed over 12 years. Only 9% of colonies were alive after 12 years: no A. cervicornis; 3% of A. palmata transplants and 18% of reference colonies; and 13% of P. porites transplants and 7% of reference colonies. Mortality rates for all species were high and were similar for transplant and reference colonies. Physical dislodgement resulted in the loss of 56% of colonies, whereas 35% died in place. Only A. palmata showed a difference between transplant and reference colony survival and that was in the first year only. Location was a factor in survival only for A. palmata reference colonies and after year 10. Even though the tested methods and concepts were proven effective in the field over the 12-year study, they do not present a solution. No coral conservation strategy will be effective until underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors driving high mortality rates are understood and mitigated or

  9. Finite-gap solutions of 2+1 dimensional integrable nonlinear evolution equations generated by the Neumann systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinbing

    2010-08-01

    Each soliton equation in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy, the 2+1 dimensional breaking soliton equation, and the 2+1 dimensional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada (CDGKS) equation are reduced to two or three Neumann systems on the tangent bundle TSN -1 of the unit sphere SN -1. The Lax-Moser matrix for the Neumann systems of degree N -1 is deduced in view of the Mckean-Trubowitz identity and a bilinear generating function, whose favorite characteristic accounts for the problem of the genus of Riemann surface matching to the number of elliptic variables. From the Lax-Moser matrix, the constrained Hamiltonians in the sense of Dirac-Poisson bracket for all the Neumann systems are written down in a uniform recursively determined by integrals of motion. The involution of integrals of motion and constrained Hamiltonians is completed on TSN -1 by using a Lax equation and their functional independence is displayed over a dense open subset of TSN -1 by a direct calculation, which contribute to the Liouville integrability of a family of Neumann systems in a new systematical way. We also construct the hyperelliptic curve of Riemann surface and the Abel map straightening out the restricted Neumann flows that naturally leads to the Jacobi inversion problem on the Jacobian with the aid of the holomorphic differentials, from which some finite-gap solutions expressed by Riemann theta functions for the 2+1 dimensional breaking soliton equation, the 2+1 dimensional CDGKS equation, the KdV, and the fifth-order KdV equations are presented by means of the Riemann theorem.

  10. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  11. Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

    2012-06-01

    Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

  12. The solution to a conjecture of Tits on the subgroup generated by the squares of the generators of an Artin group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, John; Paris, Luis

    2001-07-01

    It was conjectured by Tits that the only relations amongst the squares of the standard generators of an Artin group are the obvious ones, namely that a^2 and b^2 commute if ab=ba appears as one of the Artin relations. In this paper we prove Tits' conjecture for all Artin groups. More generally, we show that, given a number m(s)>1 for each Artin generator s, the only relations amongst the powers s^m(s) of the generators are that a^m(a) and b^m(b) commute if ab=ba appears amongst the Artin relations.

  13. Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

  14. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  15. Fourth branchial pouch sinus: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, R M; Biller, H F

    1991-07-01

    The fourth branchial pouch sinus (FBPS) is a rare translaryngeal anomaly with diverse manifestations, including neonatal stridor and recurrent deep neck infection. Review of the world literature reveals 23 reports of sinuses consistent with fourth pouch origin. We present two additional cases, including the only example of a right-sided FBPS. Retrograde excision, beginning at the piriform apex, ensures complete removal of the tract and protection of the recurrent nerve. The posterior border of the thyroid ala must be resected or retracted for adequate exposure. Failure to remove the translaryngeal portion of the tract almost guarantees recurrence.

  16. Fourth-order coherent Raman microspectroscopy for detection of material symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Kanoh, Hiroto; Niioka, Hirohiko; Araki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Coherent Raman scattering provides chemical imaging by using molecular vibrational information sensitive to molecular structure. To add another information of martial symmetry, we propose using fourth order coherent Raman scattering for imaging, because the even order nonlinear phenomenon is forbidden for centro-symmetric material. We have developed a multiplex fourth order coherent Raman scattering microscopy system using a femtosecond laser. A narrowband beam of 17 cm-1 bandwidth and a broadband beam generated by a photonic crystal fiber enables to obtain a spectrum of fourth order coherent Raman scattering at once. We demonstrate the fourth order coherent Raman, hyper-Raman and second harmonics of trans-4'-(dimethylamino)-N-methyl-4- stilbazolium tosylate crystal by using the developed microscope.

  17. Real-Time Investigation of Chemical Compositions and Hygroscopic Properties of Aerosols Generated from NaCl and Malonic Acid Mixture Solutions Using in Situ Raman Microspectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Gupta, Dhrubajyoti; Lee, Jisoo; Park, Geonhee; Ro, Chul-Un

    2017-01-03

    Recently, ambient sea spray aerosols (SSAs) have been reported to undergo reactions with dicarboxylic acids (DCAs). Several studies have examined the hygroscopic behavior and chemical reactivity of aerosols generated from NaCl-DCA mixture solutions, but the results have varied, especially for the NaCl-malonic acid (NaCl-MA) mixture system. In this work, in situ Raman microspectrometry (RMS) was used to simultaneously monitor the change in chemical composition, size, and phase as a function of the relative humidity, for individual aerosols generated from NaCl-MA solutions, during two hygroscopic measurement cycles, which were performed first through the dehydration process, followed by a humidification process, in each cycle. In situ RMS analysis for the aerosols showed that the chemical reaction between NaCl and MA occurred rapidly in the time scale of 1 h and considerably in the aqueous phase, mostly during the first dehydration process, and the chemical reaction occurs more rapidly when MA is more enriched in the aerosols. For example, the reaction between NaCl and MA for aerosols generated from solutions of NaCl:MA = 2:1 and 1:2 occurred by 81% and 100% at RH = 42% and 45%, respectively, during the first dehydration process. The aerosols generated from the solution of NaCl:MA = 2:1 revealed single efflorescence and deliquescence transitions repeatedly during two hygroscopic cycles. The aerosols from NaCl:MA = 1:1 and 1:2 solutions showed just an efflorescence transition during the first dehydration process and no efflorescence and deliquescence transition during the hygroscopic cycles, respectively. The observed different hygroscopic behavior was due to the different contents of NaCl, MA, and monosodium malonate in the aerosols, which were monitored real-time by in situ RMS.

  18. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Ault, Kellie L.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remains the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions at or near the wormhole throat. Some exotic matter might still be needed at the junction between our solutions and flat spacetime, but we demonstrate that the averaged null energy condition (as evaluated along radial null geodesics) is satisfied for a particular set of wormhole geometries. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  19. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Ault, Kellie

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel. This work was supported by a Grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  20. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  1. Reading Aloud to Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Frances

    A study determined if regular listening to oral reading by the teacher affected fourth-grade students' level of comprehension. Subjects were 47 students from an elementary school in central New Jersey. Twenty-five students were read to for 30 minutes daily for 8 weeks in addition to their regular classroom reading instruction. The remaining 22…

  2. The Fourth Domain of Educational Objectives: Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Wes

    1985-01-01

    Tests the claim to comprehensiveness of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives by analyzing educational objectives of some freshmen orientation programs and those connected with human developmental tasks. It is concluded that the taxonomy should be enlarged with a fourth domain: actual induction into tasks for which students are being…

  3. Singapore: The Fourth Way in Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article has two main objectives. It first outlines the first three waves of change termed by Hargreaves and Shirley (The Fourth Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, "2009") as the First, Second and Third Way that defined global educational policy and practice since the 1960s. It then…

  4. The Fourth Basic: Computer Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.

    Traditionally, the fundamental goal of all American education has been to provide students with adequate competencies in reading, writing, and mathematics. A year-long project, conducted at three high schools in Hardin County, Kentucky, provided for the development of a fourth basic: computer skills. Through this project, computer skills were…

  5. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  6. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  7. "Researching" with Third- and Fourth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    In order to instill in children the skills which will be basic to their school experience, words implying a process (such as "hemp,""parasite," and "vanilla") may be "researched" by third and fourth graders through the use of a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a supplementary book on the subject, and an interview with an adult. The child makes a…

  8. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  9. Fourth Graders Do Write About Their Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biberstine, Richard D.

    1968-01-01

    The question of whether or not intermediate grade children write about their problems was the focus of an investigation conducted among 363 fourth grade students. Children were requested to respond to a paragraph concerning change in the world by writing a compostion answering how and what they would change if they had the power. Findings showed…

  10. Two-boundary grid generation for the solution of the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A grid generation technique called the two boundary technique is developed and applied for the solution of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed from a cartesian coordinate system to a computational coordinate system, and the grid generation technique provides the Jacobian matrix describing the transformation. The two boundary technique is based on algebraically defining two distinct boundaries of a flow domain and the distribution of the grid is achieved by applying functions to the uniform computational grid which redistribute the computational independent variables and consequently concentrate or disperse the grid points in the physical domain. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a MacCormack time-split technique. Grids and supersonic laminar flow solutions are obtained for a family of three dimensional corners and two spike-nosed bodies.

  11. Solution study of a structurally characterized monoalkoxo-bound monooxo-vanadium(V) complex: spontaneous generation of the corresponding oxobridged divanadium(V,V) complex and its electroreduction to a mixed-valence species in solution.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Rupam; Sengupta, Parbati; Sutradhar, Manas; Mak, Thomas C W; Ghosh, Saktiprosad

    2008-07-07

    An interesting transformation of a structurally characterized monooxoalkoxovanadium(V) complex [VO(OEt)L] (LH 2 = a dibasic tridentate ONO donor ligand) in solution leading to the formation of the corresponding monooxobridged divanadium(V,V) complex (VOL) 2O is reported. This binuclear species in solution is adequately characterized by elemental analysis, measurement of conductance (in solution), various spectroscopic (UV-vis, IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry) techiniques and by cyclic voltammetry. The corresponding mixed-valence vanadium(IV,V) species has been generated in CH 3CN solution by controlled potential electrolysis of (VOL) 2O. This mixed-valence species is identified and studied by EPR technique (at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature) and also by UV-vis spectroscopy. This study may be regarded as a general method of obtaining monooxo-bridged binuclear vanadium(V,V) species from the corresponding mononuclear monooxoalkoxovanadium(V) complexes of some selected dibasic tridentate ONO chelating ligands, which can be utilized as the precursor of monooxobridged divanadium(IV,V) mixed-valence species in solution obtainable by controlled potential electrolysis.

  12. Titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination on an automated platform: application in the generation of urea and amide libraries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S; Fan, L; Vo, L; Labadie, J

    2000-04-01

    Amine libraries and their derivatives are important targets for high throughput synthesis because of their versatility as medicinal agents and agrochemicals. As a part of our efforts towards automated chemical library synthesis, a titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination protocol was successfully translated to automation on the Trident(TM) library synthesizer of Argonaut Technologies. An array of 24 secondary amines was prepared in high yield and purity from 4 primary amines and 6 carbonyl compounds. These secondary amines were further utilized in a split synthesis to generate libraries of ureas, amides and sulfonamides in solution phase on the Trident(TM). The automated runs included 192 reactions to synthesize 96 ureas in duplicate and 96 reactions to synthesize 48 amides and 48 sulfonamides. A number of polymer-assisted solution phase protocols were employed for parallel work-up and purification of the products in each step.

  13. An Application of the Finite Element Method to the Solution of Low Reynolds Number, Incompressible Flow Around a Joukowski Aerofoil, with Emphasis on Automatic Generation of Grids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Library Universities and Colleges Sydney Dr G.P. Steven, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering SPARES (10 copies) TOTAL (50 copies) * 1’ Department of...ORGANISATION AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES MELBOURNE, VICTORIA AsZodynaiLcs Tecbhical ismiro a 349 AN APPLICATION OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO THE...SOLUTION OF LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW AROUND A JOUIKOWSKI AEROFOIL , WITH EMPHASIS ON ALJTOMATIC GENERATION OF 6RIDS T. TDTIC SELECTED SEP29

  14. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period focused on assembling the supercritical particle generation/collection system. Effort was applied to constructing a shakedown testing plan also.

  15. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition among Referred Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Wilson, Sharise M.; Kotz, Kasey M.; Carbone, Maria C.; Babula, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Factor analysis was applied to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) scores of 432 Pennsylvania students referred for evaluation for special education services to determine the factor structure of the WISC-IV with this population. A first-order, four-factor oblique solution that mirrored that found in the WISC-IV…

  16. Analytical and numerical solutions of the potential and electric field generated by different electrode arrays in a tumor tissue under electrotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy is a relatively well established and efficient method of tumor treatment. In this paper we focus on analytical and numerical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions inside a tumor tissue in a two-dimensional model (2D-model) generated by means of electrode arrays with shapes of different conic sections (ellipse, parabola and hyperbola). Methods Analytical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions based on 2D-models for different electrode arrays are performed by solving the Laplace equation, meanwhile the numerical solution is solved by means of finite element method in two dimensions. Results Both analytical and numerical solutions reveal significant differences between the electric field distributions generated by electrode arrays with shapes of circle and different conic sections (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic). Electrode arrays with circular, elliptical and hyperbolic shapes have the advantage of concentrating the electric field lines in the tumor. Conclusion The mathematical approach presented in this study provides a useful tool for the design of electrode arrays with different shapes of conic sections by means of the use of the unifying principle. At the same time, we verify the good correspondence between the analytical and numerical solutions for the potential and electric field distributions generated by the electrode array with different conic sections. PMID:21943385

  17. A note on the generation of phase plane plots on a digital computer. [for solution of nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented for generating phase plane plots on a digital computer which circumvents the difficulties associated with more traditional methods of numerical solving nonlinear differential equations. In particular, the nonlinear differential equation of operation is formulated.

  18. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period was devoted to experimental design and fabrication tasks.

  19. Community-Based Social Networks: Generation of Power Law Degree Distribution and IP Solutions to the KPP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wentao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is two-fold: (1) to investigate the degree distribution property of community-based social networks (CSNs) and (2) to provide solutions to a pertinent problem, the Key Player Problem. In the first part of this thesis, we consider a growing community-based network in which the ability of nodes competing for links to new…

  20. ATHOS: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 1. Mathematical and physical models and method of solution. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Spalding, D.B.; Srikantiah, G.S.

    1982-10-01

    ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators) is a computer code developed by CHAM of North America Incorporated, under the contract RP 1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. ATHOS supersedes the earlier code URSULA2. ATHOS is designed for three-dimensional, steady state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. The current version of the code has been checked out for: three different configurations of the recirculating-type U-tube steam generators; the homogeneous and algebraic-slip flow models; and full and part load operating conditions. The description of ATHOS is divided into four volumes. Volume 1 includes the mathematical and physical models and method of solution.

  1. Origin of caves and other solution openings in the unsaturated ( vadose) zone of carbonate rocks: a model for CO2 generation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The enigma that caves and other solution openings form in carbonate rocks at great depths below land surface rather than forming from the surface downward can be explained by the generation of CO2 within the aquifer system. In the proposed model, CO2 is generated by the oxidation of particulate and/or dissolved organic carbon that is transported from the land surface deep into the unsaturated zone by recharging ground water. The organic material is oxidized to CO2 by aerobic bacteria utilizing oxygen that diffuses in from the atmosphere. Because gas transport in the unsaturated zone is controlled largely by diffusion, steady-state generation of even minute amounts of CO2 deep in the unsaturated zone results in the creation of large concentrations of CO2 at depth as it establishes a concentration gradient to the surface or other sink. -from Author

  2. Pseudospectral collocation methods for fourth order differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Alaeddin; Phillips, Timothy N.

    1994-01-01

    Collocation schemes are presented for solving linear fourth order differential equations in one and two dimensions. The variational formulation of the model fourth order problem is discretized by approximating the integrals by a Gaussian quadrature rule generalized to include the values of the derivative of the integrand at the boundary points. Collocation schemes are derived which are equivalent to this discrete variational problem. An efficient preconditioner based on a low-order finite difference approximation to the same differential operator is presented. The corresponding multidomain problem is also considered and interface conditions are derived. Pseudospectral approximations which are C1 continuous at the interfaces are used in each subdomain to approximate the solution. The approximations are also shown to be C3 continuous at the interfaces asymptotically. A complete analysis of the collocation scheme for the multidomain problem is provided. The extension of the method to the biharmonic equation in two dimensions is discussed and results are presented for a problem defined in a nonrectangular domain.

  3. The "fourth dimension" of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Bert W

    2009-05-01

    The three dimensions of space provide our relationship to position on the earth, but the fourth dimension of time has an equally profound influence on our lives. Everything from light and sound to weather and biology operate on the principle of measurable temporal periodicity. Consequently, a wide variety of time clocks affect all aspects of our existence. The annual (and biannual) cycles of activity, metabolism, and mating, the monthly physiological clocks of women and men, and the 24-h diurnal rhythms of humans are prime examples. Should it be surprising to us that the fourth dimension also impinges upon gene expression and that the genome itself is regulated by the fastest running of all biological clocks? Recent evidence substantiates the existence of such a ubiquitin-dependent transcriptional clock that is based upon the activation and destruction of transcriptional coactivators.

  4. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE = TdS - PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called ;Legendre transformation; at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  5. Fourth international circumpolar arctic vegetation mapping workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Markon, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    During the week of April 10, 2001, the Fourth International Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Mapping Workshop was held in Moscow, Russia. The purpose of this meeting was to bring together the vegetation scientists working on the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) to (1) review the progress of current mapping activities, (2) discuss and agree upon a standard set of arctic tundra subzones, (3) plan for the production and dissemination of a draft map, and (4) begin work on a legend for the final map.

  6. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  7. Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-04-22

    CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  8. Documentation of the Fourth Order Band Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, fourth order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.

  9. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference was to focus on the flight validation of high angle-of-attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle-of-attack activities. Areas that were covered include: high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, tactical utility, and forebody controls.

  10. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference, held at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on July 12-14, 1994, was to focus on the flight validation of high angle of attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle of attack activities. Areas that were covered include high angle of attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, and tactical utility.

  11. Developing a yearlong Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) learning sequence focused on climate solutions: opportunities, challenges and reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.; Centeno, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four years, the Green Ninja Project (GNP) has been developing educational media (e.g., videos, games and online lessons) to help motivate student interest and engagement around climate science and solutions. Inspired by the new emphasis in NGSS on climate change, human impact and engineering design, the GNP is developing a technology focused, integrative, and yearlong science curriculum focused around solutions to climate change. Recognizing the importance of teacher training on the successful implementation of NGSS, we have also integrated teacher professional development into our curriculum. During the presentation, we will describe the design philosophy around our middle school curriculum and share data from a series of classes that are piloting the curriculum during Fall 2015. We will also share our perspectives on how data, media creation and engineering can be used to create educational experiences that model the type of 'three-dimensional learning' encouraged by NGSS.

  12. Exact Nonlinear Fourth-order Equation for Two Coupled Oscillators: Metamorphoses of Resonance Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyzioł, J.; Okniński, A.

    We study dynamics of two coupled periodically driven oscillators. The internal motion is separated off exactly to yield a nonlinear fourth-order equation describing inner dynamics. Periodic steady-state solutions of the fourth-order equation are determined within the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky approach - we compute the amplitude profiles, which from mathematical point of view are algebraic curves. In the present paper we investigate metamorphoses of amplitude profiles induced by changes of control parameters near singular points of these curves. It follows that dynamics changes qualitatively in the neighbourhood of a singular point.

  13. Pipe line rules of thumb handbook. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, E.W.

    1998-12-01

    This revised fourth edition contains an updated collection of straightforward, common-sense techniques that provide quick solutions to pipeline problems. This book is the foundation of the pipeline library with its hundreds of shortcuts, calculations, and practical how-to methods. Whether concerned with design, construction, or engineering for oil, gas, or products pipelines, one will find fast answers here. This easy-to-read book provides new conversion tables and valuable new information on basic mathematical formulas (areas, surfaces, and volumes), stress in guy wires, land descriptions, polypipe design data, floodlighting concepts, marine hose data, rotary screw pumps, and much more. One will learn how to estimate leakage and determine batch injection rates. The chapters on electrical design, liquids, and economics have been significantly expanded.

  14. Fourth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains copies of all those technical papers received in time for publication just prior to the Fourth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage and Technologies, held March 28-30, 1995, at the University of Maryland, University College Conference Center, in College Park, Maryland. This series of conferences continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include new storage technology, stability of recorded media, performance studies, storage system solutions, the National Information infrastructure (Infobahn), the future for storage technology, and lessons learned from various projects. There also will be an update on the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5, on which the final vote was taken in July 1994.

  15. Oscillation properties of some functional fourth order hyperbolic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Z.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we apply our recent results for fourth order functional ordinary differential equations and inequalities and obtain sufficient conditions for oscillation of all sufficiently smooth solutions of the following equation ∑ i+j = 2;4ai,j∂i+ju(x,y)/∂xi∂yj+ ∑ i = 1nbi(x,y)u(x-σi,y-τi)+c(x,y,u) = f(x,y), where x>0,y>0,ai,j∈R,σi≥0 and τi ≥ 0 are constants for all the indices. Also, we suppose that n∈N,bi(x,y)∈C(R+2;R+), ∀i = 1-n;c(x,y,u)∈C(R+2,R;R) and f(x,y)∈C(R+2;R). In particular, we establish sufficient conditions for the distribution of zeros this equation.

  16. 7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING AND STAIRS AT MISSION STREET OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fourth Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. DNA profiles, computer searches, and the Fourth Amendment.

    PubMed

    Kimel, Catherine W

    2013-01-01

    Pursuant to federal statutes and to laws in all fifty states, the United States government has assembled a database containing the DNA profiles of over eleven million citizens. Without judicial authorization, the government searches each of these profiles one-hundred thousand times every day, seeking to link database subjects to crimes they are not suspected of committing. Yet, courts and scholars that have addressed DNA databasing have focused their attention almost exclusively on the constitutionality of the government's seizure of the biological samples from which the profiles are generated. This Note fills a gap in the scholarship by examining the Fourth Amendment problems that arise when the government searches its vast DNA database. This Note argues that each attempt to match two DNA profiles constitutes a Fourth Amendment search because each attempted match infringes upon database subjects' expectations of privacy in their biological relationships and physical movements. The Note further argues that database searches are unreasonable as they are currently conducted, and it suggests an adaptation of computer-search procedures to remedy the constitutional deficiency.

  18. What's Important about the Past: American Fourth Graders' Interpretations of Historical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Gary; Rios-Alers, Jennifer; Seilbach, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a university researcher and two teacher researchers collaborated in a classroom study of how 26 American fourth graders (9-year-olds) used primary source photographs to evaluate the historical significance of events in their community's past. Interpreting the photographs as historical evidence, students generated ideas and…

  19. The oxygen isotope evolution of parent body aqueous solutions as recorded by multiple carbonate generations in the Lonewolf Nunataks 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-11-01

    The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101 contains aragonite and two generations of calcite that provide snapshots of the chemical and isotopic evolution of aqueous solutions during parent body alteration. Aragonite was the first carbonate to crystallize. It is rare, heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite matrix, and its mean oxygen isotope values are δ18O 39.9 ± 0.6‰, Δ17O -0.3 ± 1.0‰ (1σ). Calcite precipitated soon afterwards, and following a fall in solution Mg/Ca ratios, to produce small equant grains with a mean oxygen isotope value of δ18O 37.5 ± 0.7‰, Δ17O 1.4 ± 1.1‰ (1σ). These grains were partially or completely replaced by serpentine and tochilinite prior to precipitation of the second generation of calcite, which occluded an open fracture to form a millimetre-sized vein, and replaced anhydrous silicates within chondrules and the matrix. The vein calcite has a mean composition of δ18O 18.4 ± 0.3‰, Δ17O -0.5 ± 0.5‰ (1σ). Petrographic and isotopic results therefore reveal two discrete episodes of mineralisation that produced calcite generations with contrasting δ18O, and mean Δ17O values. The aragonite and equant calcite crystallized over a relatively brief period early in the aqueous alteration history of the parent body, and from static fluids that were evolving chemically in response to mineral dissolution and precipitation. The second calcite generation crystallized from solutions of a lower Δ17O, and a lower δ18O and/or higher temperature. As two generations of calcite whose petrographic characteristics and oxygen isotopic compositions are similar to those in LON 94101 occur in at least one other CM2, multiphase carbonate mineralisation could be the typical outcome of the sequence of chemical reactions during parent body aqueous alteration. It is equally possible however that the second generation of calcite formed in response to an event such as impact fracturing and concomitant fluid mobilisation that affected

  20. 7 CFR 51.2296 - Three-fourths half kernel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three-fourths half kernel. 51.2296 Section 51.2296 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...-fourths half kernel. Three-fourths half kernel means a portion of a half of a kernel which has more...

  1. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  2. A posteriori error estimation for hp -adaptivity for fourth-order equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Peter K.; Rangelova, Marina

    2010-04-01

    A posteriori error estimates developed to drive hp-adaptivity for second-order reaction-diffusion equations are extended to fourth-order equations. A C^1 hierarchical finite element basis is constructed from Hermite-Lobatto polynomials. A priori estimates of the error in several norms for both the interpolant and finite element solution are derived. In the latter case this requires a generalization of the well-known Aubin-Nitsche technique to time-dependent fourth-order equations. We show that the finite element solution and corresponding Hermite-Lobatto interpolant are asymptotically equivalent. A posteriori error estimators based on this equivalence for solutions at two orders are presented. Both are shown to be asymptotically exact on grids of uniform order. These estimators can be used to control various adaptive strategies. Computational results for linear steady-state and time-dependent equations corroborate the theory and demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimators in adaptive settings.

  3. EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals Generated Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous Solutions and Intracellular Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping and flow cytometry were used to identify free radicals generated using argon-cold atmospheric plasma (Ar-CAP) in aqueous solutions and intracellularly in comparison with those generated by X-irradiation. Ar-CAP was generated using a high-voltage power supply unit with low-frequency excitation. The characteristics of Ar-CAP were estimated by vacuum UV absorption and emission spectra measurements. Hydroxyl (·OH) radicals and hydrogen (H) atoms in aqueous solutions were identified with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (M4PO), and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). The occurrence of Ar-CAP-induced pyrolysis was evaluated using the spin trap 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate (DBNBS) in aqueous solutions of DNA constituents, sodium acetate, and L-alanine. Human lymphoma U937 cells were used to study intracellular oxidative stress using five fluorescent probes with different affinities to a number of reactive species. The analysis and quantification of EPR spectra revealed the formation of enormous amounts of ·OH radicals using Ar-CAP compared with that by X-irradiation. Very small amounts of H atoms were detected whereas nitric oxide was not found. The formation of ·OH radicals depended on the type of rare gas used and the yield correlated inversely with ionization energy in the order of krypton > argon = neon > helium. No pyrolysis radicals were detected in aqueous solutions exposed to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, ·OH, H2O2, which is the recombination product of ·OH, and OCl- were the most likely formed reactive oxygen species after exposure to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, there was no practical evidence for the formation of NO whereas very small amounts of superoxides were formed. Despite the superiority of Ar-CAP in forming ·OH radicals, the exposure to X-rays proved more lethal. The mechanism of free radical formation in aqueous solutions and an

  4. EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals Generated Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous Solutions and Intracellular Milieu.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping and flow cytometry were used to identify free radicals generated using argon-cold atmospheric plasma (Ar-CAP) in aqueous solutions and intracellularly in comparison with those generated by X-irradiation. Ar-CAP was generated using a high-voltage power supply unit with low-frequency excitation. The characteristics of Ar-CAP were estimated by vacuum UV absorption and emission spectra measurements. Hydroxyl (·OH) radicals and hydrogen (H) atoms in aqueous solutions were identified with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (M4PO), and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). The occurrence of Ar-CAP-induced pyrolysis was evaluated using the spin trap 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate (DBNBS) in aqueous solutions of DNA constituents, sodium acetate, and L-alanine. Human lymphoma U937 cells were used to study intracellular oxidative stress using five fluorescent probes with different affinities to a number of reactive species. The analysis and quantification of EPR spectra revealed the formation of enormous amounts of ·OH radicals using Ar-CAP compared with that by X-irradiation. Very small amounts of H atoms were detected whereas nitric oxide was not found. The formation of ·OH radicals depended on the type of rare gas used and the yield correlated inversely with ionization energy in the order of krypton > argon = neon > helium. No pyrolysis radicals were detected in aqueous solutions exposed to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, ·OH, H2O2, which is the recombination product of ·OH, and OCl- were the most likely formed reactive oxygen species after exposure to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, there was no practical evidence for the formation of NO whereas very small amounts of superoxides were formed. Despite the superiority of Ar-CAP in forming ·OH radicals, the exposure to X-rays proved more lethal. The mechanism of free radical formation in aqueous solutions and an

  5. Density-functional-theory study of the electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) of push pull phenylpolyenes in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Frediani, Luca; Cappelli, Chiara; Sałek, Paweł; Ågren, Hans; Helgaker, Trygve; Ruud, Kenneth

    2006-07-01

    Density-functional theory and the polarizable continuum model have been used to calculate the electric-field-induced second harmonic generation of a series of push-pull phenylpolyenes in chloroform solution. The calculations have been performed using both the Becke 3-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr functional and the recently developed Coulomb-attenuated method functional. Solvation has been investigated by examining the effects of the reaction field, non-equilibrium solvation, geometry relaxation, and cavity field. The inclusion of solvent effects leads to significantly better agreement with experimental observations.

  6. Envelope instability and the fourth order resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhao, Ya Liang

    2014-12-01

    The well-known envelope instability or the second order even collective mode [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4 (1998)] and the fourth order resonance 4 σ =360 ° due to the nonlinear space charge effect in high intensity beams have been studied previously. A wide stop band around 15° is found in a pure periodic focusing channel. In addition, it is illustrated that the fourth order resonance dominates over the envelope instability and practically replaces it in the stop band [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009)]. In this paper, for a continuous beam with remarkable space charge, our 2D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation work with the code topopic shows these two kinds of effects respectively in a periodic focusing defocusing (FD) channel. For a fixed tune depression η =0.8 , a stop band with a width of almost 15° is also demonstrated. Moreover, it is confirmed that analytical results of the rms envelope instability diagram are a valid tool to interpret the width of the stop band. Emittance growth rates in stop band are also well explained. It is found that, for a nearly rms matched beam, the emittance growth in the stop band is almost proportional to the saturation time of the nonlinear instability of the envelope, which happens in a quick manner and takes only a few FD cells. In contrast, the fourth order resonance is independent of rms matching and will be accompanied by beam evolution as "a long term effect" once the related mechanism is excited.

  7. Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at The Nagaragawa Convention Center in Gifu, Japan, on October 30 - November 1, 1997. The symposium included 13 sessions in which a total of 35 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of maglev, controls, high critical temperature (T(sub c)) superconductivity, bearings, magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS), levitation, modeling, and applications. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  8. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, S.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Moner-Girona, M.

    2011-07-01

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent European Commission and UNEP policy.

  9. The classical Taub-Nut system: factorization, spectrum generating algebra and solution to the equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, Danilo; Ragnisco, Orlando

    2015-05-01

    The formalism of SUperSYmmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) is properly modified in such a way to be suitable for the description and the solution of a classical maximally superintegrable Hamiltonian system, the so-called Taub-Nut system, associated with the Hamiltonian: In full agreement with the results recently derived by Ballesteros et al for the quantum case, we show that the classical Taub-Nut system shares a number of essential features with the Kepler system, that is just its Euclidean version arising in the limit η \\to 0, and for which a ‘SUSYQM’ approach has been recently introduced by Kuru and Negro. In particular, for positive η and negative energy the motion is always periodic; it turns out that the period depends upon η and goes to the Euclidean value as η \\to 0. Moreover, the maximal superintegrability is preserved by the η-deformation, due to the existence of a larger symmetry group related to an η-deformed Runge-Lenz vector, which ensures that in {{{R}}3} closed orbits are again ellipses. In this context, a deformed version of the third Kepler’s law is also recovered. The closing section is devoted to a discussion of the η \\lt 0 case, where new and partly unexpected features arise.

  10. Optimization of second harmonic generation of gold nanospheres and nanorods in aqueous solution: the dominant role of surface area.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Nguyen, Phuong Phong; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-01-28

    Size and shape of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have a strong influence on their second order nonlinear optical properties. In this work, we propose a systematic investigation of surface and shape effects in the case of small gold nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions on AuNPs with different sizes and shapes have been synthesized, i.e. nanospheres (diameters 3.0; 11.6; 15.8; 17.4; 20.0 and 43 nm) and nanorods (aspect ratios 1.47; 1.63 and 2.30). The first hyperpolarizability β values of these AuNPs have been measured by harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm. For nanospheres and nanorods, we found that their β values are governed by a purely local, dipolar contribution, as confirmed by their surface area dependence. As an important consequence of these surface effects, we have revisited the previously reported aspect ratio dependence of β values for gold nanorods, and evidenced the predominant influence of nanoparticle area over aspect ratio considerations.

  11. Primary solitary lymphoma of the fourth ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Huang-I; Lai, Ping-Hong; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Shong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary central nervous lymphoma(PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the central nervous system. Most of the lesions are supratentorial and periventricular, often involving deep structures such as corpus callosum and basal ganglion. Isolated intraventricular lymphoma is rare and only a few case reports. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the seventh case of isolated PCNSL in the fourth ventricle in an immunocompetent patient. Presentation of case A 61-year-old male presenting with 3 months of headache and dizziness followed with unsteady gait for days. The MR imaging of brain revealed a homogeneously enhancing lesion occupying almost the whole 4th ventricle.The tumor was removed subtotally via suboccipital craniotomy. Histopathology revealed the lesion be a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Discussion PCNSL is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesion. The unusual location in surgically accessible fourth ventricle in posterior fossa, the isolation of the tumor may present a compelling indication for surgical resection. Conclusion We suggest that primary lymphoma should be considered with homogenous lesions of the 4th ventricle. Also aggressive surgical resection in this surgically accessible location, instead of biopsy only, is rational. PMID:26209757

  12. A Fourth Order Difference Scheme for the Maxwell Equations on Yee Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Fathy, Aly E; Wilson, Joshua L

    2008-09-01

    The Maxwell equations are solved by a long-stencil fourth order finite difference method over a Yee grid, in which different physical variables are located at staggered mesh points. A careful treatment of the numerical values near the boundary is introduced, which in turn leads to a 'symmetric image' formula at the 'ghost' grid points. Such a symmetric formula assures the stability of the boundary extrapolation. In turn, the fourth order discrete curl operator for the electric and magnetic vectors gives a complete set of eigenvalues in the purely imaginary axis. To advance the dynamic equations, the four-stage Runge-Kutta method is utilized, which results in a full fourth order accuracy in both time and space. A stability constraint for the time step is formulated at both the theoretical and numerical levels, using an argument of stability domain. An accuracy check is presented to verify the fourth order precision, using a comparison between exact solution and numerical solutions at a fixed final time. In addition, some numerical simulations of a loss-less rectangular cavity are also carried out and the frequency is measured precisely.

  13. Vibratory motion of fourth order fluid film over a unsteady heated flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohmand, Muhammad Ismail; Mamat, Mustafa Bin; Shah, Qayyum; Gul, Taza

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of heat transfer is studied in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thin layer flow of an unsteady fourth grade fluid past a moving and oscillating vertical plate for lift and drainage problem. The governing equations are modelled in terms of nonlinear partial differential equations with some physical boundary conditions. Two different analytical methods, namely Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) and the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) are used for finding the series solution of the problem. The solutions obtained through two different techniques are compared using graphs and tables and found an excellent agreement. The variants of embedded flow parameters in the solution are analyzed through graphical illustrations.

  14. A fingerprinting mixing model approach to generate uniformly representative solutions for distributed contributions of sediment sources in a Pyrenean drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazón, Leticia; Gaspar, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Blake, Will; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Spanish Pyrenean reservoirs are under pressure from high sediment yields in contributing catchments. Sediment fingerprinting approaches offer potential to quantify the contribution of different sediment sources, evaluate catchment erosion dynamics and develop management plans to tackle the reservoir siltation problems. The drainage basin of the Barasona reservoir (1509 km2), located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, is an alpine-prealpine agroforest basin supplying sediments to the reservoir at an annual rate of around 350 t km-2 with implications for reservoir longevity. The climate is mountain type, wet and cold, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean influences. Steep slopes and the presence of deep and narrow gorges favour rapid runoff and large floods. The ability of geochemical fingerprint properties to discriminate between the sediment sources was investigated by conducting the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (minimization of Wilk's lambda). This standard procedure selects potential fingerprinting properties as optimum composite fingerprint to characterize and discriminate between sediment sources to the reservoir. Then the contribution of each potential sediment source was assessed by applying a Monte Carlo mixing model to obtain source proportions for the Barasona reservoir sediment samples. The Monte Carlo mixing model was written in C programming language and designed to deliver a user-defined number possible solutions. A Combinatorial Principals method was used to identify the most probable solution with associated uncertainty based on source variability. The unique solution for each sample was characterized by the mean value and the standard deviation of the generated solutions and the lower goodness of fit value applied. This method is argued to guarantee a similar set of representative solutions in all unmixing cases based on likelihood of occurrence. Soil samples for the different potential sediment

  15. Generation of Free Oxygen Atoms O(3P) in Solution by Photolysis of 4-Benzoylpyridine N-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, Jack M.; Bakac, Andreja

    2014-08-04

    Laser flash photolysis of 4-benzoylpyridine N-oxide (BPyO) at 308 nm in aqueous solutions generates a triplet excited state 3BPyO* that absorbs strongly in the visible, λmax 490 and 380 nm. 3BPyO* decays with the rate law kdecay/s-1 = (3.3 ± 0.9) × 104 + (1.5 ± 0.2) × 109 [BPyO] to generate a mixture of isomeric hydroxylated benzoylpyridines, BPy(OH), in addition to small amounts of oxygen atoms, O(3P). Molecular oxygen quenches 3BPyO*, kQ = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1, but the yields of O(3P) increase in O2-saturated solutions to 36%. Other triplet quenchers have a similar effect, which rules out the observed 3BPyO* as a source of O(3P). It is concluded that O(3P) is produced from either 1BPyO* or a short-lived, unobserved, higher energy triplet generated directly from 1BPyO*. 3BPyO* is reduced by Fe2+ and by ABTS2- to the radical anion BPyO.- which exhibits a maximum at 510 nm, ε = 2200 M-1 cm-1. The anion engages in back electron transfer with ABTS.- with k = 1.7 × 109 M-1 s-1. The same species can be generated by reducing ground state BPyO with .C(CH3)2OH. The photochemistry of BPyO in acetonitrile is similar to that in aqueous solutions.

  16. On a novel graded areal density solution to facilitate ramp wave generation in plate-impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, J. D.; Fitzmaurice, B. C.; Goff, M.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Pinto, T.

    2017-01-01

    Building on a substantial body of work on functionally graded materials in the literature, it has been previously shown that the use of graded areal density impactors, in conjunction with buffer materials, allows generation of ramp-wave loading profiles in impacted targets. Such off-principle-Hugoniot loading paths are of particular interest where control of one or more state variables (e.g. temperature) is desirable during the loading event. Previous attempts to produce suitable graded areal density impactors have focused on rapid prototyping techniques such as 3D printing. While suitable for small-scale production of impactors, such technologies are relatively immature. Instead, here a novel approach to creating graded areal density structures - TWI Ltd.'s novel surface modification process, Surfi-Sculpt®, with a nominal surface spike distribution of 1.5 per mm2, has been employed to produce the required impactors. Initial experimental results are presented highlighting the potential of this experimental approach; further, these results -combined with basic hydrocode simulations - are used to postulate idealised structures which would allow useful loading paths such as the Adiabat to be readily accessed.

  17. An Analytical Solution for Exciton Generation, Reaction, and Diffusion in Nanotube and Nanowire-Based Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Bellisario, Darin O; Paulson, Joel A; Braatz, Richard D; Strano, Michael S

    2016-07-21

    Excitonic solar cells based on aligned or unaligned networks of nanotubes or nanowires offer advantages with respect of optical absorption, and control of excition and electrical carrier transport; however, there is a lack of predictive models of the optimal orientation and packing density of such devices to maximize efficiency. Here-in, we develop a concise analytical framework that describes the orientation and density trade-off on exciton collection computed from a deterministic model of a carbon nanotube (CNT) photovoltaic device under steady-state operation that incorporates single- and aggregate-nanotube photophysics published earlier (Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7, 3769). We show that the maximal film efficiency is determined by a parameter grouping, α, representing the product of the network density and the effective exciton diffusion length, reflecting a cooperativity between the rate of exciton generation and the rate of exciton transport. This allows for a simple, master plot of EQE versus film thickness, parametric in α allowing for optimal design. This analysis extends to any excitonic solar cell with anisotropic transport elements, including polymer, nanowire, quantum dot, and nanocarbon photovoltaics.

  18. Six-month color change and water sorption of 9 new-generation flowable composites in 6 staining solutions.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Maria; Giner, Luis; Ferrari, Marco; Vallés, Marta; Mercadé, Montserrat

    2016-11-28

    Color match and water sorption are two factors that affect restorative materials. Discoloration is essential in the lifespan of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate color change and water sorption of nine flowable composites at multiple time points over 6 months. 60 samples of each composite were divided into two groups (Color Change and Water Sorption/Solubility). Each Color Change group was divided into six subgroups, which were immersed in distilled water (DW), coffee (CF), Coca-Cola (CC), red wine (RW), tea (TE) and orange juice (OJ). The color was measured at the baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months and color change values (ΔE) were calculated. Each Water Sorption [WS]/Solubility [WL] group was tested according to ISO 4049:2009. The data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA, Fisher's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation test. The composite with the lowest ΔE differed for each solution: Filtek™ Bulk Fill in DW (∆E = 0.73 (0.17-1.759)); Vertise Flow in CF (∆E = 14.75 (7.91-27.41)), in TE (∆E = 7.27 (2.81-24.81)) and OJ (∆E = 3.17 (0.87-9.92)); Tetric EvoFlow® in CC (∆E = 1.27 (0.45-4.02)); and Filtek™ Supreme XTE in RW (∆E = 8.88 (5.23-19.59)). RW caused the most discoloration (∆E = 23.62 (4.93-51.36)). Vertise Flow showed the highest water sorption (WS = 69.10 ± 7.19). The Pearson test showed statistically significant positive correlations between water sorption and solubility and between water sorption and ∆E; the positive solubility-∆E correlation was not statistically significant. The findings suggest that water sorption is one factor associated with the ability of composites to discolor; however, discoloration is a multifactorial problem.

  19. Summary of the Fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitcuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.

  20. Ultracoatings: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through next-generation Nanocoatings Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2012-03-20

    A review of current commercially available, industrial-grade, low friction coatings will show that interfacial contact pressures nearing 1GPa ({approx}150ksi) inherently limit surface engineering solutions like WC, TiN, TiAlN, and so forth. Extremely hard coatings, then, are often pursued as the principle path, although they too are not without significant limitations. A majority of these compounds are inherently brittle in nature or may not pair well with their mating substrate. In either case, their durability in high contact stress environments is compromised. In parallel to thin film coatings, many conventional surface treatments do not yield an interface hard enough to withstand extreme stresses under load. New research into advanced, nanocomposite materials like (Ti, Zr)B2 shows great promise. Bulk compacts of this compound have demonstrated an order of magnitude better wear resistance than current offerings, notably materials like tungsten carbide. At a laboratory level, the (Ti,Zr)B2 nanocomposite material exhibited abrasive and erosive wear resistance nearly ten times better than existing mixed-phase boride systems. In ASTM abrasion and erosion testing, these new compositions exhibit wear resistance superior to other known advanced materials such as RocTec 500 and 'Borazon' cubic boron nitride. Many significant challenges exist for mass production of (Ti, Zr)B2, one of which is the necessary processing technology that is capable of minimizing deleterious impurity phases. Secondly, this material's performance is derived from a synergistic effect of the two materials existing as a single phase structure. While the individual constituents of TiB2 and ZrB2 do yield improvements to wear resistance, their singular effects are not as significant. Lastly, deposition of this material on a commercial level requires thorough knowledge of nanocomposite boride solids; the benefits associated with these innovative new materials are just being realized. Advancing this

  1. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. With the introduction of a Fourier expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields, a coupled two dimensional system is generated and solved via the finite element method. An exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh and the fast fourier transformation is used to evaluate the boundary integrals for low O(n) memory demand when an iterative solution algorithm is used. Second, the diffraction by a material discontinuity in a thick dielectric/ferrite layer is considered by modeling the layer as a distributed current sheet obeying generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC's).

  2. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2010-09-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  3. The fourth age of quantum chemistry: molecules in motion.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Mátyus, Edit; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Czakó, Gábor

    2012-01-21

    Developments during the last two decades in nuclear motion theory made it possible to obtain variational solutions to the time-independent, nuclear-motion Schrödinger equation of polyatomic systems as "exact" as the potential energy surface (PES) is. Nuclear motion theory thus reached a level whereby this branch of quantum chemistry started to catch up with the well developed and widely applied other branch, electronic structure theory. It seems to be fair to declare that we are now in the fourth age of quantum chemistry, where the first three ages are principally defined by developments in electronic structure techniques (G. Richards, Nature, 1979, 278, 507). In the fourth age we are able to incorporate into our quantum chemical treatment the motion of nuclei in an exact fashion and, for example, go beyond equilibrium molecular properties and compute accurate, temperature-dependent, effective properties, thus closing the gap between measurements and electronic structure computations. In this Perspective three fundamental algorithms for the variational solution of the time-independent nuclear-motion Schrödinger equation employing exact kinetic energy operators are presented: one based on tailor-made Hamiltonians, one on the Eckart-Watson Hamiltonian, and one on a general internal-coordinate Hamiltonian. It is argued that the most useful and most widely applicable procedure is the third one, based on a Hamiltonian containing a kinetic energy operator written in terms of internal coordinates and an arbitrary embedding of the body-fixed frame of the molecule. This Hamiltonian makes it feasible to treat the nuclear motions of arbitrary quantum systems, irrespective of whether they exhibit a single well-defined minimum or not, and of arbitrary reduced-dimensional models. As a result, molecular spectroscopy, an important field for the application of nuclear motion theory, has almost black-box-type tools at its disposal. Variational nuclear motion computations, based on

  4. Release of gas-phase halogens by photolytic generation of OH in frozen halide-nitrate solutions: an active halogen formation mechanism?

    PubMed

    Abbatt, J; Oldridge, N; Symington, A; Chukalovskiy, V; McWhinney, R D; Sjostedt, S; Cox, R A

    2010-06-17

    To better define the mechanisms by which condensed-phase halides may be oxidized to form gas-phase halogens under polar conditions, experiments have been conducted whereby frozen solutions containing chloride (1 M), bromide (1.6 x 10(-3) to 5 x 10(-2) M), iodide (<1 x 10(-5) M), and nitrate (0.01 to 1 M) have been illuminated by ultraviolet light in a continually flushed cell. Gas-phase products are quantified using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and experiments were conducted at both 248 and 263 K. Br(2) was the dominant product, along with smaller yields of IBr and trace BrCl and I(2). The Br(2) yields were largely independent of the Br(-)/Cl(-) ratio of the frozen solution, down to seawater composition. However, the yields of halogens were strongly dependent on the levels of NO(3)(-) and acidity in solution, consistent with a mechanism whereby NO(3)(-) photolysis yields OH that oxidizes the condensed-phase halides. In support, we observed the formation of gas-phase NO(2), formed simultaneously with OH. Gas-phase HONO was also observed, suggesting that halide oxidation by HONO in the condensed phase may also occur to some degree. By measuring the production rate of condensed-phase OH, using benzoic acid as a radical trap, we determine that the molar yield of Br(2) formation relative to OH generation is 0.6, consistent with each OH being involved in halide oxidation. These studies suggest that gas-phase halogen formation should occur simultaneously with NO(x) release from frozen sea ice and snow surfaces that contain sufficient halides and deposited nitrate.

  5. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. 95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. ATHOS3: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 1. Mathematical and physical models and method of solution

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.; Srikantiah, G.S.

    1986-07-01

    The mathematical and physical models as well as the method of solution are presented for ATHOS3. ATHOS3 is a computer code for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. It has been developed by upgrading an earlier code, ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators). Both ATHOS and ATHOS3 have been developed by CHAM of North America, Inc., under the contract RP1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute. ATHOS3 supercedes ATHOS and all other intermediate versions of the code. ATHOS3 has several additional capabilities, including a much improved and generalized geometry pre-processor module, and has been developed in a fully upwards-compatible manner from the predecessor ATHOS code. For the convenience of new users, the ATHOS3 code is documented in four self-contained volumes, i.e. no reference to the earlier ATHOS volumes is necessary. Furthermore, for the benefit of old (i.e. ATHOS code) users, it may be stated that the new (ATHOS3) documentation has been produced by updating and modifying the earlier documentation.

  8. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Leonard B

    2009-03-01

    This paper represents more than 30 years of discussion and collaboration with Drs Joseph Murray and John Mulliken in an attempt to understand growth patterns over time (ie, fourth dimension) in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). This is essential for the development of rational treatment protocols for children and adults with jaw asymmetry. Traditionally, HFM was thought of as a unilateral deformity, but it was recognized that 20% to 30% of patients had bilateral abnormalities. However, early descriptions of skeletal correction addressed almost exclusively lengthening of the short (affected) side of the face. Based on longitudinal clinical observations of unoperated HFM patients, we hypothesized that abnormal mandibular growth is the earliest skeletal manifestation and that restricted growth of the mandible plays a pivotal role in progressive distortion of both the ipsilateral and contralateral facial skeleton. This hypothesis explains the progressive nature of the asymmetry in patients with HFM and provides the rationale for surgical lengthening of the mandible in children to prevent end-stage deformity. During the past 30 years, we have learned that this phenomenon of progressive distortion of the adjacent and contralateral facial skeleton occurs with other asymmetric mandibular undergrowth (tumor resection, radiation therapy, or posttraumatic defects) and overgrowth (mandibular condylar hyperplasia) conditions. In this paper, I describe the progression of deformity with time in patients with mandibular asymmetry as a result of undergrowth and overgrowth. Understanding these concepts is critical for the development of rational treatment protocols for adults with end-stage asymmetry and for children to minimize secondary deformity.

  9. Neonatal hemifacial spasm and fourth ventricle mass.

    PubMed

    Specchio, Nicola; Trivisano, Marina; Bernardi, Bruno; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Faggioli, Raffaella; Fiumana, Elisa; Cappelletti, Simona; Delalande, Olivier; Vigevano, Federico; Fusco, Lucia

    2012-08-01

    Congential hemifacial spasm is a rare condition that is characterized by the occurrence of paroxysmal hemifacial contractions in neonates. We review the clinical, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and histopathological findings, as well as the differential diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and outcome of all the described cases. Moreover, we report two new cases including the ictal video-electroencephalography recordings. Hemifacial spasm starts early in life, and is characterized by unilateral, involuntary, irregular tonic or clonic contractions of muscles innervated by the seventh cranial nerve. Hemifacial spasm is associated with eyelid blinking, and sometimes with breathing irregularities, hyperventilation, and/or other neurological manifestations (dystonic movements, nystagmus). Interictal and ictal video-electroencephalography did not reveal epileptiform abnormalities. In all cases, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass involving the cerebellar peduncle, the cerebellar hemisphere, or the floor of the fourth ventricle. The semiology of the paroxysmal attacks is probably due to the activation of cranial nerve nuclei through intralesional hypersynchronous discharges, as shown by the intraoperative recordings and functional brain imaging described in the literature. We point out the importance of identifying such seizures in order to make an early diagnosis of the underlying cerebral lesion.

  10. Endangered Languages and Literacy. Proceedings of the Fourth FEL Conference (Charlotte, North Carolina, September 21-24, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Nicholas, Ed.; Rudes, Blair, Ed.

    Papers for the fourth Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference include the following: "Endangered languages and Literacy" (Nicholas Ostler, Blair Rudes); "Keynote Address: On Native Language Literacy: a Personal Perspective" (Ofelia Zepeda); "A Community's Solution to Some Literacy Problems: The Mayangna of…

  11. Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A Fourth Grade Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fourth-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged fourth graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and…

  12. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  13. Heterojunction of Zinc Blende/Wurtzite in Zn1-xCdxS Solid Solution for Efficient Solar Hydrogen Generation: X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ying-Ya; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Chi-Liang; Chan, Ting-Shan; Dong, Chung-Li; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, San-Yuan; Chen, Hao Ming

    2015-10-14

    In the past decade, inorganic semiconductors have been successfully demonstrated as light absorbers in efficient solar water splitting to generate chemical fuels. Pseudobinary semiconductors Zn1-xCdxS (0≤x≤1) have exhibited a superior photocatalytic reactivity of H2 production from splitting of water by artificial solar irradiation without any metal catalysts. However, most studies had revealed that the extremely high efficiency with an optimal content of Zn1-xCdxS solid solution was determined as a result of elevating the conduction band minimum (CBM) and the width of bandgap. In addition to corresponding band structure and bandgap, the local crystal structure should be taken into account as well to determine its photocatalytic performance. Herein, we demonstrated the correlations between the photocatalytic activity and structural properties that were first studied through synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structure transformed from zinc blende to coexisted phases of major zinc blende and minor wurtzite phases at a critical point. The heterojunction formed by coexistence of zinc blende and wurtzite phases in the Zn1-xCdxS solid solution can significantly improve the separation and migration of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Besides, X-ray absorption spectra and UV-vis spectra revealed that the bandgap of the Zn0.45Cd0.55S sample extended into the region of visible light because of the incorporation of Cd element in the sample. These results provided a significant progress toward the realization of the photoelectrochemical mechanism in heterojunction between zinc blende and wurtzite phases, which can effectively separate the charge-carriers and further suppress their recombination to enhance the photocatalytic reactivity.

  14. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  15. Second Harmonic Generation from Pure P-Nitroaniline and P-Nitroaniline Composites by Flash Evaporation from Solution, and AN Investigation of Optical Bistability in Polydiacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Youngmo

    1992-01-01

    The scope of this dissertation is twofold. Firstly, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been obtained from pure p-nitroaniline (p-NA) and p-NA/polystyrene (PS) composites by flash evaporation from solution. Stable p-NA cannot exhibit SHG since the crystal structure, C_sp {rm 2h}{5}-P2 _{rm 1/n}, is centrosymmetric. However, we have discovered that pure p-NA crystals made by flash evaporation from the solution generate intense second harmonic radiation and that they are metastable. Metastable p-NA crystals are slowly transformed to their stable crystal structure, and the resulting second harmonic intensity decays exponentially. The decay rates depend on temperature. Activation energy (120( +/-15) kJ/mol) for the metastable p-NA films is extracted from an Arrhenius plot. X-ray powder diffractions for the metastable p-NA films and spheres show two distinct differences, broaden peaks and one new peak, in comparison with a normal p-NA powder diffraction pattern. Dynamics of X-ray diffraction peaks with time for the metastable p-NA crystals are due to the transformation from the metastable state to the stable state of p-NA crystals. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) photographs show that the metastable p -NA film prepared by flash evaporation is composed of a ribbon-like structure. p-NA/polystyrene (PS) composites prepared by flash evaporation stabilize the metastable state of p-NA so that the SHG decay can be significantly reduced. A freezing of the metastable p-NA structure by the surrounding polystyrene polymer is responsible for the decay features of p-NA/PS composite system. Secondly, an optical-bistability experiment has been performed on polydiacetylene (poly 4-BCMU) using a nonlinear Fabry-Perot (NFP) interferometer without reflective coatings and with arbitrary incident beam angle. This nonlinear interferometer consists of a structure having a poly 4-BCMU film sandwiched between two glass prisms without reflective coatings between glass and polymer film. The

  16. Metastable alloy nanoparticles, metal-oxide nanocrescents and nanoshells generated by laser ablation in liquid solution: influence of the chemical environment on structure and composition.

    PubMed

    Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Amendola, Vincenzo

    2015-11-14

    Alloy nanoparticles are characterized by the combination of multiple interesting properties, which are attractive for technological and scientific purposes. A frontier topic of this field is nanoalloys with compositions not thermodynamically allowed at ordinary temperature and pressure (i.e. metastable), because they require out-of-equilibrium synthetic approaches. Recently, laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS) was successfully applied for the realization of metastable nanoalloys because of the fast kinetics of nanoparticle formation. However, the role played by the chemical environment on the final composition and structure of laser generated nanoalloys still has to be fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of different synthetic conditions on the LASiS of metastable nanoalloys composed of Au and Fe, such as the use of water instead of ethanol, the bubbling of inert gases and the addition of a few vol% of H2O2 and H2O. The two elements showed different reactivity when LASiS was performed in water instead of ethanol, while minor effects were observed from bubbling pure gases such as N2, Ar and CO2 in the liquid solution. Moreover, the plasmonic response and the structure of the nanoalloys were sensibly modified by adding H2O2 to water. We also found that nanoparticle production is dramatically influenced just by adding 0.2% of H2O in ethanol. These results suggest that the formation of a cavitation bubble with long lifetime and large size during LASiS is useful for the preservation of the metastable alloy composition, whereas an oxidative environment hampers the formation of metastable alloy nanoparticles. Overall, by acting on the type of solvent and solutes, we were able to switch from a traditional synthetic approach for the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys to one using a reactive environment, which gives unconventional structures such as metal@iron-oxide nanoshells and nanocrescents of oxide supported on metal nanospheres. These results

  17. Indirect search for the fourth genration of quarks and leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashiry, Vali

    2008-04-01

    It is known that the Standard Model (SM) does not predict the number of fermion families; N. The only restriction comes from the asymptotic freedom of QCD which requires the number of quarks to be less than 17 and, therefore, the number of SM families to be N⩽8. Before 1990 Šs, many authors published articles related to the extra SM families and their phenomenological consequences. In early 1990 Šs, the LEP data yields N is almost 3 where the neutral lepton mass for each family is less than half the mass of the Z boson. Generally, this result is interpreted as the exact value of N, since one assumes that the neutrinos must have very small masses. If we disregard this incorrect assumption, the LEP data does not exclude the existence of extra SM families with heavy neutrinos. Meanwhile, few papers arguing the existence of the fourth SM family have been publishing. These arguments are based on the Śflavor democracy Š hypothesis. The study of FCNC in B decays can indirectly shed light on the SM4 family in quark sector and LFV is a good candidate to indirect search for 4th generation of leptons.

  18. The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splitting this velum provides a detailed view of the fourth ventricle and its floor. Materials and Methods A total of 10 formalin-fixed specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to simulate the superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle. The exposure gained the distance from the craniotomy site and the ease of access was assessed for each of the routes. We also present an illustrative case, operated by the senior author (AN). Results The superior transvelar approach provides access to the entire length of the fourth ventricle floor, from the aqueduct to the obex, when using the parietal interhemispheric route. In addition, this approach provides access to the entire width of the floor of the fourth ventricle; however, this requires retracting the superior cerebellar peduncle. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial route gives a limited exposure of the superior part of the fourth ventricle. The occipital interhemispheric route is a compromise between these two. Conclusion The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle provides a route for approaching the fourth ventricle from above. This approach does not require opening the posterior fossa in the traditional way, and provides a reasonable alternative for accessing the superior fourth ventricle.

  19. Youth Violence: Examining the Role of the Federal Government and Nongovernment Organizations in Establishing Solutions for Combatting Juvenile Crime. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children and Families of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on Children and Families.

    A hearing was held before the Senate Subcommittee on Children and Families of the Committee on Labor and Human Relations to discuss possible solutions to the problem of juvenile crime. An opening statement by parents whose young child was murdered by an adolescent set the scene for the panel discussion that followed. James Fox, a professor of…

  20. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Aabakken, J.

    2006-08-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  1. Scout fourth stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byars, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.

  2. Travelling waves of density for a fourth-gradient model of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    In mean-field theory, the non-local state of fluid molecules can be taken into account using a statistical method. The molecular model combined with a density expansion in Taylor series of the fourth order yields an internal energy value relevant to the fourth-gradient model, and the equation of isothermal motions takes then density's spatial derivatives into account for waves travelling in both liquid and vapour phases. At equilibrium, the equation of the density profile across interfaces is more precise than the Cahn and Hilliard equation, and near the fluid's critical point, the density profile verifies an Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, allowing kinks, which converges towards the Cahn-Hillard equation when approaching the critical point. Nonetheless, we also get pulse waves oscillating and generating critical opalescence.

  3. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. Man and Energy, Module C. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module investigates solar energy, ecology, and fossil fuels. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  5. 31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milkstorage tank room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milk-storage tank room, spiral stair in right hand corner - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  6. 21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast (original location of heaters) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  7. 11. SANDSORTING BUILDING, FOURTH FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, FOURTH FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  8. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  9. View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline of the Shuttle cargo bay and wing formed by the edge of the platforms. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. 97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING NORTH, INNER DOME ON RIGHT WITH KNEE BRACE FROM INNER COLUMN TO CROSS BEAM - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  12. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. The Nature of Fourth Graders' Understandings of Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Moje, Elizabeth B.

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of four children each were involved in a qualitative study designed to interpret the nature of fourth graders' understandings of electric circuits. Conclusions regarding knowledge restructuring are presented as well as implications for teaching, assessment, and research. (ZWH)

  14. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  15. 7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: FERGUSON & HAAS AUTOMATIC WRAPPING MACHINE INSTALLED BY 1929 - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS AND UNDATED LARD PRESS AND VATS ON RIGHT SIDE) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  18. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  19. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. The Reading Preferences of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the influence of teachers, age, sex, and race on the reading preferences of third, fourth, and fifth grade pupils. Concludes that the tested variables do explain differences, but that there are more similarities than differences. (RS)

  1. Petroleum profits in the fourth quarter of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-12

    The information in this report concerning fourth-quarter income was obtained from companies' public releases, which are issued in advance of their required filings of Form 10Q or Form 10K with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Topics outlined include: overview of fourth quarter profits, crude oil prices and oil and gas earnings, refining margins and refining/marketing income, overall profitability, and quarterly financial data.

  2. Petroleum profits in the fourth quarter of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-12

    The information in this report concerning fourth-quarter income was obtained from companies` public releases, which are issued in advance of their required filings of Form 10Q or Form 10K with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Topics outlined include: overview of fourth quarter profits, crude oil prices and oil and gas earnings, refining margins and refining/marketing income, overall profitability, and quarterly financial data.

  3. Fourth derivative gravity in the auxiliary fields representation and application to the black-hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, Sebastião; Balbinot, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2015-07-01

    We consider an auxiliary fields formulation for the general fourth-order gravity on an arbitrary curved background. The case of a Ricci-flat background is elaborated in detail and it is shown that there is an equivalence with the standard metric formulation. At the same time, using auxiliary fields helps to make perturbations to look simpler and the results clearer. As an application we reconsider the linear perturbations for the classical Schwarzschild solution. We also briefly discuss the relation to the effect of massive unphysical ghosts in the theory.

  4. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.d.

    2003-04-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues.

  5. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2004-06-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  6. Gas generation during waste treatment of acidic solutions from the dissolution of irradiated LEU targets for 99Mo production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, Allen J.; Conner, Cliff; Quigley, Kevin; Vandegrift, George F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program is to limit the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors by substituting low-enriched uranium (LEU) wherever possible. The work reported here documents our work to develop the calcining technologies and processes that will be needed for 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. The primary concern with the conversion to LEU from HEU targets is that it would result in a five- to six-fold increase in the total uranium. This increase results in more liquid waste from the process. We have been working to minimize the increase in liquid waste and to minimize the impact of any change in liquid waste. Direct calcination of uranium-rich nitric acid solutions generates NO2 gas and UO3 solid. We have proposed two processes for treating the liquid waste from a Modified Cintichem Process with a LEU foil. One is an optimized direct calcination process that is similar to the process currently in use. The other is a uranyl oxalate precipitation process. The specific goal of the work reported here was to characterize and compare the chemical reactions that occur during these two processes. In particular, the amounts and compositions of the gaseous and solid products were of interest. A series of experiments was carried out to show the effects of temperature and the redox potential of the reaction atmosphere. The primary products of the direct calcination process were mixtures of U3O8 and UO3 solids and NO2 gas. The primary products of the oxalate precipitation process were mixtures of U3O8 and UO2 solid and CO2 gas. Higher temperature and a reducing atmosphere tended to favor quadrivalent over hexavalent uranium in the solid product. These data will help producers to decide between the two processes. In addition, the data can be used to design

  7. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2005-06-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation s need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative agreement can be forwarded to Dr. Lawrence C. Mohr in the EBP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (843) 792-1532.

  8. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  9. Construction of Three Dimensional Solutions for the Maxwell Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yefet, A.; Turkel, E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider numerical solutions for the three dimensional time dependent Maxwell equations. We construct a fourth order accurate compact implicit scheme and compare it to the Yee scheme for free space in a box.

  10. Project DEEP STEAM: fourth meeting of the technical advisory panel, Albuquerque, NM, November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Hart, C.M.; Johnson, D.R.; Mulac, A.J.; Wayland, J.R.; Weirick, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    The Fourth Project DEEP STEAM Technical Advisory Panel Meeting was held on 5 and 6 November 1980 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review the status of project DEEP STEAM. This Proceedings, following the order of the meeting, is divided into five main sections: the injection string modification program, the downhole steam generator program, supporting activities, field testing, and the Advisory Panel recommendations and discussion. Each of the 17 presentations is summarized, and a final Discussion section has been added, when needed, for inclusion of comments and replies related to specific presentations. Finally, the Advisory Panel recommendations and the ensuing discussion are summarized in the closing section.

  11. Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 1: Investigation of candidate algoriths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.

    1979-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. Numerical algorithms are examined to determine their overall suitability for the efficient and routine solution of an appropriate system of partial differential equations. It is concluded that a consistently split time linearized block implicit scheme using either quintic B spline collocation or the generalized operator compact implicit approach to generate a fourth order accurate algorithm is particularly well suited for use on the present problem. High cell Reynolds number behavior leads to favoring the generalized operator compact implicit approach over the quintic B spline collocation method.

  12. In situ investigation of complex BaSO4 fiber generation in the presence of sodium polyacrylate. 1. Kinetics and solution analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tongxin; Cölfen, Helmut

    2006-10-10

    Simple solution analysis of the formation mechanism of complex BaSO(4) fiber bundles in the presence of polyacrylate sodium salt, via a bioinspired approach, is reported. Titration of the polyacrylate solution with Ba(2+) revealed complex formation and the optimum ratio of Ba(2+) to polyacrylate for a slow polymer-controlled mineralization process. This is a much simpler and faster method to determine the appropriate additive/mineral concentration pairs as opposed to more common crystallization experiments in which the additive/mineral concentration is varied. Time-dependent pH measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of solution species from which BaSO(4) supersaturation throughout the fiber formation process can be calculated and the second-order kinetics of the Ba(2+) concentration in solution can be identified. Conductivity measurements, pH measurements, and analytical ultracentrifugation revealed the first formed species to be Ba-polyacrylate complexes. A combination of the solution analysis results and optical microscopic images allows a detailed picture of the complex precipitation and self-organization process, a particle-mediated process involving mesoscopic transformations, to be revealed.

  13. Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry.

    PubMed

    Tansens, Pieter; Rodal, Alberto T; Machado, Carina M M; Soares, Helena M V M

    2011-03-15

    Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of the effluent and allowing the subsequent filtration) followed by a filtration to eliminate a substantial amount of the insoluble iron. Then, sulphuric acid was added to neutralize the waste solution down to pH 12 and induce aluminum precipitation. The purity of the aluminum salt was improved after washing the precipitate with deionised water. The characterization of the solid recovered, performed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, indicated characteristics typical of bayerite. The proposal method allowed recovering 82% of the aluminum present in the wastewater with high purity (99.5%). Additionally, a sufficiently concentrated caustic soda solution was also recovered, which can be reused in the anodising industries. This procedure can be easily implemented and ensures economy by recycling reagents (concentrated caustic soda solution) and by recovering commercial by-products (aluminum hydroxide), while avoiding environmental pollution.

  14. The Value of the Fourth Year of Mathematics. Math Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Too many students and educators view the senior year and graduation from high school as an end point, rather than one vital step along the education pipeline. Students who engage in a fourth year of math tap into and build upon their advanced analytic skills and are more likely to have better success in postsecondary course work, as they have…

  15. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  16. 13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking northwest showing a typical arrangement of lease space offices, with glass door, lavatory and clothes closets. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  17. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  18. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  19. 4. Detail view of fourth bay in E elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail view of fourth bay in E elevation of sugar mill looking W. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  20. An Examination of Fourth Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid fourth-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and…

  1. VIEW OF THE WEST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. VIEW OF THE EAST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE EAST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  4. Eating Attitudes in Fourth-, Sixth-, and Eighth-Grade Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…

  5. 43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3869-46, Y&D Drawing 190843. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. 46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH STORY) OF THE TOWER FROM THE NORTHEAST TO THE SOUTHWEST (NOTE: GROUPS OF THREE WINDOWS IN EACH SIDE OF TOWER, ORNAMENTED WITH BROWNSTONE ARCHES AND BROWNSTONE SILLS WITHOUT BRACKETS) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  7. Administration of the Small Public Library. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    Since the publication of its first edition in 1965, this book has been a standard resource for setting up and managing cutting-edge small public library facilities. Completely revised and updated, this fourth edition continues that tradition with many more figures (28 in this edition), case studies and sample policies, and new content on grant…

  8. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  9. 13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, showing east corner and former electrical equipment area, room #306. This building was salvaged and sealed in the 1970's; the lower floors also suffered flooding - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Nature's Energy, Module B. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module examines man's use of fossil fuels, electricity production, and other energy sources. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  11. Conflict Management Techniques for Kindergarten through Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Edith Janell Rudd

    An elementary school teacher discusses conflict management techniques appropriate for use with children in kindergarten through the fourth grade. Discussion first recapitulates developmental theory from several perspectives, including those of Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and profiles conflict theory. Illustrative contemporary social problems that…

  12. 19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC MOTOR LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  13. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  14. Fourth Grade: Late Fall and Early Spring Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joel Robert, Ed.

    Activity plans for fourth grade outdoor education experiences comprise the bulk of this curriculum guide. Many of the outlines have been developed through practical application and experimentation by staff members of the Outdoor and Environmental Education Center (OEEC) of the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, City Schools. Activities and studies for the…

  15. Model Development Highlight for 1984: The GLA Fourth Order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaendtner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of improvements have been made to the GLA Fourth Order General Circulation Model and its associated run procedures during the past year. Major development efforts have been carried out in the following areas: (1) model resolution; (2) boundary fields and topography; (3) post-processing of model results on CYBER computer; and (4) model source code.

  16. Fourth Inventory. Computers in Higher Education, 1976-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, John W., Ed.; Baird, Thomas B., Ed.

    The fourth national inventory of computers in higher education, 1976-77 is presented. The four inventories together provide detailed snapshots of the history of computer utilization by U.S. higher education since 1964. The contents of the publication include a description of the inventory and statistical data on the computer systems, expenditures…

  17. The Online Classroom: Teaching with the Internet. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Eileen Giuffre

    Presenting a wide array of Internet addresses and sample lessons, this fourth edition shows how teachers can integrate the Internet into their K-12 curriculum to actively involve students. The first section of the book (chapters 1-6) deals with the programs needed to use the Internet, as well as 100 great web sites for teachers, how to manage the…

  18. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Barbara J., Ed.

    The fourth edition of this curriculum guide will help college, university, and secondary school educators design and update courses, familiarize themselves with new literature and resources, and plan and justify new academic programs in the study of global problems. While syllabus categories remain the same as in previous editions, several new…

  19. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  20. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  1. North Carolina Tales Fly with Fourth Grade Tellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westman, Gretchen Daub

    2008-01-01

    In fourth grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how…

  2. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  3. Reflections on Doing Geography: Learning Observations from the Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahunty, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Orchard Bog site in Shady Valley, Tennessee, is a unique Appalachian mountain bog that provides many opportunities for student exploration. A biogeographer, a field technician, two biologists, and a historian combined their expertise to teach 100 fourth graders how historians and scientists learn about past…

  4. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 4A, FOURTH GRADE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FIFTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE FOURTH GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. THERE IS A DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE CONTENT FOR GRADE 4 FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING MAJOR AREAS AROUND WHICH…

  5. The Fourth-Grade Reading Classroom. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Richard J.; Coleman, Ashaki B.

    2004-01-01

    This report draws on data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to provide a picture of the fourth-grade reading classroom. The picture includes views of teachers and their training, the climate and characteristics of the school environment, and the kinds of instructional and assessment practices that teachers use in reading…

  6. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  7. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  8. Improving Reading Comprehension of Third and Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salch, Kim; And Others

    A project developed processes for improving the reading comprehension of third- and fourth-grade students in two progressive suburban communities in northern Illinois. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of reading strategies and a review of the district's general curriculum and textbooks revealed systematic…

  9. Sights, Sounds, Senses in Step with Reading. Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.

    This ESEA Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from selected fourth-grade basic reading books. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals and birds,…

  10. The Akan of Ghana. An Instructional Unit for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Rosarita

    This teaching guide presents objectives, resources, and evaluation criteria for teaching pupils in fourth grade social studies and fine arts classes about Africa, and particularly the Akan ethnic group in Africa. This unit was developed at an interdisciplinary summer workshop for teachers on African culture. The major objective is to help students…

  11. 6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: AMERICAN CAR & FOUNDRY COMPANY MANUAL SOAP CUTTER INSTALLED 1932 (FOREGROUND); CONVEYORS; AND R.A. JONES & COMPANY HORIZONTAL PRESS INSTALLED 1931 (BACKGROUND) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  12. Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orelove, Fred P., Ed.; Sobsey, Dick, Ed.; Silberman, Rosanne K., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this highly respected, bestselling textbook gives undergraduate and graduate students up-to-the-minute research and strategies for educating children with severe and multiple disabilities. This popular core text--for 15 years, a staple of teacher training programs in special education and related fields--thoroughly…

  13. Annotated Bibliography of Multi-ethnic Curriculum Materials, Fourth Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwest Center for Equal Educational Opportunity, Columbia, MO.

    This fourth supplement represents multiethnic curriculum materials collected in 1976 since publishing of the previous supplement. The listed materials include books, films, filmstrips, recordings, and booklets. Materials are listed alphabetically by title or author under each heading for type of material. Included in each entry are name of author,…

  14. The Informed Argument: A Multidisciplinary Reader and Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert K.

    Reflecting the belief that learning is best fostered by encouraging students to read, reflect, and write about serious issues, this book is designed to help students argue on behalf of their beliefs so that other people will take them seriously. The 85 readings gathered in the book (60 of which are new to the fourth edition) give students adequate…

  15. Discrimination Evidence for Examining Fourth Grade Students' Learning Disability Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…

  16. Student Activism and Democratic Quality in Ghana's Fourth Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gyampo, Ransford Edward

    2013-01-01

    Student activism has been pivotal in Ghana's political and democratic history. Prior to Ghana's Fourth Republic, student activism was highly confrontational and entailed student support or opposition to the various regimes depending on the extent to which the regimes were accepted by all as being rightful or legitimate. After 23 years of…

  17. Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum on Education Abroad, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Forum on Education Abroad's "Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad" augments previous editions of the "Standards." Since the last edition was published in 2008, Forum member institutions and organizations have implemented the Standards in program development and assessment, using the Standards in the Forum's…

  18. OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF BUILDING) SHOWING TOP OF MISSILE TUBE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. The Personal Financial Literacy of Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucey, Thomas Andrew

    The purpose of the study was to measure personal financial literacy levels of fourth grade students in Memphis, Tennessee and to explore the relationships between seven personal and social characteristics and the students' personal financial literacy. The sample produced low scores on five measure dimensions. Caucasian populations performed better…

  20. Perceptions of Mentoring from Fourth Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods research study investigated medical students' perspectives of professional mentoring through a web-based survey/needs assessment. The participants are fourth year medical students from three large urban research institutions and two regional branch campuses. The web-based survey/needs assessment was created, peer reviewed, and…

  1. Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.

    2005-09-01

    It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac ({nu}{sub 4}) and Majorana (N{sub 1}) neutrinos at future linear colliders with {radical}(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{sub 4}{nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}N{sub 1}) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels ({nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}){yields}{mu}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}) provide cleanest signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at {radical}(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures.

  2. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and an exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that it leads to convolutional boundary operators for low O(n) memory demand. Second, rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. Ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly those in the deep lit and shadow regions. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder.

  3. Methotrexate administration directly into the fourth ventricle in children with malignant fourth ventricular brain tumors: a pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David I; Rytting, Michael; Zaky, Wafik; Kerr, Marcia; Ketonen, Leena; Kundu, Uma; Moore, Bartlett D; Yang, Grace; Hou, Ping; Sitton, Clark; Cooper, Laurence J; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Lee, Dean A; Thall, Peter F; Khatua, Soumen

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemotherapy can be safely administered directly into the fourth ventricle to treat recurrent malignant brain tumors in children. For the first time in humans, methotrexate was infused into the fourth ventricle in children with recurrent, malignant brain tumors. A catheter was surgically placed into the fourth ventricle and attached to a ventricular access device. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was confirmed by CINE MRI postoperatively. Each cycle consisted of 4 consecutive daily methotrexate infusions (2 milligrams). Disease response was monitored with serial MRI scans and CSF cytologic analysis. Trough CSF methotrexate levels were sampled. Five patients (3 with medulloblastoma and 2 with ependymoma) received 18, 18, 12, 9, and 3 cycles, respectively. There were no serious adverse events or new neurological deficits attributed to methotrexate. Two additional enrolled patients were withdrawn prior to planned infusions due to rapid disease progression. Median serum methotrexate level 4 h after infusion was 0.04 µmol/L. Range was 0.02-0.13 µmol/L. Median trough CSF methotrexate level 24 h after infusion was 3.18 µmol/L (range 0.53-212.36 µmol/L). All three patients with medulloblastoma had partial response or stable disease until one patient had progressive disease after cycle 18. Both patients with ependymoma had progressive disease after 9 and 3 cycles, respectively. Low-dose methotrexate can be infused into the fourth ventricle without causing neurological toxicity. Some patients with recurrent medulloblastoma experience a beneficial anti-tumor effect both within the fourth ventricle and at distant sites.

  4. Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other fourth generation cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions.

  5. A Comparison of Gender and Socioeconomic Bracket in Fourth Grade Students when Measuring Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Kelly A.

    The goal of this study was to assess students' abilities when measuring volume as well as providing a hands-on method for designing a water-filtration process. I studied the trends among gender, time, and ability to measure water in two different groups of fourth grade students. Fourth grade students from both higher income and lower income school districts visited a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Studio in order to participate in hands-on, problem-based learning. The students in this study attempted to solve the "Dirty Water Problem" by measuring 281ml of dirty water solution, and using household tools to filter and clean the dirty water. This study showed that 68% of students from a high-income socioeconomic bracket were able to measure a determined volume of water independently. Meanwhile, only 18% of students from a low-income socioeconomic bracket were able to complete the same task independently. In the low-income bracket, 78% of students required assistance measuring a volume of water, indicating that the majority of these students performed below grade level. Where time spent at the station was concerned, the difference between high-income and low-income socioeconomic brackets was insignificant. Key Words: STEM, measurement, volume, design, Dirty Water Problem, socioeconomic bracket.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D. )

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  7. Flavor changing neutral currents with a fourth family of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Johana A.; Benavides, Richard H.; Ponce, William A.

    2008-10-01

    For a model with a fourth family of quarks, new sources of flavor changing neutral currents are identified by confronting the unitary 4x4 quark mixing matrix with the experimental measured values of the familiar 3x3 quark mixing matrix. By imposing as experimental constraints the known bounds for the flavor changing neutral currents, the largest mixing of the known quarks with the fourth family ones is established. The predictions are: a value for |V{sub tb}| significantly different from unity, large rates for rare top decays as t{yields}c{gamma} and t{yields}cZ, the last one reachable at the Large Hadron Collider, and large rates for rare strange decays s{yields}d{gamma} and s{yields}dg, where g stands for the gluon field, both processes reachable at the existing B factories.

  8. Fourth virial coefficients of asymmetric nonadditive hard-disk mixtures.

    PubMed

    Saija, Franz; Santos, Andrés; Yuste, Santos B; López de Haro, Mariano

    2012-05-14

    The fourth virial coefficient of asymmetric nonadditive binary mixtures of hard disks is computed with a standard Monte Carlo method. Wide ranges of size ratio (0.05 ≤ q ≤ 0.95) and nonadditivity (-0.5 ≤ Δ ≤ 0.5) are covered. A comparison is made between the numerical results and those that follow from some theoretical developments. The possible use of these data in the derivation of new equations of state for these mixtures is illustrated by considering a rescaled virial expansion truncated to fourth order. The numerical results obtained using this equation of state are compared with Monte Carlo simulation data in the case of a size ratio q = 0.7 and two nonadditivities Δ = ±0.2.

  9. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  10. Fourth Order Algorithms for Solving Diverse Many-Body Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Forbert, Harald A.; Chen, Chia-Rong; Kidwell, Donald W.; Ciftja, Orion

    2001-03-01

    We show that the method of factorizing an evolution operator of the form e^ɛ(A+B) to fourth order with purely positive coefficient yields new classes of symplectic algorithms for solving classical dynamical problems, unitary algorithms for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, norm preserving algorithms for solving the Langevin equation and large time step convergent Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. Results for each class of problems will be presented and disucss

  11. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  12. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Fourth year report

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R.

    1994-05-01

    The scope of the report is to present the results of the fourth year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  13. Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford, B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Franz, Bryan A.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Feldman, Gene Carl; Bailey, Sean W.

    2003-01-01

    The efforts to improve the data quality for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data products have continued, following the third reprocessing of the global data set in May 2000. Analyses have been ongoing to address all aspects of the processing algorithms, particularly the calibration methodologies, atmospheric correction, and data flagging and masking. All proposed changes were subjected to rigorous testing, evaluation and validation. The results of these activities culminated in the fourth reprocessing, which was completed in July 2002. The algorithm changes, which were implemented for this reprocessing, are described in the chapters of this volume. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the activities leading up to the fourth reprocessing, and summarizes the effects of the changes. Chapter 2 describes the modifications to the on-orbit calibration, specifically the focal plane temperature correction and the temporal dependence. Chapter 3 describes the changes to the vicarious calibration, including the stray light correction to the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data and improved data screening procedures. Chapter 4 describes improvements to the near-infrared (NIR) band correction algorithm. Chapter 5 describes changes to the atmospheric correction and the oceanic property retrieval algorithms, including out-of-band corrections, NIR noise reduction, and handling of unusual conditions. Chapter 6 describes various changes to the flags and masks, to increase the number of valid retrievals, improve the detection of the flag conditions, and add new flags. Chapter 7 describes modifications to the level-la and level-3 algorithms, to improve the navigation accuracy, correct certain types of spacecraft time anomalies, and correct a binning logic error. Chapter 8 describes the algorithm used to generate the SeaWiFS photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) product. Chapter 9 describes a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, which is used in one of the changes

  14. Unexpected photoproduct generated via the acetone-sensitized photolysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in a water/isopropanol solution: experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Polska, Katarzyna; Zielonka, Justyna; Chomicz, Lidia; Czerwicka, Małgorzata; Stepnowski, Piotr; Guzow, Katarzyna; Wiczk, Wiesław; Smużyńska, Maria; Kasprzykowski, Franciszek; Żylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Skowron, Piotr; Rak, Janusz

    2010-12-23

    The acetone-sensitized photolysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (5-BrdU) in a water/isopropanol solution with 300 nm photons leads to the formation of 2'-deoxyuridine (dU) and a comparable amount of another photoproduct that has not been reported in the literature so far. The negative and positive mass spectra recorded for this species indicate that they originate from the molecular mass of 286 Da, which corresponds to an adduct of 2'-deoxyuridine and 2-propanol. Quantum chemical calculations carried out at the DFT and TDDFT levels reveal both the structure and the UV spectrum of that adduct. The latter computational characteristic matches well the experimental UV spectrum of the new photoproduct. Our findings indicate that the acetone-sensitized photolysis of 5-BrdU is more complicated than has hitherto been assumed. Nevertheless, since electron transfer is one of the pathways responsible for 5-BrdU decay, acetone-sensitized photolysis of the halogen derivatives of nucleobases could be a convenient tool for studying their radiosensitivity in aqueous solutions.

  15. Controlling Solution Self-assembly and Non-Solvent Induced Microphase Separation of Triblock Terpolymers to Generate Nanofiltration Membranes with Chemically-Tailored Pore Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudouris, Bryan; Mulvenna, Ryan; Weidman, Jacob; Phillip, William

    2014-03-01

    Block polymer-based templates have been utilized in a number of membrane applications; however, there has yet to be a demonstration of a nanoporous block polymer thin film that can achieve high flux and high selectivity simultaneously while also allowing for the facile tuning of the pore wall chemistry. Here, we demonstrate that by synthesizing and controlling the solution self-assembly of a triblock terpolymer, polyisoprene- b-polystyrene- b-poly(N, N-dimethylacrylamide) (PI-PS-PDMA), and precisely inducing non-solvent induced phase separation during the self-assembly process allows for the creation of an asymmetric nanoporous membrane with PDMA-lined pore walls. This PDMA functionality is then converted to any number of side chain functionalities through simple chemistry in the solid state. In this way, we are able to show a highly selectivity membrane that can separate analytes of interest based both on size and chemical composition at a high solution flux. In fact, this high fidelity structure has a very narrow distribution of pore sizes (<10% variation in diameter) over large areas (>500 cm2) . This has allowed for the separation of particles with hydrodynamic radii as low as 0.8 nm, which is the smallest separation achieved using a block polymer-based membrane to date.

  16. Long-time behavior of a finite volume discretization for a fourth order diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Jan; Matthes, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a non-standard finite-volume discretization of a strongly non-linear fourth order diffusion equation on the d-dimensional cube, for arbitrary d≥slant 1 . The scheme preserves two important structural properties of the equation: the first is the interpretation as a gradient flow in a mass transportation metric, and the second is an intimate relation to a linear Fokker-Planck equation. Thanks to these structural properties, the scheme possesses two discrete Lyapunov functionals. These functionals approximate the entropy and the Fisher information, respectively, and their dissipation rates converge to the optimal ones in the discrete-to-continuous limit. Using the dissipation, we derive estimates on the long-time asymptotics of the discrete solutions. Finally, we present results from numerical experiments which indicate that our discretization is able to capture significant features of the complex original dynamics, even with a rather coarse spatial resolution.

  17. Boundary Closures for Fourth-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Finite Difference Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Yamaleev, Nail K.; Frankel, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    A general strategy exists for constructing Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference schemes up to eighth-order on periodic domains. These ESWENO schemes satisfy an energy norm stability proof for both continuous and discontinuous solutions of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, boundary closures are developed for the fourth-order ESWENO scheme that maintain wherever possible the WENO stencil biasing properties, while satisfying the summation-by-parts (SBP) operator convention, thereby ensuring stability in an L2 norm. Second-order, and third-order boundary closures are developed that achieve stability in diagonal and block norms, respectively. The global accuracy for the second-order closures is three, and for the third-order closures is four. A novel set of non-uniform flux interpolation points is necessary near the boundaries to simultaneously achieve 1) accuracy, 2) the SBP convention, and 3) WENO stencil biasing mechanics.

  18. Fast Multilevel Solvers for a Class of Discrete Fourth Order Parabolic Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Bin; Chen, Luoping; Hu, Xiaozhe; Chen, Long; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Xu, Jinchao

    2016-03-05

    In this paper, we study fast iterative solvers for the solution of fourth order parabolic equations discretized by mixed finite element methods. We propose to use consistent mass matrix in the discretization and use lumped mass matrix to construct efficient preconditioners. We provide eigenvalue analysis for the preconditioned system and estimate the convergence rate of the preconditioned GMRes method. Furthermore, we show that these preconditioners only need to be solved inexactly by optimal multigrid algorithms. Our numerical examples indicate that the proposed preconditioners are very efficient and robust with respect to both discretization parameters and diffusion coefficients. We also investigate the performance of multigrid algorithms with either collective smoothers or distributive smoothers when solving the preconditioner systems.

  19. Generation of acids from mine waste: Oxidative leaching of pyrrhotite in dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions at pH 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, A.R.; Nesbitt, H.W.; Muir, I.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 7}S{sub 8}) grains 3 x 3 x 6 mm were reacted in solutions of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH 3.0) for eight hours and analyzed using secondary electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM images of reacted surfaces display an array of reaction textures, which are interpreted to represent a five-stage paragenetic alteration sequence. Leached pyrrhotite surfaces are initially featureless. Surfaces leached more extensively develop a mottled felty texture. Subsequent drying of reacted surfaces causes dehydration, producing cracked, tiled surfaces. Prolonged drying intensifies the effects of desiccation, producing rubbly textures. The rubble is readily spalled, exposing smooth underlayers. AES and XPS data collected from textured surfaces indicate primarily Fe-oxyhydroxide reaction products. AES depth profiles show that S varies antipathetically with oxygen. AES analysis of T5 textured surfaces (underlayer exposed by spalling) detect only Fe and S, with S significantly enriched over Fe. XPS and modelled AES data show T5 textured regions are mainly ferric iron bonded to disulphide and/or polysulphide species. The accumulation of S in the underlayer is accomplished by preferential migration of Fe to the overlying oxyhydroxide layer to the pyrrhotite surface, thus, promoting spallation. Spalling of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides is promoted in waste rock dumps and tailings situated above the water table by periodic wetting, drying, and desiccation of the oxyhydroxide layer. These circumstances may, in turn, lead to high concentrations of suspended Fe-oxyhydroxide in tailings ponds during flooding and in ponds where there are dramatic seasonal overturns of lake or pond water. Exposure by spalling of S-rich sublayers to aqueous solutions is an effective means for producing sulphuric acid-rich mine waste runoff, and of producing periodic flushes of sulphuric acid-rich drainage waters.

  20. Accelerated Program in Elementary-School Mathematics--The Fourth Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Ihrke, Constance

    1970-01-01

    Describes fourth year (1966-67) of a longitudinal study of 30 bright fourth graders. All but one student showed definite improvement for the combined performances of tests administered to measure progress. (EK)

  1. Supplement to the Phase IV final report and fourth update of the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The objective of the US DOE EEDB Program is to provide periodic updates of technical and cost (capital, fuel and operating and maintenance) information on nuclear and comparison electric power generating stations. This information is intended to be used by US DOE in evaluating and monitoring US civilian nuclear power programs, and to provide them with a consistent means of evaluating the nuclear option and proposed alternatives. In general, this supplement to the Fourth Update is an expansion of the data base to include intermediate capacity coal-fired comparison power generating stations. 17 refs., 23 tabs.

  2. Does DNA exert an active role in generating cell-sized spheres in an aqueous solution with a crowding binary polymer?

    PubMed

    Tsumoto, Kanta; Arai, Masafumi; Nakatani, Naoki; Watanabe, Shun N; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2015-02-09

    We report the spontaneous generation of a cell-like morphology in an environment crowded with the polymers dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the presence of DNA. DNA molecules were selectively located in the interior of dextran-rich micro-droplets, when the composition of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was near the critical condition of phase-segregation. The resulting micro-droplets could be controlled by the use of optical tweezers. As an example of laser manipulation, the dynamic fusion of two droplets is reported, which resembles the process of cell division in time-reverse. A hypothetical scenario for the emergence of a primitive cell with DNA is briefly discussed.

  3. On the Beam Functions Spectral Expansions for Fourth-Order Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N. C.; Christov, C. I.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we develop further the Galerkin technique based on the so-called beam functions with application to nonlinear problems. We make use of the formulas expressing a product of two beam functions into a series with respect to the system. First we prove that the overall convergence rate for a fourth-order linear b.v.p is algebraic fifth order, provided that the derivatives of the sought function up to fifth order exist. It is then shown that the inclusion of a quadratic nonlinear term in the equation does not degrade the fifth-order convergence. We validate our findings on a model problem which possesses analytical solution in the linear case. The agreement between the beam-Galerkin solution and the analytical solution for the linear problem is better than 10-12 for 200 terms. We also show that the error introduced by the expansion of the nonlinear term is lesser than 10-9. The beam-Galerkin method outperforms finite differences due to its superior accuracy whilst its advantage over the Chebyshev-tau method is attributed to the smaller condition number of the matrices involved in the former.

  4. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies

    PubMed Central

    de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries. PMID:26125026

  5. Numerical analysis for MHD thermal and solutal stratified stagnation point flow of Powell-Eyring fluid induced by cylindrical surface with dual convection and heat generation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Bilal, S.; Bibi, M.

    The current analysis reports the untapped characteristics of magneto-hydrodynamic dual convection boundary layer stagnation point flow of Powell-Eyring fluid by way of cylindrical surface. Flow exploration is carried out with the combined effects of thermal and solutal stratification. The strength of temperature and concentration adjacent to the cylindrical surface is assumed to be greater than the ambient fluid. Flow conducting mathematically modelled equations are fairly transformed into system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations with the aid of suitable transformations. The computations are made against these resultant coupled equations through shooting technique by the support of fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect logs of various pertinent flow controlling parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration flow regime. The achieved outcomes are validated by developing comparison with existing published literature. In addition, numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented graphically for two different geometries namely, plate and cylinder.

  6. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries.

  7. Staggered chiral perturbation theory and the fourth-root trick

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.

    2006-06-01

    Staggered chiral perturbation theory (S{chi}PT) takes into account the 'fourth-root trick' for reducing unwanted (taste) degrees of freedom with staggered quarks by multiplying the contribution of each sea quark loop by a factor of 1/4. In the special case of four staggered fields (four flavors, n{sub F}=4), I show here that certain assumptions about analyticity and phase structure imply the validity of this procedure for representing the rooting trick in the chiral sector. I start from the observation that, when the four flavors are degenerate, the fourth root simply reduces n{sub F}=4 to n{sub F}=1. One can then treat nondegenerate quark masses by expanding around the degenerate limit. With additional assumptions on decoupling, the result can be extended to the more interesting cases of n{sub F}=3, 2, or 1. An apparent paradox associated with the one-flavor case is resolved. Coupled with some expected features of unrooted staggered quarks in the continuum limit, in particular, the restoration of taste symmetry, S{chi}PT then implies that the fourth-root trick induces no problems (for example, a violation of unitarity that persists in the continuum limit) in the lowest energy sector of staggered lattice QCD. It also says that the theory with staggered valence quarks and rooted staggered sea quarks behaves like a simple, partially-quenched theory, not like a mixed theory in which sea and valence quarks have different lattice actions. In most cases, the assumptions made in this paper are not only sufficient but also necessary for the validity of S{chi}PT, so that a variety of possible new routes for testing this validity are opened.

  8. Fourth ventricular entrapment caused by rostrocaudal herniation following shunt malfunction.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, C T; Winfield, J A

    1993-01-01

    The subacute development of isolated fourth ventricle (IFV) is a recognized complication following shunting of the lateral ventricles for congenital and acquired hydrocephalus. We present an unusual case of acute IFV in a clinical setting which has not previously been described. Subsequent to rostrocaudal herniation caused by an obstructed frontally placed ventricular catheter, IFV developed in our patient 24 h following shunt revision, necessitating placement of an additional fourth ventricle shunt system. No signs of intraventricular hemorrhage or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection were detected at the time of shunt revision and there was no documentation of similar events in the perinatal history. Dependent upon the actual underlying etiology of this child's hydrocephalus, we hypothesize that two mechanisms may have accounted for this unusual and precipitous development of IFV. Following rostrocaudal herniation and caudal shift of the brainstem, progressive edema in the pons developed. If communicating hydrocephalus was the primary etiology, then midbrain edema occluded the aqueduct of Sylvius, preventing retrograde flow of CSF to the shunt. A distinctly different mechanism for acute IFV must be invoked if aqueductal stenosis was the preexisting cause for congenital hydrocephalus. Following herniation, brainstem displacement and edema resulted in obliteration of the lateral pontine and ambient cisterns, preventing the normal rostral migration of CSF around and over the mesencephalon. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation with impaction of the tonsils into the foramen magnum may have also contributed to obstruction of fourth ventricular outflow in both settings. This unusual case of acute onset IFV is presented in detail. The underlying etiologies and clinical settings in which IFV may develop is reviewed as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Defeating the United States with Radiological Weapons in Fourth Generation Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    37 Goiania , Brazil Radiological Incident ...............................................................................38 Three-Mile...Health Physics Society, 2001), 2. 24 Scheider, 194. 25 Alex Neifert, “Case Study: Accidental Leakage of Cesium-137 in Goiania , Brazil, in...cataclysmic economic decline. 36 Evidence from Chernobyl, Goiania , Three-Mile Island, the Washington D.C. snipers, the shark attacks and the

  10. Looking for Gold Nuggets in the Melting Pot: Language, Cultural Awareness, and the Fourth Generation Warrior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    the Clash of Loyalties ........................................27 WHAT SHOULD WE BE DOING...music, costumes , ceremonies and traditional foods.29 The infusion of cultural awareness is not new to the Special Operations training programs, but...deal with the myths” and “defuse misgivings” about Muslims. Unfortunately, highly publicized incidents which question the patriotism, loyalty , and

  11. Fourth Workshop on Science with the New Generation of High Energy Gamma-ray Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massai, Marco Maria; Omodei, Nicola; Spandre, Gloria

    I. Space-based telescope. Integral-4 years in orbit / P. Umbertini, P. Caraveo. The Suzaku mission / K. Yamaoka. The Swift mission: two years of operation / A. Moretti. Gamma-ray astrophysics with AGILE / F.Longo et al., The AGILE collaboration. The GLAST mission / J.E. McEnery -- II. Ground-based telescope. Recent results from CANGAROO / M. Mori for the CANGAROO team. The H.E.S.S. project / C. Masterson for the H.E.S.S. collaboration. The MAGIC experiment / N. Turini for the MAGIC collaboration. VERITAS: status and performance / J. Holder for the VERITAS collaboration -- III. Galactic variable sources. Galactic variable sky with EGRET and GLAST / S. Digel. Galactic variable sources observed with H.E.S.S. / N. Komin for the H.E.S.S collaboration. Gamma ray pulsars in the GLAST era / M. Razzano. Solving the riddle of unidentified high-energy gamma-ray sources / P. Caraveo. Supernovae and gamma-ray burst / M. Della Valle. First cycle of MAGIC galactic observations / J. Cortina for the MAGIC collaboration. Gamma-rays and neutrinos from a SNR in the galactic center / V. Cavasinni, D. Grasso, L. Maccione. Solving GRBs and SGRs puzzles by precessing jets / D. Fargion, O. Lanciano, P. Oliva -- IV. Extragalactic sources. Multiwavelength observations and theories of blazers / G. Tosti. AGN observations with the MAGIC telescope / C. Bigongiari for the MAGIC collaboration. Gamma ray bursts/ L. Amati. X-rays and GeV flares in GRB light curves / A. Galli ... [et al.]. The highest energy emission from gamma ray bursts: MILAGRO's constraints and HAWC's potential / B. Dingus for the MILAGRO and HAWC collaborations. Observation of GRB with the MAGIC telescope / N. Galante, P. Piccioli for the MAGIC collaboration. GRB 060218 and the outliers with respect to the E-E correlation / G. Ghirlanda, G. Ghibellini -- V. Poster session. Study of the performance and calibration of the GLAST-LAT silicon tracker / M. Brigida, N. Giglietto, P. Spinelli. The online monitor for the GLAST calibration unit beam test / L. Baldini, J. Bregeon, C. Sgrò. ARGO-YBJ experiment: the scalar mode technique / I. James. on behalf of ARGO-YBJ collaboration. Analysis of pulsars in LAT data challenge 2: a population point of view / M. Razzano. Search of optimized cuts for gamma-ray pulsar detection with GLAST-LAT instrument / A. Calandro, N. Biglietto, P. Spinelli. Gamma-ray burst physics with GLAST / N. Omodei. The global fit approach to time-resolved spectroscopy GRBs / A. Chernenko.

  12. Emerging Threat to America: Non-State Entities Fighting Fourth Generation Warfare in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    warfare in Juarez, Mexico contrasts with the “peaceful” cities of Ciudad Acuña and Piedras Negras controlled by the Zetas who demonstrate 4GW tactics...Vulliamy, 2009). Within the cities of Acuna and Piedra Negras where one Pack Virus (the Zetas) has effective control of these limited geographic

  13. Fourth-generation inverters add artificial intelligence to the control of GMA welding

    SciTech Connect

    Nacey, T.J. . Panasonic Factory Automation Co.)

    1993-01-01

    A new level of control has been achieved over the welding arc by using some of the latest techniques in artificial machine-intelligence computer control and by direct control of the short-circuit waveform. By controlling the short-circuit waveform in real time, these artificially intelligent power supplies control the instantaneous welding conditions and improve the GMAW process in terms of welding performance. These artificial-intelligent power supplies can yield many benefits. Among them are lower spatter levels, both in argon-based shielding gases and 100% CO[sub 2] shielding gases. Another benefit is faster arc speeds. In many cases the arc speeds can be 25% faster. Better productivity, through the better arc-striking capability and reduction of downtime associated with spatter on peripheral equipment, is another important factor. These power supplies are synergic and therefore provide for easier operator control. In addition, they have higher electrical efficiency; thus they yield lower operating cost.

  14. Fourth Generation Undersea Warfare: Getting C2 for Undersea Connectivity Right

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    information dominance (ID) will not be realized unless undersea connectivity issues are given the same priority as the vehicles and sensors themselves. Said another way, failure to establish an effective C2 architecture in this degraded and austere environment will be a de facto surrender to the adversary’s attempts to deny access. One way in which the U.S. Navy has moved forward to address this issue is by changing the programmatic organization that supports this vehicle and sensor integration. As Executive Agent for the Navy’s undersea connectivity efforts,

  15. The "Fourth Generation University" as a Creator of the Local and Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a view of the role of tertiary-level educational institutions in the globalizing world and the condition of the Polish higher education system in 2007, the author presents the factors affecting the regional development as well as those that exert the strongest influence on long-term regional development. While examining current…

  16. Evaluation of Two 300 MWe Fourth Generation Pb-Bi Reactor System Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Laurence F.; Khuram Khan, M.; Williams, Wesley; Mynatt, F.R.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of two 300 MWe modular Pb-Bi cooled reactor system concepts that can be field assembled from components shipped on standard rail cars or on trucks. Thus, the largest components must be smaller than 12' x 12' x 80' (3.66 m x 3.66 m x 24.4 m) and should weigh no more than 80 tons. One of these systems utilizes a cylindrical two-loop containment vessel for the core and the other is a slab design. The fuel for both designs consists of standard-sized metallic IFR fuel in 17 x 17 square array assemblies with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.15. The coolant outlet temperature is limited by current material technology, which is estimated to be 550 C. The primary coolant inlet temperature is selected to be 350 C. This is well above the melting temperature of Pb-Bi, and it is expected to be sufficiently high to limit transient-induced thermal stresses to acceptable values. Coolant flow rates through the core and external piping are below 1 m/s. The results from neutronics calculations include power distributions, reactivity coefficients, and fuel depletion, and results from heat transfer calculations include temperatures and flow rates at various locations in the primary and secondary systems. The neutronic design calculations are accomplished by using a discrete ordinate transport code and a cross section processing system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two-dimensional flux distributions are obtained with the DOORS system, and ORIGEN-S, coupled with KENO, is used for time-dependent depletion calculations. The thermal-hydraulic design of the core consists of heat transfer and fluid flow calculation for an average channel. The inlet and outlet temperatures, along with the fuel centerline temperature, are determined in conjunction with core flow rates, pumping power, and total power output. This is accomplished by using a lumped parameter steady-state model with a spreadsheet and by using a one-dimensional time-dependent model. Results from the thermal-hydraulic calculation obtain a thermal efficiency of 41%, but an efficiency of about 45 % could be obtained. The nominal power density and good thermal conductivity of Pb-Bi will permit decay heat to be handled more effectively than for sodium-cooled design or for light water reactors. The low vapor pressure of Pb-Bi permits the use of a thin walled pressure vessel on the order of centimeters as compared to the 30-40 cm thick PWR vessel, and the high boiling point of the lead bismuth assures that the core will remain covered in the event of a loss of coolant outside the primary vessel. (authors)

  17. Fourth Generation Governance -- Sheikh Tamimi defends the Islamic State of Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-23

    governmental  amoeba , constantly shifting its zone of  control across Iraq’s western expanses as ISI forces redeploy.  It never controls all  of the...well.  Inside Iraq, the ISI is a flexible  amoeba ‐like state institution  that implements shariah and fights the Iraqi government.  Outside Iraq, the ISI

  18. Exploratory Evaluation of Alumina Ceramic Housings for Deep Submergence Service Fourth Generation Housings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    20 (79-788) 5 50 (197-1970) 16(39236) SIZE AVtERAGE tMICROINCHESi SECTION 1 61236) 4(158) 12 (473) 1)(433) 17 (670) L3(118) ABSORPTO ASTM C373 72 0 0...000 GAS PERM - - 000 0 0 0 0o 0 COLOR - - WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE IVORY____ IVORY FLEXURAL. 20 C MIa (psi 103) ASTM F417-78 317 (46) 338 (4d) 352 (51...17) 117(07) 124 (18) 152 (22) 158 (23) BULK MODULUS 6Pa (psi x106) ASTM C848-78 138(20) 158023) 165(04) 172(25) 228(33) 228033) TRANS. SONIC VEL. iec

  19. Innovations in Nigerian Universities: Perspectives of an Insider from a "Fourth Generation" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etuk, Grace Koko

    2015-01-01

    This paper elaborates on innovations which have been effected in universities in Nigeria, using a somewhat young university as a paradigm. The innovations discussed include private ownership of universities, innovative funding strategies and innovative quality assurance practices. These include innovative planning (strategic planning); innovative…

  20. Ghost-free, finite, fourth-order D = 3 gravity.

    PubMed

    Deser, S

    2009-09-04

    Canonical analysis of a recently proposed linear + quadratic curvature gravity model in D = 3 establishes its pure, irreducibly fourth derivative, quadratic curvature limit as both ghost-free and power-counting UV finite, thereby maximally violating standard folklore. This limit is representative of a generic class whose kinetic terms are conformally invariant in any dimension, but it is unique in simultaneously avoiding the transverse-traceless graviton ghosts plaguing D > 3 quadratic actions as well as double pole propagators in its other variables. While the two-term model is also unitary, its additional mode's second-derivative nature forfeits finiteness.

  1. The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held from August 17-21, 1992, at NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.

  2. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Ritaccio, Anthony; Brunner, Peter; Crone, Nathan E.; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Litt, Brian; Miller, Kai; Moran, Daniel; Parvizi, Josef; Ramsey, Nick; Richner, Thomas J.; Tandon, Niton; Williams, Justin; Schalk, Gerwin

    2013-01-01

    The Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation. PMID:24034899

  3. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography.

    PubMed

    Ritaccio, Anthony; Brunner, Peter; Crone, Nathan E; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Kanwisher, Nancy; Litt, Brian; Miller, Kai; Moran, Daniel; Parvizi, Josef; Ramsey, Nick; Richner, Thomas J; Tandon, Niton; Williams, Justin; Schalk, Gerwin

    2013-11-01

    The Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation.

  4. Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Stephen L. (Compiler); Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Proceedings of a conference held in Huntsville, Alabama, on November 15-16, 1988. The Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings together diverse technical and scientific work in order to help those who employ AI methods in space applications to identify common goals and to address issues of general interest in the AI community. Topics include the following: space applications of expert systems in fault diagnostics, in telemetry monitoring and data collection, in design and systems integration; and in planning and scheduling; knowledge representation, capture, verification, and management; robotics and vision; adaptive learning; and automatic programming.

  5. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  6. Fourth United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C. (Compiler); Curreri, P. A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4). The USMP-4 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about eight major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  7. Treatment of Fourth Class Midshipmen: Hazing and Its Impact on Academic and Military Performance; and Psychological and Physical Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    PAGES 119 14. SUBJECT TERMS Hazing, psychological and physical impact, academic and military performance impact, Plebe Summer, Fourth Class... Plebe Summer and the Fourth Class Development System ..............................................................33 b. Objectives of the Fourth...Duties ......................................................35 4. Expectations of Plebes

  8. The study of multireactional electrochemical interfaces via a tip generation/substrate collection mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy: the hydrogen evolution reaction for Mn in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kevin C; Bard, Allen J

    2013-10-23

    We report a new method of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) that can be used to separate multireactional electrochemical interfaces, i.e., electrodes at which two or more reactions occur (and hence two partial currents flow) at the same time. This was done with a modified tip generation/substrate collection mode where the two reactions occur on the tip electrode, and the substrate electrode is held at a potential to collect only one of the products, allowing the determination of the individual partial currents. Thus, by using the substrate electrode current and the difference between the tip and substrate electrode currents, the two reactions occurring on the tip electrode can be separated. As a test case for this new method, we investigated proton reduction on Mn, a reaction that, because of the highly corrosive nature of Mn, to our knowledge has never before been directly measured. This test was carried out using a Mn tip electrode and a Pt substrate electrode. Using a three-dimensional COMSOL Multiphysics simulation, we were able to accurately determine the tip/substrate distance with this electrode, and by fitting simulations to experimental data, we were able to determine an exchange current density, log(j(0)) = -4.7 ± 0.7 A cm(-2), for proton reduction on Mn in strong acid. This result corrects a literature value and was used in a pattern recognition algorithm reported in a companion manuscript.

  9. The fourth dimension in immunological space: how the struggle for nutrients selects high-affinity lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wensveen, Felix M; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Eldering, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Lymphocyte activation via the antigen receptor is associated with radical shifts in metabolism and changes in requirements for nutrients and cytokines. Concomitantly, drastic changes occur in the expression of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins that alter the sensitivity of lymphocytes to limiting concentrations of key survival factors. Antigen affinity is a primary determinant for the capacity of activated lymphocytes to access these vital resources. The shift in metabolic needs and the variable access to key survival factors is used by the immune system to eliminate activated low-affinity cells and to generate an optimal high-affinity response. In this review, we focus on the control of apoptosis regulators in activated lymphocytes by nutrients, cytokines, and costimulation. We propose that the struggle among individual clones that leads to the formation of high-affinity effector cell populations is in effect an 'invisible' fourth signal required for effective immune responses.

  10. The effect of increased horizontal resolution on GLA Fourth Order model forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, H. M.; Pfaendtner, J.; Atlas, R.

    1987-01-01

    A benchmark series of ten-day weather forecasts has been run with the GLA Fourth Order GCM with both a 4 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude resolution and a 2 deg latitude by 2.5 deg longitude resolution. Ensemble statistics of forecast skill and maps of systematic error fields have been generated for both resolutions. The enhanced resolution added 24 hours of useful predictive skill to the sea level pressure forecasts and 6 hours to the 500 mb height forecasts, but 5 to 6 days into the forecasts the advantage of the finer resolution was lost. The systematic error fields showed that by 8 days the 'climate drift' of the 2 x 2.5 deg forecasts had become pronounced and had caused the loss of predictive skill relative to the 4 x 5 deg forecasts. Additional results indicate that a gravity wave drag parameterization scheme might alleviate the climate drift problem.

  11. Fourth order real space solver for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with singular Coulomb potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorosi, Szilárd; Czirják, Attila

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel numerical method and algorithm for the solution of the 3D axially symmetric time-dependent Schrödinger equation in cylindrical coordinates, involving singular Coulomb potential terms besides a smooth time-dependent potential. We use fourth order finite difference real space discretization, with special formulae for the arising Neumann and Robin boundary conditions along the symmetry axis. Our propagation algorithm is based on merging the method of the split-operator approximation of the exponential operator with the implicit equations of second order cylindrical 2D Crank-Nicolson scheme. We call this method hybrid splitting scheme because it inherits both the speed of the split step finite difference schemes and the robustness of the full Crank-Nicolson scheme. Based on a thorough error analysis, we verified both the fourth order accuracy of the spatial discretization in the optimal spatial step size range, and the fourth order scaling with the time step in the case of proper high order expressions of the split-operator. We demonstrate the performance and high accuracy of our hybrid splitting scheme by simulating optical tunneling from a hydrogen atom due to a few-cycle laser pulse with linear polarization.

  12. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  13. Welcome to pandoraviruses at the 'Fourth TRUC' club.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a fourth monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9-2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the 'Fourth TRUC' club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms.

  14. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  15. Several fourth-order force gradient symplectic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wu, Xin

    2010-02-01

    By adding force gradient operators to symmetric compositions, we build a set of explicit fourth-order force gradient symplectic algorithms, including those of Chin and coworkers, for a separable Hamiltonian system with quadratic kinetic energy T and potential energy V. They are extended to solve a gravitational n-body Hamiltonian system that can be split into a Keplerian part H0 and a perturbation part H1 in Jacobi coordinates. It is found that the accuracy of each gradient scheme is greatly superior to that of the standard fourth-order Forest-Ruth symplectic integrator in T + V-type Hamiltonian decomposition, but they are both almost equivalent in the mean longitude and the relative position for H0 + H1-type decomposition. At the same time, there are no typical differences between the numerical performances of these gradient algorithms, either in the splitting of T + V or in the splitting of H0 + H1. In particular, compared with the former decomposition, the latter can dramatically improve the numerical accuracy. Because this extension provides a fast and high-precision method to simulate various orbital motions of n-body problems, it is worth recommending for practical computation.

  16. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A fourth program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor); Wofsy, Steven C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Grose, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the fourth report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent AESA interim assessment report and a review of that report have shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA has been designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This fourth report comes after the interim assessment and sets forth directions for the 1995 assessment at the end of AESA Phase 1. It also sets forth the goals and directions for AESA Phase 2, as reported at the 1994 Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) annual meeting held in June. The focus of the Phase 2 effort is to obtain the best possible closure on the outstanding problems identified in the interim assessment and NASA/NRC review. Topics discussed in this report include how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements.

  17. Welcome to pandoraviruses at the ‘Fourth TRUC’ club

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a fourth monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9–2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the ‘Fourth TRUC’ club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms. PMID:26042093

  18. Hydrologic reconnaissance near Fourth of July Creek, Seward, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gordon L.

    1981-01-01

    The 1.3-square-mile alluvial fan of Fourth of July Creek, Seward , Alaska, is being developed as an industrial area and port. Fourth of July Creek is a glacier-fed stream that occupies a braided channel near the middle of the fan. The presence of glacial flow during the summer and low discharge during the winter make streamflow a poor source of water for municipal and industrial use. Water infiltrates the fan from streams and precipitation and recharges an unconfined alluvial aquifer. Average recharge is 40-50 cubic feet per second, and ground water flows toward the coast where it discharges in springs and a 0.3-mile gaining reach of the creek. Properties and concentrations of all measured chemical constituents of water samples from two wells were less than the maximum amounts recommended for drinking water. Both the aquifer and the overlying unsaturated materials are coarse grained. The coarse-grained materials are poor filters and make the aquifer susceptible to pollution by contaminants disposed of or spilled on the alluvial fan. Avalanches may block the creek and cause flooding by directing streamflow into new or abandoned channels. (USGS)

  19. Prototyping with Application Generators: Lessons Learned from the Naval Aviation Logistics Command Management Information System Case

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Prototyping with Application Generators: Lessons Learned from the Naval Aviation Logistics Command Management Information System Case. This study... management information system to automate manual Naval aviation maintenance tasks-NALCOMIS. With the use of a fourth-generation programming language

  20. Comparison of third generation versus fourth generation electronic apex locators in detecting apical constriction: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Swapna, DV; Krishna, Akash; Patil, Anand C; Rashmi, K; Pai, Veena S; Ranjini, MA

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the accuracy of Root ZX and Raypex 5 in detecting minor diameter in human permanent single-rooted teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with completely formed single-rooted permanent teeth indicated for extraction were selected for the study. Crown was flattened for stable reference point and access cavity prepared. Working length was determined with both apex locators. A 15 K file adjusted to that reading was placed in the root canal and stabilized with cement. The tooth was then extracted atraumatically. Following extraction apical 4 mm of root was shaved. The position of the minor diameter in relation to the anatomic apex was recorded for each tooth under stereomicroscope at ×10. The efficiency of two electronic apex locators to determine the minor diameter was statistically analyzed using paired sample t-test. Results: The minor diameter was located within the limits of ±0.5 mm in 96.6% of the samples with the Root ZX and 93.2% of the samples with Raypex 5. The paired sample t-test showed no significant difference. Conclusion: On analyzing the results of our study it can be concluded that Raypex 5 was as effective as Root ZX in determining the minor diameter. PMID:26180412