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Sample records for fourth international spoligotyping

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for classification, population genetics and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Brudey, Karine; Driscoll, Jeffrey R; Rigouts, Leen; Prodinger, Wolfgang M; Gori, Andrea; Al-Hajoj, Sahal A; Allix, Caroline; Aristimuño, Liselotte; Arora, Jyoti; Baumanis, Viesturs; Binder, Lothar; Cafrune, Patricia; Cataldi, Angel; Cheong, Soonfatt; Diel, Roland; Ellermeier, Christopher; Evans, Jason T; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Ferdinand, Séverine; de Viedma, Dario Garcia; Garzelli, Carlo; Gazzola, Lidia; Gomes, Harrison M; Guttierez, M Cristina; Hawkey, Peter M; van Helden, Paul D; Kadival, Gurujaj V; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kremer, Kristin; Kubin, Milan; Kulkarni, Savita P; Liens, Benjamin; Lillebaek, Troels; Ly, Ho Minh; Martin, Carlos; Martin, Christian; Mokrousov, Igor; Narvskaïa, Olga; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Naumann, Ludmilla; Niemann, Stefan; Parwati, Ida; Rahim, Zeaur; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Rasolonavalona, Tiana; Rossetti, M Lucia; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Sajduda, Anna; Samper, Sofia; Shemyakin, Igor G; Singh, Urvashi B; Somoskovi, Akos; Skuce, Robin A; van Soolingen, Dick; Streicher, Elisabeth M; Suffys, Philip N; Tortoli, Enrico; Tracevska, Tatjana; Vincent, Véronique; Victor, Tommie C; Warren, Robin M; Yap, Sook Fan; Zaman, Khadiza; Portaels, Françoise; Rastogi, Nalin; Sola, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Background The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical laboratory, molecular epidemiology, evolutionary and population genetics. It is easy, robust, cheap, and produces highly diverse portable numerical results, as the result of the combination of (1) Unique Events Polymorphism (UEP) (2) Insertion-Sequence-mediated genetic recombination. Genetic convergence, although rare, was also previously demonstrated. Three previous international spoligotype databases had partly revealed the global and local geographical structures of MTC bacilli populations, however, there was a need for the release of a new, more representative and extended, international spoligotyping database. Results The fourth international spoligotyping database, SpolDB4, describes 1939 shared-types (STs) representative of a total of 39,295 strains from 122 countries, which are tentatively classified into 62 clades/lineages using a mixed expert-based and bioinformatical approach. The SpolDB4 update adds 26 new potentially phylogeographically-specific MTC genotype families. It provides a clearer picture of the current MTC genomes diversity as well as on the relationships between the genetic attributes investigated (spoligotypes) and the infra-species classification and evolutionary history of the species. Indeed, an independent Naïve-Bayes mixture-model analysis has validated main of the previous supervised SpolDB3 classification results, confirming the usefulness of both supervised and unsupervised models as an approach to understand MTC population structure. Updated results on the epidemiological status of spoligotypes, as well as genetic prevalence maps on six main lineages are also shown. Our results suggests

  2. Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 84 papers presented at the Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from May 19 to 21, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  3. Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at The Nagaragawa Convention Center in Gifu, Japan, on October 30 - November 1, 1997. The symposium included 13 sessions in which a total of 35 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of maglev, controls, high critical temperature (T(sub c)) superconductivity, bearings, magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS), levitation, modeling, and applications. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  4. Spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Different Provinces of China▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Haiyan; Liu, Zhiguang; Lv, Bing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Jinghua; Wan, Kanglin

    2010-01-01

    A total of 2,346 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 13 provinces in China were genotyped by spoligotyping. Two hundred seventy-eight spoligotypes were identified: 2,153 isolates were grouped into 85 clusters, and the remaining 193 isolates were orphans. Comparison with the SpolDB4.0 database revealed that 118 spoligotypes had shared international type numbers in the database and the other 160 were novel. These 160 novel spoligotypes were assigned to families and subfamilies using the SpotClust program. The most prevalent family was the Beijing family (74.08%), followed by the T family (14.11%). CAS family strains were found only in the Xinjiang and Tibet regions, while EAI family strains were found only in Fujian Province. In conclusion, the present study of the M. tuberculosis population in China demonstrated that Beijing family isolates are the most prevalent strains in China and that they exhibit geographical variation. Furthermore, many new spoligotypes were found in this study. PMID:20739484

  5. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage, Wrongly Identified as Mycobacterium pinnipedii (Spoligotype International Type 863 [SIT863]), Causing Active Tuberculosis in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Sidra E. G.; Esteves, Leonardo S.; Gomes, Harrison M.; Almeida da Silva, Pedro; Perdigão, João; Portugal, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; McNerney, Ruth; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Rastogi, Nalin; Unis, Gisela; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R.

    2015-01-01

    We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RDRio, and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n = 8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C(−17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers. PMID:26400784

  6. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  7. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-06-30

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  8. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography.

    PubMed

    Ritaccio, Anthony; Brunner, Peter; Crone, Nathan E; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Kanwisher, Nancy; Litt, Brian; Miller, Kai; Moran, Daniel; Parvizi, Josef; Ramsey, Nick; Richner, Thomas J; Tandon, Niton; Williams, Justin; Schalk, Gerwin

    2013-11-01

    The Fourth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation. PMID:24034899

  9. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  10. Fourth international workshop on human chromosome 5. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Fourth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 5 was held in Manchester, UK on November 9--10, 1996 and was hosted by the University of Manchester. The major goals of the workshop were: (1) to collate the various genetic, cytogenetic and physical maps of human chromosome 5; (2) to integrate these maps and identify/correct discrepancies between them wherever possible; (3) to catalogue the sequence-ready contigs of the chromosome; (4) to co-ordinate the various sequencing efforts to avoid future duplication; (5) to establish the first (to the author`s knowledge) web site for the human chromosome 5 community which contains the above information in a readily accessible form.

  11. Fourth International Symposium on Long-Range Sound Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is an aspect of many acoustical problems ranging from en route aircraft noise to the acoustic detection of aircraft. Over the past decade, the University of Mississippi and the Open University of England, together with a third institution, have held a symposium approx. every 2 years so that experts in the field of long range propagation could exchange information on current research, identify areas needing additional work, and coordinate activities as much as possible. The Fourth International Symposium on Long Range Sound Propagation was jointly sponsored by the University of Mississippi, the Open University of England, and NASA. Papers were given in the following areas: ground effects on propagation; infrasound propagation; and meteorological effects on sound propagation. A compilation of the presentations made at the symposium is presented along with a list of attendees, and the agenda.

  12. Contribution of spoligotyping to the characterization of the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Suzana; Ribeiro, Diana Raposo; Antunes, Abílio; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; de Sousa, José Germano

    2007-09-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Portugal. To begin characterizing the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spoligotyping was used for the systematic typing, through consecutive sampling, of patient isolates from the Amadora-Sintra area of Greater Lisbon. Distribution amongst major spoligotype families, including the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), T, Haarlem and Beijing, was compared to that of the international spoligotype database SpolDB4 and to the European countries of traditional Portuguese immigration represented in SpolDB4. Spoligotypes from 665 isolates were analyzed and 97 shared international types (SITs) identified. In SpolDB4 Portugal is represented by part of the spoligotypes from this study explaining the reduced number of unidentified patterns. The importance of the LAM family, and especially of LAM1 and LAM9 sub-families that alone represented 38% of all the isolates in this study as compared to 8% relative to the European sub group, led us to believe that at least in this respect the population structure was closer to that of Africa and South America than to Europe. Spoligotypes characteristic of Portugal or Portuguese related settings were identified. These included SIT244 a T1 sub-family predominant in Portugal and Bangladesh, SIT64 a LAM 6 sub-family common to Portugal and Brazil, and SIT1106 a LAM 9 sub-family. These studies were the first in Portugal stressing the importance of monitoring the population structure of M. tuberculosis isolates, an important step towards gaining an understanding of tuberculosis and the dynamics of this disease.

  13. The fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This book comprises the papers accepted by the fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing (ISCC), which was held from 18-19 December, 2015 in Guangzhou, China. It has 70 papers divided into four parts. The first part focuses on Information Theory with 20 papers; the second part emphasizes Machine Learning also containing 21 papers; in the third part, there are 21 papers as well in the area of Control Science; and the last part with 8 papers is dedicated to Cloud Science. Each part can be used as an excellent reference by engineers, researchers and students who need to build a knowledge base of the most current advances and state-of-practice in the topics covered by the ISCC conference. Special thanks go to Professor Deyu Qi, General Chair of ISCC 2015, for his leadership in supervising the organization of the entire conference; Professor Tinghuai Ma, Program Chair, and members of program committee for evaluating all the submissions and ensuring the selection of only the highest quality papers; and the authors for sharing their ideas, results and insights. We sincerely hope that you enjoy reading papers included in this book.

  14. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on central hypoventilation.

    PubMed

    Trang, Ha; Brunet, Jean-François; Rohrer, Hermann; Gallego, Jorge; Amiel, Jeanne; Bachetti, Tiziana; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian; Ceccherini, Isabella; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Frerick, Matthias; Bieganowska, Katarzyna; Middleton, Linda; Morandi, Francesco; Ottonello, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Central hypoventilation syndromes (CHS) are rare diseases of central autonomic respiratory control associated with autonomous nervous dysfunction. Severe central hypoventilation is the hallmark and the most life-threatening feature. CHS is a group of not-fully defined disorders. Congenital CHS (CCHS) (ORPHA661) is clinically and genetically well-characterized, with the disease-causing gene identified in 2003. CCHS presents at birth in most cases, and associated with Hirschsprung's disease (ORPHA99803) and neural crest tumours in 20% and 5% of cases, respectively. The incidence of CCHS is estimated to be 1 of 200,000 live births in France, yet remains unknown for the rest of the world. In contrast, late-onset CHS includes a group of not yet fully delineated diseases. Overlap with CCHS is likely, as a subset of patients harbours PHOX2B mutations. Another subset of patients present with associated hypothalamic dysfunction. The number of these patients is unknown (less than 60 cases reported worldwide). Treatment of CHS is palliative using advanced techniques of ventilation support during lifetime. Research is ongoing to better understand physiopathological mechanisms and identify potential treatment pathways.The Fourth International Conference on Central Hypoventilation was organised in Warsaw, Poland, April 13-15, 2012, under the patronage of the European Agency for Health and Consumers and Public Health European Agency of European Community. The conference provided a state-of-the-art update of knowledge on all the genetic, molecular, cellular, and clinical aspects of these rare diseases. PMID:25928806

  15. Fourth-order perturbative model for photoinduced internal conversion processes.

    PubMed

    Molesky, Brian P; Moran, Andrew M

    2013-12-27

    Essential to the functionality of numerous biological and synthetic molecular systems is the ability to rapidly convert electronic excitation energy into heat. Such internal conversion (IC) transitions often cannot be described by traditional second-order kinetic theories because of time-coincident electronic and nuclear relaxation processes. Here, we present a perturbative fourth-order phenomenological model for photoinduced IC that incorporates effects associated with finite laser bandwidths and nonequilibrium nuclear motions. Specialized knowledge of first-principles computational methods is not required, and many parameters can be obtained with standard spectroscopic measurements. The model is applied to the IC processes that precede electrocyclic ring-opening in α-terpinene. It is shown that the primary factor governing the shape of the population decay profile (Gaussian versus exponential) is the rate at which the wavepacket approaches the geometry corresponding to degeneracy between the excited states. Other parameters such as the displacement in the promoting mode and the thermal fluctuation amplitudes affect the sensitivity of the IC dynamics to motion of the wavepacket but do not alter the basic physical picture. Finally, we suggest a wavepacket representation of the IC process to visualize correlations between population-transfer dynamics and the amount of energy transferred from the system to the bath.

  16. Mycobacterium bovis in Swine: Spoligotyping of Isolates from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Barandiaran, Soledad; Martínez Vivot, Marcela; Moras, Eduardo Vicente; Cataldi, Angel Adrián; Zumárraga, Martín José

    2011-01-01

    A total of 143 Mycobacterium bovis isolates of pigs, from the most productive swine area in Argentina, were typed by spoligotyping. Twenty-two different spoligotypes were identified, and 133 (93%) isolates were grouped into 12 clusters. One of them, designed SB0140, was the most frequent because it held 83 (58%) isolates. This spoligotype also grouped 362 (43%) out of 841 isolates from previously typed cattle and, thus, constitutes the most frequent in our country. In addition, 135 (94%) isolates revealed spoligotypes identical to those of cattle, showing an epidemiological link. On the other hand, there were seven novel spoligotypes, six of which were also unique since they had only one isolate each. This study aimed to identify the spoligotypes of M. bovis isolated from pigs to contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in the main productive area of Argentina. PMID:21547236

  17. Proceedings of the Fourth International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigley, Jack R. (Compiler); Estabrook, Polly (Compiler); Reekie, D. Hugh M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The theme to the 1995 International Mobile Satellite Conference was 'Mobile Satcom Comes of Age'. The sessions included Modulation, Coding, and Multiple Access; Hybrid Networks - 1; Spacecraft Technology; propagation; Applications and Experiments - 1; Advanced System Concepts and Analysis; Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Communications; Mobile Terminal Antennas; Mobile Terminal Technology; Current and Planned Systems; Direct Broadcast Satellite; The Use of CDMA for LEO and ICO Mobile Satellite Systems; Hybrid Networks - 2; and Applications and Experiments - 2.

  18. Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Special Education (Cork, Ireland, September 8-12, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, M. F., Ed.

    Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Special Education (Cork, Ireland, September 8-12, 1969) contain papers relating to the following themes: special education personnel, identification of the handicapped, general aspects of early education, special education methods, early education programs for the mentally handicapped, and early…

  19. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices and Fourth-Graders' Reading Literacy Achievements: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Shiqi; Johnson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study, through multilevel analyses of the data of four English-speaking nations (i.e., Canada, England, New Zealand and the United States) from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001 database, investigated the relationship between teachers' uses of various types of classroom assessments and their fourth-graders'…

  20. Up to fourth virial coefficients from simple and efficient internal-coordinate sampling: application to neon.

    PubMed

    Wiebke, Jonas; Pahl, Elke; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A simple and efficient internal-coordinate importance sampling protocol for the Monte Carlo computation of (up to fourth-order) virial coefficients ̅B(n) of atomic systems is proposed. The key feature is a multivariate sampling distribution that mimics the product structure of the dominating pairwise-additive parts of the ̅B(n). This scheme is shown to be competitive over routine numerical methods and, as a proof of principle, applied to neon: The second, third, and fourth virial coefficients of neon as well as equation-of-state data are computed from ab initio two- and three-body potentials; four-body contributions are found to be insignificant. Kirkwood-Wigner quantum corrections to first order are found to be crucial to the observed agreement with recent ab initio and experimental reference data sets but are likely inadequate at very low temperatures.

  1. Spoligotyping and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from five provinces of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Haeili, Mehri; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Javadpour, Sedigheh; Hashemi, Abdorrazagh; Siavoshi, Farideh; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) persists as a public health problem in Iran. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in this area will contribute to understand and control the spread of the strains. The aims of this study were to understand the genetic diversity and drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates circulating in Iran and to analyze the relationship between genotype and drug resistance. A total of 291 M. tuberculosis isolates collected from TB patients were genotyped by spoligotyping. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using proportion method. Spoligotyping resulted in 75 distinct patterns. 86.2% of isolates were grouped in 35 clusters while the remaining isolates were unique. Ural was found to be the most predominant lineage (34.3%) followed by Central Asian strain (CAS) (24%), T (18.2%), Manu2 (7.5%) and Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) (6.1%). The five largest clusters were Ural/Spoligotype International Type (SIT)127 (15.8%), CAS1/SIT26 (9.2%), T1/SIT53 (6.1%), T1/SIT284 (5.4%), and CAS1/SIT25 (4.4%). About 5% of isolates had multidrug resistance (MDR) and 10% had other resistance. MDR was significantly associated with Beijing strains, but not with Ural family. This study highlights dominance of Ural, CAS, and T families in Iran. Biogeographic specificity of CAS and T families to border provinces of Iran including Sistan-Baluchestan and Kermanshah, respectively, suggested that this family strains might be transmitted from these regions to other provinces of the country. PMID:24311556

  2. Contribution of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs to characterize prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes infecting tuberculosis patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Imane; Zozio, Thierry; Lahlou, Ouafae; Sabouni, Radia; Abid, Mohammed; El Aouad, Rajae; Akrim, Mohammed; Amzazi, Said; Rastogi, Nalin; El Mzibri, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates from culture-positive TB patients in Morocco were studied by spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing methods to characterize prevalent genotypes (n = 219 isolates from 208 patients). Spoligotyping resulted in 39 unique patterns and 167 strains in 30 clusters (2-50 strains per cluster). Comparison with international database showed that 29 of 39 unique patterns matched existing shared spoligotype international types (SITs). Nine shared types containing 10 strains were newly created (SIT 2891 to SIT 2899); this led to the description of 69 SITs with 206 strains and two orphan patterns. The most prevalent spoligotype was SIT42 (LAM; n = 50 or 24% of isolates). The repartition of strains according to major MTBC clades was as follows LAM (46.1%)> Haarlem (26%) >ill-defined T superfamily (22.6%) and S clade (0.96%). On the other hand, Beijing, CAS (Central Asian) and EAI (East-African Indian) strains were absent in this setting. Subsequent 12-Loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 25 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 66 isolates, 2-6 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent transmission rate of 22.3%. The MIRU-VNTR patterns corresponded to 69 MITs for 138 strains and 46 orphan patterns. The most frequent patterns were MIT43 (n = 8), MIT9 (n = 7) and MIT42 (n = 7). HGDI analysis of the 12 MIRU loci showed that loci 10, 23 and 40 were highly discriminative in our setting. The results also underlined the usefulness of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR to detect mixed infections among certain of our TB patients. Globally, the results obtained showed that TB is almost exclusively transmitted in Morocco through evolutionary-modern MTBC lineages belonging to principal genetic groups 2/3 strains (Haarlem, LAM, T), with a high level of biodiversity seen by MIRU typing. This study provides with a 1st global snapshot of MTBC population structure in Morocco, and validates the potential use of spoligotyping in

  3. Report of the Fourth International Workshop on human X chromosome mapping 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schlessinger, D.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Willard, H.F.

    1993-12-31

    Vigorous interactive efforts by the X chromosome community have led to accelerated mapping in the last six months. Seventy-five participants from 12 countries around the globe contributed progress reports to the Fourth International X Chromosome Workshop, at St. Louis, MO, May 9-12, 1993. It became clear that well over half the chromosome is now covered by YAC contigs that are being extended, verified, and aligned by their content of STSs and other markers placed by cytogenetic or linkage mapping techniques. The major aim of the workshop was to assemble the consensus map that appears in this report, summarizing both consensus order and YAC contig information.

  4. Comparative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotype Distribution in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Alvarez, Jessica; Molina-Torres, Carmen A.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Rendón, Adrian; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients according to their gender, age, and geographic location in Mexico. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in regard to age or gender. We found that spoligo international type 53 (SIT53) is more frequent in the northern states and that SIT119 predominates in central Mexico. PMID:24850349

  5. The fourth international energy agency international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    2000-05-01

    The main objective of the workshop was to support the advancement of the international development of fusion power through communication and dissemination of information on progress made in beryllium technology. This has been accomplished through presentation of original research on issues of current interest to the fusion beryllium community. The workshop was divided into ten technical sessions that addressed the following general topics: production and characterization, health and safety, forming and joining, chemical compatibility, thermal-mechanical properties, pebble bed behavior, high-heat-flux performance, irradiation effects, plasma-tritium interaction, and molten beryllium-bearing salts.

  6. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting Special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Theresa M.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2011-04-01

    This special issue of Journal of Neural Engineering is a result of the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, which was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Monterey, California, USA from 31 May to 4 June, 2010. The meeting was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The National Science Foundation and the Department of Defense, and was organized by the Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health. It attracted over 260 participants from 17 countries—including many graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—and featured 19 workshops, platform presentations from 26 research groups, 170 posters, multiple brain-computer interface (BCI) demonstrations, and a keynote address by W Zev Rymer of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. The number of participants and the diversity of the topics covered greatly exceeded those of the previous meeting in 2005, and testified to the continuing rapid expansion and growing sophistication of this exciting and still relatively new research field. BCI research focuses primarily on using brain signals to replace or restore the motor functions that people have lost due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a brainstem stroke, or some other devastating neuromuscular disorder. In the last few years, attention has also turned towards using BCIs to improve rehabilitation after a stroke, and beyond that to enhancing or supplementing the capabilities of even those without disabilities. These diverse interests were represented in the wide range of topics covered in the workshops. While some workshops addressed broad traditional topics, such as signal acquisition, feature extraction and translation, and software development, many addressed topics that were entirely new or focused sharply on areas that have become important only recently. These included workshops on optimizing P300-based BCIs; improving the mutual adaptations of the BCI and the user; BCIs that can control neuroprostheses

  7. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting Special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Theresa M.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2011-04-01

    This special issue of Journal of Neural Engineering is a result of the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, which was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Monterey, California, USA from 31 May to 4 June, 2010. The meeting was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The National Science Foundation and the Department of Defense, and was organized by the Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health. It attracted over 260 participants from 17 countries—including many graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—and featured 19 workshops, platform presentations from 26 research groups, 170 posters, multiple brain-computer interface (BCI) demonstrations, and a keynote address by W Zev Rymer of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. The number of participants and the diversity of the topics covered greatly exceeded those of the previous meeting in 2005, and testified to the continuing rapid expansion and growing sophistication of this exciting and still relatively new research field. BCI research focuses primarily on using brain signals to replace or restore the motor functions that people have lost due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a brainstem stroke, or some other devastating neuromuscular disorder. In the last few years, attention has also turned towards using BCIs to improve rehabilitation after a stroke, and beyond that to enhancing or supplementing the capabilities of even those without disabilities. These diverse interests were represented in the wide range of topics covered in the workshops. While some workshops addressed broad traditional topics, such as signal acquisition, feature extraction and translation, and software development, many addressed topics that were entirely new or focused sharply on areas that have become important only recently. These included workshops on optimizing P300-based BCIs; improving the mutual adaptations of the BCI and the user; BCIs that can control neuroprostheses

  8. Meeting report: Fourth international meeting on G-quadruplex Nucleic Acids (Singapore, July 1-4, 2013).

    PubMed

    Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    The fourth international meeting on G-quadruplex Nucleic Acids was held in the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) of Singapore. Over 150 participants gathered from more than 25 countries. Over 40 talks and 100 posters summarized our current knowledge of these unusual DNA and RNA structures.

  9. Association between spoligotype-VNTR types and virulence of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Garbaccio, Sergio; Macias, Analía; Shimizu, Ernesto; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pezzone, Natalia; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Abdala, Alejandro; Tarabla, Hector; Peyru, Maite; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín; Canal, Ana; Cataldi, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentine cattle. The aim of this research was to study if it is possible to infer the degree of virulence of different M. bovis genotypes based on scorified observations of tuberculosis lesions in cattle. In this study, we performed association analyses between several parameters with tuberculosis lesions: M. bovis genotype, degree of progression of tuberculosis, and animal age. For this purpose, the genotype was determined by spoligotyping and the degree of bovine tuberculosis gross lesion was quantified with a score based on clinical observations (number, size, and location of granulomas along with histopathologic features). This study was performed with naturally infected cattle of slaughterhouses from three provinces in Argentina. A total of 265 M. bovis isolates were obtained from 378 pathological lesion samples and 192 spoligotyping and VNTR (based on ETR sequences) typing patterns were obtained. SB0140 was the most predominant spoligotype, followed by SB0145. The spoligotype with the highest lesion score was SB0273 (median score of 27 ± 4.46), followed by SB0520 (18 ± 5.8). Furthermore, the most common spoligotype, SB0140, had a median score of 11 ± 0.74. Finally, the spoligotype with the lowest score was SB0145 (8 ± 1.0). ETR typing of SB0140, SB0145, SB0273, and SB0520 did not subdivide the lesion scores in those spoligotypes. In conclusion, SB0273 and SB0520 were the spoligotypes with the strongest association with hypervirulence and both spoligotypes were only found in Río Cuarto at the south of Córdoba province. Interestingly, there is no other report of any of these spoligotyes in Latin America. PMID:24398919

  10. Influence of polymerase brand on microarray-based spoligotyping in low concentrations of mycobacterial DNA.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Engelmann, Ines; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Spoligotyping is a widely used typing method for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Protocols and platforms can be adapted for direct use on patient samples. Serial dilutions of genomic DNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain DSM45071 were spoligotyped by array hybridization using 32 different commercial PCR polymerase preparations. In samples with very low concentrations of mycobacterial DNA, commercially available PCR polymerases differed in their performance, and some yielded no, or false, identification. Direct spoligotyping from samples with very low concentrations of mycobacterial DNA thus requires careful selection of polymerase and strict standardization.

  11. Fourth International Workshop on Haploidentical Transplants, Naples, Italy, July 8-10, 2004.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Franco; Berneman, Zwi N; Locatelli, Franco; Martelli, Massimo F; Reisner, Yair; Tabilio, Antonio; Velardi, Andrea; Vuk-Pavlovic, Stanimir

    2004-01-01

    Many patients with high-risk hematological malignancies or with incurable inborn errors do not have an HLA-matched sibling and cannot find an HLA-matched donor for an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Transplantation strategies using mismatched haploidentical family donors have been an important development. Although the procedure has saved patients from certain death, it is still beset by major problems like life-threatening infections--due to profound immunodeficiency following T-cell depletion and to disease relapse. At every International Workshop on Haploidentical Transplants, new data are presented, showing how scientists are attempting to improve the outcomes of mismatched transplants while reducing the severity of complications.The fourth Workshop continues in this tradition of presenting ground-breaking research. It opened with presentations of the current results with unrelated volunteer and umbilical cord blood transplants and proceeded to a session with the results of haploidentical transplants in the world with series of patients with high-risk acute leukemia, ranging in number from well over 100 in Perugia, Italy, and 80 in Haifa, Israel, to smaller groups in Europe and the United States. The session on graft engineering presented the latest results in the search for the optimal graft. The graft-vs.-leukemia effect in the haploidentical transplant was discussed in depth. Subsequently, attention focussed on one of the major problems in haploidentical transplant, that is, the delay in immunological recovery. The Workshop closed with presentations on tolerance induction that was followed by the results of ongoing registration studies being performed by the Italian GIMEMA group and the European Bone Marrow Transplant group.

  12. Spoligotype profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from HIV-positive and -negative patients in Nigeria: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, Simeon; Hill, Véronique; van Soolingen, Dick; Rastogi, Nalin

    2011-01-01

    We ran a comparative analysis of all patients for whom a positive culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was available between April 2004 and October 2005 and whose HIV serology results were known, with spoligotyping results (n = 163) split into 49 HIV-positive patients and 114 HIV-negative patients. Spoligotype international type 373 (SIT373) (T1 lineage), which was highly prevalent among the HIV(+) patients, was totally absent from the HIV(-) population, suggesting that we had a specific clone affecting nearly 1/3 of all HIV-tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected patients. Among the LAM10-CAM sublineage strains, we had only a single strain of SIT403 among HIV(-) patients (0.88%), as opposed to 12.25% of the HIV(+) population (χ(2) = 10.77; P < 0.01), indicating a strong association between the strain and the HIV(+) population. The LAM10-CAM lineage spoligotype SIT61 was prevalent among the 2 subsets (37.72% in HIV(-) versus 12.24% in HIV(+) populations), though, with a significant difference between the 2 groups (χ(2) = 10.53; P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference for SIT53 (T1 lineage) in the 2 subsets: 6.14 versus 8.2% (χ(2) = 0.22; P > 0.05). A total of 7/49, or 14.3%, other SITs among HIV(+) patients were not found among the HIV(-) patients. When added to the most prevalent SIT among HIV(+) patients (SIT373; n = 16), 23/49, or 47%, isolates among HIV-TB-coinfected patients were unique. We conclude that further studies should be carried out to investigate the evolution of these genotypes and others in the emergence of multidrug resistance and control of tuberculosis in Nigeria. PMID:21048016

  13. Spoligotype database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biogeographic distribution of shared types and epidemiologic and phylogenetic perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Sola, C.; Filliol, I.; Gutierrez, M. C.; Mokrousov, I.; Vincent, V.; Rastogi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We give an update on the worldwide spoligotype database, which now contains 3,319 spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 47 countries, with 259 shared types, i.e., identical spoligotypes shared by two or more patient isolates. The 259 shared types contained a total of 2,779 (84%) of all the isolates. Seven major genetic groups represented 37% of all clustered isolates. Two types (119 and 137) were found almost exclusively in the USA and accounted for 9% of clustered isolates. The remaining 1,517 isolates were scattered into 252 different spoligotypes. This database constitutes a tool for pattern comparison of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates for global epidemiologic studies and phylogenetic purposes. PMID:11384514

  14. Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases in Acapulco: Spoligotyping and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Harris, Eva; Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Mitchell, Steven; Flores-Moreno, Miguel; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascencio; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Ledogar, Robert; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Recurrence and reinfection of tuberculosis have quite different implications for prevention. We identified 267 spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Acapulco, Mexico, to assess the level of clustering and risk factors for clustered strains. Point cluster analysis examined spatial clustering. Risk analysis relied on the Mantel Haenszel procedure to examine bivariate associations, then to develop risk profiles of combinations of risk factors. Supplementary analysis of the spoligotyping data used SpolTools. Spoligotyping identified 85 types, 50 of them previously unreported. The five most common spoligotypes accounted for 55% of tuberculosis cases. One cluster of 70 patients (26% of the series) produced a single spoligotype from the Manila Family (Clade EAI2). The high proportion (78%) of patients infected with cluster strains is compatible with recent transmission of TB in Acapulco. Geomatic analysis showed no spatial clustering; clustering was associated with a risk profile of uneducated cases who lived in single-room dwellings. The Manila emerging strain accounted for one in every four cases, confirming that one strain can predominate in a hyperendemic area. PMID:21197077

  15. ENAM'04 Fourth International Conference on Exotic Nuclei and Atomic Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, C. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conference can trace its origins to the 1950s and 1960s with the Atomic Mass and Fundamental Constants (AMCO) and the Nuclei Far From Stability (NFFS) series of conferences. Held jointly in 1992, the conferences officially merged in 1995 and the fourth conference was held at Callaway Gardens in Pine Mountain, GA and was organized by the Physics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conference covered a broad list of topics consisting of a series of invited and contributed presentation highlighting recent research in the following fields: Atomic masses, nuclear moments, and nuclear radii; Forms of radioactivity; Nuclear structure, nuclei at the drip lines, cluster phenomena; Reactions with radioactive ion beams; Nuclear astrophysics; Fundamental symmetries and interactions; Heaviest elements and fission; Radioactive ion beam production and experimental developments; Applications of exotic nuclei

  16. Examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade: A hierarchical analysis of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemler, Steven Edward

    This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14

  17. Worldwide Assessment of the Status of Seismic Zonation, Fourth International Forum on Seismic Zonation, Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Italy/Appendix D). 2. United States Geological Survey, 1992, The Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program, Reston, Virginia, 19 p (Paul Thenhaus or S.T. Algermissen - USA/ Appendix D). 3. Instituto Panamericano de Geografia Historia, 1992, Revista Geofisica, Lima, Peru, No. 37, July-December, 234 p (Alberto Giesecke- Peru/Appendix D). 4. Annali di Geofisica, 1992, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) (Special Issue), International Lithosphere Program, Publication 209, Bologna, Italy, 257 p (Domenico Giardini-Italy/Appendix F). 5. International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior and European Seismological Commission, 1993, The Practice of Hazard Assessment, Golden, Colorado, 284 p (Write Bob Engdahl, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Mail Stop 967, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA).

  18. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  19. The Fourth International Symposium on Genetic Disorders of the Ras/MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, David A.; Schill, Lisa; Schoyer, Lisa; Andresen, Brage S.; Bakker, Annette; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Burkitt-Wright, Emma; Chatfield, Kathryn; Elefteriou, Florent; Elgersma, Ype; Fisher, Michael J.; Franz, David; Gelb, Bruce D.; Goriely, Anne; Gripp, Karen W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Kerr, Bronwyn; Korf, Bruce; Leoni, Chiara; McCormick, Frank; Plotkin, Scott R.; Rauen, Katherine A.; Reilly, Karlyne; Roberts, Amy; Sandler, Abby; Siegel, Dawn; Walsh, Karin; Widemann, Brigitte C.

    2016-01-01

    The RASopathies are a group of disorders due to variations of genes associated with the Ras/MAPK pathway. Some of the RASopathies include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, Costello syndrome, Legius syndrome, and capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) syndrome. In combination, the RASopathies are a frequent group of genetic disorders. This report summarizes the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Genetic Disorders of the Ras/MAPK pathway and highlights gaps in the field. PMID:27155140

  20. The Fourth International Symposium on Genetic Disorders of the Ras/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David A; Schill, Lisa; Schoyer, Lisa; Andresen, Brage S; Bakker, Annette; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Burkitt-Wright, Emma; Chatfield, Kathryn; Elefteriou, Florent; Elgersma, Ype; Fisher, Michael J; Franz, David; Gelb, Bruce D; Goriely, Anne; Gripp, Karen W; Hardan, Antonio Y; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Kerr, Bronwyn; Korf, Bruce; Leoni, Chiara; McCormick, Frank; Plotkin, Scott R; Rauen, Katherine A; Reilly, Karlyne; Roberts, Amy; Sandler, Abby; Siegel, Dawn; Walsh, Karin; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2016-08-01

    The RASopathies are a group of disorders due to variations of genes associated with the Ras/MAPK pathway. Some of the RASopathies include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, Costello syndrome, Legius syndrome, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) syndrome. In combination, the RASopathies are a frequent group of genetic disorders. This report summarizes the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Genetic Disorders of the Ras/MAPK pathway and highlights gaps in the field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27155140

  1. Nuclear Physics at Storage Rings: Fourth International Conference: STORI99. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 512 [APCPCS

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, H.-O; Schwandt, P.

    2000-12-31

    The aim of this conference was to bring together physicists from a diverse international research community connected by the common technology of storage rings and review the topics of current interest in nuclear physics research with stored, cooled ion beams and electron beams. Specifically, the scientific program focused on recent results from a wide variety of experimental programs at existing stored-beam facilities, on progress in associated theoretical issues, and on discussion of new facilities and experimental techniques. In addition to the traditional physics topics covered by the STORI conferences (nucleon physics and meson production, physics with stored heavy-ion beams, polarized beams and targets), new physics topics introduced at STORI99 included strangeness production with high-energy stored proton beams and physics with stored electron beams.

  2. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.; Burnham, C.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, June 27--July 1, 1994. This conference encompassed research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas of research, technology, and development covered during the conference included high-temperature materials, thin films, C-60 based superconductors, persistent magnetic fields and shielding, fabrication methodology, space applications, physical applications, performance characterization, device applications, weak link effects and flux motion, accelerator technology, superconductivity energy, storage, future research and development directions, medical applications, granular superconductors, wire fabrication technology, computer applications, technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications. The key objective of this conference was to provide a forum for the world community to share technological results of recent advances made in the field of superconductivity and to discuss translation of the research to technology which will benefit humanity. More than 150 presentations were made at this conference. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Bases.

  3. Asian-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education Special Issue in Preparation for the Fourth International Conference on Adult Education Convened by Unesco, Paris, 1985. Courier No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This special issue was developed by the Asian-South Pacific Bureau for Adult Education (ASPBAE) in preparation for Unesco's fourth international conference on adult education. A section on "Literacy--A Great Challenge and Important Debate" includes "Why Literacy? (Paul Fordham); "Cooperating or Campaigning for Literacy" (Heribert Hinzen, Jakob…

  4. Following the Fourth World Conference on Women -- Let's Expand Grass-Roots Networking! Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (Saitama, Japan, November 15-17, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    Based on the success of the Fourth World Conference on Women, the National Women's Education Centre of Japan planned and carried out the 1995 International Forum on Intercultural Exchange to search for an up-to-date understanding of the problems of women and ways to solve them and to develop a network of already existing groups. This Forum focused…

  5. Validation of a microbead-based format for spoligotyping of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Gomgnimbou, Michel Kiréopori; Ginevra, Christophe; Peron-Cane, Caroline; Versapuech, Margaux; Refrégier, Guislaine; Jacotin, Nathalie; Sola, Christophe; Jarraud, Sophie

    2014-07-01

    A 42-plex clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based typing technique (spoligotyping) was recently developed at the French National Reference Center for Legionella. It allows the subtyping of the Legionella pneumophila sequence type 1/Paris pulsotype. In this report, we present the transfer of the membrane-based spoligotyping technique to a microbead-based multiplexed format. This microbead-based high-throughput assay uses devices such as Luminex 200 or the recently launched Magpix system (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX). We designated this new technique LP-SPOL (for L. pneumophila spoligotyping). We used two sets of samples previously subtyped by the membrane-based spoligotyping method to set up and validate the transfer on the two microbead-based systems. The first set of isolates (n = 56) represented the whole diversity of the CRISPR patterns known to date. These isolates were used for transfer setup (determination of spacer cutoffs for both devices). The second set of isolates (n = 245) was used to validate the transfer to the two microbead-based systems. The results obtained by the Luminex 200 system were 100% concordant with those obtained by the Magpix system for the 2 sets of isolates. In total, 10 discrepant results were observed when comparing the membrane-based method to the microbead-based method. These discrepancies were further resolved by repeating either the membrane-based or the microbead-based assay. This new assay is expected to play an emerging role for surveillance of L. pneumophila, starting with one of the most frequent genotypes, the sequence type 1/Paris pulsotype. However, the generalization of this typing method to all L. pneumophila strains is not feasible, since not all L. pneumophila strains contain CRISPRs.

  6. EDITORIAL: The Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Toriyama, Toshiyuki

    2005-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004). The workshop was held in Kyoto, Japan, on 28-30 November 2004, by The Ritsumeikan Research Institute of Micro System Technology in cooperation with The Global Emerging Technology Institute, The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, The Sensors and Micromachines Society, The Micromachine Center and The Kyoto Nanotech Cluster. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, which encompasses microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The first concept of power MEMS was proposed in the late 1990s by Epstein's group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they continue to study MEMS-based gas turbine generators. Since then, the research and development of power MEMS have been promoted by the need for compact power sources with high energy and power density. Since its inception, power MEMS has expanded to include not only various MEMS-based power generators but also small energy machines and microdevices for macro power generators. At the last workshop, various devices and systems, such as portable fuel cells and their peripherals, micro and small turbo machinery, energy harvesting microdevices, and microthrusters, were presented. Their power levels vary from ten nanowatts to hundreds of watts, spanning ten orders of magnitude. The first PowerMEMS workshop was held in 2000 in Sendai, Japan, and consisted of only seven invited presentations. The workshop has grown since then, and in 2004 there were 5 invited, 20 oral and 29 poster presentations. From the 54 papers in the proceedings, 12 papers have been selected for this special issue. I would like to express my appreciation to the members of the Organizing Committee and Technical Program Committee. This special issue was

  7. Fourth quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will fourth-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this fourth-quantized theory.

  8. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Hormozgan Province of Iran Based on 15-Locus MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Samin; Haeili, Mehri

    2016-01-01

    Background. Considering that Hormozgan province in Iran (southern part of Iran on the Persian Gulf) is among the areas with high prevalence of MDR-MTB and attracts so many sailors and tourists, genetic diversity of MTB isolates circulating in this part of Iran was evaluated. Pattern of TB transmission was also examined. Methods and Material. A total of 38 isolates of MTB were cultured from TB patients from Hormozgan province of Iran and standard MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping were applied to genotype these isolates. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using proportion method. Results. There were 28 VNTR profiles comprising 5 clusters and 23 unique isolates compared to 21 spoligotyping profiles, which contained 9 clusters and 12 unique isolates. Latin American-Mediterranean (n = 9, 23.6%) was found to be the most predominant lineage. MIRU-VNTR analysis, with an HGDI of 0.975, was more discriminating than spoligotyping, which had an HGDI of 0.955. The estimated proportion of TB cases due to recent transmission was 26.3% and 44.7% by MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping, respectively. The rates of monodrug resistance and MDR were 15.8% and 7.9%, respectively. Two of 3 MDR strains were found to be related to MIRU-VNTR and belonged to the same spoligotyping cluster characterized with T1/SIT53 genotype. Conclusions. The high genetic diversity among MTB isolates suggests that transmission occurred from different sources to this area. Reactivation of a priori, latent MTB infection was found to contribute mainly to TB cases in this geographic region.

  9. Genotypic characterization by spoligotyping and VNTR typing of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae isolates from cattle of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lamine-Khemiri, Hela; Martínez, Remigio; García-Jiménez, Waldo Luis; Benítez-Medina, Jose Manuel; Cortés, Maria; Hurtado, Inés; Abassi, Mohammed Salah; Khazri, Imed; Benzarti, Mohammed; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Javier

    2014-02-01

    This work is an approach to the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) bovine infections in Tunisia. A total of 35 MTBC isolates from both lateral retropharyngeal lymph node samples of cattle slaughtered in different Tunisian regions were genotyped by spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat typing (VNTR)-typing. Spoligotyping allowed to identify two profiles not previously registered, namely SB2024, a Mycobacterium caprae isolate from Nabeul Region (North East Tunisia), the first description of this species in the country, and SB2025 (Mycobacterium bovis) from Sfax Region (Southern Tunisia). A second M. caprae isolate with a spoligotyping profile previously described in Europe mainland, SB0418, was also isolated from a bovine of Sfax region. Both isolates suggest the possibility of a widespread distribution of this species in the country. The predominant spoligotype was SB0120, present in all Tunisian regions selected for the study but Nabeul. Molecular typing also allowed to describe a mixed infection caused by two different M. bovis isolates (SB0120 and SB0848) in the same animal. VNTR typing was highly discriminant by testing a panel of six loci. Loci QUB3232 and QUB11b were the most discriminant, whereas ETR-D and QUB11a had the lower diversity index. The value of allelic diversity can significantly vary among countries; thus, it is important to standardize a panel of loci for future inter-laboratory comparisons. Although VNTR typing proved to be useful for an efficient discrimination among MTBC isolates, especially in combination with spoligotyping, further studies are needed in order to assess the genetic diversity of the MTBC in Tunisia.

  10. TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Gonzalez, Eugenio J.; Chrostowski, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 is the most recent in a very ambitious series of international assessments conducted in nearly 50 countries to measure trends in mathematics and science learning. The aim of TIMSS, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, is to improve the teaching and…

  11. Updates from the Fourth International Congress 'psoriasis: from gene to clinic', the Royal College of Physicians, London, UK, 1-3 December 2005.

    PubMed

    Camp, R D R

    2006-12-01

    The fourth 'Psoriasis: From Gene to Clinic' meeting was held in December 2005, its international status confirmed by the presence of almost 300 delegates from Europe, North America, Asia and Australasia. The meeting was co-organized by Jonathan Barker (St John's Institute of Dermatology, London) and Chris Griffiths (University of Manchester), who once again deserve congratulations for the success of their initiative. As its title suggests, the meeting was targeted at both clinical and basic scientists with a special interest in psoriasis, but in preparing this report the writer has selected presentations that caught his attention and that he felt able to review in a manner that might be of interest to the general readership of this Journal.

  12. Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades. TIMSS 2003 International Science Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Gonzalez, Eugenio J.; Chrostowski, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 is the third in a continuing cycle of international mathematics and science assessments conducted every four years. TIMSS assesses achievement in countries around the world and collects a rich array of information about the educational contexts for learning mathematics and…

  13. Usefulness of restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping for epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium bovis in Madagascar: description of new genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rasolofo Razanamparany, Voahangy; Quirin, René; Rapaoliarijaona, Andriampenomaka; Rakotoaritahina, Hugues; Vololonirina, Elie Jeanne; Rasolonavalona, Tiana; Ferdinand, Séverine; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2006-04-16

    Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in cattle in Madagascar. An epidemiological study based on genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and its transmission to humans was carried out. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110 and DR markers) and spoligotyping were used to assess the genetic diversity of strains from different regions of Madagascar. One of these strains was isolated from goat, the other strains were isolated from zebu cattle. Nine IS6110 profiles, 20 DR profiles and 12 spoligotypes were obtained. About 90% of all isolates gave a single IS6110 band at about 1.8 kb. Most strains had the same spoligotype. M. bovis strains commonly lack spacers 39-43, and all Malagasy strains also lacked spacers 3-5, 8-10 and 16. This pattern has not been reported elsewhere. DR was the most discriminatory of the three markers. The patterns obtained with the three markers were combined to identify 34 different genotypes, one of which was found in 35% of the strains. No region-specific M. bovis genotype was identified, but the genotyping of 18 M. bovis strains isolated from patients showed that the human and bovine strains were identical, suggesting possible human contamination from zebu cattle.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium africanum Clinical Isolates Based on IS6110-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis, Spoligotyping, and Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Viana-Niero, Cristina; Gutierrez, Cristina; Sola, Christophe; Filliol, Ingrid; Boulahbal, Fadila; Vincent, Véronique; Rastogi, Nalin

    2001-01-01

    A collection of 105 clinical isolates originally identified as Mycobacterium africanum were characterized using both phenotypic and genotyping methods. The phenotypic methods included routine determination of cultural properties and biochemical tests used to discriminate among the members of the M. tuberculosis complex, whereas genotypic characterization was based on IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) analysis, IS1081-RFLP analysis, direct repeat-based spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), variable number of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR), and the polymorphism of the oxyR, pncA, and mtp40 loci. The results obtained showed that a majority of M. africanum isolates were characterized by a specific spoligotyping pattern that was intermediate between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, which do not hybridize with spacers 33 to 36 and spacers 39 to 43, respectively. A tentative M. africanum-specific spoligotyping signature appeared to be absence of spacers 8, 9, and 39. Based on spoligotyping, as well as the polymorphism of oxyR and pncA, a total of 24 isolates were excluded from the final study (19 were identified as M. tuberculosis, 2 were identified as M. canetti, and 3 were identified as M. bovis). The remaining 81 M. africanum isolates were efficiently subtyped in three distinct subtypes (A1 to A3) by IS6110-RFLP analysis and spoligotyping. The A1 and A2 subgroups were relatively more homogeneous upon spoligotyping than A3. Further analysis of the three subtypes by VNTR corroborated the highly homogeneous nature of the A2 subtype but showed significant variations for subtypes A1 and A3. A phylogenetic tree based on a selection of isolates representing the three subtypes using VNTR and spoligotyping alone or in combination confirmed the subtypes described as well as the heterogeneity of subtype A3. PMID:11136749

  15. School Hygiene: A Report of the Fourth International Congress of School Hygiene, Held at Buffalo, New York, August 25-30, 1913. Bulletin, 1913, No. 48. Whole Number 559

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, W. Carson, Jr.

    1913-01-01

    The Fourth International Congress of School Hygiene, held at Buffalo, New York, August 25-30, was a notable event in the progress of health supervision as a part of public education. Because of its importance, the author was detailed to attend this conference and prepare a report of it. This report contains three parts: (1) An introduction giving…

  16. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tehran, Iran by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Feyisa, Seifu Gizaw; Haeili, Mehri; Zahednamazi, Fatemeh; Mosavari, Nader; Taheri, Mohammad Mohammad; Hamzehloo, Gholamreza; Zamani, Samin; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates by DNA fingerprinting has contributed to tuberculosis (TB) control. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of MTB isolates from Tehran province in Iran. METHODS MTB isolates from 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan TB patients were fingerprinted by standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. RESULTS The copy number of IS6110 ranged from 10-24 per isolate. The isolates were classified into 22 clusters showing ≥ 80% similarity by RFLP analysis. Fourteen multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were grouped into 4 IS6110-RFLP clusters, with 10 isolates [71% (95% CI: 45-89%)] in 1 cluster, suggesting a possible epidemiological linkage. Eighteen Iranian isolates showed ≥ 80% similarity with Afghan isolates. There were no strains with identical fingerprints. Spoligotyping of 70 isolates produced 23 distinct patterns. Sixty (85.7%) isolates were grouped into 13 clusters, while the remaining 10 isolates (14.2%) were not clustered. Ural (formerly Haarlem4) (n = 22, 31.4%) was the most common family followed by Central Asian strain (CAS) (n = 18, 25.7%) and T (n = 9, 12.8%) families. Only 1strain was characterized as having the Beijing genotype. Among 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan MTB isolates, 25% (95% CI: 16-37) and 70% (95% CI: 39-89) were categorized as Ural lineage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A higher prevalence of Ural family MTB isolates among Afghan patients than among Iranian patients suggests the possible transmission of this lineage following the immigration of Afghans to Iran.

  17. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tehran, Iran by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping.

    PubMed

    Feyisa, Seifu Gizaw; Haeili, Mehri; Zahednamazi, Fatemeh; Mosavari, Nader; Taheri, Mohammad Mohammad; Hamzehloo, Gholamreza; Zamani, Samin; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates by DNA fingerprinting has contributed to tuberculosis (TB) control. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of MTB isolates from Tehran province in Iran. METHODS MTB isolates from 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan TB patients were fingerprinted by standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. RESULTS The copy number of IS6110 ranged from 10-24 per isolate. The isolates were classified into 22 clusters showing ≥ 80% similarity by RFLP analysis. Fourteen multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were grouped into 4 IS6110-RFLP clusters, with 10 isolates [71% (95% CI: 45-89%)] in 1 cluster, suggesting a possible epidemiological linkage. Eighteen Iranian isolates showed ≥ 80% similarity with Afghan isolates. There were no strains with identical fingerprints. Spoligotyping of 70 isolates produced 23 distinct patterns. Sixty (85.7%) isolates were grouped into 13 clusters, while the remaining 10 isolates (14.2%) were not clustered. Ural (formerly Haarlem4) (n = 22, 31.4%) was the most common family followed by Central Asian strain (CAS) (n = 18, 25.7%) and T (n = 9, 12.8%) families. Only 1strain was characterized as having the Beijing genotype. Among 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan MTB isolates, 25% (95% CI: 16-37) and 70% (95% CI: 39-89) were categorized as Ural lineage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A higher prevalence of Ural family MTB isolates among Afghan patients than among Iranian patients suggests the possible transmission of this lineage following the immigration of Afghans to Iran. PMID:27192590

  18. The fourth generation in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Zwirner, F.

    1985-12-01

    We consider model-independent constraints on the fourth-generation fermion masses and the magnitude of the D-term contribution to the scalar masses. We find that the ratio of vacuum expectation values is limited to the range 1/5 <~ ν2/ν 1 <~ 4.5. We compute the mass spectrum in the class of models where the only source of soft supersymmetry breaking is the gaugino mass m1/2. The lightest charged scalar turns out to be the fourth-generation slepton, which may be ligth enough to be pair-produced at LEP. The present PETRA bound on new charged particles implies that m1/2 >~ 150 GeV. A general feature of the four-generation models is thus a heavy spectrum of sparticles. On leave from International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy.

  19. Highlights from PIRLS 2011: Reading Achievement of U.S. Fourth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2013-010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sheila; Provasnik, Stephen; Kastberg, David; Ferraro, David; Lemanski, Nita; Roey, Stephen; Jenkins, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is an international comparative study of student achievement. In 2011, PIRLS was administered to nationally representative samples of 4th-grade students in 53 education systems around the world. The PIRLS assessment measures student performance on a combined reading literacy scale, as…

  20. Report from the fourth international consensus meeting to harmonize core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME initiative).

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J R; Simpson, E; Apfelbacher, C J; Thomas, K S; von Kobyletzki, L; Schmitt, J; Singh, J A; Svensson, Å; Williams, H C; Abuabara, K; Aoki, V; Ardeleanu, M; Awici-Rasmussen, M; Barbarot, S; Berents, T L; Block, J; Bragg, A; Burton, T; Bjerring Clemmensen, K K; Creswell-Melville, A; Dinesen, M; Drucker, A; Eckert, L; Flohr, C; Garg, M; Gerbens, L A A; Graff, A L B; Hanifin, J; Heinl, D; Humphreys, R; Ishii, H A; Kataoka, Y; Leshem, Y A; Marquort, B; Massuel, M-A; Merhand, S; Mizutani, H; Murota, H; Murrell, D F; Nakahara, T; Nasr, I; Nograles, K; Ohya, Y; Osterloh, I; Pander, J; Prinsen, C; Purkins, L; Ridd, M; Sach, T; Schuttelaar, M-L A; Shindo, S; Smirnova, J; Sulzer, A; Synnøve Gjerde, E; Takaoka, R; Vestby Talmo, H; Tauber, M; Torchet, F; Volke, A; Wahlgren, C-F; Weidinger, S; Weisshaar, E; Wollenberg, A; Yamaga, K; Zhao, C Y; Spuls, P I

    2016-07-01

    This article is a report of the fourth meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in Malmö, Sweden on 23-24 April 2015 (HOME IV). The aim of the meeting was to achieve consensus over the preferred outcome instruments for measuring patient-reported symptoms and quality of life for the HOME core outcome set for atopic eczema (AE). Following presentations, which included data from systematic reviews, consensus discussions were held in a mixture of whole group and small group discussions. Small groups were allocated a priori to ensure representation of different stakeholders and countries. Decisions were voted on using electronic keypads. For the patient-reported symptoms, the group agreed by vote that itch, sleep loss, dryness, redness/inflamed skin and irritated skin were all considered essential aspects of AE symptoms. Many instruments for capturing patient-reported symptoms were discussed [including the Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis index, Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index, Itch Severity Scale, Atopic Dermatitis Quickscore and the Nottingham Eczema Severity Score] and, by consensus, POEM was selected as the preferred instrument to measure patient-reported symptoms. Further work is needed to determine the reliability and measurement error of POEM. Further work is also required to establish the importance of pain/soreness and the importance of collecting information regarding the intensity of symptoms in addition to their frequency. Much of the discussion on quality of life concerned the Dermatology Life Quality Index and Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis; however, consensus on a preferred instrument for measuring this domain could not be reached. In summary, POEM is recommended as the HOME core outcome instrument for measuring AE symptoms. PMID:27436240

  1. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Fourth Session (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century was preceded by a 2-day working group on the processes of education. The Commission also held an afternoon of hearings that included an in-depth exchange between Canadian educational leaders and the Commission members on a wide range of topics that included…

  2. The Big Census Data Revolution: IPUMS-International. Trans-Border Access to Decades of Census Samples for Three-Fourths of the World and more

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade a revolution has occurred in the dissemination and analysis of census microdata. This paper discusses the IPUMS-International initiative to liberate census data for researchers world-wide without cost. As of June 2013, academic researchers and policy makers may access, 234 anonymized samples representing 74 countries and totaling over one-half billion person records. The database expands with the addition of 20–30 samples each year. Data are downloadable as extracts from the project website: www.ipums.org/international. To facilitate good use, both metadata and microdata are integrated. The analysis of 450 citations in the project bibliography reveals patterns in publications by country and topic. PMID:25506369

  3. A first insight on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as studied by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Irene; Jiménez, Yesica; Hernandez, Johana; Zozio, Thierry; Murcia, Martha I; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    With an incidence of 25.6/100,000 in 2008, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important public health problem in Colombia. In this study, a total of 152 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains isolated in Bogotá, Colombia between years 1995 and 2007 were genotyped by spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs. The various spoligotyping-based genotypic lineages in our sample were: Latin American & Mediterranean (LAM) n=75, 49.34%; Haarlem, n=38, 25.0%; ill-defined T group, n=21, 13.82%; S family, n=5, 3.29%; X clade, n=2, 1.32%; Beijing, n=1, 0.65%, while strains with unknown signatures (n=10) represented 6.58% of isolates. Using spoligotyping as a first molecular marker and MIRU-VNTRs as second marker, we obtained 102 single patterns and 14 clustered patterns (n=52 strains from 49 patients, 2-8 strains per cluster). The MIRU-VNTRs patterns corresponded to 50 MITs for 109 strains and 43 orphan patterns. The most frequent patterns were MIT190 (n=12), MIT45 (n=10), and MIT25 (n=9). The Hunter & Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI) of both methodologies used together showed a value of 0.992. In our setting, the HGDI of five loci subset (MIRU10, 16, 23, 26 and 40) contributed most to the discriminatory power of 12-loci format used (HGDI=0.977). The lineage distribution of M. tuberculosis showed that more than 3/4 of strains in Bogotá are commonly found in Latin America, Caribbean, and Europe. This observation might reflect the shared post-Columbus history of Colombia and its Latin-American neighbors as well as strains brought in by 20th century immigrants from Europe. We also demonstrate the usefulness of MIRU-VNTR to detect suspected links among patients and polyclonal infections.

  4. Fourth International Conference: Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation--Impact on Future Development: May 15-17 2013, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tupin, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    On the 15-17th of May 2013, about 120 scientists, postdoctoral fellows and professors representing renowned academic institutes and senior scientists and executives from small biotechs, contract research organizations (CROs) and Big Pharma companies, gathered at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) in Lausanne, Switzerland for the 4th international conference on Modern Vaccines and Adjuvants Formulation. Despite this relative small number, the speakers and attendees covered together a very broad field of expertise. Indeed, experts in microbiology, immunology, biochemistry, formulation, virus and nanoparticle characterization, vaccine production, quality control as well as regulatory professionals attended the conference and were able to present their works and discuss new developments within the field of vaccine and adjuvant development, characterization and approval process. This broad diversity was a highpoint of the conference and allowed for a stimulating environment and underlined the complexity of the challenges that the field currently faces in order to develop better or completely new vaccines and adjuvants.

  5. Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for differentiating spoligotyped drug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Sichuan in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Yuding; Zhu, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Sun, Honghu; Feng, Qin; Luo, Mei; Wu, Fanzi; Li, Xuefeng; Hill, Véronique; Rastogi, Nalin; Sun, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB) transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n = 190) versus non-Beijing isolates (n = 84) from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination.

  6. Splitting of a Prevalent Mycobacterium bovis Spoligotype by Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing Reveals High Heterogeneity in an Evolving Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Navarro, Yurena; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Bezos, Javier; Mateos, Ana; Golby, Paul; Smith, Noel H.; Hewinson, Glyn R.; Domínguez, Lucas; García-de-Viedma, Darío

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis populations in countries with persistent bovine tuberculosis usually show a prevalent spoligotype with a wide geographical distribution. This study applied mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing to a random panel of 115 M. bovis isolates that are representative of the most frequent spoligotype in the Iberian Peninsula, SB0121. VNTR typing targeted nine loci: ETR-A (alias VNTR2165), ETR-B (VNTR2461), ETR-D (MIRU4, VNTR580), ETR-E (MIRU31, VNTR3192), MIRU26 (VNTR2996), QUB11a (VNTR2163a), QUB11b (VNTR2163b), QUB26 (VNTR4052), and QUB3232 (VNTR3232). We found a high degree of diversity among the studied isolates (discriminatory index [D] = 0.9856), which were split into 65 different MIRU-VNTR types. An alternative short-format MIRU-VNTR typing targeting only the four loci with the highest variability values was found to offer an equivalent discriminatory index. Minimum spanning trees using the MIRU-VNTR data showed the hypothetical evolution of an apparent clonal group. MIRU-VNTR analysis was also applied to the isolates of 176 animals from 15 farms infected by M. bovis SB0121; in 10 farms, the analysis revealed the coexistence of two to five different MIRU types differing in one to six loci, which highlights the frequency of undetected heterogeneity. PMID:23985914

  7. Fourth International Symposium on Land Subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. I.

    Subsidence, or land-surface sinking, is a phenomenon that occurs in many parts of the world. Subsidence results from the heavy withdrawal of groundwater, geothermal fluids, oil, and gas; the extraction of coal, sulphur, and other solids through mining; the hydro-compaction of sediments; oxidation and shrinkage of organic deposits; the catastrophic development of sinkholes in karst terrain; and other phenomena. Over 150 areas of contemporary subsidence are known, some at rates of 10 m in countries such as Mexico, Japan, and the United States, for example. More areas of subsidence are likely to develop in the next few decades due to the accelerated exploitation of natural resources necessary to meet the demands of increasing population and industrial development in many countries.

  8. Finer characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs reveals phylogeographical specificities of isolates circulating in Guyana and Suriname.

    PubMed

    Streit, Elisabeth; Baboolal, Shirematee; Akpaka, Patrick E; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-03-01

    In this study we used spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs for a finer characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients residing in Guyana (n=74) and Suriname (n=80). The mean age of the patients was 38.5years (36.5 and 40.2years for Guyana vs. Suriname), with a male-to-female sex-ratio of 2.25 for Guyana vs. 4.27 in Suriname. Spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs led to a total of 41 and 65 different patterns respectively, with an overall clustering rate of 83.8% vs. 68.8%. Combined spoligotyping and VNTR analysis led to the detection of 18 clusters of 2-41 isolates, with an overall clustering of 67.5% and a recent "n-1" transmission rate of 55.8%. Importantly, Guyana was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of clustered isolates than Suriname (79.7% vs. 56.3%; p=0.0019). Three big spoligo/MIRU (SIT/MIT) clusters containing >10 isolates each were shared between the 2 countries, and concerned: T1 sublineage cluster 53/861 (n=41, 37 in Guyana vs. 4 in Suriname); EAI6-BGD1 sublineage cluster 1340/860 (n=16, 3 in Guyana vs. 13 in Suriname); and T1 sublineage cluster 131/146 (n=11, 6 in Guyana vs. 5 in Suriname); as well as 2 smaller clusters of 2 and 3 isolates respectively. However, the relative phylogeographical specificities of strains in circulation as well as a lack of drug-resistance observed among strains from Suriname suggested that trans-border transmission of drug-resistant isolates occurred less frequently than thought. Tracing and interrupting transmission channels of a specific clone (SIT53/15-MIT861) should become a priority in Guyana, not only because it is by far most abundant but also because it accounts for almost half of the drug resistant isolates (n=8/17, 47.1%) in our study, and clustered 5/12 (41.7%) MDR isolates.

  9. A first insight on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as studied by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Balcells, María Elvira; García, Patricia; Meza, Paulina; Peña, Carlos; Cifuentes, Marcela; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes Mountains, but recent migration from neighboring countries has changed this situation. We aimed to assess the genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains in Santiago, Chile, and compare with reports from other Latin-American countries. We analyzed MTBC isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis cases collected between years 2008 and 2013 in Central Santiago, using two genotyping methods: spoligotyping and 12-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). Data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SITVIT2 database. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 years and 61% were male; 11.6% were migrants. Of 103 strains (1 isolate/patient) included, there were 56 distinct spoligotype patterns. Of these, 16 strains (15.5%) corresponded to orphan strains in the SITVIT2 database, not previously reported. Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (34%) and T (33%) lineages were the most prevalent strains, followed by Haarlem lineage (16.5%). Beijing family was scarcely represented with only two cases (1.9%), one of them isolated from a Peruvian migrant. The most frequent clustered spoligotypes were SIT33/LAM3 (10.7%), SIT53/T1 (8.7%), SIT50/H3 (7.8%), and SIT37/T3 (6.8%). We conclude that LAM and T genotypes are the most prevalent genotypes of MTBC in Santiago, Chile, and together correspond to almost two thirds of analyzed strains, which is similar to strain distribution reported from other countries of Latin America. Nevertheless, the high proportion of SIT37/T3, which was rarely found in other Latin American countries, may underline a specific history or

  10. A First Insight on the Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex as Studied by Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Balcells, María Elvira; García, Patricia; Meza, Paulina; Peña, Carlos; Cifuentes, Marcela; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes Mountains, but recent migration from neighboring countries has changed this situation. We aimed to assess the genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains in Santiago, Chile, and compare with reports from other Latin-American countries. We analyzed MTBC isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis cases collected between years 2008 and 2013 in Central Santiago, using two genotyping methods: spoligotyping and 12-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). Data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SITVIT2 database. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 years and 61% were male; 11.6% were migrants. Of 103 strains (1 isolate/patient) included, there were 56 distinct spoligotype patterns. Of these, 16 strains (15.5%) corresponded to orphan strains in the SITVIT2 database, not previously reported. Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (34%) and T (33%) lineages were the most prevalent strains, followed by Haarlem lineage (16.5%). Beijing family was scarcely represented with only two cases (1.9%), one of them isolated from a Peruvian migrant. The most frequent clustered spoligotypes were SIT33/LAM3 (10.7%), SIT53/T1 (8.7%), SIT50/H3 (7.8%), and SIT37/T3 (6.8%). We conclude that LAM and T genotypes are the most prevalent genotypes of MTBC in Santiago, Chile, and together correspond to almost two thirds of analyzed strains, which is similar to strain distribution reported from other countries of Latin America. Nevertheless, the high proportion of SIT37/T3, which was rarely found in other Latin American countries, may underline a specific history or

  11. Strain Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Brazil Based on Genotypes Obtained by Spoligotyping, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing and the Presence of Large Sequence and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Acosta, Chyntia Carolina; Gomes, Lia Lima; Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valéria; de Araujo, Marcelo Ivens; Leite, Maria de Lourdes; Tannure, Flávio; Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Gomes, Harrison M.; Santos, Adalberto Rezende; Gomgnimbou, Michel K.; Sola, Christophe; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Boechat, Neio; Suffys, Philip Noel

    2014-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro is endemic for tuberculosis (TB) and presents the second largest prevalence of the disease in Brazil. Here, we present the bacterial population structure of 218 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, derived from 186 patients that were diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2009. Genotypes were generated by means of spoligotyping, 24 MIRU-VNTR typing and presence of fbpC103, RDRio and RD174. The results confirmed earlier data that predominant genotypes in Rio de Janeiro are those of the Euro American Lineages (99%). However, we observed differences between the classification by spoligotyping when comparing to that of 24 MIRU-VNTR typing, being respectively 43.6% vs. 62.4% of LAM, 34.9% vs. 9.6% of T and 18.3% vs. 21.5% of Haarlem. Among isolates classified as LAM by MIRU typing, 28.0% did not present the characteristic spoligotype profile with absence of spacers 21 to 24 and 32 to 36 and we designated these conveniently as “LAM-like”, 79.3% of these presenting the LAM-specific SNP fbpC103. The frequency of RDRio and RD174 in the LAM strains, as defined both by spoligotyping and 24 MIRU-VNTR loci, were respectively 11% and 15.4%, demonstrating that RD174 is not always a marker for LAM/RDRio strains. We conclude that, although spoligotyping alone is a tool for classification of strains of the Euro-American lineage, when combined with MIRU-VNTRs, SNPs and RD typing, it leads to a much better understanding of the bacterial population structure and phylogenetic relationships among strains of M. tuberculosis in regions with high incidence of TB. PMID:25314118

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypes Determined by Spoligotyping to Be Circulating in Colombia between 1999 and 2012 and Their Possible Associations with Transmission and Susceptibility to First-Line Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Gloria; Erazo, Lina; Wintaco, Maira; Castro, Claudia; Ribón, Wellman; Guerrero, Martha Inírida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a primary public health problem worldwide. The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) cases has increased in recent years in Colombia. Knowledge of M. tuberculosis genotypes defined by spoligotyping can help determine the circulation of genotypes that must be controlled to prevent the spread of TB. Objective To describe the genotypes of M. tuberculosis using spoligotyping in resistant and drug-sensitive isolates and their possible associations with susceptibility to first-line drugs. Methods An analytical observational study was conducted that included 741 isolates of M. tuberculosis from patients. The isolates originated from 31 departments and were obtained by systematic surveillance between 1999 and 2012. Results In total 61.94% of the isolates were resistant to 1 or more drugs, and 147 isolates were MDR. In total, 170 genotypes were found in the population structure of Colombian M. tuberculosis isolates. The isolates were mainly represented by four families: LAM (39.9%), Haarlem (19%), Orphan (17%) and T (9%). The SIT42 (LAM 9) was the most common genotype and contained 24.7% of the isolates, followed by the genotypes SIT62 (Haarlem1), SIT53 (T1), and SIT50 (H3). A high clustering of isolates was evident with 79.8% of the isolates classified into 32 groups. The Beijing family was associated with resistant isolates, whereas the Haarlem and T families were associated with sensitive isolates. The Haarlem family was also associated with grouped isolates (p = 0.031). Conclusions A high proportion (approximately 80%) of isolates was found in clusters; these clusters were not associated with resistance to first-line drugs. The Beijing family was associated with drug resistance, whereas the T and Haarlem families were associated with susceptibility in the Colombian isolates studied. PMID:26066494

  13. Spoligotype-based comparative population structure analysis of multidrug-resistant and isoniazid-monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jagielski, Tomasz; Augustynowicz-Kopec, Ewa; Zozio, Thierry; Rastogi, Nalin; Zwolska, Zofia

    2010-11-01

    The spoligotyping-based population structure of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Poland (n = 46), representing all culture-positive MDR tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, was compared to that of isoniazid (INH)-monoresistant strains (n = 71) isolated in 2004. The latter data set from a previous study (E. Augustynowicz-Kopeć, T. Jagielski, and Z. Zwolska, J. Clin. Microbiol. 2008, 46:4041-4044) represented 87% of all INH-monoresistant strains. The clustering rates and genotypic-diversity indexes for the 2 subpopulations were not significantly different (P = 0.05). The results were entered in the SITVIT2 database to assign specific shared type designations, corresponding genotypic lineages, and geographical distributions and compared to available data from neighboring countries (Germany, n = 704; Czech Republic, n = 530; Sweden, n = 379; Kaliningrad, Russia, n = 90) and strains from previous studies in Poland (n = 317). MDR strains resulted in 27 patterns (20 unique strains within the study and 7 clusters containing 2 to 6 isolates per cluster with a clustering rate of 56.5%) and belonged to the following genotypic lineages: ill-defined T family (28.3%), Haarlem (17.4%), Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (13%), Beijing (8.7%), S family (4.35%), and the X clade (2.17%). Comparison of the genetic structure of the MDR strains with that of INH-monoresistant strains showed that a total of 9 patterns were shared by both groups; these represented 1/3 of the MDR strains and 2/3 of the INH-monoresistant strains. Interestingly, 76.1% of the MDR isolates and 71.8% of the INH-resistant isolates yielded spoligotypes that were previously reported from Poland. The observation that nearly half of the spoligotypes identified among both MDR (48.1%) and INH-monoresistant (43.3%) M. tuberculosis isolates were present in Poland's neighboring countries suggested that a significant proportion of MDR and INH-resistant TB cases in Poland were caused by

  14. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  15. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  16. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Assam, India: Dominance of Beijing Family and Discovery of Two New Clades Related to CAS1_Delhi and EAI Family Based on Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR Typing.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Bhutia, Rinchenla; Bhowmick, Shovonlal; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan

  17. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Assam, India: Dominance of Beijing Family and Discovery of Two New Clades Related to CAS1_Delhi and EAI Family Based on Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR Typing.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Bhutia, Rinchenla; Bhowmick, Shovonlal; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan

  18. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  19. Searches for Fourth Generation Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    We present the results from searches for fourth generation fermions performed using data samples collected by the CDF II and D0 Detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. Many of these results represent the most stringent 95% C. L. limits on masses of new fermions to-date. A fourth chiral generation of massive fermions with the same quantum numbers as the known fermions is one of the simplest extensions of the SM with three generations. The fourth generation is predicted in a number of theories, and although historically have been considered disfavored, stands in agreement with electroweak precision data. To avoid Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} constraint from LEP I a fourth generation neutrino {nu}{sub 4} must be heavy: m({nu}{sub 4}) > m{sub Z}/2, where m{sub Z} is the mass of Z boson, and to avoid LEP II bounds a fourth generation charged lepton {ell}{sub 4} must have m({ell}{sub 4}) > 101 GeV/c{sup 2}. At the same time due to sizeable radiative corrections masses of fourth generation fermions cannot be much higher the current lower bounds and masses of new heavy quarks t' and b' should be in the range of a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2}. In the four-generation model the present bounds on the Higgs are relaxed: the Higgs mass could be as large as 1 TeV/c{sup 2}. Furthermore, the CP violation is significantly enhanced to the magnitude that might account for the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Additional chiral fermion families can also be accommodated in supersymmetric two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the SM with equivalent effect on the precision fit to the Higgs mass. Another possibility is heavy exotic quarks with vector couplings to the W boson Contributions to radiative corrections from such quarks with mass M decouple as 1/M{sup 2} and easily evade all experimental constraints. At the Tevatron p{bar p} collider 4-th generation chiral or vector-like quarks can be either produced strongly in pairs or singly via electroweak production, where the latter can be

  20. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  1. Handle Fireworks with Care on The Fourth

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159649.html Handle Fireworks With Care on the Fourth Take steps to ... THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Americans love fireworks, especially on the Fourth of July, but experts ...

  2. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  3. Third ventriculostomy and fourth ventricle outlets obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Enrique; de Notaris, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Indeed, blockage of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie and of the aqueduct results in a "trapped" fourth ventricle. Continued cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production within the fourth ventricle leads to cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. We could not, until now, understand the phenomenon, mainly on exploring endoscopically the permeability of the whole aqueduct. In adults, we call this condition the functional trapped fourth ventricle because in none of our cases have we found physical obstruction of CSF flow. Third ventricle-fourth ventriculostomy is by far the most frequently used technique for cannulation of the aqueduct in a trapped fourth ventricle. In our reported cases, we have introduced a silicone tube stent from below after accessing the fourth ventricle through a small suboccipital craniectomy, ascending it on the aqueduct in order to reach the third ventricle. Management of this infrequently isolated fourth ventricle, but communicated with the rest of ventricular system, remains a challenge for neurosurgeons. Lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology makes it difficult to treat a problem that we do not understand.

  4. First insight into genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Albania obtained by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and spoligotyping reveals the presence of beijing multidrug-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Tafaj, Silva; Zhang, Jian; Hauck, Yolande; Pourcel, Christine; Hafizi, Hasan; Zoraqi, Grigor; Sola, Christophe

    2009-05-01

    We characterized a set of 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) patients in Albania, typing them with a 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat-spoligotyping scheme. Depending on the cluster definition, 43 to 49 patients were distributed into 15 to 16 clusters which were likely to be epidemiologically linked, indicative of a recent transmission rate of 28 to 34%. This result suggests that TB is under control in Albania. However, two multidrug-resistant (MDR) Beijing genotypes harboring the same S531A mutation on the rpoB gene were also found, suggesting a potential recent transmission of MDR TB. Three brand new genotypes, Albania-1 to Albania-3, are also described.

  5. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  6. The Fourth World Conference on Women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing during September 4-15, 1995, was a major success. The platform for action adopted by consensus at the conference is comprised of the mission statement, a global framework, critical areas of concern, strategic objectives and actions, and institutional and financial arrangements. The conference was an extension of other large international conferences organized under UN initiative over the past 15 years. The Beijing platform of action aims to remove all obstacles to women's active participation in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic, social, cultural, and political decision-making. The following concerns were defined by the conference: eradicating poverty, increasing school enrollment and eliminating gender inequalities in access to education, improving access to health care and eliminating gender inequalities in access to services, eliminating violence against women, mitigating the consequences of armed conflicts against women, securing equal access of men and women to economic resources and employment, providing equal participation of men and women in power structures and decision making, enhancing national mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, protecting the rights of girls and women, eradicating stereotypes about women, participating in the management of natural resources and environmental protection, and improving the status of girls.

  7. Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  8. TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among Reading, Mathematics, and Science Achievement at the Fourth Grade--Implications for Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) is an international assessment of mathematics and science at the fourth and eighth grades that has been conducted every four years since 1995, with the most recent assessment in 2011. PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) is an international assessment of reading…

  9. Higher analytic derivatives. II. The fourth derivative of self-consistent-field energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslen, Paul E.; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Colwell, Susan M.; Amos, Roger D.; Handy, Nicholas C.

    1991-11-01

    This is the second in a series on the ab initio calculation of the second, third, and fourth derivatives of the energy of a molecule with respect to nuclear coordinates. A knowledge of these derivatives yields, in particular, anharmonic spectroscopic constants. Here we discuss our implementation of the formula for the fourth derivative of the self-consistent-field energy and present full quartic force fields in internal coordinates for H2O and CO2.

  10. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  11. Fourth Annual International Acquisitions Workshop: Access to Multiple Media Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Topics discussed during the workshop include: (1) Multinational-Multiple media collections and activities spanning many countries; (2) Multiple media in North American trade and commerce; (3) African spotlight; (4) Europe-Multiple media in national libraries and services; (5) Scandinavian spotlight; (6) Internet update; (7) Multiple media in US federal agencies; (8) Open-source multiple media in US federal agencies; and (9) Multiple media at US federal technical agencies-NIST and NOAA.

  12. 18. SECOND FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, BEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SECOND FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, BEARING WALL BETWEEN 202 AND 204, INSIGNIA OF FOURTH WARD REPUBLICAN CLUB - Phillips-Thompson Building, 200-206 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  13. An economic theory of the fourth hurdle.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, W H

    2013-05-01

    Third party payers' decision processes for financing health technologies ('fourth hurdle' processes) are subject to intensive descriptive empirical investigation. This paper addresses the need for a theoretical foundation of this research and develops a theoretical framework for analysing fourth hurdle processes from an economics perspective. On the basis of a decision-analytic framework and the theory of agents, fourth hurdle processes are described as sets of institutions to maximize the value derived from finite healthcare resources. Benefits are assumed to arise from the value of better information about and better implementation of the most cost-effective choice. Implementation is improved by decreased information asymmetries and better alignment of incentives. This decreases the effects of ex ante and ex post moral hazard on service provision. Potential indicators of high benefit include high costs associated with wrong decisions and large population sizes affected by the decision. The framework may serve as a basis both for further theoretical work, for example, on the appropriate degree of participation as well as further empirical work, for example, on comparative assessments of fourth hurdle processes. It needs to be complemented by frameworks for analysing fourth hurdle institutions developed by other disciplines such as bioethics or law.

  14. SITVITWEB--a publicly available international multimarker database for studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Demay, Christophe; Liens, Benjamin; Burguière, Thomas; Hill, Véronique; Couvin, David; Millet, Julie; Mokrousov, Igor; Sola, Christophe; Zozio, Thierry; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Among various genotyping methods to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) genotypic polymorphism, spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of DNA tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) have recently gained international approval as robust, fast, and reproducible typing methods generating data in a portable format. Spoligotyping constituted the backbone of a publicly available database SpolDB4 released in 2006; nonetheless this method possesses a low discriminatory power when used alone and should be ideally used in conjunction with a second typing method such as MIRU-VNTRs for high-resolution epidemiological studies. We hereby describe a publicly available international database named SITVITWEB which incorporates such multimarker data allowing to have a global vision of MTC genetic diversity worldwide based on 62,582 clinical isolates corresponding to 153 countries of patient origin (105 countries of isolation). We report a total of 7105 spoligotype patterns (corresponding to 58,180 clinical isolates) - grouped into 2740 shared-types or spoligotype international types (SIT) containing 53,816 clinical isolates and 4364 orphan patterns. Interestingly, only 7% of the MTC isolates worldwide were orphans whereas more than half of SITed isolates (n=27,059) were restricted to only 24 most prevalent SITs. The database also contains a total of 2379 MIRU patterns (from 8161 clinical isolates) from 87 countries of patient origin (35 countries of isolation); these were grouped in 847 shared-types or MIRU international types (MIT) containing 6626 isolates and 1533 orphan patterns. Lastly, data on 5-locus exact tandem repeats (ETRs) were available on 4626 isolates from 59 countries of patient origin (22 countries of isolation); a total of 458 different VNTR patterns were observed - split into 245 shared-types or VNTR International Types (VIT) containing 4413 isolates) and 213 orphan patterns. Datamining of SITVITWEB further allowed to update

  15. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  16. "Researching" with Third- and Fourth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    In order to instill in children the skills which will be basic to their school experience, words implying a process (such as "hemp,""parasite," and "vanilla") may be "researched" by third and fourth graders through the use of a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a supplementary book on the subject, and an interview with an adult. The child makes a…

  17. Recreational Reading: Choices of Fourth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Foley, Christy L.

    1998-01-01

    Compares readability levels of the recreational reading books selected by fourth graders. Finds that the students chose books from their school libraries and read (or chose not to read) books on all their reading levels. Concludes that students read books related to their interests, regardless of the book's readability or the student's reading…

  18. The Fourth Basic: Computer Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.

    Traditionally, the fundamental goal of all American education has been to provide students with adequate competencies in reading, writing, and mathematics. A year-long project, conducted at three high schools in Hardin County, Kentucky, provided for the development of a fourth basic: computer skills. Through this project, computer skills were…

  19. Fourth-Generation Computer Languages: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, John

    1988-01-01

    Points out that mainframe computer users today can make their requirements known to the computer in simple English. Provides a listing of fourth generation computer language advantages over third generation languages. Summarizes a program to streamline faculty records on a mainframe computer. (MVL)

  20. Brachymetatarsia of the third and fourth metatarsals.

    PubMed

    Goforth, W P; Overbeek, T D

    2001-01-01

    A cylindrical autogenous diaphyseal bone graft from the neighboring second and fifth metatarsals to correct brachymetatarsia of the third and fourth metatarsals was last described by Biggs in 1979. The authors present a literature review and case report for the treatment of the rare clinical entity of brachymetatarsia. PMID:11466465

  1. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  2. The Egyptian Press: An Official Fourth Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhorne, Clifton O.

    A descriptive study based on Egyptian law, printed sources, and interviews clarifies our picture of the Egyptian Press by examining its status as a constitutionally mandated "Fourth Estate." The constitutional amendment, the resultant Egyptian Press Law, and the "Law Of Shame" (all passed in 1980), are designed to create a heavily controlled press…

  3. The Fourth Domain of Educational Objectives: Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Wes

    1985-01-01

    Tests the claim to comprehensiveness of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives by analyzing educational objectives of some freshmen orientation programs and those connected with human developmental tasks. It is concluded that the taxonomy should be enlarged with a fourth domain: actual induction into tasks for which students are being…

  4. Singapore: The Fourth Way in Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article has two main objectives. It first outlines the first three waves of change termed by Hargreaves and Shirley (The Fourth Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, "2009") as the First, Second and Third Way that defined global educational policy and practice since the 1960s. It then introduces…

  5. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  6. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  7. Business Management for Independent Schools. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This fourth edition of a guide for independent school business managers has been produced in looseleaf format so that changes may be made promptly as decisions of regulatory bodies require modifications in current practice. Fourteen chapters are organized under three broad topic headings. Chapters in part 1, Accounting and Financial Reporting,…

  8. Efficacy of the Arts in a Transdisciplinary Learning Experience for Culturally Diverse Fourth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porte, Angela Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this participant observation was to understand the efficacy of a modified International Baccalaureate Primary Years Program for fourth-graders at a public school with a large percentage of language and socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Data collection over a five-month period concentrated on teaching interactions including…

  9. Margaret Beale Spencer Delivers AERA's Fourth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes AERA's Fourth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research delivered by internationally known education researcher and developmental psychologist Margaret Beale Spencer. The Lecture--"Lessons Learned and Opportunities Ignored Post-"Brown v. Board of Education": Youth Development and the Myth of a Colorblind Society"--drew…

  10. Concurrent Validities of the Stanford-Binet (Fourth Edition), Leiter, and Vineland with Developmentally Delayed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Leslie; And Others

    1992-01-01

    For 24 developmentally delayed children tested, correlations between Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (SB:4) and Leiter International Performance Scale (LIPS) global scores was high (r=.78). In seven cases, intraindividual discrepancies were large and significant. SB:4 and LIPS global scores correlated with Vineland Adaptive…

  11. Class Size Effects on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…

  12. Gravitational waves in fourth order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, S.; Stabile, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the post-Minkowskian limit approximation, we study gravitational wave solutions for general fourth-order theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider a Lagrangian with a generic function of curvature invariants . It is well known that when dealing with General Relativity such an approach provides massless spin-two waves as propagating degree of freedom of the gravitational field while this theory implies other additional propagating modes in the gravity spectra. We show that, in general, fourth order gravity, besides the standard massless graviton is characterized by two further massive modes with a finite-distance interaction. We find out the most general gravitational wave solutions in terms of Green functions in vacuum and in presence of matter sources. If an electromagnetic source is chosen, only the modes induced by are present, otherwise, for any gravity model, we have the complete analogy with tensor modes of General Relativity. Polarizations and helicity states are classified in the hypothesis of plane wave.

  13. Mars vehicle design: The fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-09-01

    Powerful new computational tools and small, expert teams have produced unprecedented levels of design detail in the latest cycle of engineering planning for human expeditions to Mars. This article reports on a study contract for NASA-MSFC which evolved mature fourth-generation Mars mission vehicle concepts, a set based on nuclear electric, solar electric, and nuclear thermal propulsion methods. The concept described in this article covers propulsion vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and propulsion components, crew habitats, and the earth-to-orbit (ETO) flight plan. The vehicle design integration has taken full advantage of modern numerical capabilities, including the following: supercomputer flight dynamics calculations; automated radiation dose analysis; and computer-aided design, drafting, performance modeling, and image representation. Fourth-generation methodology has established a challenging benchmark against which future concepts will be judged.

  14. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  15. The Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chabris, Christopher F.; Lee, James J.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Laibson, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior genetics is the study of the relationship between genetic variation and psychological traits. Turkheimer (2000) proposed “Three Laws of Behavior Genetics” based on empirical regularities observed in studies of twins and other kinships. On the basis of molecular studies that have measured DNA variation directly, we propose a Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics: “A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability.” This law explains several consistent patterns in the results of gene discovery studies, including the failure of candidate gene studies to robustly replicate, the need for genome-wide association studies (and why such studies have a much stronger replication record), and the crucial importance of extremely large samples in these endeavors. We review the evidence in favor of the Fourth Law and discuss its implications for the design and interpretation of gene-behavior research. PMID:26556960

  16. Documentation of the Fourth Order Band Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, fourth order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.

  17. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  18. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference, held at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on July 12-14, 1994, was to focus on the flight validation of high angle of attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle of attack activities. Areas that were covered include high angle of attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, and tactical utility.

  19. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference was to focus on the flight validation of high angle-of-attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle-of-attack activities. Areas that were covered include: high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, tactical utility, and forebody controls.

  20. Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-04-22

    CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  1. Fourth order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1994-01-01

    Fourth order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the fourth order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  2. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N.

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. 7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING AND STAIRS AT MISSION STREET OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fourth Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION SCAR MARKED BY CONTRASTING WALLPAPER TREATMENTS - Phillips-Thompson Building, 200-206 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  5. The Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: Report and Reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlands, I.H.

    1993-07-01

    Between 23 and 25 November 1992, representatives from more than 100 states gathered in Copenhagen for the Fourth Meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol in Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The Copenhagen gathering was significant not only because the international community had to respond to the ongoing deterioration of the Earth`s protective layer of stratospheric ozone, but also because it was one of the first major international environmental conferences to be held after the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The results of the fourth meeting, discussed in this paper, might therefore suggest the extent to which UNCED cemented the international community`s commitment to the goal of sustainable development.

  6. Comparison of a semiautomated commercial repetitive-sequence-based PCR method with spoligotyping, 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism-based analysis of IS6110 for Mycobacterium tuberculosis typing.

    PubMed

    Brossier, F; Sola, C; Millot, G; Jarlier, V; Veziris, N; Sougakoff, W

    2014-11-01

    Fifty-two multidrug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis representative of the currently predominant lineages in France were analyzed using repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DiversiLab (DL), spoligotyping, 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat typing (MIRU-VNTR), and restriction fragment length polymorphism of IS6110 (IS6110-RFLP). DL, as opposed to MIRU-VNTR and IS6110-RFLP analysis, did not allow discrimination among half of the isolates, an indication of comparatively lower resolving power.

  7. CP violation in fourth generation quark decays

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Hou Weishu

    2009-10-01

    We show that, if a fourth generation is discovered at the Tevatron or LHC, one could study CP violation (CPV) in b{sup '}{yields}s decays. Asymmetries could reach 30% for b{sup '}{yields}sZ for m{sub b{sup '}} < or approx. 350 GeV, while it could be greater than 50% for b{sup '}{yields}s{gamma} and extend to higher m{sub b{sup '}}. Branching ratios are 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5}, and CPV measurement requires tagging. Once measured, however, the CPV phase can be extracted with little theoretical uncertainty.

  8. Primary solitary lymphoma of the fourth ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Huang-I; Lai, Ping-Hong; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Shong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary central nervous lymphoma(PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the central nervous system. Most of the lesions are supratentorial and periventricular, often involving deep structures such as corpus callosum and basal ganglion. Isolated intraventricular lymphoma is rare and only a few case reports. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the seventh case of isolated PCNSL in the fourth ventricle in an immunocompetent patient. Presentation of case A 61-year-old male presenting with 3 months of headache and dizziness followed with unsteady gait for days. The MR imaging of brain revealed a homogeneously enhancing lesion occupying almost the whole 4th ventricle.The tumor was removed subtotally via suboccipital craniotomy. Histopathology revealed the lesion be a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Discussion PCNSL is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesion. The unusual location in surgically accessible fourth ventricle in posterior fossa, the isolation of the tumor may present a compelling indication for surgical resection. Conclusion We suggest that primary lymphoma should be considered with homogenous lesions of the 4th ventricle. Also aggressive surgical resection in this surgically accessible location, instead of biopsy only, is rational. PMID:26209757

  9. Fourth ventricle meningiomas: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, Angelo; Ruggeri, Andrea; Morselli, Carlotta; Delfini, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Fourth ventricle meningiomas (FVMs) are rare, often misdiagnosed, lesions. To the best of our knowledge, 47 cases have been reported in the literature: we describe our series of three cases treated at our Institution, focusing on some diagnostic tips and intraoperative features of these tumours. Our three patients have a history of headache. Gait disturbances, vomiting and/or diplopia complicated the clinical picture before the referral at our Department. The operations were uneventful, and the patients fully recovered from neurological symptoms. They are free of recurrence at a median follow-up of 19 years. FVMs are rare lesions, which are difficult to differentiate preoperatively from the much more common ependymomas. A preoperative distinction would be extremely advantageous: indeed, although both tumours share similar radiological and clinical patterns, they clearly differ as to surgical difficulty and outcome. In fact, meningiomas are comparatively easier to remove, granting better clinical results.

  10. PIRLS 2011 International Results in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V.S.; Martin, Michael O.; Foy, Pierre; Drucker, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PIRLS is an international assessment of reading comprehension at the fourth grade that has been conducted every five years since 2001. In 2011, nationally representative samples of students in 49 countries participated in PIRLS and prePIRLS. Forty-five countries assessed fourth grade students, and some countries participated in one or more of the…

  11. Course Offerings in the Fourth Year of Medical School: How U.S. Medical Schools Are Preparing Students for Internship.

    PubMed

    Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency.

  12. Course Offerings in the Fourth Year of Medical School: How U.S. Medical Schools Are Preparing Students for Internship.

    PubMed

    Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency. PMID:27002885

  13. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2010-09-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  14. 4. RAMP FOR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BRIDGE (FOURTH ST.) BETWEEN VINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RAMP FOR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BRIDGE (FOURTH ST.) BETWEEN VINE AND RACE STS., LOOKING NORTHWEST - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  16. 95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Neural crest: The fourth germ layer

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, K; Yanduri, Sarita; Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest cells (NCCs), a transient group of cells that emerges from the dorsal aspect of the neural tube during early vertebrate development has been a fascinating group of cells because of its multipotency, long range migration through embryo and its capacity to generate a prodigious number of differentiated cell types. For these reasons, although derived from the ectoderm, the neural crest (NC) has been called the fourth germ layer. The non neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the underlying mesoderm are needed for the induction and formation of NC cells. Once formed, NC cells start migrating as a wave of cells, moving away from the neuroepithelium and quickly splitting into distinct streams. These migrating NCCs home in to different regions and give rise to plethora of tissues. Umpteen number of signaling molecules are essential for formation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, delamination, migration and localization of NCC. Authors believe that a clear understanding of steps and signals involved in NC formation, migration, etc., may help in understanding the pathogenesis behind cancer metastasis and many other diseases. Hence, we have taken this review to discuss the various aspects of the NC cells. PMID:26604500

  18. Toward Fourth World Conference on Women.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    The Fourth World Conference on Women, scheduled to be held in Beijing in September 1995, will focus on the themes of equality, development, and peace as well as the subthemes of health, education, and employment. Attendance is expected to exceed 30,000 persons from more than 180 countries. The Chinese Organizing Committee for the Conference, established in August 1992, includes representatives from provincial and municipal governments, various ministries, and social and information-oriented organizations. In preparation for the conference, the Chinese Government has prepared a white paper on "The Situation of Chinese Women" and a country report on China's implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies. Promotional activities have included television specials on women's issues, daily newspaper accounts of preparatory activities, a public contest to select the conference logo, a marathon, publication of the works of Chinese women writers, and a photo contest featuring Chinese women and children. The Chinese Nongovernmental Forum Committee has prepared draft recommendations for a program of action and has identified 42 topics for workshops. PMID:12346286

  19. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the TIMSS 2011 Background and Curriculum Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The TIMSS 2011 International Database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the TIMSS 2011 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires and curriculum questionnaires in the following 10 sections: (1) Fourth Grade Student Questionnaire; (2) Fourth Grade Home…

  20. An Analysis of the Relationships between Taiwanese Eighth and Fourth Graders' Motivational Beliefs and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the issues of students' motivational beliefs in science learning and their relations with science achievement. Data of Taiwanese fourth and eighth graders from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 were examined. Students' self-concept and intrinsic interest as motivational beliefs,…

  1. 78 FR 56861 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... certain steel nails having a shaft length up to 12 inches. Certain steel nails subject to the order are... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results... conducting the fourth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails...

  2. Using TIMSS 2007 Data to Build Mathematics Achievement Model of Fourth Graders in Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 data were used to build mathematics achievement models of fourth graders in two East Asian school systems: Hong Kong and Singapore. In each school system, eight variables at student level and nine variables at school/class level were incorporated to build an achievement…

  3. Ecological, Psychological, and Cognitive Components of Reading Difficulties: Testing the Component Model of Reading in Fourth Graders across 38 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the…

  4. Ohio Ag in the Classroom. Fourth Grade Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.

    Adapted from Idaho's fourth grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing fourth-grade teachers with…

  5. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  6. Reading To Learn: Lessons from Exemplary Fourth-Grade Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Johnston, Peter H.

    Fourth graders around the country face new, high-stakes standardized tests, drawing increased attention to the need for effective literacy instruction in the upper elementary grades. This book goes beyond "political catch phrases" to examine what actually works in the fourth-grade classroom. The book offers a view of the techniques and strategies…

  7. Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A Fourth Grade Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fourth-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged fourth graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and…

  8. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  9. Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  10. Travelling waves of density for a fourth-gradient model of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    In mean-field theory, the non-local state of fluid molecules can be taken into account using a statistical method. The molecular model combined with a density expansion in Taylor series of the fourth order yields an internal energy value relevant to the fourth-gradient model, and the equation of isothermal motions takes then density's spatial derivatives into account for waves travelling in both liquid and vapour phases. At equilibrium, the equation of the density profile across interfaces is more precise than the Cahn and Hilliard equation, and near the fluid's critical point, the density profile verifies an Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, allowing kinks, which converges towards the Cahn-Hillard equation when approaching the critical point. Nonetheless, we also get pulse waves oscillating and generating critical opalescence.

  11. Disconjugacy of fourth-order equations on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulaev, R. Ch

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops the theory of disconjugacy of fourth-order equations on geometric graphs which arises in modelling rod structures. The disconjugacy of an equation is defined in terms of a special fundamental system of solutions of the homogeneous equation. The disconjugacy property is shown to be related to the positivity property of the Green's functions for certain classes of boundary value problems for a fourth-order equation on a graph. A maximum principle for a fourth-order equation on a graph is formulated, and some properties of differential inequalities are proved. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  12. 44. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF BASE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF BASE OF STACKS, FORCED DRAFT FANS, AND COAL BUNKER LOOKING TO COAL BUNKER - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  13. 43. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, CLOSER VIEW OF STACKS, FORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, CLOSER VIEW OF STACKS, FORCED DRAFT FANS, AND COAL BUNKER - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  14. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  16. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  17. Man and Energy, Module C. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module investigates solar energy, ecology, and fossil fuels. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  18. 39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST WALL OF DINING AND SOCIAL HALL ON NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST - Masonic Temple, 1111-1119 Eleventh Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  19. View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline of the Shuttle cargo bay and wing formed by the edge of the platforms. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS AND UNDATED LARD PRESS AND VATS ON RIGHT SIDE) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  3. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  4. 7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: FERGUSON & HAAS AUTOMATIC WRAPPING MACHINE INSTALLED BY 1929 - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. Unit 3, downstream from Fourth Avenue Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, downstream from Fourth Avenue Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. 31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milkstorage tank room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milk-storage tank room, spiral stair in right hand corner - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  8. 21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast (original location of heaters) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  9. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  10. Morphofunctional study of brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Munuera Martínez, Pedro V; Lafuente Sotillos, Guillermo; Domínguez Maldonado, Gabriel; Salcini Macías, José Luis; Martínez Camuña, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Brachymetatarsia is abnormal anatomical shortness of the metatarsals. We describe a new diagnostic test that enables quantification of the shortening of the fourth metatarsal in brachymetatarsia. The metatarsodigital alterations most frequently related to this deformity are presented. PMID:15265992

  11. 97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING NORTH, INNER DOME ON RIGHT WITH KNEE BRACE FROM INNER COLUMN TO CROSS BEAM - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  12. H.R. 959: A Bill to amend the Internal Code of 1986 to clarify the conservation expenditures by electric and gas utilities are deductible for the year in which paid or incurred. Introduced in the of House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 959, A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to clarify that conservation expenditures by electric and gas utilities are deductible for the year in which paid or incurred. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, February 15, 1995.

  13. H.R. 577: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 577, A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 19, 1995.

  14. Intelligence briefing on smuggling of nuclear material and the role of international crime organizations, and on the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. Hearing before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addresses nuclear smuggling and the role of international crime organizations in the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. The demise of the Soviet Union has weakened the control in Russia over nuclear materials. Statements of government officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  15. Seismological analysis of the fourth North Korean nuclear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has conducted its fourth underground nuclear explosions on 06.01.2016 at 01:30 (UTC). The explosion was clearly detected and located by the seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Additional seismic stations of international earthquake monitoring networks at regional distances, which are not part of the IMS, are used to precisely estimate the epicenter of the event in the North Hamgyong province (41.38°N / 129.05°E). It is located in the area of the North Korean Punggye-ri nuclear test site, where the verified nuclear tests from 2006, 2009, and 2013 were conducted as well. The analysis of the recorded seismic signals provides the evidence, that the event was originated by an explosive source. The amplitudes as well as the spectral characteristics of the signals were examined. Furthermore, the similarity of the signals with those from the three former nuclear tests suggests very similar source type. The seismograms at the 8,200 km distant IMS station GERES in Germany, for example, show the same P phase signal for all four explosions, differing in the amplitude only. The comparison of the measured amplitudes results in the increasing magnitude with the chronology of the explosions from 2006 (mb 4.2), 2009 (mb 4.8) until 2013 (mb 5.1), whereas the explosion in 2016 had approximately the same magnitude as that one three years before. Derived from the magnitude, a yield of 14 kt TNT equivalents was estimated for both explosions in 2013 and 2016; in 2006 and 2009 yields were 0.7 kt and 5.4 kt, respectively. However, a large inherent uncertainty for these values has to be taken into account. The estimation of the absolute yield of the explosions depends very much on the local geological situation and the degree of decoupling of the explosive from the surrounding rock. Due to the missing corresponding information, reliable magnitude-yield estimation for the

  16. Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal, Lengthening Scarf Osteotomy with Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Lidder, Surjit; R. Armitage, Andrew; S. Rajaratnam, Samuel; D. Skyrme, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with left fourth metatarsal shortening causing significant psychological distress. She underwent lengthening scarf osteotomy held with an Omnitech® screw (Biotech International, France) with the addition of two 1 cm cancellous cubes (RTI Biologics, United States). A lengthening zplasty of the extensor tendons and skin were also performed. At 6 weeks the patient was fully weight bearing and at one-year follow up, the patient was satisfied and discharged. A modified technique of lengthening scarf osteotomy is described for congenital brachymatatarsia. This technique allows one stage lengthening through a single incision with graft incorporation by 6 weeks. PMID:24191181

  17. Brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal, lengthening scarf osteotomy with bone graft.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ankit; Lidder, Surjit; R Armitage, Andrew; S Rajaratnam, Samuel; D Skyrme, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with left fourth metatarsal shortening causing significant psychological distress. She underwent lengthening scarf osteotomy held with an Omnitech(®) screw (Biotech International, France) with the addition of two 1 cm cancellous cubes (RTI Biologics, United States). A lengthening zplasty of the extensor tendons and skin were also performed. At 6 weeks the patient was fully weight bearing and at one-year follow up, the patient was satisfied and discharged. A modified technique of lengthening scarf osteotomy is described for congenital brachymatatarsia. This technique allows one stage lengthening through a single incision with graft incorporation by 6 weeks. PMID:24191181

  18. Korobov polynomials of the third kind and of the fourth kind.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekyun; Kim, Dae San

    2015-01-01

    The first degenerate version of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind appeared in the paper by Korobov (Math Notes 2:77-19, 1996; Proceedings of the IV international conference modern problems of number theory and its applications, pp 40-49, 2001). In this paper, we study two degenerate versions of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind which will be called Korobov polynomials of third kind and of the fourth kind. Some properties, identities, recurrence relations and connections with other polynomials are investigated by using umbral calculus.

  19. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  20. Grassroots expectations of the Fourth World Conference on Women.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    Four Thai women relate how they became grassroots leaders and what they expect from the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Somboon Srikhumdokkhae's story began when her health began to fail at age 29 after 12 years of work in a textile factory. It took her four years of searching to find the proper diagnosis and treatment for her condition, which she learned was byssinosis, a lung disease caused by her occupation. Srikhumdokkhae soon found others suffering from byssinosis, and she joined with fellow employees to produce a newsletter telling other workers about the problem. This led to the formation of workers' groups and to demands for compensation. Srikhumdokkhae hopes that the WCW will contribute to national labor movement efforts to alleviate such problems. Ing Thawaisin's stance against a government relocation scheme that affected her village propelled her into grassroots environmental advocacy. The government wished to move low-income people dependent upon forests in order to plant eucalyptus trees. After successfully protesting the scheme, Thawaisin works with an organization dedicated to preserving and replanting the forest. Thawaisin believes that women have become involved in grassroots environmental advocacy because they look after their whole community as their family. Thawaisin hopes to exchange views with women from around the world and learn from their experiences during the NGO Forum of the WCW and to warn women in neighboring countries of the dangers of material development. Miya Hawa learned about the ecological value of sea grass and mangrove swamps from the Raindrop Association. By restoring the health of the sea, Hawa and her conservation group have attracted more fish to the area and have improved the quality of their lives. Hawa feels that attending the NGO Forum will empower her personally and will help her to understand the link between development and increased poverty. Dokmai Prueksamas

  1. The Value of the Fourth Year of Mathematics. Math Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Too many students and educators view the senior year and graduation from high school as an end point, rather than one vital step along the education pipeline. Students who engage in a fourth year of math tap into and build upon their advanced analytic skills and are more likely to have better success in postsecondary course work, as they have…

  2. OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF BUILDING) SHOWING TOP OF MISSILE TUBE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  4. The Informed Argument: A Multidisciplinary Reader and Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert K.

    Reflecting the belief that learning is best fostered by encouraging students to read, reflect, and write about serious issues, this book is designed to help students argue on behalf of their beliefs so that other people will take them seriously. The 85 readings gathered in the book (60 of which are new to the fourth edition) give students adequate…

  5. Film Preference Patterns of Fourth and Fifth Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carole Alice Shirreffs

    This study identifies and describes the interest patterns of 218 fourth and fifth grade children in two schools in Baton Rouge, Louisiana--one black Title I school, one white suburban school--as they pertain to the content and technique of the short film, and to determine whether these interest were related to sex, or race-socioeconomic status.…

  6. Fourth-order mutual coherence function in oceanic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Yahya

    2016-04-10

    We have recently expressed the structure constant of atmospheric turbulence in terms of the oceanic turbulence parameters, which are the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, wavelength, Kolmogorov microscale, and link length. In this paper, utilizing this recently found structure constant and the fourth-order mutual coherence function of atmospheric turbulence, we present the fourth-order mutual coherence function to be used in oceanic turbulence evaluations. Thus, the found fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence is evaluated for the special case of a point source located at the transmitter origin and at a single receiver point. The variations of this special case of the fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence against the changes in the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, the rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, the wavelength, and the Kolmogorov microscale at various link lengths are presented.

  7. Discrimination Evidence for Examining Fourth Grade Students' Learning Disability Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…

  8. VIEW OF THE EAST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE EAST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. VIEW OF THE WEST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Reflections on Doing Geography: Learning Observations from the Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahunty, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Orchard Bog site in Shady Valley, Tennessee, is a unique Appalachian mountain bog that provides many opportunities for student exploration. A biogeographer, a field technician, two biologists, and a historian combined their expertise to teach 100 fourth graders how historians and scientists learn about past…

  11. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  12. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  13. Building Positive Self-Concepts in Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossing, Lewis; Sasseen, Beverly

    Sixteen Caucasian, fourth-grade, low ability math students participated in an experimental classroom intervention designed to improve their self-concepts. After pretesting with the How I See Myself Scale (HISMS), students each day for 8 weeks began class with a self-enhancing activity. Specific classroom exericses aimed at increasing children's…

  14. Fourth Amendment Challenges: The Legality of Searching Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimo, Angela M.

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on the recent application and interpretation of the Fourth Amendment to school children. Discusses the amendment in regard to the relationship between school authorities and children, students' legitimate expectation of privacy, reasonableness in justification of a search, issues of mass mandatory screening, and requirements of due process…

  15. Dietary Behaviors among Fourth Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sara J.; Sargent, Roger G.; Rheaume, Carol E.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the impact of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors on fourth graders' dietary practices, using a social cognitive theory framework. Survey results highlighted social cognitive variables that significantly influenced dietary behaviors: gender, race, socioeconomic status, fruit and vegetable availability at home, nutrition…

  16. 43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3869-46, Y&D Drawing 190843. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 4A, FOURTH GRADE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FIFTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE FOURTH GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. THERE IS A DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE CONTENT FOR GRADE 4 FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING MAJOR AREAS AROUND WHICH…

  18. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  19. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  20. Fourth Grade: Late Fall and Early Spring Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joel Robert, Ed.

    Activity plans for fourth grade outdoor education experiences comprise the bulk of this curriculum guide. Many of the outlines have been developed through practical application and experimentation by staff members of the Outdoor and Environmental Education Center (OEEC) of the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, City Schools. Activities and studies for the…

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE FOURTH GRADE SLUMP IN CREATIVE THINKING. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TORRANCE, E. PAUL

    STUDIES OF CREATIVITY AND OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTURBANCES IN CHILDREN HAVE SUGGESTED THE PRESENCE OF SLUMPS (OR INVERSIONS) WHICH MAY BE CORRELATED WITH DEVELOPMENTAL TRANSITIONS. THE MOST NOTABLE OF THESE OCCURS AT ABOUT THE FOURTH GRADE AND IS THE OBJECT OF THIS STUDY. THREE SETS OF INVESTIGATIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN--(1) A STUDY OF CREATIVE…

  2. 6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: AMERICAN CAR & FOUNDRY COMPANY MANUAL SOAP CUTTER INSTALLED 1932 (FOREGROUND); CONVEYORS; AND R.A. JONES & COMPANY HORIZONTAL PRESS INSTALLED 1931 (BACKGROUND) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as providing for…

  4. School Adjustment of Children at Risk through Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Bezruczko, Nikolaus

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data collected from parents, teachers, and children to test social psychological predictors of early school adjustment of 1,255 low-income children from kindergarten to fourth grade. Found that parent involvement was positively related to achievement and teacher ratings of school progress. (MM)

  5. Texas Superintendents' Role in Student Fourth Amendment Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey

    This study analyzed the current student drug testing policies of Texas public school districts in the context of the Fourth Amendment rights of students. Court decisions on this issue conflict, and school administrators, attorneys, and other concerned parties may be interested in knowing school districts policies. Responses were received from 827…

  6. Migrant Counselor's Handbook, Grades 9-12. Fourth Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Programs.

    The fourth revised edition of the migrant counselor's handbook emphasizes administration of the migrant counselor's duties, knowledge of procedures, and functional aids to carrying out work with migrant students. Part I provides definitions, explains counselor responsibilities and procedures, and includes in-state and out-of-state programs and…

  7. The Copyright Book: A Practical Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, William S.

    In response to important changes in copyright law as the United States accommodates itself to the Berne Convention and develops means to take account of new technologies, this guide puts these changes in a form and context that will make sense to persons who are concerned about their rights under the law. New material in the fourth edition of this…

  8. Supreme Court Docket: Drug Testing and the Fourth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charlotte C., Ed.; Williams, Charles, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses upon classroom presentation of issues related to the Fourth Amendment of U.S. Constitution. Presents a description of a drug test case simulation (D. Hess); a case involving drug testing in the public sector which is to be heard by the Supreme Court (L. Mandell); and other teaching strategies (D. Hess). Provides a guide for finding Supreme…

  9. Nature's Energy, Module B. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module examines man's use of fossil fuels, electricity production, and other energy sources. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  10. 46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH STORY) OF THE TOWER FROM THE NORTHEAST TO THE SOUTHWEST (NOTE: GROUPS OF THREE WINDOWS IN EACH SIDE OF TOWER, ORNAMENTED WITH BROWNSTONE ARCHES AND BROWNSTONE SILLS WITHOUT BRACKETS) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  11. Administration of the Small Public Library. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    Since the publication of its first edition in 1965, this book has been a standard resource for setting up and managing cutting-edge small public library facilities. Completely revised and updated, this fourth edition continues that tradition with many more figures (28 in this edition), case studies and sample policies, and new content on grant…

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF THE FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  14. Fourth Way in Action: Teacher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers are often looking for solutions to develop their educational systems in today's highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley's Fourth Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA…

  15. MRI characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Bazelle, Julien; Caine, Abby; Palus, Viktor; Summers, Brian A; Cherubini, Giunio B

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial arachnoid diverticula (cysts) are rare accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the arachnoid membrane. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in a group of dogs. The hospital's medical records were searched for dogs with MRI studies of the brain and a diagnosis of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticulum. Clinical characteristics were recorded from medical records and MRI studies were reinterpreted by a board-certified veterinary radiologist. Five pediatric dogs fulfilled inclusion criteria. Clinical signs included cervical hyperaesthesia, obtundation, tetraparesis, and/or central vestibular syndrome. In all five dogs, MRI findings were consistent with obstructive hydrocephalus, based on dilation of all ventricles and compression of the cerebellum and brainstem. All five dogs also had cervical syringohydromyelia, with T2-weighted hyperintensity of the gray matter of the cord adjacent to the syringohydromyelia. A signal void, interpreted as flow disturbance, was observed at the mesencephalic aqueduct in all dogs. Four dogs underwent surgical treatment with occipitalectomy and durotomy. A cystic lesion emerging from the fourth ventricle was detected in all four dogs during surgery and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of arachnoid diverticula. Three dogs made excellent recovery but deteriorated shortly after surgery and were euthanized. Repeat MRI in two dogs revealed improved hydrocephalus but worsening of the syringohydromyelia. Findings from the current study supported theories that fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula are secondary to partial obstruction of the central canal or lateral apertures and that arachnoid diverticula are developmental lesions in dogs.

  16. Understanding the Fourth-Grade Slump: Our Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph; Palumbo, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Educators know that an achievement gap exists between students of low-income and middle-income families, a gap that is especially evident in fourth grade and beyond. This essay explores issues related to this gap, including primary-level children being immersed in narrative text and, therefore, unprepared for the challenges of informational text…

  17. 13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, showing east corner and former electrical equipment area, room #306. This building was salvaged and sealed in the 1970's; the lower floors also suffered flooding - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  19. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  20. 19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC MOTOR LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  1. Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beth

    This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

  2. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  3. Fourth-of-July fireworks over national health care.

    PubMed

    1992-08-01

    On July 3, President George Bush devoted his annual Fourth-of-July radio message to the American people to the issue of health care reform. What follows are slightly edited transcripts of the president's message and the response of the Democratic Party, which was delivered by Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-Maine) and also broadcast on July 3.

  4. Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orelove, Fred P., Ed.; Sobsey, Dick, Ed.; Silberman, Rosanne K., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this highly respected, bestselling textbook gives undergraduate and graduate students up-to-the-minute research and strategies for educating children with severe and multiple disabilities. This popular core text--for 15 years, a staple of teacher training programs in special education and related fields--thoroughly…

  5. North Carolina Tales Fly with Fourth Grade Tellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westman, Gretchen Daub

    2008-01-01

    In fourth grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how…

  6. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  7. Fourth-order mutual coherence function in oceanic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Yahya

    2016-04-10

    We have recently expressed the structure constant of atmospheric turbulence in terms of the oceanic turbulence parameters, which are the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, wavelength, Kolmogorov microscale, and link length. In this paper, utilizing this recently found structure constant and the fourth-order mutual coherence function of atmospheric turbulence, we present the fourth-order mutual coherence function to be used in oceanic turbulence evaluations. Thus, the found fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence is evaluated for the special case of a point source located at the transmitter origin and at a single receiver point. The variations of this special case of the fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence against the changes in the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, the rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, the wavelength, and the Kolmogorov microscale at various link lengths are presented. PMID:27139862

  8. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  9. A "Perfect" Case Study: Perfectionism in Academically Talented Fourth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of perfectionism is bound to surface when discussing the social and emotional development of gifted children and adolescents. The author has observed gifted and talented fourth graders who have exhibited perfectionism in a myriad of unhealthy ways. She was able to document and categorize the manifestations of perfectionism. In this…

  10. Dynamic Characters: A Year in the Life of Fourth Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiklejohn, Julie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she was able to facilitate a turn around with a seemingly hopeless regular English class. Her fourth class, which consisted of the thugs and slugs, was her first regular class as she had always been assigned the honors classes. Many of these students were repeating the class, having failed the previous year.…

  11. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Barbara J., Ed.

    The fourth edition of this curriculum guide will help college, university, and secondary school educators design and update courses, familiarize themselves with new literature and resources, and plan and justify new academic programs in the study of global problems. While syllabus categories remain the same as in previous editions, several new…

  12. Billiard systems with polynomial integrals of third and fourth degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana

    2001-03-01

    The problem of the existence of polynomial-in-momenta first integrals for dynamical billiard systems is considered. Examples of billiards with irreducible integrals of third and fourth degree are constructed with the help of the integrable problems of Goryachev-Chaplygin and Kovalevsky from rigid body dynamics.

  13. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  14. Implementation Frailties of Guba and Lincoln's "Fourth Generation" Evaluation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Tom

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of a science education project for teachers in Durban (South Africa) illustrates some problems inherent in the application of the fourth-generation evaluation approach of Guba and Lincoln. One of the strongest concerns is that full participation by stakeholders may be an unrealistic assumption. (SLD)

  15. Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.

    2005-09-01

    It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac ({nu}{sub 4}) and Majorana (N{sub 1}) neutrinos at future linear colliders with {radical}(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{sub 4}{nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}N{sub 1}) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels ({nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}){yields}{mu}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}) provide cleanest signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at {radical}(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures.

  16. Fourth Integrated Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (ICNS) Conference and Workshop 2004: Conclusions and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Brent; Swanda, Ronald L.; Lewis, Michael S.; Kenagy, Randy; Donahue, George; Homans, Al; Kerczewski, Robert; Pozesky, Marty

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center organized and hosted the Fourth Integrated Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (ICNS) Technologies Conference and Workshop, which took place April 26-30, 2004 at the Hyatt Fair Lakes Hotel in Fairfax, Virginia. This fourth conference of the annual series followed the very successful first ICNS Conference (May 1-3, 2001 in Cleveland, Ohio), second ICNS conference (April 29-May 2, 2002 in Vienna, Virginia), and third ICNS conference (May 19-22, 2003 in Annapolis, Maryland). The purpose of the Fourth ICNS Conference was to assemble government, industry and academic communities performing research and development for advanced digital communications, surveillance and navigation systems and associated applications supporting the national and global air transportation systems to: 1) Understand current efforts and recent results in near- and far-term R&D and technology demonstration; 2) Identify integrated digital communications, navigation and surveillance R&D requirements necessary for a safe, secure and reliable, high-capacity, advanced air transportation system; 3) Provide a forum for fostering collaboration and coordination; and 4) Discuss critical issues and develop recommendations to achieve the future integrated CNS vision for national and global air transportation. The workshop attracted 316 attendees from government, industry and academia to address these purposes through technical presentations, breakout sessions, and individual and group discussions during the workshop and after-hours events, and included 16 international attendees. An Executive Committee consisting of representatives of several key segments of the aviation community concerned with CNS issues met on the day following the workshop to consider the primary outcomes and recommendations of the workshop. This report presents an overview of the conference, workshop breakout session results, and the findings of the Executive Committee.

  17. Methotrexate administration directly into the fourth ventricle in children with malignant fourth ventricular brain tumors: a pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David I; Rytting, Michael; Zaky, Wafik; Kerr, Marcia; Ketonen, Leena; Kundu, Uma; Moore, Bartlett D; Yang, Grace; Hou, Ping; Sitton, Clark; Cooper, Laurence J; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Lee, Dean A; Thall, Peter F; Khatua, Soumen

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemotherapy can be safely administered directly into the fourth ventricle to treat recurrent malignant brain tumors in children. For the first time in humans, methotrexate was infused into the fourth ventricle in children with recurrent, malignant brain tumors. A catheter was surgically placed into the fourth ventricle and attached to a ventricular access device. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was confirmed by CINE MRI postoperatively. Each cycle consisted of 4 consecutive daily methotrexate infusions (2 milligrams). Disease response was monitored with serial MRI scans and CSF cytologic analysis. Trough CSF methotrexate levels were sampled. Five patients (3 with medulloblastoma and 2 with ependymoma) received 18, 18, 12, 9, and 3 cycles, respectively. There were no serious adverse events or new neurological deficits attributed to methotrexate. Two additional enrolled patients were withdrawn prior to planned infusions due to rapid disease progression. Median serum methotrexate level 4 h after infusion was 0.04 µmol/L. Range was 0.02-0.13 µmol/L. Median trough CSF methotrexate level 24 h after infusion was 3.18 µmol/L (range 0.53-212.36 µmol/L). All three patients with medulloblastoma had partial response or stable disease until one patient had progressive disease after cycle 18. Both patients with ependymoma had progressive disease after 9 and 3 cycles, respectively. Low-dose methotrexate can be infused into the fourth ventricle without causing neurological toxicity. Some patients with recurrent medulloblastoma experience a beneficial anti-tumor effect both within the fourth ventricle and at distant sites. PMID:26255071

  18. Methotrexate administration directly into the fourth ventricle in children with malignant fourth ventricular brain tumors: a pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David I; Rytting, Michael; Zaky, Wafik; Kerr, Marcia; Ketonen, Leena; Kundu, Uma; Moore, Bartlett D; Yang, Grace; Hou, Ping; Sitton, Clark; Cooper, Laurence J; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Lee, Dean A; Thall, Peter F; Khatua, Soumen

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemotherapy can be safely administered directly into the fourth ventricle to treat recurrent malignant brain tumors in children. For the first time in humans, methotrexate was infused into the fourth ventricle in children with recurrent, malignant brain tumors. A catheter was surgically placed into the fourth ventricle and attached to a ventricular access device. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was confirmed by CINE MRI postoperatively. Each cycle consisted of 4 consecutive daily methotrexate infusions (2 milligrams). Disease response was monitored with serial MRI scans and CSF cytologic analysis. Trough CSF methotrexate levels were sampled. Five patients (3 with medulloblastoma and 2 with ependymoma) received 18, 18, 12, 9, and 3 cycles, respectively. There were no serious adverse events or new neurological deficits attributed to methotrexate. Two additional enrolled patients were withdrawn prior to planned infusions due to rapid disease progression. Median serum methotrexate level 4 h after infusion was 0.04 µmol/L. Range was 0.02-0.13 µmol/L. Median trough CSF methotrexate level 24 h after infusion was 3.18 µmol/L (range 0.53-212.36 µmol/L). All three patients with medulloblastoma had partial response or stable disease until one patient had progressive disease after cycle 18. Both patients with ependymoma had progressive disease after 9 and 3 cycles, respectively. Low-dose methotrexate can be infused into the fourth ventricle without causing neurological toxicity. Some patients with recurrent medulloblastoma experience a beneficial anti-tumor effect both within the fourth ventricle and at distant sites.

  19. PREFACE: Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.

    2006-04-01

    The formulation of a quantum theory of gravity seems to be the unavoidable endpoint of modern theoretical physics. Yet the quantum description of the gravitational field remains elusive. The year 2005 marks the tenth anniversary of the First Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity, held in Dubna (Russia) due to the efforts of Alexandre T. Filippov (JINR, Dubna) and Vittorio de Alfaro (University of Torino, Italy). At the heart of this initiative was the desire for an international forum where the status and perspectives of research in quantum gravity could be discussed from the broader viewpoint of modern gauge field theories. Since the Dubna meeting, an increasing number of scientists has joined this quest. Progress was reported in two other conferences in this series: in Santa Margherita Ligure (Italy) in 1996 and in Villasimius (Sardinia, Italy) in 1999. After a few years of ``working silence'' the time was now mature for a new gathering. The Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity (QG05) was held in Cala Gonone (Sardinia, Italy) from Monday 12th to Friday 16th September 2005. Surrounded by beautiful scenery, 100 scientists from 23 countries working in field theory, general relativity and related areas discussed the latest developments in the quantum treatment of gravitational systems. The QG05 edition covered many of the issues that had been addressed in the previous meetings and new interesting developments in the field, such as brane world models, large extra dimensions, analogue models of gravity, non-commutative techniques etc. The format of the meeting was similar to the previous ones. The programme consisted of invited plenary talks and parallel sessions on cosmology, quantum gravity, strings and phenomenology, gauge theories and quantisation and black holes. A major goal was to bring together senior scientists and younger people at the beginning of their scientific career. We were able to give financial support to both

  20. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Radiological Control Performance Indicator Report -- Fourth Quarter, Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, F.L.

    1999-02-01

    This document provides a report of an analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the fourth quarter of Calendar Year (CY-98) and is the annual report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEEL Radiological Control Manual. The INEEL collective occupational radiation deep dose is 63.034 person-rem year to date, compared to a goal of 83.1 person-rem. During the fourth quarter, all areas experienced deletions of work resulting from the Maintenance Stand Down. This reduction in work is a primary factor in the difference in the year end dose and the ALARA goal. The work will be completed during CY-99. Beginning in CY-98, a numeric Radiological Performance Index (RPI) is being used to compare radiological performance. The RPI takes into consideration frequency and severity of events such as skin contaminations, clothing contaminations, spills, exposures to radiation exceeding limits, and positive internal dose. The RPI measures the cost of these events in cents per hour of radiological work performed. To make the RPI meaningful, tables have been prepared to show the facility that contributes to the values used. The data are compared on a quarterly basis to the prior year to show measurable performance.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D. )

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  2. 'Pheran' Induced Fourth Degree Friction Burn of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Altaf; Bashir, Sheikh Adil; Zaroo, Mohamad Inam; Bijli, Akram Hussain; Wani, Iqbal Rasool

    2015-06-01

    Friction burns result from the rubbing between the skin and any other rough surface. We present a case of fourth degree friction burn of the brain, which was predisposed due to the wearing of traditional long loose clothing known as 'Pheran'. The patient was pillion riding a motor bike on a highway and was wearing a Pheran. The loose arm sleeves of the pheran were hanging by the side. The bike met with a side-on collision with a load-carrier lorry. The patient fell down and the left loose arm sleeve of the pheran was trapped in the axle of the lorry. He was dragged on the road for about half a km before the fast moving lorry stopped, the driver being oblivious of the accident. The patient developed friction injury to various parts of the body in addition to a severe fourth degree friction burn to brain and a fracture shaft of left femur.

  3. Primary intra-fourth ventricular meningioma: Report two cases

    PubMed Central

    Sadashiva, Nishanth; Rao, Shilpa; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Shukla, Dhaval

    2016-01-01

    Meningioma's occurring intraventricular region are rare and these occurring in the fourth ventricle is even rare. Because of the rarity, it is not usually considered as a differential diagnosis in any age group. Clinical features and Imaging is not characteristic, and most of them are thought to be some different tumor. Here, we discuss two cases harboring a primary fourth ventricular meningioma Grade II, which was surgically excised successfully. Total excision was achieved in both cases and as the tumor was firm to soft and vermian splitting was not required. Understanding the clinical features and a careful preoperative radiological examination is required to differentiate this tumor from more commonly occurring lesions at this location. PMID:27114661

  4. Fourth Order Algorithms for Solving Diverse Many-Body Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Forbert, Harald A.; Chen, Chia-Rong; Kidwell, Donald W.; Ciftja, Orion

    2001-03-01

    We show that the method of factorizing an evolution operator of the form e^ɛ(A+B) to fourth order with purely positive coefficient yields new classes of symplectic algorithms for solving classical dynamical problems, unitary algorithms for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, norm preserving algorithms for solving the Langevin equation and large time step convergent Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. Results for each class of problems will be presented and disucss

  5. Quenching phenomena for fourth-order nonlinear parabolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Niu; Xiaotong, Qiu; Runzhang, Xu

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quenching phenomena of the initial boundary value problem for the fourth-order nonlinear parabolic equation in bounded domain. By some assumptions on the exponents and initial data for a class of equations with the general source term, we not only obtain the quenching phenomena in finite time but also estimate the quenching time. Our main tools are maximum principle, comparison principle and eigenfunction method.

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  7. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  8. Final Report for CORBA for Fourth Generation Language

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2005-06-28

    The standard for object based networking is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). However, CORBA is not available for Fourth Generation Languages (4GL's) such as Visual Numerics? PV-WAVE or Research Systems? Interactive Data Language (RSI-IDL), which are widely used by scientists and engineers for data visualization and analysis. The proposed work would provide a set of tools to allow 4GL's to interoperate with CORBA.

  9. 10. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED LOCATION FOR THE FOURTH TURNOUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED LOCATION FOR THE FOURTH TURNOUT AND WHERE AN EXISTING WATERBAR WILL BE REMOVED DURING LOG HAULING AND REPLACED AFTER USE. IN ADDITION TO THIS CONSTRUCTION, TWO TREES (LOCATED ON THE RIGHT OF THE ROAD IN THIS PICTURE) WILL BE REMOVED IN ORDER TO WIDEN THE ROADBED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.15, FACING NORTH 13ø WEST (3470). - Genoa Peak Road, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

  10. A fourth order accurate adaptive mesh refinement method forpoisson's equation

    SciTech Connect

    Barad, Michael; Colella, Phillip

    2004-08-20

    We present a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method for computing solutions to Poisson's equation in two and three dimensions. It is based on a conservative, finite-volume formulation of the classical Mehrstellen methods. This is combined with finite volume AMR discretizations to obtain a method that is fourth-order accurate in solution error, and with easily verifiable solvability conditions for Neumann and periodic boundary conditions.

  11. Fourth-Order Difference Methods for Hyperbolic IBVPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1995-03-01

    In this paper we consider fourth-order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics; the second one is used for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third-order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second-order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burgers' equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain difference approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth-order methods with a standard second-order one and with a third-order TVD method. The results show that the fourth-order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  12. Masses of a Fourth Generation with Two Higgs Doublets

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, Leo; Erler, Jens; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Ramirez-Homs, Enrique; /Texas U., El Paso

    2012-05-01

    We use sampling techniques to find robust constraints on the masses of a possible fourth sequential fermion generation from electroweak oblique variables. We find that in the case of a light (115 GeV) Higgs from a single electroweak symmetry breaking doublet, inverted mass hierarchies are possible for both quarks and leptons, but a mass splitting more than MW in the quark sector is unlikely. We also find constraints in the case of a heavy (600 GeV) Higgs in a single doublet model. As recent data from the Large Hadron Collider hints at the existence of a resonance at 124.5 GeV and a single Higgs doublet at that mass is inconsistent with a fourth fermion generation, we examine a Type II two Higgs doublet model. In this model, there are ranges of parameter space where the Higgs sector can potentially counteract the effects of the fourth generation. Even so, we find that such scenarios produce qualitatively similar fermion mass distributions.

  13. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  14. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  15. Accelerated Program in Elementary-School Mathematics--The Fourth Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Ihrke, Constance

    1970-01-01

    Describes fourth year (1966-67) of a longitudinal study of 30 bright fourth graders. All but one student showed definite improvement for the combined performances of tests administered to measure progress. (EK)

  16. Drug therapy in HIV infection--fourth international congress. 8-12 November 1998, Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wainberg, M A

    1999-01-01

    This meeting was one of a series which is held in Glasgow on a biannual basis. The major themes of the conference were the use of combination therapy to reduce viral replication in HIV infected individuals and the successes and failures of various treatment regimens; the issue of viral sequestration in sanctuary sites over long periods in the context of non-susceptibility to antiviral therapy due to viral latency and other considerations; drug resistance to antiviral therapy and how to prevent this problem from occurring; immune-based therapeutic approaches in the treatment of HIV disease; and, the development of treatment strategies for individuals who have failed on their initial antiviral regimens. The majority of delegates at this conference were HIV clinicians involved in direct patient contact. The meeting also included the participation of HIV community workers, representatives of the pharmaceutical industry, as well as research scientists concerned with basic mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis, drug resistance and other issues. Most of the presentations were from academic physicians involved in a variety of HIV clinical trials, although pharmaceutical scientists, who specialize in the development of techniques to monitor drug resistance, also featured prominently in the program. Both oral papers and poster sessions were featured.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry: Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gove, H.E.; Litherland, A.E.; Elmore, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a volume of the journal Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. This particular volume is concerned with accelerator mass spectrometry. The sections of this issue are: Advances in AMS techniques; Archaeology and ecology; Glaciology and climatology; Cosmochemistry and in situ production; Ocean and atmospheric sciences; Hydrology and geology; Astrophysics, nuclear physics and lasers.

  18. Proceedings of the fourth international conference and exhibition: World Congress on superconductivity. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Krishen, K.; Burnham, C.

    1994-12-31

    The goals of the World Congress on Superconductivity (WCS) have been to establish and foster the development and commercial application of superconductivity technology on a global scale by providing a non-adversarial, non-advocacy forum where scientists, engineers, businessmen and government personnel can freely exchange information and ideas on recent developments and directions for the future of superconductive research. Sessions were held on: accelerator technology, power and energy, persistent magnetic fields, performance characterization, physical properties, fabrication methodology, superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES), thin films, high temperature materials, device applications, wire fabrication, and granular superconductors. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  19. LLNL participation in the fourth international interlaboratory comparison test (Round Robin 4)

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Haas, J.S.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.; Eagle, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    Compounds selected for spiking the Round Robin 4 samples (soil and water) were examples of decomposition products associated with CW agents that might be found during the course of a CWC inspection. They also represented a range of precursor materials; they are polar and contain acidic or basic moieties or both. The included benzilic acid, 3-quinuclidinol, diisopropylamino ethanol, and methylphosphonic acid.

  20. International Relations: Understanding the Behavior of Nations. Teacher's Guide [and Student Text]. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Susan

    The teacher's guide and student text are designed to help students understand why nations compete, why they cooperate, and why they sometimes go to war. The guide will help teachers develop comprehensive lesson plans that help students: (1) understand the behavior of nations by defining national interest and examining the factors that affect the…

  1. Drug therapy in HIV infection--fourth international congress. 8-12 November 1998, Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wainberg, M A

    1999-01-01

    This meeting was one of a series which is held in Glasgow on a biannual basis. The major themes of the conference were the use of combination therapy to reduce viral replication in HIV infected individuals and the successes and failures of various treatment regimens; the issue of viral sequestration in sanctuary sites over long periods in the context of non-susceptibility to antiviral therapy due to viral latency and other considerations; drug resistance to antiviral therapy and how to prevent this problem from occurring; immune-based therapeutic approaches in the treatment of HIV disease; and, the development of treatment strategies for individuals who have failed on their initial antiviral regimens. The majority of delegates at this conference were HIV clinicians involved in direct patient contact. The meeting also included the participation of HIV community workers, representatives of the pharmaceutical industry, as well as research scientists concerned with basic mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis, drug resistance and other issues. Most of the presentations were from academic physicians involved in a variety of HIV clinical trials, although pharmaceutical scientists, who specialize in the development of techniques to monitor drug resistance, also featured prominently in the program. Both oral papers and poster sessions were featured. PMID:16180161

  2. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Sessions in this conference include: Mars polar geology and glaciology; Mars and terrestrial radar investigations; Observations, nature, and evolution of the Martian seasonal polar caps; Mars' residual south polar cap; Climate change, ice core analysis, and the redistribution of volatiles on Mars; errestrial Mars analog environments; The Phoenix Scout mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Moderated Discussion: Key Issues Regarding Phoenix Scout Mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Panel Discussion: Key Issues in Mars Polar Science and Exploration; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter investigations of the Martian polar regions and climate; Mars Polar Scout Mission concepts; and Panel Discussion: New perspectives on Mars polar science and exploration

  3. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  4. Reproducibility of the School-Based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire among Fourth-Grade Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penkilo, Monica; George, Goldy Chacko; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess reproducibility of a School-Based Nutrition Monitoring (SBNM) questionnaire for fourth-grade students. Design: Test-retest. Setting: Fourth-grade elementary school classrooms. Participants: Multiethnic fourth-grade students from 2 area school districts (N = 322). Main Outcome Measures: Reproducibility coefficients with time…

  5. 78 FR 29094 - Safety Zone; Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks, Glorietta Bay; Coronado, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks... Coast Guard proposes a temporary safety zone for the Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks from 8:45 p.m. to... Coronado, CA in support of Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks display. This action is necessary to...

  6. 78 FR 36656 - Safety Zone; Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks, Glorietta Bay; Coronado, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks... Fourth of July Fireworks on July 4, 2013. This temporary safety zone is a modification of an existing... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-564 Safety Zone; Coronado Fourth of July Fireworks, Glorietta...

  7. 75 FR 38408 - Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July... Rule MACY's is sponsoring their 34th Annual Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks on the waters of the Hudson... July Fourth Fireworks Spectator Vessel Viewing Area, Hudson River, New York, NY. (a) Regulated...

  8. 75 FR 35652 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, Vallejo, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, Vallejo, CA... enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, safety zone from 9 a.m. through 10 p.m. on July 4... will enforce the safety zone for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Vallejo, safety zone...

  9. 75 FR 35650 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, Sausalito, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, Sausalito... will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, safety zone from 11 a.m. through 9:30 p.m... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual Fourth of July...

  10. 75 FR 38714 - Safety Zone; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Hudson River, New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display... Fourth of July Fireworks Display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and...'s Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Hudson River, NY, New York (a) Regulated area. The...

  11. Staggered chiral perturbation theory and the fourth-root trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, C.

    2006-06-01

    Staggered chiral perturbation theory (SχPT) takes into account the “fourth-root trick” for reducing unwanted (taste) degrees of freedom with staggered quarks by multiplying the contribution of each sea quark loop by a factor of 1/4. In the special case of four staggered fields (four flavors, nF=4), I show here that certain assumptions about analyticity and phase structure imply the validity of this procedure for representing the rooting trick in the chiral sector. I start from the observation that, when the four flavors are degenerate, the fourth root simply reduces nF=4 to nF=1. One can then treat nondegenerate quark masses by expanding around the degenerate limit. With additional assumptions on decoupling, the result can be extended to the more interesting cases of nF=3, 2, or 1. An apparent paradox associated with the one-flavor case is resolved. Coupled with some expected features of unrooted staggered quarks in the continuum limit, in particular, the restoration of taste symmetry, SχPT then implies that the fourth-root trick induces no problems (for example, a violation of unitarity that persists in the continuum limit) in the lowest energy sector of staggered lattice QCD. It also says that the theory with staggered valence quarks and rooted staggered sea quarks behaves like a simple, partially-quenched theory, not like a mixed theory in which sea and valence quarks have different lattice actions. In most cases, the assumptions made in this paper are not only sufficient but also necessary for the validity of SχPT, so that a variety of possible new routes for testing this validity are opened.

  12. Staggered chiral perturbation theory and the fourth-root trick

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.

    2006-06-01

    Staggered chiral perturbation theory (S{chi}PT) takes into account the 'fourth-root trick' for reducing unwanted (taste) degrees of freedom with staggered quarks by multiplying the contribution of each sea quark loop by a factor of 1/4. In the special case of four staggered fields (four flavors, n{sub F}=4), I show here that certain assumptions about analyticity and phase structure imply the validity of this procedure for representing the rooting trick in the chiral sector. I start from the observation that, when the four flavors are degenerate, the fourth root simply reduces n{sub F}=4 to n{sub F}=1. One can then treat nondegenerate quark masses by expanding around the degenerate limit. With additional assumptions on decoupling, the result can be extended to the more interesting cases of n{sub F}=3, 2, or 1. An apparent paradox associated with the one-flavor case is resolved. Coupled with some expected features of unrooted staggered quarks in the continuum limit, in particular, the restoration of taste symmetry, S{chi}PT then implies that the fourth-root trick induces no problems (for example, a violation of unitarity that persists in the continuum limit) in the lowest energy sector of staggered lattice QCD. It also says that the theory with staggered valence quarks and rooted staggered sea quarks behaves like a simple, partially-quenched theory, not like a mixed theory in which sea and valence quarks have different lattice actions. In most cases, the assumptions made in this paper are not only sufficient but also necessary for the validity of S{chi}PT, so that a variety of possible new routes for testing this validity are opened.

  13. Fourth United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Compiler); Curreri, Peter A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4). The USMP-4 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about eight major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  14. A New Family with a Fourth Lepton Flavour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2014-03-01

    We present here arguments in favor of the existence of the most lightest lepton and its neutrino. This new family with a fourth lepton flavour in the first turn must uncover so far unobserved universal properties of matter. The unity of their laws predicts the flavour symmetrical schemes for the decays of the electron and the proton. Thereby, it admits the new modes in the decays of the muon, tau lepton and the neutron. At the same time, in all these transitions no conservation laws are violated.

  15. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  16. Ghost-Free, Finite, Fourth-Order D=3 Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.

    2009-09-01

    Canonical analysis of a recently proposed linear+quadratic curvature gravity model in D=3 establishes its pure, irreducibly fourth derivative, quadratic curvature limit as both ghost-free and power-counting UV finite, thereby maximally violating standard folklore. This limit is representative of a generic class whose kinetic terms are conformally invariant in any dimension, but it is unique in simultaneously avoiding the transverse-traceless graviton ghosts plaguing D>3 quadratic actions as well as double pole propagators in its other variables. While the two-term model is also unitary, its additional mode’s second-derivative nature forfeits finiteness.

  17. Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Stephen L. (Compiler); Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Proceedings of a conference held in Huntsville, Alabama, on November 15-16, 1988. The Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings together diverse technical and scientific work in order to help those who employ AI methods in space applications to identify common goals and to address issues of general interest in the AI community. Topics include the following: space applications of expert systems in fault diagnostics, in telemetry monitoring and data collection, in design and systems integration; and in planning and scheduling; knowledge representation, capture, verification, and management; robotics and vision; adaptive learning; and automatic programming.

  18. The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held from August 17-21, 1992, at NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.

  19. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A fourth program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor); Wofsy, Steven C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Grose, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the fourth report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent AESA interim assessment report and a review of that report have shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA has been designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This fourth report comes after the interim assessment and sets forth directions for the 1995 assessment at the end of AESA Phase 1. It also sets forth the goals and directions for AESA Phase 2, as reported at the 1994 Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) annual meeting held in June. The focus of the Phase 2 effort is to obtain the best possible closure on the outstanding problems identified in the interim assessment and NASA/NRC review. Topics discussed in this report include how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements.

  20. Welcome to pandoraviruses at the ‘Fourth TRUC’ club

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a fourth monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9–2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the ‘Fourth TRUC’ club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms. PMID:26042093

  1. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state. PMID:27275375

  2. Welcome to pandoraviruses at the 'Fourth TRUC' club.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a fourth monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9-2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the 'Fourth TRUC' club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms. PMID:26042093

  3. DNA profiles, computer searches, and the Fourth Amendment.

    PubMed

    Kimel, Catherine W

    2013-01-01

    Pursuant to federal statutes and to laws in all fifty states, the United States government has assembled a database containing the DNA profiles of over eleven million citizens. Without judicial authorization, the government searches each of these profiles one-hundred thousand times every day, seeking to link database subjects to crimes they are not suspected of committing. Yet, courts and scholars that have addressed DNA databasing have focused their attention almost exclusively on the constitutionality of the government's seizure of the biological samples from which the profiles are generated. This Note fills a gap in the scholarship by examining the Fourth Amendment problems that arise when the government searches its vast DNA database. This Note argues that each attempt to match two DNA profiles constitutes a Fourth Amendment search because each attempted match infringes upon database subjects' expectations of privacy in their biological relationships and physical movements. The Note further argues that database searches are unreasonable as they are currently conducted, and it suggests an adaptation of computer-search procedures to remedy the constitutional deficiency.

  4. DNA profiles, computer searches, and the Fourth Amendment.

    PubMed

    Kimel, Catherine W

    2013-01-01

    Pursuant to federal statutes and to laws in all fifty states, the United States government has assembled a database containing the DNA profiles of over eleven million citizens. Without judicial authorization, the government searches each of these profiles one-hundred thousand times every day, seeking to link database subjects to crimes they are not suspected of committing. Yet, courts and scholars that have addressed DNA databasing have focused their attention almost exclusively on the constitutionality of the government's seizure of the biological samples from which the profiles are generated. This Note fills a gap in the scholarship by examining the Fourth Amendment problems that arise when the government searches its vast DNA database. This Note argues that each attempt to match two DNA profiles constitutes a Fourth Amendment search because each attempted match infringes upon database subjects' expectations of privacy in their biological relationships and physical movements. The Note further argues that database searches are unreasonable as they are currently conducted, and it suggests an adaptation of computer-search procedures to remedy the constitutional deficiency. PMID:23461001

  5. Pseudospectral collocation methods for fourth order differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Alaeddin; Phillips, Timothy N.

    1994-01-01

    Collocation schemes are presented for solving linear fourth order differential equations in one and two dimensions. The variational formulation of the model fourth order problem is discretized by approximating the integrals by a Gaussian quadrature rule generalized to include the values of the derivative of the integrand at the boundary points. Collocation schemes are derived which are equivalent to this discrete variational problem. An efficient preconditioner based on a low-order finite difference approximation to the same differential operator is presented. The corresponding multidomain problem is also considered and interface conditions are derived. Pseudospectral approximations which are C1 continuous at the interfaces are used in each subdomain to approximate the solution. The approximations are also shown to be C3 continuous at the interfaces asymptotically. A complete analysis of the collocation scheme for the multidomain problem is provided. The extension of the method to the biharmonic equation in two dimensions is discussed and results are presented for a problem defined in a nonrectangular domain.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  7. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  8. TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka

    2012-01-01

    The "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics" summarizes fourth and eighth grade student achievement in each of the 63 countries and 14 benchmarking entities which participated in TIMSS 2011. The report includes trends in mathematics achievement over time for participants in the previous TIMSS 1995, 1999, 2003, and 2007…

  9. Adventuring with International Literature: One Teacher's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carl M.; Lynch-Brown, Carol

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of international children's literature in a third and fourth grade class. Summarizes (based on teacher journal entries) the class's five-week experience with African Cecil Bodker's "The Leopard," describing four phases of study: orientation, exposition, integration, and completion. Suggests several works of contemporary fiction…

  10. PREFACE: Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.

    2006-04-01

    The formulation of a quantum theory of gravity seems to be the unavoidable endpoint of modern theoretical physics. Yet the quantum description of the gravitational field remains elusive. The year 2005 marks the tenth anniversary of the First Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity, held in Dubna (Russia) due to the efforts of Alexandre T. Filippov (JINR, Dubna) and Vittorio de Alfaro (University of Torino, Italy). At the heart of this initiative was the desire for an international forum where the status and perspectives of research in quantum gravity could be discussed from the broader viewpoint of modern gauge field theories. Since the Dubna meeting, an increasing number of scientists has joined this quest. Progress was reported in two other conferences in this series: in Santa Margherita Ligure (Italy) in 1996 and in Villasimius (Sardinia, Italy) in 1999. After a few years of ``working silence'' the time was now mature for a new gathering. The Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity (QG05) was held in Cala Gonone (Sardinia, Italy) from Monday 12th to Friday 16th September 2005. Surrounded by beautiful scenery, 100 scientists from 23 countries working in field theory, general relativity and related areas discussed the latest developments in the quantum treatment of gravitational systems. The QG05 edition covered many of the issues that had been addressed in the previous meetings and new interesting developments in the field, such as brane world models, large extra dimensions, analogue models of gravity, non-commutative techniques etc. The format of the meeting was similar to the previous ones. The programme consisted of invited plenary talks and parallel sessions on cosmology, quantum gravity, strings and phenomenology, gauge theories and quantisation and black holes. A major goal was to bring together senior scientists and younger people at the beginning of their scientific career. We were able to give financial support to both

  11. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  12. Lengthening of fourth brachymetatarsia by three different surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, W-C; Yoo, J H; Moon, J-S

    2009-11-01

    We carried out a retrospective study to assess the clinical results of lengthening the fourth metatarsal in brachymetatarsia in 153 feet of 106 patients (100 female, six males) using three different surgical techniques. In one group lengthening was performed by one-stage intercalary bone grafting secured by an intramedullary Kirschner-wire (45 feet, 35 patients). In the second group lengthening was obtained gradually using a mini-external fixator after performing an osteotomy with a saw (59 feet, 39 patients) and in the third group lengthening was achieved in a gradual manner using a mini-external fixator after undertaking an osteotomy using osteotome through pre-drilled holes (49 feet, 32 patients). The mean age of the patients was 26.3 years (13 to 48). Pre-operatively, the fourth ray of the bone-graft group was longer than that of other two groups (p < 0.000). The clinical outcome was compared in the three groups. The mean follow-up was 22 months (7 to 55). At final follow-up, the mean lengthening in the bone-graft group was 13.9 mm (3.5 to 23.0, 27.1%) which was less than that obtained in the saw group with a mean of 17.8 mm (7.0 to 33.0, 29.9%) and in the pre-drilled osteotome group with a mean of 16.8 mm (6.5 to 28.0, 29.4%, p = 0.001). However, the mean time required for retention of the fixation in the bone-graft group was the shortest of the three groups. Patients were dissatisfied with the result for five feet (11.1%) in the bone-graft group, eight (13.6%) in the saw group and none in the pre-drilled osteotomy group (p < 0.000). The saw group included eight feet with failure of bone formation after surgery. Additional operations were performed in 20 feet because of stiffness (n = 7, all groups), failure of bone formation (n = 4, saw group), skin maceration (n = 4, bone-graft group), malunion (n = 4, bone-graft and saw groups) and breakage of the external fixator (n = 1, saw group). We conclude that the gradual lengthening by distraction osteogenesis after

  13. Fourth class of convex equilateral polyhedron with polyhedral symmetry related to fullerenes and viruses.

    PubMed

    Schein, Stan; Gayed, James Maurice

    2014-02-25

    The three known classes of convex polyhedron with equal edge lengths and polyhedral symmetry--tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral--are the 5 Platonic polyhedra, the 13 Archimedean polyhedra--including the truncated icosahedron or soccer ball--and the 2 rhombic polyhedra reported by Johannes Kepler in 1611. (Some carbon fullerenes, inorganic cages, icosahedral viruses, geodesic structures, and protein complexes resemble these fundamental shapes.) Here we add a fourth class, "Goldberg polyhedra," which are also convex and equilateral. We begin by decorating each of the triangular facets of a tetrahedron, an octahedron, or an icosahedron with the T vertices and connecting edges of a "Goldberg triangle." We obtain the unique set of internal angles in each planar face of each polyhedron by solving a system of n equations and n variables, where the equations set the dihedral angle discrepancy about different types of edge to zero, and the variables are a subset of the internal angles in 6gons. Like the faces in Kepler's rhombic polyhedra, the 6gon faces in Goldberg polyhedra are equilateral and planar but not equiangular. We show that there is just a single tetrahedral Goldberg polyhedron, a single octahedral one, and a systematic, countable infinity of icosahedral ones, one for each Goldberg triangle. Unlike carbon fullerenes and faceted viruses, the icosahedral Goldberg polyhedra are nearly spherical. The reasoning and techniques presented here will enable discovery of still more classes of convex equilateral polyhedra with polyhedral symmetry.

  14. The fourth-generation Water Vapor Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, R. Michael; Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Neal, Helen L.; McDermid, I. Stuart

    2012-02-01

    For 20 years the Naval Research Laboratory has been making continuous water vapor profile measurements at 22.235 GHz with the Water Vapor Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer (WVMS) instruments, with the program expanding from one to three instruments in the first 6 years. Since the initial deployments there have been gradual improvements in the instrument design which have improved data quality and reduced maintenance requirements. Recent technological developments have made it possible to entirely redesign the instrument and improve not only the quality of the measurements but also the capability of the instrument. We present the fourth-generation instrument now operating at Table Mountain, California, which incorporates the most recent advances in microwave radiometry. This instrument represents the most significant extension of our measurement capability to date, enabling us to measure middle atmospheric water vapor from ˜26-80 km.

  15. Regularizing QCD with staggered fermions and the fourth root trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Claude

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the properties of staggered-fermion lattice QCD in which the fourth root of the fermion determinant is taken. We show that this theory is non-local at non-zero lattice spacing a, and that the non-locality is caused by the breaking of taste symmetry at a = 0. We then present a renormalization-group based argument that the theory restores taste symmetry in the continuum limit. As a consequence the theory is local in that limit, and falls into the correct universality class. Finally, we argue that the correct effective theory for the physics of Goldstone bosons at a = 0 is given by staggered chiral perturbation theory with the replica trick.

  16. rho. parameter constraints on fourth generation quark masses

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, V.; Hewett, J.L. . Dept. of Physics); Risso, T.G. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-04-20

    Constraints on the masses of possible fourth generation quarks (a,{upsilon}) are obtained from measurements of the {rho} parameter and the elements of the quark mixing matrix. Stringent mass limits are found when the off-diagonal elements V{sub t{upsilon}} and V{sub ab} are large. For example, with m{sub t} = 90 GeV and {vert bar}V{sub t{upsilon}}{vert bar} {approx equal} 0.5 the authors find m{sub a,{upsilon}} {le} 300 GeV. Stronger constraints are obtained as m{sub 1}or {vert bar}V{sub t{upsilon}}{vert bar} increase.

  17. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Ault, Kellie L.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remains the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions at or near the wormhole throat. Some exotic matter might still be needed at the junction between our solutions and flat spacetime, but we demonstrate that the averaged null energy condition (as evaluated along radial null geodesics) is satisfied for a particular set of wormhole geometries. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  18. Key Scientific Challenges for the Fourth National Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterling, D. R.; Karl, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Among the many remaining scientific challenges for the Fourth National Climate Assessment some are noteworthy both because of their importance and the fact that they are within range of important new insights. Highlighted, are issues that fall within the five research goals and cross-cutting capabilities that have been identified in the 3rd National Climate Assessment. Examples of research priorities are examined within each of these goals and cross-cutting capabilities, where progress can be made in time for the 4th National Assessment. These research priorities include observing and data system infrastructure, understanding of the climate system and its socio-economic impacts, improved capacity to understand risks, and decision support and engagement of the private sector and investment communities.

  19. THE RADIAL VELOCITY EXPERIMENT (RAVE): FOURTH DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Carrillo, I.; Boeche, C.; Roeser, S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; De Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Anguiano, B.; and others

    2013-11-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron, and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline that is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration Web site and the Vizier database.

  20. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Ault, Kellie

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel. This work was supported by a Grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  1. Fourth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains copies of all those technical papers received in time for publication just prior to the Fourth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage and Technologies, held March 28-30, 1995, at the University of Maryland, University College Conference Center, in College Park, Maryland. This series of conferences continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include new storage technology, stability of recorded media, performance studies, storage system solutions, the National Information infrastructure (Infobahn), the future for storage technology, and lessons learned from various projects. There also will be an update on the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5, on which the final vote was taken in July 1994.

  2. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNLs mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  3. Perceptual priming and reading speed among fourth grade children.

    PubMed

    Soler, Maria José; Dasí, Carmen; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the perceptual priming in fourth grade primary school children using a word-fragment completion task. The children were classified into two categories according to their reading speed: high and low. Using several sub-scales of the WISC-IV, their working memory was measured, and their total IQ was estimated, in order to control for their effects on priming. The statistical analyses showed that children with high reading speed were significantly better at word-fragment completion and showed greater priming (p < .01); in other words, the prior processing of the words from which the fragments came produced a greater benefit in the performance of the word-fragment completion task. A regression model was developed to explain reading speed based on the following variables: perceptual priming, working memory and percentage of completed fragments belonging to words not previously processed (adjusted R 2 = 0.64).

  4. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  5. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  6. Fourth generation effect on {Lambda}{sub b} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, R.; Giri, A. K.

    2010-11-01

    The rare decays of the {Lambda}{sub b} baryon governed by the quark level transitions b{yields}s are investigated in the fourth quark generation model popularly known as SM4. Recently it has been shown that SM4, which is a very simple extension of the standard model, can successfully explain several anomalies observed in the CP violation parameters of B and B{sub s} mesons. We find that in this model due to the additional contributions coming from the heavy t{sup '} quark in the loop, the branching ratios and other observables in rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays deviate significantly from their standard model values. Some of these modes are within the reach of the LHCb experiment and search for such channels is strongly argued.

  7. The Fourth BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas W. S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Koshut, Thomas M.; Lastrade, J. P.; McCollough, M. L.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Hakkila, Jon; Henze, W.; Preece, Robert D

    1998-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has triggered on 1637 cosmic gamma-ray bursts between 1991 April 19 and 1996 August 29. These events constitute the Fourth BATSE burst catalog. The current version (4Br) has been revised from the version first circulated on CD-ROM in September 1997 (4B) to include improved locations for a subset of bursts that have been reprocessed using additional data. A significant difference from previous BATSE catalogs is the inclusion of bursts from periods when the trigger energy range differed from the nominal 50-300 keV. We present tables of the burst occurrence times, locations, peak fluxes, fluences, and durations. In general, results from previous BATSE catalogs are confirmed here with greater statistical significance.

  8. The Fourth BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Koshut, Thomas M.; Lestrade, John Patrick; McCollough, Michael L.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Hakkila, Jon

    1999-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has triggered on 1637 cosmic gamma-ray bursts between 1991 April 19 and 1996 August 29. These events constitute the Fourth BATSE burst catalog. The current version (4Br) has been revised from the version first circulated on CD-ROM in 1997 September (4B) to include improved locations for a subset of bursts that have been reprocessed using additional data. A significant difference from previous BATSE catalogs is the inclusion of bursts from periods when the trigger energy range differed from the nominal 50-300 keV. We present tables of the burst occurrence times, locations, peak fluxes, fluences, and durations. In general, results from previous BATSE catalogs are confirmed here with greater statistical significance.

  9. Fourth level MSSM inflation from new flat directions

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Supratik E-mail: supratik@isical.ac.in

    2012-04-01

    We propose a model of inflation driven by minimal extension of SUSY, commonly known as MSSM. Starting from gauge invariant flat directions in the n = 4 level comprising of QQQL,QuQd,QuLe and uude, we construct the inflaton potential and employ it to investigate for its consequences around the saddle point arising from the non-vanishing fourth derivative of the original potential. To this end, we derive the expressions for the important parameters in MSSM inflation using the loop corrected potential. We further estimate the observable parameters and find them to fit well with recent observational data from WMAP7 by using the code CAMB. We also explore the possibility of primordial black hole formation from our model. Finally, we analyze one loop RGE and compute different phenomenological parameters which could be precisely determined in LHC or future Linear Colliders.

  10. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  11. World Class: USBBY's Outstanding International Books for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Some of the world's best children's book artists got together to help Amnesty International celebrate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights' 60th anniversary in "We Are All Born Free," one of the 42 titles recommended by the fourth annual United States Board on Books for Young People's (USBBY) Outstanding International Books committee. This…

  12. Canada First: The 2009 Survey of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Jennifer, Ed.; Knight-Grofe, Janine, Ed.; Klabunde, Niels, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) regularly evaluates the experience of international students in Canada through a benchmarking survey. Canada First 2009 represents the fourth time CBIE has conducted this research. Previous editions appeared in 1988, 1999 and 2004. This year's survey used a revised questionnaire similar…

  13. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Lake Tahoe, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Lake Tahoe, CA AGENCY: Coast... Fourth of July Fireworks safety zone from 9 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. on July 3, 2010 in position 39 13'55.82'' N... will enforce the safety zone for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks Display in 33 CFR 165.1191 on...

  14. Fourth root of the Kogut-Susskind determinant via infinite component fields

    SciTech Connect

    Neuberger, H.

    2004-11-01

    An example of interpolation by means of local field theories between the case of normal Kogut-Susskind fermions and the case of keeping just the fourth root of the Kogut-Susskind determinant is given. For the fourth root trick to be a valid approximation, certain limits need to be smooth. The question about the validity of the fourth root trick is not resolved, only cast into a local field theoretical framework.

  15. Explanation-Construction in Fourth-Grade Classrooms in Germany and the USA: A cross-national comparative video study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Cory; Lange, Kim; Möller, Kornelia; Biggers, Mandy; Laux, Mira; Zangori, Laura

    2014-09-01

    To help explain the differences in students' performance on internationally administered science assessments, cross-national, video-based observational studies have been advocated, but none have yet been conducted at the elementary level for science. The USA and Germany are two countries with large formal education systems whose students underperform those from peers on internationally administered standardized science assessments. However, evidence from the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Exam assessment suggests fourth-grade students (9-10 year-olds) in the USA perform higher than those in Germany, despite more instructional time devoted to elementary science in Germany. The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze fourth-grade classroom science in both countries to learn more about how teachers and students engage in scientific inquiry, particularly explanation-construction. Videorecordings of US and German science instruction (n 1 = 42, n 2 = 42) were sampled from existing datasets and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Despite German science lessons being, on average, twice as long as those in the USA, study findings highlight many similarities between elementary science in terms of scientific practices and features of scientific inquiry. However, they also illustrate crucial differences around the scientific practice of explanation-construction. While students in German classrooms were afforded more substantial opportunities to formulate evidence-based explanations, US classrooms were more strongly characterized by opportunities for students to actively compare and evaluate evidence-based explanations. These factors may begin to help account for observed differences in student achievement and merit further study grounded in international collaboration.

  16. [Study on the characters of phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra based on fourth-derivative].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Su, Rong-Guo; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Zhu, Chen-Jian

    2007-11-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra of six phytoplankton species, belonging to Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta, were dealt by fourth-derivative analysis with the Matlab program. The results show that between 350 nm and 550 nm six fluorescence peaks were found in the fourth-derivative spectra, which are representatives of non-pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoides respectively. The method makes Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta more distinguishable when the fourth-derivative spectra are compared with the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra. It can be used not only to discriminate the two groups of algaes, but also to reduce the effect of noise. The fluorescence peaks in the fourth-derivative spectra are proved to be stable.

  17. Vicarious calibration of the third and fourth Stokes parameters of Windsat measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Quanhua; Weng Fuzhong

    2005-12-01

    Microwave observations made at the third and fourth Stokes parameters can be used to determine the surface wind direction over oceans. However, due to their smaller amplitudes (less than 3 K at the third Stokes parameter and 1 K at the fourth Stokes parameter), the absolute calibration to these measurements becomes crucial. A new methodology is developed in this study to calibrate the Windsat third and fourth Stokes parameters through tropical rain forest measurements over the Amazon and central Africa. It is found that the Windsat fourth Stokes parameter at 18 GHz has biases of the order of 0.5 K, which could severely affect the wind vector retrievals.

  18. Use of internal callus distraction in the treatment of congenital brachymetatarsia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Naoto; Yasuda, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Nobuko; Iwashiro, Hironobu; Uchinuma, Eiju

    2005-10-01

    Congenital bilateral brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal bone was treated by osteotomy and bone lengthening using the internal distraction technique. The patient was cosmetically improved. This technique has some advantages over the method of external distraction. PMID:16039626

  19. Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Gende, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Foreword Glacier Bay was established as a National Monument in 1925, in part to protect its unique character and natural beauty, but also to create a natural laboratory to examine evolution of the glacial landscape. Today, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is still a place of profound natural beauty and dynamic landscapes. It also remains a focal point for scientific research and includes continuing observations begun decades ago of glacial processes and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, research has focused on glacial-marine interactions and ecosystem processes that occur below the surface of the bay. In October 2004, Glacier Bay National Park convened the fourth in a series of science symposiums to provide an opportunity for researchers, managers, interpreters, educators, students and the general public to share knowledge about Glacier Bay. The Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium was held in Juneau, Alaska, rather than at the Park, reflecting a desire to maximize attendance and communication among a growing and diverse number of stakeholders interested in science in the park. More than 400 people attended the symposium. Participants provided 46 oral presentations and 41 posters covering a wide array of disciplines including geology, glaciology, oceanography, wildlife and fisheries biology, terrestrial and marine ecology, socio-cultural research and management issues. A panel discussion focused on the importance of connectivity in Glacier Bay research, and keynote speakers (Gary Davis and Terry Chapin) spoke of long-term monitoring and ecological processes. These proceedings include 56 papers from the symposium. A summary of the Glacier Bay Science Plan-itself a subject of a meeting during the symposium and the result of ongoing discussions between scientists and resource managers-also is provided. We hope these proceedings illustrate the diversity of completed and ongoing scientific studies, conducted within the Park. To this end, we invited all

  20. Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems. In this workshop, as in previous workshops, the problems were devised to gauge the technological advancement of computational techniques to calculate all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from the fundamental governing equations. A variety of benchmark problems have been previously solved ranging from simple geometries with idealized acoustic conditions to test the accuracy and effectiveness of computational algorithms and numerical boundary conditions; to sound radiation from a duct; to gust interaction with a cascade of airfoils; to the sound generated by a separating, turbulent viscous flow. By solving these and similar problems, workshop participants have shown the technical progress from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The fourth CAA workshop emphasized the application of CAA methods to the solution of realistic problems. The workshop was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 20 to 22, 2003. At that time, workshop participants presented their solutions to problems in one or more of five categories. Their solutions are presented in this proceedings along with the comparisons of their solutions to the benchmark solutions or experimental data. The five categories for the benchmark problems were as follows: Category 1:Basic Methods. The numerical computation of sound is affected by, among other issues, the choice of grid used and by the boundary conditions. Category 2:Complex Geometry. The ability to compute the sound in the presence of complex geometric surfaces is important in practical applications of CAA. Category 3:Sound Generation by Interacting With a Gust. The practical application of CAA for computing noise generated by turbomachinery involves the modeling of the noise source mechanism as a

  1. Black rings with fourth dipole cause less hair loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2012-07-01

    An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in the same region of parameter space, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the bulk configurations was found to be lower than the microscopic entropy from the CFT. While it is possible that the difference in entropy is due to the bulk and boundary configurations being at different points in the moduli space, it is also possible that the bulk configurations embeddable within the STU model are not the most entropic. New families of BPS black ring solutions with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed in [2]. These black rings are not embeddable within the STU model. In this paper we investigate if these black rings can be entropically dominant over the STU model black rings. We find that the new black rings are always entropically subdominant to the STU-model black rings. However, for small fourth dipole charge these black rings continue to be dominant over the BMPV in a small region of parameters and are thus enigmatic.

  2. Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799.

    PubMed

    Marois, Christian; Zuckerman, B; Konopacky, Quinn M; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis

    2010-12-23

    High-contrast near-infrared imaging of the nearby star HR 8799 has shown three giant planets. Such images were possible because of the wide orbits (>25 astronomical units, where 1 au is the Earth-Sun distance) and youth (<100 Myr) of the imaged planets, which are still hot and bright as they radiate away gravitational energy acquired during their formation. An important area of contention in the exoplanet community is whether outer planets (>10 au) more massive than Jupiter form by way of one-step gravitational instabilities or, rather, through a two-step process involving accretion of a core followed by accumulation of a massive outer envelope composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. Here we report the presence of a fourth planet, interior to and of about the same mass as the other three. The system, with this additional planet, represents a challenge for current planet formation models as none of them can explain the in situ formation of all four planets. With its four young giant planets and known cold/warm debris belts, the HR 8799 planetary system is a unique laboratory in which to study the formation and evolution of giant planets at wide (>10 au) separations.

  3. Fourth post-Newtonian effective one-body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Jaranowski, Piotr; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    The conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting two-point-mass systems has been recently determined at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) approximation [T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014)], and found to be nonlocal in time. We show how to transcribe this dynamics within the effective one-body (EOB) formalism. To achieve this EOB transcription, we develop a new strategy involving the (infinite-)order-reduction of a nonlocal dynamics to an ordinary action-angle Hamiltonian. Our final, equivalent EOB dynamics comprises two (local) radial potentials, A (r ) and D ¯(r ), and a nongeodesic mass-shell contribution Q (r ,pr) given by an infinite series of even powers of the radial momentum pr. Using an effective action technique, we complete our 4PN-level results by deriving two different, higher-order conservative contributions linked to tail-transported hereditary effects: the 5PN-level EOB logarithmic terms, as well as the 5.5PN-level, half-integral terms. We compare our improved analytical knowledge to previous, numerical gravitational-self-force computation of precession effects.

  4. Meeting report: the fourth Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) workshop.

    PubMed

    Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Garrity, George M; Gray, Tanya; Sterk, Peter; Cochrane, Guy; Vaughan, Robert; Kolker, Eugene; Kottmann, Renzo; Kyrpides, Nikos; Angiuoli, Sam; Dawyndt, Peter; Guralnick, Robert; Goldstein, Philip; Hall, Neil; Hirschman, Lynette; Kravitz, Saul; Lister, Allyson L; Markowitz, Victor; Thomson, Nick; Whetzel, Trish

    2008-06-01

    This meeting report summarizes the proceedings of the "eGenomics: Cataloguing our Complete Genome Collection IV" workshop held June 6-8, 2007, at the National Institute for Environmental eScience (NIEeS), Cambridge, United Kingdom. This fourth workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) was a mix of short presentations, strategy discussions, and technical sessions. Speakers provided progress reports on the development of the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and the closely integrated "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS) specification. The key outcome of the workshop was consensus on the next version of the MIGS/MIMS specification (v1.2). This drove further definition and restructuring of the MIGS/MIMS XML schema (syntax). With respect to semantics, a term vetting group was established to ensure that terms are properly defined and submitted to the appropriate ontology projects. Perhaps the single most important outcome of the workshop was a proposal to move beyond the concept of "minimum" to create a far richer XML schema that would define a "Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language" (GCDML) suitable for wider semantic integration across databases. GCDML will contain not only curated information (e.g., compliant with MIGS/MIMS), but also be extended to include a variety of data processing and calculations. Further information about the Genomic Standards Consortium and its range of activities can be found at http://gensc.org.

  5. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  6. The fourth state of consciousness: the Thuriya Avastha.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, B

    1995-05-01

    Present day neurophysiology stops with attributing thinking processes as the highest level of function of the brain. It has been common knowledge to oriental thinkers for many centuries, that there are many further states of the human mind, culminating in the state of thoughtless awareness; the fourth state of consciousness. This state must have a physiological basis. The complicated structure of the brain, the extravagant abundance of neural and glial elements in the brain, the infinite possibilities of synaptic junctions and synaptic transmission, and the multitude of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; all these point to the definite possibility of a much greater level of performance and achievement for the human brain than has been apparent so far. Not only the theories but also the experience of Eastern seers have shown that the brain can transcend the boundaries of logic and reason, and experience states of awareness, commonly unrecognized. In the past few decades, knowledge about the functioning of the human brain has been growing exponentially and scientists of diverse disciplines are concentrating on unraveling its mysteries. It is necessary for scientists to investigate this state with all available tools and find the neurophysiological basis of this state.

  7. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  8. Indirect search for the fourth genration of quarks and leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Bashiry, Vali

    2008-04-21

    It is known that the Standard Model (SM) does not predict the number of fermion families; N. The only restriction comes from the asymptotic freedom of QCD which requires the number of quarks to be less than 17 and, therefore, the number of SM families to be N{<=}8. Before 1990A-circumflex Ss, many authors published articles related to the extra SM families and their phenomenological consequences. In early 1990A-circumflex Ss, the LEP data yields N is almost 3 where the neutral lepton mass for each family is less than half the mass of the Z boson. Generally, this result is interpreted as the exact value of N, since one assumes that the neutrinos must have very small masses. If we disregard this incorrect assumption, the LEP data does not exclude the existence of extra SM families with heavy neutrinos. Meanwhile, few papers arguing the existence of the fourth SM family have been publishing. These arguments are based on the A-circumflex Sflavor democracyA-circumflex S hypothesis. The study of FCNC in B decays can indirectly shed light on the SM4 family in quark sector and LFV is a good candidate to indirect search for 4th generation of leptons.

  9. Summary of the Fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitcuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.

  10. Natural gas imports and exports; Fourth quarterly report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1993 (October--December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During 1993, data indicates gas imports grew by about 10 percent over the 1992 level (2328 vs. 2122 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 8 and 82 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 41 percent (144 vs. 243 Bcf). Exports to Canada decreased 47 percent from the 1992 level (50 vs. 95 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 60 percent (38 vs. 95 Bcf).

  11. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Crosby, John, IV; Haycock, Ken; Oh, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following international reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Trends and Issues in Library and Information Services in Canada, 1998. (AEF)

  12. Vibrationally mediated photodissociation of ethene isotopic variants preexcited to the fourth C-H stretch overtone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespechansky, Evgeny; Portnov, Alexander; Zwielly, Amir; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2006-10-01

    H and D photofragments produced via vibrationally mediated photodissociation of jet-cooled normal ethene (C2H4), 1,2-trans-d2-ethene (HDCCDH), and 1,1-d2-ethene (CH2CD2), initially excited to the fourth C-H stretch overtone region, were studied for the first time. H and D vibrational action spectra and Doppler profiles were measured. The action spectra include partially resolved features due to rotational cooling, while the monitored room temperature photoacoustic spectra exhibit only a very broad feature in each species. Simulation of the spectral contours allowed determination of the band types and origins, limited precision rotational constants, and linewidths, providing time scales for energy redistribution. The H and D Doppler profiles correspond to low average translational energies and show slight preferential C-H over C-D bond cleavage in the deuterated variants. The propensities toward H photofragments emerge even though the energy flow out of the initially prepared C-H stretch is on a picosecond time scale and the photodissociation occurs following internal conversion, indicating a more effective release of the light H atoms.

  13. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Fourth Quarter of CY 1992. The following are highlights of the activities that occurred during this report period: Initial operation of the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) occurred during this quarter. The following table summarizes the operating dates and times. HGCU ash lockhopper valve plugged with ash. Primary cyclone ash pluggage. Problems with the coal water paste. Unit restarted warm 13 hours later. HGCU expansion joint No. 7 leak in internal ply of bellows. Problems encountered during these initial tests included hot spots on the APP, backup cyclone and instrumentation spools, two breakdowns of the backpulse air compressor, pluggage of the APF hopper and ash removal system, failure (breakage) of 21 filter candles, leakage of the inner ply of one (1) expansion joint bellows, and numerous other smaller problems. These operating problems are discussed in detail in a subsequent section of this report. Following shutdown and equipment inspection in December, design modifications were initiated to correct the problems noted above. The system is scheduled to resume operation in March, 1993.

  15. Family Influence: Key to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Susan M.; Pollock, Elizabeth Davenport; Braun, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess social and familial environmental influences on fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption of fourth- and fifth-graders living in a culturally diverse, urban setting. Design: In 2006, students from 9 fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms from a public school in the Washington-Baltimore Metropolitan Region were recruited as part of the…

  16. Modeling the Relationships between Cognitive and Reading Measures in Third and Fourth Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between cognitive and reading measures in third and fourth grade children were analyzed using path modeling. Third graders were tested in word identification, pseudo word reading, orthographic speed, rapid naming, and oral vocabulary knowledge. In third and fourth grades, the students were tested in oral reading fluency and in…

  17. 78 FR 29022 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the... necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the...

  18. 78 FR 23849 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks; City of Antioch, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks; City of Antioch, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the City of Antioch Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the Port, San... life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display....

  19. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the... necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the...

  20. 77 FR 28769 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Antioch, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Antioch, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the City of Antioch Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the Port, San... life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display....

  1. 76 FR 37646 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, Sausalito, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City...

  2. 77 FR 28770 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Eureka, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Eureka, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the City of Eureka Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... and property of ] the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display....

  3. 78 FR 39997 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Tahoe City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Tahoe City, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Tahoe City, CA in the Captain of the Port, San... life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display....

  4. Fourth Branchial Anomaly Presenting with a Lateral Neck Mass in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Ha-Shin; Park, Kwi-Won

    2014-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are an important differential diagnosis in congenital neck masses in infants. The third and fourth branchial anomalies are rare branchial cleft anomalies, which are hard to differentiate. We report here an uncommon case of the fourth branchial anomaly that was presented as an asymptomatic neck mass in a neonate. PMID:26023505

  5. Technology Integration in Third, Fourth and Fifth Grade Classrooms in a Florida School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Tiffani; Gaines, Trudi

    2015-01-01

    Third, fourth and fifth grade teachers have the potential to shape the way their students will begin to view and use technology. This study investigated the nature of technology usage among third, fourth and fifth grade teachers in a Florida school district as well as the relationship between the level of technology usage factors such as available…

  6. The Effects of a Teacher-Guided Library Selection Program on Fourth-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Sherri M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the impact that a teacher-guided library selection program had on overall reading scores and how this program may or may not promote reading improvement of fourth-grade students at a small suburban school in western New York. Forty fourth graders were used as the sample population, which was…

  7. An Examination of School Leadership in Singapore through the Lens of the Fourth Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    School leadership is an important factor in educational reform and school transformation. This article aims to examine the challenges of school leadership in Singapore through the lens of the Fourth Way. In particular, this article makes reference to three messages in the Fourth Way and examines the paradoxes and challenges faced by school leaders…

  8. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Narrative Writing in Fourth Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation…

  9. Educational Measurement. Fourth Edition. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Educational Measurement" has been the bible in its field since the first edition was published by ACE in 1951. The importance of this fourth edition of "Educational Measurement" is to extensively update and extend the topics treated in the previous three editions. As such, the fourth edition documents progress in the field and…

  10. 39 CFR 242.2 - Change of site-fourth-class offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Change of site-fourth-class offices. 242.2 Section 242.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION CHANGE OF SITE § 242.2 Change of site—fourth-class offices. Report by memorandum to chief, organization and...

  11. 39 CFR 242.2 - Change of site-fourth-class offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change of site-fourth-class offices. 242.2 Section 242.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION CHANGE OF SITE § 242.2 Change of site—fourth-class offices. Report by memorandum to chief, organization and...

  12. Distance Language Learning: Interactivity and Fourth-Generation Internet-Based Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a report on NetMeeting as an appropriate fourth-generation tool for interactive language learning in distance mode. It follows on earlier research by Wang and Sun (2000, 2001) on the most urgent problem facing distance language education--lack of provision of oral-visual interaction and the emergence of a fourth-generation…

  13. Learning by Choosing: Fourth Graders Use of an Online Multimedia Tutoring System for Math Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloy, Robert W.; Razzaq, Leena; Edwards, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of an online mathematics tutoring system in eight fourth grade classrooms in two Massachusetts communities--a small rural city with a low 2010 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) math performance rating and a small suburban district with a high 2010 AYP math performance rating. 165 fourth graders completed 11 modules…

  14. Quality Teacher Induction: "Fourth-Wave" (1997-2006) Induction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ann L.; Stanulis, Randi Nevins

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to describe quality teacher induction that has evolved from "fourth-wave" (1997-2006) teacher induction program development and research. A definition of quality induction is proposed, and a set of induction goals and components are outlined. Understandings gained from fourth-wave programs are described, including ways…

  15. An endoscopic, cadaveric analysis of the roof of the fourth ventricle.

    PubMed

    Salma, Asem; Yeremeyeva, Esmiralda; Baidya, Nishanta B; Sayers, Martin Peter; Ammirati, Mario

    2013-05-01

    We performed endoscopic dissections of the roof of the fourth ventricle in eight fresh human cadaveric heads to characterize the endoscopic anatomy of the roof of the fourth ventricle and the anatomical configuration of the structures forming its roof. We also made three-dimensional (3D) silicone casts of the fourth ventricle in seven formalin-fixed specimens to evaluate the 3D configuration of the structures that create the roof of the fourth ventricle. The roof of the fourth ventricle can be divided into three zones. The upper zone is formed by the superior cerebellar peduncle and superior medullary velum and is associated with the lingula. The middle zone is formed by the inferior cerebellar peduncles and inferior medullary velum and is associated with the nodule in the midline and with the peduncle of the flocculus. The lower zone is formed by the tela choroidea and is associated with the tonsils. The 3D shape of the roof the fourth ventricle resembles that of a rhomboid-based pyramid; the edges of the base represent the borders of the ventricle, and the apex is the cerebellar fastigium. The lateral recess is shaped like a triangular-based pyramid, with its base connected to the cavity of the fourth ventricle and its tip opening into the lateral cerebellomedullary cistern through the foramen of Luschka. Our results may help in the endoscopic exploration of and microsurgical approaches to the fourth ventricle through its roof. PMID:23507044

  16. 12. VIEW OF MERCHANTS' HOTEL IN MID 19th CENTURY, 'FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF MERCHANTS' HOTEL IN MID- 19th CENTURY, 'FOURTH STREET, PHILA., WEST SIDE, FROM MARKET TO ARCH', as it appeared in The Baxter Panoramic Business Directory, Est. 1857 which is available for viewing at the Free Library of Philadelphia, in the Castner Collection, Philadelphia Vol. No. 12, 'Streets 1'. - Merchants' Hotel, 40-50 North Fourth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 78 FR 34897 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Eureka, Humboldt Bay, Eureka, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Eureka, Humboldt Bay... Guard will enforce the safety zone for the Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Eureka in the Captain of...). DATES: The regulations this notice will be enforced from 12 p.m. on July 3, 2013 through 10:40 p.m....

  18. 78 FR 34896 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Richmond, Richmond Harbor, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Richmond, Richmond... Guard will enforce the safety zone for the City of Richmond Fourth of July Fireworks display in the... Patrol Commander (PATCOM). DATES: The regulations will be enforced from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. on July 3,...

  19. The Fourth Amendment in the Public Schools: Issues for the 1990's and Beyond. Presentation Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Myron

    In 1985, the United States Supreme Court, in "New Jersey v. T.L.O.," held that the Fourth Amendment applies to searches and seizures conducted by public school administrators. This paper discusses the current state of Fourth Amendment law with regard to public school searches and seizures. Among the subtopics discussed are the following: (1) the…

  20. 78 FR 55774 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight... public of the twenty fourth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  1. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List... contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is... information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: hotline-sdwa@epa.gov ....

  2. Differentiated Jurisprudence? Examining Students' Fourth Amendment Court Decisions by Region of Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Mario S., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined federal and state court decisions related to student Fourth Amendment rights following the "New Jersey v. T.L.O." ruling in 1985. There has been minimal research in judicial treatment of students' Fourth Amendment rights across regions of the country and less to what extent regional rulings implicitly or explicitly transmit…

  3. Use of the Stanford Binet Fourth Edition in Identifying Young Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Margie K.; DeLeon, Josie

    1988-01-01

    The impact of the Stanford Binet Fourth Edition was compared with the Stanford Binet L-M on the identification of gifted children for a university affiliated preschool. The fourth edition test composite identified fewer preschool age children as gifted when the criterion was set at 1.5 standard deviations above the mean. (Author/JDD)

  4. SCALS: a fourth-generation study of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joe; Hughes, Gemma; Lynch, Jenni; A'Court, Christine; Hinder, Sue; Fahy, Nick; Byrne, Emma; Finlayson, Alexander; Sorell, Tom; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research to date into assisted living technologies broadly consists of 3 generations: technical design, experimental trials and qualitative studies of the patient experience. We describe a fourth-generation paradigm: studies of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context. Fourth-generation studies are necessarily organic and emergent; they view technology as part of a dynamic, networked and potentially unstable system. They use co-design methods to generate and stabilise local solutions, taking account of context. Methods and analysis SCALS (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions) consists (currently) of 5 organisational case studies, each an English health or social care organisation striving to introduce technology-supported services to support independent living in people with health and/or social care needs. Treating these cases as complex systems, we seek to explore interdependencies, emergence and conflict. We employ a co-design approach informed by the principles of action research to help participating organisations establish, refine and evaluate their service. To that end, we are conducting in-depth ethnographic studies of people's experience of assisted living technologies (micro level), embedded in evolving organisational case studies that use interviews, ethnography and document analysis (meso level), and exploring the wider national and international context for assisted living technologies and policy (macro level). Data will be analysed using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval for the first 4 case studies has been granted. An important outcome will be lessons learned from individual co-design case studies. We will document the studies’ credibility and rigour, and assess the transferability of findings to other settings while also recognising unique aspects of the contexts in which they were generated

  5. Scale-invariant scalar spectrum from the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, an exactly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbation generated during de Sitter spacetime is found from the gravity model of the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term. The nonminimal derivative coupling term generates a healthy (ghost-free) fourth-order derivative term, while the fourth-order term provides an unhealthy (ghost) fourth-order derivative term. The Harrison-Zel’dovich spectrum obtained from Fourier transforming the fourth-order propagator in de Sitter space is recovered by computing the power spectrum in its momentum space directly. It shows that this model provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum, in addition to the Lee-Wick scalar theory.

  6. 8 CFR 204.13 - How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth preference special... Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth...

  7. 8 CFR 204.13 - How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth preference special... Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth...

  8. 8 CFR 204.13 - How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth preference special... Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth...

  9. 8 CFR 204.13 - How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth preference special... Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of Governors petition for a fourth...

  10. Environmental surveillance data report for the fourth quarter of 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.; Horwedel, B.M.; McCollough, I.L.; Osborne-Lee, A.E.; Tardiff, M.F.; Valentine, C.K.; Wolf, D.A.

    1990-10-01

    During the fourth quarter of 1989, over 2700 samples representing more than 5000 analyses and measurements were collected by the Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section. A network of real-time monitoring stations that telemeter 10-min-averaged readings of radiation levels, total precipitation, flows, water quality parameters, and air quality parameters around Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) also reported data. In addition, three meteorological towers sent weather data at various heights to a host computer every 15 min. Isotopes {sup 3}H, {sup 131}I, {sup 133}I, {sup 135}I, {sup 191}Os, and {sup 212}Pb were the primary isotopes emitted from ORNL stacks during this quarter. Ambient air activity for gross alpha, gross beta, and {sup 131}I was consistent with the previous quarter. The Melton Branch (MB) 1 station continued to show the highest radionuclide concentrations of all the stream locations monitored. A total of 30 noncompliances were associated with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Analysis of Category I and II outfalls for gross beta was initiated this quarter. A total of 264 water samples and 45 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for mercury as part of NPDES activities to characterize and to quantify mercury contamination in the aquatic environment. Water and sediment samples were collected at nine sites. Groundwater samples were collected at waste area grouping (WAG) 1 during this quarter. Data for milk samples from within the immediate environs of ORNL and fish collected in the Clinch River are also presented. 26 figs., 75 tabs.

  11. Polymorphism of the fourth component of complement in Turks.

    PubMed

    Metin, A; Sanal, O; Ersoy, F; Tezcan, I; Berkel, A I; Irkeç, C

    2000-06-01

    An analysis of polymorphism in the fourth component of human complement (C4) was performed on EDTA-plasma from 142 unrelated, randomly selected Turks without collagen-vascular disease or recurrent infections. Plasma samples treated with neuraminidase and carboxypeptidase-B were subjected to high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis followed by immunofixation. C4B allotypes were further detected in some samples by Western blots with monoclonal antibody 1228 (anti-C4B/Ch1 reactivity). The frequencies of C4A and C4B alleles were determined. Allele C4B*5, which has been found to be relatively common in Asian (Oriental) populations, was not detected in this study. No specific predilection could be noted among the rare variants. C4A*3-C4B*1 was the most common haplotype (n = 40/142, or 28%) but was found less frequently than in Caucasian populations. This finding may be the result of the limited number of samples examined. C4A and/or C4B null allotypes were seen in 49 of 142 (34.6%) subjects. The most frequent C4 null allotype seen was C4B null (37/142, or 26%): 28 subjects had one C4B null allele; 1 had a homozygous deficiency of C4B (C4B*QO, *QO) and 7 had C4A*QO C4B*QO, a double heterozygous haplotype. Frequencies of homozygous haplotype C4A*Q0-C4B*Q0 in the population studied were found to be 0.007. The results of this study demonstrate that the genetic composition of the Turkish population exhibits both similarities and differences with the European population, and ranges between Caucasian and Mongoloid (Asian) populations.

  12. A guide to the evaluation of fourth cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Lee; Hayman; Beaver; Prager; Kelder; Scasta; Avilla; von Noorden GK; Tang

    1998-12-01

    PURPOSE To devise a cost-effective guide for the evaluation of fourth nerve palsies (FNP). METHODS A review of the pertinent English language literature was performed to devise a guide for the evaluation (including neuroimaging) of FNP. The authors report a retrospective review of imaging studies performed on 206 patients with FNP. RESULTS The literature was used to develop the imaging guide. In the retrospective chart review of 206 patients from two tertiary care centers, 28 patients (13.6%) underwent a computed tomography scan and/or a magnetic resonance scan. Of these patients, five had associated neurological symptoms (non-isolated), one was traumatic, five were congenital, four were vasculopathic, eleven were non-vasculopathic, and two were progressive. Following the recommendations of the imaging guide, the five isolated congenital FNP and the four isolated vasculopathic FNP would not have undergone neuroimaging studies. The total costs of these neuroimaging studies in these nine patients were 19,000 dollars. Four patients in the retrospective review with associated neurological deficits (non-isolated) should have undergone neuroimaging according to the guide, but did not. CONCLUSIONS Although the evaluation of FNP can be difficult, the decision to order neuroimaging can be improved by using an imaging guide. An imaging guide for the evaluation of FNP may allow more appropriate and cost-effective imaging of these patients. Isolated congenital, old traumatic, or vasculopathic FNP do not require neuroimaging studies. Patients with non-isolated FNP should have directed neuroimaging studies based upon the results of clinical examination.

  13. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century. PMID:25054386

  14. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    PubMed

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address.

  15. The Fourth Bracey Report on the Condition of Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1994-01-01

    New data from SAT scores, the Second International Assessment of Educational Progress, and other sources show that American public education compares favorably with that of other advanced nations, despite mass media hysteria. Performance levels on academic indicators may reflect demographic factors more strongly than educational system quality.…

  16. Clearing up the hazy road from bench to bedside: A framework for integrating the fourth hurdle into translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Wolf H; Hartz, Susanne C; John, Jürgen H

    2008-01-01

    Background New products evolving from research and development can only be translated to medical practice on a large scale if they are reimbursed by third-party payers. Yet the decision processes regarding reimbursement are highly complex and internationally heterogeneous. This study develops a process-oriented framework for monitoring these so-called fourth hurdle procedures in the context of product development from bench to bedside. The framework is suitable both for new drugs and other medical technologies. Methods The study is based on expert interviews and literature searches, as well as an analysis of 47 websites of coverage decision-makers in England, Germany and the USA. Results Eight key steps for monitoring fourth hurdle procedures from a company perspective were determined: entering the scope of a healthcare payer; trigger of decision process; assessment; appraisal; setting level of reimbursement; establishing rules for service provision; formal and informal participation; and publication of the decision and supplementary information. Details are given for the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the German Federal Joint Committee, Medicare's National and Local Coverage Determinations, and for Blue Cross Blue Shield companies. Conclusion Coverage determination decisions for new procedures tend to be less formalized than for novel drugs. The analysis of coverage procedures and requirements shows that the proof of patient benefit is essential. Cost-effectiveness is likely to gain importance in future. PMID:18816378

  17. THE FOURTH US NAVAL OBSERVATORY CCD ASTROGRAPH CATALOG (UCAC4)

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C. T.; Bartlett, J. L.; Girard, T. M.; Henden, A.; Monet, D. G.; Zacharias, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC4, was released in 2012 August (double-sided DVD and CDS data center Vizier catalog I/322). It is the final release in this series and contains over 113 million objects; over 105 million of them with proper motions (PMs). UCAC4 is an updated version of UCAC3 with about the same number of stars also covering all-sky. Bugs were fixed, Schmidt plate survey data were avoided, and precise five-band photometry was added for about half the stars. Astrograph observations have been supplemented for bright stars by FK6, Hipparcos, and Tycho-2 data to compile a UCAC4 star catalog complete from the brightest stars to about magnitude R = 16. Epoch 1998-2004 positions are obtained from observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's 'red lens', equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Mean positions and PMs are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the southern hemisphere, the first epoch plates from the Southern Proper Motion program form the basis for PMs, while the Northern Proper Motion first epoch plates serve the same purpose for the rest of the sky. These data are supplemented by 2MASS near-IR photometry for about 110 million stars and five-band (B, V, g, r, i) APASS data for over 51 million stars. Thus the published UCAC4, as were UCAC3 and UCAC2, is a compiled catalog with the UCAC observational program being a major component. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC4 at mean epoch is about 15-100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the formal errors in PMs range from about 1 to 10 mas yr{sup -1} depending on magnitude and observing history. Systematic errors in PMs are estimated to be about 1-4 mas yr{sup -1}.

  18. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date; concentrator development and progress; economic analyses; and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  19. Ecological, psychological, and cognitive components of reading difficulties: testing the component model of reading in fourth graders across 38 countries.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.

  20. The marionette technique for treatment of isolated fourth ventricle: technical note.

    PubMed

    Longatti, Pierluigi; Marton, Elisabetta; Magrini, Salima

    2013-10-01

    Isolated fourth ventricle is not uncommon in complex posthemorrhagic or postinfectious hydrocephalus. When the condition is symptomatic, the current surgical treatment is endoscopic aqueductoplasty, followed by endoscope-assisted placement of a catheter in the fourth ventricle. The authors suggest a very simple method of steering the tip of standard ventricular catheters by using materials commonly available in all operating rooms. The main advantage of this method is that it permits less invasive transaqueductal drainage of trapped fourth ventricles, especially in cases of narrow third ventricle, because the scope and catheter are introduced in sequence and not in a double-barreled fashion. Two illustrative cases are reported.

  1. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  2. PREFACE: Fourth Symposium on Large TPCs for Low Energy Rare Event Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irastorza, Igor G.; Colas, Paul; Giomataris, Ioannis

    2009-07-01

    The Fourth International Symposium on large TPCs for low-energy rare-event detection was held at the Hermite auditorium of the Insitute Henri Poincaréte, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris on 18-19 December 2008. As in previous instances of the meeting, held always in Paris in 2006, 2004 and 2002, it gathered a significant community of physicists involved in rare event searches and/or development of time projection chambers (TPCs). The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss the status of current experiments or projects involving the use of large TPCs for the search of rare events, like low-energy neutrinos, double beta decay, dark matter or axion experiments, as well as to discuss new results and ideas in the framework of the last developments of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD), and how these are being - or could be - applied to the mentioned searches. The rapid evolvement of these devices and the relevance of their latest results need to be efficiently transferred to the rare event community. The creation of this series of meetings followed the motivation of bringing together both know-hows and it is proving to be a fruitful area of collaboration. Once more, the format of the meeting proved to be a success. A short (2 days) and relatively informal program with some recent highlighted results, rather than exhaustive reviews, attracted the interest of the audience. The symposium, fourth of the series, is becoming consolidated as a regular meeting place for the synergic interplay between the fields of rare events and TPC development. Apart from the usual topics central to the conference subject, like the status of some low-energy neutrino physics and double beta decay experiments, dark matter experiments (and in general physics in underground laboratories), axion searches, or development results, every year the conference programme is enriched with original slightly off-topic contributions that trigger the curiosity and stimulate further thought

  3. Fourth Grade Factory--An Integrated, Collaborative Unit in Manufacturing and Economics--Make It, Take It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Clifford; Giles, Bob

    This unit for fourth grade and high school includes elements of careers, economics and free enterprise for fourth graders and elements of problem solving and design, manufacturing, drafting, and woodworking for high school students. The unit is taught in both the fourth grade and the high school classrooms. The unit involves planning, designing,…

  4. 77 FR 31493 - Safety Zones; Fourth of July Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Charleston Zone, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fourth of July Fireworks Displays Within.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing five temporary safety zones during Fourth of July Fireworks.... The Coast Guard is establishing five temporary safety zones for Fourth of July Fireworks Displays...

  5. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On December 1 and 2, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), a consortium composed of NASA/Goddard, the University of Maryland, and CSC, held the 24th Software Engineering Workshop (SEW), the last of the millennium. Approximately 240 people attended the 2-day workshop. Day 1 was composed of four sessions: International Influence of the Software Engineering Laboratory; Object Oriented Testing and Reading; Software Process Improvement; and Space Software. For the first session, three internationally known software process experts discussed the influence of the SEL with respect to software engineering research. In the Space Software session, prominent representatives from three different NASA sites- GSFC's Marti Szczur, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Rick Doyle, and the Ames Research Center IV&V Facility's Lou Blazy- discussed the future of space software in their respective centers. At the end of the first day, the SEW sponsored a reception at the GSFC Visitors' Center. Day 2 also provided four sessions: Using the Experience Factory; A panel discussion entitled "Software Past, Present, and Future: Views from Government, Industry, and Academia"; Inspections; and COTS. The day started with an excellent talk by CSC's Frank McGarry on "Attaining Level 5 in CMM Process Maturity." Session 2, the panel discussion on software, featured NASA Chief Information Officer Lee Holcomb (Government), our own Jerry Page (Industry), and Mike Evangelist of the National Science Foundation (Academia). Each presented his perspective on the most important developments in software in the past 10 years, in the present, and in the future.

  6. Fourth-order master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator coupled to an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Arzu; Eryigit, Resul

    Using Krylov averaging method, we have derived a fourth-order master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator weakly coupled to an electromagnetic field. Interaction is assumed to be of velocity coupling type which also takes into account the diagmagnetic term. Exact analytical expressions have been obtained for the second, the third and the fourth-order corrections to the diffusion and the drift terms of the master equation. We examined the validity range of the second order master equation in terms of the coupling constant and the bath cutoff frequency and found that for the most values of those parameters, the contribution from the third and the fourth order terms have opposite signs and cancel each other. Inclusion of the third and the fourth-order terms is found to not change the structure of the master equation. Bolu, Turkey.

  7. 46. Photocopy of drawing A22 (Housing Authority) SECOND, THIRD, FOURTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing A-22 (Housing Authority) SECOND, THIRD, FOURTH, AND ROOF PLANS, BUILDING Nos. 9,11,13,15,17 - Lockefield Garden Apartments, 900 Indiana Avenue, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  8. Clinical, histological, and genetic features of fourth ventricle ependymoma in the elderly. Case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuro; Inamasu, Joji; Kanai, Ryuichi; Sasaki, Hikaru; Shinoda, Jun; Hirose, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented with a rare case of geriatric ependymoma originating from the fourth ventricle manifesting as progressive gait and memory disturbance. Imaging studies revealed an extraaxial mass in the fourth ventricle protruding into the right cerebellomedullary cistern, with concomitant obstructive hydrocephalus. Surgery achieved subtotal removal since the tumor tightly adhered to the right vestibular area of the fourth ventricular floor. The histological diagnosis was ependymoma, which was also confirmed by comparative genetic hybridization. Although she developed severe laryngeal edema and worsening of the hydrocephalus postoperatively which required additional treatment, she recovered with residual mild gait disturbance, and was transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Fourth ventricle ependymoma in the elderly is rare. Comparative genetic hybridization may be important in the diagnosis of geriatric ependymoma and in the choice for adjuvant therapy as well as in estimating the prognosis for patients with rare types of ependymoma. PMID:22976148

  9. Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of papers presented at the Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems is given. The papers address modeling, systems identification, and control of flexible aircraft, spacecraft and robotic systems.

  10. 78 FR 51725 - Fourth Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Fourth Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference AGENCY... World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15). In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee...

  11. 92. ROSE WINDOW IN ROOM T472, NORTH TOWER, FOURTH FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. ROSE WINDOW IN ROOM T472, NORTH TOWER, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  13. Fourth floor, view looking from the reception cube (402A) to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fourth floor, view looking from the reception cube (402A) to elevator and stair (note radio controlled temperature and humidity device and the water fountain) - Virginia State Capitol, Bank and 10th Streets, Capitol Square, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  14. 2. FOURTH FLOOR VIEW TO NORTHEAST, WITH I.J. STOKES DENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FOURTH FLOOR VIEW TO NORTHEAST, WITH I.J. STOKES DENTAL POWDER FILLING MACHINE (CENTER) AND PACKING TABLE (LEFT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, G Block, 81-95 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  15. The Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program Fourth Quarter 2000 (October thru December 2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-08-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during fourth quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program.

  16. Semileptonic B to scalar meson decays in the standard model with fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil Aslam, M.

    2011-02-01

    We study the effects of the fourth generation of quarks on the total branching ratio and the lepton polarizations in B{sub 0}{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{sup +}l{sup -} (l={mu}, {tau}) decay. Taking the fourth generation quark mass m{sub t'} of about 400 to 600 GeV with the mixing angle |V{sub t}{sup '}{sub b}*V{sub t}{sup '}{sub s}| in the range (0.05-1.4)x10{sup -2} and using the phase to be 80 deg., it is found that the branching ratio and lepton polarizations are quite sensitive to these fourth generation parameters. In the future, the experimental study of this decay will give us an opportunity to study new physics effects, precisely, to search for the fourth generation of quarks (t{sup '},b{sup '}) in an indirect way.

  17. Bridge No. 1396, Fourth Potomac and Second B&O Crossing, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge No. 1396, Fourth Potomac and Second B&O Crossing, looking southwest at the Maryland side. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  18. 2. OVERVIEW OF MAINTENANCE ROAD AND FOURTH FLUME ABOVE SAR1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERVIEW OF MAINTENANCE ROAD AND FOURTH FLUME ABOVE SAR-1 FOREBAY, HIGH ABOVE SANTA ANA RIVER BED, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Flumes & Tunnels below Sandbox, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Investigating the quality of video consultations performed using fourth generation (4G) mobile telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Caffery, Liam J; Smith, Anthony C

    2015-09-01

    The use of fourth-generation (4G) mobile telecommunications to provide real-time video consultations were investigated in this study with the aims of determining if 4G is a suitable telecommunications technology; and secondly, to identify if variation in perceived audio and video quality were due to underlying network performance. Three patient end-points that used 4G Internet connections were evaluated. Consulting clinicians recorded their perception of audio and video quality using the International Telecommunications Union scales during clinics with these patient end-points. These scores were used to calculate a mean opinion score (MOS). The network performance metrics were obtained for each session and the relationships between these metrics and the session's quality scores were tested. Clinicians scored the quality of 50 hours of video consultations, involving 36 clinic sessions. The MOS for audio was 4.1 ± 0.62 and the MOS for video was 4.4 ± 0.22. Image impairment and effort to listen were also rated favourably. There was no correlation between audio or video quality and the network metrics of packet loss or jitter. These findings suggest that 4G networks are an appropriate telecommunication technology to deliver real-time video consultations. Variations in quality scores observed during this study were not explained by the packet loss and jitter in the underlying network. Before establishing a telemedicine service, the performance of the 4G network should be assessed at the location of the proposed service. This is due to known variability in performance of 4G networks.

  20. A chain reaction: the Fourth World Conference on Women and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D

    1995-01-01

    The UN's Fourth World Conference on Women, held in September 1995 in Beijing, China, fostered international dialogue on complex issues related to women. The Platform of Action maps the boundaries that confine women and recommends actions to redress key concerns, including poverty, violence, education health, the environment, and political and social status. National and regional studies throughout the world show that a great number of women are pushed into prostitution, are sexually abused, raped, forcibly sterilized, and coerced into having abortions. In the US, nearly 4 million women are physically abused every year, according to a 1994 US Department of State report on the status of women. The 1995 UN Human Development Report estimates that one American woman in six is raped in her lifetime. The Beijing document underscores education as a way to empower women and help to break patterns of violence and discrimination. It is estimated that women perform 60% of the world's work but earn only 10% of the world's income and own less that 1% of the world's assets. Governments, institutions, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) pledged monetary support to develop programs that are favorable toward women. The US announced that a 6-year $1.5 billion program will fight domestic violence, and additional proposals include increasing resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS, decrease smoking and breast cancer, improve wages and conditions for women in the workplace, expand financial credit for women, and promote their participation in the political process. In addition, the World Bank has pledged to spend $5 billion of its $20 billion annual lending to address the particular concerns of women and to target $200 million for miniloans to help women start their own businesses. Throughout the world, education and family planning projects have helped women make informed choices about their families, resulting in improved reproductive health and lower fertility rates. PMID

  1. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, major ions, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during fourth quarter are the focus of this report.

  2. A fourth-order box method for solving the boundary layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, S. F.

    1977-01-01

    A fourth order box method for calculating high accuracy numerical solutions to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations is presented. The method is the natural extension of the second order Keller Box scheme to fourth order and is demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations. Numerical results for high accuracy test cases show the method to be significantly faster than other higher order and second order methods.

  3. International Team Teaching: A Partnership between Mexico and Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Murphy, Karen L.

    This case study reports on collaborative activities among four fourth grade teachers and their students over a year and explores the effectiveness of distance learning for international team teaching. Two classes in Mexico City conducted school activities with two classes in College Station (Texas). Researchers examined: school activities that…

  4. Bureau for International Language Coordination (BILC) Bulletin No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, K. E., Ed.

    This is the fourth in a continuing series of bulletins dealing with international approaches and problems in language instruction in the military. Articles contained in this volume include: (1) "Drill Materials for Advanced Students," (2) "Comment un aveugle peut apprendre une langue etrangere"/"How a Blind Man Can Learn a Foreign Language," (3)…

  5. The relationship between the five-factor model and latent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorder dimensions.

    PubMed

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Eaton, William W

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (PDs) with the 5-factor model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorders Study. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition PD traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and PD dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor analysis. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a measure of the FFM, was administered to all subjects. The relationship between the 2 sets of personality-related constructs was examined using a construct validity framework and also using Pearson correlation coefficients, multiple linear regression models, and spline regression models. The 5 PD factors each exhibited small to moderate correlations with several NEO dimensions; together, the NEO domain and facet scores explained a fifth to a third of the variance in PD dimensions. Examples of nonlinear relationships between the personality dimensions were identified. There is a modest correspondence between the PD dimensions and FFM traits, and the traits of FFM only partially explain the variance of the PDs. Dimensional measures of general personality may be a suitable alternative to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Whether additional maladaptive traits would better define the domain of PDs remains an important objective for future research.

  6. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Belgium: Follow-up of infants until 1 month after the fourth infant pertussis vaccination at 15 months of age.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Kirsten; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Huygen, Kris; Vermeiren, Sandra; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2016-06-30

    Vaccination of pregnant women with a pertussis containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in some industrialized countries, to protect young infants from severe disease. One of the effects of the presence of high titers of passively acquired maternal antibodies in young infants is blunting of immune responses to infant vaccination. We present infant immune responses to a fourth pertussis containing vaccine dose at 15 months of age, as a follow-up of previously presented data. In a prospective cohort study, women were either vaccinated with an acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix(®)) during pregnancy (vaccine group) or received no vaccine (control group). All infants were vaccinated with Infanrix Hexa(®) according to the standard Belgian vaccination schedule (8/12/16 weeks, 15 months). We report results from blood samples collected before and 1 month after the fourth vaccine dose. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxoid (TT) and diphtheria toxoid (DT) were measured using commercially available ELISA tests. Antibody levels were expressed in International Units per milliliter. Demographic characteristics were similar in the vaccine and control group. Before the fourth vaccine dose, significantly lower antibody titers were measured in the vaccine group compared to the control group for anti-Prn IgG (p=0.003) and anti-DT IgG (p=0.023), with a steep decay of antibody titers since post-primary vaccination. One month after the fourth dose, antibody titers were only significantly lower in the vaccine group for anti-PT IgG (p=0.006). For all antigens, there was a rise in antibody titer after the fourth vaccine dose. The present results indicate still a minor blunting effect 1 month after a fourth vaccine dose for anti-PT antibodies. However, a good humoral immune response on all measured antigens was elicited in both groups of children. The clinical significance of such blunting

  7. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  8. Outcome of the fourth Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebeling, Rob; Baum, Bryan; Bennartz, Ralf; Hamann, Ulrich; Heidinger, Andrew; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Stengel, Martin; Thoss, Anke; Walther, Andi; Watts, Phil

    2014-05-01

    Accurate measurements of global distributions of cloud parameters and their diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations are needed to improve the understanding of the role of clouds in the weather and climate system, and to monitor their time-space variations. Cloud parameters retrieved from satellite observations, such as cloud vertical placement, cloud water path and cloud particle size, play an important role. In order to give weather and climate researchers more confidence in the quality of these retrievals their validity needs to be determined and their error characteristics need to be quantified. The purpose of the 4th Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Workshop (CREW-4), which was held from 3-7 March 2014 in Grainau, Germany, is to enhance our knowledge on state-of-art cloud properties retrievals from passive imaging satellites, and pave the path towards optimising these retrievals for weather and climate applications, such as data assimilation, model analysis, or climate monitoring. An important objective of CREW is to identify and address research questions on level-2 cloud parameter retrievals from operational algorithms and level-3 aggregation methods. To facilitate the above, the workshop participants presented and discussed inter-comparison and validation results of cloud parameter products from different passive sensors (e.g. SEVIRI, MODIS, AVHRR) and/or different operational algorithms (e.g. MODIS, CM-SAF, CIMSS). In addition, recommendations were made to foster commonality for the operational algorithms and their cloud parameter products among the participating operational and research groups, and to develop international partnerships within the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS). In parallel breakout sessions in depth discussions were held on: i) cloud parameter retrieval methods, ii) cloud parameter retrieval evaluations, iii) cloud parameter utilization for severe weather

  9. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area. We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS). Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3–4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among patients with a fourth PT, those who underwent radical surgery showed a significantly higher 3-year OS than those who did not (57% vs 13%; P = 0.0442). Fourth PTs are rarely observed in OSCC patients in a betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts. PMID:27015170

  10. Prospective investigation of penile length with newborn male circumcision and second to fourth digit ratio

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Kwan; Doo, A. Ram; Kim, Joo Heung; Park, Hyung Sub; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Hwang; Park, Seung Chol; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom; Kim, Hyung Jim; Kim, Young Gon; Shin, Yu Seob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We prospectively investigated the relationship between newborn male circumcision (NMC) and second to fourth digit ratio with penile length. Methods: As participants for our study, we identified already circumcised young patients who visited our hospital for urological treatment. The age at which the circumcision had been done was assessed. The patients’ height and weight were measured. Second to fourth digit ratio was calculated by measuring the second and fourth digit lengths. The flaccid and erectile penile lengths were measured from the base of the penis to the tip of the glans in standing position. Results: A total of 248 patients were included in our study. In univariate analysis, height, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were associated with erectile penile length. Among these variables, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were significant predictive factors for erectile penile length in multivariate analysis. The subjects were divided into two groups, including 72 patients in the NMC group and 176 patients in the non-NMC group. No significant difference was found in height, weight, and second to fourth digit ratio between both groups. However, flaccid (p<0.001) and erectile (p=0.001) penile lengths were shorter in the NMC group than in the non-NMC group. Conclusions: Despite the small number of subjects, this study shows that NMC was associated with shorter penile length. Second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were also significant predictive factors for erectile penile length. Further multicentre studies with larger number of subjects and biochemical analyses are needed for potential clinical applicability. PMID:27695583

  11. Prospective investigation of penile length with newborn male circumcision and second to fourth digit ratio

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Kwan; Doo, A. Ram; Kim, Joo Heung; Park, Hyung Sub; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Hwang; Park, Seung Chol; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom; Kim, Hyung Jim; Kim, Young Gon; Shin, Yu Seob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We prospectively investigated the relationship between newborn male circumcision (NMC) and second to fourth digit ratio with penile length. Methods: As participants for our study, we identified already circumcised young patients who visited our hospital for urological treatment. The age at which the circumcision had been done was assessed. The patients’ height and weight were measured. Second to fourth digit ratio was calculated by measuring the second and fourth digit lengths. The flaccid and erectile penile lengths were measured from the base of the penis to the tip of the glans in standing position. Results: A total of 248 patients were included in our study. In univariate analysis, height, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were associated with erectile penile length. Among these variables, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were significant predictive factors for erectile penile length in multivariate analysis. The subjects were divided into two groups, including 72 patients in the NMC group and 176 patients in the non-NMC group. No significant difference was found in height, weight, and second to fourth digit ratio between both groups. However, flaccid (p<0.001) and erectile (p=0.001) penile lengths were shorter in the NMC group than in the non-NMC group. Conclusions: Despite the small number of subjects, this study shows that NMC was associated with shorter penile length. Second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were also significant predictive factors for erectile penile length. Further multicentre studies with larger number of subjects and biochemical analyses are needed for potential clinical applicability.

  12. International Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  13. Are the Learning Styles of Asian International Students Culturally or Contextually Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Joseph Kee-Kuok

    2004-01-01

    One of the issues that relates to Asian international students' perceptions about the quality of higher education is with regards to the difficulties and problems they face while studying in an Australian university. A survey was conducted with 78 First Year to Fourth Year Asian international undergraduate students undergoing a range of programs…

  14. Choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle: Review and anatomic study highlighting anatomical variations.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Aggarwal, Anjali; Gupta, Tulika; Loukas, Marios; Sahni, Daisy; Ansari, Shaheryar F; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-04-01

    Relatively few studies have been performed that analyze the morphology of the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle. Due to the importance of this tissue as a landmark on imaging and during surgical intervention of the fourth ventricle, the authors performed a cadaveric study to better characterize this important structure. The choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle of 60 formalin fixed adult human brains was examined and measured. The horizontal distance from the midline to the lateral most point of the protruding tip of the horizontal limbs was measured. In the majority of the 60 brain specimens, right and left horizontal limbs of the choroid plexus were seen extending from the midline and protruding out of their respective lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle and into the subarachnoid space. However, on 3.3% of sides, there was absence of an extension into the foramen of Luschka and in one specimen, this lack of extension into the foramen of Luschka was bilateral. On two sides, there was discontinuity between the midline choroid plexus and the tuft of choroid just outside the foramen of Luschka. For specimens in which the choroid plexus did protrude through the foramen of Luschka (96.7%), these tufts were located anterior to the flocculus and inferolateral to the facial/vestibulocochlear nerve complex and posterosuperior to the glossopharyngeal/vagal/accessory complex. A thorough understanding of the normal and variant anatomy of the fourth ventricular choroid plexus is necessary for those who operate in, or interpret imaging of, this region.

  15. Pithovirus sibericum, a new bona fide member of the "Fourth TRUC" club.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, include giant viruses of Acanthamoeba that were discovered over the last 12 years and are bona fide microbes. Phylogenies based on a few genes conserved amongst these megaviruses and shared by microbes classified as Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea, allowed for delineation of a fourth monophylogenetic group or "TRUC" (Things Resisting Uncompleted Classification) composed of the Megavirales representatives. A new Megavirales member named Pithovirus sibericum was isolated from a >30,000-year-old dated Siberian permafrost sample. This virion is as large as recently described pandoraviruses but has a genome that is approximately three to four times shorter. Our objective was to update the classification of P. sibericum as a new member of the "Fourth TRUC" club. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on four conserved ancient genes and a phyletic analysis was concurrently conducted based on the presence/absence patterns of a set of informational genes from members of Megavirales, Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on the four conserved genes revealed that P. sibericum is part of the fourth TRUC composed of Megavirales members, and is closely related to the families Marseilleviridae and Ascoviridae/Iridoviridae. Additionally, hierarchical clustering delineated four branches, and showed that P. sibericum is part of this fourth TRUC. Overall, phylogenetic and phyletic analyses using informational genes clearly indicate that P. sibericum is a new bona fide member of the "Fourth TRUC" club composed of representatives of Megavirales, alongside Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. PMID:26300849

  16. Path-integral Monte Carlo study of asymmetric quantum quadrupolar rotors with fourth-order propagators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungjin; Shin, Hyeondeok; Kwon, Yongkyung

    2012-08-01

    The recently-proposed fourth-order propagator based on the multi-product expansion has been applied to path-integral Monte Carlo calculations for asymmetric quantum quadruploar rotors fixed at face-centered cubic lattice sites. The rotors are observed to undergo an orientational orderdisorder phase transition at a low temperature when the electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is strong enough. At intermediate interaction strength, a further decrease of temperature after the first transition to the ordered phase results in a reentrant transition back to the disordered phase. The theoretical phase diagram of these asymmetric rotors determined by using fourth-order path-integral Monte Carlo calculations is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the experimental one for solid hydrogen deuteride. This leads us to conclude that the fourth-order propagator can be effectively implemented for an accurate path-integral Monte Carlo calculation of a quantum many-body system with rotational degrees of freedom.

  17. Boundary treatment for fourth-order staggered mesh discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderse, B.; Verstappen, R. W. C. P.; Koren, B.

    2014-01-01

    Harlow and Welch [Phys. Fluids 8 (1965) 2182-2189] introduced a discretization method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations conserving the secondary quantities kinetic energy and vorticity, besides the primary quantities mass and momentum. This method was extended to fourth order accuracy by several researchers [25,14,21]. In this paper we propose a new consistent boundary treatment for this method, which is such that continuous integration-by-parts identities (including boundary contributions) are mimicked in a discrete sense. In this way kinetic energy is exactly conserved even in case of non-zero tangential boundary conditions. We show that requiring energy conservation at the boundary conflicts with order of accuracy conditions, and that the global accuracy of the fourth order method is limited to second order in the presence of boundaries. We indicate how non-uniform grids can be employed to obtain full fourth order accuracy.

  18. Treatment of Complications after Distraction Osteogenesis for Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Kishi, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Congenital brachymetatarsia most commonly involves the fourth ray and may be combined with metacarpal shortening. Numerous reports have demonstrated the usefulness of gradual lengthening of the metatarsals. However, very few studies have investigated methods of recovering the lost regenerative bone. The patient was a 16-year-old girl with bilateral brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal. After a long consolidation period after gradual lengthening of the fourth metatarsal by 20 mm, the patient had an hourglass-shaped regenerated bone. Therefore, we grafted a bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite. Six months after the surgery, well-regenerated bone could be recognized on radiographic evaluation and was resistant to refracture. Callus distraction is a method that aims to avoid donor site morbidity. The strength of artificial bone is often a problem. Bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite compensates for the lack of regenerated bone and distraction gap and prevents refracture, thus preventing complications after metatarsal distraction. PMID:27536496

  19. Role of fourth-order phase-space moments in collective modes of trapped Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chiacchiera, Silvia; Lepers, Thomas; Davesne, Dany; Urban, Michael

    2011-10-15

    We study the transition from hydrodynamic to collisionless behavior in collective modes of ultracold trapped Fermi gases. To that end, we solve the Boltzmann equation for the trapped Fermi gas via the moments method. We showed previously that it is necessary to go beyond second-order moments if one wants to reproduce the results of a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. Here, we will give the detailed description of the method including fourth-order moments. We apply this method to the case of realistic parameters, and compare the results for the radial quadrupole and scissors modes at unitarity to experimental data obtained by the Innsbruck group. It turns out that the inclusion of fourth-order moments clearly improves the agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the fourth-order moments reduce the effect of collisions and therefore partially compensate the effect of the enhanced in-medium cross section at low temperatures.

  20. Treatment of Complications after Distraction Osteogenesis for Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mariko; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Kishi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital brachymetatarsia most commonly involves the fourth ray and may be combined with metacarpal shortening. Numerous reports have demonstrated the usefulness of gradual lengthening of the metatarsals. However, very few studies have investigated methods of recovering the lost regenerative bone. The patient was a 16-year-old girl with bilateral brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal. After a long consolidation period after gradual lengthening of the fourth metatarsal by 20 mm, the patient had an hourglass-shaped regenerated bone. Therefore, we grafted a bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite. Six months after the surgery, well-regenerated bone could be recognized on radiographic evaluation and was resistant to refracture. Callus distraction is a method that aims to avoid donor site morbidity. The strength of artificial bone is often a problem. Bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and collagen composite compensates for the lack of regenerated bone and distraction gap and prevents refracture, thus preventing complications after metatarsal distraction. PMID:27536496

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  2. All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source.

    PubMed

    Khudus, Muhammad I M Abdul; Lee, Timothy; De Lucia, Francesco; Corbari, Costantino; Sazio, Pier; Horak, Peter; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2016-09-19

    All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. Light from a fully fiberized high power master oscillator power amplifier is launched into a periodically poled silica fiber generating the second harmonic. The output is then sent through two optical microfibers that generate the third and fourth harmonic, respectively, via four wave mixing (FWM). For a large range of pump wavelengths in the silica optical transmission window, phase matched FWM can be achieved in the microfibers at two different diameters with relatively wide fabrication tolerances of up to +/-5 nm. Our simulations indicate that by optimizing the second harmonic generation efficiency and the diameters and lengths of the two microfibers, conversion efficiencies to the fourth harmonic in excess of 25% are theoretically achievable. PMID:27661915

  3. Fourth-order partial differential equation noise removal on welding images

    SciTech Connect

    Halim, Suhaila Abd; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Sulong, Tuan Nurul Norazura Tuan; Manurung, Yupiter HP

    2015-10-22

    Partial differential equation (PDE) has become one of the important topics in mathematics and is widely used in various fields. It can be used for image denoising in the image analysis field. In this paper, a fourth-order PDE is discussed and implemented as a denoising method on digital images. The fourth-order PDE is solved computationally using finite difference approach and then implemented on a set of digital radiographic images with welding defects. The performance of the discretized model is evaluated using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Simulation is carried out on the discretized model on different level of Gaussian noise in order to get the maximum PSNR value. The convergence criteria chosen to determine the number of iterations required is measured based on the highest PSNR value. Results obtained show that the fourth-order PDE model produced promising results as an image denoising tool compared with median filter.

  4. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  5. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Stowe, Jennifer L.; Haycock, Ken; Dodd, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Presents three reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Canadian library trends, focusing on information technology and access to information and rights and examining provincial libraries and library education. (PEN)

  6. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  7. Documentation of the Goddard Laboratory for atmospheres fourth-order two-layer shallow water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, L. L. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The theory and numerical treatment used in the 2-level GLA fourth-order shallow water model are described. This model was designed to emulate the horizontal finite differences used by the GLA Fourth-Order General Circulation Model (Kalnay et al., 1983) in addition to its grid structure, form of high-latitude and global filtering, and time-integration schemes. A user's guide is also provided instructing the user on how to create initial conditions, execute the model, and post-process the data history.

  8. Framework Design of Unified Cross-Authentication Based on the Fourth Platform Integrated Payment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xu; Yujin, He

    The essay advances a unified authentication based on the fourth integrated payment platform. The research aims at improving the compatibility of the authentication in electronic business and providing a reference for the establishment of credit system by seeking a way to carry out a standard unified authentication on a integrated payment platform. The essay introduces the concept of the forth integrated payment platform and finally put forward the whole structure and different components. The main issue of the essay is about the design of the credit system of the fourth integrated payment platform and the PKI/CA structure design.

  9. A fourth-order scheme for the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, A.; Parikh, P.; Maestrello, L.; Turkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    A computational scheme is described which is second-order accurate in time and fourth-order accurate in space (2-4). This method is applied to study the stability of compressible boundary layers. The laminar compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a time harmonic inflow superimposed on the steady state solution. This results in spatially unstable modes. It is shown that the second-order methods are inefficient for calculating the growth rates and phases of the unstable modes. In contrast the fourth-order method yields accurate results on relatively course meshes.

  10. Fourth order exponential time differencing method with local discontinuous Galerkin approximation for coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q. M.; Xing, Yulong

    2015-01-23

    In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.

  11. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference; Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, Stresa, Italy, May 10-14, 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloss, W. H.; Grassi, G.

    The state-of-the-art in photovoltaic (PV) systems and components were assessed, experimental activities were described, cost reduction measures were outlined, and future directions for PV research, applications, and market growth were investigated. Attention was given to thin film, crystalline, and amorphous Si solar cells, and to the level of funding devoted to PV research by various governments. Small-scale remote island and village installations were cited as the current market, although larger arrays are being built to interface with national utility grids. The production of continuous run CdS cells of 1 sq cm area with 7.5 pct efficiency was reported, together with 8 pct efficiency heterojunction cells and 22 pct efficient AlGaAs/GaAs cascade cells at 103 suns concentration. Developments in point focus, Fresnel lens, and fluorescent concentrator systems were reported. For individual items see A83-32177 to A83-32339

  12. ISMCR 1994: Topical Workshop on Virtual Reality. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Measurement and Control in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This symposium on measurement and control in robotics included sessions on: (1) rendering, including tactile perception and applied virtual reality; (2) applications in simulated medical procedures and telerobotics; (3) tracking sensors in a virtual environment; (4) displays for virtual reality applications; (5) sensory feedback including a virtual environment application with partial gravity simulation; and (6) applications in education, entertainment, technical writing, and animation.

  13. SEG international exposition and sixty-fourth annual meeting -- 1994 Technical program: Expanded abstracts with authors` biographies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The papers presented at the meeting are arranged into the following sections: Borehole geophysics; Computing techniques; Development and production geophysics; Electromagnetics; Gravity and magnetics; Interpretation methods and case histories; Mining geophysics; Near-surface geophysics; Poster presentations; Seismic acquisition; Seismic inversion; Seismic lithology; Seismic modeling and migration; Seismic processing; and a workshop on Seismic data acquisition and processing in mountainous thrust areas. 266 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. TIMSS 2003 Technical Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V.S., Ed.; Chrostowski, Steven J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This volume describes the technical aspects of TIMSS 2003 and summarizes the main activities involved in the development of the data collection instruments, the data collection itself, and the analysis and reporting of the data. The thirteen chapters contained herein are: (1) Overview of TIMSS 2003 (Michael O. Martin and Ina V. S. Mullis); (2)…

  15. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Internal shim

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Blizinski, Theodore W.

    2003-05-13

    An internal shim used to accurately measure spaces in conjunction with a standard small probe has a shim top and a chassis. The internal shim is adjustably fixed within the space to be measured using grippers that emerge from the chassis and which are controlled by an arm pivotably attached to the shim top. A standard small probe passes through the shim along guides on the chassis and measures the distance between the exterior of the chassis and the boundary. By summing the measurements on each side of the chassis and the width of the chassis, the dimension of the space can be determined to within 0.001 inches.

  17. Development of an Instrument to Assess Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sharon R.; Silverman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the authors in this study was to develop an instrument to assess fourth and fifth grade students' attitudes toward physical education. The methods for validation included (a) an elicitation study and instrument question development, (b) a pilot study, and (c) a series of analyses to assess, construct, and content validity and to…

  18. Situational Interest of Fourth-Grade Children in Music at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of common elementary music class activities that elicit situational interest, the short-term interest that emerges spontaneously in learners when faced with environmental factors in an educational experience. An instrumental case study approach was employed, with 24 fourth-grade…

  19. Employment Situation of Vietnam Era Veterans: Fourth Quarter 1973 and Annual Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The fourth quarter Bureau of Labor statistics show an improvement in the employment situation for Vietnam veterans, including employment for Negro and other minority races. The unemployment rate for newly discharged veterans is still slightly higher than that for nonveterans, but the rate for age group (20-24 and 25-30) is decreasing as a result…

  20. Literary and Visual Literacy for All: A Fourth-Grade Study of "Alice in Wonderland."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strangman, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Interviews Monica Edinger, a fourth-grade teacher who strives to foster a love of literature in her classroom by reading "Alice in Wonderland" aloud to her students. Describes the rest of this project, which includes a close study of the book's illustrators and culminates in a student-produced Toy Theater production of the book, which is digitally…

  1. Effects of a Tier 2 Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Montanaro, Elizabeth A.; Speece, Deborah L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a Tier 2 intervention in the context of a response-to-intervention (RTI) model for 123 fourth-grade students identified as having a high probability of reading failure. A randomized control trial was used to evaluate the effects of a 24-session multicomponent supplemental intervention targeting fluency and expository…

  2. Empowering Fourth-Year Medical Students: The Value of the Senior Year

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael J.; Wenrich, Marjorie D.

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Academic Medicine, Wolf et al explore the purposes and value of the senior year of medical school as viewed by graduating students at their institution. Using data from student focus groups and questionnaires, they report that students all found there to be significant value in but identified different purposes for the fourth year. The authors of this commentary believe that study adds to the discussion of fourth-year curriculum reform an important voice that has been lacking—that of students. Previous articles focusing on the perceived lack of clarity of educational purpose in the senior year curriculum have reflected a faculty perspective and have led some to call for increasing the structure of, decreasing the elective time in, or even completely eliminating the fourth year. In this commentary, the authors ask for a pause in this debate to consider the implications of the student perspective as well as important trends in the medical education continuum that affect the senior student (e.g., milestones that will set new expectations for first-year residents, increasing pressure associated with matching to a residency). They propose that providing students with time for career exploration and for focusing on areas of interest would allow them to individualize their preparation for residency and to be more sure of their career choices. They share the University of Washington School of Medicine’s planned new fourth-year approach as an example of a flexible, individualized senior year curriculum. PMID:24556780

  3. Computers and 2D Geometric Learning of Turkish Fourth and Fifth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olkun, Sinan; Altun, Arif; Smith, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the possible impacts of computers on Turkish fourth-grade students geometry scores and further geometric learning. The study used a pretestinterventionposttest experimental design. Results showed that students who did not have computers at home initially had lower geometry scores. However, these differences were…

  4. A Summary of an Assessment of Fourth and Sixth Grade Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CTB / McGraw-Hill, Monterey, CA.

    A comprehensive assessment was made of the status of elementary education in Missouri in reading, mathematics, language, and study skills. The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) and the Short Form Test of Academic Aptitude (SFTAA) were administered to a sample of Missouri fourth and sixth graders. For each curricular area, Missouri…

  5. 75 FR 35652 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake Tahoe Gaming Alliance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce Lights on the Lake Fireworks Display...

  6. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake Tahoe Gaming Alliance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Fireworks, South Lake Tahoe Gaming Alliance (Lights on the Lake Fireworks Display). This action is...

  7. Tests: A Comprehensive Reference for Assessments in Psychology, Education, and Business. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Taddy, Ed.

    The fourth edition of this reference guide contains information on thousands of assessment instruments published by 221 publishers and available for use by psychologists, educators, and human resources personnel. The assessments described are organized according to a system of primary classification and cross referencing intended to make the…

  8. The Theory of Probable Cause and Searches of Innocent Persons: The Fourth Amendment and "Stanford Daily."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David

    1978-01-01

    Develops three views of the theory underlying the probable cause requirement of the Fourth Amendment. The advantage of the approach based on the rights prohibition of violent intrusions is that it provides standards based on the individual conduct rather than on governmental acts. Available from UCLA Law Review, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles,…

  9. Efficacy of Rich Vocabulary Instruction in Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Logan Herrera, Becky

    2015-01-01

    A multi-cohort cluster randomized trial was conducted to estimate effects of rich vocabulary classroom instruction on vocabulary and reading comprehension. A total of 1,232 fourth- and fifth-grade students from 61 classrooms in 24 schools completed the study. Students received instruction in 140 Tier Two vocabulary words featured in two…

  10. Nutrition Claims Influence Health Perceptions and Taste Preferences in Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldavini, Jessica; Crawford, Patricia; Ritchie, Lorrene D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether children perceive food with nutrition claims as healthier and tasting differently than those without claims. Methods: Fourth- and fifth-graders (n = 47) from 3 California schools participated. Two identical products (cookies, crackers, or juice) were placed in front of product packages, 1 with a nutrition claim, the…

  11. MAP3S precipitation chemistry network: fourth periodic summary report (1980)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This, the fourth in a series of summary reports, contains complete field and chemical data from the MAP3S/RAINE (Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Studies) Precipitation Chemistry Network for the year 1980. The 1980 data were added to the previous data base, and an update of the previous statistical summary completed. Included are basic statistics, time trend analyses, and monthly averages.

  12. Effects of Organization and Instruction on Free and Cued Recall in Lower Socioeconomic Status Fourth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phye, Gary D.; Zimmerman, Bonnie B.

    Free recall, cued recall, and clustering performance of fourth grade lower socioeconomic black and white children is studied under four conditions of teaching: random presentation, random presentation plus instruction, blocked presentation, and blocked presentation with instruction of categorically related list. Results indicate that both recall…

  13. Alternative Conceptions of Organic Chemistry Topics among Fourth Year Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Hardy, Rebecca C.; Gwaltney, Kevin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the conceptual understanding for a series of fundamental organic concepts by fourth year chemistry students from a midsize, southeastern, state university. Student volunteers (n = 19) participated in semi-structured interviews using a think aloud protocol. The interview questions were eleven multiple choice questions selected…

  14. The Linguistic Profiles of Spelling Errors in Fourth, Fifth, and Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yi-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of linguistic knowledge in spelling by analyzing spelling errors made by 220 students in the fourth, fifth, and seventh grades. A 25-word researcher-designed spelling test with considerations of word frequency, word familiarity, and word type (based on morphological complexity) was administered.…

  15. 75 FR 7480 - Fourth Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended, this notice advises interested persons that the fourth meeting of the WRC-12 Advisory Committee will be held at the Federal Communications Commission. The purpose of the meeting is to continue preparations for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference. The WRC- 12 Advisory Committee will consider any preliminary views and......

  16. A Frustrated Fourth Estate: Portugal's Post-Revolutionary Mass Media. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Warren K.; Traquina, Nelson

    1984-01-01

    To explain how and why the Portuguese mass media constitute a frustrated Fourth Estate, this monograph summarizes the history and development of Portuguese media. The first section summarized the history of media legislation that has confronted Portuguese journalists and stunted the development of journalistic tradition. The second section…

  17. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary. Fourth quarter, 1995 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of the operational environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site. The Fourth Quarter 1995 survey results and the status of actions required from current and past reports are described.

  18. Fourth Graders Composing Scientific Explanations about the Effects of Pollutants: Writing to Understand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Marilyn J.; Christenson, Lea Ann; Parker, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Explanation as a genre may support children's reasoning and understanding particularly effectively. In this study, 20 fourth graders were given the task of explaining the effects of a pollutant on an ecosystem to third graders. Before writing, they completed a commercially developed science unit, instruction in reading and writing an explanation,…

  19. Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

  20. The Schema Strategies in Reading Comprehension Tasks of Fourth-Grade Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutkind, Rebeka Chaia

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study investigated the schema strategy uses of fourth-grade boys with reading challenges; specifically, their ability to understand text based on two components within schema theory: tuning and restructuring. Based on the reading comprehension scores from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (Form 2010), four comparison groups were…

  1. A Description of Fourth Grade Children's Problem-Solving in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Martha K.; Rule, Ann M.; Walmsley, Angela L. E.; Swanson, Joy R.

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary study described fourth grade students verbally solving a mathematics problem using a think-aloud protocol. Comments in the think aloud were categorized according to type (e.g., paraphrases and elaborations) and facilitative nature (i.e., whether the comments facilitated correct solution of the problem). Amount of the students'…

  2. 2010 CCCC Chair's Address: Rethinking the Fourth "C"--Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the address given by Valenino at the sixty-first convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) held in Louisville on March 18, 2010. In her address, the author discusses the fourth "C" and how the last part of the title was inherited. As a teacher of composition and oral communication, the…

  3. Using Skills Portfolios in Fourth-Year University Transition to Work Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolstenholme, Janet Z-K.; Evers, Fred

    2009-01-01

    "Transition from school to work" courses are an excellent way to help fourth-year university students as they complete their studies and prepare for the world of work. In this paper we present "The Bases of Competence" (Evers, Rush, & Berdrow, 1998), a model of the advanced skills used by university graduates in the…

  4. Search and Seizure of Students in Public Schools: 2002 Update of Fourth Amendment Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

    This paper presents court cases for the purpose of updating current knowledge on search and seizure of students in the school setting. These cases focus on the balance and interplay between students' Fourth Amendment rights and school administrators' obligations to maintain order and discipline in the schools. Part of this obligation implies…

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum: The capsule endoscopy value

    PubMed Central

    Paquissi, Feliciano Chanana; Lima, Ana Henriqueta Filipe Bunga Pimentel; Lopes, Maria de Fátima do Nascimento Vieira; Diaz, Francisco Viamontes

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine occurs in over 50% of cases in the duodenum. However, its location in the third and fourth duodenal portions occurs rarely and is a diagnostic challenge. The aim of this work is to report an adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth duodenal portions, emphasizing its diagnostic difficulty and the value of video capsule endoscopy. A man, 40 years old, with no medical history, with abdominal discomfort and progressive fatigue, presented four months ago with one episode of moderate melena. The physical examination was normal, except for mucosal pallor. Blood tests were consistent with microcytic, hypochromic iron deficiency anemia with 7.8 g/dL hemoglobin. The upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Additional work-up with video capsule endoscopy showed a polypoid lesion involving the third and fourth portions of the duodenum. Biopsy showed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed a wall thickening from the third duodenal portion to the proximal jejunum, without distant metastasis. The patient underwent segmental resection (distal duodenum and proximal jejunum) with duodenojejunostomy. The surgical specimen histology confirmed the biopsy diagnosis, with transmural infiltration, without nodal involvement. Conclusion: Adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum is difficult to diagnose and capsule endoscopy is of great value. PMID:26309371

  6. Metaphor and Numerical Diagrams in the Arithmetical Activity of a Fourth-Grade Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira

    2004-01-01

    Fourth-grade students who participated in a yearlong, whole-class teaching experiment not only reconceptualized natural numbers but also generated flexible solution strategies to perform numerical computations mentally and in writing. Students' reconceptualization of number was mediated by their perceived resemblance between the physical action of…

  7. Thinking beyond Measurement, Description and Judgment: Fourth Generation Evaluation in Family-Centered Pediatric Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Katherine Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although pediatric healthcare organizations have widely implemented the philosophy of family-centered care (FCC), evaluators and health professionals have not explored how to preserve the philosophy of FCC in evaluation processes. Purpose: To illustrate how fourth generation evaluation, in theory, could facilitate collaboration between…

  8. The fourth age and the concept of a 'social imaginary': A theoretical excursus.

    PubMed

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the idea of the 'fourth age' as a form of social imaginary. During the latter half of the twentieth century and beyond, the cultural framing of old age and its modern institutionalisation within society began to lose some of its former chronological coherence. The 'pre-modern' distinction made between the status of 'the elder' and the state of 'senility' has re-emerged in the 'late modern' distinction between the 'third' and the 'fourth' age. The centuries-old distaste for and fear of old age as 'senility' has been compounded by the growing medicalization of later life, the emergence and expansion of competing narratives associated with the third age, and the progressive 'densification' of the disabilities within the older institutionalised population. The result can be seen as the emergence of a 'late modern' social imaginary deemed as the fourth age. This paper outlines the theoretical evolution of the concept of a social imaginary and demonstrates its relevance to aging studies and its applicability to the fourth age. PMID:24300057

  9. Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Guide for Working with Children and Their Families. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Eleanor W., Ed.; Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the U.S. population grows more and more diverse, how can professionals who work with young children and families deliver the best services while honoring different customs, beliefs, and values? The answers are in the fourth edition of this bestselling textbook, fully revised to reflect nearly a decade of population changes and best practices in…

  10. Environmental Quality, the Fourth Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    The state of the environment and efforts to improve it are reported upon in this Fourth Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality. Broad in scope, the report covers federal and state activities during the past year, the urban environment, economics and environmental management, the law and land use regulation, environmental quality,…

  11. 20 CFR 655.734 - What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding notice? 655.734 Section 655.734 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... principal place of business in the U.S. or at the worksite. The notice shall also include the...

  12. Documentation of the GLAS fourth order general circulation model. Volume 2: Scalar code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, E.; Balgovind, R.; Chao, W.; Edelmann, D.; Pfaendtner, J.; Takacs, L.; Takano, K.

    1983-01-01

    Volume 2, of a 3 volume technical memoranda contains a detailed documentation of the GLAS fourth order general circulation model. Volume 2 contains the CYBER 205 scalar and vector codes of the model, list of variables, and cross references. A variable name dictionary for the scalar code, and code listings are outlined.

  13. Do Fraternities and Sororities Still Enhance Socially Responsible Leadership? Evidence from the Fourth Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevel, Michael S.; Martin, Georgianna L.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2014-01-01

    We use a longitudinal national dataset to explore the effects of fraternity and sorority membership on students' socially responsible leadership in the fourth year of college. Controlling for a variety of potentially confounding variables, we find no net effect. These findings run counter to an earlier study based on the same students that found…

  14. A Fourth Order Difference Scheme for the Maxwell Equations on Yee Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Fathy, Aly E; Wilson, Joshua L

    2008-09-01

    The Maxwell equations are solved by a long-stencil fourth order finite difference method over a Yee grid, in which different physical variables are located at staggered mesh points. A careful treatment of the numerical values near the boundary is introduced, which in turn leads to a 'symmetric image' formula at the 'ghost' grid points. Such a symmetric formula assures the stability of the boundary extrapolation. In turn, the fourth order discrete curl operator for the electric and magnetic vectors gives a complete set of eigenvalues in the purely imaginary axis. To advance the dynamic equations, the four-stage Runge-Kutta method is utilized, which results in a full fourth order accuracy in both time and space. A stability constraint for the time step is formulated at both the theoretical and numerical levels, using an argument of stability domain. An accuracy check is presented to verify the fourth order precision, using a comparison between exact solution and numerical solutions at a fixed final time. In addition, some numerical simulations of a loss-less rectangular cavity are also carried out and the frequency is measured precisely.

  15. Revisiting the AAUP Recommendation: The Viability of Collegiality as a Fourth Criterion for University Faculty Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Pattie C.; Schimmel, Tammy; O'Hara, Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Legal rulings have called for the inclusion of collegiality as a fourth evaluation category for university faculty. Collegiality is considered to be any extra-role behavior that represents individuals' behavior that is discretionary, not recognized by the formal reward system and that, in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of the…

  16. Increasing the Participation of Fourth Grade Students in a Storytelling Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Karen

    A program was designed, developed, and implemented to increase the participation of fourth-grade students in a district-wide storytelling festival in Florida. The target school was the only one in the area to send no students to the festival year after year. The program was planned to work with 10 students in a storytelling practicum with 3 goals,…

  17. Fourth Moment Sum Rule for the Charge Correlations of a Two-Component Classical Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alastuey, Angel; Fantoni, Riccardo

    2016-05-01

    We consider an ionic fluid made with two species of mobile particles carrying either a positive or a negative charge. We derive a sum rule for the fourth moment of equilibrium charge correlations. Our method relies on the study of the system response to the potential created by a weak external charge distribution with slow spatial variations. The induced particle densities, and the resulting induced charge density, are then computed within density functional theory, where the free energy is expanded in powers of the density gradients. The comparison with the predictions of linear response theory provides a thermodynamical expression for the fourth moment of charge correlations, which involves the isothermal compressibility as well as suitably defined partial compressibilities. The familiar Stillinger-Lovett condition is also recovered as a by-product of our method, suggesting that the fourth moment sum rule should hold in any conducting phase. This is explicitly checked in the low density regime, within the Abe-Meeron diagrammatical expansions. Beyond its own interest, the fourth-moment sum rule should be useful for both analyzing and understanding recently observed behaviours near the ionic critical point.

  18. 75 FR 2141 - Fourth Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Fourth Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference AGENCY... continue preparations for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference. The WRC- 12 Advisory Committee will... recommendations relating to the preparation of United States proposals and positions for the 2012...

  19. Literacy Discussions in Low-Income Families: The Effect of Parent Questions on Fourth Graders' Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capotosto, Lauren; Kim, James S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of four types of reading comprehension questions--immediate, non-immediate, summary, and unanswerable questions--that linguistically diverse and predominantly low-income parents asked their fourth graders on children's text retellings. One-hundred-twenty (N = 120) parent and child dyads participated in a home visit…

  20. Reading and Study Behaviors of Fourth-Grade Hispanics: Can Teachers Assess Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Lucy S.; Horowitz, Rosalind

    1995-01-01

    In a low-income south Texas school with primarily Mexican American students, teacher assessments of fourth-grade students' content reading ability and work habits predicted student success for that school year, as measured by grades and achievement scores. Teacher input can be critical in the early identification of students at risk of dropping…

  1. 76 FR 24813 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... establishing a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida for the Fourth... on June 17, 2011 and conclude on June 19, 2011. The boat races will be held in the Atlantic Ocean... the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach, FL encompassed within an imaginary line connecting...

  2. 78 FR 45283 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after July 19, 2013. Military Reservist Loan Program--4.000% Dated: July 19, 2013. James E....

  3. Problem-Based Learning of Social Sciences and Humanities by Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A required fourth-year course integrating the social sciences and humanities into the required clinical medical curriculum at Dartmouth Medical School is intended to prepare students to deal with the social and humanistic issues involved in medical practice, including law, ethics, economics, and social anthropology. (MSE)

  4. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty third meeting of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned...

  5. Fourth Way in Action: Translation of Research into Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Chew Leng

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between policy, research and practice in the Singapore education landscape in response to Hargreaves and Shirley's arguments of Fourth Way principles of educational change. Examples of recent policy developments in Singapore are used to illustrate the interaction between judicial uses of research data and…

  6. Teaching Habitat and Animal Classification to Fourth Graders Using an Engineering-Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marulcu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGO[TM] engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented.…

  7. Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project. Third, Fourth, and Fifth Annual Reports to Bernard Van Leer Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). School of Education.

    This series of the third, fourth, and fifth annual reports to the Bernard Van Leer Foundation on the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project of Macquarie University, Australia, describes the general activities, program developments, and research activities of the project for the period 1977-1979. The main objective of the project is to develop,…

  8. Effects of Fourth and Second Graders' Cross-Age Tutoring on Students' Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebekkah J.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Feinauer, Erika; Wilcox, Brad; Black, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study examined some effects of cross-age tutoring on fourth grade tutors' and second grade tutees' ability to spell accurately and correct errors on their own rough drafts. Half of the participating tutors were trained in tutoring skills; half were not. All participants were given pre- and post-assessments. On dictated writing…

  9. 76 FR 54526 - Fourth Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES:...

  10. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year`s data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B.

  11. Bystanders to Bullying: Fourth-to Seventh-Grade Students' Perspectives on Their Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Camilla; Thornberg, Robert; Samuelsson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The aim with the present study was to investigate bystander actions in bullying situations as well as reasons behind these actions as they are articulated by Swedish students from fourth to seventh grade. Forty-three semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with students. Qualitative analysis of data was performed by methods from…

  12. Bizarre accessory metatarsal located between the left fourth and fifth metatarsals: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Masahiko; Matsuda, Keiji; Kim, Sungon; Kubota, Reiko; Ikegami, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    We report a case of bizarre accessory metatarsal located between the left fourth and fifth metatarsals without a supernumerary digit in a 6-year-old girl. The accessory metatarsal was resected to alleviate foot pain on walking. This metatarsal dysplasia might have arisen from sequential failures of digital formation at an early stage of development.

  13. Our North Carolina Stories Weaving Standards into a Fourth Grade Digital History Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nancy; Binkley, Russell; Marotta, Naomi; Pirkl, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a project that helped fourth-grade students connect personally with and bring North Carolina history to life. Over the months of this project, students asked questions, investigated topics of interest that they chose, conducted in-depth research that included interviewing experts, learned to use a video editor to combine…

  14. Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance in Fourth Grade Students: Exploring an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the effectiveness of a teacher-implemented intervention of eight sessions integrated into an existing curriculum to reduce test anxiety and improve academic performance in fourth grade students. The experimental group, n=23 was drawn from a sample of 64 students in a southwestern Rhode Island public school…

  15. Oral and Silent Reading Rates of Fourth Grade Students: Are All Good Readers Fast Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Diane D.

    A study examined oral and silent reading rates at various levels of difficulty to establish criterion rates for fluent reading at the fourth grade level. Subjects, 27 male and 45 female students from 6 classes in 3 public schools in central Oklahoma who read at an average of more than one year above grade placement, had their oral and silent…

  16. Internet-based Real Time Language Education: Towards a Fourth Generation Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping; Sun, Chengzheng

    2001-01-01

    Through examination of the development of distance education for foreign languages, puts forth a theory on the emergence of a fourth generation of distance language education, challenging the generally accepted three-generation theory. Argues that with the use of Internet-based real time technology, distance language learning becomes synchronous…

  17. The State of Charter School Authorizing 2011. Fourth Annual Report on NACSA'S Authorizer Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlan, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the findings from a rigorous national survey of charter school authorizers conducted in 2011 by the National Association of Charter School Authorizers (NACSA). This is the fourth time NACSA has conducted this type of national survey. As in years past, the vast majority of authorizers (90 percent) are school districts and they…

  18. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary fro the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results.

  19. Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

  20. Agricultural Education: Review and Synthesis of the Research, Fourth Edition. Information Series No. 298.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    This fourth edition of a review and synthesis of agricultural education research concentrates on the period from 1978 to 1984. The review covers research published in papers and bulletins, compilations of abstracts, proceedings of regional and national agricultural education research meetings, material in the ERIC database, masters' theses, and…