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Sample records for fourth international spoligotyping

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for classification, population genetics and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Brudey, Karine; Driscoll, Jeffrey R; Rigouts, Leen; Prodinger, Wolfgang M; Gori, Andrea; Al-Hajoj, Sahal A; Allix, Caroline; Aristimuño, Liselotte; Arora, Jyoti; Baumanis, Viesturs; Binder, Lothar; Cafrune, Patricia; Cataldi, Angel; Cheong, Soonfatt; Diel, Roland; Ellermeier, Christopher; Evans, Jason T; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Ferdinand, Séverine; de Viedma, Dario Garcia; Garzelli, Carlo; Gazzola, Lidia; Gomes, Harrison M; Guttierez, M Cristina; Hawkey, Peter M; van Helden, Paul D; Kadival, Gurujaj V; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kremer, Kristin; Kubin, Milan; Kulkarni, Savita P; Liens, Benjamin; Lillebaek, Troels; Ly, Ho Minh; Martin, Carlos; Martin, Christian; Mokrousov, Igor; Narvskaïa, Olga; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Naumann, Ludmilla; Niemann, Stefan; Parwati, Ida; Rahim, Zeaur; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Rasolonavalona, Tiana; Rossetti, M Lucia; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Sajduda, Anna; Samper, Sofia; Shemyakin, Igor G; Singh, Urvashi B; Somoskovi, Akos; Skuce, Robin A; van Soolingen, Dick; Streicher, Elisabeth M; Suffys, Philip N; Tortoli, Enrico; Tracevska, Tatjana; Vincent, Véronique; Victor, Tommie C; Warren, Robin M; Yap, Sook Fan; Zaman, Khadiza; Portaels, Françoise; Rastogi, Nalin; Sola, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Background The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical laboratory, molecular epidemiology, evolutionary and population genetics. It is easy, robust, cheap, and produces highly diverse portable numerical results, as the result of the combination of (1) Unique Events Polymorphism (UEP) (2) Insertion-Sequence-mediated genetic recombination. Genetic convergence, although rare, was also previously demonstrated. Three previous international spoligotype databases had partly revealed the global and local geographical structures of MTC bacilli populations, however, there was a need for the release of a new, more representative and extended, international spoligotyping database. Results The fourth international spoligotyping database, SpolDB4, describes 1939 shared-types (STs) representative of a total of 39,295 strains from 122 countries, which are tentatively classified into 62 clades/lineages using a mixed expert-based and bioinformatical approach. The SpolDB4 update adds 26 new potentially phylogeographically-specific MTC genotype families. It provides a clearer picture of the current MTC genomes diversity as well as on the relationships between the genetic attributes investigated (spoligotypes) and the infra-species classification and evolutionary history of the species. Indeed, an independent Naïve-Bayes mixture-model analysis has validated main of the previous supervised SpolDB3 classification results, confirming the usefulness of both supervised and unsupervised models as an approach to understand MTC population structure. Updated results on the epidemiological status of spoligotypes, as well as genetic prevalence maps on six main lineages are also shown. Our results suggests

  2. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose.

  3. Global Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotypes

    PubMed Central

    Filliol, Ingrid; Driscoll, Jeffrey R.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kremer, Kristin; Valétudie, Georges; Anh, Dang Duc; Barlow, Rachael; Banerjee, Dilip; Bifani, Pablo J.; Brudey, Karin; Cataldi, Angel; Cooksey, Robert C.; Cousins, Debby V.; Dale, Jeremy W.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Drobniewski, Francis; Engelmann, Guido; Ferdinand, Séverine; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Gordon, Max; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Haas, Walter H.; Heersma, Herre; Källenius, Gunilla; Kassa-Kelembho, Eric; Koivula, Tuija; Ly, Ho Minh; Makristathis, Athanasios; Mammina, Caterina; Martin, Gerald; Moström, Peter; Mokrousov, Igor; Narbonne, Valérie; Narvskaya, Olga; Nastasi, Antonino; Niobe-Eyangoh, Sara Ngo; Pape, Jean W; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Ridell, Malin; Rossetti, M. Lucia; Stauffer, Fritz; Suffys, Philip N.; Takiff, Howard; Texier-Maugein, Jeanne; Vincent, Véronique; de Waard, Jacobus H.

    2002-01-01

    We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11,708 patterns from as many clinical isolates originating from more than 90 countries. The 11,708 spoligotypes were clustered into 813 shared types. A total of 1,300 orphan patterns (clinical isolates showing a unique spoligotype) were also detected. PMID:12453368

  4. Snapshot of Moving and Expanding Clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Their Global Distribution Assessed by Spoligotyping in an International Study†

    PubMed Central

    Filliol, Ingrid; Driscoll, Jeffrey R.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kremer, Kristin; Valétudie, Georges; Anh, Dang Duc; Barlow, Rachael; Banerjee, Dilip; Bifani, Pablo J.; Brudey, Karine; Cataldi, Angel; Cooksey, Robert C.; Cousins, Debby V.; Dale, Jeremy W.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Drobniewski, Francis; Engelmann, Guido; Ferdinand, Séverine; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Gordon, Max; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Haas, Walter H.; Heersma, Herre; Kassa-Kelembho, Eric; Ly, Ho Minh; Makristathis, Athanasios; Mammina, Caterina; Martin, Gerald; Moström, Peter; Mokrousov, Igor; Narbonne, Valérie; Narvskaya, Olga; Nastasi, Antonino; Niobe-Eyangoh, Sara Ngo; Pape, Jean W.; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Ridell, Malin; Rossetti, M. Lucia; Stauffer, Fritz; Suffys, Philip N.; Takiff, Howard; Texier-Maugein, Jeanne; Vincent, Véronique; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

    2003-01-01

    The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of potential indices were developed to summarize the information on the biogeographical specificity of a given shared type, as well as its geographical spreading (matching code and spreading index, respectively). To facilitate the analysis of hundreds of spoligotypes each made up of a binary succession of 43 bits of information, a number of major and minor visual rules were also defined. A total of six major rules (A to F) with the precise description of the extra missing spacers (minor rules) were used to define 36 major clades (or families) of M. tuberculosis. Some major clades identified were the East African-Indian (EAI) clade, the Beijing clade, the Haarlem clade, the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) clade, the Central Asian (CAS) clade, a European clade of IS6110 low banders (X; highly prevalent in the United States and United Kingdom), and a widespread yet poorly defined clade (T). When the visual rules defined above were used for an automated labeling of the 813 shared types to define nine superfamilies of strains (Mycobacterium africanum, Beijing, M. bovis, EAI, CAS, T, Haarlem, X, and LAM), 96.9% of the shared types received a label, showing the potential for automated labeling of M. tuberculosis families in well-defined phylogeographical families. Intercontinental matches of shared types among eight continents and subcontinents (Africa, North America, Central America, South America, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, and the Far East) are analyzed and discussed. PMID:12734235

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotypes in Monterrey, Mexico▿

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Torres, Carmen A.; Moreno-Torres, Elisa; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Rendon, Adrian; Blackwood, Kym; Kremer, Kristin; Rastogi, Nalin; Welsh, Oliverio; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2010-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is still a public health problem in Mexico, there is little information about the genetic characteristics of the isolates. In the present study, we analyzed by spoligotyping 180 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from the urban area of Monterrey, Mexico, including drug-susceptible and drug-resistant isolates. The spoligotype patterns were compared with those in the international SITVIT2 spoligotyping database. Four isolates presented spoligotype patterns not found in the database (orphan types); the rest were distributed among 44 spoligo international types (SITs). SIT53 (clade T1) and SIT119 (clade X1) were predominant and included 43 (23.8%) and 28 (15.5%) of the isolates, respectively. In order to determine if there was a dominant spoligotype in the group of multidrug-resistant isolates, 37 of them were analyzed by IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assays, and scarce clustering of strains with more than five bands was observed. Fourteen isolates of this multidrug-resistant group presented four bands or less and were distributed in four SITs: SIT53 (n = 8), SIT92 (n = 3), SIT70 (n = 2), and SIT3038 (n = 1). When the molecular detection of mutations in the katG and rpoB genes were analyzed in these isolates with low copy numbers of IS6110, only two isolates shared the same IS6110, spoligotyping, and mutations patterns. When the distribution of the spoligotypes was analyzed by age cohort, SIT119 was predominantly found in patients 0 to 20 years old, especially in males, accounting for up to 40% of the isolates. In contrast, SIT53 was more prevalent in older females. This analysis demonstrates the variability of M. tuberculosis isolates in Monterrey and the partial dominance of SIT53 and SIT119 in that area of Mexico. PMID:19940048

  6. Fourth international circumpolar arctic vegetation mapping workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Markon, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    During the week of April 10, 2001, the Fourth International Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Mapping Workshop was held in Moscow, Russia. The purpose of this meeting was to bring together the vegetation scientists working on the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) to (1) review the progress of current mapping activities, (2) discuss and agree upon a standard set of arctic tundra subzones, (3) plan for the production and dissemination of a draft map, and (4) begin work on a legend for the final map.

  7. Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at The Nagaragawa Convention Center in Gifu, Japan, on October 30 - November 1, 1997. The symposium included 13 sessions in which a total of 35 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of maglev, controls, high critical temperature (T(sub c)) superconductivity, bearings, magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS), levitation, modeling, and applications. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage, Wrongly Identified as Mycobacterium pinnipedii (Spoligotype International Type 863 [SIT863]), Causing Active Tuberculosis in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Sidra E. G.; Esteves, Leonardo S.; Gomes, Harrison M.; Almeida da Silva, Pedro; Perdigão, João; Portugal, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; McNerney, Ruth; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Rastogi, Nalin; Unis, Gisela; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R.

    2015-01-01

    We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RDRio, and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n = 8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C(−17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers. PMID:26400784

  9. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  10. (Fourth international conference on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.E.

    1990-01-24

    This report summarizes the International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials (ICFRM-4) which was held December 4--9, 1989, in Kyoto, Japan, as well as the results of several workshops, planning meetings, and laboratory visits made by the travelers. The ICFRM-4 is the major forum to present and exchange information on materials research and development in support of the world's fusion development efforts. About 360 papers were presented by the 347 conference attendees. Highlights of the conference are presented. A proposal by the United States to host ICFRM-5 was accepted by the International Advisory Committee. ORNL will be the host laboratory. A meeting of the DOE/JAERI Annex I Steering Committee to review the US/Japan Collaborative Testing of First Wall and Blanket Structural Materials with Mixed Spectrum Fission Reactors was held at JAERI Headquarters on December 1. The Japanese emphasized the critical importance of a resumption of HFIR operation. Even though the HFIR outage has lasted three plus years this program has continued to provide new and important data on materials behavior which has particular relevance to ITER.

  11. PREFACE: Fourth International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    2010-04-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The 4th Symposium (ISAT-4) was held on November 18-19, 2009 at the Seaside Hotel MAIKO VILLA KOBE, Kobe City, Japan presided by the "Atomic Technology Project". The ISAT-4 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion on the latest progress in the atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 107 delegates. There were 10 invited and 6 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 69. From all the contributions, 22 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The "Atomic Technology Project" was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) the Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) the Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) the Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and was developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and device. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Shigefumi Okada Conference Chair Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph Kobe photograph

  12. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-06-30

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  13. Fourth International Bemisia Workshop International Whitefly Genomics Workshop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invited speakers from around the world presented research and management tactics conducted in their respective geographic regions and areas of expertise. Sessions were arranged with a slate of invited speakers followed by discussion, comments, and questions. Attendance was truly international with m...

  14. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Ritaccio, Anthony; Brunner, Peter; Crone, Nathan E.; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Litt, Brian; Miller, Kai; Moran, Daniel; Parvizi, Josef; Ramsey, Nick; Richner, Thomas J.; Tandon, Niton; Williams, Justin; Schalk, Gerwin

    2013-01-01

    The Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation. PMID:24034899

  15. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography.

    PubMed

    Ritaccio, Anthony; Brunner, Peter; Crone, Nathan E; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Kanwisher, Nancy; Litt, Brian; Miller, Kai; Moran, Daniel; Parvizi, Josef; Ramsey, Nick; Richner, Thomas J; Tandon, Niton; Williams, Justin; Schalk, Gerwin

    2013-11-01

    The Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation.

  16. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  17. Fourth international workshop on human chromosome 5. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Fourth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 5 was held in Manchester, UK on November 9--10, 1996 and was hosted by the University of Manchester. The major goals of the workshop were: (1) to collate the various genetic, cytogenetic and physical maps of human chromosome 5; (2) to integrate these maps and identify/correct discrepancies between them wherever possible; (3) to catalogue the sequence-ready contigs of the chromosome; (4) to co-ordinate the various sequencing efforts to avoid future duplication; (5) to establish the first (to the author`s knowledge) web site for the human chromosome 5 community which contains the above information in a readily accessible form.

  18. Fourth International Symposium on Long-Range Sound Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is an aspect of many acoustical problems ranging from en route aircraft noise to the acoustic detection of aircraft. Over the past decade, the University of Mississippi and the Open University of England, together with a third institution, have held a symposium approx. every 2 years so that experts in the field of long range propagation could exchange information on current research, identify areas needing additional work, and coordinate activities as much as possible. The Fourth International Symposium on Long Range Sound Propagation was jointly sponsored by the University of Mississippi, the Open University of England, and NASA. Papers were given in the following areas: ground effects on propagation; infrasound propagation; and meteorological effects on sound propagation. A compilation of the presentations made at the symposium is presented along with a list of attendees, and the agenda.

  19. A strip array for spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiling; Zeng, Xiaohong; Li, Hui; Zheng, Rongrong; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2016-03-01

    A novel strip array was developed for a nine-spacer spoligotyping scheme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The new method was evaluated using 211 MTBC isolates and the results were fully concordant with the traditional spoligotyping approach. The strip array proved to be rapid and convenient for spoligotyping of MTBC.

  20. Fourth-order perturbative model for photoinduced internal conversion processes.

    PubMed

    Molesky, Brian P; Moran, Andrew M

    2013-12-27

    Essential to the functionality of numerous biological and synthetic molecular systems is the ability to rapidly convert electronic excitation energy into heat. Such internal conversion (IC) transitions often cannot be described by traditional second-order kinetic theories because of time-coincident electronic and nuclear relaxation processes. Here, we present a perturbative fourth-order phenomenological model for photoinduced IC that incorporates effects associated with finite laser bandwidths and nonequilibrium nuclear motions. Specialized knowledge of first-principles computational methods is not required, and many parameters can be obtained with standard spectroscopic measurements. The model is applied to the IC processes that precede electrocyclic ring-opening in α-terpinene. It is shown that the primary factor governing the shape of the population decay profile (Gaussian versus exponential) is the rate at which the wavepacket approaches the geometry corresponding to degeneracy between the excited states. Other parameters such as the displacement in the promoting mode and the thermal fluctuation amplitudes affect the sensitivity of the IC dynamics to motion of the wavepacket but do not alter the basic physical picture. Finally, we suggest a wavepacket representation of the IC process to visualize correlations between population-transfer dynamics and the amount of energy transferred from the system to the bath.

  1. EDITORIAL: The Fourth International Workshop on Microfactories (IWMF'04)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jiaru; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2005-10-01

    This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the fourth International Workshop on Microfactories. After the first three successful Workshops, which took place in Tsukuba, Japan in 1998, Fribourg, Switzerland in 2000 and Minneapolis, USA in 2002, the fourth (IWMF'04) was held in Shanghai, China on 15-17 October 2004. The concept of the `microfactory' and miniaturized production systems was first proposed by the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory in Japan who demonstrated the feasibility of downsizing energy-saving, distributed and eventually environmentally conscious manufacturing systems. There is incredible potential in reducing the physical scale of numerous processes related to the manufacture of many forms of future dense `mechatronic' products and in the manipulation of microscopic and nanoscopic objects and materials for the benefit of mankind. Small systems capable of these operations can be referred to as `microfactories'. A worldwide effort is currently underway to bring such microfactories to fruition. MEMS, MST and micromachines are regarded as synonyms, but they do not necessarily have the same meaning. In particular, differences can be found in their technological approaches. Roughly speaking, research and development in the USA is based primarily on surface or bulk silicon micromachining processes, and the ideal realization of MEMS seems to be the monolithic device. The European approach also focuses on integration between electronics and mechanics but, especially in connection with the development of `µTAS', it also demands the integration of non-mechanical components into the system. In Japan the approaches for MST are said to be rather less focused. Besides the above-mentioned `classical' microsystem technologies, down-scaling of conventional manufacturing methods, or non-silicon based device processing within this field, completely new technological methods are also considered as `microsystem technologies

  2. Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates at a tertiary care hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Suzana, Shirly; Shanmugam, Sivakumar; Uma Devi, K R; Swarna Latha, P N; Michael, Joy S

    2017-06-01

    Spoligotyping is a valuable genotyping tool to study the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). The aim of this study was to analyse different spoligotype patterns of M. tb strains isolated from patients with tuberculosis from different parts of India. A total of 163 M. tb isolates were spoligotyped between January 2014 and January 2015. About 47% (n = 77) were from patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis; of these, 10 were MDR, and seven were Pre-XDR. Of the 86 M. tb isolates from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 25 were MDR, and 25 were Pre-XDR. We found 61 spoligo patterns, 128 clusters in the spoligotype data base (spoldb4 data base) with spoligo international type (SIT) number and 35 true unique isolates. The most pre-dominant spoligotype was EAI lineage (56), followed by Beijing (28), CAS (20), T(9), U(7), X(3), H(3), BOVIS_1 BCG(1) and LAM(1). Although our study identified EAI, CAS and Beijing strain lineages as pre-dominant, we also found a large number of orphan strains (20%) in our study. Beijing strains were more significantly associated with MDR TB than CAS and EAI lineages. Further studies on large sample sizes would help to clearly describe the epidemiology of M. tb in India. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNAs from Egyptian mummies by spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Zink, Albert R; Sola, Christophe; Reischl, Udo; Grabner, Waltraud; Rastogi, Nalin; Wolf, Hans; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2003-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum.

  4. Contribution of spoligotyping to the characterization of the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Suzana; Ribeiro, Diana Raposo; Antunes, Abílio; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; de Sousa, José Germano

    2007-09-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Portugal. To begin characterizing the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spoligotyping was used for the systematic typing, through consecutive sampling, of patient isolates from the Amadora-Sintra area of Greater Lisbon. Distribution amongst major spoligotype families, including the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), T, Haarlem and Beijing, was compared to that of the international spoligotype database SpolDB4 and to the European countries of traditional Portuguese immigration represented in SpolDB4. Spoligotypes from 665 isolates were analyzed and 97 shared international types (SITs) identified. In SpolDB4 Portugal is represented by part of the spoligotypes from this study explaining the reduced number of unidentified patterns. The importance of the LAM family, and especially of LAM1 and LAM9 sub-families that alone represented 38% of all the isolates in this study as compared to 8% relative to the European sub group, led us to believe that at least in this respect the population structure was closer to that of Africa and South America than to Europe. Spoligotypes characteristic of Portugal or Portuguese related settings were identified. These included SIT244 a T1 sub-family predominant in Portugal and Bangladesh, SIT64 a LAM 6 sub-family common to Portugal and Brazil, and SIT1106 a LAM 9 sub-family. These studies were the first in Portugal stressing the importance of monitoring the population structure of M. tuberculosis isolates, an important step towards gaining an understanding of tuberculosis and the dynamics of this disease.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis in Swine: Spoligotyping of Isolates from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Barandiaran, Soledad; Martínez Vivot, Marcela; Moras, Eduardo Vicente; Cataldi, Angel Adrián; Zumárraga, Martín José

    2011-01-01

    A total of 143 Mycobacterium bovis isolates of pigs, from the most productive swine area in Argentina, were typed by spoligotyping. Twenty-two different spoligotypes were identified, and 133 (93%) isolates were grouped into 12 clusters. One of them, designed SB0140, was the most frequent because it held 83 (58%) isolates. This spoligotype also grouped 362 (43%) out of 841 isolates from previously typed cattle and, thus, constitutes the most frequent in our country. In addition, 135 (94%) isolates revealed spoligotypes identical to those of cattle, showing an epidemiological link. On the other hand, there were seven novel spoligotypes, six of which were also unique since they had only one isolate each. This study aimed to identify the spoligotypes of M. bovis isolated from pigs to contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in the main productive area of Argentina. PMID:21547236

  6. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex DNAs from Egyptian Mummies by Spoligotyping

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Albert R.; Sola, Christophe; Reischl, Udo; Grabner, Waltraud; Rastogi, Nalin; Wolf, Hans; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2003-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum. PMID:12517873

  7. Proceedings of the Fourth International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigley, Jack R. (Compiler); Estabrook, Polly (Compiler); Reekie, D. Hugh M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The theme to the 1995 International Mobile Satellite Conference was 'Mobile Satcom Comes of Age'. The sessions included Modulation, Coding, and Multiple Access; Hybrid Networks - 1; Spacecraft Technology; propagation; Applications and Experiments - 1; Advanced System Concepts and Analysis; Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Communications; Mobile Terminal Antennas; Mobile Terminal Technology; Current and Planned Systems; Direct Broadcast Satellite; The Use of CDMA for LEO and ICO Mobile Satellite Systems; Hybrid Networks - 2; and Applications and Experiments - 2.

  8. Proceedings: Fourth international conference on fossil plant cycle chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, R.B.; Pate, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the conference were to review, document and transfer technology on all aspects of cycle chemistry. To meet these objectives, papers were presented and are included in these proceedings in ten technical areas: Boiler Related Chemistry; Feedwater Related Chemistry; International Cycle Chemistry; Instrumentation and Diagnostics; Steam; Ion Exchange and Condensate Polishing; Chemical Cleaning; Oxygenated Treatment; Cycle Effects; and Cycle Chemistry Improvement and Management Programs. Each topic at the conference was discussed in a separate session and these discussions are also included in the proceedings following each paper. The mix of international and domestic papers were chosen to indicate the marked differences in practices and to stimulate discussion. The working group summaries provided some of this flavor; they also indicate the current needs and deficiencies and outline R and D required to improve/upgrade cycle chemistry. The results of a comprehensive survey conducted at the conference are also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Concussion assessment and management knowledge among chiropractic fourth year interns and residents.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pichini, Alessandro; Scappaticci, Steven; Savic, Mitchell

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the degree of knowledge chiropractic fourth year interns and post-graduate chiropractic residents have in regard to concussion diagnosis and management. A survey modified from a study conducted by Boggild and Tator (2012), was administered to fourth year chiropractic interns and post-graduate residents via SurveyMonkey.com. Chiropractic fourth year interns and postgraduate chiropractic specialty college residents scored 5.2 and 5.25 out of 9 respectively, which compares well with Bogglid and Tator's reports on medical students and residents. Several knowledge gaps were identified in the sample population. The results from this survey show that the concussion knowledge among Canadian fourth year chiropractic interns and specialty college residents compares favorably with the knowledge of fourth year medical students and residents in diagnosing and managing concussions. Chiropractors appear to possess the skills and knowledge to diagnose and manage concussion equal to their medical counterparts. However, knowledge gaps regarding concussion diagnosis and management were found among chiropractic students and residents.

  10. Concussion assessment and management knowledge among chiropractic fourth year interns and residents

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pichini, Alessandro; Scappaticci, Steven; Savic, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the degree of knowledge chiropractic fourth year interns and post-graduate chiropractic residents have in regard to concussion diagnosis and management. Methods: A survey modified from a study conducted by Boggild and Tator (2012), was administered to fourth year chiropractic interns and post-graduate residents via SurveyMonkey.com. Results: Chiropractic fourth year interns and postgraduate chiropractic specialty college residents scored 5.2 and 5.25 out of 9 respectively, which compares well with Bogglid and Tator’s reports on medical students and residents. Several knowledge gaps were identified in the sample population. Conclusion: The results from this survey show that the concussion knowledge among Canadian fourth year chiropractic interns and specialty college residents compares favorably with the knowledge of fourth year medical students and residents in diagnosing and managing concussions. Chiropractors appear to possess the skills and knowledge to diagnose and manage concussion equal to their medical counterparts. However, knowledge gaps regarding concussion diagnosis and management were found among chiropractic students and residents. PMID:28065987

  11. Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Special Education (Cork, Ireland, September 8-12, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, M. F., Ed.

    Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Special Education (Cork, Ireland, September 8-12, 1969) contain papers relating to the following themes: special education personnel, identification of the handicapped, general aspects of early education, special education methods, early education programs for the mentally handicapped, and early…

  12. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices and Fourth-Graders' Reading Literacy Achievements: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Shiqi; Johnson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study, through multilevel analyses of the data of four English-speaking nations (i.e., Canada, England, New Zealand and the United States) from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001 database, investigated the relationship between teachers' uses of various types of classroom assessments and their fourth-graders'…

  13. CHRONICLE: Fourth International School on Coherent Optics, Bechynĕ, Czechoslovakia, September 12-22, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhenskiĭ, M. F.; Semenov, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is given of lectures and papers presented at the Fourth International School on Coherent Optics (Bechynĕ, Czechoslovakia, 1983). The program at the School was divided into the following sessions: new laser systems and materials, nonlinear processes in optics, optical waveguides, laser applications.

  14. Mycobacterium bovis in Argentina: isolates from cats typified by spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, M J; Vivot, M Martínez; Marticorena, D; Bernardelli, A; Fasán, R; Iachini, R; Cataldi, A A

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, 19 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from different cats were typified by spoligotyping. We detected nine spoligotypes. There was only one cluster, which grouped 11 of the isolates (57.9%), showing the main spoligotype from cattle from Argentina. The rest of the spoligotypes presented only one isolate each. Five of them were not found in cattle, and were unique and exclusive of cats. The isolates studied show that tuberculosis of bovine origin in cats constitutes a potential public health problem in Buenos Aires region. The identification of genotypes from non-natural hosts could contribute to understand the spread of bovine tuberculosis. This is the first report showing genetic profiles of M. bovis isolates in felines from Argentina.

  15. Report of the Fourth international workshop on human chromosome 18 mapping 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, G.A.; Overhauser, J.; Gerken, S.; Aburomia, R.; O'Connell, P.; Krauter, K.S.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Yoshikawa, T.; Collins, A.R.; Geurts van Kessel, A.

    1996-12-04

    The fourth international workshop on human chromosome 18 mapping was held in Boston, Massachusetts, USA on October 7-9, 1996. The workshop was attended by 34 participants from 7 countries. The goals of the workshop were to (1) generate integrated genetic and physical maps, (2) update the transcriptional map, (3) assess the syntenic relationships between human chromosome 18 and the mouse genome, and (4) establish a chromosome 18 web site.

  16. Fourth-Year Medical School Course Load and Success as a Medical Intern.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher J; Mukamal, Kenneth J; DeMelo, Nikki; Smith, C Christopher

    2017-02-01

    The fourth year of medical school has come under recent scrutiny for its lack of structure, cost- and time-effectiveness, and quality of education it provides. Some have advocated for increasing clinical burden in the fourth year, while others have suggested it be abolished. To assess the relationship between fourth-year course load and success during internship. We reviewed transcripts of 78 internal medicine interns from 2011-2013 and compared the number of intensive courses (defined as subinternships, intensive care, surgical clerkships, and emergency medicine rotations) with multi-source performance evaluations from the internship. We assessed relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of achieving excellent scores according to the number of intensive courses taken, using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for demographics, US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 board scores, and other measures of medical school performance. For each additional intensive course taken, the RR of obtaining an excellent score per intensive course was 1.05 (95% CI 1.03-1.07, P < .001), whereas the RR per nonintensive course taken was 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00, P = .03). An association of intensive course work with increased risk of excellent performance was seen across multiple clinical competencies, including medical knowledge (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.11); patient care (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10); and practice-based learning (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.09). For this single institution's cohort of medical interns, increased exposure to intensive course work during the fourth year of medical school was associated with better clinical evaluations during internship.

  17. Controversies in epilepsy: debates held during the Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Frei, Mark G; Zaveri, Hitten P; Arthurs, Susan; Bergey, Gregory K; Jouny, Christophe C; Lehnertz, Klaus; Gotman, Jean; Osorio, Ivan; Netoff, Theoden I; Freeman, Walter J; Jefferys, John; Worrell, Gregory; Quyen, Michel Le Van; Schiff, Steven J; Mormann, Florian

    2010-09-01

    Debates on six controversial topics were held during the Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) convened in Kansas City, KS, USA, July 4-7, 2009. The topics were (1) Ictogenesis: Focus versus Network? (2) Spikes and Seizures: Step-relatives or Siblings? (3) Ictogenesis: A Result of Hyposynchrony? (4) Can Focal Seizures Be Caused by Excessive Inhibition? (5) Do High-Frequency Oscillations Provide Relevant Independent Information? (6) Phase Synchronization: Is It Worthwhile as Measured? This article, written by the IWSP4 organizing committee and the debaters, summarizes the arguments presented during the debates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CONTROVERSIES IN EPILEPSY – DEBATES HELD DURING THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SEIZURE PREDICTION

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Mark G.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Arthurs, Susan; Bergey, Gregory K.; Jouny, Christophe; Lehnertz, Klaus; Gotman, Jean; Osorio, Ivan; Netoff, Theoden I.; Freeman, Walter J.; Jefferys, John; Worrell, Gregory; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Schiff, Steven J.; Mormann, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Debates on 6 controversial topics were held during the Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) convened in Kansas City (July 4–7, 2009). The topics were 1) Ictogenesis: focus vs. network? 2) Spikes and seizures: step-relatives or siblings? 3) Ictogenesis: a result of hyposynchrony? 4) Can focal seizures be caused by excessive inhibition? 5) Do high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) provide relevant independent information? and 6) Phase synchronization – is it worthwhile as measured? This manuscript, written by the IWSP4 organizing committee and the debaters, summarizes the arguments presented during the debates. PMID:20708976

  19. Report of the Fourth International Workshop on human X chromosome mapping 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schlessinger, D.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Willard, H.F.

    1993-12-31

    Vigorous interactive efforts by the X chromosome community have led to accelerated mapping in the last six months. Seventy-five participants from 12 countries around the globe contributed progress reports to the Fourth International X Chromosome Workshop, at St. Louis, MO, May 9-12, 1993. It became clear that well over half the chromosome is now covered by YAC contigs that are being extended, verified, and aligned by their content of STSs and other markers placed by cytogenetic or linkage mapping techniques. The major aim of the workshop was to assemble the consensus map that appears in this report, summarizing both consensus order and YAC contig information.

  20. Legionella pneumophila sequence type 1/Paris pulsotype subtyping by spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Ginevra, Christophe; Jacotin, Nathalie; Diancourt, Laure; Guigon, Ghislaine; Arquilliere, Romain; Meugnier, Hélène; Descours, Ghislaine; Vandenesch, Francois; Etienne, Jerome; Lina, Gérard; Caro, Valérie; Jarraud, Sophie

    2012-03-01

    Endemic strains of Legionella pneumophila sequence type 1 (ST1), in particular the ST1/Paris pulsotype, are dispersed worldwide and represent about 10% of culture-proven clinical cases of Legionnaires' disease in France. The high rate of isolation of this strain from both clinical and environmental samples makes identification of the source of infection difficult during epidemiological investigations. The full-length genome sequence of this strain was recently determined, and it revealed the presence of a CRISPR/cas complex. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a spoligotyping tool based on the diversity of this CRISPR locus that would allow the accurate subtyping of the L. pneumophila serogroup 1 ST1/Paris pulsotype. The CRISPR loci of 28 L. pneumophila ST1/Paris pulsotype isolates were sequenced, and 42 different spacers regions were characterized. A membrane-based spoligotyping method was developed and used to determine the subtypes of 406 L. pneumophila isolates, including 233 with the ST1/Paris pulsotype profile that were collected in France from 2000 to 2011. A total of 46 different spoligotypes were detected, and 41 of these were specifically identified in the ST1/Paris pulsotype isolates. In 27 of 33 epidemiological investigations, the environmental source of contamination was confirmed by comparing spoligotypes of clinical isolates with those of environmental isolates. With an index of discrimination of 79.72% (95% confidence interval, 75.82 to 83.63), spoligotyping of the L. pneumophila ST1/Paris pulsotype has the potential to be a useful complementary genotyping tool for discriminating isolates with undistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ST genotypes, which could help to identify environmental sources of infection.

  1. The use of microbead-based spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to evaluate the quality of the conventional method: Providing guidelines for Quality Assurance when working on membranes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The classical spoligotyping technique, relying on membrane reverse line-blot hybridization of the spacers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR locus, is used world-wide (598 references in Pubmed on April 8th, 2011). However, until now no inter-laboratory quality control study had been undertaken to validate this technique. We analyzed the quality of membrane-based spoligotyping by comparing it to the recently introduced and highly robust microbead-based spoligotyping. Nine hundred and twenty-seven isolates were analyzed totaling 39,861 data points. Samples were received from 11 international laboratories with a worldwide distribution. Methods The high-throughput microbead-based Spoligotyping was performed on CTAB and thermolyzate DNA extracted from isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains coming from the genotyping participating centers. Information regarding how the classical Spoligotyping method was performed by center was available. Genotype discriminatory analyses were carried out by comparing the spoligotypes obtained by both methods. The non parametric U-Mann Whitney homogeneity test and the Spearman rank correlation test were performed to validate the observed results. Results Seven out of the 11 laboratories (63 %), perfectly typed more than 90% of isolates, 3 scored between 80-90% and a single center was under 80% reaching 51% concordance only. However, this was mainly due to discordance in a single spacer, likely having a non-functional probe on the membrane used. The centers using thermolyzate DNA performed as well as centers using the more extended CTAB extraction procedure. Few centers shared the same problematic spacers and these problematic spacers were scattered over the whole CRISPR locus (Mostly spacers 15, 14, 18, 37, 39, 40). Conclusions We confirm that classical spoligotyping is a robust method with generally a high reliability in most centers. The applied DNA extraction procedure (CTAB or thermolyzate) did not

  2. Contribution of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs to characterize prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes infecting tuberculosis patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Imane; Zozio, Thierry; Lahlou, Ouafae; Sabouni, Radia; Abid, Mohammed; El Aouad, Rajae; Akrim, Mohammed; Amzazi, Said; Rastogi, Nalin; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates from culture-positive TB patients in Morocco were studied by spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing methods to characterize prevalent genotypes (n = 219 isolates from 208 patients). Spoligotyping resulted in 39 unique patterns and 167 strains in 30 clusters (2-50 strains per cluster). Comparison with international database showed that 29 of 39 unique patterns matched existing shared spoligotype international types (SITs). Nine shared types containing 10 strains were newly created (SIT 2891 to SIT 2899); this led to the description of 69 SITs with 206 strains and two orphan patterns. The most prevalent spoligotype was SIT42 (LAM; n = 50 or 24% of isolates). The repartition of strains according to major MTBC clades was as follows LAM (46.1%)> Haarlem (26%) >ill-defined T superfamily (22.6%) and S clade (0.96%). On the other hand, Beijing, CAS (Central Asian) and EAI (East-African Indian) strains were absent in this setting. Subsequent 12-Loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 25 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 66 isolates, 2-6 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent transmission rate of 22.3%. The MIRU-VNTR patterns corresponded to 69 MITs for 138 strains and 46 orphan patterns. The most frequent patterns were MIT43 (n = 8), MIT9 (n = 7) and MIT42 (n = 7). HGDI analysis of the 12 MIRU loci showed that loci 10, 23 and 40 were highly discriminative in our setting. The results also underlined the usefulness of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR to detect mixed infections among certain of our TB patients. Globally, the results obtained showed that TB is almost exclusively transmitted in Morocco through evolutionary-modern MTBC lineages belonging to principal genetic groups 2/3 strains (Haarlem, LAM, T), with a high level of biodiversity seen by MIRU typing. This study provides with a 1st global snapshot of MTBC population structure in Morocco, and validates the potential use of spoligotyping in

  3. Developmental cascades of peer relations and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems from kindergarten to fourth-grade elementary school.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M

    2010-08-01

    A developmental cascade model linking symptoms of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology through three indices of peer relational difficulty (peer rejection, peer victimization, friendedness) was tested in a general population sample of 653 children followed annually from kindergarten to fourth grade. Rejection and victimization linked kindergarten externalizing problems with fourth-grade internalizing problems. Transactional links between rejection and victimization were found. In addition, peer rejection added to the development of externalizing problems. Friendedness did not add to the development of externalizing or internalizing problems. Cascade paths were similar for boys and girls. Over the period of kindergarten to fourth grade, psychopathology and peer relations become entangled, and the dynamic interplay between multiple manifestations of poor peer relations ultimately adds to the development of both externalizing and internalizing problems and their cross-time relation. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.

  4. Usefulness of Spoligotyping in Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis-Related Infections in South America

    PubMed Central

    Zumárraga, Martín J.; Martin, Carlos; Samper, Sofia; Alito, Alicia; Latini, Omar; Bigi, Fabiana; Roxo, Eliana; Cicuta, María Elena; Errico, Francisco; Ramos, Miguel Castro; Cataldi, Angel; van Soolingen, Dick; Romano, María Isabel

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-four Mycobacterium bovis isolates, mainly from South American countries, were typed by spoligotyping, and 41 different spoligotypes were identified. A total of 202 M. bovis isolates (90%) were grouped into 19 different clusters. The largest cluster contained 96 isolates (42.8%) on the basis of the most frequently observed spoligotype, spoligotype 34. Nineteen M. bovis isolates from humans in Argentina had spoligotypes and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) types that represented the most common types found among isolates from cattle. All five isolates from Uruguay and three of the six isolates from Paraguay had spoligotypes that were also detected for isolates from Argentina. The spoligotypes of isolates from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Mexico and of some of the isolates from Paraguay could not be found in Argentina. A total of 154 M. bovis isolates were selected in order to compare the discriminative power of spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with direct repeat (DR) and PGRS probes. By spoligotyping, 31 different types were found, while AluI-digested DR probe-associated RFLP analysis identified 42 types, and RFLP analysis with the PGRS probe also detected 42 types; these were partly independent of the DR types. By combining the results obtained by spoligotyping and by RFLP analysis with the DR and PGRS probes, 88 different types were obtained. Although the differentiation of M. bovis by spoligotyping was less discriminatory than differentiation by RFLP analysis with the DR and PGRS probes, spoligotyping is easier to perform and its results are easier to interpret. Therefore, for the purpose of typing of M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping could be performed first and the isolates could be grouped into clusters and then analyzed by RFLP analysis with the DR and PGRS probes. PMID:9889207

  5. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting Special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Theresa M.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2011-04-01

    This special issue of Journal of Neural Engineering is a result of the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, which was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Monterey, California, USA from 31 May to 4 June, 2010. The meeting was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The National Science Foundation and the Department of Defense, and was organized by the Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health. It attracted over 260 participants from 17 countries—including many graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—and featured 19 workshops, platform presentations from 26 research groups, 170 posters, multiple brain-computer interface (BCI) demonstrations, and a keynote address by W Zev Rymer of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. The number of participants and the diversity of the topics covered greatly exceeded those of the previous meeting in 2005, and testified to the continuing rapid expansion and growing sophistication of this exciting and still relatively new research field. BCI research focuses primarily on using brain signals to replace or restore the motor functions that people have lost due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a brainstem stroke, or some other devastating neuromuscular disorder. In the last few years, attention has also turned towards using BCIs to improve rehabilitation after a stroke, and beyond that to enhancing or supplementing the capabilities of even those without disabilities. These diverse interests were represented in the wide range of topics covered in the workshops. While some workshops addressed broad traditional topics, such as signal acquisition, feature extraction and translation, and software development, many addressed topics that were entirely new or focused sharply on areas that have become important only recently. These included workshops on optimizing P300-based BCIs; improving the mutual adaptations of the BCI and the user; BCIs that can control neuroprostheses

  6. Comparative Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotype distribution in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ramos-Alvarez, Jessica; Molina-Torres, Carmen A; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Rendón, Adrian; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    In the present work, we studied the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients according to their gender, age, and geographic location in Mexico. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in regard to age or gender. We found that spoligo international type 53 (SIT53) is more frequent in the northern states and that SIT119 predominates in central Mexico. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Comparative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotype Distribution in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Alvarez, Jessica; Molina-Torres, Carmen A.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Rendón, Adrian; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients according to their gender, age, and geographic location in Mexico. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in regard to age or gender. We found that spoligo international type 53 (SIT53) is more frequent in the northern states and that SIT119 predominates in central Mexico. PMID:24850349

  8. Understanding the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis spoligotypes from cattle in Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, M J; Arriaga, C; Barandiaran, S; Cobos-Marín, L; de Waard, J; Estrada-Garcia, I; Figueiredo, T; Figueroa, A; Giménez, F; Gomes, H M; Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, J A; Macías, A; Milián-Suazo, F; Rodríguez, C A R; Santillán, M A; Suffys, P N; Trangoni, M D; Zárraga, A M; Cataldi, A

    2013-02-01

    Spoligotyping is the most frequently used method for genotyping isolates of Mycobacterium bovis worldwide. In the current work, we compared spoligotypes from 1684 M. bovis isolates from Argentina (816), Brazil (412), Chile (66), Mexico (274) and Venezuela (116), obtained from cattle, humans, pigs, wild boars, farmed deer, goats, buffaloes, cats, and wild animals. A total of 269 different spoligotypes were found: 142 (8.4%) isolates presented orphan spoligotypes, whereas 1542 (91.6%) formed 113 different clusters. In cattle, SB0140 was the most representative spoligotype with 355 (24.6%) isolates, followed by SB0121 with 149 (10.3%) isolates. Clustering of spoligotypes ranged from 95.2% in Argentina to 85.3% in Mexico. Orphan spoligotypes were also variable, ranging from 23.7% in Mexico to 4.1% in Brazil. A large proportion of spoligotypes were common to the neighboring countries Argentina, Brazil and Chile. In conclusion, despite the diversity of spoligotypes found in the five countries studied, there are major patterns that predominate in these neighboring countries. These clusters may reflect a long-lasting active transmission of bovine tuberculosis or common historical origins of infection.

  9. Meeting report: Fourth international meeting on G-quadruplex Nucleic Acids (Singapore, July 1-4, 2013).

    PubMed

    Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    The fourth international meeting on G-quadruplex Nucleic Acids was held in the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) of Singapore. Over 150 participants gathered from more than 25 countries. Over 40 talks and 100 posters summarized our current knowledge of these unusual DNA and RNA structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. CHRONICLE: Fourth International Conference on Lasers and Their Applications (Leipzig, East Germany, October 19-23, 1981)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhenskiĭ, M. F.; Polkovnikov, Boris F.

    1983-06-01

    A brief review is given of the more important papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Lasers and Their Applications. The Conference topics were as follows: lasers (development of new and improvement of old types); laser thermonuclear fusion; nonlinear optics; laser spectroscopy; optoelectronics; applications of lasers in chemistry, biology, and medicine; fundamental investigations; other applications.

  11. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2006 (PIRLS): Pedagogical Correlates of Fourth-Grade Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Tse, Shek Kam; Lam, Joseph W. I.; Ka Yee Loh, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Reading literacy of fourth-grade students in Hong Kong showed a remarkable improvement from 2001 to 2006 as shown by international PIRLS studies. This study identified various aspects of the teacher factor contributing to the significant improvement among students. A total of 4,712 students and 144 teachers from 144 schools were randomly selected…

  12. Fourth International Workshop on Haploidentical Transplants, Naples, Italy, July 8-10, 2004.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Franco; Berneman, Zwi N; Locatelli, Franco; Martelli, Massimo F; Reisner, Yair; Tabilio, Antonio; Velardi, Andrea; Vuk-Pavlovic, Stanimir

    2004-01-01

    Many patients with high-risk hematological malignancies or with incurable inborn errors do not have an HLA-matched sibling and cannot find an HLA-matched donor for an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Transplantation strategies using mismatched haploidentical family donors have been an important development. Although the procedure has saved patients from certain death, it is still beset by major problems like life-threatening infections--due to profound immunodeficiency following T-cell depletion and to disease relapse. At every International Workshop on Haploidentical Transplants, new data are presented, showing how scientists are attempting to improve the outcomes of mismatched transplants while reducing the severity of complications.The fourth Workshop continues in this tradition of presenting ground-breaking research. It opened with presentations of the current results with unrelated volunteer and umbilical cord blood transplants and proceeded to a session with the results of haploidentical transplants in the world with series of patients with high-risk acute leukemia, ranging in number from well over 100 in Perugia, Italy, and 80 in Haifa, Israel, to smaller groups in Europe and the United States. The session on graft engineering presented the latest results in the search for the optimal graft. The graft-vs.-leukemia effect in the haploidentical transplant was discussed in depth. Subsequently, attention focussed on one of the major problems in haploidentical transplant, that is, the delay in immunological recovery. The Workshop closed with presentations on tolerance induction that was followed by the results of ongoing registration studies being performed by the Italian GIMEMA group and the European Bone Marrow Transplant group.

  13. International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC). International Advisory Committee, Fourth Session (Paris, France, March 10-12, 1997). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany). International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    The fourth session of the UNEVOC International Advisory Committee was opened by Colin N. Power, whose welcoming address emphasized the importance of technical and vocational education (TVE) for socioeconomic development of UNESCO's member states. He pointed out that this sector of education is facing serious challenges posed by the recent trends…

  14. Survey on laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) at the Fourth International Consensus Summit on Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gagner, Michel; Deitel, Mervyn; Erickson, Ann L; Crosby, Ross D

    2013-12-01

    LSG has been increasingly performed. Long-term follow-up is necessary. During the Fourth International Consensus Summit on LSG in New York Dec. 2012, an online questionnaire (SurveyMonkey®) was filled out by 130 surgeons experienced in LSG. The survey was submitted directly to the statisticians. The 130 surgeons performed 354.9 ± SD 453 LSGs/surgeon (median 175), for a total of 46,133 LSGs. The LSGs had been performed over 4.9 ± 2.7 year (range 1-10). Of the 46,133 LSGs, 0.2 ± 1.0 % (median 0, range 0-10 %) were converted to an open operation. LSG was intended as the sole operation in 93.1 ± 14.8 %; in 3.0 ± 6.3 %, a second stage became necessary. Of the 130 surgeons, 40 (32 %) use a 36F bougie, which was most common (range 32-50F). Staple-line is reinforced by 79 %; of these, 57 % use a buttress and 43 % over-sew. Mean %EWL at year 1 was 59.3 %; year 2, 59.0 %; year 3, 54.7 %; year 4, 52.3 %; year 5, 52.4 %; and year 6, 50.6 %. If a second-stage operation becomes necessary, preference was: RYGB 46 %, duodenal switch 24 %, re-sleeve 20 %, single-anastomosis duodenoileal bypass 3 %, sleeve plication 3 %, minigastric bypass 3 %, non-adjustable band 2 %, and side-to-side jejunoileal anastomosis 1 %. Complications were: high leak 1.1 %, hemorrhage 1.8 %, and stenosis at lower sleeve 0.9 %. Postoperative gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 7.9 ± 8.2 % but was variable (0-30 %). Mortality was 0.33 ± 1.6 %, which translates to ≈ 152 deaths. Eighty-nine percent order multivitamins (including vitamin D, calcium, and iron) and 72 % order B12. A PPI is ordered by 29 % for 1 month, 29 % for 3 months, and others for 1-12 months depending on the case. LSG was relatively safe. Further long-term surveillance is necessary.

  15. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7%) and non-literates (83.6%). Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7%) belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS). Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4) were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5%) of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate in Ethiopia. A large

  16. Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the genetics of host-parasite interactions in forestry: Disease and insect resistance in forest trees

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Sniezko; Alvin D. Yanchuk; John T. Kliejunas; Katharine M. Palmieri; Janice M. Alexander; Susan J. Frankel

    2012-01-01

    Individual papers are available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr240/The Fourth International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry: Disease and Insect Resistance in Forest Trees...

  17. An Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA)-Based Framework to Prepare Fourth-Year Medical Students for Internal Medicine Careers.

    PubMed

    Elnicki, D Michael; Aiyer, Meenakshy K; Cannarozzi, Maria L; Carbo, Alexander; Chelminski, Paul R; Chheda, Shobhina G; Chudgar, Saumil M; Harrell, Heather E; Hood, L Chad; Horn, Michelle; Johl, Karnjit; Kane, Gregory C; McNeill, Diana B; Muntz, Marty D; Pereira, Anne G; Stewart, Emily; Tarantino, Heather; Vu, T Robert

    2017-06-20

    The purpose of the fourth year of medical school remains controversial. Competing demands during this transitional phase cause confusion for students and educators. In 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) released 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (CEPAERs). A committee comprising members of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine applied these principles to preparing students for internal medicine residencies. The authors propose a curricular framework based on five CEPAERs that were felt to be most relevant to residency preparation, informed by prior stakeholder surveys. The critical areas outlined include entering orders, forming and answering clinical questions, conducting patient care handovers, collaborating interprofessionally, and recognizing patients requiring urgent care and initiating that care. For each CEPAER, the authors offer suggestions about instruction and assessment of competency. The fourth year of medical school can be rewarding for students, while adequately preparing them to begin residency, by addressing important elements defined in the core entrustable activities. Thus prepared, new residents can function safely and competently in supervised postgraduate settings.

  18. ENAM'04 Fourth International Conference on Exotic Nuclei and Atomic Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, C. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conference can trace its origins to the 1950s and 1960s with the Atomic Mass and Fundamental Constants (AMCO) and the Nuclei Far From Stability (NFFS) series of conferences. Held jointly in 1992, the conferences officially merged in 1995 and the fourth conference was held at Callaway Gardens in Pine Mountain, GA and was organized by the Physics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conference covered a broad list of topics consisting of a series of invited and contributed presentation highlighting recent research in the following fields: Atomic masses, nuclear moments, and nuclear radii; Forms of radioactivity; Nuclear structure, nuclei at the drip lines, cluster phenomena; Reactions with radioactive ion beams; Nuclear astrophysics; Fundamental symmetries and interactions; Heaviest elements and fission; Radioactive ion beam production and experimental developments; Applications of exotic nuclei

  19. FOURTH FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL - TECHNICAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 17-19, 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Technology Innovation Office and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Department of Energy, Corps of Engineers, and California Environmental Preotection Agency, hosted an International conference in San Francis...

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Ligation-Mediated PCR and Spoligotyping as Screening Methods for Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, Stefano; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Di Perri, Giovanni; Brunello, Francesca; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Ligozzi, Marco; Fontana, Roberta; Concia, Ercole; Vincent, Veronique

    1999-01-01

    Spoligotyping has been suggested as a screening test in multistep genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Relying on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with IS6110 (IS6110 RFLP analysis) as a “gold standard,” we performed a comparative evaluation of spoligotyping and ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR), a recently described PCR-based typing method, as rapid screening tests for fingerprinting of 158 M. tuberculosis strains collected in Verona, Italy. LMPCR seemed to be comparable to spoligotyping in terms both of feasibility with rapidly extracted DNA and of generation of software-analyzable images. Moreover, LMPCR grouped considerably fewer strains than spoligotyping (38 versus 67%) and was found to reduce the cluster overestimation rate (26.3 versus 58%) and to give a better discriminatory index (0.992 versus 0.970) compared to spoligotyping. In our geographical region, where there was no evidence of clustered strains carrying fewer than six IS6110 copies, LMPCR was found to be more discriminatory than spoligotyping. We also evaluated two models of three-step typing strategies, involving the use of spoligotyping and LMPCR as screening methods and IS6110 RFLP analysis as a further supporting test. LMPCR proved to be a more effective first-step test than spoligotyping, significantly reducing the need for subtyping. LMPCR should be considered an alternative to spoligotyping as a rapid screening method for M. tuberculosis fingerprinting, particularly in areas with a low prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains carrying few copies of IS6110. PMID:10488164

  1. Worldwide Assessment of the Status of Seismic Zonation, Fourth International Forum on Seismic Zonation, Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Italy/Appendix D). 2. United States Geological Survey, 1992, The Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program, Reston, Virginia, 19 p (Paul Thenhaus or S.T. Algermissen - USA/ Appendix D). 3. Instituto Panamericano de Geografia Historia, 1992, Revista Geofisica, Lima, Peru, No. 37, July-December, 234 p (Alberto Giesecke- Peru/Appendix D). 4. Annali di Geofisica, 1992, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) (Special Issue), International Lithosphere Program, Publication 209, Bologna, Italy, 257 p (Domenico Giardini-Italy/Appendix F). 5. International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior and European Seismological Commission, 1993, The Practice of Hazard Assessment, Golden, Colorado, 284 p (Write Bob Engdahl, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Mail Stop 967, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA).

  2. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from iranian and afghani patients by spoligotyping method

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farnia, Parisa; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2009-01-01

    Designing newer drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic techniques is dependent on better understanding of M. tuberculosis virulence mechanism. In this study the prevalence of pcaA gene was determined in M. tuberculosis strains typed by spoligotyping. The associated risk factors among patients with different nationalities residing in Iran were also determined. The isolated M. tuberculosis strains have been characterized by performing susceptibility tests against four first-line antituberculosis drugs and were then subjected to spoligotyping characterization. PCR was used for detection of pcaA gene and its nucleotide sequence was also determined. Spoligotyping of M. tuberculosis strains resulted in 140 different patterns. One hundred twenty two (87.1%) of these spoligotype isolates were unique and reported for the first time. The remaining18 (12.8%) spoligotype patterns were previously reported from other geographical regions of the world. Haarlem family was most prevalent than other genotype. Antibiotic resistances were higher in those isolated from the Iranian patients. The pcaA gene was detected in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates but not in saprophyte strains such as M. kansasi. The results showed that, spread of M. tuberculosis strains belonging to the Beijing family among Iranian patients has to be considered seriously. This study confirmed the widespread existence of pcaA gene in almost all the clinical isolates. It is also important to undertake studies to identify which factors are the most significant to consider in tuberculosis control program. PMID:24031364

  3. Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases in Acapulco: Spoligotyping and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Harris, Eva; Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Mitchell, Steven; Flores-Moreno, Miguel; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascencio; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Ledogar, Robert; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Recurrence and reinfection of tuberculosis have quite different implications for prevention. We identified 267 spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Acapulco, Mexico, to assess the level of clustering and risk factors for clustered strains. Point cluster analysis examined spatial clustering. Risk analysis relied on the Mantel Haenszel procedure to examine bivariate associations, then to develop risk profiles of combinations of risk factors. Supplementary analysis of the spoligotyping data used SpolTools. Spoligotyping identified 85 types, 50 of them previously unreported. The five most common spoligotypes accounted for 55% of tuberculosis cases. One cluster of 70 patients (26% of the series) produced a single spoligotype from the Manila Family (Clade EAI2). The high proportion (78%) of patients infected with cluster strains is compatible with recent transmission of TB in Acapulco. Geomatic analysis showed no spatial clustering; clustering was associated with a risk profile of uneducated cases who lived in single-room dwellings. The Manila emerging strain accounted for one in every four cases, confirming that one strain can predominate in a hyperendemic area. PMID:21197077

  4. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  5. The Fourth International Symposium on Genetic Disorders of the Ras/MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, David A.; Schill, Lisa; Schoyer, Lisa; Andresen, Brage S.; Bakker, Annette; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Burkitt-Wright, Emma; Chatfield, Kathryn; Elefteriou, Florent; Elgersma, Ype; Fisher, Michael J.; Franz, David; Gelb, Bruce D.; Goriely, Anne; Gripp, Karen W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Kerr, Bronwyn; Korf, Bruce; Leoni, Chiara; McCormick, Frank; Plotkin, Scott R.; Rauen, Katherine A.; Reilly, Karlyne; Roberts, Amy; Sandler, Abby; Siegel, Dawn; Walsh, Karin; Widemann, Brigitte C.

    2016-01-01

    The RASopathies are a group of disorders due to variations of genes associated with the Ras/MAPK pathway. Some of the RASopathies include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, Costello syndrome, Legius syndrome, and capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) syndrome. In combination, the RASopathies are a frequent group of genetic disorders. This report summarizes the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Genetic Disorders of the Ras/MAPK pathway and highlights gaps in the field. PMID:27155140

  6. Meeting report: fourth international congress of the Society for Melanoma Research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David E; Medrano, Estela E; McMahon, Martin; Soengas, Marisol S; Schuchter, Lynn; Wolchok, Jedd D; Merlino, Glenn

    2008-02-01

    The 4th international melanoma congress of the Society for Melanoma Research (SMR), organized by Marianne Berwick (University of New Mexico), Paul Chapman (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center), Rene Gonzalez (University of Colorado) and Ze'ev Ronai (Burnham Institute), was held at the Marriott Hotel in downtown New York on November 2007. The congress was attended by a record high number of attendees (over 500 delegates) who joined to discuss recent advances in melanoma biology and therapy. About 40% of the participants arrived from 39 countries, a testament to the high impact of this annual gathering on the international melanoma community. Over 120 of the participants were students or postdoctoral fellows, representing a most impressive fraction of young scientists engaged in melanoma research. The meeting consisted of more than 50 plenary and minisymposia presentations, stimulating the exchange of unpublished data and novel ideas, and helping to forge new collaborations that are anticipated to facilitate significant advances in basic, translational and clinical melanoma research. Another major focus of this meeting was over 160 posters, which were heavily attended and provided an effective forum for extensive informal discussions. This report will highlight the major scientific themes and advances of this most successful meeting, and provide a useful perspective on the current state of melanoma research, as well as where the field should be heading.

  7. Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels: An international review (Fourth Volume)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, L.E.

    1993-12-01

    The technical content is highly focused on the title subject, which is crucial to the continued operating safety of commercial nuclear electric power generating plants, as it treats the phenomenon of neutron embrittlement of the primary containment vessel of the nuclear reactor power source. Integrity of this nuclear reactor component is a primary goal of all the specialists who have participated in this series of four international meetings. These international meetings and the publication arising from them offer a progressive series of volumes that provide a valuable technical resource to nuclear power plant operators, national regulatory specialists, and researchers in this area of nuclear safety. The progressive nature of these publications is particularly valuable in teaching scientific and technical developments on what has become one of the most critical elements in reactor safety analysis with the aging of nuclear power reactors. The progress of research and vessel surveillance for neutron embrittlement reflects the aging of nuclear power reactors and, therefore, the attendant interest in assuring safe life attainment for this crucial element of electric power generation, as the authors approach the close of the Twentieth century. Separate abstracts were prepared for 31 papers of this book.

  8. Spoligotype diversity and 5-year trends of bovine tuberculosis in Extremadura, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Cortés, María; Benítez-Medina, José M; Hurtado, Inés; Martínez, Remigio; García-Sánchez, Alfredo; Risco, David; Cerrato, Rosario; Sanz, Cristina; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Miguel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Javier

    2016-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) causes significant losses to farming economies worldwide. A better understanding on the epidemiology of this disease and the role that the different hosts develop in the maintenance and spread of bTB is vital to control this zoonotic disease. This study reports the spoligotype diversity and temporal evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) isolates obtained from Extremadura (southern Spain). Genotyping data of Mycobacterium bovis (n = 2102) and Mycobacterium caprae (n = 96) isolates from cattle and wildlife species, collected between 2008 and 2012, were used in this study. The isolates resulted clustered into 88 spoligotypes which varied largely in frequency and occurrence in the three hosts. The 20 most frequent patterns represented 91.99 % of the isolates, the spoligotype SB0121 being the clearly predominant and most widely dispersed geographically. The major variety of the spoligotype patterns (78 out of 88) was isolated from the cattle, in fact 50 (56.83 %) of the patterns were found only in this species. Within the spoligotypes shared between the cattle and wildlife species, 17 patterns (1747 isolates) were shared with wild boar and Iberian red deer, 10 patterns (308 isolates) were exclusively shared with wild boar, and only one pattern (two isolates) was shared exclusively with Iberian red deer. The significant number of spoligotypes shared between the three hosts (79.49 %) highlights the components of the multi-host system that allows the bTB maintenance in our study area. The greater percentage of isolates shared by the wild boar and cattle (93.50 %) supports the role of wild boar as main maintenance host for bTB in cattle. These results could be extrapolated to areas with a similar epidemiological scenario and could be helpful for other countries where wild reservoirs represent a handicap for the successful eradication of bTB from livestock.

  9. Pharmacotherapy for Erectile Dysfunction: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015).

    PubMed

    Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos; Salonia, Andrea; Adaikan, Ganesan; Buvat, Jacques; Carrier, Serge; El-Meliegy, Amr; McCullough, Andrew; Torres, Luiz Otavio; Khera, Mohit

    2016-04-01

    ) Counterfeit medicines are potentially dangerous. It is strongly recommended that physicians educate their patients to avoid taking any medication from unauthorized sources (LE = 2, GR = A). The first seven recommendations are the same as those from the Third International Consultation for Sexual Medicine and the last three are new recommendations. PDE5 inhibitors remain a first-line treatment option because of their excellent efficacy and safety profile. This class of drugs is continually developed with new molecules and new formulations. Intracavernosal injections continue to be an established treatment modality, and intraurethral and topical alprostadil provide an alternative, less invasive treatment option. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Definitions of Sexual Dysfunctions in Women and Men: A Consensus Statement From the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Sharlip, Ira D; Atalla, Elham; Balon, Richard; Fisher, Alessandra D; Laumann, Edward; Lee, Sun Won; Lewis, Ron; Segraves, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    Definitions of sexual dysfunctions in women and men are critical in facilitating research and enabling clinicians to communicate accurately. To present the new set of definitions of all forms of sexual dysfunction in women and men adopted by the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (ICSM) held in 2015. Classification systems, including the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and systems that focus on only specific types of sexual dysfunctions (e.g., the International Society for Sexual Medicine definition for premature ejaculation) were reviewed. Evidence-based definitions were retained, gaps in definitions were identified, and outdated definitions were updated or discarded. Where evidence was insufficient or absent, expert opinion was used. Some definitions were self-evident and termed clinical principles. The evidence to support the various classification systems was carefully evaluated. A more comprehensive analysis of this evidence can be found in two other articles in this journal that consider the incidence and prevalence and the risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men and women. These data were used to shape the definitions for sexual dysfunction that have been recommended by the 2015 ICSM. The definitions that have been adopted are those that are most strongly supported by the literature at this time or are considered clinical principles or consensus of experts' opinions. As more research and clinical studies are conducted, there likely will be modifications of at least some definitions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.; Burnham, C.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, June 27--July 1, 1994. This conference encompassed research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas of research, technology, and development covered during the conference included high-temperature materials, thin films, C-60 based superconductors, persistent magnetic fields and shielding, fabrication methodology, space applications, physical applications, performance characterization, device applications, weak link effects and flux motion, accelerator technology, superconductivity energy, storage, future research and development directions, medical applications, granular superconductors, wire fabrication technology, computer applications, technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications. The key objective of this conference was to provide a forum for the world community to share technological results of recent advances made in the field of superconductivity and to discuss translation of the research to technology which will benefit humanity. More than 150 presentations were made at this conference. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Bases.

  12. Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates by Use of Ligation-Based Amplification and Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaohong; Li, Hui; Zheng, Rongrong; Kurepina, Natalia; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    We report here a ligation-based spoligotyping that can identify unamplified spacers in membrane-based spoligotyping due to asymmetric insertion of IS6110 in the direct repeat locus. Our typing yielded 84.4% (411/487) concordance with traditional typing and 100% (487/487) accuracy when confirmed by DNA sequencing. PMID:27335152

  13. 100th anniversary of the Fourth International Congress of Thalassotherapy in Opatija.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, Ales; Fischinger, Dusa; Fischinger, Janez; Skrobonja, Ante

    2008-01-01

    The authors of the text have been particularly interested into the organization, the procedure,the accompanying activities as well as the themes covered at 4th International Congress of Thalassotherapy in Opatija in 1908. The Congress was organised by the then head of the thermal spa resort Professor Dr.Julius Glax. The official languages at the Congress were German, French, English, and also Italian and Croatian as the languages of the hosting country. Each lecturer had twenty minutes time to give a lecture or a co-lecture, ten minutes for papers and five for a follow-up discussion. The participants could make use of the information centre of the Congress, in the centre of Opatija, the whole day. Unofficially, the Congress started on 27th September 1908 with the introductory evening for all the participants in Adria Club. The Congress officially began on 28th September 1908 when all the participants gathered at the theatre hall of Hotel Stephanie. The lectures were presented in the morning. In the afternoon, the participants were taken to visit some exhibitions (e.g. the medical exhibition at Hotel Palace, the exhibition of the native Istrian-Dalmatian home crafts and antiquates and the painting exhibition at Vila Angiolina), a short sea voyage through the bay of Kvarner. On the last day of the Congress, the participants observed the sanitary conditions in Opatija (the water supply, the sewer system, litter incinerator, and quarantine for infectious illnesses), three sanatoriums, Zander's Institute, the rehabilitating-heart paths and the Archduke Ludwig-Viktor's indoor baths. The round-Opatija tour was followed by the concluding meeting and the conclusion of the Congress. The authors of this research have established that there are no important differences in the organization and realization of the congresses in the past and now.

  14. Asian-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education Special Issue in Preparation for the Fourth International Conference on Adult Education Convened by Unesco, Paris, 1985. Courier No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This special issue was developed by the Asian-South Pacific Bureau for Adult Education (ASPBAE) in preparation for Unesco's fourth international conference on adult education. A section on "Literacy--A Great Challenge and Important Debate" includes "Why Literacy? (Paul Fordham); "Cooperating or Campaigning for Literacy"…

  15. Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems

    Treesearch

    E.M. Goheen; S.J. Frankel

    2009-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09, Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems provided a forum for current research on Phytophthora species worldwide. Seventy-eight submissions describing papers and posters on recent developments in Phytophthora diseases of trees and natural ecosystems in...

  16. High spoligotype diversity within a Mycobacterium bovis population: clues to understanding the demography of the pathogen in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sabrina; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; de Juan, Lucía; Alvarez, Julio; Castellanos, Elena; Moya, Nuria; Lozano, Francisco; González, Sergio; Sáez-Llorente, José Luis; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Aranaz, Alicia

    2010-02-24

    Mycobacterium bovis is the main causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. This zoonotic disease produces important economic losses and must be considered a threat to endangered animal species and public health. This study was performed (1) to assess the degree of diversity of the Spanish M. bovis isolates and its effect on the epidemiology of the infection, and (2) to understand the connection of M. bovis populations within a European context. In this report we resume the DVR-spoligotyping results of 6215 M. bovis isolates collected between 1992 and 2007 from different hosts. The isolates clustered into 252 spoligotypes which varied largely in frequency, geographical distribution and appearance in different animal species. In general, the most frequent spoligotypes were found all over the country and in different animal species, though some were restricted to a geographical area. Among our most often isolated spoligotypes, SB0121 and SB0120 (BCG-like) are a common feature between mainland European countries, however, the spoligotypes differ with those found in the UK, the Republic of Ireland and abroad. A comparison of spoligotypes reported from other countries reveals hints for the M. bovis demography in Europe and suggests a common ancestor strain. This study gives insight into the usefulness of the standardized DVR-spoligotyping technique for epidemiological studies in a country with a high degree of strain diversity.

  17. The Reading Literacy of U.S. Fourth-Grade Students in an International Context: Results from the 2001 and 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) (NCES 2008-017)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Baldi, Stephane; Ayotte, Kaylin; Green, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is an assessment of the reading comprehension of students in their fourth year of schooling, measuring student performance on a combined reading literacy scale and on a literary subscale and informational subscale. PIRLS is conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of…

  18. Important Skills for Internship and the Fourth-Year Medical School Courses to Acquire Them: A National Survey of Internal Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anne G; Harrell, Heather E; Weissman, Arlene; Smith, Cynthia D; Dupras, Denise; Kane, Gregory C

    2016-06-01

    To obtain feedback from internal medicine residents, a key stakeholder group, regarding both the skills needed for internship and the fourth-year medical school courses that prepared them for residency. This feedback could inform fourth-year curriculum redesign efforts. All internal medicine residents taking the 2013-2014 Internal Medicine In-Training Examination were asked to rank the importance of learning 10 predefined skills prior to internship and to use a dropdown menu of 11 common fourth-year courses to rank the 3 most helpful in preparing for internship. The predefined skills were chosen based on a review of the literature, a national subinternship curriculum, and expert consensus. Chi-square statistics were used to test for differences in responses between training levels. Of the 24,820 internal medicine residents who completed the exam, 20,484 (83%) completed the survey, had complete identification numbers, and consented to have their responses used for research. The three skills most frequently rated as very important were identifying when to seek additional help and expertise, prioritizing clinical tasks and managing time efficiently, and communicating with other providers around care transitions. The subinternship/acting internship was most often selected as being the most helpful course in preparing for internship. These findings indicate which skills and fourth-year medical school courses internal medicine residents found most helpful in preparing for internship and confirm the findings of prior studies highlighting the perceived value of subinternships. Internal medicine residents and medical educators agree on the skills students should learn prior to internship.

  19. Validation of a Microbead-Based Format for Spoligotyping of Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Gomgnimbou, Michel Kiréopori; Ginevra, Christophe; Peron-Cane, Caroline; Versapuech, Margaux; Refrégier, Guislaine; Jacotin, Nathalie; Jarraud, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A 42-plex clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based typing technique (spoligotyping) was recently developed at the French National Reference Center for Legionella. It allows the subtyping of the Legionella pneumophila sequence type 1/Paris pulsotype. In this report, we present the transfer of the membrane-based spoligotyping technique to a microbead-based multiplexed format. This microbead-based high-throughput assay uses devices such as Luminex 200 or the recently launched Magpix system (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX). We designated this new technique LP-SPOL (for L. pneumophila spoligotyping). We used two sets of samples previously subtyped by the membrane-based spoligotyping method to set up and validate the transfer on the two microbead-based systems. The first set of isolates (n = 56) represented the whole diversity of the CRISPR patterns known to date. These isolates were used for transfer setup (determination of spacer cutoffs for both devices). The second set of isolates (n = 245) was used to validate the transfer to the two microbead-based systems. The results obtained by the Luminex 200 system were 100% concordant with those obtained by the Magpix system for the 2 sets of isolates. In total, 10 discrepant results were observed when comparing the membrane-based method to the microbead-based method. These discrepancies were further resolved by repeating either the membrane-based or the microbead-based assay. This new assay is expected to play an emerging role for surveillance of L. pneumophila, starting with one of the most frequent genotypes, the sequence type 1/Paris pulsotype. However, the generalization of this typing method to all L. pneumophila strains is not feasible, since not all L. pneumophila strains contain CRISPRs. PMID:24759720

  20. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Based on Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats Used Alone and in Association with Spoligotyping

    PubMed Central

    Filliol, Ingrid; Ferdinand, Severine; Negroni, Laetitia; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

    2000-01-01

    Fingerprinting based on variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR), a recently described methodology, was evaluated for molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an insular setting. In this study, VNTR fingerprinting was used alone or as a second-line test in association with spoligotyping, double-repetitive-element PCR (DRE-PCR), and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the discriminatory power for each method or the combination of methods was compared by calculating the Hunter-Gaston discriminative index (HGI). The results obtained showed that in 6 out of 12 (50%) cases, VNTR-defined clusters were further subdivided by spoligotyping, compared to 7 out of 18 (39%) cases where spoligotyping-defined clusters were further subdivided by VNTR. When used alone, VNTR was the least discriminatory method (HGI = 0.863). Although VNTR was significantly more discriminatory when used in association with spoligotyping (HGI = 0.982), the combination of spoligotyping and DRE-PCR (HGI = 0.992) was still the most efficient among rapid, PCR-based methodologies, giving results comparable to IS6110 RFLP analysis. Nonetheless, VNTR typing may provide additional phylogenetical information that may be helpful to trace the molecular evolution of tubercle bacilli. PMID:10878036

  1. The Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Network for Pediatric Hemophilia: Current Challenges and Recommendations in the Clinical Care of Children with Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Ljung, Rolf; van den Berg, Marijke; Valentino, Leonard A.; Manco-Johnson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Summary The International Network for Pediatric Hemophilia (INPH) comprises a group of physicians committed to the unique care of and challenges facing pediatric hemophilia patients. By collaborating on an international level, extensive experience can be shared on current practice, new trends can be discussed and scientifically valid studies can be developed and performed. The three overall objectives of the group (scientific progress, education and networking) are achieved at each annual meeting starting with a round table on the members’ current research and clinical activities, project reports of INPH study initiatives, followed by invited educational presentations and interactive discussions. The meetings close with proposals of new projects, future directions of the group and concluding remarks. The Fourth Annual INPH meeting, held in 2009 in Boston, MA, USA, focused on inhibitor development and hemophilic arthropathy in the clinical care of children with hemophilia. PMID:20823999

  2. Synchronous Comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Epidemiology Strains by "MIRU-VNTR" and "MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping" Technique.

    PubMed

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Aghali-Merza, Muayed; Farnia, Parissa; Ahmadi, Mojtaba; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2010-07-01

    Molecular epidemiology analyses are frequently used in determining epidemiology of tuberculosis. Recently, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping has become an important method, as it allows high-through put, discriminatory and reproducible analysis of clinical isolate. The purpose of this study is to compare techniques of "MIRU-VNTR" versus "MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping" together for study of genetic pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strains. Sixty M. tuberculosis (MTB) isolates were selected (30 susceptible, 30 multi-drug resistant) for this study. Thereafter, the "MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping" were performed to identify their genetic patterns. The frequency of unknown genetic pattern of MTB was compared using technique of "MIRU-VNTR" alone versus "MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping" together. The MIRU-VNTR allelic diversity at each of the loci was calculated by Hunter - Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). Based on differentiation index of all strains 10, 16, 26, 31 and 40 loci were identified as the most distinctive (HGI ≥0.6) and 2, 4, 20 and 24 as the weakest distinctive locus (HGI ≤0.3). By using MIRU-VNTR technique 38% (n = 23) of isolates could not be typed, whereas by applying "MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping" together only 15% (n = 9) of isolates remained unknown (p = 0.004). For sensitive strains, the difference was significant (67% vs. 90%, p = 0.028), but only marginally significant for drug resistant strains (57% vs. 80%, p = 0.052). The discrimination power of 12-locus MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping was equal to that of MIRU-VNTR analysis. If appropriate loci are added to the standard MIRU analysis, MIRU-VNTR genotyping could be a valuable tool for strain typing and epidemiological research of M. tuberculosis. With this approach a more clear understanding about genetic pattern of MTB can be achieved.

  3. Transfer of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping method, Spoligotyping, from a reverse line-blot hybridization, membrane-based assay to the Luminex multianalyte profiling system.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Lauren S; Diem, Lois; Brake, Mary Catherine; Crawford, Jack T

    2004-01-01

    Spoligotyping using Luminex technology was shown to be a highly reproducible method suitable for high-throughput analysis. Spoligotyping of 48 isolates using the traditional membrane-based assay and the Luminex assay yielded concordant results for all isolates. The Luminex platform provides greater flexibility and cost effectiveness than the membrane-based assay.

  4. Transfer of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotyping Method, Spoligotyping, from a Reverse Line-Blot Hybridization, Membrane-Based Assay to the Luminex Multianalyte Profiling System

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Lauren S.; Diem, Lois; Brake, Mary Catherine; Crawford, Jack T.

    2004-01-01

    Spoligotyping using Luminex technology was shown to be a highly reproducible method suitable for high-throughput analysis. Spoligotyping of 48 isolates using the traditional membrane-based assay and the Luminex assay yielded concordant results for all isolates. The Luminex platform provides greater flexibility and cost effectiveness than the membrane-based assay. PMID:14715809

  5. Extremely low birth weight babies grown up: Gene-environment interaction predicts internalizing problems in the third and fourth decades of life.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; van Lieshout, Ryan J; Mathewson, Karen J; Mackillop, James; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-08-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants have been exposed to stressful intrauterine and early postnatal environments. Even greater early adversity has been experienced by ELBW survivors who were also born small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile for GA) compared to those born appropriate for GA (AGA). ELBW survivors, particularly those born SGA, face increased risk for internalizing problems compared to normal BW (NBW; ≥2500 g) controls. Internalizing problems are related to allelic variations in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR). We followed the oldest longitudinal cohort of ELBW survivors to adulthood. Participants provided buccal cells and reported on internalizing problems, using the Young Adult Self-Report when they were in their mid-20s (ELBW/SGA, N = 28; ELBW/AGA, N = 60; NBW, N = 81) and mid-30s (ELBW/SGA, N = 27; ELBW/AGA, N = 58; NBW, N = 76). The findings indicate that ELBW/SGAs carrying the 5-HTTLPR short allele reported increased internalizing problems, particularly depression, during the third and fourth decades of life. This is the first known report on gene-environment interactions predicting psychopathology among ELBW survivors. Our findings elucidate putative neurobiological pathways that underlie risk for psychopathology.

  6. TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Gonzalez, Eugenio J.; Chrostowski, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 is the most recent in a very ambitious series of international assessments conducted in nearly 50 countries to measure trends in mathematics and science learning. The aim of TIMSS, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, is to improve the teaching and…

  7. Molecular assessment, drug-resistant profile, and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Tamaulipas, México.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Garza-González, Elvira; Cruz-Pulido, Wendy Lizeth; Guevara-Molina, Yahaira Lizeth; Cantú-Ramírez, Rubén; González, Gloria M; Rivera, Gildardo; Palma-Nicolas, José P

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious global health problem involving one-third of the world population. A wide diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains cause about 1.5 million deaths/year worldwide, but in developing countries, the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains remains largely unknown. We conducted a first insight into the population diversity of M. tuberculosis strains from Tamaulipas, Mexico. Seventy-two M. tuberculosis strains were identified and genetic diversity determined by spoligotyping. Drug sensibility testing and punctual mutations in inhA, ahpC, rpoB, and katG genes were assessed. Spoligotyping analysis showed a higher prevalence of LAM9 > T1 > Haarlem3 subfamilies among 53 spoligotype patterns. Unexpectedly, five Beijing strains conforming four unique spoligopatterns were recovered. The more frequently isolated strains (LAM9 and T1), but none of the Beijing strains, were found resistant to INH or RIF. Also, no drug resistance was found among Haarlem3 isolates. The katG(315) gene mutation was found in 83% of INH-resistant strains, whereas rpoB(526) were associated in only 43% of RIF M. tuberculosis drug-resistant strains. This and other studies report a high rate of orphan spoligotypes, which highlights the need for genotyping implementation as a routine technique for better understanding of M. tuberculosis strains in developing countries such as Mexico. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spoligotyping and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence fingerprinting of mycobacterium tuberculosis strains having few copies of IS6110.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z H; Ijaz, K; Bates, J H; Eisenach, K D; Cave, M D

    2000-10-01

    Several genetic loci have been utilized to genotype isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A shortcoming of the most commonly used method, IS6110 fingerprinting, is that it does not adequately discriminate between isolates having few copies of IS6110. This study was undertaken to compare pTBN12 fingerprinting of polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence genes and spoligotyping of the direct repeat locus as secondary typing procedures for M. tuberculosis isolates having fewer than six copies of IS6110. A total of 88 isolates (100% of the isolates with fewer than six copies of IS6110 isolated in Arkansas during 1996 and 1997) were included in this study. Among the 88 isolates, 34 different IS6110 patterns were observed, 10 of which were shared by more than 1 isolate, involving a total of 64 isolates. The 64 isolates were subdivided into 13 clusters (containing 37 isolates) and 27 unique isolates based on a combination of IS6110 and pTBN12 fingerprinting and into 11 clusters (containing 51 isolates) and 13 unique isolates based on a combination of IS6110 fingerprinting and spoligotyping. Identical spoligotypes were found among isolates having different IS6110 patterns, as well as among isolates showing different pTBN12 patterns. In contrast, all isolates that had different IS6110 patterns were found to be unique by pTBN12 typing. The clustering rate was 73, 58, and 42%, respectively, for IS6110 fingerprinting alone, IS6110 fingerprinting and spoligotyping combined, and IS6110 and pTBN12 combined fingerprinting. The data indicate that the pTBN12 method has greater discriminating power among low-copy-number isolates than does spoligotyping.

  9. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Hormozgan Province of Iran Based on 15-Locus MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Samin; Haeili, Mehri

    2016-01-01

    Background. Considering that Hormozgan province in Iran (southern part of Iran on the Persian Gulf) is among the areas with high prevalence of MDR-MTB and attracts so many sailors and tourists, genetic diversity of MTB isolates circulating in this part of Iran was evaluated. Pattern of TB transmission was also examined. Methods and Material. A total of 38 isolates of MTB were cultured from TB patients from Hormozgan province of Iran and standard MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping were applied to genotype these isolates. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using proportion method. Results. There were 28 VNTR profiles comprising 5 clusters and 23 unique isolates compared to 21 spoligotyping profiles, which contained 9 clusters and 12 unique isolates. Latin American-Mediterranean (n = 9, 23.6%) was found to be the most predominant lineage. MIRU-VNTR analysis, with an HGDI of 0.975, was more discriminating than spoligotyping, which had an HGDI of 0.955. The estimated proportion of TB cases due to recent transmission was 26.3% and 44.7% by MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping, respectively. The rates of monodrug resistance and MDR were 15.8% and 7.9%, respectively. Two of 3 MDR strains were found to be related to MIRU-VNTR and belonged to the same spoligotyping cluster characterized with T1/SIT53 genotype. Conclusions. The high genetic diversity among MTB isolates suggests that transmission occurred from different sources to this area. Reactivation of a priori, latent MTB infection was found to contribute mainly to TB cases in this geographic region. PMID:27819023

  10. Spoligotyping and Drug Resistance Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains from National Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan; Jiang, Guanglu; Xia, Hui; Song, Yuanyuan; Shang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shengfen; Zhao, Yan-lin

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), is one of the major causes of death in the world today. Although China has the second largest global case rate of tuberculosis, a systematic study of TB prevalence in China has not been completed. From 2006 to 2007, the base line surveillance of tuberculosis was carried out by Ministry of Health, and more than 4000 representative strains were selected from 31 provinces in China. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the present research was to survey the genotypes of representative Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strains from China using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), and to analyze the relationship between genotype and drug resistance for the first time. A total of 4017 clinical isolates were collected from 2007 to 2008 throughout China. Among those M. tuberculosis isolates, 2500 (62.2%) isolates were Beijing genotypes. The percentage of Beijing genotypes in northern China was higher than in southern China (76.5% vs. 53.2%). Additionally, the frequencies of rifampin-resistant, ofloxacin-resistant and multidrug-resistant isolates were significantly higher in Beijing genotype strains than non-Beijing strains. Furthermore, a novel genotype named “China Southern genotype (CS)” was only isolated from Fujian and Guangdong provinces. Hence, it is very practical to uncover the reason for prevalence of the CS type in southern China. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, Beijing family genotypes were still the predominant genotype throughout China, which exhibited a greater correlation with rifampin-resistance, ofloxacin-resistance and MDR phenotypes than other TB spoligotypes, and some regions of China showed several unique characters in the distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes. Our research represents an important contribution for the TB control and research community, which completes broad pictures on drug resistance levels and distribution of M

  11. Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades. TIMSS 2003 International Science Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Gonzalez, Eugenio J.; Chrostowski, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 is the third in a continuing cycle of international mathematics and science assessments conducted every four years. TIMSS assesses achievement in countries around the world and collects a rich array of information about the educational contexts for learning mathematics and…

  12. Hormones and Female Sexual Dysfunction: Beyond Estrogens and Androgens--Findings from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Roisin; Santoro, Nanette; Miller, Karen K; Parish, Sharon J; Davis, Susan R

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, multiple hormones have been investigated in relation to female sexual function. Because consumers can easily purchase products claiming to contain these hormones, a clear statement regarding the current state of knowledge is required. To review the contribution of hormones, other than estrogens and androgens, to female sexual functioning and the evidence that specific endocrinopathies in women are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and to update the previously published International Society of Sexual Medicine Consensus on this topic. The literature was searched using several online databases with an emphasis on studies examining the physiologic role of oxytocin, prolactin, and progesterone in female sexual function and any potential therapeutic effect of these hormones. The association between common endocrine disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, pituitary disorders, and obesity, and FSD also was examined. Quality of data published in the literature and recommendations were based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Education system. There is no evidence to support the use of oxytocin or progesterone for FSD. Treating hyperprolactinemia might lessen FSD. Polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, and metabolic syndrome could be associated with FSD, but data are limited. There is a strong association between diabetes mellitus and FSD. Further research is required; in particular, high-quality, large-scale studies of women with common endocrinopathies are needed to determine the impact of these prevalent disorders on female sexual function. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Fourth International Symposium on the Intraductal Approach to Breast Cancer, Santa Barbara, California, 10–13 March 2005

    PubMed Central

    King, Bonnie L; Love, Susan M; Rochman, Susan; Kim, Julian A

    2005-01-01

    Intraductal approaches encompass procedures and technologies that are designed to access and interrogate the ductal–alveolar systems of the human breast, and include nipple aspiration, ductal lavage, random periareolar fine needle aspiration, and ductoscopy. These approaches are being used to collect and analyze fluids and cells to develop methods for breast cancer detection and risk assessment; to introduce imaging technologies to explore the mammary tree for abnormalities; to administer therapeutic and/or preventive agents directly to the breast tissue; and to explore the biology of the normal mammary gland. The latest research findings in these areas, presented at The 4th International Symposium on the Intraductal Approach to Breast Cancer in 2005, are summarized in this report. PMID:16168138

  14. School Hygiene: A Report of the Fourth International Congress of School Hygiene, Held at Buffalo, New York, August 25-30, 1913. Bulletin, 1913, No. 48. Whole Number 559

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, W. Carson, Jr.

    1913-01-01

    The Fourth International Congress of School Hygiene, held at Buffalo, New York, August 25-30, was a notable event in the progress of health supervision as a part of public education. Because of its importance, the author was detailed to attend this conference and prepare a report of it. This report contains three parts: (1) An introduction giving…

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium bovis Isolates with the Same Spoligotyping Profile as Isolates from Animals†

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Beatriz; Aranaz, Alicia; Juan, Lucía de; Álvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Mateos, Ana; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique; Domínguez, Lucas

    2006-01-01

    PCR-based characterization techniques have been adopted in most laboratories for Mycobacterium bovis typing. We report a molecular characterization of human multidrug-resistant M. bovis isolates and three bovine isolates that share the spoligotyping profile. The analysis of the direct repeat region showed that both groups differed in the presence of spacers not included in the current membrane. They were also distinguished by two out of the nine mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable-number tandem repeat loci tested, indicating that the human infection was not acquired from the cattle from which isolates were obtained. These results highlight that a combination of techniques is required for appropriate discrimination, even for those spoligotypes that have a low frequency. PMID:16954286

  16. Sexual Rehabilitation After Treatment For Prostate Cancer-Part 2: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015).

    PubMed

    Salonia, Andrea; Adaikan, Ganesh; Buvat, Jacques; Carrier, Serge; El-Meliegy, Amr; Hatzimouratidis, Kostas; McCullough, Andrew; Morgentaler, Abraham; Torres, Luiz Otavio; Khera, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. To provide the International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM) 2015 recommendations concerning management strategies for post-RP erectile function impairment and to analyze post-RP sexual dysfunction other than erectile dysfunction. A literature search was performed using Google and PubMed database for English-language original and review articles published up to August 2016. Levels of evidence (LEs) and grades of recommendations (GRs) are provided based on a thorough analysis of the literature and committee consensus. Nine recommendations are provided by the ICSM 2015 committee on sexual rehabilitation after RP. Recommendation 6 states that the recovery of postoperative erectile function can take several years (LE = 2, GR = C). Recommendation 7 states there are conflicting data as to whether penile rehabilitation with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors improves recovery of spontaneous erections (LE = 1, GR = A). Recommendation 8 states that the data are inadequate to support any specific regimen as optimal for penile rehabilitation (LE = 3, GR = C). Recommendation 9 states that men undergoing RP (any technique) are at risk of sexual changes other than erectile dysfunction, including decreased libido, changes in orgasm, anejaculation, Peyronie-like disease, and changes in penile size (LE = 2, GR = B). This article discusses Recommendations 6 to 9 of the ICSM 2015 committee on sexual rehabilitation after RP. Salonia A, Adaikan G, Buvat J, et al. Sexual Rehabilitation After Treatment For Prostate Cancer-Part 2: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med 2017;14:297-315. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction in Women and Men: A Consensus Statement from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Sharlip, Ira D; Lewis, Ron; Atalla, Elham; Balon, Richard; Fisher, Alessandra D; Laumann, Edward; Lee, Sun Won; Segraves, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    The incidence and prevalence of various sexual dysfunctions in women and men are important to understand to designate priorities for epidemiologic and clinical research. This manuscript was designed to conduct a review of the literature to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women and men. Members of Committee 1 of the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (2015) searched and reviewed epidemiologic literature on the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunctions. Key older studies and most studies published after 2009 were included in the text of this article. The outcome measures were the reports in the various studies of the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women and men. There are more studies on incidence and prevalence for men than for women and many more studies on prevalence than incidence for women and men. The data indicate that the most frequent sexual dysfunctions for women are desire and arousal dysfunctions. In addition, there is a large proportion of women who experience multiple sexual dysfunctions. For men, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction are the most common sexual dysfunctions, with less comorbidity across sexual dysfunctions for men compared with women. These data need to be treated with caution, because there is a high level of variability across studies caused by methodologic differences in the instruments used to assess presence of sexual dysfunction, ages of samples, nature of samples, methodology used to gather the data, and cultural differences. Future research needs to use well-validated tools to gather data and ensure that the data collection strategy is clearly described. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Algeria: Results of spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Ifticene, Malika; Kaïdi, Saïd; Khechiba, Mesbah-Mounir; Yala, Djamel; Boulahbal, Fadila

    2015-12-01

    Molecular typing tools, including spoligotyping, are currently widely used in the monitoring and study of the dynamics of tuberculosis epidemics. A study of the molecular profile of a sample of 129 Myobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated during 2011 was carried out in the National Reference Laboratory for Tuberculosis and Mycobacteria at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. This sample was selected at random from a set of 350 strains isolated from tuberculosis patients from central and eastern areas of the country. Genotypic analysis helped to clarify the frequencies of the different genotypes in the current study population: H family, 29%; LAM family, 26%; T family, 25%; S family, 5%, and other genomic families, including orphan strains, 15%. The study of strains isolated between January and December 2011 has allowed insight into the frequency of different genomic families and the importance of existing clusters in the population of central and eastern Algeria. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution of Spoligotyping Defined Genotypic Lineages among Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Clinical Isolates in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kisa, Ozgul; Tarhan, Gulnur; Gunal, Selami; Albay, Ali; Durmaz, Riza; Saribas, Zeynep; Zozio, Thierry; Alp, Alpaslan; Ceyhan, Ismail; Tombak, Ahmet; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of genetic heterogeneity and spoligotype-defined lineages of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected during a three-year period in two university hospitals and National Tuberculosis Reference and Research Laboratory in Ankara, Turkey. Methods and Findings A total of 95 drug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates collected from three different centers were included in this study. Susceptibility testing of the isolates to four major antituberculous drugs was performed using proportion method on Löwenstein–Jensen medium and BACTEC 460-TB system. All clinical isolates were typed by using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Seventy-three of the 95 (76.8%) drug resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were isoniazid-resistant, 45 (47.4%) were rifampicin-resistant, 32 (33.7%) were streptomycin-resistant and 31 (32.6%) were ethambutol-resistant. The proportion of multidrug-resistant isolates (MDR) was 42.1%. By using spoligotyping, 35 distinct patterns were observed; 75 clinical isolates were grouped in 15 clusters (clustering rate of 79%) and 20 isolates displayed unique patterns. Five of these 20 unique patterns corresponded to orphan patterns in the SITVIT2 database, while 4 shared types containing 8 isolates were newly created. The most prevalent M. tuberculosis lineages were: Haarlem (23/95, 24.2%), ill-defined T superfamily (22/95, 23.2%), the Turkey family (19/95, 20%; previously designated as LAM7-TUR), Beijing (6/95, 6.3%), and Latin-America & Mediterranean (LAM, 5/95 or 5.3%), followed by Manu (3/95, 3.2%) and S (1/95, 1%) lineages. Four of the six Beijing family isolates (66.7%) were MDR. A combination of IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping reduced the clustering rate from 79% to 11.5% among the drug resistant isolates. Conclusions The results obtained showed that ill-defined T, Haarlem, the Turkey family (previously designated as LAM7-TUR family with high phylogeographical

  20. Highlights from TIMSS 2011: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2013-009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Kastberg, David; Ferraro, David; Lemanski, Nita; Roey, Stephen; Jenkins, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international comparative study of student achievement. TIMSS 2011 represents the fifth such study since TIMSS was first conducted in 1995. Developed and implemented at the international level by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement…

  1. Transition to surgical residency: a multi-institutional study of perceived intern preparedness and the effect of a formal residency preparatory course in the fourth year of medical school.

    PubMed

    Minter, Rebecca M; Amos, Keith D; Bentz, Michael L; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Brandt, Christopher; D'Cunha, Jonathan; Davis, Elisabeth; Delman, Keith A; Deutsch, Ellen S; Divino, Celia; Kingsley, Darra; Klingensmith, Mary; Meterissian, Sarkis; Sachdeva, Ajit K; Terhune, Kyla; Termuhlen, Paula M; Mullan, Patricia B

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate interns' perceived preparedness for defined surgical residency responsibilities and to determine whether fourth-year medical school (M4) preparatory courses ("bootcamps") facilitate transition to internship. The authors conducted a multi-institutional, mixed-methods study (June 2009) evaluating interns from 11 U.S. and Canadian surgery residency programs. Interns completed structured surveys and answered open-ended reflective questions about their preparedness for their surgery internship. Analyses include t tests comparing ratings of interns who had and had not participated in formal internship preparation programs. The authors calculated Cohen d for effect size and used grounded theory to identify themes in the interns' reflections. Of 221 eligible interns, 158 (71.5%) participated. Interns self-reported only moderate preparation for most defined care responsibilities in the medical knowledge and patient care domains but, overall, felt well prepared in the professionalism, interpersonal communication, practice-based learning, and systems-based practice domains. Interns who participated in M4 preparatory curricula had higher self-assessed ratings of surgical technical skills, professionalism, interpersonal communication skills, and overall preparation, at statistically significant levels (P < .05) with medium effect sizes. Themes identified in interns' characterizations of their greatest internship challenges included anxiety or lack of preparation related to performance of technical skills or procedures, managing simultaneous demands, being first responders for critically ill patients, clinical management of predictable postoperative conditions, and difficult communications. Entering surgical residency, interns report not feeling prepared to fulfill common clinical and professional responsibilities. As M4 curricula may enhance preparation, programs facilitating transition to residency should be developed and evaluated.

  2. Highlights from PIRLS 2011: Reading Achievement of U.S. Fourth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2013-010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sheila; Provasnik, Stephen; Kastberg, David; Ferraro, David; Lemanski, Nita; Roey, Stephen; Jenkins, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is an international comparative study of student achievement. In 2011, PIRLS was administered to nationally representative samples of 4th-grade students in 53 education systems around the world. The PIRLS assessment measures student performance on a combined reading literacy scale, as…

  3. The fourth generation in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Zwirner, F.

    1985-12-01

    We consider model-independent constraints on the fourth-generation fermion masses and the magnitude of the D-term contribution to the scalar masses. We find that the ratio of vacuum expectation values is limited to the range 1/5 <~ ν2/ν 1 <~ 4.5. We compute the mass spectrum in the class of models where the only source of soft supersymmetry breaking is the gaugino mass m1/2. The lightest charged scalar turns out to be the fourth-generation slepton, which may be ligth enough to be pair-produced at LEP. The present PETRA bound on new charged particles implies that m1/2 >~ 150 GeV. A general feature of the four-generation models is thus a heavy spectrum of sparticles. On leave from International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy.

  4. Group versus modified individual standard-setting on multiple-choice questions with the Angoff method for fourth-year medical students in the internal medicine clerkship

    PubMed Central

    Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Aekphachaisawat, Noppadol; Chaowattanapanit, Suteeraporn; Limpawattana, Panita; Choonhakarn, Charoen; Sookprasert, Aumkhae

    2013-01-01

    Background The Angoff method is one of the preferred methods for setting a passing level in an exam. Normally, group meetings are required, which may be a problem for busy medical educators. Here, we compared a modified Angoff individual method to the conventional group method. Methods Six clinical instructors were divided into two groups matched by teaching experience: modified Angoff individual method (three persons) and conventional group method (three persons). The passing scores were set by using the Angoff theory. The groups set the scores individually and then met to determine the passing score. In the modified Angoff individual method, passing scores were judged by each instructor and the final passing score was adjusted by the concordance method and reliability index. Results There were 94 fourth-year medical students who took the test. The mean (standard deviation) test score was 65.35 (8.38), with a median of 64 (range 46–82). The three individual instructors took 45, 60, and 60 minutes to finish the task, while the group spent 90 minutes in discussion. The final passing score in the modified Angoff individual method was 52.18 (56.75 minus 4.57) or 52 versus 51 from the standard group method. There was not much difference in numbers of failed students by either method (four versus three). Conclusion The modified Angoff individual method may be a feasible way to set a standard passing score with less time consumed and more independent rather than group work by instructors. PMID:24101890

  5. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Fourth Session (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century was preceded by a 2-day working group on the processes of education. The Commission also held an afternoon of hearings that included an in-depth exchange between Canadian educational leaders and the Commission members on a wide range of topics that included…

  6. The Big Census Data Revolution: IPUMS-International. Trans-Border Access to Decades of Census Samples for Three-Fourths of the World and more

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade a revolution has occurred in the dissemination and analysis of census microdata. This paper discusses the IPUMS-International initiative to liberate census data for researchers world-wide without cost. As of June 2013, academic researchers and policy makers may access, 234 anonymized samples representing 74 countries and totaling over one-half billion person records. The database expands with the addition of 20–30 samples each year. Data are downloadable as extracts from the project website: www.ipums.org/international. To facilitate good use, both metadata and microdata are integrated. The analysis of 450 citations in the project bibliography reveals patterns in publications by country and topic. PMID:25506369

  7. The Big Census Data Revolution: IPUMS-International. Trans-Border Access to Decades of Census Samples for Three-Fourths of the World and more.

    PubMed

    McCaa, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade a revolution has occurred in the dissemination and analysis of census microdata. This paper discusses the IPUMS-International initiative to liberate census data for researchers world-wide without cost. As of June 2013, academic researchers and policy makers may access, 234 anonymized samples representing 74 countries and totaling over one-half billion person records. The database expands with the addition of 20-30 samples each year. Data are downloadable as extracts from the project website: www.ipums.org/international. To facilitate good use, both metadata and microdata are integrated. The analysis of 450 citations in the project bibliography reveals patterns in publications by country and topic.

  8. Space - A new community of opportunity; Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth Annual AAS International Conference, Houston, TX, Nov. 3-5, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Straight, W.G.; Bowes, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on recent advances in astronautical sciences are presented, covering topics such as governing and policy issues, international space applications, ELV research, astrodynamics and planetary missions, and rocket propulsion for the Space Shuttle and the National Aerospace Plane. Other topics include astronomy, astrophysics, solar system exploration, physiological effects of space flight, bioregenerative life support, medical care in space, tracking and data systems, VLBI, electrophoresis experiment command and data handling, Space Station communications, and telerobotics. Additional subjects include structures and composite materials, automation and robotics for the Space Station, EVA construction, the Space Station and large structures, and automation and robotics for the moon, Mars, and interplanetary missions.

  9. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex by 24-Locus Based MIRU-VNTR Typing in Conjunction with Spoligotyping to Assess Genetic Diversity of Strains Circulating in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Bouklata, Nada; Supply, Philip; Jaouhari, Sanae; Charof, Reda; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Sadki, Khalid; El Achhab, Youness; Nejjari, Chakib; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim

    2015-01-01

    Background Standard 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing allows to get an improved resolution power for tracing TB transmission and predicting different strain (sub) lineages in a community. Methodology During 2010–2012, a total of 168 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) isolates were collected by cluster sampling from 10 different Moroccan cities, and centralized by the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis over the study period. All isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping, and a subset of 75 was genotyped using 24-locus based MIRU-VNTR typing, followed by first line drug susceptibility testing. Corresponding strain lineages were predicted using MIRU-VNTRplus database. Principal Findings Spoligotyping resulted in 137 isolates in 18 clusters (2–50 isolates per cluster: clustering rate of 81.54%) corresponding to a SIT number in the SITVIT database, while 31(18.45%) patterns were unique of which 10 were labelled as “unknown” according to the same database. The most prevalent spoligotype family was LAM; (n = 81 or 48.24% of isolates, dominated by SIT42, n = 49), followed by Haarlem (23.80%), T superfamily (15.47%), >Beijing (2.97%), > U clade (2.38%) and S clade (1.19%). Subsequent 24-Locus MIRU-VNTR typing identified 64 unique types and 11 isolates in 5 clusters (2 to 3isolates per cluster), substantially reducing clusters defined by spoligotyping only. The single cluster of three isolates corresponded to two previously treated MDR-TB cases and one new MDR-TB case known to be contact a same index case and belonging to a same family, albeit residing in 3 different administrative regions. MIRU-VNTR loci 4052, 802, 2996, 2163b, 3690, 1955, 424, 2531, 2401 and 960 were highly discriminative in our setting (HGDI >0.6). Conclusions 24-locus MIRU-VNTR typing can substantially improve the resolution of large clusters initially defined by spoligotyping alone and predominating in Morocco

  10. Fourth International Conference: Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation--Impact on Future Development: May 15-17 2013, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tupin, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    On the 15-17th of May 2013, about 120 scientists, postdoctoral fellows and professors representing renowned academic institutes and senior scientists and executives from small biotechs, contract research organizations (CROs) and Big Pharma companies, gathered at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) in Lausanne, Switzerland for the 4th international conference on Modern Vaccines and Adjuvants Formulation. Despite this relative small number, the speakers and attendees covered together a very broad field of expertise. Indeed, experts in microbiology, immunology, biochemistry, formulation, virus and nanoparticle characterization, vaccine production, quality control as well as regulatory professionals attended the conference and were able to present their works and discuss new developments within the field of vaccine and adjuvant development, characterization and approval process. This broad diversity was a highpoint of the conference and allowed for a stimulating environment and underlined the complexity of the challenges that the field currently faces in order to develop better or completely new vaccines and adjuvants.

  11. SPIRIT. SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korona, Jérôme; Berthier, Etienne; Bernard, Marc; Rémy, Frédérique; Thouvenot, Eric

    Monitoring the evolution of polar glaciers, ice caps and ice streams is of utmost importance because they constitute a good indicator of global climate change and contribute significantly to ongoing sea level rise. Accurate topographic surveys are particularly relevant as they reflect the geometric evolution of ice masses. Unfortunately, the precision and/or spatial coverage of current satellite missions (radar altimetry, ICESat) or field surveys are generally insufficient. Improving our knowledge of the topography of Polar Regions is the goal of the SPIRIT (SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies) international polar year (IPY) project. SPIRIT will allow (1) the acquisition of a large archive of SPOT 5 stereoscopic images covering most polar ice masses and, (2) the delivery of digital terrain models (DTM) to the scientific community. Here, we present the architecture of this project and the coverage achieved over northern and southern polar areas during the first year of IPY (July 2007 to April 2008). We also provide the first accuracy assessments of the SPIRIT DTMs. Over Jakobshavn Isbrae (West Greenland), SPIRIT elevations are within ±6 m of ICESat elevations for 90% of the data. Some comparisons with ICESat profiles over Devon ice cap (Canada), St Elias Mountains (Alaska) and west Svalbard confirm the good overall quality of the SPIRIT DTMs although large errors are observed in the flat accumulation area of Devon ice cap. We then demonstrate the potential of SPIRIT DTMs for mapping glacier elevation changes. The comparison of summer-2007 SPIRIT DTMs with October-2003 ICESat profiles shows that the thinning of Jakobshavn Isbrae (by 30-40 m in 4 years) is restricted to the fast glacier trunk. The thinning of the coastal part of the ice stream (by over 100 m) and the retreat of its calving front (by up to 10 km) are clearly depicted by comparing the SPIRIT DTM to an ASTER April-2003 DTM.

  12. Risk Factors for Sexual Dysfunction Among Women and Men: A Consensus Statement From the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Sharlip, Ira D; Lewis, Ron; Atalla, Elham; Balon, Richard; Fisher, Alessandra D; Laumann, Edward; Lee, Sun Won; Segraves, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a review of previous research concerning risk factors for sexual dysfunction in women and men. The aim is to evaluate past research studies to determine the contribution of all risk factors to the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction among women and men. Studies were organized under a biopsychosocial framework, with the bulk of studies of women and men having investigated the role of biological factors. The outcome measures were the data on factors for sexual dysfunction. Many more studies investigated risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men than in women. For women and men, diabetes, heart disease, urinary tract disorders, and chronic illness were significant risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Depression and anxiety and the medications used to treat these disorders also were risk factors for sexual dysfunction in women and men. In addition, substance abuse was associated with sexual dysfunction. Many other social and cultural factors were related to sexual dysfunction in women and men. Psychosocial factors are clearly risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Women and men with sexual dysfunction should be offered psychosocial evaluation and treatment, if available, in addition to medical evaluation and treatment. The impact of social and cultural factors on sexual function requires substantially more research. The evidence that erectile dysfunction is a harbinger of other forms of cardiovascular disease is strong enough to recommend that clinical evaluation for occult cardiovascular disease should be undertaken in men who do not have known cardiovascular disease but who develop organic erectile dysfunction, especially in men younger than 70 years. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth...

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ecology in Venezuela: epidemiologic correlates of common spoligotypes and a large clonal cluster defined by MIRU-VNTR-24

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains an endemic public health problem, but the ecology of the TB strains prevalent, and their transmission, can vary by country and by region. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in different regions of Venezuela. A previous study identified the most prevalent strains in Venezuela but did not show geographical distribution nor identify clonal genotypes. To better understand local strain ecology, we used spoligotyping to analyze 1298 M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Venezuela from 1997 to 2006, predominantly from two large urban centers and two geographically distinct indigenous areas, and then studied a subgroup with MIRU-VNTR 24 loci. Results The distribution of spoligotype families is similar to that previously reported for Venezuela and other South American countries: LAM 53%, T 10%, Haarlem 5%, S 1.9%, X 1.2%, Beijing 0.4%, and EAI 0.2%. The six most common shared types (SIT's 17, 93, 605, 42, 53, 20) accounted for 49% of the isolates and were the most common in almost all regions, but only a minority were clustered by MIRU-VNTR 24. One exception was the third most frequent overall, SIT 605, which is the most common spoligotype in the state of Carabobo but infrequent in other regions. MIRU-VNTR homogeneity suggests it is a clonal group of strains and was named the "Carabobo" genotype. Epidemiologic comparisons showed that patients with SIT 17 were younger and more likely to have had specimens positive for Acid Fast Bacilli on microscopy, and patients with SIT 53 were older and more commonly smear negative. Female TB patients tended to be younger than male patients. Patients from the high incidence, indigenous population in Delta Amacuro state were younger and had a nearly equal male:female distribution. Conclusion Six SIT's cause nearly half of the cases of tuberculosis in Venezuela and dominate in nearly all regions. Strains with SIT 17, the most common pattern overall may be more actively

  15. Splitting of a Prevalent Mycobacterium bovis Spoligotype by Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing Reveals High Heterogeneity in an Evolving Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Navarro, Yurena; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Bezos, Javier; Mateos, Ana; Golby, Paul; Smith, Noel H.; Hewinson, Glyn R.; Domínguez, Lucas; García-de-Viedma, Darío

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis populations in countries with persistent bovine tuberculosis usually show a prevalent spoligotype with a wide geographical distribution. This study applied mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing to a random panel of 115 M. bovis isolates that are representative of the most frequent spoligotype in the Iberian Peninsula, SB0121. VNTR typing targeted nine loci: ETR-A (alias VNTR2165), ETR-B (VNTR2461), ETR-D (MIRU4, VNTR580), ETR-E (MIRU31, VNTR3192), MIRU26 (VNTR2996), QUB11a (VNTR2163a), QUB11b (VNTR2163b), QUB26 (VNTR4052), and QUB3232 (VNTR3232). We found a high degree of diversity among the studied isolates (discriminatory index [D] = 0.9856), which were split into 65 different MIRU-VNTR types. An alternative short-format MIRU-VNTR typing targeting only the four loci with the highest variability values was found to offer an equivalent discriminatory index. Minimum spanning trees using the MIRU-VNTR data showed the hypothetical evolution of an apparent clonal group. MIRU-VNTR analysis was also applied to the isolates of 176 animals from 15 farms infected by M. bovis SB0121; in 10 farms, the analysis revealed the coexistence of two to five different MIRU types differing in one to six loci, which highlights the frequency of undetected heterogeneity. PMID:23985914

  16. Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for Differentiating Spoligotyped Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Sichuan in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Yuding; Zhu, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Sun, Honghu; Feng, Qin; Luo, Mei; Wu, Fanzi; Li, Xuefeng; Hill, Véronique; Rastogi, Nalin; Sun, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB) transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n = 190) versus non-Beijing isolates (n = 84) from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination. PMID:24724099

  17. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark; Gardner, Christoper; Barnes, Stephen

    2002-03-01

    Research into the health effects of soyfoods and soybean constituents has increased at a phenomenal pace over the past decade. This research includes a wide range of areas, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, cognitive function, menopausal symptoms and renal function. Importantly, there are an increasing number of clinical studies being conducted in this field, which was quite evident from the findings presented at the Fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, November 4-7, 2001, in San Diego, California. There is no doubt that progress in understanding the health effects of soy is being made, but much of the data are frustratingly inconsistent. For example, there were conflicting results presented at the symposium on the role of isoflavones in bone health. Similarly, presentations painted an unclear picture of the role of isoflavones in cholesterol reduction. The relatively short duration and small sample size of many of the human studies in this field likely contribute to the inconsistent results. Although there are some controversies regarding the safety of soy for certain subsets of the population, special sessions at the symposium on breast cancer and cognitive function did much to alleviate concerns that soy could have detrimental effects in these areas. Furthermore, published data and new research presented at this meeting suggest that the consumption of even 10 g (typical of Asian intake) of isoflavone-rich soy protein per day may be associated with health benefits. If this modest amount of soy protein were to be incorporated in the American diet, it would represent only approximately 15% of total U. S. protein intake.

  18. The fourth China Bioanalysis Forum Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Daniel; Zhong, Dafang; Dong, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The fourth China Bioanalysis Forum annual conference, co-organized with the Nanjing International Drug Metabolism Conference, was successfully held in Nanjing, China, between 24-26 June 2016. The theme of the conference was 'how to conduct regulated bioanalysis under China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) regulations'. In addition, several hot topics including bioanalytical challenges, solutions for biomarkers, antidrug antibody (antibody-drug conjugates) and biologics were discussed. This Conference Report summarizes the major discussion topics from the conference.

  19. A first insight on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as studied by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Balcells, María Elvira; García, Patricia; Meza, Paulina; Peña, Carlos; Cifuentes, Marcela; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes Mountains, but recent migration from neighboring countries has changed this situation. We aimed to assess the genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains in Santiago, Chile, and compare with reports from other Latin-American countries. We analyzed MTBC isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis cases collected between years 2008 and 2013 in Central Santiago, using two genotyping methods: spoligotyping and 12-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). Data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SITVIT2 database. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 years and 61% were male; 11.6% were migrants. Of 103 strains (1 isolate/patient) included, there were 56 distinct spoligotype patterns. Of these, 16 strains (15.5%) corresponded to orphan strains in the SITVIT2 database, not previously reported. Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (34%) and T (33%) lineages were the most prevalent strains, followed by Haarlem lineage (16.5%). Beijing family was scarcely represented with only two cases (1.9%), one of them isolated from a Peruvian migrant. The most frequent clustered spoligotypes were SIT33/LAM3 (10.7%), SIT53/T1 (8.7%), SIT50/H3 (7.8%), and SIT37/T3 (6.8%). We conclude that LAM and T genotypes are the most prevalent genotypes of MTBC in Santiago, Chile, and together correspond to almost two thirds of analyzed strains, which is similar to strain distribution reported from other countries of Latin America. Nevertheless, the high proportion of SIT37/T3, which was rarely found in other Latin American countries, may underline a specific history or

  20. Finer characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs reveals phylogeographical specificities of isolates circulating in Guyana and Suriname.

    PubMed

    Streit, Elisabeth; Baboolal, Shirematee; Akpaka, Patrick E; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-03-01

    In this study we used spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs for a finer characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients residing in Guyana (n=74) and Suriname (n=80). The mean age of the patients was 38.5years (36.5 and 40.2years for Guyana vs. Suriname), with a male-to-female sex-ratio of 2.25 for Guyana vs. 4.27 in Suriname. Spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs led to a total of 41 and 65 different patterns respectively, with an overall clustering rate of 83.8% vs. 68.8%. Combined spoligotyping and VNTR analysis led to the detection of 18 clusters of 2-41 isolates, with an overall clustering of 67.5% and a recent "n-1" transmission rate of 55.8%. Importantly, Guyana was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of clustered isolates than Suriname (79.7% vs. 56.3%; p=0.0019). Three big spoligo/MIRU (SIT/MIT) clusters containing >10 isolates each were shared between the 2 countries, and concerned: T1 sublineage cluster 53/861 (n=41, 37 in Guyana vs. 4 in Suriname); EAI6-BGD1 sublineage cluster 1340/860 (n=16, 3 in Guyana vs. 13 in Suriname); and T1 sublineage cluster 131/146 (n=11, 6 in Guyana vs. 5 in Suriname); as well as 2 smaller clusters of 2 and 3 isolates respectively. However, the relative phylogeographical specificities of strains in circulation as well as a lack of drug-resistance observed among strains from Suriname suggested that trans-border transmission of drug-resistant isolates occurred less frequently than thought. Tracing and interrupting transmission channels of a specific clone (SIT53/15-MIT861) should become a priority in Guyana, not only because it is by far most abundant but also because it accounts for almost half of the drug resistant isolates (n=8/17, 47.1%) in our study, and clustered 5/12 (41.7%) MDR isolates.

  1. A First Insight on the Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex as Studied by Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Balcells, María Elvira; García, Patricia; Meza, Paulina; Peña, Carlos; Cifuentes, Marcela; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes Mountains, but recent migration from neighboring countries has changed this situation. We aimed to assess the genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains in Santiago, Chile, and compare with reports from other Latin-American countries. We analyzed MTBC isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis cases collected between years 2008 and 2013 in Central Santiago, using two genotyping methods: spoligotyping and 12-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). Data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SITVIT2 database. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 years and 61% were male; 11.6% were migrants. Of 103 strains (1 isolate/patient) included, there were 56 distinct spoligotype patterns. Of these, 16 strains (15.5%) corresponded to orphan strains in the SITVIT2 database, not previously reported. Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (34%) and T (33%) lineages were the most prevalent strains, followed by Haarlem lineage (16.5%). Beijing family was scarcely represented with only two cases (1.9%), one of them isolated from a Peruvian migrant. The most frequent clustered spoligotypes were SIT33/LAM3 (10.7%), SIT53/T1 (8.7%), SIT50/H3 (7.8%), and SIT37/T3 (6.8%). We conclude that LAM and T genotypes are the most prevalent genotypes of MTBC in Santiago, Chile, and together correspond to almost two thirds of analyzed strains, which is similar to strain distribution reported from other countries of Latin America. Nevertheless, the high proportion of SIT37/T3, which was rarely found in other Latin American countries, may underline a specific history or

  2. Comparison of semi-automated commercial rep-PCR fingerprinting, spoligotyping, 12-locus MIRU-VNTR typing and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the embB gene as molecular typing tools for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Armas, Federica; Camperio, Cristina; Coltella, Luana; Selvaggini, Serena; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2017-08-04

    Highly discriminatory genotyping strategies are essential in molecular epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. In this study we evaluated, for the first time, the efficacy of the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DiversiLab Mycobacterium typing kit over spoligotyping, 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and embB single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis for Mycobacterium bovis typing. A total of 49 M. bovis animal isolates were used. DNA was extracted and genomic DNA was amplified using the DiversiLab Mycobacterium typing kit. The amplified fragments were separated and detected using a microfluidics chip with Agilent 2100. The resulting rep-PCR-based DNA fingerprints were uploaded to and analysed using web-based DiversiLab software through Pearson's correlation coefficient. Rep-PCR DiversiLab grouped M. bovis isolates into ten different clusters. Most isolates sharing identical spoligotype, MIRU-VNTR profile or embB gene polymorphism were grouped into different rep-PCR clusters. Rep-PCR DiversiLab displayed greater discriminatory power than spoligotyping and embB SNP analysis but a lower resolution power than the 12-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis. MIRU-VNTR confirmed that it is superior to the other PCR-based methods tested here. In combination with spoligotyping and 12-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis, rep-PCR improved the discriminatory power for M. bovis typing.

  3. Genetic diversity, determined on the basis of katG463 and gyrA95 polymorphisms, Spoligotyping, and IS6110 typing, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Italy.

    PubMed

    Lari, Nicoletta; Rindi, Laura; Sola, Christophe; Bonanni, Daniela; Rastogi, Nalin; Tortoli, Enrico; Garzelli, Carlo

    2005-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates (n = 248) collected during a 1-year period in Tuscany, Italy, were genotyped for the katG463 and gyrA95 polymorphisms and by standard spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays. Most of the isolates (n = 212; 85.5%) belonged to genotypic groups 2 and 3, which included most isolates from Italian-born patients. The remaining isolates were genotypic group 1 organisms, which were prevalent among foreign-born patients (29 of 36; 80.6%). Spoligotype analysis detected 116 unique patterns and 34 clusters including 166 isolates. The combination of spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP analyses yielded 28 distinct clusters including 65 identical isolates (26.2%)--22 clusters with 2 isolates, 4 clusters with 3 isolates, 1 cluster with 4 isolates, and 1 cluster with 5 isolates--thus proving a low transmission rate in the community. Predominant spoligotypes representing 50% of clustered isolates were found in six clusters that included widespread type ST53 (clade T1) with 29 isolates (11.7% of total isolates); types ST50 and ST47 (Haarlem family) with 18 isolates (7.3%) and 8 isolates (3.2%), respectively; type ST42 (Latino-American and Mediterranean clade) with 13 isolates (5.2%); new type ST1737 (named "Tuscany") with 8 isolates (3.2%); and type ST1 (W-Beijing family) with 7 isolates (2.8%). Other spoligotype families, such as the Mycobacterium africanum, East African-Indian (EAI2/Manila), and central Asia 1 (CAS1/Delhi) families (all including organisms of genotypic group 1) and the Cameroun family (genotypic group 2), were detected especially among immigrant patients. The occurrence of genotypes originally found in distant geographic areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis may represent a hallmark for changes in the dynamics of transmission of tuberculosis in the region in the near future.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypes Determined by Spoligotyping to Be Circulating in Colombia between 1999 and 2012 and Their Possible Associations with Transmission and Susceptibility to First-Line Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Gloria; Erazo, Lina; Wintaco, Maira; Castro, Claudia; Ribón, Wellman; Guerrero, Martha Inírida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a primary public health problem worldwide. The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) cases has increased in recent years in Colombia. Knowledge of M. tuberculosis genotypes defined by spoligotyping can help determine the circulation of genotypes that must be controlled to prevent the spread of TB. Objective To describe the genotypes of M. tuberculosis using spoligotyping in resistant and drug-sensitive isolates and their possible associations with susceptibility to first-line drugs. Methods An analytical observational study was conducted that included 741 isolates of M. tuberculosis from patients. The isolates originated from 31 departments and were obtained by systematic surveillance between 1999 and 2012. Results In total 61.94% of the isolates were resistant to 1 or more drugs, and 147 isolates were MDR. In total, 170 genotypes were found in the population structure of Colombian M. tuberculosis isolates. The isolates were mainly represented by four families: LAM (39.9%), Haarlem (19%), Orphan (17%) and T (9%). The SIT42 (LAM 9) was the most common genotype and contained 24.7% of the isolates, followed by the genotypes SIT62 (Haarlem1), SIT53 (T1), and SIT50 (H3). A high clustering of isolates was evident with 79.8% of the isolates classified into 32 groups. The Beijing family was associated with resistant isolates, whereas the Haarlem and T families were associated with sensitive isolates. The Haarlem family was also associated with grouped isolates (p = 0.031). Conclusions A high proportion (approximately 80%) of isolates was found in clusters; these clusters were not associated with resistance to first-line drugs. The Beijing family was associated with drug resistance, whereas the T and Haarlem families were associated with susceptibility in the Colombian isolates studied. PMID:26066494

  5. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory: area.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the fourth Wisconsin forest inventory found 14.8 million acres of commercial forest land, an increase of nearly 2% since 1968. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  6. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  7. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex CRISPR genotyping: improving efficiency, throughput and discriminative power of 'spoligotyping' with new spacers and a microbead-based hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Abadia, Edgar; Refregier, Guislaine; Tafaj, Silva; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Guillard, Bertrand; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond; Sola, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to implement a microbead-based 'spoligotyping' technique and to evaluate improvements by the addition of a panel of 25 extra spacers that we expected to provide an increased resolution on principal genetic group 1 (PGG 1) strains. We confirmed the high sensitivity and reproducibility of the classical technique using the 43 spacer panel and we obtained perfect agreement between the membrane-based and the microbead-based techniques. We further demonstrated an increase in the discriminative power of an extended 68 spacer format for differentiation of PGG 1 clinical isolates, in particular for the East African-Indian clade. Finally, we define a limited yet highly informative reduced 10 spacer panel set which could offer a more cost-effective option for implementation in resource-limited countries and that could decrease the need for additional VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) genotyping work in molecular epidemiological studies. We also present an economic analysis comparing membrane-based and microbead-based techniques.

  9. Identification of a contaminating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain with a transposition of an IS6110 insertion element resulting in an altered spoligotype.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, W H; Lok, K H; Harris, R; Brook, N; Bond, L; Mulcahy, D; Robinson, N; Pruitt, V; Kirkpatrick, D P; Kimerling, M E; Dunlap, N E

    2001-03-01

    Molecular fingerprinting with the IS6110 insertion sequence is useful for tracking transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a population or confirming specimen contamination in the laboratory or through instrumentation. Secondary typing with other molecular methods yields additional information as to the relatedness of strains with similar IS6110 fingerprints. Isolated, relatively rare, random events within the M. tuberculosis genome alter molecular fingerprinting patterns with any of the methods; therefore, strains which are different by two or more typing methods are usually not considered to be closely related. In this report, we describe two strains of M. tuberculosis, obtained from the same bronchoscope 2 days apart, that demonstrated unique molecular fingerprinting patterns by two different typing methods. They were closely linked through the bronchoscope by a traditional epidemiologic investigation. Genetic analysis of the two strains revealed that a single event, the transposition of an IS6110 insertion sequence in one of the strains, accounted for both the differences in the IS6110 pattern and the apparent deletion of a spacer in the spoligotype. This finding shows that a single event can change the molecular fingerprint of a strain in two different molecular typing systems, and thus, molecular typing cannot be the only means used to track transmission of this organism through a population. Traditional epidemiologic techniques are a necessary complement to molecular fingerprinting so that radical changes within the fingerprint pattern can be identified.

  10. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  11. Understanding radioactive waste. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Understanding Radioactive Waste has proven to be an informative and valuable textbook for high school and college students as well as an excellent reference for concerned citizens. Now in its fourth edition, it explains what radioactivity is and goes on to explore the merits of various methods of disposal and the use of licensing and regulation as forms of protection.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Assam, India: Dominance of Beijing Family and Discovery of Two New Clades Related to CAS1_Delhi and EAI Family Based on Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR Typing.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Bhutia, Rinchenla; Bhowmick, Shovonlal; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan

  13. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Assam, India: Dominance of Beijing Family and Discovery of Two New Clades Related to CAS1_Delhi and EAI Family Based on Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR Typing

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Bhutia, Rinchenla; Bhowmick, Shovonlal; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan

  14. Proceedings of the fourth WHBBN workshop, Brazil 2010

    Treesearch

    Maria Isabel Moreno; Pablo Elizondo; C. John Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The fourth workshop of the Western Hemisphere Bird Banding Network (WHBBN) was held at the 25th International Ornithological Congress in Compos do Jordão, Brazil on August 22, 2010. 38 individuals representing 11 countries within the Americas attended the congress, as well as individuals from Australia and the UK. A total of 6 people were able to attend the workshop...

  15. Fourth-generation storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, J. N.

    1999-11-16

    It seems clear that a linac-driven free-electron laser is the accepted prototype of a fourth-generation facility. This raises two questions: can a storage ring-based light source join the fourth generation? Has the storage ring evolved to its highest level of performance as a synchrotrons light source? The answer to the second question is clearly no. The author thinks the answer to the first question is unimportant. While the concept of generations has been useful in motivating thought and effort towards new light source concepts, the variety of light sources and their performance characteristics can no longer be usefully summed up by assignment of a ''generation'' number.

  16. Science and fourth grade students: An analysis of California's fourth National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Cecelia Francisco

    The purpose of this study was to examine science assessment data as generated by the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and through the analysis of four research variables: teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, and student characteristics, determine their relationship to science achievement of fourth grade students (Cavanagh, 2006) in the state of California. All children are born ready and willing to learn but as they progress to and through the primary grades, many lose their natural curiosity and enthusiasm for learning (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994). By the fourth grade, the performance of most children in the United States (U.S. Department of Education, 2004b) is below what it should be for the nation and is below the achievement levels of children in competing countries (Carnegie Corporation of New York). We must trust children to learn if given the chance (Bush, 2008). The analysis of these research variables found that there are relationships between teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, student characteristics and science achievement of fourth grade students in the state of California. Revelation of these relationships provide a deeper understanding of the science achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged school children. The utilization of these findings in the classroom will lead to increasing science achievement in all student groups and notably help to decrease the achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged students. Policy changes are suggested at the district, regional, and national levels to close the international achievement gap.

  17. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  18. Search for the fourth standard model family

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2011-03-01

    Existence of the fourth family follows from the basics of the standard model (SM) and the actual mass spectrum of the third family fermions. We discuss possible manifestations of the fourth SM family at existing and future colliders. The LHC and Tevatron potentials to discover the fourth SM family have been compared. The scenario with dominance of the anomalous decay modes of the fourth-family quarks has been considered in detail.

  19. Third ventriculostomy and fourth ventricle outlets obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Enrique; de Notaris, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Indeed, blockage of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie and of the aqueduct results in a "trapped" fourth ventricle. Continued cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production within the fourth ventricle leads to cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. We could not, until now, understand the phenomenon, mainly on exploring endoscopically the permeability of the whole aqueduct. In adults, we call this condition the functional trapped fourth ventricle because in none of our cases have we found physical obstruction of CSF flow. Third ventricle-fourth ventriculostomy is by far the most frequently used technique for cannulation of the aqueduct in a trapped fourth ventricle. In our reported cases, we have introduced a silicone tube stent from below after accessing the fourth ventricle through a small suboccipital craniectomy, ascending it on the aqueduct in order to reach the third ventricle. Management of this infrequently isolated fourth ventricle, but communicated with the rest of ventricular system, remains a challenge for neurosurgeons. Lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology makes it difficult to treat a problem that we do not understand.

  20. Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

  1. Nicotinic Receptor Fourth Transmembrane Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bouzat, Cecilia; Barrantes, Francisco; Sine, Steven

    2000-01-01

    The fourth transmembrane domain (M4) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) contributes to the kinetics of activation, yet its close association with the lipid bilayer makes it the outermost of the transmembrane domains. To investigate mechanistic and structural contributions of M4 to AChR activation, we systematically mutated αT422, a conserved residue that has been labeled by hydrophobic probes, and evaluated changes in rate constants underlying ACh binding and channel gating steps. Aromatic and nonpolar mutations of αT422 selectively affect the channel gating step, slowing the rate of opening two- to sevenfold, and speeding the rate of closing four- to ninefold. Additionally, kinetic modeling shows a second doubly liganded open state for aromatic and nonpolar mutations. In contrast, serine and asparagine mutations of αT422 largely preserve the kinetics of the wild-type AChR. Thus, rapid and efficient gating of the AChR channel depends on a hydrogen bond involving the side chain at position 422 of the M4 transmembrane domain. PMID:10779322

  2. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  3. The Fourth World Conference on Women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing during September 4-15, 1995, was a major success. The platform for action adopted by consensus at the conference is comprised of the mission statement, a global framework, critical areas of concern, strategic objectives and actions, and institutional and financial arrangements. The conference was an extension of other large international conferences organized under UN initiative over the past 15 years. The Beijing platform of action aims to remove all obstacles to women's active participation in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic, social, cultural, and political decision-making. The following concerns were defined by the conference: eradicating poverty, increasing school enrollment and eliminating gender inequalities in access to education, improving access to health care and eliminating gender inequalities in access to services, eliminating violence against women, mitigating the consequences of armed conflicts against women, securing equal access of men and women to economic resources and employment, providing equal participation of men and women in power structures and decision making, enhancing national mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, protecting the rights of girls and women, eradicating stereotypes about women, participating in the management of natural resources and environmental protection, and improving the status of girls.

  4. Fourth Annual Large Hadron Collider Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The fourth annual Large Hadron Collider Physics (LHCP2016) conference will be held in Lund, Sweden, in the period of June 13-18, 2016. The conference is hosted by Lund University. The LHCP conference series has emerged in 2013 as a successful result of fusion of two international conferences, Physics at Large Hadron Collider Conference and Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. The program will be devoted to a detailed review of the latest experimental and theoretical results on collider physics, particularly the first results of the LHC Run II, and discussions on further research directions within the high energy particle physics community, both in theory and experiment. The main goal of the conference is to provide intense and lively discussions between experimenters and theorists in such research areas as the Standard Model Physics and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Heavy Quark Physics and Heavy Ion Physics as well as to share a recent progress in the high luminosity upgrades and future colliders developments. Chairpersons: Gregorio Bernardi (LPNHE-Paris CNRS/IN2P3), Guenakh Mitselmakher (University of Florida (US)), Leif Lönnblad (Lund University (SE)), Torsten Akesson (Lund University (SE)) Editorial Board Johan Bijnens (Lund University) Andreas Hoecker (CERN) Jim Olsen (Princeton University)

  5. United States housing, fourth quarter 2013

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of 2013, the U.S. housing construction market indicated increases in all sectors; yet, by the fourth quarter’s end, only housing under construction improved. Moderation and declines are to be expected in the fourth quarter, as winter is setting in. Permits, starts, housing under construction, completions, and new and existing house sales all exceeded...

  6. Osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M D; Tulipan, N; Whetsell, W O

    1989-04-01

    Meningiomas of the fourth ventricle are rare neoplasms. Only meningothelial and fibroblastic subtypes, purportedly arising from the tela choroidea, have been described. In this report we describe clinical, neuroradiological and pathological findings in a 52-year-old man with mild hydrocephalus produced by a large, calcified, osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

  7. Career Development Intervention in Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ruth

    This paper contains a unit of six career awareness lessons for use by elementary guidance counselors with fourth grade students. Prepared to be used with fourth graders in a middle class small community elementary school in Wisconsin, the unit is based on developmental needs that have been identified for this age group. It is intended to be both…

  8. Career Development Intervention in Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ruth

    This paper contains a unit of six career awareness lessons for use by elementary guidance counselors with fourth grade students. Prepared to be used with fourth graders in a middle class small community elementary school in Wisconsin, the unit is based on developmental needs that have been identified for this age group. It is intended to be both…

  9. TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among Reading, Mathematics, and Science Achievement at the Fourth Grade--Implications for Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) is an international assessment of mathematics and science at the fourth and eighth grades that has been conducted every four years since 1995, with the most recent assessment in 2011. PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) is an international assessment of reading…

  10. 76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... International Trade Administration Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the... Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') published the preliminary results of the fourth new shipper... (``Vietnam''), covering the period of review (``POR'') of February 1, 2010-July 31, 2010.\\1\\ The Department...

  11. 78 FR 56861 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... of the Fourth Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International... conducting the fourth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``nails... (``POR''), August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. If these preliminary results are adopted in the final...

  12. Fourth Annual International Acquisitions Workshop: Access to Multiple Media Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Topics discussed during the workshop include: (1) Multinational-Multiple media collections and activities spanning many countries; (2) Multiple media in North American trade and commerce; (3) African spotlight; (4) Europe-Multiple media in national libraries and services; (5) Scandinavian spotlight; (6) Internet update; (7) Multiple media in US federal agencies; (8) Open-source multiple media in US federal agencies; and (9) Multiple media at US federal technical agencies-NIST and NOAA.

  13. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  14. Fourth lepton family is natural in technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Imagine discovering a new fourth family of leptons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but no signs of an associated fourth family of quarks. What would that imply? An intriguing possibility is that the new fermions needed to compensate for the new leptons gauge anomalies simultaneously address the big hierarchy problem of the standard model. A natural way to accomplish such a scenario is to have the Higgs itself be a composite of these new fermions. This is the setup we are going to investigate in this paper using as a template minimal walking technicolor. We analyze a general heavy neutrino mass structure with and without mixing with the standard model families. We also analyze the LHC potential to observe the fourth lepton family in tandem with the new composite Higgs dynamics. We finally introduce a model uniting the fourth lepton family and the technifermion sector at higher energies.

  15. Complications of fourth-ventricular shunts.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Leahu, D; Weiner, H L; Abbott, R; Wisoff, J H; Epstein, F J

    1995-01-01

    Fourth-ventricular shunting is commonly used to treat symptomatic posterior fossa cysts of the Dandy-Walker malformation and trapped fourth ventricle. Although the benefits of this procedure have been widely reported, there is a paucity of data on the pitfalls of posterior fossa shunting in the neurosurgical literature. During the 4-year period from July 1989 to June 1993, we placed fourth-ventricular shunts in 12 patients. Remarkably, 5 patients suffered complications related to posterior fossa catheter placement (42% rate). Three of these patients developed new cranial nerve dysfunction caused by direct injury to the floor of the fourth ventricle, 1 patient suffered an intracystic hemorrhage and acute shunt malfunction, and 1 patient had the catheter tip in the brainstem on postoperative studies without new neurological deficit. We conclude that placement of fourth-ventricular shunts can be fraught with complications which we believe is related to technique. We propose that altering the trajectory of the ventricular catheter from our usual midline technique to a more lateral position will lessen the chances for injury to the floor of the fourth ventricle. In this manner we hope to decrease our incidence of complications for this procedure.

  16. The Fourth (A)ATSR Data Reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Philippe; Cocevar, Pauline; Done, Fay; Aatsr Quality Working Group

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to inform users of the upcoming Fourth Reprocessing of ATSR-1, ATSR-2 and AATSR data. The main objective of the Fourth Reprocessing is to generate (A)ATSR Level 1B data products in a similar format to SLSTR products from Sentinel-3. In this way, users can easily access the 20-year dataset from the ERS and ENVISAT (A)ATSR missions and carry the analysis forward into the Sentinel era. In addition to the product format change, the dataset will build on the improvements implemented in the Third Reprocessing, and will contain further improvements and enhancements, as described below.

  17. Fourth branchial pouch sinus: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, R M; Biller, H F

    1991-07-01

    The fourth branchial pouch sinus (FBPS) is a rare translaryngeal anomaly with diverse manifestations, including neonatal stridor and recurrent deep neck infection. Review of the world literature reveals 23 reports of sinuses consistent with fourth pouch origin. We present two additional cases, including the only example of a right-sided FBPS. Retrograde excision, beginning at the piriform apex, ensures complete removal of the tract and protection of the recurrent nerve. The posterior border of the thyroid ala must be resected or retracted for adequate exposure. Failure to remove the translaryngeal portion of the tract almost guarantees recurrence.

  18. The Fourth Basic: Computer Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.

    Traditionally, the fundamental goal of all American education has been to provide students with adequate competencies in reading, writing, and mathematics. A year-long project, conducted at three high schools in Hardin County, Kentucky, provided for the development of a fourth basic: computer skills. Through this project, computer skills were…

  19. Singapore: The Fourth Way in Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article has two main objectives. It first outlines the first three waves of change termed by Hargreaves and Shirley (The Fourth Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, "2009") as the First, Second and Third Way that defined global educational policy and practice since the 1960s. It then…

  20. The Egyptian Press: An Official Fourth Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhorne, Clifton O.

    A descriptive study based on Egyptian law, printed sources, and interviews clarifies our picture of the Egyptian Press by examining its status as a constitutionally mandated "Fourth Estate." The constitutional amendment, the resultant Egyptian Press Law, and the "Law Of Shame" (all passed in 1980), are designed to create a…

  1. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  2. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  3. Business Management for Independent Schools. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This fourth edition of a guide for independent school business managers has been produced in looseleaf format so that changes may be made promptly as decisions of regulatory bodies require modifications in current practice. Fourteen chapters are organized under three broad topic headings. Chapters in part 1, Accounting and Financial Reporting,…

  4. Reading Aloud to Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Frances

    A study determined if regular listening to oral reading by the teacher affected fourth-grade students' level of comprehension. Subjects were 47 students from an elementary school in central New Jersey. Twenty-five students were read to for 30 minutes daily for 8 weeks in addition to their regular classroom reading instruction. The remaining 22…

  5. Singapore: The Fourth Way in Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article has two main objectives. It first outlines the first three waves of change termed by Hargreaves and Shirley (The Fourth Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, "2009") as the First, Second and Third Way that defined global educational policy and practice since the 1960s. It then…

  6. Long lived fourth generation and the Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keung, Wai-Yee; Schwaller, Pedro

    2011-06-01

    A chiral fourth generation is a simple and well motivated extension of the standard model, and has important consequences for Higgs phenomenology. Here we consider a scenario where the fourth generation neutrinos are long lived and have both a Dirac and Majorana mass term. Suchneutrinoscanbeaslightas40GeVandcanbethedominant decay mode of the Higgs boson for Higgs masses below the W-boson threshold. We study the effect of the Majorana mass term on the Higgs branching fractions and reevaluate the Tevatron constraints on the Higgs mass. We discuss the prospects for the LHC to detect the semi-invisible Higgs decays into fourth generation neutrino pairs. Under the assumption that the lightest fourth generation neutrino is stable, its thermal relic density can be up to 20% of the observed dark matter density in the universe. This is in agreement with current constraints on the spin dependent neutrino-neutron cross section, but can be probed by the next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments.

  7. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  8. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  9. The Fourth Domain of Educational Objectives: Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Wes

    1985-01-01

    Tests the claim to comprehensiveness of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives by analyzing educational objectives of some freshmen orientation programs and those connected with human developmental tasks. It is concluded that the taxonomy should be enlarged with a fourth domain: actual induction into tasks for which students are being…

  10. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  11. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  12. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  13. "Researching" with Third- and Fourth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    In order to instill in children the skills which will be basic to their school experience, words implying a process (such as "hemp,""parasite," and "vanilla") may be "researched" by third and fourth graders through the use of a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a supplementary book on the subject, and an interview with an adult. The child makes a…

  14. Fourth Graders Do Write About Their Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biberstine, Richard D.

    1968-01-01

    The question of whether or not intermediate grade children write about their problems was the focus of an investigation conducted among 363 fourth grade students. Children were requested to respond to a paragraph concerning change in the world by writing a compostion answering how and what they would change if they had the power. Findings showed…

  15. Efficacy of the Arts in a Transdisciplinary Learning Experience for Culturally Diverse Fourth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porte, Angela Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this participant observation was to understand the efficacy of a modified International Baccalaureate Primary Years Program for fourth-graders at a public school with a large percentage of language and socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Data collection over a five-month period concentrated on teaching interactions including…

  16. 76 FR 60803 - Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 30912, 30913 (May 27, 2011). On July 11...

  17. Class Size Effects on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…

  18. Class Size Effects on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…

  19. Margaret Beale Spencer Delivers AERA's Fourth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes AERA's Fourth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research delivered by internationally known education researcher and developmental psychologist Margaret Beale Spencer. The Lecture--"Lessons Learned and Opportunities Ignored Post-"Brown v. Board of Education": Youth Development and the Myth of a Colorblind Society"--drew…

  20. Margaret Beale Spencer Delivers AERA's Fourth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes AERA's Fourth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research delivered by internationally known education researcher and developmental psychologist Margaret Beale Spencer. The Lecture--"Lessons Learned and Opportunities Ignored Post-"Brown v. Board of Education": Youth Development and the Myth of a Colorblind Society"--drew…

  1. Ten years of experience with third and fourth branchial remnants.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Moishe; Kay, Saundra; Emil, Sherif; Flageole, Hélène; Nguyen, Luong T; Tewfik, Ted L; Oudjhane, Kamal; Laberge, Jean-Martin

    2002-05-01

    Third and fourth branchial remnants may result in cysts and abscesses that are in close contact with the thyroid gland. These anomalies are rare and often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The charts of patients diagnosed with a branchial anomaly between July 1991 and July 2001 at the Montreal Children's Hospital were reviewed. All cases of third and fourth branchial remnants or pyriform sinus fistulae were identified. Clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Eight patients with a third or fourth branchial anomaly were identified and ranged in age from birth to 13 years. All anomalies were left sided. Presenting symptoms consisted of an asymptomatic cervical mass (n = 1), an infected mass (n = 5), neonatal respiratory distress (n = 1), and 1 incidental cyst found on magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasonography was useful in suggesting the diagnosis in 7 cases. Barium swallow was performed in 3 patients with 2 positive results. Pharyngoscopy results showed the internal opening in 2 of 7 patients. A portion of the thyroid gland was resected in 6 patients. One patient has not yet undergone a definitive procedure. There was 1 recurrence in a patient whose pathology did not confirm a branchial remnant. The diagnosis and management of pyriform sinus anomalies are challenging. Ultrasound scan, computed tomography scan, barium swallow, and pharyngoscopy are all useful. The portion of thyroid involved in the fistula must be excised en bloc with the inflammatory mass, and the tract should be ligated at the level of the pharynx to minimize recurrence. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  2. SITVITWEB--a publicly available international multimarker database for studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Demay, Christophe; Liens, Benjamin; Burguière, Thomas; Hill, Véronique; Couvin, David; Millet, Julie; Mokrousov, Igor; Sola, Christophe; Zozio, Thierry; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Among various genotyping methods to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) genotypic polymorphism, spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of DNA tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) have recently gained international approval as robust, fast, and reproducible typing methods generating data in a portable format. Spoligotyping constituted the backbone of a publicly available database SpolDB4 released in 2006; nonetheless this method possesses a low discriminatory power when used alone and should be ideally used in conjunction with a second typing method such as MIRU-VNTRs for high-resolution epidemiological studies. We hereby describe a publicly available international database named SITVITWEB which incorporates such multimarker data allowing to have a global vision of MTC genetic diversity worldwide based on 62,582 clinical isolates corresponding to 153 countries of patient origin (105 countries of isolation). We report a total of 7105 spoligotype patterns (corresponding to 58,180 clinical isolates) - grouped into 2740 shared-types or spoligotype international types (SIT) containing 53,816 clinical isolates and 4364 orphan patterns. Interestingly, only 7% of the MTC isolates worldwide were orphans whereas more than half of SITed isolates (n=27,059) were restricted to only 24 most prevalent SITs. The database also contains a total of 2379 MIRU patterns (from 8161 clinical isolates) from 87 countries of patient origin (35 countries of isolation); these were grouped in 847 shared-types or MIRU international types (MIT) containing 6626 isolates and 1533 orphan patterns. Lastly, data on 5-locus exact tandem repeats (ETRs) were available on 4626 isolates from 59 countries of patient origin (22 countries of isolation); a total of 458 different VNTR patterns were observed - split into 245 shared-types or VNTR International Types (VIT) containing 4413 isolates) and 213 orphan patterns. Datamining of SITVITWEB further allowed to update

  3. Preparing Fourth-Year Medical Students to Teach During Internship

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Richard J; Bardach, Naomi S; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Gillum, Leslie A; Haber, Lawrence A; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet S

    2006-01-01

    Interns are expected to teach medical students, yet there is little formal training in medical school to prepare them for this role. To enhance the teaching skills of our graduating students we initiated a 4-hour “teaching to teach” course as part of the end of the fourth-year curriculum. Course evaluations demonstrate that students strongly support this program (overall ratings 2000 to 2005: mean = 4.4 [scale 1 to 5], n = 224). When 2004 course participants were surveyed during the last month of their internship, 84%“agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement: “The teaching to teach course helped prepare me for my role as a teacher during internship” (2005: mean 4.2 [scale 1 to 5], n = 45, response rate 60%). A course preparing fourth-year students to teach during internship is both feasible and reproducible, with a minimal commitment of faculty and resident time. Participants identify it as an important addition to their education and as useful during internship. PMID:16704402

  4. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE = TdS - PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called ;Legendre transformation; at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  5. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  6. The Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics.

    PubMed

    Chabris, Christopher F; Lee, James J; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J; Laibson, David I

    2015-07-01

    Behavior genetics is the study of the relationship between genetic variation and psychological traits. Turkheimer (2000) proposed "Three Laws of Behavior Genetics" based on empirical regularities observed in studies of twins and other kinships. On the basis of molecular studies that have measured DNA variation directly, we propose a Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics: "A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability." This law explains several consistent patterns in the results of gene discovery studies, including the failure of candidate gene studies to robustly replicate, the need for genome-wide association studies (and why such studies have a much stronger replication record), and the crucial importance of extremely large samples in these endeavors. We review the evidence in favor of the Fourth Law and discuss its implications for the design and interpretation of gene-behavior research.

  7. The "fourth dimension" of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Bert W

    2009-05-01

    The three dimensions of space provide our relationship to position on the earth, but the fourth dimension of time has an equally profound influence on our lives. Everything from light and sound to weather and biology operate on the principle of measurable temporal periodicity. Consequently, a wide variety of time clocks affect all aspects of our existence. The annual (and biannual) cycles of activity, metabolism, and mating, the monthly physiological clocks of women and men, and the 24-h diurnal rhythms of humans are prime examples. Should it be surprising to us that the fourth dimension also impinges upon gene expression and that the genome itself is regulated by the fastest running of all biological clocks? Recent evidence substantiates the existence of such a ubiquitin-dependent transcriptional clock that is based upon the activation and destruction of transcriptional coactivators.

  8. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  9. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference was to focus on the flight validation of high angle-of-attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle-of-attack activities. Areas that were covered include: high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, tactical utility, and forebody controls.

  10. Documentation of the Fourth Order Band Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, fourth order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.

  11. Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-04-22

    CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  12. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference, held at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on July 12-14, 1994, was to focus on the flight validation of high angle of attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle of attack activities. Areas that were covered include high angle of attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, and tactical utility.

  13. Fourth order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1994-01-01

    Fourth order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the fourth order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  14. Celebrate International School Library Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Monday in October is International School Library Day (ISLD)--an opportunity for school libraries around the world to celebrate the contribution they make to the education of the children in their care. International School Library Day was proclaimed in 1999 by Dr Blanche Woolls, president of the International Association of School…

  15. Exact Nonlinear Fourth-order Equation for Two Coupled Oscillators: Metamorphoses of Resonance Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyzioł, J.; Okniński, A.

    We study dynamics of two coupled periodically driven oscillators. The internal motion is separated off exactly to yield a nonlinear fourth-order equation describing inner dynamics. Periodic steady-state solutions of the fourth-order equation are determined within the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky approach - we compute the amplitude profiles, which from mathematical point of view are algebraic curves. In the present paper we investigate metamorphoses of amplitude profiles induced by changes of control parameters near singular points of these curves. It follows that dynamics changes qualitatively in the neighbourhood of a singular point.

  16. Editorial Introduction: Fourth Planetary Dunes Workshop Special Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Telfer, Matt W.

    2017-06-01

    The Fourth International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data was held May 19-22, 2015 in Boise, Idaho (see Final Announcement). More than 60 researchers and students participated in two and a half days of presentations and lively discussion, plus a full day field trip to Bruneau Dunes State Park. The workshop focused on the many landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (aeolian processes). These processes are known to occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, Venus, and possibly, cometary surfaces. The overarching purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for discussion and the exchange of new ideas and approaches to gaining new insights into planetary aeolian processes. Meeting programs, abstracts, and E-Posters are all available at the workshop website (http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/dunes2015/)

  17. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N.

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Population/Family Planning Library and Information Services, Chapel Hill, N.C., May 6-7, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Blanche, Ed.

    This report contains the proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Population/Family Planning Library and Information Services held in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, May 6-7, 1971. Under the joint sponsorship of the Carolina Population Center and the U.S. Agency for International Development, this was the fourth in a series of annual…

  19. 22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION SCAR MARKED BY CONTRASTING WALLPAPER TREATMENTS - Phillips-Thompson Building, 200-206 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. 7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING AND STAIRS AT MISSION STREET OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fourth Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. The Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: Report and Reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlands, I.H.

    1993-07-01

    Between 23 and 25 November 1992, representatives from more than 100 states gathered in Copenhagen for the Fourth Meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol in Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The Copenhagen gathering was significant not only because the international community had to respond to the ongoing deterioration of the Earth`s protective layer of stratospheric ozone, but also because it was one of the first major international environmental conferences to be held after the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The results of the fourth meeting, discussed in this paper, might therefore suggest the extent to which UNCED cemented the international community`s commitment to the goal of sustainable development.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2296 - Three-fourths half kernel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three-fourths half kernel. 51.2296 Section 51.2296 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...-fourths half kernel. Three-fourths half kernel means a portion of a half of a kernel which has more...

  3. Envelope instability and the fourth order resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhao, Ya Liang

    2014-12-01

    The well-known envelope instability or the second order even collective mode [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4 (1998)] and the fourth order resonance 4 σ =360 ° due to the nonlinear space charge effect in high intensity beams have been studied previously. A wide stop band around 15° is found in a pure periodic focusing channel. In addition, it is illustrated that the fourth order resonance dominates over the envelope instability and practically replaces it in the stop band [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009)]. In this paper, for a continuous beam with remarkable space charge, our 2D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation work with the code topopic shows these two kinds of effects respectively in a periodic focusing defocusing (FD) channel. For a fixed tune depression η =0.8 , a stop band with a width of almost 15° is also demonstrated. Moreover, it is confirmed that analytical results of the rms envelope instability diagram are a valid tool to interpret the width of the stop band. Emittance growth rates in stop band are also well explained. It is found that, for a nearly rms matched beam, the emittance growth in the stop band is almost proportional to the saturation time of the nonlinear instability of the envelope, which happens in a quick manner and takes only a few FD cells. In contrast, the fourth order resonance is independent of rms matching and will be accompanied by beam evolution as "a long term effect" once the related mechanism is excited.

  4. CP violation in fourth generation quark decays

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Hou Weishu

    2009-10-01

    We show that, if a fourth generation is discovered at the Tevatron or LHC, one could study CP violation (CPV) in b{sup '}{yields}s decays. Asymmetries could reach 30% for b{sup '}{yields}sZ for m{sub b{sup '}} < or approx. 350 GeV, while it could be greater than 50% for b{sup '}{yields}s{gamma} and extend to higher m{sub b{sup '}}. Branching ratios are 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5}, and CPV measurement requires tagging. Once measured, however, the CPV phase can be extracted with little theoretical uncertainty.

  5. Primary solitary lymphoma of the fourth ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Huang-I; Lai, Ping-Hong; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Shong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary central nervous lymphoma(PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the central nervous system. Most of the lesions are supratentorial and periventricular, often involving deep structures such as corpus callosum and basal ganglion. Isolated intraventricular lymphoma is rare and only a few case reports. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the seventh case of isolated PCNSL in the fourth ventricle in an immunocompetent patient. Presentation of case A 61-year-old male presenting with 3 months of headache and dizziness followed with unsteady gait for days. The MR imaging of brain revealed a homogeneously enhancing lesion occupying almost the whole 4th ventricle.The tumor was removed subtotally via suboccipital craniotomy. Histopathology revealed the lesion be a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Discussion PCNSL is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesion. The unusual location in surgically accessible fourth ventricle in posterior fossa, the isolation of the tumor may present a compelling indication for surgical resection. Conclusion We suggest that primary lymphoma should be considered with homogenous lesions of the 4th ventricle. Also aggressive surgical resection in this surgically accessible location, instead of biopsy only, is rational. PMID:26209757

  6. Fourth-generation Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1994-09-01

    Conceptual designs for fourth-generation crew-carrying Mars transfer and excursion vehicles, fully integrated to state-of-the-art standards, are presented. The resulting vehicle concepts are sized for six crew members, and can support all opposition and conjunction opportunities in or after 2014. The modular, reusable transfer ship is launched to Earth orbit on six 185-ton-class boosters and assembled there robotically. Its dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines use liquid hydrogen propollant. The payload consists of a microgravity habitation system and an expendable lift-to-drag = 1.6 lander capable of aeromaneuvering to sites within +/- 20 deg of the equator. This lander can deliver either an expendable, storable-bipropellant crew-carrying ascent vehicle, or 40 tons of cargo, and it is capable of limited surface mobility to support base buildup. Multiple cargo landers sent ahead on robotic transfer vehicles deliver the supplies and equipment required for long-duration surface missions.

  7. Search for fourth generation neutral heavy leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    A search for fourth generation neutral heavy leptons ({nu}{sub 4}) in W decays was carried out the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV. The {nu}{sub 4} is assumed to be produced via mixing with the first generation neutrino only. We looked for a three electron final state event topology. The data used in this analysis represent 12.2 pb{sup {minus}1} taken during the 1992--1993 run. No candidates were found. We set a preliminary limit beyond the LEP limit for the considered mixing case on the {vert_bar}U{sub e4}{vert_bar}{sup 2} {minus} m{sub {nu}4} plane.

  8. PIRLS 2011 International Results in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V.S.; Martin, Michael O.; Foy, Pierre; Drucker, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PIRLS is an international assessment of reading comprehension at the fourth grade that has been conducted every five years since 2001. In 2011, nationally representative samples of students in 49 countries participated in PIRLS and prePIRLS. Forty-five countries assessed fourth grade students, and some countries participated in one or more of the…

  9. Course Offerings in the Fourth Year of Medical School: How U.S. Medical Schools Are Preparing Students for Internship.

    PubMed

    Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency.

  10. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2010-09-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  11. The fourth age of quantum chemistry: molecules in motion.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Mátyus, Edit; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Czakó, Gábor

    2012-01-21

    Developments during the last two decades in nuclear motion theory made it possible to obtain variational solutions to the time-independent, nuclear-motion Schrödinger equation of polyatomic systems as "exact" as the potential energy surface (PES) is. Nuclear motion theory thus reached a level whereby this branch of quantum chemistry started to catch up with the well developed and widely applied other branch, electronic structure theory. It seems to be fair to declare that we are now in the fourth age of quantum chemistry, where the first three ages are principally defined by developments in electronic structure techniques (G. Richards, Nature, 1979, 278, 507). In the fourth age we are able to incorporate into our quantum chemical treatment the motion of nuclei in an exact fashion and, for example, go beyond equilibrium molecular properties and compute accurate, temperature-dependent, effective properties, thus closing the gap between measurements and electronic structure computations. In this Perspective three fundamental algorithms for the variational solution of the time-independent nuclear-motion Schrödinger equation employing exact kinetic energy operators are presented: one based on tailor-made Hamiltonians, one on the Eckart-Watson Hamiltonian, and one on a general internal-coordinate Hamiltonian. It is argued that the most useful and most widely applicable procedure is the third one, based on a Hamiltonian containing a kinetic energy operator written in terms of internal coordinates and an arbitrary embedding of the body-fixed frame of the molecule. This Hamiltonian makes it feasible to treat the nuclear motions of arbitrary quantum systems, irrespective of whether they exhibit a single well-defined minimum or not, and of arbitrary reduced-dimensional models. As a result, molecular spectroscopy, an important field for the application of nuclear motion theory, has almost black-box-type tools at its disposal. Variational nuclear motion computations, based on

  12. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. The relationship of episiotomy to third and fourth degree lacerations.

    PubMed

    Golden, W E; Sanchez, N

    1996-02-01

    Third and fourth degree lacerations can produce significant long term morbidity to women undergoing childbirth. The incidence of third and fourth degree lacerations is variable depending on the institution and the obstetrical provider. While episiotomy remains a valuable intervention in selected cases, an improvement program directed at lowering the use of episiotomy can reduce the incidence of this clinical event. Hospitals and physicians with higher rates of third and fourth degree tears should examine the use of episiotomy, and midline episiotomy in particular, which is associated with an increased incidence of third and fourth degree tears.

  14. 95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the TIMSS 2011 Background and Curriculum Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The TIMSS 2011 International Database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the TIMSS 2011 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires and curriculum questionnaires in the following 10 sections: (1) Fourth Grade Student Questionnaire; (2) Fourth Grade Home…

  16. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

    2008-02-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development.

  17. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Leonard B

    2009-03-01

    This paper represents more than 30 years of discussion and collaboration with Drs Joseph Murray and John Mulliken in an attempt to understand growth patterns over time (ie, fourth dimension) in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). This is essential for the development of rational treatment protocols for children and adults with jaw asymmetry. Traditionally, HFM was thought of as a unilateral deformity, but it was recognized that 20% to 30% of patients had bilateral abnormalities. However, early descriptions of skeletal correction addressed almost exclusively lengthening of the short (affected) side of the face. Based on longitudinal clinical observations of unoperated HFM patients, we hypothesized that abnormal mandibular growth is the earliest skeletal manifestation and that restricted growth of the mandible plays a pivotal role in progressive distortion of both the ipsilateral and contralateral facial skeleton. This hypothesis explains the progressive nature of the asymmetry in patients with HFM and provides the rationale for surgical lengthening of the mandible in children to prevent end-stage deformity. During the past 30 years, we have learned that this phenomenon of progressive distortion of the adjacent and contralateral facial skeleton occurs with other asymmetric mandibular undergrowth (tumor resection, radiation therapy, or posttraumatic defects) and overgrowth (mandibular condylar hyperplasia) conditions. In this paper, I describe the progression of deformity with time in patients with mandibular asymmetry as a result of undergrowth and overgrowth. Understanding these concepts is critical for the development of rational treatment protocols for adults with end-stage asymmetry and for children to minimize secondary deformity.

  18. Neonatal hemifacial spasm and fourth ventricle mass.

    PubMed

    Specchio, Nicola; Trivisano, Marina; Bernardi, Bruno; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Faggioli, Raffaella; Fiumana, Elisa; Cappelletti, Simona; Delalande, Olivier; Vigevano, Federico; Fusco, Lucia

    2012-08-01

    Congential hemifacial spasm is a rare condition that is characterized by the occurrence of paroxysmal hemifacial contractions in neonates. We review the clinical, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and histopathological findings, as well as the differential diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and outcome of all the described cases. Moreover, we report two new cases including the ictal video-electroencephalography recordings. Hemifacial spasm starts early in life, and is characterized by unilateral, involuntary, irregular tonic or clonic contractions of muscles innervated by the seventh cranial nerve. Hemifacial spasm is associated with eyelid blinking, and sometimes with breathing irregularities, hyperventilation, and/or other neurological manifestations (dystonic movements, nystagmus). Interictal and ictal video-electroencephalography did not reveal epileptiform abnormalities. In all cases, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass involving the cerebellar peduncle, the cerebellar hemisphere, or the floor of the fourth ventricle. The semiology of the paroxysmal attacks is probably due to the activation of cranial nerve nuclei through intralesional hypersynchronous discharges, as shown by the intraoperative recordings and functional brain imaging described in the literature. We point out the importance of identifying such seizures in order to make an early diagnosis of the underlying cerebral lesion.

  19. Using TIMSS 2007 Data to Build Mathematics Achievement Model of Fourth Graders in Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 data were used to build mathematics achievement models of fourth graders in two East Asian school systems: Hong Kong and Singapore. In each school system, eight variables at student level and nine variables at school/class level were incorporated to build an achievement…

  20. An Analysis of the Relationships between Taiwanese Eighth and Fourth Graders' Motivational Beliefs and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the issues of students' motivational beliefs in science learning and their relations with science achievement. Data of Taiwanese fourth and eighth graders from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 were examined. Students' self-concept and intrinsic interest as motivational beliefs,…

  1. Confidence in Science and Achievement Outcomes of Fourth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from assessments of fourth-grade science have indicated that students in Korea scored higher than international averages. Research results have also shown that attitudes toward science were related to achievement outcomes for Korean students. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between confidence in science and…

  2. An Analysis of the Relationships between Taiwanese Eighth and Fourth Graders' Motivational Beliefs and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the issues of students' motivational beliefs in science learning and their relations with science achievement. Data of Taiwanese fourth and eighth graders from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 were examined. Students' self-concept and intrinsic interest as motivational beliefs,…

  3. Reading To Learn: Lessons from Exemplary Fourth-Grade Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Johnston, Peter H.

    Fourth graders around the country face new, high-stakes standardized tests, drawing increased attention to the need for effective literacy instruction in the upper elementary grades. This book goes beyond "political catch phrases" to examine what actually works in the fourth-grade classroom. The book offers a view of the techniques and…

  4. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  5. Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A Fourth Grade Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fourth-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged fourth graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and…

  6. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  7. Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A Fourth Grade Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fourth-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged fourth graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and…

  8. Fourth World Conference on Women: year-end update.

    PubMed

    Chasek, P; Schmidt, C; Jordan, R

    1995-12-18

    This report gives a brief history of the UN General Assembly's activities preparatory to the Fourth World Conference on Women, a review of the General Assembly's debate on the Beijing Platform Agenda Item 165, and a description of the resolution passed by the Third Committee of the General Assembly on implementation of the Beijing Action Plan. Other resolutions related to the status of women are described. March 11-22, 1996, is the scheduled date for the meeting of the Commission on the Status of Women, which will discuss follow-up to Beijing. Resolutions were passed in 1995 on the endorsement of the Beijing Declaration and Plan of Action and gratitude for China as a conference host, on the Secretariat's engagement of women at the highest levels of management, on the merger of two women's units, and on a variety of other issues. The adopted draft resolution on implementation of the Beijing Plan of Action calls for the Secretary-General to coordinate policy within the UN system on implementation, report to the General Assembly on ways to enhance follow-up on implementation, ensure the more effective functioning of the Division for the Advancement of Women, and cooperate with the administrator of the UNDP in applying a gender perspective to global UN conferences. Summary discussion in the Third Committee meetings pertained to Agenda Item 165 and Item 107. Delegates emphasized the importance of implementing the Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action at the local, national, regional, and international levels. Delegates showed little support for the Secretary-General's proposal to establish a high level advisory board instead of the Platform's recommendation to establish a post in the Office of the Secretary-General. Some delegates did not support the resolution to merge the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) with UNIFEM. Resolutions are expected to be adopted by the General Assembly plenary in December 1995.

  9. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  10. Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  11. Library, Documentation and Archives Serials. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. R., Ed.

    A listing of library, documentation, and archives serials contains 950 in-print items. An alphabetical list of 77 serials from international organizations is followed by alphabetical title lists from 79 countries, Argentina through Zambia. An additional section contains information about 58 abstracting, indexing, and current awareness services.…

  12. The Shrinking World: International Links with FE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Val; Simpson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the current situation of international activities in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. Surveys of over 180 colleges revealed that nearly three-fourths referred to international activity in their strategic plans; only 41 percent had a written policy. Benefits of an international dimension were broadening…

  13. Travelling waves of density for a fourth-gradient model of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    In mean-field theory, the non-local state of fluid molecules can be taken into account using a statistical method. The molecular model combined with a density expansion in Taylor series of the fourth order yields an internal energy value relevant to the fourth-gradient model, and the equation of isothermal motions takes then density's spatial derivatives into account for waves travelling in both liquid and vapour phases. At equilibrium, the equation of the density profile across interfaces is more precise than the Cahn and Hilliard equation, and near the fluid's critical point, the density profile verifies an Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, allowing kinks, which converges towards the Cahn-Hillard equation when approaching the critical point. Nonetheless, we also get pulse waves oscillating and generating critical opalescence.

  14. Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for a fourth generation of quarks produced singly or in pairs in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1 recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. A novel strategy has been developed for a combined search for quarks of the up and down type in decay channels with at least one isolated muon or electron. Limits on the mass of the fourth-generation quarks and the relevant Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements are derived in the context of a simple extension of the standard model with a sequential fourth generation of fermions. The existence of mass-degenerate fourth-generation quarks with masses below 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level for minimal off-diagonal mixing between the third- and the fourth-generation quarks. With a mass difference of 25 GeV between the quark masses, the obtained limit on the masses of the fourth-generation quarks shifts by about ±20GeV. These results significantly reduce the allowed parameter space for a fourth generation of fermions.

  15. The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splitting this velum provides a detailed view of the fourth ventricle and its floor. Materials and Methods A total of 10 formalin-fixed specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to simulate the superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle. The exposure gained the distance from the craniotomy site and the ease of access was assessed for each of the routes. We also present an illustrative case, operated by the senior author (AN). Results The superior transvelar approach provides access to the entire length of the fourth ventricle floor, from the aqueduct to the obex, when using the parietal interhemispheric route. In addition, this approach provides access to the entire width of the floor of the fourth ventricle; however, this requires retracting the superior cerebellar peduncle. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial route gives a limited exposure of the superior part of the fourth ventricle. The occipital interhemispheric route is a compromise between these two. Conclusion The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle provides a route for approaching the fourth ventricle from above. This approach does not require opening the posterior fossa in the traditional way, and provides a reasonable alternative for accessing the superior fourth ventricle.

  16. Intelligence briefing on smuggling of nuclear material and the role of international crime organizations, and on the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. Hearing before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addresses nuclear smuggling and the role of international crime organizations in the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. The demise of the Soviet Union has weakened the control in Russia over nuclear materials. Statements of government officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  17. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  18. Man and Energy, Module C. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module investigates solar energy, ecology, and fossil fuels. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  19. 25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT TOP MAIN WOOD AND STEEL BEAM SUPPORT SYSTEM, NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  20. 39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST WALL OF DINING AND SOCIAL HALL ON NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST - Masonic Temple, 1111-1119 Eleventh Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  1. The Reading Preferences of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the influence of teachers, age, sex, and race on the reading preferences of third, fourth, and fifth grade pupils. Concludes that the tested variables do explain differences, but that there are more similarities than differences. (RS)

  2. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 15. MIDPANEL POINT CONNECTION, NORTH SIDE BETWEEN THIRD AND FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MID-PANEL POINT CONNECTION, NORTH SIDE BETWEEN THIRD AND FOURTH PANELS FROM WEST END OF TRUSS. NOTE NUMBERS STAMPED IN MEMBERS. - Riddle Bridge, Spanning Gasconada River, Dixon, Pulaski County, MO

  4. 44. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF BASE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF BASE OF STACKS, FORCED DRAFT FANS, AND COAL BUNKER LOOKING TO COAL BUNKER - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  5. 45. BOILER HOUSE BETWEEN FOURTH AND FIRST FLOORS SHOWING COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. BOILER HOUSE BETWEEN FOURTH AND FIRST FLOORS SHOWING COAL BUNKER AND COAL FEEDER PIPES, LOOKING FROM CATWALK - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  6. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  7. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  8. 51. Fourth floor attic, marble cased door opening at entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Fourth floor attic, marble cased door opening at entrance to operating room, view to northeast - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  9. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline of the Shuttle cargo bay and wing formed by the edge of the platforms. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Unit 3, downstream from Fourth Avenue Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, downstream from Fourth Avenue Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  13. 42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS (SEE DRAWING Nos. 10 & 11 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  14. 5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: FERGUSON & HAAS AUTOMATIC WRAPPING MACHINE INSTALLED BY 1929 - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  16. Man and Energy, Module C. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module investigates solar energy, ecology, and fossil fuels. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  17. 11. SANDSORTING BUILDING, FOURTH FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, FOURTH FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  18. The Nature of Fourth Graders' Understandings of Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Moje, Elizabeth B.

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of four children each were involved in a qualitative study designed to interpret the nature of fourth graders' understandings of electric circuits. Conclusions regarding knowledge restructuring are presented as well as implications for teaching, assessment, and research. (ZWH)

  19. Fourth floor, view of telephone junction and circuit breakers in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fourth floor, view of telephone junction and circuit breakers in the hall outside of the House Committee Room 5, with scale - Virginia State Capitol, Bank and 10th Streets, Capitol Square, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  20. 21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast (original location of heaters) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  1. 31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milkstorage tank room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milk-storage tank room, spiral stair in right hand corner - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  2. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS AND UNDATED LARD PRESS AND VATS ON RIGHT SIDE) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  3. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  4. 97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING NORTH, INNER DOME ON RIGHT WITH KNEE BRACE FROM INNER COLUMN TO CROSS BEAM - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  5. Petroleum profits in the fourth quarter of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-12

    The information in this report concerning fourth-quarter income was obtained from companies' public releases, which are issued in advance of their required filings of Form 10Q or Form 10K with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Topics outlined include: overview of fourth quarter profits, crude oil prices and oil and gas earnings, refining margins and refining/marketing income, overall profitability, and quarterly financial data.

  6. Petroleum profits in the fourth quarter of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-12

    The information in this report concerning fourth-quarter income was obtained from companies` public releases, which are issued in advance of their required filings of Form 10Q or Form 10K with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Topics outlined include: overview of fourth quarter profits, crude oil prices and oil and gas earnings, refining margins and refining/marketing income, overall profitability, and quarterly financial data.

  7. SHELL SHOCK structural code (fourth edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, J.E.; Gabrielson, V.K.

    1984-03-01

    SHELL SHOCK is a computer code that performs a frequency analysis and determines the static and dynamic response of a structure represented by mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. SHELL SHOCK is primarily intended for analyzing three-dimensional axisymmetric structures modeled using structural elements generated by the code in which the spatial coordinates are uncoupled by Fourier harmonics. A three-dimensional axisymmetric structure is then reduced to a series of two-dimensional problems, which significantly reduce the computations required. Three types of structural elements (that are uncoupled by a Fourier series) are generated internally by the code: linear beams, shells, and solids of revolution. Nonlinear beam elements are also uncoupled and included in the dynamic response computations. 6 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Analysis of role-play in medical communication training using a theatrical device the fourth wall.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Torild; Baerheim, Anders; Lepp, Margret Rose; Schei, Edvin

    2006-10-14

    Communication training is a central part of medical education. The aim of this article is to explore the positions and didactic functions of the fourth wall in medical communication training, using a role-play model basically similar to a theatrical performance. The empirical data stem from a communication training model demonstrated at an international workshop for medical teachers and course organizers. The model involves an actress playing a patient, students alternating in the role of the doctor, and a teacher who moderates. The workshop was videotaped and analyzed qualitatively. The analysis of the empirical material revealed three main locations of the fourth wall as it moved and changed qualities during the learning session: 1) A traditional theatre location, where the wall was transparent for the audience, but opaque for the participants in the fiction. 2) A "timeout/reflection" location, where the wall was doubly opaque, for the patient on the one side and the moderator, the doctor and the audience on the other side and 3) an "interviewing the character" location where the wall enclosed everybody in the room. All three locations may contribute to the learning process. The theatrical concept 'the fourth wall' may present an additional tool for new understanding of fiction based communication training. Increased understanding of such an activity may help medical teachers/course organizers in planning and evaluating communication training courses.

  9. Analysis of role-play in medical communication training using a theatrical device the fourth wall

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Torild; Baerheim, Anders; Lepp, Margret Rose; Schei, Edvin

    2006-01-01

    Background Communication training is a central part of medical education. The aim of this article is to explore the positions and didactic functions of the fourth wall in medical communication training, using a role-play model basically similar to a theatrical performance. Method The empirical data stem from a communication training model demonstrated at an international workshop for medical teachers and course organizers. The model involves an actress playing a patient, students alternating in the role of the doctor, and a teacher who moderates. The workshop was videotaped and analyzed qualitatively. Results The analysis of the empirical material revealed three main locations of the fourth wall as it moved and changed qualities during the learning session: 1) A traditional theatre location, where the wall was transparent for the audience, but opaque for the participants in the fiction. 2) A "timeout/reflection" location, where the wall was doubly opaque, for the patient on the one side and the moderator, the doctor and the audience on the other side and 3) an "interviewing the character" location where the wall enclosed everybody in the room. All three locations may contribute to the learning process. Conclusion The theatrical concept 'the fourth wall' may present an additional tool for new understanding of fiction based communication training. Increased understanding of such an activity may help medical teachers/course organizers in planning and evaluating communication training courses. PMID:17040575

  10. Seismological analysis of the fourth North Korean nuclear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has conducted its fourth underground nuclear explosions on 06.01.2016 at 01:30 (UTC). The explosion was clearly detected and located by the seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Additional seismic stations of international earthquake monitoring networks at regional distances, which are not part of the IMS, are used to precisely estimate the epicenter of the event in the North Hamgyong province (41.38°N / 129.05°E). It is located in the area of the North Korean Punggye-ri nuclear test site, where the verified nuclear tests from 2006, 2009, and 2013 were conducted as well. The analysis of the recorded seismic signals provides the evidence, that the event was originated by an explosive source. The amplitudes as well as the spectral characteristics of the signals were examined. Furthermore, the similarity of the signals with those from the three former nuclear tests suggests very similar source type. The seismograms at the 8,200 km distant IMS station GERES in Germany, for example, show the same P phase signal for all four explosions, differing in the amplitude only. The comparison of the measured amplitudes results in the increasing magnitude with the chronology of the explosions from 2006 (mb 4.2), 2009 (mb 4.8) until 2013 (mb 5.1), whereas the explosion in 2016 had approximately the same magnitude as that one three years before. Derived from the magnitude, a yield of 14 kt TNT equivalents was estimated for both explosions in 2013 and 2016; in 2006 and 2009 yields were 0.7 kt and 5.4 kt, respectively. However, a large inherent uncertainty for these values has to be taken into account. The estimation of the absolute yield of the explosions depends very much on the local geological situation and the degree of decoupling of the explosive from the surrounding rock. Due to the missing corresponding information, reliable magnitude-yield estimation for the

  11. Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from tuberculous meningitis patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yorsangsukkamol, Jutaporn; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Prammananan, Therdsak; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit; Limsoontarakul, Sunsern; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn

    2009-07-01

    The first retrospective molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from cerebrospinal fluid of 158 tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in Thailand, collected between 1995 and 2005, was performed by Southern-blot hybridization with an IS6110 probe and spoligotyping on 152 and 147 isolates, respectively. Antituberculous drug susceptibility testing was performed in 149 patients, 118 of whom (79.2%) contained pan-sensitive strains and eight (5.4%) harbored multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. IS6110 RFLP typing revealed 110 RFLP patterns with 57.9% of patients infected with the Beijing genotype. This percentage was significantly higher than that in a previous report from pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Fifteen of 18 TBM patients (83%) aged <15 years were infected with Beijing isolates (OR=4.47, p=0.018). There were 40 spoligotypes, with 118 patients (80.3%) being clustered. The biggest cluster, which consisted of 84 patients, was the Beijing spoligotype (57.1%). There were 16 novel spoligotypes from 16 patients compared to the Fourth International Spoligotyping Database, SpolDB4. Sixty-four percent of the patients were male, and the mean age of patients was 33.8 years. Beijing isolates from 2001 to 2005 were found in higher percentages than those from 1995 to 2000, but this difference was not significant (p=0.28).

  12. The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms.

    PubMed

    West, G B; Brown, J H; Enquist, B J

    1999-06-04

    Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.

  13. Korobov polynomials of the third kind and of the fourth kind.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekyun; Kim, Dae San

    2015-01-01

    The first degenerate version of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind appeared in the paper by Korobov (Math Notes 2:77-19, 1996; Proceedings of the IV international conference modern problems of number theory and its applications, pp 40-49, 2001). In this paper, we study two degenerate versions of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind which will be called Korobov polynomials of third kind and of the fourth kind. Some properties, identities, recurrence relations and connections with other polynomials are investigated by using umbral calculus.

  14. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  15. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  16. Distraction Osteogenesis for Brachymetatarsia by Using Internal Device.

    PubMed

    Kitabata, Reina; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Kishi, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Congenital brachymetatarsia most commonly involves the fourth ray and may be combined with metacarpal shortening. Now, many reports demonstrated the usefulness of distraction osteogenesis for lengthening of the metatarsals by using an external distraction device. In this article, we treated shortening fourth metatarsal by bone lengthening using the internal distraction device. This technique has some advantages over the method of external distraction.

  17. Schwannoma of the Fourth Ventricle: The Eighth Case Report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria M; Timóteo, Ângela; Coiteiro, Domingos; Pimentel, José

    2015-11-01

    We report an uncommon case of a surgical resection of a fourth ventricle tumor in an adult that proved to be a schwannoma. A 53-year-old man presented with a 1.5-year history of gait unsteadiness and vertigo and a few-week history of headache, emesis, and neurogenic dysphagia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large, heterogeneously contrast enhancing mass located within the fourth ventricle, compressing the brainstem and causing supratentorial ventricle enlargement. A suboccipital craniotomy and a telovelar approach were performed to resect the tumor. The ventricular system was repermeabilized at the end of the operation. A postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed complete tumor removal. There was an initial worsening of the preoperative deficits, which progressively improved. The tumor was classified as a fourth ventricle schwannoma. There has been no evidence of tumor recurrence during the 6 years of follow-up. At present, the patient is ambulatory and reports an intermittent diplopia on conjugated gaze. This case report intends to reveal the eighth case of a fourth ventricle schwannoma since 1957. Schwannomas of the fourth ventricle are infrequent but should be accounted in the differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in this location. Gross total resection might be the definite treatment of these tumors if deemed possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dark Coulomb binding of heavy neutrinos of fourth family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Laletin, M. N.

    2015-11-01

    Direct dark matter searches put severe constraints on the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These constraints cause serious troubles for the model of stable neutrino of fourth generation with mass around 50GeV. Though the calculations of primordial abundance of these particles make them in the charge symmetric case a sparse subdominant component of the modern dark matter, their presence in the universe would exceed the current upper limits by several orders of the magnitude. However, if quarks and leptons of fourth generation possess their own Coulomb-like y-interaction, recombination of pairs of heavy neutrinos and antineutrinos and their annihilation in the “neutrinium” atoms can play important role in their cosmological evolution, reducing their modern abundance far below the experimental upper limits. The model of stable fourth generation assumes that the dominant part of dark matter is explained by excessive Ū antiquarks, forming (ŪŪŪ)-- charged clusters, bound with primordial helium in nuclear-interacting O-helium (OHe) dark atoms. The y charge conservation implies generation of the same excess of fourth generation neutrinos, potentially dangerous WIMP component of this scenario. We show that due to y-interaction recombination of fourth neutrinos with OHe hides these WIMPs from direct WIMP searches, leaving the negligible fraction of free neutrinos, what makes their existence compatible with the experimental constraints.

  19. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-07-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  20. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  1. An Inquiry into Flipped Learning in Fourth Grade Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'addato, Teresa; Miller, Libbi R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this action research project was to better understand the impact of flipped learning on fourth grade math students in a socioeconomically disadvantaged setting. A flipped instructional model was implemented with the group of students enrolled in the researcher's class. Data was collected in the form of classroom observations,…

  2. The Principal: Creative Leadership for Effective Schools. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.; Hughes, Larry W.; Norris, Cynthia J.

    This fourth edition of this book is organized around the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium model standards developed specifically for school leaders. The six standards focus on the key issues that inform effective leadership. Attention is given to issues of learning and teaching, and the creation of powerful learning environments.…

  3. Fourth Way in Action: Teacher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers are often looking for solutions to develop their educational systems in today's highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley's Fourth Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA…

  4. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  5. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  6. Fourth Grade: Late Fall and Early Spring Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joel Robert, Ed.

    Activity plans for fourth grade outdoor education experiences comprise the bulk of this curriculum guide. Many of the outlines have been developed through practical application and experimentation by staff members of the Outdoor and Environmental Education Center (OEEC) of the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, City Schools. Activities and studies for the…

  7. 13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking northwest showing a typical arrangement of lease space offices, with glass door, lavatory and clothes closets. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  8. Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orelove, Fred P., Ed.; Sobsey, Dick, Ed.; Silberman, Rosanne K., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this highly respected, bestselling textbook gives undergraduate and graduate students up-to-the-minute research and strategies for educating children with severe and multiple disabilities. This popular core text--for 15 years, a staple of teacher training programs in special education and related fields--thoroughly…

  9. Installing an Integrated System and a Fourth-Generation Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, David; Ferguson, Linda

    1987-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 Indiana State University converted to the Series Z software of Information Associates, an IBM mainframe, and Information Builders' FOCUS fourth-generation language. The beginning of the planning stage to product selection, training, and implementation is described. (Author/MLW)

  10. Supporting Fourth-Grade Students' Word Identification Using Application Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Gary P.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Wilcox, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study examined effects of a 10-week word structure intervention with fourth-grade students. During daily 10-15-minute practice periods, students worked individually with mobile apps focused on specific aspects of word identification. Pre- and post-treatment assessments showed no differences in rate and accuracy of oral reading…

  11. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  12. Annotated Bibliography of Multi-ethnic Curriculum Materials, Fourth Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwest Center for Equal Educational Opportunity, Columbia, MO.

    This fourth supplement represents multiethnic curriculum materials collected in 1976 since publishing of the previous supplement. The listed materials include books, films, filmstrips, recordings, and booklets. Materials are listed alphabetically by title or author under each heading for type of material. Included in each entry are name of author,…

  13. Fourth-of-July fireworks over national health care.

    PubMed

    1992-08-01

    On July 3, President George Bush devoted his annual Fourth-of-July radio message to the American people to the issue of health care reform. What follows are slightly edited transcripts of the president's message and the response of the Democratic Party, which was delivered by Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-Maine) and also broadcast on July 3.

  14. Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Shane; Haque, Waqar; Pereira, Kevin; Larrier, Deidre; Valdez, Tulio A

    2010-03-01

    To identify the most common pathogens involved in infections of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Third and fourth branchial pouch cyst infections are an uncommon cause of anterior neck abscesses often confused with other entities, such as thyroglossal duct cysts and thyroid abscesses leading to misdiagnosis, recurrence, and increased morbidity related to a delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Retrospective chart and literature review. Retrospective chart review case series of patients presenting to the Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology at Texas Children's Hospital from July 2004 to July 2008 with third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. A total of 11 patients were identified. All patients had left-sided lesions. Eikenella corrodens was found in 60% of cultures and was the most common organism identified in our patient group. Furthermore, 56% of the organisms isolated were anaerobic. All organisms with the exception of Staphylococcus aureus were identified as oral cavity flora. Third and fourth branchial pouch cysts provide a communication between the neck and the oral cavity through pyriform sinus tracts. The presence of oral cavity flora in a left anterior neck abscess should raise the suspicion of a branchial pouch anomaly, and subsequently alter therapeutic management.

  15. Reflections on Doing Geography: Learning Observations from the Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahunty, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Orchard Bog site in Shady Valley, Tennessee, is a unique Appalachian mountain bog that provides many opportunities for student exploration. A biogeographer, a field technician, two biologists, and a historian combined their expertise to teach 100 fourth graders how historians and scientists learn about past…

  16. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  17. A Rare Fourth Branch of the Marginal Mandibular Nerve.

    PubMed

    Gormley, M; Philip, J; James, R; Heaton, M

    2017-07-17

    This report describes a good example of the rare fourth branch of the marginal mandibular nerve. This case emphasizes the need for respecting the variation in the marginal mandibular nerve when carrying out surgery. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  19. North Carolina Tales Fly with Fourth Grade Tellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westman, Gretchen Daub

    2008-01-01

    In fourth grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how…

  20. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Barbara J., Ed.

    The fourth edition of this curriculum guide will help college, university, and secondary school educators design and update courses, familiarize themselves with new literature and resources, and plan and justify new academic programs in the study of global problems. While syllabus categories remain the same as in previous editions, several new…

  1. The Online Classroom: Teaching with the Internet. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Eileen Giuffre

    Presenting a wide array of Internet addresses and sample lessons, this fourth edition shows how teachers can integrate the Internet into their K-12 curriculum to actively involve students. The first section of the book (chapters 1-6) deals with the programs needed to use the Internet, as well as 100 great web sites for teachers, how to manage the…

  2. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  3. Fourth Inventory. Computers in Higher Education, 1976-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, John W., Ed.; Baird, Thomas B., Ed.

    The fourth national inventory of computers in higher education, 1976-77 is presented. The four inventories together provide detailed snapshots of the history of computer utilization by U.S. higher education since 1964. The contents of the publication include a description of the inventory and statistical data on the computer systems, expenditures…

  4. The Informed Argument: A Multidisciplinary Reader and Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert K.

    Reflecting the belief that learning is best fostered by encouraging students to read, reflect, and write about serious issues, this book is designed to help students argue on behalf of their beliefs so that other people will take them seriously. The 85 readings gathered in the book (60 of which are new to the fourth edition) give students adequate…

  5. The Fourth-Grade Reading Classroom. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Richard J.; Coleman, Ashaki B.

    2004-01-01

    This report draws on data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to provide a picture of the fourth-grade reading classroom. The picture includes views of teachers and their training, the climate and characteristics of the school environment, and the kinds of instructional and assessment practices that teachers use in reading…

  6. Nature's Energy, Module B. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module examines man's use of fossil fuels, electricity production, and other energy sources. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  7. Conflict Management Techniques for Kindergarten through Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Edith Janell Rudd

    An elementary school teacher discusses conflict management techniques appropriate for use with children in kindergarten through the fourth grade. Discussion first recapitulates developmental theory from several perspectives, including those of Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and profiles conflict theory. Illustrative contemporary social problems that…

  8. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  9. Supreme Court Docket: Drug Testing and the Fourth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charlotte C., Ed.; Williams, Charles, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses upon classroom presentation of issues related to the Fourth Amendment of U.S. Constitution. Presents a description of a drug test case simulation (D. Hess); a case involving drug testing in the public sector which is to be heard by the Supreme Court (L. Mandell); and other teaching strategies (D. Hess). Provides a guide for finding Supreme…

  10. Eating Attitudes in Fourth-, Sixth-, and Eighth-Grade Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…

  11. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  12. An Examination of Fourth Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid fourth-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and…

  13. Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orelove, Fred P., Ed.; Sobsey, Dick, Ed.; Silberman, Rosanne K., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this highly respected, bestselling textbook gives undergraduate and graduate students up-to-the-minute research and strategies for educating children with severe and multiple disabilities. This popular core text--for 15 years, a staple of teacher training programs in special education and related fields--thoroughly…

  14. Sights, Sounds, Senses in Step with Reading. Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.

    This ESEA Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from selected fourth-grade basic reading books. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals and birds,…

  15. The Akan of Ghana. An Instructional Unit for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Rosarita

    This teaching guide presents objectives, resources, and evaluation criteria for teaching pupils in fourth grade social studies and fine arts classes about Africa, and particularly the Akan ethnic group in Africa. This unit was developed at an interdisciplinary summer workshop for teachers on African culture. The major objective is to help students…

  16. 13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, showing east corner and former electrical equipment area, room #306. This building was salvaged and sealed in the 1970's; the lower floors also suffered flooding - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  18. 43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3869-46, Y&D Drawing 190843. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. VIEW OF THE WEST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. VIEW OF THE EAST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE EAST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. 4. Detail view of fourth bay in E elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail view of fourth bay in E elevation of sugar mill looking W. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  2. Improving Reading Comprehension of Third and Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salch, Kim; And Others

    A project developed processes for improving the reading comprehension of third- and fourth-grade students in two progressive suburban communities in northern Illinois. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of reading strategies and a review of the district's general curriculum and textbooks revealed systematic…

  3. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 4A, FOURTH GRADE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FIFTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE FOURTH GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. THERE IS A DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE CONTENT FOR GRADE 4 FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING MAJOR AREAS AROUND WHICH…

  4. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  5. Reflections on Doing Geography: Learning Observations from the Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahunty, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Orchard Bog site in Shady Valley, Tennessee, is a unique Appalachian mountain bog that provides many opportunities for student exploration. A biogeographer, a field technician, two biologists, and a historian combined their expertise to teach 100 fourth graders how historians and scientists learn about past…

  6. Administration of the Small Public Library. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    Since the publication of its first edition in 1965, this book has been a standard resource for setting up and managing cutting-edge small public library facilities. Completely revised and updated, this fourth edition continues that tradition with many more figures (28 in this edition), case studies and sample policies, and new content on grant…

  7. Fourth-order series expansion of the exchange hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rodrigo; Zhou, Yongxi; Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Approximate functionals for the exchange-correlation energy of electrons often draw on explicit or implicit models for the exchange-correlation hole. Here we focus on the spherically averaged exchange hole ρX(r ,u ) , which depends on the reference point r and on the electron-electron distance u . We extend the well-known [A. D. Becke and M. R. Roussel, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3761 (1989), 10.1103/PhysRevA.39.3761] second-order Taylor-series expansion in u to fourth order and we show that the fourth-order term can add important additional information that is particularly relevant for molecules compared to atoms. Drawing on these findings, we explore exchange functionals that depend on the fourth-order term of the expansion of ρX(r ,u ) . We also find that Gaussian basis set expansions, frequently used in electronic structure codes, result in unsatisfactory representations of the fourth-order term.

  8. Texas Superintendents' Role in Student Fourth Amendment Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey

    This study analyzed the current student drug testing policies of Texas public school districts in the context of the Fourth Amendment rights of students. Court decisions on this issue conflict, and school administrators, attorneys, and other concerned parties may be interested in knowing school districts policies. Responses were received from 827…

  9. 6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: AMERICAN CAR & FOUNDRY COMPANY MANUAL SOAP CUTTER INSTALLED 1932 (FOREGROUND); CONVEYORS; AND R.A. JONES & COMPANY HORIZONTAL PRESS INSTALLED 1931 (BACKGROUND) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. ORAL DRILLS AND WRITING IMPROVEMENT IN THE FOURTH GRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, BARBARA D.; NEY, JAMES W.

    BELIEVING FORMAL WRITTEN ENGLISH TO BE A "FOREIGN LANGUAGE" TO MOST AMERICAN PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS, RESEARCHERS USED THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION TO PROMOTE WRITING IMPROVEMENT IN FOURTH-GRADERS. TWO RANDOMLY-SELECTED CLASSES OF STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY COMPOSED THE STUDY POPULATION--ONE CLASS FOR THE EXPERIMENT,…

  11. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  12. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  13. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Barbara J., Ed.

    The fourth edition of this curriculum guide will help college, university, and secondary school educators design and update courses, familiarize themselves with new literature and resources, and plan and justify new academic programs in the study of global problems. While syllabus categories remain the same as in previous editions, several new…

  14. The Fourth-Year Experience: Impediments to Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donhardt, G. L.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduates who persevere to the fourth year of their academic careers have invested a great deal of time, effort, and financial resources in their education. In spite of the effort, many do not succeed in graduating. Students from an entering class of first-time, full time freshmen from a large urban university were tracked through their…

  15. 12. INTERIOR VIEW FOURTH OR ATTIC LEVEL SHOWING 'THE SILVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW FOURTH OR ATTIC LEVEL SHOWING 'THE SILVER CREEK FLOUR BOLT' 3307 No. 2, pat. Feb 6, 1883. Nancy Shedd, historical consultant, in mid-ground. - Huntingdon Furnace, Grist Mill, 2 miles northwest of Colerain Mansion, Franklinville, Huntingdon County, PA

  16. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  17. Migrant Counselor's Handbook, Grades 9-12. Fourth Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Programs.

    The fourth revised edition of the migrant counselor's handbook emphasizes administration of the migrant counselor's duties, knowledge of procedures, and functional aids to carrying out work with migrant students. Part I provides definitions, explains counselor responsibilities and procedures, and includes in-state and out-of-state programs and…

  18. Proceedings of the fourth Lake States forest tree improvement conference

    Treesearch

    Lake States Forest Experiment Station

    1960-01-01

    The Lake States Forest Experiment Station is glad to facilitate the work of the Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Committee in encouraging and coordinating forest genetics activities in this region. We are happy, therefore, to publish this Proceedings of the Fourth Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, as we did for the preceding three conferences in 1953,...

  19. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  20. 19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC MOTOR LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  1. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  2. Fourth Way in Action: Teacher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers are often looking for solutions to develop their educational systems in today's highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley's Fourth Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA…

  3. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  4. Perceptions of Mentoring from Fourth Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods research study investigated medical students' perspectives of professional mentoring through a web-based survey/needs assessment. The participants are fourth year medical students from three large urban research institutions and two regional branch campuses. The web-based survey/needs assessment was created, peer reviewed, and…

  5. Operation Sluggie and Other Software Products from the Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Theresa Boedeker; Rogel, Jeannine

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project that taught groups of fourth graders how to develop instructional software for second and third graders in the areas of mathematics and science. Topics include project goals for students and the teacher; integrating technology; documentation and packaging; community involvement; and benefits to students. (LRW)

  6. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  7. 46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH STORY) OF THE TOWER FROM THE NORTHEAST TO THE SOUTHWEST (NOTE: GROUPS OF THREE WINDOWS IN EACH SIDE OF TOWER, ORNAMENTED WITH BROWNSTONE ARCHES AND BROWNSTONE SILLS WITHOUT BRACKETS) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  8. The Personal Financial Literacy of Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucey, Thomas Andrew

    The purpose of the study was to measure personal financial literacy levels of fourth grade students in Memphis, Tennessee and to explore the relationships between seven personal and social characteristics and the students' personal financial literacy. The sample produced low scores on five measure dimensions. Caucasian populations performed better…

  9. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Frankel; John T. Kliejunas; Katharine M. Palmieri

    2010-01-01

    The Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium provided a forum for current research on sudden oak death, caused by the exotic, quarantine pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum. Ninety submissions describing papers or posters on the following sudden oak death/P. ramorum topics are included: biology, genetics, nursery and wildland...

  10. Perceptions of Mentoring from Fourth Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods research study investigated medical students' perspectives of professional mentoring through a web-based survey/needs assessment. The participants are fourth year medical students from three large urban research institutions and two regional branch campuses. The web-based survey/needs assessment was created, peer reviewed, and…

  11. Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using SCAMPER and Animal Adaptation Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Mahjabeen; Carignan, Anastasia

    This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24…

  12. The Informed Argument: A Multidisciplinary Reader and Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert K.

    Reflecting the belief that learning is best fostered by encouraging students to read, reflect, and write about serious issues, this book is designed to help students argue on behalf of their beliefs so that other people will take them seriously. The 85 readings gathered in the book (60 of which are new to the fourth edition) give students adequate…

  13. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  14. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  15. Student Activism and Democratic Quality in Ghana's Fourth Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gyampo, Ransford Edward

    2013-01-01

    Student activism has been pivotal in Ghana's political and democratic history. Prior to Ghana's Fourth Republic, student activism was highly confrontational and entailed student support or opposition to the various regimes depending on the extent to which the regimes were accepted by all as being rightful or legitimate. After 23 years of…

  16. Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum on Education Abroad, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Forum on Education Abroad's "Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad" augments previous editions of the "Standards." Since the last edition was published in 2008, Forum member institutions and organizations have implemented the Standards in program development and assessment, using the Standards in the Forum's…

  17. U. S. Fourth Graders' Informational Text Comprehension: Indicators from NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schugar, Heather R.; Dreher, Miriam Jean

    2017-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of reading data collected from over 165,000 fourth graders as part of the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Using hierarchical linear modelling, the authors investigated factors associated with students' informational text comprehension, including out-of-school reading engagement, and in-school…

  18. The Value of the Fourth Year of Mathematics. Math Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Too many students and educators view the senior year and graduation from high school as an end point, rather than one vital step along the education pipeline. Students who engage in a fourth year of math tap into and build upon their advanced analytic skills and are more likely to have better success in postsecondary course work, as they have…

  19. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  20. OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF BUILDING) SHOWING TOP OF MISSILE TUBE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Discrimination Evidence for Examining Fourth Grade Students' Learning Disability Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…

  2. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  3. Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.

    2005-09-01

    It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac ({nu}{sub 4}) and Majorana (N{sub 1}) neutrinos at future linear colliders with {radical}(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{sub 4}{nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}N{sub 1}) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels ({nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}){yields}{mu}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}) provide cleanest signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at {radical}(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures.

  4. Residential Reasoning and the Tug of the Fourth Age.

    PubMed

    Koss, Catheryn; Ekerdt, David J

    2016-02-13

    Where to grow older occupies the minds of many aging adults. This study examines how anticipation of the fourth age influences third-age residential reasoning. It also investigates the role of social relationships in choosing housing for later life. Analyses were based on semi-structured interviews with 30 community-dwelling retirees aged 67-97 who were asked about preparations for the future, including housing. Replies about future housing fell into two categories: preemptive and contingent. In preemptive reasoning, participants anticipated that their current homes would be suitable over the long term and explained why, while those engaged in contingent reasoning could imagine a possible future move to more supportive housing and even had destination places in mind. Both types of responses reflect residential reasoning that is ongoing and driven in large part by anticipation of fourth-age vulnerabilities. Peers influenced participants' thinking about whether, when, and where to move. Relationships with spouses and offspring were also factors commonly mentioned in residential reasoning, both in terms of sources of support and perceived obligations. The fourth age is generally conceived as an experience of loss, but it also functions as a social imaginary. Our study suggests that the fourth age, both as a potential personal destiny and a social construct, influences housing decisions among those firmly in the third age. More attention in housing research to prudential anticipation of the fourth age as well as the relational aspects of residential reasoning would enhance understanding of late-life housing choices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Fourth Integrated Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (ICNS) Conference and Workshop 2004: Conclusions and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Brent; Swanda, Ronald L.; Lewis, Michael S.; Kenagy, Randy; Donahue, George; Homans, Al; Kerczewski, Robert; Pozesky, Marty

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center organized and hosted the Fourth Integrated Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (ICNS) Technologies Conference and Workshop, which took place April 26-30, 2004 at the Hyatt Fair Lakes Hotel in Fairfax, Virginia. This fourth conference of the annual series followed the very successful first ICNS Conference (May 1-3, 2001 in Cleveland, Ohio), second ICNS conference (April 29-May 2, 2002 in Vienna, Virginia), and third ICNS conference (May 19-22, 2003 in Annapolis, Maryland). The purpose of the Fourth ICNS Conference was to assemble government, industry and academic communities performing research and development for advanced digital communications, surveillance and navigation systems and associated applications supporting the national and global air transportation systems to: 1) Understand current efforts and recent results in near- and far-term R&D and technology demonstration; 2) Identify integrated digital communications, navigation and surveillance R&D requirements necessary for a safe, secure and reliable, high-capacity, advanced air transportation system; 3) Provide a forum for fostering collaboration and coordination; and 4) Discuss critical issues and develop recommendations to achieve the future integrated CNS vision for national and global air transportation. The workshop attracted 316 attendees from government, industry and academia to address these purposes through technical presentations, breakout sessions, and individual and group discussions during the workshop and after-hours events, and included 16 international attendees. An Executive Committee consisting of representatives of several key segments of the aviation community concerned with CNS issues met on the day following the workshop to consider the primary outcomes and recommendations of the workshop. This report presents an overview of the conference, workshop breakout session results, and the findings of the Executive Committee.

  6. Methotrexate administration directly into the fourth ventricle in children with malignant fourth ventricular brain tumors: a pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David I; Rytting, Michael; Zaky, Wafik; Kerr, Marcia; Ketonen, Leena; Kundu, Uma; Moore, Bartlett D; Yang, Grace; Hou, Ping; Sitton, Clark; Cooper, Laurence J; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Lee, Dean A; Thall, Peter F; Khatua, Soumen

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemotherapy can be safely administered directly into the fourth ventricle to treat recurrent malignant brain tumors in children. For the first time in humans, methotrexate was infused into the fourth ventricle in children with recurrent, malignant brain tumors. A catheter was surgically placed into the fourth ventricle and attached to a ventricular access device. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was confirmed by CINE MRI postoperatively. Each cycle consisted of 4 consecutive daily methotrexate infusions (2 milligrams). Disease response was monitored with serial MRI scans and CSF cytologic analysis. Trough CSF methotrexate levels were sampled. Five patients (3 with medulloblastoma and 2 with ependymoma) received 18, 18, 12, 9, and 3 cycles, respectively. There were no serious adverse events or new neurological deficits attributed to methotrexate. Two additional enrolled patients were withdrawn prior to planned infusions due to rapid disease progression. Median serum methotrexate level 4 h after infusion was 0.04 µmol/L. Range was 0.02-0.13 µmol/L. Median trough CSF methotrexate level 24 h after infusion was 3.18 µmol/L (range 0.53-212.36 µmol/L). All three patients with medulloblastoma had partial response or stable disease until one patient had progressive disease after cycle 18. Both patients with ependymoma had progressive disease after 9 and 3 cycles, respectively. Low-dose methotrexate can be infused into the fourth ventricle without causing neurological toxicity. Some patients with recurrent medulloblastoma experience a beneficial anti-tumor effect both within the fourth ventricle and at distant sites.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-18

    STS-116 astronaut and mission specialist, Robert Curbeam, along with the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Christer Fuglesang (partially out of the frame), are anchored to the International Space Station’s Canadarm2 foot restraints. The two were working on the port overhead solar array wing on the Station’s P6 truss during the mission’s fourth session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). For 6 hours and 38 minutes, the space walkers used specially prepared, tape insulated tools to guide the array wing neatly inside its blanket box.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-03

    Astronaut Doug Wheelock, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, astronaut Scott Parazynski (out of frame), mission specialist, cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Wheelock assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  9. Flavor changing neutral currents with a fourth family of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Johana A.; Benavides, Richard H.; Ponce, William A.

    2008-10-01

    For a model with a fourth family of quarks, new sources of flavor changing neutral currents are identified by confronting the unitary 4x4 quark mixing matrix with the experimental measured values of the familiar 3x3 quark mixing matrix. By imposing as experimental constraints the known bounds for the flavor changing neutral currents, the largest mixing of the known quarks with the fourth family ones is established. The predictions are: a value for |V{sub tb}| significantly different from unity, large rates for rare top decays as t{yields}c{gamma} and t{yields}cZ, the last one reachable at the Large Hadron Collider, and large rates for rare strange decays s{yields}d{gamma} and s{yields}dg, where g stands for the gluon field, both processes reachable at the existing B factories.

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D. )

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  11. Fourth-Order Spatial Correlation of Thermal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Zhang, Xun; Xue, Xin-Xin; Sun, Jia; Song, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yan-Peng

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the fourth-order spatial correlation properties of pseudo-thermal light in the photon counting regime, and apply the Klyshko advanced-wave picture to describe the process of four-photon coincidence counting measurement. We deduce the theory of a proof-of-principle four-photon coincidence counting configuration, and find that if the four randomly radiated photons come from the same radiation area and are indistinguishable in principle, the fourth-order correlation of them is 24 times larger than that when four photons come from different radiation areas. In addition, we also show that the higher-order spatial correlation function can be decomposed into multiple lower-order correlation functions, and the contrast and visibility of low-order correlation peaks are less than those of higher orders, while the resolutions all are identical. This study may be useful for better understanding the four-photon interference and multi-channel correlation imaging.

  12. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, fourth quarter 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has generated 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the fourth quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.

  13. Fourth virial coefficients of asymmetric nonadditive hard-disk mixtures.

    PubMed

    Saija, Franz; Santos, Andrés; Yuste, Santos B; López de Haro, Mariano

    2012-05-14

    The fourth virial coefficient of asymmetric nonadditive binary mixtures of hard disks is computed with a standard Monte Carlo method. Wide ranges of size ratio (0.05 ≤ q ≤ 0.95) and nonadditivity (-0.5 ≤ Δ ≤ 0.5) are covered. A comparison is made between the numerical results and those that follow from some theoretical developments. The possible use of these data in the derivation of new equations of state for these mixtures is illustrated by considering a rescaled virial expansion truncated to fourth order. The numerical results obtained using this equation of state are compared with Monte Carlo simulation data in the case of a size ratio q = 0.7 and two nonadditivities Δ = ±0.2.

  14. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  15. A fourth order accurate adaptive mesh refinement method forpoisson's equation

    SciTech Connect

    Barad, Michael; Colella, Phillip

    2004-08-20

    We present a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method for computing solutions to Poisson's equation in two and three dimensions. It is based on a conservative, finite-volume formulation of the classical Mehrstellen methods. This is combined with finite volume AMR discretizations to obtain a method that is fourth-order accurate in solution error, and with easily verifiable solvability conditions for Neumann and periodic boundary conditions.

  16. Final Report for CORBA for Fourth Generation Language

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2005-06-28

    The standard for object based networking is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). However, CORBA is not available for Fourth Generation Languages (4GL's) such as Visual Numerics? PV-WAVE or Research Systems? Interactive Data Language (RSI-IDL), which are widely used by scientists and engineers for data visualization and analysis. The proposed work would provide a set of tools to allow 4GL's to interoperate with CORBA.

  17. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  18. Fourth Order Algorithms for Solving Diverse Many-Body Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Forbert, Harald A.; Chen, Chia-Rong; Kidwell, Donald W.; Ciftja, Orion

    2001-03-01

    We show that the method of factorizing an evolution operator of the form e^ɛ(A+B) to fourth order with purely positive coefficient yields new classes of symplectic algorithms for solving classical dynamical problems, unitary algorithms for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, norm preserving algorithms for solving the Langevin equation and large time step convergent Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. Results for each class of problems will be presented and disucss

  19. 29. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING INTO THE FOURTH TAILRACE (COUNTING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING INTO THE FOURTH TAILRACE (COUNTING FROM THE DOWNSTREAM END TO THE UPSTREAM END SOUTHEAST TO NORTHWEST). NOTE THE DRIVE SHAFT, GEAR AND WATER LINE EXTENDING FROM THE STEEL BULKHEAD. THIS EQUIPMENT IS EXTANT FROM THE ERA OF PULP MILL OPERATIONS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  20. Fourth Generation Warfare and Its Impact on the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In 1989, the authors of an article entitled, "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation ," offered a glimpse of the future rooted in the...decline of the West in a world rife with cultural conflicts and the powerful influences of a form of cultural Marxism known as political correctness...were combining in America to create conditions for a new generation of warfare. Their vision included a form of warfare that bypassed the military

  1. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Fourth year report

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R.

    1994-05-01

    The scope of the report is to present the results of the fourth year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  2. MRI characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Bazelle, Julien; Caine, Abby; Palus, Viktor; Summers, Brian A; Cherubini, Giunio B

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial arachnoid diverticula (cysts) are rare accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the arachnoid membrane. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in a group of dogs. The hospital's medical records were searched for dogs with MRI studies of the brain and a diagnosis of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticulum. Clinical characteristics were recorded from medical records and MRI studies were reinterpreted by a board-certified veterinary radiologist. Five pediatric dogs fulfilled inclusion criteria. Clinical signs included cervical hyperaesthesia, obtundation, tetraparesis, and/or central vestibular syndrome. In all five dogs, MRI findings were consistent with obstructive hydrocephalus, based on dilation of all ventricles and compression of the cerebellum and brainstem. All five dogs also had cervical syringohydromyelia, with T2-weighted hyperintensity of the gray matter of the cord adjacent to the syringohydromyelia. A signal void, interpreted as flow disturbance, was observed at the mesencephalic aqueduct in all dogs. Four dogs underwent surgical treatment with occipitalectomy and durotomy. A cystic lesion emerging from the fourth ventricle was detected in all four dogs during surgery and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of arachnoid diverticula. Three dogs made excellent recovery but deteriorated shortly after surgery and were euthanized. Repeat MRI in two dogs revealed improved hydrocephalus but worsening of the syringohydromyelia. Findings from the current study supported theories that fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula are secondary to partial obstruction of the central canal or lateral apertures and that arachnoid diverticula are developmental lesions in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Various presentations of fourth branchial pouch sinus tract during surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wu-Hao; Feng, Long; Sang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Liang; Yuan, Lin-Lin; Gao, Ling; Lou, Wei-Hua

    2012-05-01

    A recurrent neck abscess or acute suppurative thyroiditis should arouse suspicion of fourth branchial pouch sinus. Complete surgical excision is usually curative. The classification of sinus tract according to the area where it is emerging from the larynx may be helpful in identifying the tract during surgery. To describe our experience of the diagnosis and management of fourth branchial pouch sinus and elucidate three different emerging pathways of the sinus tract during surgery. Retrospective case series with eight patients who were diagnosed with fourth branchial pouch sinus between January 2007 and July 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Six patients presented with recurrent neck abscess, two presented with acute suppurative thyroiditis. All patients had barium swallow and sinus tract was delineated in six cases. All eight patients underwent surgical excision of the sinus tract. Three different emerging pathways of the sinus tract were identified during surgery. The tract could penetrate the thyroid cartilage near the inferior horn, the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle or the cricothyroid membrane when it emerged from the larynx. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was commonly dissected to avoid inadvertent damage. Hemithyroidectomy was performed in six patients. All eight are currently asymptomatic.

  4. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    PubMed Central

    Coch, Donna

    2014-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented third graders, fourth graders, fifth graders, and college students with a well-controlled list of real words, pseudowords, letter strings, false font strings, and animal name targets. Words and pseudowords elicited similar N400s across groups. False font strings elicited N400s similar to words and letter strings in the three groups of children, but not in college students. The pattern of findings suggests relatively adult-like semantic and phonological processing by third grade, but a long developmental time course, beyond fifth grade, for orthographic processing in this context. Thus, the amplitude of the N400 elicited by various word-like stimuli does not reflect some sort of shift or discontinuity in word processing around the fourth grade. However, the results do suggest different developmental time courses for the processes that contribute to automatic single word reading and the integrative N400. PMID:25041502

  5. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  6. Higgs phenomenology in warped extra dimensions with a fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    We study a warped extra-dimension scenario where the standard model fields lie in the bulk, with the addition of a fourth family of fermions. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the Higgs couplings with fermions in the flavor anarchy ansatz. Even without a fourth family, these couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices. The presence of the fourth family typically enhances the misalignment effects and we show that one should expect them to be highly nonsymmetrical in the (34) intergenerational mixing. The radiative corrections from the new fermions and their flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs affect negligibly known experimental precision measurements such as the oblique parameters and Z{yields}bb or Z{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. On the other hand, {Delta}F=1, 2 processes, mediated by tree-level Higgs exchange, as well as radiative corrections to b{yields}s{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e{gamma} put some generic pressure on the allowed size of the flavor-violating couplings. But more importantly, these couplings will alter the Higgs decay patterns as well as those of the new fermions, and produce very interesting new signals associated to Higgs phenomenology in high energy colliders. These signals might become very important indirect signals for these type of models as they would be present even when the KK mass scale is high and no heavy KK particle is discovered.

  7. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  8. Third and fourth kidney transplant: still a reasonable option.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, L; Peri, L; Piqueras, M; Revuelta, I; Alvarez-Vijande, R; Musquera, M; Oppenheimer, F; Alcaraz, A

    2010-09-01

    At present, a second kidney transplant is considered an established therapeutic option for patients who have lost a previous graft. Second transplants show similar graft survival as first transplants. A debate exists about the benefit of submitting the patient to a third or fourth renal transplant, or to maintain dialysis. We sought to analyze graft and patient survivals as well as associated variables and surgical complications of third and fourth transplantations. From July 1985 to December 2008, we performed 74 third and 8 fourth transplantations among 2763 cases. We prospectively collected the variables of age, gender, graft origin, hyperimmunization, time on dialysis, location, bench surgery, acute rejection episodes, graft survival, and operative complications. Third and fourth trasplantations were performed in 49 men and 33 women, with an overall mean age of 40.26 years who were on dialysis for an average of 126.89 months before transplantation. Mean graft survivals of their first and second grafts were 35.6 and 50.1 months, respectively. Acute or chronic rejection was reason for renal failure in 71% and 75% of cases, respectively. Patient survivals at 1 and 5 years were 92.7% and 90.6%, for third and both 85.7% for the fourth transplantation. The third and fourth transplantations showed 1- and 5-year graft survivals of 88% and 76.4% and 71.4% and 42.9%, respectively. Sixty-eight cases underwent cadaveric donor and 14 living donor (mean age, 42.1 years) transplantations. Nine patients were hyperimmunized. In 60 cases, we used the left kidney. Orthotopic kidney transplantation was performed in 15 cases; heterotopic transplant to the right iliac fossa in 40 and in the left iliac fossa in 17 cases. Arterial bench surgery was necessary in 6 cases and venous in 3. We performed 3 hepatorenal and 1 cardiorenal transplantation. The complications included 29 cases (35.4%) of postoperative acute tubular necrosis, 14 of acute rejection episodes (17.1%); 12 of perirenal

  9. Fourth International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Book of Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    applications in ocean and atmosphere dynamics. LEITH, Cecil E (Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge, UK) Shallow water turbulence Shallow water dynamics is...Sanchez Hubert , E Sanchez Palencia and D Vassiliev, On spectral pollution in the finite element approximation of thin elastic "membrane" shells, Numer...STROUHAL number fL/U attached the upper vortices in the mold. Physical explainations are given. This is joint work with Cecile Guillaumin. FAUTRELLE, Yves

  10. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.; Burnham, C.

    1994-12-31

    The goals of the World Congress on Superconductivity (WCS) have been to establish and foster the development and commercial application of superconductivity technology on a global scale by providing a non-adversarial, non-advocacy forum where scientists, engineers, businessmen and government personnel can freely exchange information and ideas on recent developments and directions for the future of superconductive research. Sessions were held on: accelerator technology, power and energy, persistent magnetic fields, performance characterization, physical properties, fabrication methodology, superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES), thin films, high temperature materials, device applications, wire fabrication, and granular superconductors. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  11. LLNL participation in the fourth international interlaboratory comparison test (Round Robin 4)

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.; Eagle, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    Compounds selected for spiking the Round Robin 4 samples (soil and water) were examples of decomposition products associated with CW agents that might be found during the course of a CWC inspection. They also represented a range of precursor materials; they are polar and contain acidic or basic moieties or both. The included benzilic acid, 3-quinuclidinol, diisopropylamino ethanol, and methylphosphonic acid.

  12. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Sessions in this conference include: Mars polar geology and glaciology; Mars and terrestrial radar investigations; Observations, nature, and evolution of the Martian seasonal polar caps; Mars' residual south polar cap; Climate change, ice core analysis, and the redistribution of volatiles on Mars; errestrial Mars analog environments; The Phoenix Scout mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Moderated Discussion: Key Issues Regarding Phoenix Scout Mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Panel Discussion: Key Issues in Mars Polar Science and Exploration; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter investigations of the Martian polar regions and climate; Mars Polar Scout Mission concepts; and Panel Discussion: New perspectives on Mars polar science and exploration

  13. Fourth International Conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-12-01

    s of 123 papers under the following topics are presented: conversion of sunlight into electrical power and photoassisted electrolysis at semiconductor electrodes; photosensitized reactions on surfaces; the role of porphyrins and chlorophylls in artificial photosynthesis; oxidation reduction photochemistry in homogeneous solutions; photoelectron transfer in organized assemblies; photogalvanic cells and effects; elementary processes in catalytic reactions at the interrace between colloidal microelectrodes and solutions; and luminescent solar collectors and concentrators. Author and subject indexes are included.

  14. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Twenty-Fourth Isata International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-05

    Hirayama, Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving and Y Ishii, Oki Electric Industry, Japan " Mazda Car Communication...System" Mazda Car Corporation, FRG IMPROVING TRAFFIC FLOW "Strategies for Integrating Dynamic Route Guidance and Traffic Control Systems" MGH Bell...Stoelhorst, Rijkswaterstaat-DVK, The Netherlands "A Vehicular Traffic Analysis Capability for Intelligent 373 Vehicle/Highway Systems Engineering " J J

  15. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From Animals to Animats 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    Marjanovic, Brian Scassellati, and Matthew Williamson in small oscillations’, Journal of Biomechanics Nelson, W. L. (1983), ’Physical Principles for 15...of Neuro- models, scaling, and application to biomechan - science 13(2), 467-491. ics and motor control’, CRC Critical Reviews of Irie, R. (1995...forearm posture viscoelasticity’, Journal of Biomechanics 19, 231-238. Marjanovic, M. (1995), Learning Functional Maps Between Sensorimotor Systems on a

  16. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on parallel and distributed information systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Parallel and distributed database technology is at the heart of many mission-critical applications such as online transaction processing, data warehousing, business workflow management, interoperable information systems, and information brokering in global networks. The program of PDIS`96 conference reflects both the breadth of the relevant subjects and the rapid progress of this area. The 22 selected papers cover the full spectrum ranging from Web-related issues and data mining to core technologies such as indexing and transactions. In addition to these research papers, the conference also includes 8 industrial contributions on the latest commercial developments and future trends.

  17. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Sessions in this conference include: Mars polar geology and glaciology; Mars and terrestrial radar investigations; Observations, nature, and evolution of the Martian seasonal polar caps; Mars' residual south polar cap; Climate change, ice core analysis, and the redistribution of volatiles on Mars; errestrial Mars analog environments; The Phoenix Scout mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Moderated Discussion: Key Issues Regarding Phoenix Scout Mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Panel Discussion: Key Issues in Mars Polar Science and Exploration; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter investigations of the Martian polar regions and climate; Mars Polar Scout Mission concepts; and Panel Discussion: New perspectives on Mars polar science and exploration

  18. Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on fire economics, planning, and policy: climate change and wildfires

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    [Spanish version: Memorias del Cuarto Simposio Internacional Sobre Políticas, Planificación, y Economía de los Incendios Forestales: Cambio Climático e Incendios Forestales.]These proceedings summarize the results of a symposium designed to...

  19. Short papers of the Fourth International Conference, Geochronology, Cosmochronology, Isotope Geology, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Tritium content of both hot and cold waters in Yellowstone National Park was used to infer something of the ground-water system feeding hot springs and geysers. Curves in three figures show: (1) Tritium content of water leaving piston flow and well mixed ground-water systems in Yellowstone Park; (2) tritium in precipitation, mixed reservoirs, and cold waters of Yellowstone Park, and (3) tritium in mixed reservoirs and hot waters of Yellowstone Park. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Accelerated Program in Elementary-School Mathematics--The Fourth Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Ihrke, Constance

    1970-01-01

    Describes fourth year (1966-67) of a longitudinal study of 30 bright fourth graders. All but one student showed definite improvement for the combined performances of tests administered to measure progress. (EK)

  1. "Organizational Rhetoric" as the Fourth Great System: Theoretical, Critical and Pragmatic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crable, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    Explores four topics: (1) organizational rhetoric as a fourth great system of rhetoric; (2) the modeling of organizational rhetoric; (3) representational magic in organizational rhetoric; and (4) the research and pragmatic implications of the fourth system. (MG)

  2. Fourth WHO-coordinated survey of human milk for persistent organic pollutants (POPs): Belgian results.

    PubMed

    Colles, Ann; Koppen, Gudrun; Hanot, Vincent; Nelen, Vera; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Noël, Etienne; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Kypke, Karin; Biot, Pierre; Vinkx, Christine; Schoeters, Greet

    2008-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemicals that accumulate in the food chain and are toxic to humans and wildlife. The fourth World Health Organization (WHO) survey on POP levels in human milk (2006-2009) aims to provide baseline and trend information on human exposure to POPs. So far Belgium participated in all three previous rounds (1988, 1992, 2001). Whereas the first three rounds focused on determination of dioxins and PCBs in pooled (mixed) samples, the fourth survey comprised the analyses of individual milk samples for nine "basic POPs" (chlorinated pesticides and indicator PCBs) and of pooled milk samples for "basic POPs", "advanced POPs" (dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) and "optional POPs" (polybrominated diphenylethers [PBDEs], polybrominated dioxins and dibenzofurans [PBrDD/F], mixed halogenated dioxins and dibenzofurans [PXDD/F] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]). For the Belgian participation human milk samples were collected during the summer of 2006 from 197 women between 18 and 30 years old distributed over all Belgian provinces. The individual samples were analyzed in a Belgian Laboratory for "basic" POPs. A pooled sample was made from 178 individual samples and analyzed by the WHO Reference Laboratory for the "basic, advanced and optional" POPs. The results indicate that most organochlorinated pesticides banned 25-30 years ago were below or around detection limits in Belgian human milk samples although DDE was still found at low levels in all samples. Over the last five years the levels of marker PCBs and PCDD/Fs in Belgian human milk decreased, respectively, by 58% and 39%. For some of the other emerging or older compounds recent international data are needed to allow comparison. This shows the importance of international studies as run by WHO.

  3. 77 FR 16978 - Special Local Regulation; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Macy's Fourth of July... Fourth of July Fireworks Display. The temporary SLR is intended to restrict certain vessels from portions... fireworks. Discussion of Proposed Rule Macy's is sponsoring their annual Fourth of July Fireworks Display on...

  4. 76 FR 37646 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City of... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks, City of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of...

  5. 75 FR 34372 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River, Smithfield, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River... support of the Fourth of July Fireworks event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Zone: Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River, Smithfield, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The following...

  6. 77 FR 28769 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Antioch, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Antioch, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the City of Antioch Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the Port, San... 01'06'' N, 121 48'32'' W (NAD 83) for the City of Antioch Fourth of July Fireworks display in 33 CFR...

  7. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San... Guard will enforce the safety zone for the City of Sausalito's Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain... Sausalito's Fourth of July Fireworks Display in 33 CFR 165.1191. This safety zone will be in effect from 9 a...

  8. 76 FR 38570 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River, Smithfield, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River... support of the Fourth of July Fireworks event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River, Smithfield, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The following...

  9. 75 FR 38714 - Safety Zone; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Hudson River, New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... No. USCG-2010-0492] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Hudson River... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Hudson River for the Macy's Fourth of July... Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks is scheduled to occur on the waters of the Hudson River. This temporary...

  10. 78 FR 29094 - Safety Zone; Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks, Glorietta Bay; Coronado, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks... Coast Guard proposes a temporary safety zone for the Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks from 8:45 p.m. to... Coronado, CA in support of Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks display. This action is necessary to provide...

  11. 78 FR 39997 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Tahoe City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Tahoe City, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Tahoe City, CA in the Captain of the Port, San...,000 feet in approximate position 39 10'09'' N, 120 08'16'' W (NAD 83) for the Fourth of July Fireworks...

  12. 75 FR 35650 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, Sausalito, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, Sausalito... will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, safety zone from 11 a.m. through 9:30 p.m... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks...

  13. 77 FR 35848 - Safety Zone, Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River, Smithfield, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River... support of the Fourth of July Fireworks event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement.... 0 2. Add Sec. 165.T05-0377, to read as follows: Sec. 165.T05-0377 Safety Zone, Fourth of July...

  14. 75 FR 38408 - Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July... Rule MACY's is sponsoring their 34th Annual Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks on the waters of the Hudson... July Fourth Fireworks Spectator Vessel Viewing Area, Hudson River, New York, NY. (a) Regulated Area...

  15. 77 FR 39413 - Safety Zone: Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks... Crescent City, CA in support of the Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event on July 4, 2012. This...'' N, 124 11'59'' W (NAD 83) for the Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event. At the conclusion of...

  16. 78 FR 29022 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the...'19'' W (NAD 83) for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display listed in 33 CFR 165.1191...

  17. 77 FR 28770 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Eureka, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Eureka, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the City of Eureka Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... 40 48'29'' N, 124 10'06'' W (NAD 83) for the City of Eureka Fourth of July Fireworks in 33 CFR 165...

  18. 75 FR 35652 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, Vallejo, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, Vallejo, CA... enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, safety zone from 9 a.m. through 10 p.m. on July 4... will enforce the safety zone for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, safety zone in...

  19. 78 FR 39597 - Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River... Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain of the... approximate position 38 03'19'' N, 121 31'54'' W (NAD83) for the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in 33 CFR 165...

  20. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July..., California in support of a fourth of July fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is established to... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display...

  1. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the... Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in 33 CFR 165.1191. This safety zone will be in effect from 9:30...

  2. 78 FR 23849 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks; City of Antioch, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks; City of Antioch, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the City of Antioch Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the Port, San... feet near position 38 01'06'' N, 121 48'32'' W (NAD 83) for the City of Antioch Fourth of July...

  3. 76 FR 37009 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach Fourth of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach Fourth of July Fireworks... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of South Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach Fourth of July... temporary Sec. 165.T11-423 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-423 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach Fourth of July...

  4. 78 FR 38200 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Glenbrook NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Glenbrook NV AGENCY... safety zone for the Fourth of July Fireworks Display in Glenbrook, NV during the date and time noted... within a radius 1,000 feet at position 39 05'18'' N, 119 56'34'' W (NAD 83) for the Fourth of July...

  5. Reproducibility of the School-Based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire among Fourth-Grade Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penkilo, Monica; George, Goldy Chacko; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess reproducibility of a School-Based Nutrition Monitoring (SBNM) questionnaire for fourth-grade students. Design: Test-retest. Setting: Fourth-grade elementary school classrooms. Participants: Multiethnic fourth-grade students from 2 area school districts (N = 322). Main Outcome Measures: Reproducibility coefficients with time…

  6. Fourth ventricular entrapment caused by rostrocaudal herniation following shunt malfunction.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, C T; Winfield, J A

    1993-01-01

    The subacute development of isolated fourth ventricle (IFV) is a recognized complication following shunting of the lateral ventricles for congenital and acquired hydrocephalus. We present an unusual case of acute IFV in a clinical setting which has not previously been described. Subsequent to rostrocaudal herniation caused by an obstructed frontally placed ventricular catheter, IFV developed in our patient 24 h following shunt revision, necessitating placement of an additional fourth ventricle shunt system. No signs of intraventricular hemorrhage or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection were detected at the time of shunt revision and there was no documentation of similar events in the perinatal history. Dependent upon the actual underlying etiology of this child's hydrocephalus, we hypothesize that two mechanisms may have accounted for this unusual and precipitous development of IFV. Following rostrocaudal herniation and caudal shift of the brainstem, progressive edema in the pons developed. If communicating hydrocephalus was the primary etiology, then midbrain edema occluded the aqueduct of Sylvius, preventing retrograde flow of CSF to the shunt. A distinctly different mechanism for acute IFV must be invoked if aqueductal stenosis was the preexisting cause for congenital hydrocephalus. Following herniation, brainstem displacement and edema resulted in obliteration of the lateral pontine and ambient cisterns, preventing the normal rostral migration of CSF around and over the mesencephalon. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation with impaction of the tonsils into the foramen magnum may have also contributed to obstruction of fourth ventricular outflow in both settings. This unusual case of acute onset IFV is presented in detail. The underlying etiologies and clinical settings in which IFV may develop is reviewed as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Staggered chiral perturbation theory and the fourth-root trick

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.

    2006-06-01

    Staggered chiral perturbation theory (S{chi}PT) takes into account the 'fourth-root trick' for reducing unwanted (taste) degrees of freedom with staggered quarks by multiplying the contribution of each sea quark loop by a factor of 1/4. In the special case of four staggered fields (four flavors, n{sub F}=4), I show here that certain assumptions about analyticity and phase structure imply the validity of this procedure for representing the rooting trick in the chiral sector. I start from the observation that, when the four flavors are degenerate, the fourth root simply reduces n{sub F}=4 to n{sub F}=1. One can then treat nondegenerate quark masses by expanding around the degenerate limit. With additional assumptions on decoupling, the result can be extended to the more interesting cases of n{sub F}=3, 2, or 1. An apparent paradox associated with the one-flavor case is resolved. Coupled with some expected features of unrooted staggered quarks in the continuum limit, in particular, the restoration of taste symmetry, S{chi}PT then implies that the fourth-root trick induces no problems (for example, a violation of unitarity that persists in the continuum limit) in the lowest energy sector of staggered lattice QCD. It also says that the theory with staggered valence quarks and rooted staggered sea quarks behaves like a simple, partially-quenched theory, not like a mixed theory in which sea and valence quarks have different lattice actions. In most cases, the assumptions made in this paper are not only sufficient but also necessary for the validity of S{chi}PT, so that a variety of possible new routes for testing this validity are opened.

  8. Anorexia: an early sign of fourth ventricle astrocytoma in children.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Henri-Arthur; Baroncini, Marc; Delestret, Isabelle; Florent, Vincent; Vinchon, Matthieu

    2014-12-01

    Paediatric low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle are rare tumours, generally revealed by hydrocephalus. However, some patients present with a history of severe anorexia. It might be a harbinger, which if recognized, could lead to earlier diagnosis. We decided to examine our database in order to evaluate the incidence and signification of anorexia in this context. Retrospective monocentric study of cases of low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle operated between 1991 and 2012 in our paediatric neurosurgery department. We particularly observed the clinical presentation and long-term clinical, oncological and radiological evolution. Non-parametrical tests were used (Mann-Whitney, Fisher). We reviewed 34 cases, 31 pilocytic astrocytomas and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, 16 boys and 18 girls, (M/F ratio 0.89). Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years old. Seven presented with notable anorexia, the average BMI in this group was ≤2 standard deviation (SD); with clinical signs evolving for 11.5 months. Twenty-seven children had no anorexia; average BMI in this group was +1 SD, with clinical evolution for 6 months on an average of p < 0.05. We found no significant difference regarding hydrocephalus or tumour location. In all children with anorexia, body mass index improved markedly in the postoperative follow-up, which lasted, on average, for 6 years. Anorexia with stunted body weight curve is a non-exceptional presentation in children with low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle. Unexplained or atypical anorexia with negative etiologic assessment should prompt cerebral imaging. Clinical improvement after surgical resection, could suggest a possible interaction between tumour tissue and appetite-suppressing peptide secretion.

  9. Adventuring with International Literature: One Teacher's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carl M.; Lynch-Brown, Carol

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of international children's literature in a third and fourth grade class. Summarizes (based on teacher journal entries) the class's five-week experience with African Cecil Bodker's "The Leopard," describing four phases of study: orientation, exposition, integration, and completion. Suggests several works of contemporary…

  10. TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka

    2012-01-01

    The "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics" summarizes fourth and eighth grade student achievement in each of the 63 countries and 14 benchmarking entities which participated in TIMSS 2011. The report includes trends in mathematics achievement over time for participants in the previous TIMSS 1995, 1999, 2003, and 2007…

  11. Fourth United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Compiler); Curreri, Peter A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4). The USMP-4 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about eight major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  12. The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held from August 17-21, 1992, at NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.

  13. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  14. Al Qaeda and Fourth Generation Warfare as its Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    thatthose who use Fourth Generation Warfare will not fight just a conventional military battIe , but will use the political, economic, and social...34OmCEOFM.UfAGEMENT’NID BtJDO£T, PAPERWORK:REl)UCllONPROJEC’T(0104-01S8) WASHINGTON,DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (LEAVE BLANK) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE...as a terrorist organization, based upon the early tactics it used , primarily bombings against U.S. interests overseas. However, since the U.S. led

  15. Fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yacheng; Xu, Runzhang

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we study the initial boundary value problem for fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms. First we introduce a family of potential wells and prove the invariance of some sets and vacuum isolating of solutions. Then we obtain a threshold result of global existence and nonexistence. Finally we discuss the global existence of solutions for the problem with critical initial condition I(u0)[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, E(0)=d. So the Esquivel-Avila's results are generalized and improved.

  16. Symmetries, Large Leptonic Mixing and a Fourth Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I.

    2002-12-01

    We show that large leptonic mixing occurs most naturally in the framework of the Sandard Model just by adding a fourth generation. One can then construct a small Z4 discrete symmetry, instead of the large S4L × S4R, which requires that the neutrino as well as the charged lepton mass matrices be proportional to a 4 × 4 democratic mass matrix, where all entries are equal to unity. Without considering the see-saw mechanism, or other more elaborate extensions of the SM, and contrary to the case with only 3 generations, large leptonic mixing is obtained when the symmetry is broken.

  17. Nanoethics, Science Communication, and a Fourth Model for Public Engagement.

    PubMed

    Miah, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a fourth model of public engagement with science, grounded in the principle of nurturing scientific agency through participatory bioethics. It argues that social media is an effective device through which to enable such engagement, as it has the capacity to empower users and transforms audiences into co-producers of knowledge, rather than consumers of content. Social media also fosters greater engagement with the political and legal implications of science, thus promoting the value of scientific citizenship. This argument is explored by considering the case of nanoscience and nanotechnology, as an exemplar for how emerging technologies may be handled by the scientific community and science policymakers.

  18. Ghost-free, finite, fourth-order D = 3 gravity.

    PubMed

    Deser, S

    2009-09-04

    Canonical analysis of a recently proposed linear + quadratic curvature gravity model in D = 3 establishes its pure, irreducibly fourth derivative, quadratic curvature limit as both ghost-free and power-counting UV finite, thereby maximally violating standard folklore. This limit is representative of a generic class whose kinetic terms are conformally invariant in any dimension, but it is unique in simultaneously avoiding the transverse-traceless graviton ghosts plaguing D > 3 quadratic actions as well as double pole propagators in its other variables. While the two-term model is also unitary, its additional mode's second-derivative nature forfeits finiteness.

  19. Constraints on Majorana dark matter from a fourth lepton family

    SciTech Connect

    Hapola, Tuomas; Järvinen, Matti; Kouvaris, Chris; Panci, Paolo; Virkajärvi, Jussi E-mail: mjarvine@physics.uoc.gr E-mail: panci@cp3-origins.net

    2014-02-01

    We study the possibility of dark matter in the form of heavy neutrinos from a fourth lepton family with helicity suppressed couplings such that dark matter is produced thermally via annihilations in the early Universe. We present all possible constraints for this scenario coming from LHC and collider physics, underground direct detectors, neutrino telescopes, and indirect astrophysical searches. Although we embed the WIMP candidate within a model of composite dynamics, the majority of our results are model independent and applicable to all models where heavy neutrinos with suppressed couplings account for the dark matter abundance.

  20. Fourth United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C. (Compiler); Curreri, P. A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4). The USMP-4 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about eight major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  1. Hybrid fourth generation: Technicolor with top-seesaw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, Hidenori S.; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2012-05-01

    We consider a model combining technicolor with the top-quark condensation. As a concrete model for technicolor, we use the minimal walking technicolor, and this will result in the appearance of a novel fourth generation whose leptons constitute a usual weak doublet while the QCD quarks are vectorlike singlets under the weak interactions. We carry out an analysis of the mass spectra and precision measurement constraints, and find the model viable. We contrast the model with present LHC data and discuss the future prospects.

  2. Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Stephen L. (Compiler); Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Proceedings of a conference held in Huntsville, Alabama, on November 15-16, 1988. The Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings together diverse technical and scientific work in order to help those who employ AI methods in space applications to identify common goals and to address issues of general interest in the AI community. Topics include the following: space applications of expert systems in fault diagnostics, in telemetry monitoring and data collection, in design and systems integration; and in planning and scheduling; knowledge representation, capture, verification, and management; robotics and vision; adaptive learning; and automatic programming.

  3. Community medicine in action: an integrated, fourth-year urban continuity preceptorship.

    PubMed

    Brill, John R; Jackson, Thomas C; Stearns, Marjorie A

    2002-07-01

    To provide an opportunity for fourth-year students at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in Madison to immerse in urban community medicine during a 34-week program. This experience enhances the integrity of the fourth year as well as merges medicine and public health perspectives in medical education as called for by the Medicine and Public Health Initiative. A limited number of fourth-year Wisconsin medical students have the opportunity to select a one-year, continuity-based preceptorship at the Milwaukee clinical campus with a focus in one of three domains: family medicine, internal medicine, or women's health. Students participate in the following clinical activities: a one-year, integrated preceptorship (one to three half days per week in a primary preceptor's office), medicine subinternship, senior surgery clerkship, selectives (16-20 weeks of clerkships relevant to preceptorship focus area), and one month of out-of-city electives. Complementing this community-based clinical experience is the opportunity to develop an increased appreciation for urban community health issues and resources by participating in a required urban community medicine clerkship and a mentored student scholarly project focusing on an aspect of urban community medicine and population health. All students begin the year in July with a four-week urban community medicine clerkship, which is based on the St. Luke's family practice residency's community medicine rotation and arranged by residency faculty. They conduct a "windshield survey" of a Milwaukee neighborhood, observing health hazards and identifying assets, and then present these observations to others in the clerkship. During this first month, students are introduced to the work of a variety of social service agencies, the Milwaukee City Health Department, and the Aurora Health Care/UW community clinics, which serve the state's most diverse zip codes. They meet with providers and researchers who share their expertise in

  4. DNA profiles, computer searches, and the Fourth Amendment.

    PubMed

    Kimel, Catherine W

    2013-01-01

    Pursuant to federal statutes and to laws in all fifty states, the United States government has assembled a database containing the DNA profiles of over eleven million citizens. Without judicial authorization, the government searches each of these profiles one-hundred thousand times every day, seeking to link database subjects to crimes they are not suspected of committing. Yet, courts and scholars that have addressed DNA databasing have focused their attention almost exclusively on the constitutionality of the government's seizure of the biological samples from which the profiles are generated. This Note fills a gap in the scholarship by examining the Fourth Amendment problems that arise when the government searches its vast DNA database. This Note argues that each attempt to match two DNA profiles constitutes a Fourth Amendment search because each attempted match infringes upon database subjects' expectations of privacy in their biological relationships and physical movements. The Note further argues that database searches are unreasonable as they are currently conducted, and it suggests an adaptation of computer-search procedures to remedy the constitutional deficiency.

  5. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A fourth program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor); Wofsy, Steven C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Grose, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the fourth report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent AESA interim assessment report and a review of that report have shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA has been designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This fourth report comes after the interim assessment and sets forth directions for the 1995 assessment at the end of AESA Phase 1. It also sets forth the goals and directions for AESA Phase 2, as reported at the 1994 Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) annual meeting held in June. The focus of the Phase 2 effort is to obtain the best possible closure on the outstanding problems identified in the interim assessment and NASA/NRC review. Topics discussed in this report include how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements.

  6. Hydrologic reconnaissance near Fourth of July Creek, Seward, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gordon L.

    1981-01-01

    The 1.3-square-mile alluvial fan of Fourth of July Creek, Seward , Alaska, is being developed as an industrial area and port. Fourth of July Creek is a glacier-fed stream that occupies a braided channel near the middle of the fan. The presence of glacial flow during the summer and low discharge during the winter make streamflow a poor source of water for municipal and industrial use. Water infiltrates the fan from streams and precipitation and recharges an unconfined alluvial aquifer. Average recharge is 40-50 cubic feet per second, and ground water flows toward the coast where it discharges in springs and a 0.3-mile gaining reach of the creek. Properties and concentrations of all measured chemical constituents of water samples from two wells were less than the maximum amounts recommended for drinking water. Both the aquifer and the overlying unsaturated materials are coarse grained. The coarse-grained materials are poor filters and make the aquifer susceptible to pollution by contaminants disposed of or spilled on the alluvial fan. Avalanches may block the creek and cause flooding by directing streamflow into new or abandoned channels. (USGS)

  7. Welcome to pandoraviruses at the ‘Fourth TRUC’ club

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a fourth monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9–2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the ‘Fourth TRUC’ club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms. PMID:26042093

  8. Fourth branchial cleft anomaly: management strategy in acute presentation.

    PubMed

    Carta, Filippo; Sionis, Sara; Mascia, Luigi; Puxeddu, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Branchial malformations are common congenital head and neck lesions usually diagnosed in childhood during the first decade of life. Acute presentation is usually managed with conservative protocols before a definitive surgical procedure although the risk of life-treating septic complications may influence the physician's decision. Surgery is the treatment of choice with the removal of the lesion alone, nevertheless more aggressive approaches must be considered in complicated cases. Selective neck dissection including the removal of part of the thyroid lobe with the congenital lesion should be considered as the "ultima ratio" treatment to avoid recurrence. We reviewed literature and report our experience concerning two patients with fourth branchial cleft sinus. A three-year-old child with a clinical history of recurrent neck abscess was referred to our department after several drainages performed in another centre. A three-year-old child referred to our department for a left side lower primary neck abscess. In both cases the diagnosis of a complicated fourth cleft remnant was confirmed by rigid endoscopic visualization of the mucosal orifice of the sinus in the pyriform fossa. Surgical management during acute presentation was challenging; in one patient the early fasciitis required an emergency procedure to remove the infected sinus that were strictly adherent to the deep vascular-nervous axis. Surgery was the definitive treatment in both cases and at 12 and 25 months follow-up respectively no recurrences were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  10. Pseudospectral collocation methods for fourth order differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Alaeddin; Phillips, Timothy N.

    1994-01-01

    Collocation schemes are presented for solving linear fourth order differential equations in one and two dimensions. The variational formulation of the model fourth order problem is discretized by approximating the integrals by a Gaussian quadrature rule generalized to include the values of the derivative of the integrand at the boundary points. Collocation schemes are derived which are equivalent to this discrete variational problem. An efficient preconditioner based on a low-order finite difference approximation to the same differential operator is presented. The corresponding multidomain problem is also considered and interface conditions are derived. Pseudospectral approximations which are C1 continuous at the interfaces are used in each subdomain to approximate the solution. The approximations are also shown to be C3 continuous at the interfaces asymptotically. A complete analysis of the collocation scheme for the multidomain problem is provided. The extension of the method to the biharmonic equation in two dimensions is discussed and results are presented for a problem defined in a nonrectangular domain.

  11. Welcome to pandoraviruses at the 'Fourth TRUC' club.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a fourth monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9-2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the 'Fourth TRUC' club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms.

  12. Several fourth-order force gradient symplectic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wu, Xin

    2010-02-01

    By adding force gradient operators to symmetric compositions, we build a set of explicit fourth-order force gradient symplectic algorithms, including those of Chin and coworkers, for a separable Hamiltonian system with quadratic kinetic energy T and potential energy V. They are extended to solve a gravitational n-body Hamiltonian system that can be split into a Keplerian part H0 and a perturbation part H1 in Jacobi coordinates. It is found that the accuracy of each gradient scheme is greatly superior to that of the standard fourth-order Forest-Ruth symplectic integrator in T + V-type Hamiltonian decomposition, but they are both almost equivalent in the mean longitude and the relative position for H0 + H1-type decomposition. At the same time, there are no typical differences between the numerical performances of these gradient algorithms, either in the splitting of T + V or in the splitting of H0 + H1. In particular, compared with the former decomposition, the latter can dramatically improve the numerical accuracy. Because this extension provides a fast and high-precision method to simulate various orbital motions of n-body problems, it is worth recommending for practical computation.

  13. PREFACE: Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.

    2006-04-01

    The formulation of a quantum theory of gravity seems to be the unavoidable endpoint of modern theoretical physics. Yet the quantum description of the gravitational field remains elusive. The year 2005 marks the tenth anniversary of the First Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity, held in Dubna (Russia) due to the efforts of Alexandre T. Filippov (JINR, Dubna) and Vittorio de Alfaro (University of Torino, Italy). At the heart of this initiative was the desire for an international forum where the status and perspectives of research in quantum gravity could be discussed from the broader viewpoint of modern gauge field theories. Since the Dubna meeting, an increasing number of scientists has joined this quest. Progress was reported in two other conferences in this series: in Santa Margherita Ligure (Italy) in 1996 and in Villasimius (Sardinia, Italy) in 1999. After a few years of ``working silence'' the time was now mature for a new gathering. The Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity (QG05) was held in Cala Gonone (Sardinia, Italy) from Monday 12th to Friday 16th September 2005. Surrounded by beautiful scenery, 100 scientists from 23 countries working in field theory, general relativity and related areas discussed the latest developments in the quantum treatment of gravitational systems. The QG05 edition covered many of the issues that had been addressed in the previous meetings and new interesting developments in the field, such as brane world models, large extra dimensions, analogue models of gravity, non-commutative techniques etc. The format of the meeting was similar to the previous ones. The programme consisted of invited plenary talks and parallel sessions on cosmology, quantum gravity, strings and phenomenology, gauge theories and quantisation and black holes. A major goal was to bring together senior scientists and younger people at the beginning of their scientific career. We were able to give financial support to both

  14. World Class: USBBY's Outstanding International Books for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Some of the world's best children's book artists got together to help Amnesty International celebrate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights' 60th anniversary in "We Are All Born Free," one of the 42 titles recommended by the fourth annual United States Board on Books for Young People's (USBBY) Outstanding International Books…

  15. Case Study: International High School at Langley Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassl, Frishtah; Wilkin, Christine; Ward, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    The International High School at Langley Park (IHSLP) opened during the 2015-2016 school year. By the fourth year of operation, the school will be home to 400 English language learners (ELLs) new to the United States. Working in partnership with the Internationals Network for Public Schools, the school is designed around the "HELLO…

  16. World Class: USBBY's Outstanding International Books for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Some of the world's best children's book artists got together to help Amnesty International celebrate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights' 60th anniversary in "We Are All Born Free," one of the 42 titles recommended by the fourth annual United States Board on Books for Young People's (USBBY) Outstanding International Books…

  17. Canada First: The 2009 Survey of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Jennifer, Ed.; Knight-Grofe, Janine, Ed.; Klabunde, Niels, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) regularly evaluates the experience of international students in Canada through a benchmarking survey. Canada First 2009 represents the fourth time CBIE has conducted this research. Previous editions appeared in 1988, 1999 and 2004. This year's survey used a revised questionnaire similar to…

  18. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  19. Upper limit for fourth harmonic of cosmic ray solar daily variation: 1963-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Fikani, M. M.

    2017-04-01

    In 1970s we analyzed the neutron monitor (NM) and muon telescope (MT) data from the global network for 1966-1970 to determine the amplitude and phase of the significant harmonics constituting the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) daily anisotropy in solar time. The median rigidity of response (Rm) of detectors to GCR spectrum covered a wide range (16-134 GV). The results were reported at the international cosmic ray conferences (ICRCs) held at Denver [1973], Munich [1975] and Paris [1981]. It was inferred that GCR solar daily anisotropy consists of only three harmonics, namely the diurnal (1 cpd, first harmonic), the semidiurnal (2 cpd, second harmonic) and the tridiurnal (3 cpd, third harmonic), with power spectral densities in the ratio 800:20:1 for the Deep River NM data (Rm = 16 GV) for 1962-1971. The fourth harmonic (4 cpd) was absent in these analyses. Since then the volume of data from the global network of NMs and MTs has increased significantly; particularly the multidirectional MT network, with larger Rm values. This motivates us to ascertain whether 4 cpd peak is absent in the cosmic ray solar daily variation data at the global sites, over a longer time period (1963-2015). Our informed conjecture is that 4 cpd peak is insignificant at 2σ-level of experimental error for a range of Rm values (11-60 GV). The discovery of a physically significant fourth harmonic would challenge the theorists to come up with a model for GCR transport in the heliosphere revealing hitherto unknown feature(s) of solar modulation.

  20. Fourth World Conference on Women. Seeking action for equality, development, peace.

    PubMed

    Seufert-barr, N

    1995-06-01

    There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing.

  1. Fourth generation effect on {Lambda}{sub b} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, R.; Giri, A. K.

    2010-11-01

    The rare decays of the {Lambda}{sub b} baryon governed by the quark level transitions b{yields}s are investigated in the fourth quark generation model popularly known as SM4. Recently it has been shown that SM4, which is a very simple extension of the standard model, can successfully explain several anomalies observed in the CP violation parameters of B and B{sub s} mesons. We find that in this model due to the additional contributions coming from the heavy t{sup '} quark in the loop, the branching ratios and other observables in rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays deviate significantly from their standard model values. Some of these modes are within the reach of the LHCb experiment and search for such channels is strongly argued.

  2. Enhanced distribution of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in prostatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Perletti, G; Wagenlehner, F M E; Naber, K G; Magri, V

    2009-03-01

    A recently published pharmacokinetic trial showed that the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin administered to healthy volunteers at the single oral dose of 400mg accumulates in prostatic secretions (PS) up to a median concentration of 3.99 mg/L and reaches a PS/plasma concentration ratio of 1.57, far higher than values shown by other fluoroquinolones such as norfloxacin (ratio 0.1) or ciprofloxacin (ratio 0.2). Ion trapping mechanisms were hypothesised to be among the determinants of this effect. However, whether ion trapping would solely account for the observed differences in fluoroquinolone pharmacokinetics was left to further research and discussion. In this hypothesis paper, we review various published evidence on the tissue distribution of moxifloxacin and other quinolones, suggesting that increased lipophilicity, binding to cellular matrices and fast cellular uptake/release kinetics may be mechanisms compatible with enhanced prostatic accumulation and secretion of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones.

  3. The Fourth BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Koshut, Thomas M.; Lestrade, John Patrick; McCollough, Michael L.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Hakkila, Jon

    1999-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has triggered on 1637 cosmic gamma-ray bursts between 1991 April 19 and 1996 August 29. These events constitute the Fourth BATSE burst catalog. The current version (4Br) has been revised from the version first circulated on CD-ROM in 1997 September (4B) to include improved locations for a subset of bursts that have been reprocessed using additional data. A significant difference from previous BATSE catalogs is the inclusion of bursts from periods when the trigger energy range differed from the nominal 50-300 keV. We present tables of the burst occurrence times, locations, peak fluxes, fluences, and durations. In general, results from previous BATSE catalogs are confirmed here with greater statistical significance.

  4. The Fourth BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas W. S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Koshut, Thomas M.; Lastrade, J. P.; McCollough, M. L.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Hakkila, Jon; hide

    1998-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has triggered on 1637 cosmic gamma-ray bursts between 1991 April 19 and 1996 August 29. These events constitute the Fourth BATSE burst catalog. The current version (4Br) has been revised from the version first circulated on CD-ROM in September 1997 (4B) to include improved locations for a subset of bursts that have been reprocessed using additional data. A significant difference from previous BATSE catalogs is the inclusion of bursts from periods when the trigger energy range differed from the nominal 50-300 keV. We present tables of the burst occurrence times, locations, peak fluxes, fluences, and durations. In general, results from previous BATSE catalogs are confirmed here with greater statistical significance.

  5. Bifid ribs observed in the third and the fourth ribs.

    PubMed

    Osawa, T; Sasaki, T; Matsumoto, Y; Tsukamoto, A; Onodera, M; Nara, E; Chen, J K; Fujimura, A; Nozaka, Y

    1998-12-01

    Three cases of bifid ribs were found in two cadavers during routine dissections at the Iwate Medical University School of Dentistry. All of the cases were found in the third or the fourth rib. The distal parts of the osseous rib bifurcated with an angle of 60 degrees and both of the branches had their own costal cartilage. The costal cartilage fused again to form the trunk which was connected to the sternum. The space between the two branches was filled with presumably normal intercostal muscles. Blood supply was maintained by a small branch from the interthoracic artery to the upper branches. However, the intercostal nerves did not branch toward the upper branch but only ran along the lower margins of the lower branches of the bifid ribs.

  6. Micronutrient dietary supplements--a new fourth approach.

    PubMed

    Latham, M C; Ash, D; Ndossi, G; Mehansho, H; Tatala, S

    2001-03-01

    Currently the three main widely used strategies to control micronutrient deficiencies are food diversification, fortification, and consumption of medicinal supplements. In Tanzania a fourth strategy has been evaluated in school children, and is to be studied in pregnant and lactating women. The dietary supplement comes in the form of a powder used to prepare a fruit flavored drink. Children consumed for six months 25 grams per school day attended, the powder being added to 200 ml of water. The dietary supplement provides between 40 and 100 percent of the RDA of 10 micronutrients, which includes iron, vitamin A and iodine. Unlike medicinal supplements it provides the multiple vitamins and minerals in physiologic, not megadoses. In a well conducted randomized double blind placebo controlled trial, a dietary supplement in the form of a fortified powder fruit drink produced statistically significant differences not only in vitamin A and iron status, but also in the growth of young school age children.

  7. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  8. [Postdonation information: the French fourth hemovigilance sub-process].

    PubMed

    Py, J-Y; Sandid, I; Jbilou, S; Dupuis, M; Adda, R; Narbey, D; Djoudi, R

    2014-11-01

    Postdonation information is the knowledge of information about the donor or his donation, occurring after it, which challenges quality or safety of the blood products stemming from this or other donations. Classical hemovigilance sub-processes concerning donors or recipients adverse events do not cover this topic. France is just about to make it official as a fourth sub-process. Less formal management of postdonation information is already set up for more than ten years. French data of the year 2013 are presented, including the regional notification level and the national reporting one. A significant level of heterogeneity is observed as for other hemovigilance sub-processes. It is mainly due to subjective rather than objective differences in risk appreciation. A real consensual work is expected about it in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNLs mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  10. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  11. THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT (RAVE): FOURTH DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Carrillo, I.; Boeche, C.; Roeser, S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; De Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Anguiano, B.; and others

    2013-11-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron, and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline that is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration Web site and the Vizier database.

  12. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE): Fourth Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Roeser, S.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Carrillo, I.; Anguiano, B.; Burton, D.; Campbell, R.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Ritter, A.; Russell, K. S.; Stupar, M.; Watson, F. G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Conrad, C.; Famaey, B.; Faure, C.; Just, A.; Kos, J.; Matijevič, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Minchev, I.; Scholz, R.; Sharma, S.; Siviero, A.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Žerjal, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron, and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline that is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration Web site and the Vizier database.

  13. Second-to-fourth Digit Ratio in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Doe, Kentaro; Nozawa, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Takuya; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Eri; Hiruma, Kaori; Ando, Seiichiro; Nakano, Soichiro; Kon, Takayuki; Amano, Hirofumi; Yamaji, Ken; Tamura, Naoto; Takasaki, Yoshinari

    2015-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurs predominantly in women, and sex hormones play an important role in SLE. Variation in the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D4D ratio) is attributed to sex hormone exposure. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between sex hormones and SLE by measuring 2D4D ratios. We measured 2D4D ratios in 100 patients with SLE and 200 normal healthy controls (NHC). Patients with SLE had a lower 2D4D ratio than NHC. Our study suggests that patients with SLE have experienced high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the association between 2D4D ratio and SLE.

  14. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  15. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Ault, Kellie

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel. This work was supported by a Grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  16. Fourth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains copies of all those technical papers received in time for publication just prior to the Fourth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage and Technologies, held March 28-30, 1995, at the University of Maryland, University College Conference Center, in College Park, Maryland. This series of conferences continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include new storage technology, stability of recorded media, performance studies, storage system solutions, the National Information infrastructure (Infobahn), the future for storage technology, and lessons learned from various projects. There also will be an update on the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5, on which the final vote was taken in July 1994.

  17. [Betel - the fourth most popular substance in the world].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Kosowski, Wojciech; Królikowska, Natalia; Stebnicki, Marek; Stebnicki, Michał R

    2015-09-01

    Betel is a kind of substance for chewing, that is made from piper betle, areca nuts and other, additional constituents. It is the fourth most popular psychoactive substance in the world, right after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. It is particularly famous in Asia. Betel chewing induces euphoria and it is addictive. Similarly like in other substances such as nicotine or alcohol, betel also has detrimental effects. It causes e.g. oral cancer and cancer of the oesophagus, it contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease. There are also positive effects of chewing betel, because is has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antyparasitic and antiseptic properties. The aim of this paper was to expand knowledge about betel and its both: positive and negative influence on human health. In this article original and review papers associated with the topic were used.

  18. Pipe line rules of thumb handbook. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, E.W.

    1998-12-01

    This revised fourth edition contains an updated collection of straightforward, common-sense techniques that provide quick solutions to pipeline problems. This book is the foundation of the pipeline library with its hundreds of shortcuts, calculations, and practical how-to methods. Whether concerned with design, construction, or engineering for oil, gas, or products pipelines, one will find fast answers here. This easy-to-read book provides new conversion tables and valuable new information on basic mathematical formulas (areas, surfaces, and volumes), stress in guy wires, land descriptions, polypipe design data, floodlighting concepts, marine hose data, rotary screw pumps, and much more. One will learn how to estimate leakage and determine batch injection rates. The chapters on electrical design, liquids, and economics have been significantly expanded.

  19. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Ault, Kellie L.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remains the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions at or near the wormhole throat. Some exotic matter might still be needed at the junction between our solutions and flat spacetime, but we demonstrate that the averaged null energy condition (as evaluated along radial null geodesics) is satisfied for a particular set of wormhole geometries. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  20. Oscillation properties of some functional fourth order hyperbolic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Z.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we apply our recent results for fourth order functional ordinary differential equations and inequalities and obtain sufficient conditions for oscillation of all sufficiently smooth solutions of the following equation ∑ i+j = 2;4ai,j∂i+ju(x,y)/∂xi∂yj+ ∑ i = 1nbi(x,y)u(x-σi,y-τi)+c(x,y,u) = f(x,y), where x>0,y>0,ai,j∈R,σi≥0 and τi ≥ 0 are constants for all the indices. Also, we suppose that n∈N,bi(x,y)∈C(R+2;R+), ∀i = 1-n;c(x,y,u)∈C(R+2,R;R) and f(x,y)∈C(R+2;R). In particular, we establish sufficient conditions for the distribution of zeros this equation.

  1. Low second to fourth digit ratio in Dupuytren disease

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Kazuki, Kenichi; Onode, Ema; Shintani, Kosuke; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been described as reflecting endogenous prenatal androgen exposure. In general, 2D:4D is lower in men than in women and has potential as a biomarker or predictor for various diseases, athletic ability, and academic performance. Dupuytren disease has digital flexion contractures and is known to predominate in men, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. To clarify the relationships between Dupuytren disease and endogenous androgens, we performed a retrospective analysis of hand radiographs to investigate 2D:4D in Dupuytren disease. The study included male patients with Dupuytren disease (n = 22) and a control group (n = 18) of male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Only unaffected hands, without contractures or osteoarthritis, were evaluated for the purpose of radiographic assessment. The lengths of the phalanx and metacarpal bones in the second and fourth digits were measured by 2 independent observers who each performed 2 sets of measurements separated by a minimum 1-week interval. The 2D:4D was calculated separately for the phalanges and metacarpals, and a combined (phalanx + metacarpal) 2D:4D was also calculated. The reliability of the observer measurements was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and both the intra- and interobserver reliability showed excellent agreement. We found that compared with control group, the Dupuytren disease group had significantly lower phalanx and combined 2D:4D. These findings suggest that endogenous prenatal androgens could contribute to the development of Dupuytren disease, leading to its characteristic clinical presentation predominantly in men and affecting the ulnar rays. PMID:28816972

  2. Low second to fourth digit ratio in Dupuytren disease.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Kazuki, Kenichi; Onode, Ema; Shintani, Kosuke; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been described as reflecting endogenous prenatal androgen exposure. In general, 2D:4D is lower in men than in women and has potential as a biomarker or predictor for various diseases, athletic ability, and academic performance. Dupuytren disease has digital flexion contractures and is known to predominate in men, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. To clarify the relationships between Dupuytren disease and endogenous androgens, we performed a retrospective analysis of hand radiographs to investigate 2D:4D in Dupuytren disease. The study included male patients with Dupuytren disease (n = 22) and a control group (n = 18) of male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Only unaffected hands, without contractures or osteoarthritis, were evaluated for the purpose of radiographic assessment. The lengths of the phalanx and metacarpal bones in the second and fourth digits were measured by 2 independent observers who each performed 2 sets of measurements separated by a minimum 1-week interval. The 2D:4D was calculated separately for the phalanges and metacarpals, and a combined (phalanx + metacarpal) 2D:4D was also calculated. The reliability of the observer measurements was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and both the intra- and interobserver reliability showed excellent agreement. We found that compared with control group, the Dupuytren disease group had significantly lower phalanx and combined 2D:4D. These findings suggest that endogenous prenatal androgens could contribute to the development of Dupuytren disease, leading to its characteristic clinical presentation predominantly in men and affecting the ulnar rays.

  3. The fourth Arab Impact Cratering and Astrogeology Conference (AICAC IV), April 9-12, 2017, Algiers (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaï, D.; Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Baratoux, D.; Ferrière, L.; Lamali, A.; Sahoui, R.; Lambert, P.; Ayadi, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a report about the fourth Arab Impact Cratering and Astrogeology Conference (AICAC IV) that took place in Algiers at the USTHB (Université des Sciences et Technologie Houari Boumedienne, Algiers, Algeria) in the presence of the presidents of the USTHB and Boumerdès Universities, the Director of CRAAG (Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique), and the General Director of the National Administration for Scientific Research (NASR/DGRSDT). This series of conferences aims to promote research interest for impact cratering in the Arab world and beyond, including for instance in African countries. In spite of persistently restraining travel measures to Algeria, the fourth edition held in Algiers was marked by continuous international participation, with participants from seven different countries. This conference focused on presentations of scientific results in the research fields related to planetology, meteorites, and impact craters. In particular, the Algerian impact structures were under the spotlights during both oral and poster sessions. During this conference, the presence of freshly graduated Ph.D. students and new Ph.D. projects related to impact cratering or meteoritic science was a positive sign for the consolidation of research groups in this domain in the Arab world and Africa. Therefore, international cooperation or external support and funding are still needed to ensure the development of this scientific discipline in this part of the world.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-03

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-03

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  6. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Lake Tahoe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Lake Tahoe, CA AGENCY: Coast... Fourth of July Fireworks safety zone from 9 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. on July 3, 2010 in position 39 13'55.82'' N... will enforce the safety zone for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks Display in 33 CFR 165.1191 on July...

  7. Final Screening Program, Third and Fourth Quarters. Version 3.1. Task 4. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    network, but historical occurrences are present within ISP distribution patterns for both the alluvial and Denver aquifers . Third and Fourth Quarter...FY86) APPENDIX C--THIRD AND FOURTH QUARTERS (FY86) ALLUVIAL AND DENVER AQUIFER COMPOUND DISTRIBUTIOýN PLOTS C-RMA-04D/FIN•PT. TOC.Iii 05/20/88 TABLE...Level Measurement Well Network, Third and Fourth Quarter, Fiscal Year 1986 2 Water Level Elevation Alluvial Aquifer , Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1986

  8. Explanation-Construction in Fourth-Grade Classrooms in Germany and the USA: A cross-national comparative video study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Cory; Lange, Kim; Möller, Kornelia; Biggers, Mandy; Laux, Mira; Zangori, Laura

    2014-09-01

    To help explain the differences in students' performance on internationally administered science assessments, cross-national, video-based observational studies have been advocated, but none have yet been conducted at the elementary level for science. The USA and Germany are two countries with large formal education systems whose students underperform those from peers on internationally administered standardized science assessments. However, evidence from the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Exam assessment suggests fourth-grade students (9-10 year-olds) in the USA perform higher than those in Germany, despite more instructional time devoted to elementary science in Germany. The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze fourth-grade classroom science in both countries to learn more about how teachers and students engage in scientific inquiry, particularly explanation-construction. Videorecordings of US and German science instruction (n 1 = 42, n 2 = 42) were sampled from existing datasets and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Despite German science lessons being, on average, twice as long as those in the USA, study findings highlight many similarities between elementary science in terms of scientific practices and features of scientific inquiry. However, they also illustrate crucial differences around the scientific practice of explanation-construction. While students in German classrooms were afforded more substantial opportunities to formulate evidence-based explanations, US classrooms were more strongly characterized by opportunities for students to actively compare and evaluate evidence-based explanations. These factors may begin to help account for observed differences in student achievement and merit further study grounded in international collaboration.

  9. Students' perspectives on the fourth year of medical school: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephen J; Lockspeiser, Tai M; Gong, Jennifer; Guiton, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the purpose and value of the fourth year of medical school from the perspective of medical students. In this study, the authors systematically explored the year's purpose and value as determined by students. In April 2011, the authors conducted semistructured focus groups with graduating fourth-year students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine to understand their perspectives on the purpose of the fourth year. Using results of a thematic analysis of the focus group data, the authors developed and administered a 10-item questionnaire to all graduating fourth-year medical students in May 2011. Questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. A total of 17 students participated in two focus groups. Six themes related to the purpose of the fourth year emerged from the focus group data: career development and preparation, pursuing personal interests, career identification, exploration of diverse practice settings, influence of emotion, and flexibility and individualization. The questionnaire was completed by 134 of 148 students (91% response rate). Factor analysis of the questionnaire data identified five factors: strengthening one's residency application, developing skills, pursuing personal interests, exploring diverse practice settings, and identifying a career. Medical students uniformly identified the fourth year of medical school as having purpose and value, but their views on the fourth year's purpose differed. This finding underscores the importance of the individualization of the fourth year. Students' perspectives should inform any decisions made about modifying fourth-year curricula and structure.

  10. Vicarious calibration of the third and fourth Stokes parameters of Windsat measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Quanhua; Weng Fuzhong

    2005-12-01

    Microwave observations made at the third and fourth Stokes parameters can be used to determine the surface wind direction over oceans. However, due to their smaller amplitudes (less than 3 K at the third Stokes parameter and 1 K at the fourth Stokes parameter), the absolute calibration to these measurements becomes crucial. A new methodology is developed in this study to calibrate the Windsat third and fourth Stokes parameters through tropical rain forest measurements over the Amazon and central Africa. It is found that the Windsat fourth Stokes parameter at 18 GHz has biases of the order of 0.5 K, which could severely affect the wind vector retrievals.

  11. Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Gende, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Foreword Glacier Bay was established as a National Monument in 1925, in part to protect its unique character and natural beauty, but also to create a natural laboratory to examine evolution of the glacial landscape. Today, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is still a place of profound natural beauty and dynamic landscapes. It also remains a focal point for scientific research and includes continuing observations begun decades ago of glacial processes and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, research has focused on glacial-marine interactions and ecosystem processes that occur below the surface of the bay. In October 2004, Glacier Bay National Park convened the fourth in a series of science symposiums to provide an opportunity for researchers, managers, interpreters, educators, students and the general public to share knowledge about Glacier Bay. The Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium was held in Juneau, Alaska, rather than at the Park, reflecting a desire to maximize attendance and communication among a growing and diverse number of stakeholders interested in science in the park. More than 400 people attended the symposium. Participants provided 46 oral presentations and 41 posters covering a wide array of disciplines including geology, glaciology, oceanography, wildlife and fisheries biology, terrestrial and marine ecology, socio-cultural research and management issues. A panel discussion focused on the importance of connectivity in Glacier Bay research, and keynote speakers (Gary Davis and Terry Chapin) spoke of long-term monitoring and ecological processes. These proceedings include 56 papers from the symposium. A summary of the Glacier Bay Science Plan-itself a subject of a meeting during the symposium and the result of ongoing discussions between scientists and resource managers-also is provided. We hope these proceedings illustrate the diversity of completed and ongoing scientific studies, conducted within the Park. To this end, we invited all

  12. Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems. In this workshop, as in previous workshops, the problems were devised to gauge the technological advancement of computational techniques to calculate all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from the fundamental governing equations. A variety of benchmark problems have been previously solved ranging from simple geometries with idealized acoustic conditions to test the accuracy and effectiveness of computational algorithms and numerical boundary conditions; to sound radiation from a duct; to gust interaction with a cascade of airfoils; to the sound generated by a separating, turbulent viscous flow. By solving these and similar problems, workshop participants have shown the technical progress from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The fourth CAA workshop emphasized the application of CAA methods to the solution of realistic problems. The workshop was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 20 to 22, 2003. At that time, workshop participants presented their solutions to problems in one or more of five categories. Their solutions are presented in this proceedings along with the comparisons of their solutions to the benchmark solutions or experimental data. The five categories for the benchmark problems were as follows: Category 1:Basic Methods. The numerical computation of sound is affected by, among other issues, the choice of grid used and by the boundary conditions. Category 2:Complex Geometry. The ability to compute the sound in the presence of complex geometric surfaces is important in practical applications of CAA. Category 3:Sound Generation by Interacting With a Gust. The practical application of CAA for computing noise generated by turbomachinery involves the modeling of the noise source mechanism as a

  13. "First Light" Approaches for Fourth VLT Unit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    These days, the ESO staff at Paranal is having a strong feeling of "déja-vu". Only seven months after the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL , achieved "First Light", this crucial moment is now rapidly approaching for YEPUN , the fourth and last of the giants at the ESO observatory. Following successful coating with a thin layer of aluminium in early June 2000, the 8.2-m primary Zerodur mirror (M1) was placed in its supporting cell and safely attached to the mechanical structure of YEPUN on July 31. On August 26, the 1.1-m M2 Beryllium Mirror for YEPUN was coated. Again, this delicate operation went very well and the measured reflectivity was excellent, about 91%. The M2 mirror and its support were then assembled and successfully installed at the telescope on Sunday, August 27. Before the optical mirrors were installed, and with dummies in their place, careful tests were made of most telescope functions. In particular, this included accurate balancing of the 450-tonnes telescope frame on its hydrostatic oil bearings, as well as precise adjustment of all motions. It now remains for the ESO engineers to do the final performance optimization of the entire telescope. The work on the fourth telescope has been particularly noticeable because a large proportion of the assembly, integration, tuning and testing was organised and executed by ESOs young group of capable engineers and technicians. As the engineering staff at Paranal has grown and during the earlier work on the first three telescopes, they have been acquiring the necessary expertise to autonomously integrate and maintain the 8.2-m telescopes. During the coming "First Light" observations, light from the selected celestial objects will be registered by the VLT Test Camera at the Cassegrain Focus. This comparatively simple instrument was also used for the consecutive "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). It is mounted on the telescope's optical axis

  14. Emerging technologies and fourth generation issues in cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael W; Ackerman, George; Dines, Joshua S; Grande, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The goals of successful cartilage repair include reducing pain, improving symptoms, and long-term function; preventing early osteoarthritis and subsequent total knee replacements; and rebuilding hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue. Current methods such as microfracture, osteoarticular autograft transfer system, mosaicplasty, and autologous chondrocyte implantation are somewhat successful in regenerating cartilage; however, they also have significant limitations. The future of fourth generation cartilage repair focuses on gene therapy, the use of stem cells (bone marrow, adipose, or muscle derived), and tissue engineering. Emerging techniques include creating elastin-like polymers derived from native elastin sequences to serve as biocompatible scaffolds; using hydrogels to obtain a homogeneous distribution of cells within a 3-dimensional matrix; and using nonviral gene delivery via nucleofection to allow mesenchymal stem cells the ability to express osteogenic growth factors. Although many of the techniques mentioned have yet to be used in a cartilage regeneration model, we have tried to anticipate how methods used in other specialties may facilitate improved cartilage repair.

  15. Summary of the Fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.

  16. Overview of the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie; Kakar, Ramesh; Zipser, Edward; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Marks, Frank; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX) is a series of field research investigations sponsored by the Earth Science Enterprise of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The fourth field campaign in the CAMEX series (CAMEX-4) was recently conducted during 16 August - 24 September 2001 using the Jacksonville Naval Air Station in Florida as the main base of operations. CAMEX-4 focused on the study of tropical cyclone (hurricane) development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts using NASA-funded aircraft and surface remote sensing instrumentation. The results of this study will be used to address key issues pertinent to a larger NASA ESE study of the global water cycle as well as to provide synergistic contributions to the research goals of the Hurricane Research Division (HRD) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Hurricanes At Landfall Initiative of the United States Weather Research Program. All CAMEX-4 aircraft missions were planned and jointly conducted with NOAA aircraft to insure comprehensive sampling. An overview of preliminary observations of Tropical Storms Chantal and Gabrielle as well as Hurricanes Erin and Humberto will be presented.

  17. Fourth post-Newtonian effective one-body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Jaranowski, Piotr; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    The conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting two-point-mass systems has been recently determined at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) approximation [T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014)], and found to be nonlocal in time. We show how to transcribe this dynamics within the effective one-body (EOB) formalism. To achieve this EOB transcription, we develop a new strategy involving the (infinite-)order-reduction of a nonlocal dynamics to an ordinary action-angle Hamiltonian. Our final, equivalent EOB dynamics comprises two (local) radial potentials, A (r ) and D ¯(r ), and a nongeodesic mass-shell contribution Q (r ,pr) given by an infinite series of even powers of the radial momentum pr. Using an effective action technique, we complete our 4PN-level results by deriving two different, higher-order conservative contributions linked to tail-transported hereditary effects: the 5PN-level EOB logarithmic terms, as well as the 5.5PN-level, half-integral terms. We compare our improved analytical knowledge to previous, numerical gravitational-self-force computation of precession effects.

  18. Mountain hydrology, snow color, and the fourth paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    2011-10-01

    The world's mountain ranges accumulate substantial snow, whose melt produces the bulk of runoff and often combines with rain to cause floods. Worldwide, inadequate understanding and a reliance on sparsely distributed observations limit our ability to predict seasonal and paroxysmal runoff as climate changes, ecosystems adapt, populations grow, land use evolves, and societies make choices. To improve assessments of snow accumulation, melt, and runoff, scientists and community planners can take advantage of two emerging trends: (1) an ability to remotely sense snow properties from satellites at a spatial scale appropriate for mountain regions (10- to 100-meter resolution, coverage of the order of 100,000 square kilometers) and a daily temporal scale appropriate for the dynamic nature of snow and (2) The Fourth Paradigm [Hey et al., 2009], which posits a new scientific approach in which insight is discovered through the manipulation of large data sets as the evolutionary step in scientific thinking beyond the first three paradigms: empiricism, analyses, and simulation. The inspiration for the book's title comes from pioneering computer scientist Jim Gray, based on a lecture he gave at the National Academy of Sciences 3 weeks before he disappeared at sea.

  19. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  20. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report fourth quarter, 1996. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Project Rulison, a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, was conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability, gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface. This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1996 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The sampling was performed as part of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to monitor the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond located at the site. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test.