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Sample records for fowl plague virus

  1. [Recombinant viruses of poultry as vector vaccines against fowl plague].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Walter; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    To help in the control of fowl plague caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes H5 and H7 several vaccines have been developed. A prophylactic immunization of poultry with inactivated influenza viruses in non-endemic situations is questionable, however, due to the impairment of serological identification of field virus-infected animals which hinders elimination of the infectious agent from the population. This problem might be overcome by the use of genetically engineered marker vaccines which contain only the protective influenza virus hemagglutinin. Infected animals could then be unambiguously identified by their serum antibodies against other influenza virus proteins, e.g. neuraminidase or nucleoprotein. For such a use, purified HA or HA-expressing DNA vaccines are conceivable. Economically advantageous and easier to apply are modified live virus vaccines in use against other poultry diseases, which have been modified to express influenza virus HA. So far, recombinant HA-expressing fowlpox virus (FPV) as well as infectious laryngotracheitis and Newcastle disease viruses have been asssessed in animal experiments. An H5-expressing FPV recombinant is already in use in Central America and Southeast Asia but without accompanying marker diagnostics. Advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors are discussed.

  2. [Fowl plague and avian influenza A viruses of poultry and birds. Diagnosis, control measures and practical experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F

    2014-01-01

    The causes of the notifiable fowl plague are high and low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 but also other haemagglutinin subtypes If the intravenous pathogenicity index is greater than 1.2. The German fowl plague order (Geflügelpest-Verordnung) differentiates between highly pathogenic influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7, if multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecules are detected by virus isolation, antigen or genome determination and low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7 if either the intravenous pathogenicity index is lower than 1.2 or no basic amino acids are present at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule. Aspects of diagnosis, control including culling, therapy and vaccination are reviewed. The currently available means and their limitations of a therapy of fowl plague by oral administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (e. g. oseltamivir) are described. Following granted permission, individually marked valuable zoo and pet birds may be vaccinated using licensed inactivated vaccines. Vector vaccines have not been used in Germany so far. Avian influenza A viruses of other haemagglutinin subtypes (H1-H4, H6, H8-H18) may also cause infections and severe disease. These subtypes are not subject to governmental interventions and disease can be prevented by timely use of inactivated vaccines.

  3. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  4. Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bubonic plague causes the tonsils, adenoids, spleen, and thymus to become inflamed. Symptoms include fever, aches, chills, and tender lymph glands. In septicemic plague, bacteria multiply in the blood. ...

  5. Pathogenicity of avian leukosis viruses related to fowl glioma-inducing virus.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sayuri; Ochiai, Kenji; Hatai, Hitoshi; Ochi, Akihiro; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Fowl glioma-inducing virus (FGV), which belongs to avian leukosis virus subgroup A, causes the so-called fowl glioma and cerebellar hypoplasia in chickens. In the present study, the complete nucleotide sequences of four isolates (Tym-43, U-1, Sp-40 and Sp-53) related to the FGV prototype were determined and their pathogenicity was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 3'-long terminal repeat of all isolates grouped together in a cluster, while sequences of the surface (SU) proteins encoded by the env gene of these viruses had 85 to 96% identity with the corresponding region of FGV. The SU regions of Tym-43, U-1 and FGV grouped together in a cluster, but those of Sp-40 and Sp-53 formed a completely separate cluster. Next, C/O specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated in ovo with these isolates as well as the chimeric virus RCAS(A)-(FGVenvSU), constructed by substituting the SU region of FGV into the retroviral vector RCAS(A). The four variants induced fowl glioma and cerebellar hypoplasia and the birds inoculated with Sp-53 had the most severe lesions. In contrast, RCAS(A)-(FGVenvSU) provoked only mild non-suppurative inflammation. These results suggest that the ability to induce brain lesions similar to those of the FGV prototype is still preserved in these FGV variants.

  6. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, T.M.; Burgess, E.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  7. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  8. Epidemiological study of fowl glioma-inducing virus in chickens in Asia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Akihiro; Ochiai, Kenji; Kobara, Akiko; Nakamura, Sayuri; Hatai, Hitoshi; Handharyani, Ekowati; Tiemann, Inga; Tanaka, Ignacia B; Toyoda, Takeshi; Abe, Asumi; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Sunden, Yuji; Torralba, Nedeña C; Park, Jae-Hak; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Umemura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Fowl glioma-inducing virus (FGV), which belongs to avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup A, induces fowl glioma. This disease is characterized by multiple nodular gliomatous growths of astrocytes and has been previously reported in Europe, South Africa, Australia, the United States and Japan. FGV and FGV variants have spread to ornamental Japanese fowl, including Japanese bantams (Gallus gallus domesticus), in Japan. However, it is unclear how and where FGV emerged and whether FGV is related to the past fowl glioma in European countries. In this study, the prevalence of FGV in European, Asian and Japanese native chickens was examined. FGV could not be isolated from any chickens in Germany and Asian countries other than Japan. Eighty (26%) out of 307 chickens reared in Japan were positive by FGV-screening nested polymerase chain reaction and 11 FGV variants with an FGV-specific sequence in their 3' untranslated region were isolated. In addition, four other ALVs lacking the FGV-specific sequence were isolated from Japanese bantams with fowl glioma and/or cerebellar hypoplasia. These isolates were considered to be distinct recombinant viruses between FGV variants and endogenous/exogenous avian retroviruses. These results suggest that the variants as well as distinct recombinant ALVs are prevalent among Japanese native chickens in Japan and that FGV may have emerged by recombination among avian retroviruses in the chickens of this country.

  9. Plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague offers readers an overview of this highly complex disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. The history of the disease, as well as information about Yersinia pestis and its transmission by fleas, is described. The section Geographic Distribution presents areas of the world and United States where plague occurs most commonly in rodents and humans. Species Susceptibility describes infection and disease rates in rodents, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the complex relationship among rodents, domestic and wild animals, and humans and explores possible routes of transmission and maintenance of the organism in the environment. The effects of climate change, the potential for Y. pestis to be used as a bioweapon, and the impact of plague on conservation of wildlife are considered in Points to Ponder. Disease Prevention and Control outlines methods of prevention and treatment including vaccination for prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets. A glossary of technical terms is included. Tonie E. Rocke, the senior author and an epizootiologist at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), is a prominent researcher on oral vaccination of prairie dogs to prevent plague. She is currently working to transfer her success in the laboratory to the field to control plague in prairie dogs. Rachel C. Abbott, a biologist at the NWHC, is assisting Dr. Rocke in this process and will coordinate field trials of the vaccine. Milt Friend, first director of the NWHC, wrote the foreword. Plague is intended for scholars and the general public. The material is presented in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. Numerous illustrations and tables provide easily understood summaries of key points and information.

  10. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  11. Detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus as a contaminant of fowl pox vaccines.

    PubMed

    Awad, A M; Abd El-Hamid, H S; Abou Rawash, A A; Ibrahim, H H

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to detect reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) as a contaminant in fowl pox vaccines. A total of 30 fowl pox vaccine samples were examined for the presence of REV using both in vitro and in vivo methods. In in vitro testing, the fowl pox vaccine samples were inoculated into chicken embryo fibroblast cultures prepared from specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs, and the cultures were examined using PCR to detect REV. In in vivo testing, each fowl pox vaccine sample was inoculated into 5-d-old specific-pathogen-free chicks, which were kept under observation for up to 12 wk postinoculation; serum samples were collected at 15, 30, and 45 d postinoculation for the detection of REV-specific antibodies using ELISA. Tissue samples were collected at 8 and 12 wk postinoculation for histopathological examination. Of the tested vaccines, only one imported vaccine sample tested positive for REV using PCR. Serum samples collected from chicks infected with the PCR-positive vaccine batch also tested positive for REV-specific antibodies using ELISA. Histopathological examination of the liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius demonstrated the presence of tumor cells in these organs, confirming the results obtained using PCR and ELISA, and indicating that the sample was contaminated with REV. These data clearly indicate that the screening of all commercial poultry vaccines for viruses is an important factor in assuring the biosafety of animal vaccines.

  12. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline.

  13. Pathogenicity of duck plague and innate immune responses of the Cherry Valley ducks to duck plague virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Guo, Mengjiao; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-08-24

    Duck plague caused by duck plague virus (DPV) is an acute and contagious disease. To better understand the pathogenic mechanism of duck plague virus in ducklings, an infection experiment was performed. Our results showed that typical symptoms were observed in the infected ducklings. DPV could replicate quickly in many tissues, leading to pathological lesions, especially on the spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that expression of many innate immune-related genes was mostly up-regulated in the brain, and the antiviral innate immune response was established, but not sufficient to restrict viral replication. In contrast, although the expression of many major pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) increased in the spleen, the expression of most cytokines was declined. Our study indicates that DPV is a pantropic virus that can replicate rapidly in tissues, causing serious pathological lesions but the immune responses are different in the spleen and brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to systematically explore the expression profiles of the immune genes in the DPV-infected ducks. Our data provide a foundation for further study of the pathogenicity of duck plague.

  14. Detection of fowl poxvirus integrated with reticuloendotheliosis virus sequences from an outbreak in backyard chickens in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sanchay K; Jana, Chandrakanta; Chand, Karam; Rehman, Waseem; Mondal, Bimalendu

    2011-01-01

    Fowl poxvirus (FPV) infection was observed in unvaccinated backyard chickens. A total of 15 birds were affected in a flock of 37. Pock lesions were observed on the comb, eyelids, beak and wattles. The birds appeared sick with roughened feathers and stunted growth. No mortality was recorded. DNA was isolated from scabs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the 4b core protein gene of FPV, the envelope (env) gene of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the region of FPV flanking REV 5´ long terminal repeat (LTR). Correct-size PCR products of 578 bp, 807 bp and 370 bp, respectively, were observed in agarose gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis of these products suggests that the virus was an FPV with a genome containing an integrated near full-length REV provirus. Given the fact that REV has been associated with immunosuppression, its presence in the genome of FPV appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of fowl pox and presumably prolongs persistence of FPV in bird populations. In the present case, fowl pox has been observed to have persisted for about three years in fowl that were reared in backyard systems in villages.

  15. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  16. Effect of route of inoculation on replication of avian influenza virus (H9N2) and interferon gene expression in guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis).

    PubMed

    Umar, S; Munir, M T; Kaboudi, K; Rehman, A; Asif, S; Usman, M; Ali, A; Shahzad, M; Subhan, S; Shah, M A A

    2016-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the replication of a re-assortant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) and induction of the interferon (IFNγ) response after aerosol or intranasal inoculation with the virus in guinea fowl. To determine virus shedding pattern, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and tissue specimens of trachea, lungs, spleen and caecal tonsils were collected post-inoculation (pi). Infected guinea fowl showed mild clinical signs, while negative control guinea fowl remained healthy and active throughout the experiment irrespective of the inoculation route. However, the clinical signs were more prominent in guinea fowl infected through the aerosol route. Virus was detected in all oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 7 d pi in guinea fowl from both inoculation groups. However, virus was detected more frequently and in higher titres in oropharyngeal swabs and specimens of trachea and lungs from the group exposed to aerosols than in the group given intranasal drops. In accordance with viral replication findings, expression of IFNγ was up-regulated on 1, 2 and 4 d pi to a significantly higher level in lung tissue specimens from the group exposed to virus aerosol than from controls treated with PBS intranasally. On the other hand, IFNγ was up-regulated above that of controls in lung tissue specimens from the group treated with intranasal drops of virus only on 4 d pi. These findings indicate that virus administered in aerosols was more efficient in infecting the lower respiratory tract and in inducing activity of the IFNγ gene than virus administered as intranasal drops. The results of this study suggest that virus aerosols cause more intense respiratory infection and increase the shedding of the H9N2 AIV in guinea fowl, highlighting the potential role of guinea fowl as a mixing bowl for transmission and maintenance of H9N2 AIV between poultry premises.

  17. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  18. Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing multiple genes from Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy E; Witter, R L; Reddy, S M; Wu, P; Yanagida, N; Yoshida, S

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant fowl poxviruses (rFPVs) were constructed to express genes from serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) coding for glycoproteins B, E, I, H, and UL32 (gB1, gE, gI, gH, and UL32). An additional rFPV was constructed to contain four MDV genes (gB1, gE, gI, and UL32). These rFPVs were evaluated for their ability to protect maternal antibody-positive chickens against challenge with highly virulent MDV isolates. The protection induced by a single rFPV/gB1 (42%) confirmed our previous finding. The protection induced by rFPV/gI (43%), rFPV/gB1UL32 (46%), rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%), and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32 (70%) contributed to additional knowledge on MDV genes involved in protective immunity. In contrast, the rFPV containing gE, gH, or UL32 did not induce significant protection compared with turkey herpesvirus (HVT). Levels of protection by rFPV/gB1 and rFPV/gl were comparable with that of HVT. Only gB1 and gI conferred synergism in rFPV containing these two genes. Protection by both rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%) and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32(70%) against Marek's disease was significantly enhanced compared with a single gB1 or gI gene (40%). This protective synergism between gB1 and gI in rFPVs may be the basis for better protection when bivalent vaccines between serotypes 2 and 3 were used. When rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 + HVT were used as vaccine against Md5 challenge, the protection was significantly enhanced (94%). This synergism between rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 and HVT indicates additional genes yet to be discovered in HVT may be responsible for the enhancement.

  19. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.328 Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine shall... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  20. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.328 Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine shall... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  1. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.328 Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine shall... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  2. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.328 Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine shall... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  3. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.328 Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine shall... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  4. Studies on vertical and horizontal transmission of duck plague virus in apparently healthy waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, Elizabeth C.

    1978-01-01

    Healthy waterfowl were found to be carriers of duck plague (DP) virus. Black ducks (Anas rubripes) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) surviving a natural outbreak of DP at Coloma, Wisconsin, in 1973 yielded DP virus in cloacal swabs taken four years postinfection. Experimental infection of previously unexposed mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynochos) with the Coloma strain of DP virus CO-WI (73) also produced cloacal virus shedding for up to four years after infection. A second DP virus strain, LA-SD (73) from the Lake Andes, South Dakota, epornitic, was detected from cloacal swabs of pintail ducks (Anas acuta), gadwall ducks (Anas strepera), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and Canada geese infected experimentally one year before. The frequency of swabs positive for DP virus varied between individuals within each of the tested species. The amount of detectable DP virus shed was about 100 plaqueforming units of virus percloacal swab. Oral erosions were present in all species tested except Canada geese and gadwall ducks. Erosions occurred at the openings of the sublingual salivary gland ducts. DP virus was isolated from erosions. All ducks with lesions proved to shed DP virus, although not necessarily at the time they had the lesion. Three pintail ducks treated with dexamethasone for ten days, shed DP virus daily for 19 days after the first day of treatment. These birds also shed DP virus the one time they were tested prior to dexamethosone treatment. An acute lethal outbreak occurred in CO-WI (73) carrier birds. Both DP virus and specific lesions were found in dead birds. The deaths coincided with a change in housing and with the simultaneous introduction of co-housed LA-SD (73) infected ducklings. DP virus was isolated from the chorio-allantoic (CA) fluid of a fourteen day pekin embryo and from five of ten infertile pekin eggs laid by DP carrier birds.

  5. Involvement of spleen components of mature fowl in the primary and secondary humoral antibody response following experimental EDS'76 virus infection.

    PubMed

    van Eck, J H

    1986-04-01

    Cellular changes in spleens of mature fowl in relation to both the primary and secondary humoral antibody response following experimental EDS'76 virus infection were studied. The influence of splenectomy on humoral antibody response was also examined. Experimental fowl had been naturally infected with fowl adenovirus (FAV) but did not possess precipitins to these viruses at the time of EDS'76 virus infection. Since EDS'76 infection provokes a recall of the group antibody to FAV, this infection simultaneously induces a primary response against EDS'76 virus and a secondary response due to the recall of the group antibody to FAV. HI and precipitating antibody to EDS'76 virus (primary response) were first detected at 6 and 8 days p.i. respectively. Curves of HI, precipitating and neutralising antibody titres were biphasic; the first peak (IgM peak) occurred at 10-11 days p.i., the second (IgG peak) at 16-28 days p.i. Precipitating antibodies to FAV (secondary response) were demonstrated from 4 days p.i. The curve of these antibody titres was also biphasic, with peaks at the same times as in the primary response. Based on HI and AGP testing of primary and secondary immune response in both splenectomised and non-splenectomised fowl it is concluded that in the primary response the spleen of the adult fowl is involved significantly in only IgM secretion, while in the secondary response it is likely that both IgM and IgG are secreted in considerable amounts. Clusters of lymphoblasts and plasmablasts were observed at 3 days p.i. in the red pulp. It is very likely that antigen-antibody complexes are formed from that time and circulate bound to the surface of lymphocytes. These antigen-loaded lymphocytes are 'picked up' from the blood stream by -red pulp macrophages, leading to enhanced formation of lymphoblasts in the red pulp. Great numbers of these cells (which are very probably IgM secreting cells) were present on days 6 and 7 p.i., but were no longer detectable after day

  6. Plagues at the Gate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Discusses efforts to prevent the global expansion of killer viruses that threaten humans and livestock populations. Focuses on virus research efforts conducted at Plum Island. Profiles the most worrisome of potential plagues. (LZ)

  7. Plague Factsheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... death rate is over 50%. Geographic Distribution of Plague In the United States, most of the human ... southern Oregon, and far western Nevada. How Is Plague Transmitted? Plague is transmitted from animal to animal ...

  8. Expression and immunohistochemical distribution of duck plague virus glycoprotein gE in infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hua; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Xiang, Jun; Xie, Wei; Shen, Fuxiao; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Luo, Qihui; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2011-03-01

    To determine the distribution of duck plague virus (DPV) gE protein in paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally DPV-infected ducks, an indirect immunoperoxidase assay was established to detect glycoprotein E (gE) protein for the first time. The rabbit anti-His-gE serum, raised against the recombinant His-gE fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), was prepared and purified. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that the anti-His-gE serum had a high level of reactivity and specificity and could be used as the first antibody for further experiments to study the distribution of DPV gE protein in DPV-infected tissues. A number of DPV gE proteins were distributed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, liver, esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and kidney of DPV-infected ducks and a few DPV gE were distributed in the Harders glands, myocardium, cerebrum, and lung, whereas the gE was not seen in the skin, muscle, and pancreas. Moreover, DPV gE was expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, reticulum cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, and hepatocytes. The present study may be useful not only for describing the characteristics of gE expression and distribution in infected ducks but also for understanding the pathogenesis of DPV.

  9. Preliminary molecular characterization of a fowl poxvirus isolate in Grenada.

    PubMed

    Arathy, D S; Tripathy, D N; Sabarinath, G P; Bhaiyat, M I; Chikweto, A; Matthew, V; Sharma, R N

    2010-09-01

    Two 1-mo-old local breed chickens, with gross lesions in the skin of the head region suspected to be fowl poxvirus infection, were submitted to the Diagnostic Laboratory of the School of Veterinary Medicine, Grenada, West Indies. Cutaneous lesions were collected from these birds for virus isolation, histopathologic diagnosis, and molecular analysis. Fowl poxvirus infection was confirmed by virus isolation in chicken embryo and by histopathology. Molecular characterization of the fowl poxvirus was conducted by PCR amplification of selected genomic fragments and by nucleotide sequencing. Integration of reticuloendotheliosis virus fragments into the fowl poxvirus genome was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. This is the first report from the Caribbean region on the preliminary molecular characterization of a fowl poxvirus isolate.

  10. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  11. Plague Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  12. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    Epidemiological aspects of (a) bubonic plague and (b) primary pneumonic plague are discussed separately in this study. The cause, spread, and persistence of bubonic outbreaks are dealt with. In the case of primary pneumonic plague, the author systematically reviews the factors influencing the spread of the disease: climatic and social conditions, infectivity of the patients, immunity, and control measures. In discussing the cause of pneumonic plague outbreaks, the author deals with the possible influence of a special virulence of pneumonic strains, the role of the rodent and flea species involved, and the possibility of a pneumotropismus acquired by Pasteurella pestis. The periodicity (cyclical and secular) of bubonic plague epidemics is discussed with a view to the possible forecasting of future epidemics. The author indicates the influence of race, age, sex, and occupation on the incidence of both forms of the disease. PMID:13082391

  13. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    The author examines in detail the symptomatology, diagnosis, and treatment of plague, and outlines the problem of the length of the incubation period. The clinical features commonly met with in all severely-affected plague patients, regardless of the primary localization of the infection, are described. The author then deals with the symptomatology and manifestations of bubonic plague as compared to those of primary pneumonic plague. The importance of a clinical diagnosis, from the point of view of prevention, is stressed, and the differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease is described. The study contains a detailed discussion of the respective merits of antibiotic treatment, serotherapy, and sulfonamide treatment. The author points out that the outstanding success of streptomycin and some other antibiotics will probably relegate the sulfonamides to the second rank in the treatment of bubonic plague. PMID:13082390

  14. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    In examining the control and prevention of plague, the author pays particular attention to the control of commensal rodents and their fleas. The various rat poisons in current use, their efficacy and practical application, and the dangers involved in their manipulation are described in great detail. The author also discusses other anti-rodent measures such as fumigation, rat-proofing, sanitation, protection of food, etc. The second part of the study deals with: vector control—the outstanding value of DDT application in rodent-flea control is emphasized—, the direct control of bubonic and pneumonic plague, and the control of the spread of plague at a distance. PMID:20603968

  15. Eimeria in Fowls

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M. Elaine; Long, P. L.

    1962-01-01

    Two or three graded infections with oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, E. tenella, E. necatrix and E. maxima produced a resistance to further infection with the immunizing species. The oocyst output after the second infection, in each case, was lower than that after the initial dose indicating the substantial immunizing effect of the initial infection. The species could be placed in a descending order of immunizing activity as follows: E. maxima, E. acervulina, E. tenella and E. necatrix. A solid immunity to the immunizing species in no way prevented the development of an additional infection, here referred to as `cross-infection', with any of the species studied. Serum precipitins were produced in infections with all four species, the response to infection with E. necatrix being less marked than to the other species. A first challenge of immune fowls with the immunizing species produced some increase in precipitation in agar whereas a second challenge had no such effect; the significance of this lack of response is discussed. Usually, fowls immunized against one species and then infected with an additional one, produced serum precipitins which reacted only with the antigen of the additional species. But E. tenella immunized fowls, when given an additional infection with E. necatrix, produced precipitins that reacted with antigens of both species. The same was also true when E. necatrix immunized fowls were infected with E. tenella. ImagesFIG. 9 PMID:14493839

  16. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  17. Plague Maps and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States Plague was first introduced ... per year in the United States: 1900-2012. Plague Worldwide Plague epidemics have occurred in Africa, Asia, ...

  18. Failure of a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing an avian influenza hemagglutinin gene to provide consistent protection against influenza in chickens preimmunized with a fowl pox vaccine.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Kinney, N

    2000-01-01

    Vaccines against mildly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) have been used in turkeys within the United States as part of a comprehensive control strategy. Recently, AI vaccines have been used in control programs against highly pathogenic (HP) AI of chickens in Pakistan and Mexico. A recombinant fowl pox-AI hemagglutinin subtype (H) 5 gene insert vaccine has been shown to protect specific-pathogen-free chickens from HP H5 AI virus (AIV) challenge and has been licensed by the USDA for emergency use. The ability of the recombinant fowl pox vaccine to protect chickens preimmunized against fowl pox is unknown. In the current study, broiler breeders (BB) and white leghorn (WL) pullets vaccinated with a control fowl poxvirus vaccine (FP-C) and/or a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing an H5 hemagglutinin gene insert (FP-HA) were challenged with a HP H5N2 AIV isolated from chickens in Mexico. When used alone, the FP-HA vaccine protected BB and WL chickens from lethal challenge, but when given as a secondary vaccine after a primary FP-C immunization, protection against a HP AIV challenge was inconsistent. Both vaccines protected against virulent fowl pox challenge. This lack of consistent protection against HPAI may limit use to chickens without previous fowl pox vaccinations. In addition, prior exposure to field fowl poxvirus could be expected to limit protection induced by this vaccine.

  19. [PLAGUE IN MANCHURIA (1910-1911) AND EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE IN WEST AFRICA (2014-2015): COMMON PREREQUISITES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPIDEMICS].

    PubMed

    Noskov, A K; Vishnyakov, V A; Andaev, E I; Chesnokova, M V; Kosilko, S A; Balakhonov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of a comparative analysis of the prerequisites for the emergence and spread of epidemics of particularly dangerous infections, by using plague in Manchuria (1910-1911) and Ebola virus disease in West Africa (2014-2015) as examples. Analysis of literature and archival data and online information could reveal a number of common factors and conditions, which substantially contributed to the epidemics. Organization of anti-epidemic (preventive) measures in cases of the threatening epidemic spread, of particularly dangerous diseases must be based on the minimization, of the influence of the specific factors and conditions, which facilitate disease transmission in a given area in a given time.

  20. Protect Yourself from Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... The plague bacterium ( Yersinia pestis ) is transmitted by fleas and cycles naturally among wild rodents. Plague can ... How do people get plague? • • Bites of infected fleas • • Touching or skinning infected animals (such as prairie ...

  1. A case control study of fowl pox in southeastern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Alves, D M; Martin, S W

    1990-06-01

    An outbreak of fowl pox, which occurred in south-eastern Ontario between July 1988 and April 1989, was investigated in the spring of 1989 to determine factors associated with the spread of the disease. Clinical fowl pox was confirmed on five farms (cases). Twenty-seven farms, out of 35 egg producers with quota from Durham region to Northumberland county, provided information as controls. Bivariate analyses were performed on mail survey data using Fisher's exact test and odds ratios. Although the tests of hypotheses lacked statistical power because of the small number of case farms, and barns, a number of significant associations were found. At the farm level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets purchased from a particular pullet grower. At the barn level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets from a particular grower, mixing different groups of pullets, and a trend towards having birds early in the laying period, and higher numbers of birds placed. Fowl pox-infected barns had higher mortality and lower egg production postoutbreak. The results may indicate that the virus enters the laying barn at, or near, the time new birds are placed. Better communication among producers, catch-and-fill crews, and others associated with the egg industry, as well as more complete records of dates, sources, and persons involved with pullet placements, are recommended.

  2. A NEW STRAIN OF TRANSMISSIBLE LEUCEMIA IN FOWLS (STRAIN H).

    PubMed

    Ellermann, V

    1921-03-31

    1. A new strain of fowl leucosis has been transmitted through twelve generations of fowls. 2. An increase in virulence was observed during its passage. This was shown in a shortening of the interval between inoculation and death. The increase in virulence does not affect the number of successful inoculations, which remains approximately constant in from 20 to 40 per cent of the birds employed. 3. As with former strains, the disease manifests itself in various forms; i.e., myeloid and intravascular lymphoid types. A single lymphatic case was observed. 4. In several intravascular cases a diminution in the hemolytic power of the serum was established. This phenomenon was absent in a number of myeloid cases. 5. Active immunization cannot be produced by means of the subcutaneous injection of virulent material. 6. The finding of previous experiments that the virus is filterable has been confirmed. 7. The inoculation of human leucemic material into fowls gave negative results.

  3. Plague: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info for ... periods in the fleas. An illustration of plague ecology in the United States is available. Top of ...

  4. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  5. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  6. The tale of a modern animal plague: tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Tully, Damien C; Fares, Mario A

    2008-12-20

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.

  7. The tale of a modern animal plague: Tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Damien C. Fares, Mario A.

    2008-12-20

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.

  8. Diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Nashold, S.W.; Docherty, D.E.; Brown, S.E.; Knudson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for diagnosis of duck plague in waterfowl tissues from past and current cases of waterfowl mortality and to identify duck plague virus in combined cloacal/oral-pharyngeal swab samples from healthy mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) after a disease outbreak. The PCR was able to detect viral DNA from all the individual or pooled tissues assayed from 10 waterfowl, including liver and spleen samples from three Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) that did not yield virus isolates. The strong staining intensity of the PCR products from the waterfowl tissues indicated that large amounts of virus were present, even when virus was not isolated. Duck plague DNA was also detected in a cloacal swab sample from a wood duck (Aix sponsa) carcass submitted for diagnosis. The PCR assay identified duck plague DNA in 13 swab samples that produced virus isolates from carrier mallards sampled in 1981 after a duck plague die-off. The duck plague PCR clearly demonstrated the ability to quickly diagnose duck plague in suspect mortality cases and to detect virus shed by carrier waterfowl.

  9. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  10. The threatened plague.

    PubMed

    Epstein, P

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses changes in disease patterns affecting human health that may be related to environmental and social changes in the world. The World Health Report reveals that 30 new diseases emerged in the past 20 years. Old diseases are becoming resistant to new drugs. Infectious diseases that were in decline are spreading: diphtheria, whooping cough, and measles. Illnesses such as malaria, fevers, cholera, and rodent-borne viruses are becoming more frequent. Diseases that are transmitted by animals or water are related to environmental and social changes. Degraded environments are susceptible to the appearance of opportunistic species, such as weeds, rodents, insects, and microorganisms. Stable environments support the welfare of large predators and control opportunistic species. Owls, coyotes, and snakes eat rodents that carry Lyme disease ticks and a variety of viruses, plague, and bacteria. Reptiles, birds, spiders, ladybugs, bats, and fish consume larvae and mosquitoes that cause malaria and fevers. Habitat loss and fragmentation, monocultures, excessive use of toxic chemicals, climate change, and weather instability are widespread global changes that reduce the predator population. Small wilderness habitats favor pests. Monocultures reduce genetic diversity and increase vulnerability. Excessive use of pesticides harms birds and helpful insects. A sign of a failing ecosystem is the population explosion of pests and disequilibrium. The Environmental Distress Syndrome is characterized as: 1) emerging infectious diseases, 2) loss of biodiversity, 3) increased generalist species and decreased specialist species, 4) declines in specific specialists, such as pollinators responsible for preservation of flowering plants, and 5) increased coastal algal blooms. The impacts of disease mean considerable costs to humans, agriculture, and livestock. Loss of resources is also costly.

  11. An attenuated duck plague virus (DPV) vaccine induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses to protect ducks against virulent DPV infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Shu, Bing; Yu, Xia; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2014-04-01

    Duck plague (DP) is a severe disease caused by DP virus (DPV). Control of the disease is recognized as one of the biggest challenges in avian medicine. Vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV, and an attenuated vaccine is the main routine vaccine. The attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa is a modified live vaccine, but the systemic and mucosal immune responses induced by this vaccine have been poorly understood. In this study, the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated after subcutaneous immunization of ducks. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were counted by flow cytometry, and humoral and mucosal Ig antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that high levels of T cells and Ig antibodies were present postimmunization and that there were more CD4(+) T cells than CD8(+) T cells. Titers of humoral IgG were higher than those of humoral IgA. Local IgA was found in each sample, whereas local IgG was found only in the spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, harderian gland, liver, bile, and lung. In a protection assay, the attenuated DPV vaccine completely protected ducks against 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the lethal DPV strain CHv via oral infection. These data suggest that this subcutaneous vaccine elicits sufficient systemic and mucosal immune responses against lethal DPV challenge to be protective in ducks. This study provides broad insights into understanding the immune responses to the attenuated DPV vaccine strain CHa through subcutaneous immunization in ducks.

  12. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Wei, Yunan; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα) and type II interferon (IFNγ) against duck plague virus (DPV). Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79%) and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%). In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx) and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease. PMID:27438848

  13. Enzootic Plague Reduces Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) Survival in Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    vaccinations against plague and canine distemper virus (Biggins et al. 2006b). We administered the F1-V fusion protein vaccine (a priming dose at first...again. Although most human risk of plague is associated with epizootic plague (Perry and Fetherston 1997), knowledge presented herein that Y. pestis...for human health, as well as wildlife conservation. Indeed, a re- cent fatal human case of pneumonic plague acquired from a mountain lion (Felis

  14. Complete genome sequence of a non-pathogenic strain of Fowl Adenovirus serotype 11: Minimal genomic differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic viruses.

    PubMed

    Absalón, Angel E; Morales-Garzón, Andrés; Vera-Hernández, Pedro F; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V; Uribe-Ochoa, Sara M; García, Laura J; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo

    2017-01-15

    In this study, we conducted the clinicopathological characterization of a non-pathogenic FAdV-D serotype 11 strain MX95, isolated from healthy chickens, and its entire genome was sequenced. Experiments in SPF chickens revealed that the strain is a non-pathogenic virus that did not cause death at challenge doses of 1×10(6) TCID50. Additionally, the infection in SPF chickens caused no apparent damage in most of the organs analyzed by necropsy and histopathology, but it did cause inclusion body hepatitis; nevertheless it did not generate severe infectious clinical symptoms. The virus was detected in several chicken organs, including the lymphoid organs, by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) until 42 days. The genome of FAdV-11 MX95 has a size of 44,326bp, and it encodes 36 open reading frames (ORFs). Comparative analysis of the genome indicated only 0.8% dissimilarity with a highly virulent serotype 11 that was previously reported.

  15. First complete genome sequence of European turkey coronavirus suggests complex recombination history related with US turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Brown, P A; Touzain, F; Briand, F X; Gouilh, A M; Courtillon, C; Allée, C; Lemaitre, E; De Boisséson, C; Blanchard, Y; Eterradossi, N

    2016-01-01

    A full-length genome sequence of 27,739  nt was determined for the only known European turkey coronavirus (TCoV) isolate. In general, the order, number and size of ORFs were consistent with other gammacoronaviruses. Three points of recombination were predicted, one towards the end of 1a, a second in 1b just upstream of S and a third in 3b. Phylogenetic analysis of the four regions defined by these three points supported the previous notion that European and American viruses do indeed have different evolutionary pathways. Very close relationships were revealed between the European TCoV and the European guinea fowl coronavirus in all regions except one, and both were shown to be closely related to the European infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Italy 2005. None of these regions of sequence grouped European and American TCoVs. The region of sequence containing the S gene was unique in grouping all turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses together, separating them from IBVs. Interestingly the French guinea fowl virus was more closely related to the North American viruses. These data demonstrate that European turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses share a common genetic backbone (most likely an ancestor of IBV Italy 2005) and suggest that this recombined in two separate events with different, yet related, unknown avian coronaviruses, acquiring their S-3a genes. The data also showed that the North American viruses do not share a common backbone with European turkey and guinea fowl viruses; however, they do share similar S-3a genes with guinea fowl virus.

  16. Emergencies and Critical Care of Commonly Kept Fowl.

    PubMed

    Sabater González, Mikel; Calvo Carrasco, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Fowl are birds belonging to one of the 2 biological orders, the game fowl or land fowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes). Studies of anatomic and molecular similarities suggest these two groups are close evolutionary relatives. Multiple fowl species have a long history of domestication. Fowl are considered food-producing animals in most countries and clinicians should follow legislation regarding reportable diseases and antibiotic use, even if they are pets. This article reviews aspects of emergency care for most commonly kept fowl, including triage, patient assessment, diagnostic procedures, supportive care, short-term hospitalization, and common emergency presentations.

  17. Plague Masquerading as Gastrointestinal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Harry F.; Montes, Jean M.; Mann, Jonathan M.

    1986-01-01

    In clinical descriptions of human plague, fever and tender lymphadenitis are emphasized and gastrointestinal manifestations are rarely mentioned. A review of 71 human plague cases showed that gastrointestinal symptoms occurred commonly (57%). Vomiting (39%) was the most frequent symptom, with nausea (34%), diarrhea (28%) and abdominal pain (17%) occurring less often. Physicians treating patients who reside in or have recently visited plague-endemic areas should include plague in the differential diagnosis in the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and fever. PMID:3788132

  18. Plague's partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kimberly M; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-09-18

    The hallmark of bubonic plague is the presence of grotesquely swollen lymph nodes, called buboes. This frenzied inflammatory response to Yersinia pestis is poorly understood. In this issue of Immunity, St. John et al. (2014) explore the mechanism by which Y. pestis spreads and thus leads to this striking lymphadenopathy.

  19. Human plague in 1992.

    PubMed

    1994-01-14

    Trends in the incidence of human plague cases reported to the World Health Organization were provided for 1992 and between 1978 and 1992 by country. Not all countries report or record plague. In 1992, there were 9 countries reporting a total of 1582 cases, of which 138 were deaths. In 1991, there were 10 countries reporting a total of 1966 cases, of which 133 were deaths. The case fatality rate in 1992 was 8.7% and 10.4% averaged over the previous 10 years. Between 1978 and 1992, 14,856 cases of plague were reported, of which 1451 cases were fatal. Countries reporting totaled 21, but only 6 reported almost annually: Brazil, Madagascar, Myanmar, the United Republic of Tanzania, the USA, and Viet Nam. Peak numbers of cases occurred in 1984, 1988, and 1990-92. Africa totaled 61% of cases and 77% of deaths. In 1992, Madagascar and Zaire reported 412 cases, of which 102 were fatal. Plague in Madagascar was concentrated in the provinces of Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, and Toamasina. Most of the cases in 1991 were from Antananarivo Province (61 cases and 19 deaths) and Fianarantsoa Province (99 case and 5 deaths). Plague peaks occurred in January through May and November and December. Zaire deaths were concentrated in Upper Zaire in 5 rural Heath Zones: Logo (125 cases and 47 deaths), Rethy (54 cases and 4 deaths), Nyarembe (22 cases and 9 deaths), Rimba (11 cases and 4 deaths), and Bunia (2 cases and 1 death). Almost 60% of all deaths occurred during May to July and included bubonic, septicemic, and pulmonary plague. American plague cases totaled 158 and 6 deaths (Peru, Brazil, and the USA). Asia reported 1012 cases and 26 cases (China, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Viet Nam). In the USA, the 13 cases were recorded as 1 each in Frenso County, California; Owyhee County, Idaho; Douglas County, Nevada; Utah County, Utah; and Sheridan County, Wyoming; 2 in New Mexico (Santa Fe, and Albuquerque and San Miguel Counties); and Arizona (3 in Apache County and 1 in Pima County

  20. Review of the literature on avian influenza A viruses in pigeons and experimental studies on the susceptibility of domestic pigeons to influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtype H7.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Hönicke, A

    2004-12-01

    The scientific literature of the past century is reviewed on fowl plague (presently termed highly pathogenic avian influenza, HPAI) in pigeons. HPAI viruses cause epidemic disease outbreaks with high rates of losses in many avian species, particularily in chickens and turkeys. Also susceptible to disease are quails, guinea fowl, ducks, geese, ostriches, passerine birds, and birds of prey whereas conflicting reports on the susceptibility of the domestic pigeon exist. Based on literature reports and on own experiments, and applying as criteria for judgements clinically overt forms of disease, virus multiplication plus shedding and seroconversion, it is concluded that domestic pigeons are only partially susceptible to influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtype H7. Infection of pigeons with H7 viruses results only in some of them in signs, virus shedding and seroconversion. Using the same criteria, pigeons appear to be even less susceptible to infection with influenza A viruses of the H5 subtype. Only one of five publications describe in 1/19 pigeons exposed to H5 influenza A virus depression one day before death, and only 2/19 multiplied and excreted virus, and 1/19 developed circulating antibodies. Consequently, pigeons play only a minor role in the epidemiology of H5 influenza viruses. In contrast, following infection with influenza A virus of the subtype H7 clinical signs in pigeons consist of conjunctivitis, tremor, paresis of wings and legs, and wet droppings. H7-infected pigeons multiply and excrete H7 viruses and develop circulating antibodies. Albeit of the status of infection, free-flying domestic pigeons can act as mechanical vectors and vehicles for long-distance transmission of any influenza A virus if plumage or feet were contaminated.

  1. Outbreak of duck plague (duck herpesvirus enteritis) in numerous species of captive ducks and geese in temporal conjunction with enforced biosecurity (in-house keeping) due to the threat of avian influenza A virus of the subtype Asia H5N1.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Kuczka, A; Kühnhold, A; Bunzenthal, C; Bönner, B M; Hanka, K; Redmann, T; Yilmaz, A

    2007-01-01

    The continuing westward spread of avian influenza A virus of the subtype H5N1 in free-living and domestic birds forced the European Union and the German federal government to enhance all biosecurity measures including in-house keeping of all captive birds from October 20 to December 15, 2005. Movement of captive ducks and geese of many different species from a free-range system to tight enclosures and maintenance for prolonged times in such overcrowded sheds resulted in pronounced disturbance of natural behaviour, interruption of mating and breeding activities and possibly additional stress. Under these conditions the birds developed signs of severe disease and enhanced mortality twentyfour days later. A total of 17 out of 124 (14%) adult birds and 149 out of 184 year-old birds (81 %) died during the outbreak. A herpesvirus was isolated from many organs of succumbed ducks and geese that was identified as a duck plague herpesvirus by cross neutralization test using known antisera against duck plague virus. The published host range of duck plague comprises 34 species within the order Anseriformes. We report here on additional 14 species of this order that were found to be susceptible to duck plague virus. The exact source of the herpesvirus could not identified. However, low antibody titres in some ducks at day of vaccination indicate that at least some of the birds were latently infected with a duck plague herpesvirus. The remaining healthy appearing birds were subcutaneously vaccinated with a modified live duck plague vaccine (Intervet, Boxmeer, NL) that stopped losses and resulted in seroconversion in most of the vaccinated birds.

  2. Plague: history and contemporary analysis.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Didier; Mouffok, Nadjet; Bitam, Idir; Piarroux, Renaud; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Plague has caused ravaging outbreaks, including the Justinian plague and the "black death" in the Middle Ages. The causative agents of these outbreaks have been confirmed using modern molecular tests. The vector of plague during pandemics remains the subject of controversy. Nowadays, plague must be suspected in all areas where plague is endemic in rodents when patients present with adenitis or with pneumonia with a bloody expectorate. Diagnosis is more difficult in the situation of the reemergence of plague, as in Algeria for example, told by the first physician involved in that outbreak (NM). When in doubt, it is preferable to prescribe treatment with doxycycline while waiting for the test results because of the risk of fatality in individuals with plague. The typical bubo is a type of adenitis that is painful, red and nonfluctuating. The diagnosis is simple when microbiological analysis is conducted. Plague is a likely diagnosis when one sees gram-negative bacilli in lymph node aspirate or biopsy samples. Yersinia pestis grows very easily in blood cultures and is easy to identify by biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Pneumonic plague and septicemic plague without adenitis are difficult to diagnose, and these diagnoses are often made by chance or retrospectively when cases are not part of an epidemic or related to another specific epidemiologic context. The treatment of plague must be based on gentamicin or doxycycline. Treatment with one of these antibiotics must be started as soon as plague is suspected. Analysis of past plague epidemics by using modern laboratory tools illustrated the value of epidemic buboes for the clinical diagnosis of plague; and brought new concepts regarding its transmission by human ectoparasites.

  3. Molecular history of plague.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, M; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    Plague, a deadly zoonose caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been firmly documented in 39 historical burial sites in Eurasia that date from the Bronze Age to two historical pandemics spanning the 6th to 18th centuries. Palaeomicrobiologic data, including gene and spacer sequences, whole genome sequences and protein data, confirmed that two historical pandemics swept over Europe from probable Asian sources and possible two-way-ticket journeys back from Europe to Asia. These investigations made it possible to address questions regarding the potential sources and routes of transmission by completing the standard rodent and rodent-flea transmission scheme. This suggested that plague was transmissible by human ectoparasites such as lice, and that Y. pestis was able to persist for months in the soil, which is a source of reinfection for burrowing mammals. The analyses of seven complete genome sequences from the Bronze Age indicated that Y. pestis was probably not an ectoparasite-borne pathogen in these populations. Further analyses of 14 genomes indicated that the Justinian pandemic strains may have formed a clade distinct from the one responsible for the second pandemic, spanning in Y. pestis branch 1, which also comprises the third pandemic strains. Further palaeomicrobiologic studies must tightly connect with historical and anthropologic studies to resolve questions regarding the actual sources of plague in ancient populations, alternative routes of transmission and resistance traits. Answering these questions will broaden our understanding of plague epidemiology so we may better face the actuality of this deadly infection in countries where it remains epidemic.

  4. METHODS OF PLAGUE CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Friench

    1920-01-01

    If we are economically and efficiently to ward off plague we must rid ourselves of the rat. This demands coördination of effort, management, organization and funds. Rat destruction and rat-proofing are preventive measures that fortunately do not involve financial loss, while they will eliminate the dangerous rodent from the homes and environment of men. Imagesp850-ap850-bp850-cp850-d PMID:18010390

  5. Who's Afraid of the Bad Little Fowl?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Celia

    2004-01-01

    The question this article addresses is: Is "Artemis" art? That is, how successful is Eoin Colfer's attempt to combine disparate forms, such as fairy stories, science fiction stories and thrillers in the three "Artemis Fowl" novels? Basic elements of story, such as narrative stance, characterisation and plot, as well as some particularly…

  6. Plague and climate: scales matter.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-09-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations.

  7. Plague in Tanzania: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ziwa, Michael H; Matee, Mecky I; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2013-10-01

    Human plague remains a public health concern in Tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. This work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in Tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. Plague is believed to have been introduced to Tanzania from the Middle East through Uganda with the first authentication in 1886. Xenopsylla brasiliensis, X. cheopis, Dinopsyllus lypusus, and Pulex irritans are among potential vectors while Lophuromys spp, Praomys delectorum, Graphiurus murinus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mastomys natalensis, and Rattus rattus may be the potential reservoirs. Plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in Tanzania are likely to be attributable to a complexity of factors including cultural, socio-economical, environmental and biological. Minimizing or preventing people's proximity to rodents is probably the most effective means of preventing plague outbreaks in humans in the future. In conclusion, much has been done on plague diagnosis in Tanzania. However, in order to achieve new insights into the features of plague epidemiology in the country, and to reorganize an effective control strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.

  8. Full genome sequence of guinea fowl coronavirus associated with fulminating disease.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Liais, Etienne; Croville, Guillaume; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-01

    Guinea fowl coronavirus (GfCoV), a recently characterized avian coronavirus, was identified from outbreaks of fulminating disease (peracute enteritis) in guinea fowl in France. The full-length genomic sequence was determined to better understand its genetic relationship with avian coronaviruses. The full-length coding genome sequence was 26,985 nucleotides long with 11 open reading frames and no hemagglutinin-esterase gene: a genome organization identical to that of turkey coronavirus [5' untranslated region (UTR)-replicase (ORFs 1a, 1ab)-spike (S) protein-ORF3 (ORFs 3a, 3b)-small envelop (E or 3c) protein-membrane (M) protein-ORF5 (ORFs 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b)-nucleocapsid (N) protein (ORFs N and 6b)-3' UTR]. This is the first complete genome sequence of a GfCoV and confirms that the new virus belongs to group gammacoronaviruses.

  9. F-OWL: An Inference Engine for Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Youyong; Finin, Tim; Chen, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and using the data and knowledge encoded in semantic web documents requires an inference engine. F-OWL is an inference engine for the semantic web language OWL language based on F-logic, an approach to defining frame-based systems in logic. F-OWL is implemented using XSB and Flora-2 and takes full advantage of their features. We describe how F-OWL computes ontology entailment and compare it with other description logic based approaches. We also describe TAGA, a trading agent environment that we have used as a test bed for F-OWL and to explore how multiagent systems can use semantic web concepts and technology.

  10. Molecular characterization of MHC class II region in guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Mathew, J; Gupta, J; Mehra, S; Goyal, G; Sharma, D

    2010-12-01

    1. The MHC class II gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced in guinea fowl. 2. The NumeMHC II sequence of 754 nucleotides included complete exon 1 (91 nt), exon 2 (270 nt), exon 3 (282 nt) and exon 4 (110 nt). 3. The size of β(1) and β(2), domains were 89 and 93 amino acids, respectively in guinea fowl. 4. High amino acid variability (38·2%) was observed within guinea fowl in β(1) domain, while in β(2) domain, amino acid variability (6·3%) was low. 5. Among poultry species, the percent amino acid identity between guinea fowl and chicken, quail, pheasant and duck was 38·8, 42·2, 44·4 and 58·8 in β(1) domain; and 13·8, 17·0, 13·8 and 27·6 in β(2) domain, respectively. 6. Sequence alignment with mammalian and avian MHC showed that many of the conserved features of MHC class II glycoprotein was conserved in guinea fowl. 7. Within-species genetic distances (Poisson correction) based on cumulative amino acid variability in β(1) domain and β(2) domains was 0·141 in guinea fowl. 8. Guinea fowl showed low and similar genetic distances with all the poultry species (0·255-0·268) except duck (0·456). 9. Guinea fowl made separate branch within the major cluster having chicken, quail and pheasant, showing equal distance from these poultry species, whereas duck MHC II clustered separately.

  11. Plague outbreak in Libya, 2009, unrelated to plague in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

  12. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci. PMID:23347743

  13. Transmission studies involving a wet fowl pox isolate.

    PubMed

    Eleazer, T H; Harrell, J S; Blalock, H G

    1983-01-01

    An isolate of fowl pox (FP) virus from a case of "wet" pox in commercial white leghorn (WL) pullets was used to expose WL cockerels via the comb-scratch (CS), eye-drop (ED), or laryngeal-swab (LS) route. Seven days postinoculation (PI), the groups challenged via CS had scabby proliferative pox lesions at the challenge site, the groups challenged via LS had slight dyspnea and rales, and 20% of the cockerels challenged via ED had mild conjunctivitis and lacrimation. By termination of the trial on day 21 PI, the CS-challenged groups had developed pronounced pox lesions. The LS-challenged groups showed severe dyspnea and rales with pronounced raised plaque-like lesions at the opening to the trachea and extending into the upper quarter of the trachea with heavy yellowish caseous exudate partly occluding the glottis. The ED-challenged groups had severe lacrimation and conjunctivitis and small pox lesions on the face, comb, and wattles; 12 of 18 had proliferative lesions on the oral mucosa in the area of the larynx. Forty-five percent of the LS-challenged groups died of suffocation. Pox virus was re-isolated from tissues in all treatment groups. Wet pox transmission appears to be possible via the LS and ED routes.

  14. Molecular characterisation of fowl adenovirus type 7 isolated from poultry associated with inclusion body hepatitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta

    2017-02-03

    The fowl adenovirus field strain FAdV-JSN-5/10j (GenBank accession number KP879219) was isolated from the intestine of a 7-week-old chicken diagnosed with inclusion body hepatitis and simultaneously with Marek's disease, and for that reason, it was chosen for molecular study. It was identified as fowl adenovirus genotype 7 (species Fowl aviadenovirus E) based on nucleotide sequence analysis of the loop L1 region of the hexon gene. Nucleotide sequence alignment of this strain, FAdV-7 reference strains B-3A ATCC VR-832 (AF339922) and YR36 (AF508955), and eight additional FAdV-7 field strains confirmed its classification as FAdV-JS-5/10j and showed that these viruses are very similar to each other. Additionally, we described mutations and their influence on the amino acid sequence, nucleotide composition, and relative synonymous codon usage. Immunofluorescence of cell cultures infected with 10(4.5) TCID 50 per 0.1-ml dose of the FAdV-JSN-5/10j strain demonstrated the presence of a cytopathic effect. Infection of fowl with adenoviruses raises concerns for poultry production, and thus, the efficient detection of adenovirus infection is crucial. This is the first attempt to describe the molecular characteristics of FadV-7 strains isolated in Poland.

  15. Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas. Humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents. In humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague. In rare cases, the infection spreads to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague. Person-to-person transmission has been described for pneumonic plague but is rare in primary bubonic plague. Bubonic plague can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics; however, pneumonic plague develops rapidly and carries a high fatality rate despite immediate treatment with antibiotics. Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism. It has been used, or considered for use, as a biologic weapon on several occasions. It is important for the medical community to be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and symptoms of plague so it can deliver an appropriate and calm response should the unthinkable happen. PMID:16200159

  16. The cause of the plague of Athens: plague, typhoid, typhus, smallpox, or measles?

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A

    2004-03-01

    The plague of Athens raged for 4 years and resulted in the defeat of Athens. The cause of the plague of Athens continues to be debated. Infectious diseases most often cited as causes of the plague include influenza, epidemic typhus, typhoid fever, bubonic plague, smallpox, and measles. Thucydides provides the only available description of the plague of Athens. Given the nuances of the translation, bubonic plague, smallpox, and measles are the most likely causes of the plague. In my view, measles is the most likely cause of the plague of Athens.

  17. Plague pneumonia disease caused by Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Cleri, D J; Vernaleo, J R; Lombardi, L J; Rabbat, M S; Mathew, A; Marton, R; Reyelt, M C

    1997-03-01

    Plague is a zoonotic infection caused by Yersina pesits, a pleomorphic, gram-negative non-spore-forming coccobacillus that is more accurately classified as a subspecies of Y pseudotuberculosis. Animal reservoirs include rodents, rabbits, and occasionally larger animals. Cats become ill and have spread pneumonic disease to man. Dogs may be a significant sentinel animal as well as a reservoir, although do not usually become ill. Flea bites commonly spread disease to man. Person to person spread has not been a recent feature until the purported outbreak of plague and plague pneumonia in India in 1994. Other factors that increase risk of infection in endemic areas are occupation-veterinarians and assistants, pet ownership, direct animal-reservoir contact especially during the hunting season, living in households with an index case, and, mild winters, cool moist springs, and early summers. Clinical presentations include subclinical plague (positive serology without disease); plague pharyngitis; pestis minor (abortive bubonic plague); bubonic plague; septicemic plague; pneumonic plague; and plague meningitis. Most prominent of plague's differential diagnosis are Reye's syndrome, other causes of lymphadenitis, bacterial pneumonias, tularemia, and acute surgical abdomen. Treatment has reduced mortality from 40-90% to 5-18%. The drug of choice (except for plague meningitis) is streptomycin, with tetracyclines being alternatives. Parenteral cholamphenicol is the treatment of choice for plague meningitis. A tetracycline should be administered as chemoprophylaxis to all contacts over the age of 8 years. Plague vaccine is available, but is only partially protective.

  18. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  19. Plague - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Plague URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/plague.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Plague - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  1. AN EPIDEMIC OF PNEUMONIC PLAGUE

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, W. H.

    1920-01-01

    Dr. Kellogg calls on health authorities to wake from their apathy with reference to plague in California, and instead of restrictive measures to adopt an aggressive warfare. He points out that there is real danger to the country and urges adequate appropriations to exterminate the animal disease carriers while this may be done with certainty. PMID:18010342

  2. Cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) semen.

    PubMed

    Rakha, B A; Ansari, M S; Akhter, S; Hussain, I; Blesbois, E

    2016-11-01

    The population of red jungle fowl is declining and needs special attention for its conservation with suitable approaches. For ex situ in vitro conservation of Indian red jungle fowl, establishment of semen cryobank is an appropriate option, for which an extender with adequate retrieval capacity for functional spermatozoa is required. Therefore, studies were designed to evaluate a wide range of extenders for cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) sperm to achieve maximal post-thawed semen quality and fertility. For this purpose, semen from eight mature cocks were collected, initially evaluated (percent sperm motility, volume and concentration), pooled, assessed for motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and acrosome integrity, and divided into six aliquots for dilution (1:5; 37°C) in Beltsville poultry, red fowl extender, Lake, EK, Tselutin poultry and chicken semen extenders. Diluted semen was cooled from 37°C to 4°C @ -0.275°C/min. Glycerol (20%) was added to chilled semen, equilibrated for 10min, filled in 0.5mL French straws, kept over LN2 vapours for 10min and plunged into LN2 and stored at -196°C. Percentages of motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and acrosome integrity were higher (P<0.05) in red fowl extender at 0, 2 and 4h of incubation post-thaw. After cryopreservation and post-thawing at 37°C the highest (P<0.05) recovery rates and absolute livability index was also recorded in red fowl extender that was thus used for further artificial insemination of cooled-diluted (Liquid) and cryopreserved sperm. The no. of fertilized eggs (Liquid, 20.6±0.4; Cryopreserved, 12.6±0.5), percent fertility (86.7±2.2; 57.2±3.9), no. of hatched chicks (18.2±0.8; 10.0±0.3), percent hatch (76.5±2.7; 45.3±2.2) and hatchability of fertilized eggs (88.3±3.4; 79.6±3.4) were higher with sperm respectively freshly cooled-diluted or cryopreserved in red fowl extender. However, the rates obtained with frozen-thawed sperm

  3. Plague in the genomic area.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, M

    2012-03-01

    With plague being not only a subject of interest for historians, but still a disease of public health concern in several countries, mainly in Africa, there were hopes that analyses of the Yersinia pestis genomes would put an end to this deadly epidemic pathogen. Genomics revealed that Y. pestis isolates evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Central Asia some millennia ago, after the acquisition of two Y. pestis-specific plasmids balanced genomic reduction parallel with the expansion of insertion sequences, illustrating the modern concept that, except for the acquisition of plasmid-borne toxin-encoding genes, the increased virulence of Y. pestis resulted from gene loss rather than gene acquisition. The telluric persistence of Y. pestis reminds us of this close relationship, and matters in terms of plague epidemiology. Whereas biotype Orientalis isolates spread worldwide, the Antiqua and Medievalis isolates showed more limited expansion. In addition to animal ectoparasites, human ectoparasites such as the body louse may have participated in this expansion and in devastating historical epidemics. The recent analysis of a Black Death genome indicated that it was more closely related to the Orientalis branch than to the Medievalis branch. Modern Y. pestis isolates grossly exhibit the same gene content, but still undergo micro-evolution in geographically limited areas by differing in the genome architecture, owing to inversions near insertion sequences and the stabilization of the YpfPhi prophage in Orientalis biotype isolates. Genomics have provided several new molecular tools for the genotyping and phylogeographical tracing of isolates and description of plague foci. However, genomics and post-genomics approaches have not yet provided new tools for the prevention, diagnosis and management of plague patients and the plague epidemics still raging in some sub-Saharan countries.

  4. Are carnivores universally good sentinels of plague?

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems.

  5. Are Carnivores Universally Good Sentinels of Plague?

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, Sharon K.; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems. PMID:18973449

  6. Metabolic rate: its circadian rhythmicity in the female domestic fowl.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, A; Meltzer, A

    1978-01-01

    1. In quasi-natural cyclic lighting, a circadian rhythm was observed in seven fowls; the range of oscillation of the rhythm was 50% of the mean metabolic level. Little variation was present between the individuals. 2. In fowls maintained for 15 days in isolation under 700 lx (ten fowls) or 0.07 lx (four fowls) constant lighting and at constant temperature free-running rhythms were evident; the range of oscillation was about 12% of the mean level. Large variation prevailed between the individuals in the range of oscillation and in the portion of variance accounted for by periodic regression. In dim light, rhythmicity declined to become non-significant by 8 days of exposure. 3. In four fowls maintained in a 6L/6D regimen for 12 days, metabolic rate was entrained to an ahemeral rhythm; there was no evidence of circadian influence on the metabolic response to light. Little variation was present between the individuals. Rhythmicity was maintained over the experimental period. 4. Metabolic levels were similar on 0.07 lx, 700 lx constant light, during the dark phase of the 6L/6D regimen and during night time in the quasi-natural cyclic lighting. They were also similar on the light phase of the 6L/6D regimen and the quasi-natural lighting. PMID:722545

  7. The cytoplasmic tail of the influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF negatively affects transport to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, F; Klenk, H D; Herrler, G

    1999-02-01

    The surface glycoprotein, HEF, of influenza C virus (C/Johannesburg/1/66) has been shown to undergo a post-translation conformational change that is evident in a dramatic change of electrophoretic mobility. If the corresponding gene is expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, this folding process does not occur at all or only very inefficiently. A chimaeric protein, HEF-HA(Tail), in which the short cytoplasmic tail (Arg-Thr-Lys) of HEF was replaced by the cytoplasmic tail of the haemagglutinin of an influenza A virus (fowl plague virus) was constructed. In contrast to the wild-type protein, the chimaeric protein was detected on the cell surface. No further improvement of the surface expression was observed when both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail were replaced by the corresponding domains of either the influenza A haemagglutinin or gp40, an endogenous protein of MDCK cells. For the HEF-HA(Tail) construct this study shows that a substantial amount of the protein is converted to the 100 kDa mature form that is observed in virus-infected cells. The HEF-HA expressed on the cell surface reacted positively in esterase and haemadsorption assays, indicating that it was present in a biologically active form. The results show that the short cytoplasmic tail of HEF has a negative effect on the folding and surface transport of this protein. How this effect may be prevented during a virus infection is discussed.

  8. Integrating historical, clinical and molecular genetic data in order to explain the origin and virulence of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Taubenberger, J K; Reid, A H; Janczewski, T A; Fanning, T G

    2001-12-29

    The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 caused acute illness in 25-30% of the world's population and resulted in the death of 40 million people. The complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus will be deduced using fixed and frozen tissues of 1918 influenza victims. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete 1918 haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes show them to be the most avian-like of mammalian sequences and support the hypothesis that the pandemic virus contained surface protein-encoding genes derived from an avian influenza strain and that the 1918 virus is very similar to the common ancestor of human and classical swine H1N1 influenza strains. Neither the 1918 HA genes nor the NA genes possessed mutations that are known to increase tissue tropicity, which accounts for the virulence of other influenza strains such as A/WSN/33 or fowl plague viruses. The complete sequence of the nonstructural (NS) gene segment of the 1918 virus was deduced and tested for the hypothesis that the enhanced virulence in 1918 could have been due to type I interferon inhibition by the NS1 protein. The results from these experiments were inconclusive. Sequence analysis of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus is allowing us to test hypotheses as to the origin and virulence of this strain. This information should help to elucidate how pandemic influenza strains emerge and what genetic features contribute to their virulence.

  9. Integrating historical, clinical and molecular genetic data in order to explain the origin and virulence of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus.

    PubMed Central

    Taubenberger, J K; Reid, A H; Janczewski, T A; Fanning, T G

    2001-01-01

    The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 caused acute illness in 25-30% of the world's population and resulted in the death of 40 million people. The complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus will be deduced using fixed and frozen tissues of 1918 influenza victims. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete 1918 haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes show them to be the most avian-like of mammalian sequences and support the hypothesis that the pandemic virus contained surface protein-encoding genes derived from an avian influenza strain and that the 1918 virus is very similar to the common ancestor of human and classical swine H1N1 influenza strains. Neither the 1918 HA genes nor the NA genes possessed mutations that are known to increase tissue tropicity, which accounts for the virulence of other influenza strains such as A/WSN/33 or fowl plague viruses. The complete sequence of the nonstructural (NS) gene segment of the 1918 virus was deduced and tested for the hypothesis that the enhanced virulence in 1918 could have been due to type I interferon inhibition by the NS1 protein. The results from these experiments were inconclusive. Sequence analysis of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus is allowing us to test hypotheses as to the origin and virulence of this strain. This information should help to elucidate how pandemic influenza strains emerge and what genetic features contribute to their virulence. PMID:11779381

  10. Immune defense against pneumonic plague

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Yersinia pestis is one of the world's most virulent human pathogens. Inhalation of this Gram-negative bacterium causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant strains of Y. pestis exist and have significant potential for exploitation as agents of terrorism and biowarfare. Subunit vaccines comprised of the Y. pestis F1 and LcrV proteins are well-tolerated and immunogenic in humans but cannot be tested for efficacy, because pneumonic plague outbreaks are uncommon and intentional infection of humans is unethical. In animal models, F1/LcrV-based vaccines protect mice and cynomolgus macaques but have failed, thus far, to adequately protect African green monkeys. We lack an explanation for this inconsistent efficacy. We also lack reliable correlate assays for protective immunity. These deficiencies are hampering efforts to improve vaccine efficacy. Here, I review the immunology of pneumonic plague, focusing on evidence that humoral and cellular defense mechanisms collaborate to defend against pulmonary Y. pestis infection. PMID:18837787

  11. Atypical distribution of fowl pox lesions in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, C G; Charlton, B R; Woolcock, P; Bickford, A A; Cooper, G; Bland, M

    2010-12-01

    An unusual cutaneous fowl pox outbreak occurred in 8-wk-old broilers in California. Rounded and longitudinal, proliferative scratch-associated lesions were found only in feathered areas of the body. Both sides of the hip, the lower abdomen, pericloacal area, and lateral lower neck area were involved. The head, legs, feet, and toes did not have lesions. Birds in only one section of one of five houses were affected. Fifteen percent condemnations occurred in birds from the affected house due to the skin lesions. A diagnosis of fowl pox was achieved by histopathology, viral isolation, and direct electron microscopy. The unusual distribution of pox lesions was assumed to be associated with skin scratches. There was no evidence that mosquitoes or other types of insects were involved in this outbreak. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of this kind of unusual fowl pox in the United States.

  12. STUDIES ON FOWL PARALYSIS (NEUROLYMPHOMATOSIS GALLINARUM)

    PubMed Central

    Pappenheimer, Alwin M.; Dunn, Leslie C.; Cone, Vernon

    1929-01-01

    1. Fowl paralysis (neurolymphomatosis gallinarum) is a disease entity, with characteristic clinical and pathological features. 2. The disease occurs in all parts of the United States, Holland, Austria and probably South America. 3. The disease appears to be endemic in certain foci. Having once appeared, the disease tends to persist through successive years. 4. It occurs with about equal frequency in both sexes; all common breeds may be affected. 5. Symptoms appear between the 3rd and 18th months. Typical clinical cases have not been observed outside of these limits. 6. The conspicuous symptoms are (a) asymmetrical, partial and progressive paralysis of the wings and both legs, and rarely of neck muscles; (b) occasional grey discoloration of iris, with blindness. Nutrition is usually preserved. 7. The duration is variable; the outcome is usually fatal, but spontaneous recovery may rarely occur. 8. The principal pathological changes are found in the nervous system. In the peripheral nerves, the essential feature is an intense infiltration of lymphoid, plasma cells, and large mononuclears. This is accompanied by a myelin degeneration in the more advanced lesions, but the cellular infiltrations appear to precede the degenerative changes. In brain, cord and meninges, there are similar infiltrations predominantly perivascular. Infiltrations of the iris with lymphoid and plasma cells are found in the cases showing gross discoloration of the iris. Visceral lymphomata, originating usually in the ovary, are associated in a certain percentage of the cases. Evidence is presented in favor of the view that this association is not accidental, and that the lymphomata are a manifestation of the disease. 9. Infiltrations of the spinal cord and brain, rarely of the peripheral nerves, are frequently present in birds showing no clinical symptoms. These are interpreted as mild cases of the same disease. 10. No microorganisms of etiological significance have been demonstrated in the

  13. Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Rodents such as rats carry the disease. It is spread by their ... Rat control and watching for the disease in the wild rodent population are the main measures used ...

  14. Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... on proventricular spines of a Xenopsylla cheopis flea. Biology & Genetics NIAID-supported investigators sequenced the genome of ... for this deadly pathogen. Read more about the biology and genetics of Yersinia pestis Vaccines NIAID is ...

  15. Novel avian coronavirus and fulminating disease in guinea fowl, France.

    PubMed

    Liais, Etienne; Croville, Guillaume; Mariette, Jérôme; Delverdier, Maxence; Lucas, Marie-Noëlle; Klopp, Christophe; Lluch, Jérôme; Donnadieu, Cécile; Guy, James S; Corrand, Léni; Ducatez, Mariette F; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    For decades, French guinea fowl have been affected by fulminating enteritis of unclear origin. By using metagenomics, we identified a novel avian gammacoronavirus associated with this disease that is distantly related to turkey coronaviruses. Fatal respiratory diseases in humans have recently been caused by coronaviruses of animal origin.

  16. The long repeat region is dispensable for fowl adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ojkic, D; Nagy, E

    2001-05-10

    Two regions containing tandemly repeated sequences are present in the fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) genome. The longer repeat region (TR-2) is composed of 13 contiguous 135-bp-long direct repeats, the function of which is unknown. An infectious FAdV-9 genomic clone, constructed by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, was used for engineering of recombinant viruses. The enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) coding sequence was cloned in both rightward and leftward orientations so as to replace TR-2. Replication-competent recombinant FAdVs were recovered, demonstrating that TR-2 was dispensable for FAdV-9 propagation in vitro. The expression of EGFP in infected cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation, and RT-PCR.

  17. [Ecological-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci in China VIII. Typing of natural plague foci].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xi-ye; Liu, Qi-yong; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Dong-sheng; Cui, Yu-jun; Dong, Xing-qi; Zhang, Rong-zu; Gu, Shao-hua; Ye, Cai-de; Yang, Rui-fu

    2013-01-01

    Since plague is an important natural focus zoonosis, the typing of natural plague foci becomes one of the elements in understanding the nature and developing related prevention program of the disease. Natural foci of plague are composed by four fundamental parts which include Eco-geographical landscape (natural plague foci), hosts, vectors and pathogens (Yersinia pestis) that comprehensively interact through the large temporal scale of evolution. Human activities have had great impact on the foci of natural plague. Based on the published serial research papers, we tried to integrate the knowledge of each factor in natural plague foci and focusing on theoretical aspects, so as to strengthen the prevention and surveillance programs of plague to be extrapolated to other zoonosis.

  18. Plague dynamics are driven by climate variation.

    PubMed

    Stenseth, Nils Chr; Samia, Noelle I; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Begon, Mike; Davis, Stephen; Leirs, Herwig; Dubyanskiy, V M; Esper, Jan; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Klassovskiy, Nikolay L; Pole, Sergey B; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2006-08-29

    The bacterium Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague. In Central Asia, where human plague is still reported regularly, the bacterium is common in natural populations of great gerbils. By using field data from 1949-1995 and previously undescribed statistical techniques, we show that Y. pestis prevalence in gerbils increases with warmer springs and wetter summers: A 1 degrees C increase in spring is predicted to lead to a >50% increase in prevalence. Climatic conditions favoring plague apparently existed in this region at the onset of the Black Death as well as when the most recent plague pandemic arose in the same region, and they are expected to continue or become more favorable as a result of climate change. Threats of outbreaks may thus be increasing where humans live in close contact with rodents and fleas (or other wildlife) harboring endemic plague.

  19. New records of sylvatic plague in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F.; Carter, L.G.; Gage, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, or plague of wild rodents is caused by Yersinia pestis and entered California (USA) from Asia about 1899. Extensive sampling during the 1930's and 1940's documented the spread of plague to approximately its current distribution in North America. Records from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention document plague in Kansas (USA) between 1945 and 1950, but since then there has been no documentation of plague in the state. Following a die-off of a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony on the Cimarron National Grassland, in the southwestern corner of Kansas (37??10???N, 101??45???W), we sampled fleas from burrows in June 1997, and tested them for Yersinia pestis. Twelve of 13 pools of Oropsyla hirsuta and one of two Pulex sp. were positive. A similar sample of fleas, from another colony where black-tailed prairie dogs were active at the time, yielded no positive fleas.

  20. Efficacy of the UK Recombinant Plague Vaccine to Protect Against Pneumonic Plague in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis (PRIVATE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    septicaemic illness. This prese classical bubonic plague [2]. However, man-to-man transmission can occu nuclei spread by the coughing of patients with... bubonic or septicaemic plagu as the USP plague vaccine. A new sub-unit vaccine for plague has been rese developed at DSTL, Porton Down in the UK and...Efficacy of the UK recombinant plague vaccine to protect against pneumonic plague in the nonhuman primate, Macaca fascicularis {PRIVATE

  1. Prospects for new plague vaccines.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Corbel, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The potential application of Yersinia pestis for bioterrorism emphasizes the urgent need to develop more effective vaccines against airborne infection. The current status of plague vaccines has been reviewed. The present emphasis is on subunit vaccines based on the F1 and LcrV antigens. These provide good protection in animal models but may not protect against F1 strains with modifications to the type III secretion system. The duration of protection against pneumonic infection is also uncertain. Other strategies under investigation include defined live-attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, mucosal delivery systems and heterologous immunization. The live-attenuated strain Y. pestis EV NIIEG protects against aerosol challenge in animal models and, with further modification to reduce residual virulence and to optimize respiratory protection, it could provide a shortcut to improved vaccines. The regulatory problems inherent in licensing vaccines for which efficacy data are unavailable and their possible solutions are discussed herein.

  2. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development.

  3. Market potential for guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) products.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Saina, Happyson; Ngorora, Grace P K

    2011-12-01

    The survey evaluated the market potential for guinea fowl (GF; Numidia meleagris) products in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to traders/producers (n = 17), retailers (n = 12), cafeteria industry (n = 33) and consumers (n = 1,680) to establish their perceptions on guinea fowl products. The average household size was 6 ± 2. Each trader sold 10 ± 6.30 keets (mean ± standard error), 33 ± 15.05 growers, 20 ± 12.69 breeders and 20 ± 10.1 crates of 30 eggs per month. Each household consumed 2.5 ± 1.39 kg of GF meat and 3 ± 0.65 dozens of GF eggs per month. Retailers purchased 52 ± 44.42 crates of GF eggs and 41 ± 30.50/kg of GF meat whilst cafeteria purchased 33.6 ± 14 crates of GF eggs and 65.5 ± 33.52 kg of GF meat per month. Growers for breeding were the major product for sale by traders (94.1%) at a price of US$7.50 ± 1.74/bird. Different industries were offering different prices for guinea fowl products because of their scarcity on the market. The mean purchase price per crate of 30 guinea fowl eggs sold to the retail and cafeteria were US$3.00 ± 0.58 and US$4.50 ± 0.50, respectively. The mean purchase prices for GF meat was lower (P < 0.05) for retailers (US$2.5 ± 0.81/kg) than cafeteria (US$3.67 ± 0.83/kg). The challenges faced by producers in the marketing of guinea fowl products included poor supply due to the absence of good road networks to connect source areas and the market, perishability of dressed chickens due to power cuts and poor publicity. Overall, the study showed that there is greater market potential for guinea fowl products and farmers can channel their products through traders, cafeteria and retail industries.

  4. Epizootiologic parameters for plague in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Begon, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Reliable estimates are lacking of key epizootiologic parameters for plague caused by Yersinia pestis infection in its natural reservoirs. We report results of a 3-year longitudinal study of plague dynamics in populations of a maintenance host, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), in 2 populations in Kazakhstan. Serologic results suggest a mid-summer peak in the abundance of infectious hosts and possible transmission from the reservoir to humans. Decrease in antibody titer to an undetectable level showed no seasonal pattern. Our findings did not support the use of the nitroblue-tetrazolium test characterization of plague-infected hosts. Y. pestis infection reduced survival of otherwise asymptomatic hosts.

  5. Epizootiologic Parameters for Plague in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Klassovskiy, Nikolay; Ageyev, Vladimir; Suleimenov, Bakhtiar; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Bennett, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Reliable estimates are lacking of key epizootiologic parameters for plague caused by Yersinia pestis infection in its natural reservoirs. We report results of a 3-year longitudinal study of plague dynamics in populations of a maintenance host, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), in 2 populations in Kazakhstan. Serologic results suggest a mid-summer peak in the abundance of infectious hosts and possible transmission from the reservoir to humans. Decrease in antibody titer to an undetectable level showed no seasonal pattern. Our findings did not support the use of the nitroblue-tetrazolium test characterization of plague-infected hosts. Y. pestis infection reduced survival of otherwise asymptomatic hosts. PMID:16494753

  6. Salmonella typhimurium infection in domesticated fowl in a children's zoo.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Fukui, S; Kurusu, H; Kitazawa, I; Kuwamoto, R; Aoyagi, T

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium infection occurred in a children's zoo where 11 fowl and 85 mammals were kept. Initially, the guinea pigs were infected and transmitted the infection to the fowl and rabbits. These mammals responded to medication and cleared of the infection; however, the birds were judged to contain excreters despite four regimens of treatment with antibiotics. Cloacal swabs were taken from all the birds. One turkey was positive for Salmonella and was destroyed. Pooled fecal samples from the birds were again positive. All the birds were tested serologically, and two birds, a goose and a turkey, were positive with Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum antigen, which was assumed to be a cross reaction with S. typhimurium antigen. The two birds were destroyed and the goose yielded Salmonella. The infection was finally eradicated, and the serologic examination was considered to be the most useful procedure for detection of the excreters.

  7. Sylvatic plague vaccine: combating plague in prarie dogs and black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    After achieving promising results in laboratory trials, researchers at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and University of Wisconsin at Madison will soon begin field testing a new oral vaccine for sylvatic plague, a devastating disease affecting prairie dogs and other mammals, particularly the endangered black-footed ferret. Our team has developed and is currently registering a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) that uses raccoon poxvirus (RCN) to express two key antigens of the Yersinia pestis bacterium, the causative agent of plague.

  8. Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vincent; Herindrainy, Perlinot; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Ratsitoharina, Maherisoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Andrianalimanana, Samuel; Scholz, Holger C.; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies. PMID:25530466

  9. Pneumonic plague outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011.

    PubMed

    Richard, Vincent; Riehm, Julia M; Herindrainy, Perlinot; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Ratsitoharina, Maherisoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Andrianalimanana, Samuel; Scholz, Holger C; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies.

  10. Pneumonic Plague Transmission, Moramanga, Madagascar, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Rakotondramanga, Jean Marius; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa

    2017-01-01

    During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high (reproductive number 1.44) and the case fatality rate was 71%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yersinia pestis isolates belonged to group q3, different from the previous outbreak. PMID:28221119

  11. Human Plague Risk: Spatial-Temporal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This chpater reviews the use of spatial-temporal models in identifying potential risks of plague outbreaks into the human population. Using earth observations by satellites remote sensing there has been a systematic analysis and mapping of the close coupling between the vectors of the disease and climate variability. The overall result is that incidence of plague is correlated to positive El Nino/Southem Oscillation (ENSO).

  12. Further development of raccoon poxvirus-vectored vaccines against plague (Yersinia pestis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Iams, Keith P.; Dawe, S.; Smith, S.R.; Williamson, J.L.; Heisey, D.M.; Osorio, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated protection against plague in mice and prairie dogs using a raccoon pox (RCN) virus-vectored vaccine that expressed the F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis. In order to improve vaccine efficacy, we have now constructed additional RCN-plague vaccines containing two different forms of the lcrV (V) gene, including full-length (Vfull) and a truncated form (V307). Mouse challenge studies with Y. pestis strain CO92 showed that vaccination with a combination of RCN-F1 and the truncated V construct (RCN-V307) provided the greatest improvement (P = 0.01) in protection against plague over vaccination with RCN-F1 alone. This effect was mediated primarily by anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies and both contributed independently to increased survival of vaccinated mice.

  13. Controlling Ebola: what we can learn from China's 1911 battle against the pneumonic plague in Manchuria.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Jiao, Mingli; Zhao, Siqi; Xing, Kai; Li, Ye; Ning, Ning; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua

    2015-04-01

    The pneumonic plague, which spread across Northeast China during the winter of 1910 and spring of 1911, caused numerous deaths and brought about severe social turmoil. After compulsory quarantine and other epidemic prevention measures were enforced by Dr Wu Lien-teh, the epidemic was brought to an end within 4 months. This article reviews the ways in which the plague was dealt with from a historical perspective, based on factors such as clinical manifestations, duration of illness, case fatality rate, degree of transmissibility, poverty, inadequate healthcare infrastructure, and the region's recent strife-filled history. Similarities were sought between the pneumonic plague in Northeast China in the twentieth century and the Ebola virus outbreak that is currently ravaging Africa, and an effort made to summarize the ways in which specific measures were applied successfully to fight the earlier epidemic. Our efforts highlight valuable experiences that are of potential benefit in helping to fight the current rampant Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  14. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection

    PubMed Central

    Isaäcson, Margaretha; Taylor, Paul; Arntzen, Lorraine

    1983-01-01

    The Mastomys natalensis species complex, subdivided into genetically distinct species having diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 32 and 2n = 36, is a reservoir for several zoonoses including Lassa fever and plague. This report describes a study to determine whether these sibling species and three other rodent species have different potential as reservoirs for plague. It was found that M. natalensis (2n = 32) was significantly more resistant to experimental plague infection (50% survived inoculation with 120 000 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis) than was M. coucha (2n = 36) (none of which survived doses of 190 Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp.pestis). In descending order of resistance were M. natalensis, Aethomys chrysophilus, M. coucha, Tatera leucogaster and A. namaquensis. No A. namaquensis survived inoculation of 10 or more plague bacilli. Previous reports on susceptibility to plague or other infections, which were based exclusively on findings in the universally distributed laboratory-bred Mastomys, are thus not necessarily applicable to the M. natalensis species as a whole but probably only to M. coucha. The Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis fraction-1 passive haemagglutination test appeared to be relatively insensitive in that only 5 out of 47 animals surviving experimental plague infection showed specific antibodies 6 weeks after challenge. The geographic distribution of human plague in southern Africa corresponds closely with that of the plague-susceptible species, M. coucha, while the resistant species, M. natalensis, predominates in areas where human plague has not been recorded. The role of A. namaquensis in the ecology of plague needs to be carefully studied and its possible importance in plague research should be investigated further. PMID:6345015

  15. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection.

    PubMed

    Isaäcson, M; Taylor, P; Arntzen, L

    1983-01-01

    The Mastomys natalensis species complex, subdivided into genetically distinct species having diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 32 and 2n = 36, is a reservoir for several zoonoses including Lassa fever and plague. This report describes a study to determine whether these sibling species and three other rodent species have different potential as reservoirs for plague. It was found that M. natalensis (2n = 32) was significantly more resistant to experimental plague infection (50% survived inoculation with 120 000 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis) than was M. coucha (2n = 36) (none of which survived doses of 190 Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp.pestis). In descending order of resistance were M. natalensis, Aethomys chrysophilus, M. coucha, Tatera leucogaster and A. namaquensis. No A. namaquensis survived inoculation of 10 or more plague bacilli.Previous reports on susceptibility to plague or other infections, which were based exclusively on findings in the universally distributed laboratory-bred Mastomys, are thus not necessarily applicable to the M. natalensis species as a whole but probably only to M. coucha. The Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis fraction-1 passive haemagglutination test appeared to be relatively insensitive in that only 5 out of 47 animals surviving experimental plague infection showed specific antibodies 6 weeks after challenge.The geographic distribution of human plague in southern Africa corresponds closely with that of the plague-susceptible species, M. coucha, while the resistant species, M. natalensis, predominates in areas where human plague has not been recorded. The role of A. namaquensis in the ecology of plague needs to be carefully studied and its possible importance in plague research should be investigated further.

  16. Plague in Africa from 1935 to 1949

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D. H. S.

    1953-01-01

    The history of plague in Africa during the period 1935-49 is reviewed. Much of the information derives from a questionnaire sent to all African territories in 1950. The annual incidence of plague in Africa declined, particularly from 1946 onwards. In 1949, under 400 cases were reported, as compared with over 6,000 in 1935. By the end of 1949, plague was still active in the Belgian Congo, Kenya and Tanganyika, Madagascar, and southern Africa. No cases were reported from Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, or Uganda during 1949. A comparison of the seasonal incidence of plague with prevailing atmospheric conditions (temperature and rainfall) in African territories shows that human plague is more frequent in warm moist weather—60°-80°F (15°-27°C)—than in hot dry, or cold, weather—over 80°F (27°C) or under 60°F (15°C). The highlands of equatorial Africa and of Madagascar appear to provide the optimum environment for the persistence of plague on the domestic (murine) plane and the high-veld and Kalahari of southern Africa on the sylvatic plane. The rat (Rattus rattus) and the multimammate mouse (R. (Mastomys) natalensis) and their fleas Xenopsylla brasiliensis and X. cheopis appear to be mainly responsible for the persistence of the reservoir in the East African highlands; R. rattus and X. cheopis play this role in Madagascar. The gerbils (Tatera and Desmodillus) and their burrow fleas X. philoxera and X. piriei are the main reservoirs of plague in southern Africa. Within these areas, Pasteurella pestis finds an environment suitable for its continued survival; the conditions seem to be comparable to those defined as obtaining in endemic centres in India. Elsewhere in Africa such endemic centres do not appear to exist. PMID:13115987

  17. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7??104LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  19. Yersinia pestis halotolerance illuminates plague reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Levasseur, Anthony; Terras, Jérôme; Gaudart, Jean; Azza, Said; Flaudrops, Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The plague agent Yersinia pestis persists for years in the soil. Two millennia after swiping over Europe and North Africa, plague established permanent foci in North Africa but not in neighboring Europe. Mapping human plague foci reported in North Africa for 70 years indicated a significant location at <3 kilometers from the Mediterranean seashore or the edge of salted lakes named chotts. In Algeria, culturing 352 environmental specimens naturally containing 0.5 to 70 g/L NaCl yielded one Y. pestis Orientalis biotype isolate in a 40 g/L NaCl chott soil specimen. Core genome SNP analysis placed this isolate within the Y. pestis branch 1, Orientalis biovar. Culturing Y. pestis in broth steadily enriched in NaCl indicated survival up to 150 g/L NaCl as L-form variants exhibiting a distinctive matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide profile. Further transcriptomic analyses found the upregulation of several outer-membrane proteins including TolC efflux pump and OmpF porin implied in osmotic pressure regulation. Salt tolerance of Y. pestis L-form may play a role in the maintenance of natural plague foci in North Africa and beyond, as these geographical correlations could be extended to 31 plague foci in the northern hemisphere (from 15°N to 50°N). PMID:28054667

  20. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  1. Impact of the plague in Ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Soupios, M A

    2004-03-01

    Disease as a pivotal factor in determining the course of human events may be one og the least considered historical variables. When assessing the critical junctures of history, historians seem more inclined to focus on the impact of conquering armies, economic revolutions, and technologic breakthroughs. This analysis attempts to illustrate the seminal effects of the great plague of Athens. By depleting Athenian military personnel, depriving Athens of its charismatic leadership, and dissolving the system of ideals and principles that distinguished Athens from the rest of antiquity, the plague materially altered the outcome of the Peloponnesian War, which in turn deflected the flow of all subsequent Hellenic history.

  2. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we note a potentially pivotal role for fleas. These epizootic plague vectors should be closely studied with newer more exacting methods to determine their potential to serve as participants in or accomplices to a plague persistence reservoir.

  3. Isolated adrenocortical cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): steroidogenic and ultrastructural properties.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-02-01

    Isolated adrenocortical cells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were compared to those from rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cells were prepared from collagenase-dispersed adrenal glands of sexually mature male animals. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation for 2 h with steroidogenic agents. Of the four ACTH analogues used, three were 6-17 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells (potencies were indicated by half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations). However, 9-tryptophan (O-nitrophenylsulfenyl) ACTH was 8 times more potent with fowl cells than with rat cells, thus suggesting that ACTH receptor differences exist between the two cell types. In addition, cAMP analogues were 10 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells suggesting that fowl corticosteroidogenesis is less dependent on cAMP than is rat corticosteroidogenesis. At equal cell concentrations, rat cells secreted 20-40 times more corticosterone than did chicken cells when they were maximally stimulated. Although rat cells converted 8 times more pregnenolone to corticosterone than did fowl cells, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration for pregnenolone-supported corticosterone synthesis was the same for both cell types (about 5 microM). This suggests that fowl cells have lower steroidogenic enzyme content rather than lower steroidogenic enzyme activity. An unusual feature seen in the isolated fowl adrenocortical cells was an abundance of intracellular filaments.

  4. Current challenges in the development of vaccines for pneumonic plague

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of Yersinia pestis bacilli causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and exceptionally virulent disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains exist and we currently lack a safe and effective pneumonic plague vaccine. These facts raise concern that Y. pestis may be exploited as a bioweapon. Here, I review the history and status of plague vaccine research and advocate that pneumonic plague vaccines should strive to prime both humoral and cellular immunity. PMID:18324890

  5. Successful Treatment of Human Plague with Oral Ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Abaru, Janet; Candini, Gordian; Apio, Harriet; Okoth, Felix; Okello, Robert; Kaggwa, John; Acayo, Sarah; Ezama, Geoffrey; Yockey, Brook; Sexton, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin; Mbidde, Edward Katongole; Mead, Paul

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague.

  6. Wild Felids as Hosts for Human Plague, Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Franklin, Sam P.; Schmit, Virginia L.; MacMillan, Martha L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Alldredge, Mat W.; Krumm, Caroline; Boyce, Walter M.; Vickers, Winston; Riley, Seth P.D.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Roelke, Melody E.; Salman, Mo; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations of pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague in nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission. PMID:19961691

  7. Successful Treatment of Human Plague with Oral Ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Abaru, Janet; Candini, Gordian; Apio, Harriet; Okoth, Felix; Okello, Robert; Kaggwa, John; Acayo, Sarah; Ezama, Geoffrey; Yockey, Brook; Sexton, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin; Mbidde, Edward Katongole

    2017-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague. PMID:28125398

  8. Wild felids as hosts for human plague, Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevins, S.N.; Tracey, J.A.; Franklin, S.P.; Schmit, V.L.; MacMillan, M.L.; Gage, K.L.; Schriefer, M.E.; Logan, K.A.; Sweanor, L.L.; Alldredge, M.W.; Krumm, C.; Boyce, W.M.; Vickers, W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Roelke, M.E.; Salman, M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.

  9. [A molecular basis of the plague vaccine development].

    PubMed

    Dentovskaia, S V; Kopylov, P Kh; Ivanov, S A; Ageev, S A; Anisimov, A P

    2013-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the Yersinia pestis pathogenicity and peculiarities of maturation of specific immunity to plague are reviewed. The history and modern state of the plague vaccine development are described. Special attention is focused on the prospects in the area of the plague vaccine development. The possible approaches to improvement of vaccine preparations are discussed.

  10. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  11. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    PubMed

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  12. Studies on acquired immunity to coccidiosis in bursaless and thymectomized fowls

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A. E.; Long, P. L.

    1965-01-01

    Fowls hatched from embryos inoculated in ovo with testosterone between the sixth and ninth day of incubation hatched without a detectable bursa of Fabricius. These fowls failed to develop antibodies as the result of repeated infection with Eimeria tenella and levels of serum immune globulin were usually markedly reduced or undetectable. There were very few pyroninophilic cells in the caeca or spleen and secondary foci in the spleen and caecal lymphoid tissue were either not detected or were very reduced in number. The spleen and thymus weights were significantly reduced by testosterone treatment. Nevertheless, these fowls were successfully immunized, so that they resisted infection when challenged with viable oocysts of E. tenella. Active E. tenella infection of normal, susceptible, control fowls significantly reduced the thymus weight and increased the bursa weight. Severe haemorrhage into the caecal lumen of infected fowls resulted in lowered blood erythrocyte and lymphocyte counts and a reduction in the total serum protein. Antibodies, capable of lysing sporozoites, were detected in normal fowls after immunization and in normal susceptible fowls 5 days after initial infection. Complete surgical thymectomy was attempted within the first 1½ hours after hatching. However, this was only exceptionally complete and about 10 per cent of thymic tissue was detectable at subsequent post-mortem 56 days later. Thymectomized birds produced antibody, pyroninophilic cells and secondary spleen foci indistinguishable from normal control immunized chickens. However, there was a significant reduction in the number of small lymphocytes in the blood. Although thymectomized fowls were successfully immunized against E. tenella infection, there was an indication, shown by daily oocyst discharge determinations that thymectomized fowls were less resistant during immunization than normal fowls. However, both groups of fowls, when challenged, were fully immune. The significance of partial

  13. The plague of Athens: epidemiology and paleopathology.

    PubMed

    Littman, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    In 430 BC, a plague struck the city of Athens, which was then under siege by Sparta during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). In the next 3 years, most of the population was infected, and perhaps as many as 75,000 to 100,000 people, 25% of the city's population, died. The Athenian general and historian Thucydides left an eye-witness account of this plague and a detailed description to allow future generations to identify the disease should it break out again. Because of the importance of Thucydides and Athens in Western history and culture, the Plague of Athens has taken a prominent position in the history of the West for the past 2500 years. Despite Thucydides' careful description, in the past 100 years, scholars and physicians have disagreed about the identification of the disease. Based on clinical symptoms, 2 diagnoses have dominated the modern literature on the Athenian plague: smallpox and typhus. New methodologies, including forensic anthropology, demography, epidemiology, and paleopathogy, including DNA analysis, have shed new light on the problem. Mathematical modeling has allowed the examination of the infection and attack rates and the determination of how long it takes a disease to spread in a city and how long it remains endemic. The highly contagious epidemic exhibited a pustular rash, high fever, and diarrhea. Originating in Ethiopia, it spread throughout the Mediterranean. It spared no segment of the population, including the statesman Pericles. The epidemic broke in early May 430 BC, with another wave in the summer of 428 BC and in the winter of 427-426 BC, and lasted 4.5 to 5 years. Thucydides portrays a virgin soil epidemic with a high attack rate and an unvarying course in persons of different ages, sexes, and nationalities.The epidemiological analysis excludes common source diseases and most respiratory diseases. The plague can be limited to either a reservoir diseases (zoonotic or vector-borne) or one of the respiratory diseases associated

  14. Oral vaccination against plague using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism.

  15. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  16. Thinking extreme social violence: the model of the literary plague.

    PubMed

    Priel, Beatriz

    2007-12-01

    The author uses literary plagues as a model for thinking psychoanalytically about the basic anxieties activated among perpetrators of sanctioned massacres. The model of the plague allows abstracting an underlying primitive psychological organization characterized by syncretism and a powerful anxiety of de-differentiation and confusion, leading characteristically to imitative behavior within the in-group as well as to the disavowal of the out-group members similarities to oneself, i.e. the disavowal of the other's humanity. Recognizing the historical and social foundations of discrimination and genocide, the author analyzes the interaction between group and individual processes that allow ordinary people to join daily acts of immoral violence. She dramatizes the model of the plague through a psychoanalytic reading of three literary plagues: Thebes' plague according to Sophocles, Camus's chronicle of the plague in Oran, and Saramago's meditation on the plague of white blindness.

  17. Pneumonic Plague: The Darker Side of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Pechous, Roger D; Sivaraman, Vijay; Stasulli, Nikolas M; Goldman, William E

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of the bacterium Yersinia pestis results in primary pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is the most severe manifestation of plague, with mortality rates approaching 100% in the absence of treatment. Its rapid disease progression, lethality, and ability to be transmitted via aerosol have compounded fears of the intentional release of Y. pestis as a biological weapon. Importantly, recent epidemics of plague have highlighted a significant role for pneumonic plague during outbreaks of Y. pestis infections. In this review we describe the characteristics of pneumonic plague, focusing on its disease progression and pathogenesis. The rapid time-course, severity, and difficulty of treating pneumonic plague highlight how differences in the route of disease transmission can enhance the lethality of an already deadly pathogen.

  18. An outbreak of blindness due to retinopathy in nine flocks of guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, M; Lupini, C; Bolognesi, P G; Marzadori, F; Raffini, E; Frasnelli, M; Poppi, L; Shivaprasad, H L; Catelli, E

    2014-06-01

    Blindness was observed in 10- to 14-day-old guinea fowl. The incidence ranged from 25% to 80% in nine flocks within a total population of 110,000 guinea fowls. Clinical signs of blindness in birds included aimless wandering, failure to find feed and water, lateral recumbency, loss of weight, and increased mortality. The birds lacked papillary reflexes to light, and there were no gross lesions in the eyes. Histologically there was degeneration and disorganization of photoreceptors in the retina. The guinea fowl came from three different breeder sources but all of the birds were given the same feed. The condition was not observed in the subsequent flocks that came from the same breeder sources but that were given different feed. Based on these observations, toxicity of an unknown ingredient in the feed is suspected as the cause of blindness in the guinea fowl.

  19. A natural outbreak of clinical toxoplasmosis in a backyard flock of guinea fowl in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelli H; Wilson, Floyd D; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kiupel, Matti

    2012-12-01

    A case of a naturally occurring infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a backyard flock of guinea fowl in north Mississippi is reported. To our knowledge, this is the first worldwide report of a natural clinical infection in a flock of guinea fowl. This case was two of seven birds lost out of approximately 20 guinea fowl present in the flock. Birds reportedly exhibited lethargy prior to death. Necropsy examinations were performed on two of the dead birds. There were no gross lesions; however, intralesional protozoan cysts suggestive of T. gondii were observed microscopically. One of two guinea fowl demonstrated dramatic microscopic pathology consisting of variable multifocal necrosis, fibrin exudation, and inflammation of spleen, lung, and heart associated with protozoa cysts and tachyzoites compatible with toxoplasmosis. The bone marrow also exhibited multifocal necrosis and fibrin exudation, as well as marked erythroid and lesser granulocytic hyperplasia with intralesional protozoan cysts. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR.

  20. Viral association with the elusive rickettsia of viper plague from Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Johnathan L; Gonzalez, Yvette; Parker, Jill E; Andrews, Carrie; Martinez, Dominique; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    We previously reported a rickettsial heartwater-like disease in vipers from Ghana that resembled heartwater in its gross lesions, was apparently transmitted by ticks (Aponomma and Amblyomma), and responded clinically favorably to early treatment with tetracycline. Cell culture showed consistent cytopathic effects in bovine endothelial cells, viper cells, and mouse cells, and inhibition of cytopathic effect by tetracycline in vitro. A type D retrovirus was observed in vacuoles in all infected cells. The virus and rickettsia infection was associated with transfer of cytopathic effect, regardless of cell species. Close association of virus and rickettsia may indicate a dual infection etiology of viper plague.

  1. Neuroendocrine cells are present in the domestic fowl ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Pablo G; Báez Saldaña, Armida; Fortoul Van Der Goes, Teresa; González del Pliego, Margarita; Gutiérrez Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine cells are present in virtually all organs of the vertebrate body; however, it is yet uncertain whether they exist in the ovaries. Previous reports of ovarian neurons and neuron-like cells in mammals and birds might have resulted from misidentification. The aim of the present work was to determine the identity of neuron-like cells in immature ovaries of the domestic fowl. Cells immunoreactive to neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and chromogranin-A, with small, dense-core secretory granules, were consistently observed throughout the sub-cortical ovarian medulla and cortical interfollicular stroma. These cells also displayed immunoreactivity for tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine β-hydroxylases, as well as to aromatic L-DOPA decarboxylase, implying their ability to synthesize both catecholamines and indolamines. Our results support the argument that the ovarian cells previously reported as neuron-like in birds, are neuroendocrine cells. PMID:23083425

  2. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    Moiseyeva, Irina G; Romanov, Michael N; Nikiforov, Andrey A; Sevastyanova, Antonina A; Semyenova, Serafima K

    2003-01-01

    Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world. PMID:12927074

  3. Influence of hypokinesis on physiological functions in fowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nvota, J.; Lamosova, D.; Tesarova, D.; Cierna, V.; Vyboh, P.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of hypokinesis and postincubation stress (which are characteristic for modern techniques of poultry cage keeping) on the endocrine functions, metabolic reactions, body weight growth and proteosynthesis in the muscle of cocks was investigated. The stress due to hypokinesis was observed in growing cocks housed in metallic cages in which they could hardly turn around. The findings obtained indicate that a 35-day hypokinesis did not exert any more significant influence both on physiological functions and body weight growth as well as on proteosynthesis in the muscle of cocks under study; however, it speeded up the protein metabolism in the muscle. The postincubation stress modified significantly the hypokinesis effect. Findings recorded in birds differed considerably from findings obtained in laboratory mammals, in which the hypokinesis induced significant changes in endocrine functions, body weight decrease and proteosynthesis disorders. A good tolerance of hypokinesis by fowl can be interpreted not only by the phylogenetic remoteness of the compared species but also by the domestication.

  4. Bile salts of germ-free domestic fowl and pigs

    PubMed Central

    Haslewood, G. A. D.

    1971-01-01

    1. The bile of germ-free domestic fowl contains taurine conjugates of 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (chenodeoxycholic acid), 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (cholic acid) and its 5α-epimer (allocholic acid): that of germ-free pigs contains glycine and taurine conjugates of chenodeoxycholic acid, 3α,6α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (hyodeoxycholic acid), 3α,6α,7α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (hyocholic acid) and (probably) cholic acid. Keto acids were not found. 2. Allocholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid are thus proved to be primary bile acids in intact animals. 3. The evolutionary and biochemical implications of these findings are briefly considered. PMID:5128663

  5. Epidemiology of fowl cholera in free range broilers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reema; Remington, Bruce; Blackall, Pat; Turni, Conny

    2014-03-01

    Fowl cholera, caused by Pasteurella multocida, remains a major problem of poultry worldwide. In the current report, we describe an outbreak in free range organic broilers. In addition to culturing samples from dead broilers, we attempted to isolate P. multocida from feral cats trapped on the farm. The isolates were identified by PCR as P. multocida and then serotyped using the Heddleston scheme and genotyped using both a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method and an enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR method. A total of 123 isolates of P. multocida were recovered from 12 broilers. All 123 isolates were examined by ERIC-PCR, and only one pattern was identified. A subset of seven broiler isolates were examined by MLST and all were typed as sequence type (ST) 20. A total of 28 isolates of P. multocida were recovered from 17 cats, and five ERIC-PCR genotypes were identified, with one genotype (E-1, shared by 19 isolates) being the same as the ERIC-PCR pattern associated with the broilers. One representative cat strain for each ERIC-PCR pattern was subjected to MLST. The cat isolate with the same ERIC-PCR genotype as the broiler isolates was confirmed as having the same MLST result, ST 20. The other five cat ERIC-PCR patterns were allocated to four STs: E-2 and E-5 to ST 265, E-3 to ST 30, E-4 to ST 20, and E-6 to ST 264. Both genotyping methods confirmed that isolates of P. multocida were common between the feral cats and the chickens. It was not clear whether the strain was transmitted from the cats to the chicken or whether the cats obtained the strain preying on chicken. The study has shown that cats can harbor P. multocida strains with the same genotype found in chickens affected with fowl cholera.

  6. A review of recent literature on plague

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1960-01-01

    In his comprehensive monograph on plague, published by WHO in 1954, Dr Pollitzer pointed out that despite the marked drop in the incidence of this disease in recent years, he considered it impossible for various reasons to be complacent about the situation. Since this monograph appeared, plague has shown a truly spectacular decrease, but in case this is partly the outcome of a natural periodicity of the infection, the author still feels that the disease ”should be given continued attention by those interested in global public health”. To this end he summarizes here the latest information on the subject, his review covering not only works published since 1954, but also some earlier literature (particularly from the USSR) which was not available to him at the time of preparation of his monograph. PMID:13736873

  7. Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, R D; Fetherston, J D

    1997-01-01

    Plague is a widespread zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and has had devastating effects on the human population throughout history. Disappearance of the disease is unlikely due to the wide range of mammalian hosts and their attendant fleas. The flea/rodent life cycle of Y. pestis, a gram-negative obligate pathogen, exposes it to very different environmental conditions and has resulted in some novel traits facilitating transmission and infection. Studies characterizing virulence determinants of Y. pestis have identified novel mechanisms for overcoming host defenses. Regulatory systems controlling the expression of some of these virulence factors have proven quite complex. These areas of research have provide new insights into the host-parasite relationship. This review will update our present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague. PMID:8993858

  8. [Human plague and pneumonic plague : pathogenicity, epidemiology, clinical presentations and therapy].

    PubMed

    Riehm, Julia M; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia pestis is a highly pathogenic gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of human plague. In the last 1500 years and during three dreaded pandemics, millions of people became victims of Justinian's plague, the Black Death, or modern plague. Today, Y. pestis is endemic in natural foci of Asian, African and American countries. Due to its broad dissemination in mammal species and fleas, eradication of the pathogen will not be possible in the near future. In fact, plague is currently classified as a "re-emerging disease". Infection may occur after the bite of an infected flea, but also after oral ingestion or inhalation of the pathogen. The clinical presentations comprise the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics. However, the high transmission rate and lethality of pneumonic plague require international and mandatory case notification and quarantine of patients. Rapid diagnosis, therapy and barrier nursing are not only crucial for the individual patient but also for the prevention of further spread of the pathogen or of epidemics. Therefore, WHO emergency schedules demand the isolation of cases, identification and surveillance of contacts as well as control of zoonotic reservoir animals and vectors. These sanctions and effective antibiotic treatment usually allow a rapid containment of outbreaks. However, multiple antibiotic resistant strains of Y. pestis have been isolated from patients in the past. So far, no outbreaks with such strains have been reported.

  9. Flea diversity as an element for persistence of plague bacteria in an East African plague focus.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Borchert, Jeff N; Mpanga, Joseph T; Atiku, Linda A; MacMillan, Katherine; Boegler, Karen A; Montenieri, John A; Monaghan, Andrew; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and characterized by long quiescent periods punctuated by rapidly spreading epidemics and epizootics. How plague bacteria persist during inter-epizootic periods is poorly understood, yet is important for predicting when and where epizootics are likely to occur and for designing interventions aimed at local elimination of the pathogen. Existing hypotheses of how Y. pestis is maintained within plague foci typically center on host abundance or diversity, but little attention has been paid to the importance of flea diversity in enzootic maintenance. Our study compares host and flea abundance and diversity along an elevation gradient that spans from low elevation sites outside of a plague focus in the West Nile region of Uganda (~725-1160 m) to higher elevation sites within the focus (~1380-1630 m). Based on a year of sampling, we showed that host abundance and diversity, as well as total flea abundance on hosts was similar between sites inside compared with outside the plague focus. By contrast, flea diversity was significantly higher inside the focus than outside. Our study highlights the importance of considering flea diversity in models of Y. pestis persistence.

  10. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Methods Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Results We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. Conclusions This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25011940

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin gene from a human influenza virus of the Hong Kong subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Both, G W; Sleigh, M J

    1980-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence has been determined for a cloned double-stranded DNA copy of the haemagglutinin gene from the human influenza strain A/NT/60/68/29C, a laboratory-isolated variant of A/NT/60/68, an early strain of the Hong Kong subtype. The gene is 1765 nucleotides long and contains information sufficient to code for a protein of 566 amino acids, which includes a hydrophobic leader peptide (16 residues), HA1 (328), HA2 (221) and an arginine residue which joins the HA subunits. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence for 29C haemagglutinin with protein sequence data available for HA from other influenza strains shows that no potential coding information is lost by processing of the mRNA. A comparison of the amino acid sequences predicted from the gene sequences for 29C and fowl plague virus haemagglutinins, (1) indicates the extent to which changes can occur in the primary sequence of different regions of the protein, while maintaining essential structure and function. Images PMID:6253883

  12. Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giles, John; Peterson, A. Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-01

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation—rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history. PMID:21245925

  13. Ecology and geography of plague transmission areas in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giles, John; Peterson, A Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-04

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation-rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history.

  14. Growth characteristics of pearl gray guinea fowl as predicted by the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models.

    PubMed

    Nahashon, S N; Aggrey, S E; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the growth pattern of the pearl gray Guinea fowl. Using BW data from hatch to 22 wk, 3 nonlinear mathematical functions (Richards, Gompertz, and logistic) were used to estimate growth patterns of the pearl gray guinea fowl. The logistic and Gompertz models are a special case of the Richards model, which has a variable point of inflection defined by the shape or growth trajectory parameter, m. The shape parameter m was 1.08 and 0.98 in males and females, respectively, suggesting that the growth pattern of the pearl gray female guinea fowl is Gompertz. The pearl gray guinea fowl exhibited sexual dimorphism for their growth characteristics. From the Gompertz model, the asymptotic BW, growth rate, and age at maximum growth were 1.62 kg, 0.22 kg/wk, and 6.65 wk in males, respectively, and 1.70 kg, 0.19 kg/wk, and 6.70 wk in females, respectively. The ages at maximum growth were 6.65, 6.47, and 8.12 wk for the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models, respectively. The pearl gray guinea fowl females have a higher asymptotic BW compared with the males. The average asymptotic BW of about 1.57 kg for both sexes predicted by the logistic model was below the average predicted BW from the Richards (1.66 kg) and Gompertz (1.67 kg) models, respectively, at 22 wk of age. The inverse relationship between the asymptotic weight and both relative growth and age at maximum growth of the pearl gray guinea fowl is similar to that of chickens, quail, and ducks. Success in studying the growth characteristics of guinea fowl will contribute to the efforts of genetically improving this least-studied avian species.

  15. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  16. Protecting against plague: towards a next-generation vaccine.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E D; Oyston, P C F

    2013-04-01

    The causative organism of plague is the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Advances in understanding the complex pathogenesis of plague infection have led to the identification of the F1- and V-antigens as key components of a next-generation vaccine for plague, which have the potential to be effective against all forms of the disease. Here we review the roles of F1- and V-antigens in the context of the range of virulence mechanisms deployed by Y. pestis, in order to develop a greater understanding of the protective immune responses required to protect against plague.

  17. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  18. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Deping; Wang, Shuxiang; Hu, Yanxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xianggui; Yang, Zu; Wang, Jiankui; Li, Junying; Deng, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    The Silky Fowl (SF) is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs). The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte. PMID:26047316

  19. Tick fauna of Malaysian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) in Bangi, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Konto, M.; Fufa, G. I.; Zakaria, A.; Tukur, S. M.; Watanabe, M.; Ola-Fadunsin, S. D.; Khan, M. S.; Shettima, Y. M.; Babjee, S. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. Results: 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63%) for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. Conclusion: This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick. PMID:27047012

  20. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E

    2009-06-01

    Sylvatic plague is highly prevalent during infrequent epizootics that ravage the landscape of western North America. During these periods, plague dissemination is very efficient. Epizootics end when rodent and flea populations are decimated and vectored transmission declines. A second phase (enzootic plague) ensues when plague is difficult to detect from fleas, hosts or the environment, and presents less of a threat to public health. Recently, researchers have hypothesized that the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) responsible for plague maintains a continuous state of high virulence and thus only changes in transmission efficiency explain the shift between alternating enzootic and epizootic phases. However, if virulent transmission becomes too inefficient, strong selection might favor an alternate survival strategy. Another plausible non-exclusive hypothesis, best supported from Asian field studies, is that Y. pestis persists (locally) at foci by maintaining a more benign relationship within adapted rodents during the long expanses of time between outbreaks. From this vantage, it can revert to the epizootic (transmission efficient) form. Similarly, in the United States (US), enzootic plague persistence has been proposed to develop sequestered within New World rodent carriers. However, the absence of clear support for rodent carriers in North America has encouraged a broader search for alternative explanations. A telluric plague existence has been proposed. However, the availability of flea life stages and their hosts could critically supplement environmental plague sources, or fleas might directly represent a lowlevel plague reservoir. Here, we note a potentially pivotal role for fleas. These epizootic plague vectors should be closely studied with newer more exacting methods to determine their potential to serve as participants in or accomplices to a plague persistence reservoir.

  1. Inbreeding depression for economically important traits of Mazandaran native fowls.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, A; Hafezian, H; Rahimi, G H; Farhadi, A; Baneh, H

    2015-01-01

    1. The objective was to investigate inbreeding depression for some economic traits of Mazandaran native fowls using data collected from 1992 to 2012 (21 generations) using a REML 2. The mean inbreeding coefficient (F) for the whole population and dams was 4.67% and 4.12%, respectively, and most of the inbred birds (75.79%) and inbred dams (72.58%) had F < 12.5%. 3. Individual and dam inbreeding trends were 0.55% and 0.53% per year. 4. Inbreeding depression for body weight at hatch, at 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age, age at sexual maturity, weight at sexual maturity, egg weight at 1st d of laying and average egg weight at 28, 30 and 32 weeks of laying due to a 1% increase in individual inbreeding were -0.11 g, -3.1 g, -1.3 g, 0.15 d, 0.59 g, -0.05 g and -0.03 g, respectively. 5. A 1% increase in maternal inbreeding resulted in a reduction of 0.06, 0.6 and 3.6 g in body weight at hatch, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age.

  2. Missing upper beak: a new lethal mutation in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Urrutia, M S; Crawford, R D

    1982-01-01

    A new condition affecting the facial structure of domestic fowl is described. It is controlled by an autosomal recessive gene having complete penetrance. The mutation has been named missing upper beak and the gene symbol mub is proposed. The condition is an obligate lethal. Mortality occurs on the twelfth day of incubation or during the hatching process. One chick hatched unaided and five were assisted from the shell; none of these survived beyond 11 days of age. They had partial vision and hearing, they could vocalize and had normal balance, but they were unable to eat. Major phenotypic effects of the mutation are absence of the upper beak and absence of eyelids. All or part of the upper eyelid is always missing; the lower eyelid and nictitating membrane may be present or absent. Premaxilla and nasal bones are greatly reduced causing the upper beak to be rudimentary. Other membranous bones of the head are reduced causing the face to be shortened. Cartilaginous bones appear not to be affected. It is postulated that the condition results from a defect in membrane formation during embryonic development.

  3. Intranuclear inclusions in Schwann cells of aged fowl ciliary ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, M G

    1987-01-01

    Schwann cells in ciliary ganglia of fowls aged five to seven years were found to contain numerous intranuclear inclusions and pseudo-inclusions. Similar inclusions were usually absent from both neurons and non-neuronal cells, including connective tissue cells, and were rare in Schwann cells of chickens aged less than five years. Inclusions were of two different types: filamentous bundles and granulofibrillar bodies. Individual nuclei contained one to three inclusions. Pseudo-inclusions, i.e. cytoplasmic pockets invaginated into the nuclei, were found more rarely and accompanied one or both types of 'true' inclusions. The possible significance of these findings in relation to ageing phenomena is discussed. It is concluded that intranuclear inclusions appear to be a consequence of nuclear/cellular activation and may be regarded as aggregates of previously dispersed intranuclear proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11-12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-19 PMID:2833482

  4. Nathaniel Hodges (1629-1688): Plague doctor.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Nathaniel Hodges was the son of Thomas Hodges (1605-1672), an influential Anglican preacher and reformer with strong connections in the political life of Carolingian London. Educated at Westminster School, Trinity College Cambridge and Christ Church College, Oxford, Nathaniel established himself as a physician in Walbrook Ward in the City of London. Prominent as one of a handful of medical men who remained in London during the time of the Great Plague of 1665, he wrote the definitive work on the outbreak. His daily precautions against contracting the disease included fortifying himself with Théodore de Mayerne's antipestilential electuary and the liberal consumption of Sack. Hodges' approach to the treatment of plague victims was empathetic and based on the traditional Galenic method rather than Paracelsianism although he was pragmatic in the rejection of formulae and simples which he judged from experience to be ineffective. Besieged by financial problems in later life, his practice began to fail in the 1680s and he eventually died in a debtor's prison.

  5. Plague epizootic cycles in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Reijniers, Jonas; Begon, Mike; Ageyev, Vladimir S.; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-01-01

    Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics. PMID:24966205

  6. Plague epizootic cycles in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Reijniers, Jonas; Begon, Mike; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-06-01

    Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics.

  7. Characterization of a hypervirulent fowl adenovirus 4 with the novel genotype newly prevalent in China and establishment of reproduction infection model of hydropericardium syndrome in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pan, Q; Liu, L; Gao, Y; Liu, C; Qi, X; Zhang, Y; Wang, Y; Li, K; Gao, L; Wang, X; Cui, H

    2017-03-04

    Severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) has been present in layers in the northeast of China since June 2015, with mortality rates varying from 30 to 90%. Dead layers had severe hydropericardium with pericardial volumes of 5 to 20 mL, as well as inclusion body hepatitis. Laboratory investigations led to the isolation of a fowl adenovirus strain, HLJFAd15, from the liver tissue of dead layers. Natural deletions of ORF19 and ORF27 were found in this clinical strain by complete genome sequencing, which was identified with the novel genotype recently prevalent in China. The pathogenicity characterization was conducted in 35-day-old SPF chickens using HLJFAd15 with novel genotype of fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4). The reproduction disease cases of HPS with mortality rates of 76.9% by oral administration and 100% by intramuscular injection were induced successfully by challenging SPF chickens, respectively. Non-enveloped viral particles with a mean diameter of approximately 80 nm were found in the livers of virus-infected SPF chickens. Our study revealed that HLJFAd15 was identified with the novel genotype strains recently emerging in China by complete genome sequencing, and the strain was capable of causing HPS by the pathogenicity analysis. However, although there is currently no commercial vaccine against the novel genotype FAdV-4, the animal infection model established in this study was valuable for vaccine evaluation and development.

  8. Perceptions and reactions with regard to pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlot, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke; Hall, Ian; Leach, Steve; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We assessed perceptions and likely reactions of 1,005 UK adults to a hypothetical terrorist attack involving pneumonic plague. Likely compliance with official recommendations ranged from good (98% would take antimicrobial drugs) to poor (76% would visit a treatment center). Perceptions about plague were associated with these intentions.

  9. A Deadly Path: Bacterial Spread During Bubonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J; Miller, Virginia L

    2016-04-01

    Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague, a fulminant disease where host immune responses are abrogated. Recently developed in vivo models of plague have resulted in new ideas regarding bacterial spread in the body. Deciphering bacterial spread is key to understanding Y. pestis and the immune responses it encounters during infection.

  10. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oyston, Petra C.F.; Williamson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Plague is a notorious disease of humans, typically transmitted from rodents to man by the bite of infected fleas. However, plague can also be brought into the home by domestic animals. Cats are acutely susceptible to plague and can pose a significant hazard to close contacts. Dogs are relatively resistant to plague, but can import infected fleas into the home. This review discusses options available for vaccinating cats and dogs, to protect the animals, their owners and veterinarians from infection. Abstract Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions. PMID:26486314

  11. Testing for salmonella spp. In released parrots, wild parrots, and domestic fowl in lowland peru.

    PubMed

    Butron, Oscar; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2010-07-01

    Wild animal populations face threats from pathogens from both intentionally released captive animals and domestic animals that accompany human settlements. From December 2004 through August 2005, we studied free living macaws and parrots in the Tambopata National Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon and semicaptive domestic fowl in human settlements adjacent to the reserve. In 1992-1993, large macaws (Aras spp.) that were serologically positive for Salmonella Pullorum were released into this reserve, which hosts dense populations of free-living parrots and macaws. We collected cloacal swabs from 64 birds and cultured for Salmonella spp. via standard laboratory methods. All 35 psittacines tested were culture negative for Salmonella spp., while 31% of 29 domestic fowl were culture positive. Our findings suggest that the domestic fowl that accompany human settlement in this region carry and shed Salmonella spp. that could threaten wild bird populations in and around the reserve.

  12. Experimental plague infection in South African wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, A. J.; Leman, P. A.; Hummitzsch, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Susceptibility studies were undertaken to determine the response of some South African wild rodent species to experimental plague (Yersinia pestis) infection. A degree of plague resistance was found in three gerbil species captured in the plague enzootic region of the northern Cape Province, these being the Namaqua gerbil, Desmodillus auricularis, (LD50 1 X 10(6) organisms), the bushveld gerbil, Tatera leucogaster, (LD50 9.1 X 10(5)) and the highveld gerbil, T. brantsii (LD50 4 X 10(2)). Animals from a population of the four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio, captured in the plague area of Port Elizabeth, proved moderately resistant to experimental plague infection (LD50 1.3 X 10(4)) while those from another population of the same species captured in a plague-free area of the Orange Free State were extremely susceptible (LD50, 5 organisms). The response of both populations however was a heterogeneous one. Marked differences in susceptibility were also found between two populations of multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis (2n = 32) although both originated from areas outwith the known distribution of plague in southern Africa. The 50% infectious dose was relatively high in T. leucogaster (3.2 X 10(2)) and D. auricularis (1.7 X 10(3)), but was low (2-16 organisms) in the other rodent species tested. The plague antibody response, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was extremely short-lived in T. leucogaster, only 10% of inoculated animals remaining seropositive at low titres after 11 weeks. Antibodies persisted for only slightly longer in the sera of T. brantsii which were reinoculated with 2 X 10(3) plague organisms 6 weeks after initial challenge. The demonstration of the existence of both susceptible and resistant populations of R. pumilio and M. natalensis indicates that these species must be considered as potential plague reservoir hosts in parts of South Africa. The results suggest that resistance to plague infection in previously epizootic

  13. Hereditary hemochromatosis restores the virulence of plague vaccine strains.

    PubMed

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Hermanas, Timothy M; Ciletti, Nancy; Louvel, Helene; Miller, Nathan C; Elli, Derek; Blaylock, Bill; Mitchell, Anthony; Schroeder, Jay; Krausz, Thomas; Kanabrocki, Joseph; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-10-01

    Nonpigmented Yersinia pestis (pgm) strains are defective in scavenging host iron and have been used in live-attenuated vaccines to combat plague epidemics. Recently, a Y. pestis pgm strain was isolated from a researcher with hereditary hemochromatosis who died from laboratory-acquired plague. We used hemojuvelin-knockout (Hjv(-/-)) mice to examine whether iron-storage disease restores the virulence defects of nonpigmented Y. pestis. Unlike wild-type mice, Hjv(-/-) mice developed lethal plague when challenged with Y. pestis pgm strains. Immunization of Hjv(-/-) mice with a subunit vaccine that blocks Y. pestis type III secretion generated protection against plague. Thus, individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis may be protected with subunit vaccines but should not be exposed to live-attenuated plague vaccines.

  14. Hereditary Hemochromatosis Restores the Virulence of Plague Vaccine Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Hermanas, Timothy M.; Ciletti, Nancy; Louvel, Helene; Miller, Nathan C.; Elli, Derek; Blaylock, Bill; Mitchell, Anthony; Schroeder, Jay; Krausz, Thomas; Kanabrocki, Joseph; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Nonpigmented Yersinia pestis (pgm) strains are defective in scavenging host iron and have been used in live-attenuated vaccines to combat plague epidemics. Recently, a Y. pestis pgm strain was isolated from a researcher with hereditary hemochromatosis who died from laboratory-acquired plague. We used hemojuvelin-knockout (Hjv−/−) mice to examine whether iron-storage disease restores the virulence defects of nonpigmented Y. pestis. Unlike wild-type mice, Hjv−/− mice developed lethal plague when challenged with Y. pestis pgm strains. Immunization of Hjv−/− mice with a subunit vaccine that blocks Y. pestis type III secretion generated protection against plague. Thus, individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis may be protected with subunit vaccines but should not be exposed to live-attenuated plague vaccines. PMID:22896664

  15. Hong Kong Junk: Plague and the Economy of Chinese Things.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Histories of the Third Plague Pandemic, which diffused globally from China in the 1890s, have tended to focus on colonial efforts to regulate the movement of infected populations, on the state's draconian public health measures, and on the development of novel bacteriological theories of disease causation. In contrast, this article focuses on the plague epidemic in Hong Kong and examines colonial preoccupations with Chinese "things" as sources of likely contagion. In the 1890s, laboratory science invested plague with a new identity as an object to be collected, cultivated, and depicted in journals. At the same time, in the increasingly vociferous anti-opium discourse, opium was conceived as a contagious Chinese commodity: a plague. The article argues that rethinking responses to the plague through the history of material culture can further our understanding of the political consequences of disease's entanglement with economic and racial categories, while demonstrating the extent to which colonial agents "thought through things."

  16. In-silico analysis of Pasteurella multocida to identify common epitopes between fowl, goat and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Ammarah; Tariq, Aamira

    2016-04-10

    Pasteurella multocida represents a highly diverse group of bacteria infecting various hosts like the fowl, goat and buffalo leading to huge economic loss to the poultry and cattle industry. Previous reports indicated that the outer membrane proteins contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida. The comparative in-silico genome wide analysis of four pathogenic Pasteurella multocida strains (Anand1-poultry, Anand1-goat, PMTB and VTCCBAA264) with their respective hosts was performed. A pipeline was developed to identify the list of non-homologous proteins of Pasteurella multocida strains and their hosts. The list was further analyzed for the identification of the essential outer membrane proteins responsible for the pathogenicity. Outer membrane proteins were further selected from these antigenic proteins on the basis of their pathogenic potential. A common B-cell epitope (TDYRNRDRS, ARRSVTSKEN, and KINDQWRW) determined via sequential and structural approach from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein was predicted from fowl, goat and buffalo. Furthermore, we identified T-cell epitopes based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein via docking studies which were either similar to the B-cell epitopes or were occurring in the same patch except for MHC class II M fowl. We propose that this difference in epitope sequence is due to different interacting MHC class II protein predicted from the fowl. Hence, in the current study we found that a unique epitope based on the common antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane complex protein present in fowl, goat and buffalo can be a suitable target for vaccine development against the two economic devastating diseases; fowl cholera (FC) and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS).

  17. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  18. Prediction of Frost Risks and Plagues using WRF model: a Port Wine region case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M. A.; Rocha, A.; Monteiro, A.; Quénol, H.; de Freitas, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    In viticulture where the quality of the wine, the selection of the grapevines or even the characteristics of the farming soil, also depending from local soil features like topography, proximity of a river or water body, will act locally on the weather. Frosts are of significant concern to growers of many cultures crops such as winegrapes. Because of their high latitude and some altitude, the vineyards of the Demarcated Douro Region (DDR) are subjected to the frost, which cause serious damages. But the hazards of vineyard don't confine to the incidents of the fortuitous and meteorological character. The illnesses and plagues affect frequently the vineyards of Demarcated Douro Region due, namely to the weather, to the high power of the regional stocks, to the dense vegetation badly drained and favourable to the setting of numberless fungi, viruses and/or poisonous insects. In the case of DDR it is worth noticing the meteorological conditions due to the weather characteristics. Although there are several illnesses and plagues the most important enemies for the vine in the DDR are the mildew, oidium, grey rottenness, grape moth,. . . , if the climatic conditions favour their appearance and development. For this study, we selected some months for different periods, at the 16 weather stations of the Region of Douro. We use the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to study and possibly predict the occurrence of risk and plagues (mildew) episodes. The model is first validated with the meteorological data obtained at the weather stations. The knowledge of frost and plagues occurrence allows one to decrease its risks not only by selecting the cultural species and varieties but also the places of growth and the planting and sowing dates.

  19. Loss of sensitivity to ACTH of adrenocortical cells isolated from maturing domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-07-01

    Maturation of domestic fowl corticosteroidogenesis was evaluated using purified adrenocortical cells. Basal corticosterone production decreased steadily from 2 days to 26 weeks after hatching. However, maximally stimulated corticosterone production was not changed. In contrast, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations (ED50 values or effective doses for 50% maximal effect) of ACTH analogs increased approximately 40 times by 26 weeks, but the ED50 values of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and pregnenolone were not changed. This suggests that adrenocortical cell sensitivity to ACTH decreases with maturation of the domestic fowl.

  20. Genotype III Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus Outbreak, Argentina, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Ré, Viviana; Almirón, Walter R.; Farías, Adrián; Vázquez, Ana; Sanchez-Seco, María Paz; Aguilar, Javier; Spinsanti, Lorena; Konigheim, Brenda; Visintin, Andrés; García, Jorge; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Tenorio, Antonio; Contigiani, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six years after it was last detected, Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) genotype III reemerged in 2005 in Córdoba, Argentina, where it caused an outbreak. Two genotype III SLEV strains were isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus. A 71.43% prevalence for neutralizing antibodies was found in domestic fowl in the homestead of a patient with encephalitis. PMID:17283629

  1. Food intake regulation of circulating thyroid hormones in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Harvey, S

    1985-11-01

    The relationship between food intake and thyroid function has been investigated in immature domestic fowl. Starvation delayed, but did not suppress, the triiodothyronine (T3) response to intravenously administered thyrotropin-releasing hormone (10 micrograms/kg). This probably resulted from a suppression of monodeiodinase activity, since the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to T3 in thyroidectomised birds following an intramuscular injection of T4 (10 micrograms/kg) was markedly reduced by starvation. Starvation, for 24 or 48 hr, lowered the circulating T3 level but increased the T4 concentration. When fasted birds were refed the T4 concentration was initially enhanced but subsequently declined as the T3 concentration progressively increased. The accompanying decline in the T4:T3 ratio in fasted-refed birds indicated that the rise in the T3 level resulted from the peripheral monodeiodination of T4. The increase in T3 concentration could be induced solely by carbohydrate; the intraperitoneal administration of glucose (2.0 g/kg) to fasted birds resulting in a slight, transient rise in the T3 concentration and a fall in the T4:T3 ratio. The generation of T3 was also energy dependent, in that the magnitude of the T3 response of fasted birds to refeeding was proportional to the amount of food consumed and to the metabolisable energy (ME) content of the diet. Moreover, when exogenous T4 (100 micrograms/kg) was intramuscularly administered to thyroidectomised birds fed a diet with a high ME content, the conversion of T4 to T4 was greater than that in birds fed a diet of lower ME content. These results demonstrate that nutritional stimuli are involved in the regulation of thyroid function in birds, particularly in the peripheral generation of T3.

  2. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.; Vésteinsson, Orri

    2012-01-01

    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order. PMID:22371601

  3. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity. PMID:27457063

  4. Interspecific comparisons of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F.; Williams, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Of the 3 major factors (habitat loss, poisoning, and disease) that limit abundance of prairie dogs today, sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis is the 1 factor that is beyond human control. Plague epizootics frequently kill >99% of prairie dogs in infected colonies. Although epizootics of sylvatic plague occur throughout most of the range of prairie dogs in the United States and are well described, long-term maintenance of plague in enzootic rodent species is not well documented or understood. We review dynamics of plague in white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus), Gunnison's (C. gunnisoni), and black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) prairie dogs, and their rodent and flea associates. We use epidemiologic concepts to support an enzootic hypothesis in which the disease is maintained in a dynamic state, which requires transmission of Y. pestis to be slower than recruitment of new susceptible mammal hosts. Major effects of plague are to reduce colony size of black-tailed prairie dogs and increase intercolony distances within colony complexes. In the presence of plague, black-tailed prairie dogs will probably survive in complexes of small colonies that are usually >3 km from their nearest neighbor colonies.

  5. Restoration of spermatogenesis after transplantation of c-Kit positive testicular cells in the fowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transplantation of male germ line cells into sterilized recipients has been used in mammals for conventional breeding as well as for transgenesis. This study presents an improvement in the approach for germ cell transplantation between fowl males by using an enriched subpopulation of c-Kit positive ...

  6. An outbreak of fowl cholera in waterfowl on the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Stotts, V.; Wolfhard, G.

    1970-01-01

    An outbreak of fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida infection) occurred in waterfowl wintering on the Chesapeake Bay during February to March 1970. Losses were primarily confined to sea ducks: oldsquaws (Clangula hyemalis), white-winged scoters (Melanitta deglandi), goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula), and buffleheads (Bucephala albeola).

  7. Susceptibility of northern fowl mites in North Carolina to five acaricides.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F H; Axtell, R C

    1983-03-01

    The susceptibilities (dosage-response regression curves) of northern fowl mites collected from six poultry farms in North Carolina were determined for five acaricides by exposure of the mites for 24 hr to acaricide residues inside glass pipettes. The residue concentrations were expressed as parts per million on a weight-volume basis of the acaricide-acetone solution in which the pipettes were immersed prior to testing. All of the acaricides, except malathion, were highly toxic to the northern fowl mites. The mean LD50 values (ppm) were: permethrin, .53; tetrachlorvinphos, 4.06; carbaryl, 4.11; and coumaphos, 5.04. For malathion, the mean LD50 for mites from three caged layer flocks was 119.35 ppm while concentrations as high as 500 ppm gave only low mortalities (20% or less) of mites from the other flocks and LD50 values could not be calculated. These data show that northern fowl mites are highly resistant to malathion in North Carolina, as has been reported elsewhere, but there is no evidence of resistance to the other acaricides tested. The effect of temperature on the toxicity to northern fowl mites of the newest acaricide, permethrin, was determined. Permethrin was significantly more toxic at 20 C than at 25, 30, or 35 C.

  8. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  9. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-11-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  10. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  11. Plague in camels and its prevention in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, V. N.

    1960-01-01

    In 1954-56 a series of experiments was carried out in Central Asia, under the guidance of the author, in which camels were infected with plague by infesting them with Ixodes and Argas ticks which had previously fed on plague-infected laboratory animals. Subcutaneous, intradermal and intravenous injection was also used. The experiments showed that the camels varied markedly in their susceptibility to plague, which in any case was relatively low. Special investigations on plague prevention in camels are also reported. Vaccination with dried live vaccine injected in a single dose of 30 000 million organisms created a sufficiently high degree of immunity in adult animals. Spraying of the camels' coats with insecticide is also recommended. PMID:13821869

  12. Solar Variability and the Decline of the Bubonic Plague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    The bubonic plague was responsible for the deaths of a very large percentage of the population of Europe in ancient times. Leaders of state made promises to “kill off” the plague, were all unsuccessful. It wasn’t the grand promise of a politician, or some new medicinal invention that was responsible for the final decline of the plague. It appears that a chain of events that began 93,000,000 miles away from Earth exerted an impact that lead to the end of the plague’s activity. Some simple changes in solar activity that began in the early 1300’s started the final to break the stranglehold that the plague had on most of Europe. This chain of events will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. Sylvatic plague vaccine and management of prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Wisconsin (UW), have developed a sylvatic plague vaccine that shows great promise in protecting prairie dogs against plague (Mencher and others, 2004; Rocke and others, 2010). Four species of prairie dogs reside in the United States and Canada, and all are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Along with habitat loss and poisoning, plague has contributed to a significant historical decline in prairie dog populations. By some estimates, prairie dogs now occupy only 1 to 2 percent of their former range (Proctor and others, 2006), with prairie dog colonies being now much smaller and fragmented than they were historically, making individual colonies more vulnerable to elimination by plague (Antolin and others, 2002). At least one species, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as "threatened." Controlling plague is a vital concern for ongoing management and conservation efforts for prairie dogs. Current efforts to halt the spread of plague in prairie dog colonies typically rely on dusting individual prairie dog burrows with pesticides to kill plague-infected fleas. Although flea-control insecticides, such as deltamethrin, are useful in stopping plague outbreaks in these prairie dog colonies, dusting of burrows is labor intensive and time consuming and may affect other insects and arthropods. As an alternative approach, NWHC and UW scientists developed a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) for prairie dogs that can be delivered via oral bait. Laboratory studies have shown that consumption of this vaccine-laden bait by different prairie dog species results in significant protection against plague infection that can last for at least 9 months (Rocke and others, 2010; Rocke, unpublished). Work has now shifted to optimizing baits and distribution methods for

  14. Plagued by kindness: contagious sympathy in Shakespearean drama.

    PubMed

    Langley, Eric

    2011-12-01

    This article considers Shakespeare's metaphors of transmission, contagion and infection in the light of period plague tracts, medical treatises and plague time literature. The author demonstrates how period conceptions of disease are predicated upon a notion of sympathetic transference and, consequently, how kindness, likeness and communication between characters in Shakespearean drama are complicated and fraught with period specific anxiety. This article situates Shakespearean literary texts within a precise historical and medical moment, considering how scientific conceptions contaminate dramatic text.

  15. Bibliographic Index to the Plague (1965-1970)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-18

    34). 346. Orlova, G. MI. and B. N. 𔃾ishan’kin, Dynamics of the frowth of the Plague Microbe and the Accumulation of Fraction I (C-psalar Antigen) in a...T. Voronina and L. 1. Kalmykova, The Effect of Iron on the Growth and Biological Properties of Vaccine Strain FV in Conditions of Aeration. Prot...I., The Ability of Plague Microbes to Accumulate Mouse Toxin Under Various Cultural Conditions. Prob. Dread Dis., Issue 2 (12), pp. 96- 99, 1970

  16. Paleoclimate and bubonic plague: a forewarning of future risk?

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2010-08-27

    Pandemics of bubonic plague have occurred in Eurasia since the sixth century AD. Climatic variations in Central Asia affect the population size and activity of the plague bacterium's reservoir rodent species, influencing the probability of human infection. Using innovative time-series analysis of surrogate climate records spanning 1,500 years, a study in BMC Biology concludes that climatic fluctuations may have influenced these pandemics. This has potential implications for health risks from future climate change.

  17. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  18. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  19. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  20. Pathology produced by, prevalence, of, and probable life-cycle of a species of Sarcocystis in the domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Munday, B L; Humphrey, J D; Kila, V

    1977-01-01

    Sarcosporidiosis was found to be the cause of a severe myositis in 3 fowls in Papua New Guinea and 2 in Australia. This represented 3.8% of a series of fowls examined in Papua New Guinea. The overall prevalence of infection in these birds was 45%. Both epidemiological and experimental evidence suggested that the dog was the definitive host for this particular type of sarcocyst.

  1. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in central Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Methods Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed – the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) – to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. Results The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and

  2. Clinical and epidemiological observations on an outbreak of plague in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Laforce, F. Marc; Acharya, I. L.; Stott, Gordon; Brachman, Philip S.; Kaufman, Arnold F.; Clapp, Richard F.; Shah, N. K.

    1971-01-01

    In the autumn of 1967, plague broke out among hill people in western Nepal, a country that had not previously reported human plague. Two persons were infected from an active sylvatic focus at a grazing area 5 km from Nawra, the village where the epidemic occurred. The second patient introduced plague into the village where the rest of the cases occurred. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that plague was spread both by the airborne route, resulting in 6 cases of tonsillar plague and 1 case of primary pneumonic plague, as well as by infected fleas, resulting in 17 cases of bubonic plague. Since no evidence of a rodent epizootic was uncovered in the village itself, and because of the distinct clustering of the bubonic cases, human-to-human spread of plague by infected ectoparasite vectors, presumably Pulex irritans, is thought to have occurred. This focus probably represents the most southerly boundary of the central Asian plague area yet identified. PMID:5317008

  3. Pharmacokinetic aspects of a sulphachloropyridazine trimethoprim preparation in normal and diseased fowl.

    PubMed

    Sumano, H; Fuentes, V; Ocampo, L

    1990-09-01

    1. The pharmacokinetic and residue elimination patterns of sulphachloropyridazine appear to be modified by disease, even without affecting key organs essential for drug metabolism. 2. Drug kinetics and residue elimination data of a sulphachloropyridazine-trimethoprim preparation were compared using infectious coryza-affected (IC) fowl and healthy chickens. 3. The plasma concentrations of sulphachloropyridazine and trimethoprim were higher in affected animals, hence a reduced volume of distribution was obtained. 4. The half-life of sulphachloropyridazine and trimethoprim was reduced in IC-affected fowl and body clearance values were decreased. 5. The rate of drug residue elimination was noticeably slower in the IC-affected group. 6. These results indicate that drug elimination patterns in healthy and diseased animals are not the same.

  4. Malignant seminoma with multiple visceral metastases in a guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) kept in a zoo.

    PubMed

    Golbar, H M; Izawa, T; Kuwamura, M; Yonezawa, M; Ito, S; Yamate, J

    2009-03-01

    A case of seminoma found in an adult guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) that has been exhibited in a zoo is reported. The right testis was extremely enlarged and replaced by round and polyhedral pleomorphic neoplastic cells showing nest, sheet, and diffuse growth patterns. The neoplastic cells had acidophilic cytoplasm and hyperchromatic and eccentrically placed nuclei. Metastatic lesions composed of diffuse growth of neoplastic cells similar to those of the primary tumor were seen in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and heart, and neoplastic emboli were often detected within blood vessels of these organs, indicating hematogenous metastasis. This is the first report of malignant seminoma with multiple metastases in the visceral organs in the guinea fowl.

  5. Parasitic infections of the grey-breasted helmet guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayeni, J S; Dipeolu, O O; Okaeme, A N

    1983-02-01

    The major helminth parasites found in wild, semi-wild and golden Sovereign stock guinea fowl were Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaridia galli, Capillaria caudinflata, Raillietina tetragona and R. echinobothrida, while Eimeria species was the most important gastro-intestinal protozoan parasite. The incidence of the latter was higher in the semi-wild stock than in the wild stock. Necropsy of dead guinea-fowl indicated that A. galli, H. gallinarum and Eimeria species were indeed responsible for their deaths, especially in the young birds. Parasites found in blood smears were Leucocytozoon sp., Plasmodium sp. and Aegyptianella pullorum. The only tick found, Argas persicus, was on a few semi-wild stock, while lice of genus Damalinia were found only on wild birds.

  6. [ON SOME DEBATABLE PROBLEMS OF THE NATURAL NIDALITY OF PLAGUE].

    PubMed

    Verzhutsky, D B; Balakhonov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The communication substantiates the opinion that the theory of natural nidality of plague; which is based on the fundamental recognition that fleas play a leading role in the transmission and accumulation of the plague pathogen, cannot be disproved or substantially changed on the alternative weakly reasoned assumptions and hypotheses. All its "bottlenecks" are quite understandable when considering the long-term volumetric materials that have been gathered directly in nature and generalized in multiple publications. Plague is an obligate transmissive infection; its, agent is a highly specialized parasite that is completely associated in its vital activity with the only group of the blood-sucking insects--fleas and that is transmitted through periodic colonization of warm-blooded animals for a short time. All other types of plague microbe persistence in nature are either occasional or minor and do not play any significant role in pathogen persistence in the natural foci of this disease. There are no strong grounds for seriously considering the attempts to revise the main points of the theory of natural nidality of plague, which are widely held in current academic publications.

  7. Zoonoses As Ecological Entities: A Case Review of Plague

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts. The diversity of the community that harbors the reservoir system affects the transmission cycle by predation, competition, and dilution effect. Plague has notable environmental constraints, depending on altitude (500+ meters), warm and dry climates, and conditions for high productivity events for expansion of the transmission cycle. Human impacts are altering Plague dynamics by altering landscape and the faunal composition of the foci and adjacent areas, usually increasing the presence and number of human cases and outbreaks. Climatic change is also affecting the range of its occurrence. In the current transitional state of zoonosis as a whole, Plague is at risk of becoming a public health problem in poor countries where ecosystem erosion, anthropic invasion of new areas, and climate change increase the contact of the population with reservoir systems, giving new urgency for ecologic research that further details its maintenance in the wild, the spillover events, and how it links to human cases. PMID:27711205

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Fowl Aviadenovirus Serotype 8b Isolated in South America.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Calderón, Katherine; Chumbe, Ana; Montesinos, Ricardo; Montalván, Ángela; González, Armando E; Icochea, Eliana; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo

    2016-10-20

    We present here the complete genome sequence of fowl aviadenovirus E (FAdV-E) serotype 8b strain FV211-16, isolated from chickens with inclusion body hepatitis in Peru. Genome comparisons with other FAdV-E strains revealed identities of 84.9 to 97.1% and the presence of 9 and 2 unique amino acid mutations in hexon and fiber proteins, respectively.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Fowl Aviadenovirus Serotype 8b Isolated in South America

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Katherine; Chumbe, Ana; Montesinos, Ricardo; Montalván, Ángela; González, Armando E.; Icochea, Eliana; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo

    2016-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of fowl aviadenovirus E (FAdV-E) serotype 8b strain FV211-16, isolated from chickens with inclusion body hepatitis in Peru. Genome comparisons with other FAdV-E strains revealed identities of 84.9 to 97.1% and the presence of 9 and 2 unique amino acid mutations in hexon and fiber proteins, respectively. PMID:27795284

  10. The history of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Lupiani, Blanca; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2009-07-01

    The first description of avian influenza (AI) dates back to 1878 in northern Italy, when Perroncito [Perroncito E. Epizoozia tifoide nei gallinacei. Annali Accad Agri Torino 1878;21:87-126] described a contagious disease of poultry associated with high mortality. The disease, termed "fowl plague", was initially confused with the acute septicemic form of fowl cholera. However, in 1880, soon after its first description, Rivolta and Delprato [as reported by Stubs EL. Fowl pest, In: Biester HE, Devries L, editors. Diseases of poultry. 1st ed. Ames, IO: Iowa State College Press; 1943. p. 493-502] showed it to be different from fowl cholera, based on clinical and pathological properties, and called it Typhus exudatious gallinarum. In 1901, Centanni and Savunzzi [Centanni E, Savonuzzi E, La peste aviaria I & II, Communicazione fatta all'accademia delle scienze mediche e naturali de Ferrara, 1901] determined that fowl plague was caused by a filterable virus; however, it was not until 1955 that the classical fowl plague virus was shown to be a type A influenza virus based on the presence of type A influenza virus type-specific ribonucleoprotein [Schäfer W. Vergleichender sero-immunologische Untersuchungen über die Viren der Influenza und klassischen Geflügelpest. Z Naturf 1955;10b:81-91]. The term fowl plague was substituted by the more appropriate term highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza [Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Beltsville, MD. 1981, Avian Dis 47 (Special Issue) 2003.] and will be used throughout this review when referring to any previously described fowl plague virus.

  11. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium found in raptors exposed to infected domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Petr; Kaevska, Marija; Bartejsova, Iva; Pavlik, Ivo

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of a falcon breeding facility, where raptors (both diurnal and nocturnal) were raised in contact with domestic fowl (Gallus gallus f. domesticus) infected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Fecal and environmental samples from 20 raptors and four common ravens (Corvus corax) were collected. Mycobacterium a. avium DNA was detected in feces of four raptors (bald eagle [Haliaeetus leucocephalus], eagle owl [Bubo bubo], barn owl [Tyto alba], and little owl [Athene noctua]) using triplex quantitative real-time PCR. As both the flock of domestic fowl and one of the infected raptors had the same origin (zoological collection), they might have had a common source of colonization/infection. However, the detection of M. a. avium in feces of three other raptors may point at transmission of the agent between the birds in the facility. Contact of raptors with domestic fowl infected by M. a. avium may pose a risk for transmission of the infection for them; however, raptors from the falcon breeding facility seemed to be relatively resistant to the infection.

  12. Studies on the presence and persistence of Pasteurella multocida serovars and genotypes in fowl cholera outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reema; Blackall, Patrick J; Remington, Bruce; Turni, Conny

    2013-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida was isolated from poultry on six farms (one free-range duck farm, one free-range turkey farm, one conventional enclosed turkey farm, and three free-range layer farms) suffering fowl cholera outbreaks. In addition, historical isolates from previous outbreaks were available for the conventional turkey farm and the three free-range layer farms. The isolates were serotyped using the Heddleston scheme and genotyped using multi-locus sequencing typing. In the current outbreaks, two of the farms had two different sequence types (STs) of P. multocida in the investigated outbreak (the free-range turkey farm and one of the free-range layer farms). The remaining four farms had one ST within the investigated outbreak. In looking at the historical isolates, two of the four farms had multiple genotypes involved. On the four farms with historical isolates from previous outbreaks, at least one new genotype was present in the investigated outbreak as compared with the historical isolates. On one layer farm, one genotype persisted over a 10-year period. Serotyping revealed the presence of multiple serovars in the current and historical outbreaks, with serovars sometimes changing over time. This study has shown that several STs of P. multocida can be present during some outbreaks of fowl cholera, although other outbreaks involve a single ST. Also, the STs present on a property suffering repeated fowl cholera can both persist and change over time.

  13. Identification of a Toll-like receptor 1 in guinea fowl (Agelastes niger).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Ruan, Wenke; Cui, Defeng; Li, Huanrong

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, thus playing important roles in host defense. This study determined the first sequence of a TLR1 type 1 in the guinea fowl (GFTLR1). The open reading frame of GFTLR1 type 1 contains 2,115 nucleotides and encodes 705 amino acids. Amino acid analysis indicated that GFTLR1 type 1 shares 92.3 % homology with the green jungle fowl, 92.1 % with the chicken, 90.4 % with the turkey, and 84.4 % with Cooper's hawk. Genetic patterns were identified within the TLR1 type 1 of the chicken and the guinea fowl. GFTLR1 type 1 was found to have 92 polymorphic amino acid sites, of which 16 were in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, 3 in a C-terminal LRR domain, and 6 in a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. The data showed that avian TLR1 type 1 genes are under purifying selection and highly conserved, because dN/dS was less than 1.

  14. Effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitor on the motility and ATP concentrations of fowl spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, K; Higashio, M; Tsuzuki, Y

    1998-02-01

    The possible role of tyrosine kinase in the regulation of fowl sperm motility was investigated by using a stable analogue of erbstatin, methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (2,5-MeC), a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinase. This inhibited the motility of intact spermatozoa at 30 degrees C in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the motility of demembranated spermatozoa was not inhibited by the same concentrations of 2,5-MeC. At 40 degrees C, both intact and demembranated spermatozoa were almost immotile with or without 2,5-MeC. Additionally, intact spermatozoa, stimulated by the addition of Ca2+ or calyculin A, a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases, lost their motility with the subsequent addition of 2,5-MeC at 40 degrees C. However, unlike the motility, the ATP concentrations of spermatozoa were maintained in about 30-35 nmol ATP/10(9) cells during these incubation periods. The activity of tyrosine kinase of spermatozoa at 30 degrees C, estimated by measuring the phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate, RR-SRC, was 0.17 pmol/min per milligram of protein. This activity was lower than that of fowl testes or chick brain but higher than that of chick liver. These results suggest that tyrosine kinase activity, which is not retained in the axoneme and/or accessory cytoskeletal components, may be involved in the maintenance of flagellar movement of fowl spermatozoa at 30 degrees C.

  15. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF INFLUENZA VIRUS COMPONENTS OBTAINED AFTER ETHER TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Fred M.; Rott, Rudolf; Schäfer, Werner

    1960-01-01

    The Rostock strain of fowl plague, the swine, A, A', and Asian strains of influenza A as well as their hemagglutinin and internal s antigen subunits obtained after ether splitting, were found to be morphologically indistinguishable when examined simultaneously. Hemagglutinin fractions reacted in a highly strain specific manner when tested by hemagglutination inhibition or by complement fixation using sera obtained after infection. With the same sera internal s antigen fractions were shown to be serologically distinguishable by complement fixation. This observation may stimulate interest in the feasibility of employing immunologic techniques for the study of nucleoproteins. The significance of the findings reported is discussed. PMID:13719952

  16. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Rahelinirina, S; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C

    2008-12-01

    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a functionally important region of the gene. We then compared (i) CCR5 genotypes of dying and surviving plague-challenged rats and (ii) CCR5 allelic frequencies in plague focus and plague-free populations. Our results suggested a higher prevalence of the substitution in resistant animals compared to susceptible individuals, and a tendency for higher frequencies in plague focus areas compared to plague-free areas. Therefore, the CCR5 polymorphism may be involved in Malagasy black rat plague resistance. CCR5 and other undetermined plague resistance markers may provide useful biological information about host evolution and disease dynamics.

  17. A Taxonomic Update of Small Mammal Plague Reservoirs in South America.

    PubMed

    Bonvicino, Cibele R; Oliveira, João A; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; D'andrea, Paulo S; Almeida, Alzira M P

    2015-10-01

    Plague is a disease of epidemic potential that may emerge with discontinuous outbreaks. In South America, 50 wild rodent species have been identified as plague reservoirs, in addition to one lagomorph and two marsupials. To review the nomenclature of plague reservoirs, we examined specimens collected in plague foci, carried out new surveys in Brazilian plague regions, and re-evaluated the nomenclature of South American reservoirs on the basis of the current literature. Five of the 15 species involved with plague in Argentina, three of 10 species involved with plague in Bolivia, three of the seven species involved with plague in Peru, five of the nine species involved with plague in Ecuador, and six of the nine species involved with plague in Brazil have undergone taxonomic changes. In the last 20 years, plague cases were recorded in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. These four countries have a high rodent species richness in plague foci, a fact that may be decisive for the maintenance of plague in the wild.

  18. [The spread of the plague: A sciento-historiographic review].

    PubMed

    Cuadrada, Coral

    2015-01-01

    There is still uncertainty about the diagnosis and nature of the plague; some scholars have been forced to abandon certainties and be filled with doubts: from believing that the mediaeval Black Plague was, in reality, the bubonic plague (although with unusual characteristics) to stating that there is very little evidence to support a retro-diagnosis. This article looks at this in depth, not only reviewing the historiography but also giving new interpretations which question previous hypotheses through research on images of the time, comparing them to the most recent investigative data. Two primary sources are analysed: Renaissance treaties written by four Italian doctors: Michele Savonarola, Marsilio Ficino, Leonardo Fioravanti and Gioseffo Daciano; and iconography: an illustrated manuscript of the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio and a Hebrew Haggadah from the XIVth century. The results are compared to the most recent research on DNA and in micropaleontology.

  19. Wet climate and transportation routes accelerate spread of human plague.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Stige, Leif Chr; Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Ben Ari, Tamara; Wang, Shuchun; Fang, Xiye; Schmid, Boris V; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-04-07

    Currently, large-scale transmissions of infectious diseases are becoming more closely associated with accelerated globalization and climate change, but quantitative analyses are still rare. By using an extensive dataset consisting of date and location of cases for the third plague pandemic from 1772 to 1964 in China and a novel method (nearest neighbour approach) which deals with both short- and long-distance transmissions, we found the presence of major roads, rivers and coastline accelerated the spread of plague and shaped the transmission patterns. We found that plague spread velocity was positively associated with wet conditions (measured by an index of drought and flood events) in China, probably due to flood-driven transmission by people or rodents. Our study provides new insights on transmission patterns and possible mechanisms behind variability in transmission speed, with implications for prevention and control measures. The methodology may also be applicable to studies of disease dynamics or species movement in other systems.

  20. Preparation, Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Black-Bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) Iron(II)-Oligopeptide Chelate

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huanglei; Song, Shasha; Ma, Qiuyue; Wei, Hui; Ren, Difeng; Lu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Black-bone silky fowl iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate was synthesized from iron(II) solution and the black-bone silky fowl oligopeptide, which was extracted from the muscle protein of black-bone silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson). Orthogonal array analysis was used to determine the optimal conditions for the iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate preparation. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify the structure of iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate. 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging assays were performed to compare the antioxidant abilities of the black-bone silky fowl oligopeptide and iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate. The optimal conditions for iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate preparation were 4% of the black-bone silky fowl oligopeptide and a ratio of the black- -bone silky fowl oligopeptide to FeCl2·4H2O of 5:1 at pH=4. Under these conditions, the chelation rate was (84.9±0.2) % (p<0.05), and the chelation yield was (40.3±0.1) % (p<0.05). The structures detected with UV-Vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and FTIR spectra changed significantly after chelation, suggesting that Fe(II) ions formed coordinate bonds with carboxylate (-RCOOŻ) and amino (-NH2) groups in the oligopeptides, confirming that this is a new oligopeptide-iron chelate. The iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate had stronger scavenging activity towards DPPH and superoxide radicals than did the black-bone silky fowl oligopeptide. PMID:27904406

  1. Temperature governs on-host distribution of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-02-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to

  2. Inclusion body hepatitis associated with an outbreak of fowl adenovirus type 2 and type 8b in broiler flocks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maartens, Louis H; Joubert, Hilda W; Aitchison, Henry; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-12-02

    Inclusion body hepatitis is an acute disease of chickens ascribed to viruses of the genus Aviadenovirus and referred to as fowl adenovirus (FAdV). There are 12 FAdV types (FAdV1to FAdV8a and FAdV8b to FAdV11), classified into five species based on their genotype (designated FAdVA to FAdVE). A total of 218 000 chickens, 2-29 days of age, were affected over a 1-year period, all testing positive by microscopy, virus isolation and confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Affected birds were depressed, lost body weight,were weak and had watery droppings. Pathological changes observed during necropsy indicated consistent changes in the liver, characterised by hepatomegaly, cholestasis and hepatitis. Lesions were also discernible in the spleen, kidney and gizzard wall and were characterised by splenomegaly, pinpoint haemorrhages, nephritis with haemorrhage,visceral gout and serosal ecchymosis of the gizzard wall. Histopathological lesions were most consistently observed in the liver but could also be seen in renal and splenic tissue. Virus isolation was achieved in embryonated eggs and most embryos revealed multifocalto diffuse hepatic necrosis, with a mixed cellular infiltrate of macrophages and heterophils(necro-granulomas), even in the absence of macroscopic pathology. Virus isolation results were verified by histopathology and PCR on embryonic material and further characterised by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two infectious bursal disease virus isolates were also made from the Klerksdorp flock. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the L1 hexon loop of all the FAdV isolates indicated homology (99%) with prototype strains P7-A for FAdV-2, as well as for FAdV-8b.

  3. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Avishek; Mohan, Jag; Sastry, Kochigant Venkata Hanumant

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN), Aseel peela (AP), and White leghorn (WLH)) day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates). WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP) activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk) than WLH. PMID:21234314

  4. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Duplantier, J-M; Rahelinirina, S; Telfer, S; Brouat, C

    2010-06-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude area) was confirmed to be a widespread phenomenon. In rats from the plague focus, we observed that sex influenced plague susceptibility, with males slightly more resistant than females. Other individual factors investigated (weight and habitat of sampling) did not affect plague resistance. When infected at high bacterial dose (more than 10⁵ bacteria injected), rats from the plague focus died mainly within 3-5 days and produced specific antibodies, whereas after low-dose infection (< 5,000 bacteria), delayed mortality was observed and surviving seronegative rats were not uncommon. These results concerning plague resistance level and the course of infection in the black rat would contribute to a better understanding of plague circulation in Madagascar.

  5. [Advance to the research of the climate factor effect on the distribution of plague].

    PubMed

    Zhang, A P; Wei, R J; Xiong, H M; Wang, Z Y

    2016-05-01

    Plague is an anthropozoonotic disease caused by the Yersinia pestis ,which developed by many factors including local climate factors. In recent years, more and more studies on the effects of climate on plague were conducted. According to the researches, climate factors (mainly the rainfall and temperature) affected the development and distribution of plague by influencing the abundance of plague host animals and fleas index. The climate also affected the epidemic dynamics and the scope of plague. There were significant differences existing in the influence of climate on the palgue developed in the north and south China. In the two different plague epidemic systems, the solitary Daurian ground squirrel-flea-plague and the social Mongolian gerbil-flea-plague, the obvious population differences existed among the responses of the host animal to the climate changes. Although the internal relationship between the rainfall, the flea index, the density of rodents and the plague supported the nutritional cascade hypothesis, it can not prove that there is a clear causality between the occurrence of plague and rainfall. So the influence of climate factors on plague distribution can only be used for early forecasting and warning of the plague.

  6. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  7. Plague Vaccine Development: Current Research and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shailendra Kumar; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the world’s most lethal human diseases caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite overwhelming studies for many years worldwide, there is no safe and effective vaccine against this fatal disease. Inhalation of Y. pestis bacilli causes pneumonic plague, a fast growing and deadly dangerous disease. F1/LcrV-based vaccines failed to provide adequate protection in African green monkey model in spite of providing protection in mice and cynomolgus macaques. There is still no explanation for this inconsistent efficacy, and scientists leg behind to search reliable correlate assays for immune protection. These paucities are the main barriers to improve the effectiveness of plague vaccine. In the present scenario, one has to pay special attention to elicit strong cellular immune response in developing a next-generation vaccine against plague. Here, we review the scientific contributions and existing progress in developing subunit vaccines, the role of molecular adjuvants; DNA vaccines; live delivery platforms; and attenuated vaccines developed to counteract virulent strains of Y. pestis. PMID:28018363

  8. Mercury residues in free-grazing cattle and domestic fowl form the artisanal gold mining area of Geita district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chibunda, R T; Janssen, C R

    2009-11-01

    Environmental contamination with mercury from artisanal gold mines in Tanzania has been widely reported. People living around mining villages keep domestic animals which are allowed to feed freely in mercury-contaminated areas. This study investigated Hg accumulation in the liver and muscle tissue of cattle and domestic fowl reared in mining villages. Total mercury levels up to 436 and 820 microg/kg wet weight were found in liver samples taken from cattle and domestic fowl, respectively. Significantly higher mercury concentrations were found in liver samples collected at mining villages (p<0.05) than those taken from the reference area. While mercury concentrations in liver samples exceeded the acceptable maximum concentrations for humans set in the Netherlands and Poland, the Hg concentrations in muscle were below the limits of most countries. It is recommended that the keeping of freely grazing cattle and domestic fowl in or around artisanal gold mines should be avoided.

  9. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  10. Application phenomena and efficacy of concentrated acaricide dusts for northern fowl mite control on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hall, R D; Foehse, M C; Vandepopuliere, J M

    1981-06-01

    Fluorescent pigments were used to measure plumage coverage when caged laying hens were dusted for northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), control. Carriage type electrostatic or high velocity backpack equipment produced superior coverage 2 hr posttreatment when the rates of 454 g (1 lb) dust per 100 or 500 hens was employed. A redistribution of dust was noted 48 hr posttreatment, and a subsequent experiment demonstrated that this phenomenon resulted from intracage cross contamination dependent upon bird caging density. Carbaryl 80% wettable powder (WP) at 454 g/1600 hens and tetrachlorvinphos 50% WP at 454 g/1000 hens provided northern fowl mite control for 11 and 5 weeks posttreatment, respectively.

  11. Comparative evaluation of four registered acaricides for field control of northern fowl mites on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hall, R D; Vandepopuliere, J M; English, L M; Jaynes, W; Lyons, J J; Doisy, K E; Foehse, M C

    1980-11-01

    Carbaryl and tetrachlorvinphos provided longer lasting control of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), than did coumaphos or malathion when the materials were applied to caged laying hens as aqueous sprays. The average duration of residual control was ca. 5 weeks for carbaryl, 4.3 weeks for tetrachlorvinphos, 3.5 weeks for coumaphos, and 2 weeks for malathion. No presumptive evidence of northern fowl mite resistance to carbaryl or tetrachlorvinphos was encountered. In contrast, malathion often failed to produce satisfactory control, and difficulty with adequate dispersion of coumaphos wettable powder was noted.

  12. The efficacy of praziquantel (Droncit R) against Raillietina tetragona (Molin, 1958) in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, M; Nadakal, A M

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy of different dose rates of Praziquantel (Droncit R) in tablet and liquid (injectable) form against Raillietina tetragona in the domestic fowl was studied. A dose of 10 mg kg-1 of Praziquantel in tablet form and 0.15 ml kg-1 in liquid form was found to be effective against R. tetragona infection irrespective of age, sex and intensity of infestation of the host. Intramuscular (IM) administration of liquid Praziquantel was found to be more effective than subcutaneous (SC) administration. Susceptibility of the parasite to this drug increased with age.

  13. Fusions within the mandible of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, D A

    1983-01-01

    The articulations formed within the mandible of the domestic fowl by its constituent elements have been described and illustrated. The sutures identified were suturae angulosplenialis, angulosupra-angularis, articulare/pre-articulo-angularis, articulare/pre-articulosupra-angularis, dento-angularis, dentosplenialis, dentosupra-angularis and supra-angulosplenialis. Some degree of fusion was found to occur in all sutures except sutura supra-angulosplenialis. The range of fusion time and mean fusion time for each site was studied in a flock of Golden Comet pullets. Mean fusion times varied from 45-119 days post-hatching. PMID:6885616

  14. Fusions within the mandible of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Hogg, D A

    1983-05-01

    The articulations formed within the mandible of the domestic fowl by its constituent elements have been described and illustrated. The sutures identified were suturae angulosplenialis, angulosupra-angularis, articulare/pre-articulo-angularis, articulare/pre-articulosupra-angularis, dento-angularis, dentosplenialis, dentosupra-angularis and supra-angulosplenialis. Some degree of fusion was found to occur in all sutures except sutura supra-angulosplenialis. The range of fusion time and mean fusion time for each site was studied in a flock of Golden Comet pullets. Mean fusion times varied from 45-119 days post-hatching.

  15. Sticktight fleas associated with fowl pox in a backyard chicken flock in California.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, C R; Bickford, A A; Cooper, G L; Charlton, B R

    1997-01-01

    A mixed breed rooster, from a backyard flock of 13 chickens, was received at California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch for postmortem examination. The bird presented with thickened, featherless, scab-encrusted skin around the head region. Numerous sticktight fleas were found attached to the encrusted skin. Microscopic evaluation of the skin revealed a lymphoplasmacytic reaction in the dermis with visible embedded flea mouthparts. Also noted histologically in this region were epidermal hyperplasia and ballooned epidermal cells containing intracytoplasmic inclusions indicative of fowl poxvirus.

  16. Newcastle Disease Strain F. Virus — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, J. E.

    1962-01-01

    Strain F Newcastle disease virus is a virus of low virulence originally reported by Asplin (1952) in England. Since that date, the use of this virus as an immunizing agent in the form of a live vaccine, has been studied. As a result, Strain F Newcastle disease vaccine has been used in national and experimental control programs in several countries in Europe, Africa and Asia. The published literature is reviewed under the following headings: properties, viability, clinical effects of vaccination, duration of immunity and a simultaneous Newcastle disease fowl pox vaccination. This review includes 24 reports published outside North America. PMID:17649410

  17. [Use of nested PCR in detection of the plague pathogen].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Zykova, I E; Severin, S E

    2003-07-01

    Causative agents of plague, i.e. bacterium Yersina pestis (in the subcutaneous tissues of rodents) and their cutaneous parasites need to be isolated to enable plague prevention. A comparatively new method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) opens up new possibilities of determining Y. pestis just within several hours and without any cultivation. The article contains a description of the PCR-method, which makes it possible to distinguish the culture of Y. pestis from cultures of other microorganism, including speci of Yersina. The method is of the cluster-type, i.e. it is made up of subsequent PC reactions with the substrate for the second reaction being the product of the first one. The cluster nature of the method preconditions a higher sensitivity and specificity versus the ordinary PCR.

  18. The Acridian plagues, a new Holocene and Pleistocene palaeoclimatic indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, Joaquín; Petit-Maire, Nicole; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan F.; Ramos, Antonio J. G.

    2010-07-01

    Five palaeosols, intercalated within the Quaternary dune beds of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands), off the Moroccan coast, mark wetter climatic episodes. In all of them, billions of calcified insect ootheca testify to past occurrences of Acridian plagues, such as those reaching the western Sahara following heavy rainfall events over the Sahel. The most massive infestation is in the Holocene, and should coincide with the climax of Saharo-Sahelian humidity at the peak of the present interglacial.

  19. Microevolution and History of the Plague Bacillus, Yersinia pestis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    recognized by the three methods, and we propose an evolutionary tree for these populations, rooted on Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The tree in- vokes...were recognized by the three methods, and we propose an evolutionary tree for these populations, rooted on Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The tree invokes...Microevolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis Mark Achtman*†, Giovanna Morelli*, Peixuan Zhu*‡, Thierry Wirth*§, Ines Diehl

  20. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-2-0058 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...mally integrated copy of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene protects mice against an anthrax spore challenge. Infect Im- mun 2003;71(7):3831...multiplying the empirically determined aerosol exposure concentration (CFU/liter air) in the chamber by the amount of air that was estimated to have been

  1. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    PubMed

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  2. Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. Traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators’ own predators. However, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to simply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. Some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. In the peacock butterfly, Inachis io, eyespots are typically hidden during rest and suddenly exposed by the butterfly when disturbed. Previous experiments have shown that small wild passerines are intimidated by this display. Here, we test whether eyespots also intimidate a considerably larger bird, domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, by staging interactions between birds and peacock butterflies that were sham-painted or had their eyespots painted over. Our results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over. However, birds confronting butterflies with visible eyespots delayed their return to the butterfly, were more vigilant, and more likely to utter alarm calls associated with detection of ground-based predators, compared with birds confronting butterflies with eyespots painted over. Because production of alarm calls and increased vigilance are antipredation behaviors in the fowl, their reaction suggests that eyespots may elicit fear rather than just an aversion to conspicuous patterns. Our results, therefore, suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator. PMID:23243378

  3. Comparisons of permethrin formulations and application methods for northern fowl mite control on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F H; Axtell, R C

    1982-05-01

    Formulations of permethrin (Ectiban), a synthetic pyrethroid, as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC), wettable powder (WP), and dust were nearly equally effective for 9 or more weeks for control of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on caged laying hens under environmentally controlled conditions. The permethrin was applied to the vent area as .05% active ingredient (AI) spray of the diluted EC or WP at 40 ml per bird, .1% AI mist of the diluted EC at 20 ml per bird, and 4.5 g per bird of the .25% AI dust. Dilute sprays of .05% permethrin prepared from the EC and WP and applied at 40 ml per bird were more effective in a commercial caged-laying hen house for northern fowl mite control than were .5% sprays of tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon), Ravap, and carbaryl (Sevin). Satisfactory mite control was obtained with .6% permethrin prepared from the EC and misted at the rate of 2.5 ml per bird. Low volume, high concentration misting of permethrin was a promising method for mite control with satisfactory control achieved with .2% AI at 5 ml per bird and .6% AI at 2.5 ml per bird.

  4. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2004-05-01

    Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period.

  5. Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.

    PubMed

    Suntsov, V V; Huong, L T; Suntsova, N I; Gratz, N G

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis was not found on any feral or sylvan mammal further than 0.6 km from settlements. A possible link between wild and commensal mammals may be provided by the flea Lentistivalius klossi, a specific parasite of squirrels and tree-shrews but also found in very small numbers on commensal rats. No zoonotic foci of plague were found in the immediate vicinity of the villages studied and it is most likely that plague persists in a commensal rat-X. cheopis cycle in and around human settlements in Viet Nam.

  6. The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1997-07-01

    Leonard A. Cole. W. H. Freeman: New York, 1997. 250 pp. ISBN 0-7167-2950-4. $22.95 hc. The Eleventh Plague begins with a recitation of the ten plagues brought down upon Egypt, part of the Passover Seder celebrated each spring by Jews all over the world. Spring is also the anniversary of the first use of chemical weapons. On April 22, 1915, German soldiers released chlorine gas from 5,739 cylinders installed along the battle line at Ypres in southeastern Belgium. Germany achieved complete surprise. The gas drifted across no man's land, causing widespread terror and creating ten thousand serious casualties and five thousand deaths. Chlorine, of course, was a poor weapon, easily neutralized, but German scientists, including future Nobel laureates Fritz Haber, Otto Hahn, and James Franck, and the German chemical industry created ever more dangerous chemical weapons, culminating with the introduction of mustard gas in 1917. Despite cries of moral outrage, the Allies countered with their own chemical weapons efforts. The eleventh plague had been unleashed.

  7. Sylvatic plague vaccine: A new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bunck, Christine M.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  8. Sylvatic plague vaccine: a new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rachel C; Osorio, Jorge E; Bunck, Christine M; Rocke, Tonie E

    2012-09-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  9. Testing the generality of a trophic-cascade model for plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collinge, S.K.; Johnson, W.C.; Ray, C.; Matchett, R.; Grensten, J.; Cully, J.F.; Gage, K.L.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Loye, J.E.; Martin, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Climate may affect the dynamics of infectious diseases by shifting pathogen, vector, or host species abundance, population dynamics, or community interactions. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to plague, yet little is known about factors that influence the dynamics of plague epizootics in prairie dogs. We investigated temporal patterns of plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to assess the generality of links between climate and plague occurrence found in previous analyses of human plague cases. We examined long-term data on climate and plague occurrence in prairie dog colonies within two study areas. Multiple regression analyses revealed that plague occurrence in prairie dogs was not associated with climatic variables in our Colorado study area. In contrast, plague occurrence was strongly associated with climatic variables in our Montana study area. The models with most support included a positive association with precipitation in April-July of the previous year, in addition to a positive association with the number of "warm" days and a negative association with the number of "hot" days in the same year as reported plague events. We conclude that the timing and magnitude of precipitation and temperature may affect plague occurrence in some geographic areas. The best climatic predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs within our Montana study area are quite similar to the best climatic predictors of human plague cases in the southwestern United States. This correspondence across regions and species suggests support for a (temperature-modulated) trophic-cascade model for plague, including climatic effects on rodent abundance, flea abundance, and pathogen transmission, at least in regions that experience strong climatic signals. ?? 2005 EcoHealth Journal Consortium.

  10. Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder as a growth promoter

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Singh, B.; Kumar, Sh.; Joshi, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Sathapathy, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (P<0.05). The results also showed that the supplementation of NLP significantly increased feed intake (P≤0.05) which might be due to the hypoglycaemic activity of Neem. A significant increase was also found in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability. PMID:27175156

  11. A comparative study on the cryogenic preservation of semen from the sandhill crane and the domestic fowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, T.J.; Gee, G.F.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: Recent findings on the cryogenic preservation of semen from the crane, Grus canadensis pratensis and the domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus, are compared. Highest levels of post-thaw motility for crane semen (55%) were obtained when semen was diluted 1:1 with the Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE) and held for 30 min at 5 C before it was equilibrated with 4% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 15 min. In contrast, post-thaw motility for fowl spermatozoa was highest (80%) when semen was diluted 1:3 with BPSE and held for 60 min at 5 C before it was equilibrated with 4% DMSO for 60 min. Post-thaw motility of spermatozoa of both species was highest when the following freezing rates were used: l C per min from +5 to -20 C, 50 C per min from -20 to -80 C, then plunging into liquid nitrogen which resulted in a rate of 160 C per min from -80 to -196 C. One of four crane eggs resulting from insemination with frozen-thawed semen was fertile, whereas 27 of 55 fowl eggs were fertile, but this difference may have been due largely to fewer spermatozoa being inseminated into the female crane than into the fowl.

  12. Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder as a growth promoter.

    PubMed

    Singh, M K; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, B; Kumar, Sh; Joshi, S K; Kumar, S; Sathapathy, S

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (P<0.05). The results also showed that the supplementation of NLP significantly increased feed intake (P≤0.05) which might be due to the hypoglycaemic activity of Neem. A significant increase was also found in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability.

  13. Cross protection against fowl cholera disease with the use of recombinant Pasteurella multocida FHAB2 peptides vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that fhaB2 (filamentous hemagglutinin) is an important virulence factor for P. multocida in development of fowl cholera disease and that recombinant FHAB2 peptides derived from P. multocida, Pm-1059, protect turkeys against Pm-1059 challenge. To test the hypothesis that rFHA...

  14. Identification of Chinese plague foci from long-term epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Agier, Lydiane; Cazelles, Bernard; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Zhibin; Fang, Xiye; Wang, Shuchun; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils C

    2012-05-22

    Carrying out statistical analysis over an extensive dataset of human plague reports in Chinese villages from 1772 to 1964, we identified plague endemic territories in China (i.e., plague foci). Analyses rely on (i) a clustering method that groups time series based on their time-frequency resemblances and (ii) an ecological niche model that helps identify plague suitable territories characterized by value ranges for a set of predefined environmental variables. Results from both statistical tools indicate the existence of two disconnected plague territories corresponding to Northern and Southern China. Altogether, at least four well defined independent foci are identified. Their contours compare favorably with field observations. Potential and limitations of inferring plague foci and dynamics using epidemiological data is discussed.

  15. Identification of Chinese plague foci from long-term epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Agier, Lydiane; Cazelles, Bernard; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Zhibin; Fang, Xiye; Wang, Shuchun; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2012-01-01

    Carrying out statistical analysis over an extensive dataset of human plague reports in Chinese villages from 1772 to 1964, we identified plague endemic territories in China (i.e., plague foci). Analyses rely on (i) a clustering method that groups time series based on their time-frequency resemblances and (ii) an ecological niche model that helps identify plague suitable territories characterized by value ranges for a set of predefined environmental variables. Results from both statistical tools indicate the existence of two disconnected plague territories corresponding to Northern and Southern China. Altogether, at least four well defined independent foci are identified. Their contours compare favorably with field observations. Potential and limitations of inferring plague foci and dynamics using epidemiological data is discussed. PMID:22570501

  16. Rodent and flea abundance fail to predict a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L

    2010-01-01

    Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages.

  17. Primary plague pneumonia contracted from a domestic cat at South Lake Tahoe, Calif.

    PubMed

    Werner, S B; Weidmer, C E; Nelson, B C; Nygaard, G S; Goethals, R M; Poland, J D

    1984-02-17

    Primary plague pneumonia occurred in a 47-year-old South Lake Tahoe woman shortly after face-to-face exposure to her plague pneumonia-infected cat. Both died. Field investigation revealed a recent plague epizootic in squirrels and chipmunks around the patient's home. Control measures included active surveillance and chemoprophylaxis of 197 contacts to the victim, a community alert on methods of self- and pet protection, and application of insecticide to reduce rodent flea populations. No secondary cases occurred.

  18. Crystal structures of pheasant and guinea fowl egg-white lysozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Lescar, J.; Souchon, H.; Alzari, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structures of pheasant and guinea fowl lysozymes have been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Guinea fowl lysozyme crystallizes in space group P6(1)22 with cell dimensions a = 89.2 A and c = 61.7 A. The structure was refined to a final crystallographic R-factor of 17.0% for 8,854 observed reflections in the resolution range 6-1.9 A. Crystals of pheasant lysozyme are tetragonal, space group P4(3)2(1)2, with a = 98.9 A, c = 69.3 A and 2 molecules in the asymmetric unit. The final R-factor is 17.8% to 2.1 A resolution. The RMS deviation from ideality is 0.010 A for bond lengths and 2.5 degrees for bond angles in both models. Three amino acid positions beneath the active site are occupied by Thr 40, Ile 55, and Ser 91 in hen, pheasant, and other avian lysozymes, and by Ser 40, Val 55, and Thr 91 in guinea fowl and American quail lysozymes. In spite of their internal location, the structural changes associated with these substitutions are small. The pheasant enzyme has an additional N-terminal glycine residue, probably resulting from an evolutionary shift in the site of cleavage of prelysozyme. In the 3-dimensional structure, this amino acid partially fills a cleft on the surface of the molecule, close to the C alpha atom of Gly 41 and absent in lysozymes from other species (which have a large side-chain residue at position 41: Gln, His, Arg, or Lys). The overall structures are similar to those of other c-type lysozymes, with the largest deviations occurring in surface loops. Comparison of the unliganded and antibody-bound models of pheasant lysozyme suggests that surface complementarity of contacting surfaces in the antigen-antibody complex is the result of local, small rearrangements in the epitope. Structural evidence based upon this and other complexes supports the notion that antigenic variation in c-type lysozymes is primarily the result of amino acid substitutions, not of gross structural changes. PMID:8061608

  19. Climatic and evolutionary drivers of phase shifts in the plague epidemics of colonial India

    PubMed Central

    Lewnard, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Immune heterogeneity in wild host populations indicates that disease-mediated selection is common in nature. However, the underlying dynamic feedbacks involving the ecology of disease transmission, evolutionary processes, and their interaction with environmental drivers have proven challenging to characterize. Plague presents an optimal system for interrogating such couplings: Yersinia pestis transmission exerts intense selective pressure driving the local persistence of disease resistance among its wildlife hosts in endemic areas. Investigations undertaken in colonial India after the introduction of plague in 1896 suggest that, only a decade after plague arrived, a heritable, plague-resistant phenotype had become prevalent among commensal rats of cities undergoing severe plague epidemics. To understand the possible evolutionary basis of these observations, we developed a mathematical model coupling environmentally forced plague dynamics with evolutionary selection of rats, capitalizing on extensive archival data from Indian Plague Commission investigations. Incorporating increased plague resistance among rats as a consequence of intense natural selection permits the model to reproduce observed changes in seasonal epidemic patterns in several cities and capture experimentally observed associations between climate and flea population dynamics in India. Our model results substantiate Victorian era claims of host evolution based on experimental observations of plague resistance and reveal the buffering effect of such evolution against environmental drivers of transmission. Our analysis shows that historical datasets can yield powerful insights into the transmission dynamics of reemerging disease agents with which we have limited contemporary experience to guide quantitative modeling and inference. PMID:27791071

  20. Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr; Ben Ari, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-06-21

    Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions.

  1. [The complex plague--reconsiderations of an epidemic from the past].

    PubMed

    Moseng, Ole Georg

    2007-12-13

    Speculations have arisen about the black plague in recent years - was it a disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS: or something else? Extensive outbreaks in India in the 1890s have formed the basis for descriptions of the plague, both for those who believe that the medieval plagues and modern plague were different diseases and for those who claim that the plague has been one and the same disease throughout history. The plague was more or less defined as a disease in the 1890s, and the understanding of its clinical course and dissemination at the time has uncritically been understood as the general model for spreading of the plague. But plague is a many-faceted disease. It has spread to five continents in modern times, through an array of ecosystems and under widely different climatic conditions. It can also be passed on to man, and from one individual to another, in different ways. The biological conditions that prevailed in India have not been relevant for medieval Norway. The preconditions for spreading of plague epidemics of the past in a Nordic climate must therefore have been different. It can only be expected that contemporary descriptions of historic epidemics are different from those in modern times.

  2. Landscape ecology of plague in the American southwest, September 19-20, 2000, Fort Collins, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    During September 19-20, 2000, a workshop titled "Landscape Ecology of Plague in the American Southwest" was held in Fort Collins, Colorado. The workshop was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Earth Surface Processes Team and sponsored by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center. Forty scientists and natural resource managers and administrators representing 8 federal agencies, 4 state agencies, 6 universities, and other local agencies and nongovernment organizations met to discuss historical and current status of plague in the United States, current activities in plague surveillance, research, and management in wildlife, and research and information needs relative to plague control and management. Eleven individual presentations on plague history, status, and trends; diagnostic technologies; epizootiological studies and observations; and control and management strategies and studies, followed by a panel discussion on the impact of plague on wildlife and ecosystems, led the way to extensive group discussions on important plague-related questions, issues and problems. Workshop attendees participated in identifying important research and information needs relevant to control and management of plague in wildlife, and in the process, established new cooperative and collaborative partnerships and enhanced existing relationships upon which future research and information needs can be met. The proceedings from this workshop are intended to be used by the natural resource managers and researchers from the various participating agencies, research facilities, as well as other stakeholders to aid in the development of future research and information programs and funding initiatives related to both zoonotic and sylvatic plague.

  3. Rheological properties, oxidative stability, and tocopherol content during storage of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg: comparison with hen egg.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, T

    2010-05-01

    Eggs from Silky fowl and White Leghorn hens were used to prepare fried dough. The rheological properties, lipid oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol content of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were compared with dough made with hen egg. The fried dough was stored in a glass bottle at 50 degrees C in the dark for 12 d. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed little change in hardness and adhesion for 12 d at 50 degrees C. However, in the fried dough made with hen egg, hardness increased drastically and adhesion decreased. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides during 12 d in storage at 50 degrees C. In contrast, the fried dough made with hen egg showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides during the 12-d storage. The lowest concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal was observed in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg, whereas the concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal in fried dough made with hen egg was significantly increased. Total tocopherols in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were degraded 23.3 mg/100 g of fried dough by the end of the experimental period at 50 degrees C. In contrast, total tocopherols in the fried dough made with hen egg were degraded 40 mg/100 g of fried dough. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids decreased and the hydroperoxide content increased with storage time. The unsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio and hydroperoxide and tocopherol contents were lower in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg than in that made with hen egg, indicating decreased lipid oxidation. The present experiment suggests that the use of Silky fowl egg could improve the rheological properties, oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol contents of fried dough.

  4. ON THE POSSIBLE FUNCTION OF COATED VESICLES IN MELANOGENESIS OF THE REGENERATING FOWL FEATHER

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Gerd G.; Brumbaugh, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    How tyrosinase becomes associated with the premelanosomes was investigated by histochemical demonstration of tyrosinase activity by the use of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in melanocytes of regenerating fowl feathers. The reaction product of DOPA was localized in the anastomosing membrane tubules associated with the concave side of some dictyosomes of the Golgi apparatus and in coated vesicles most of which were in connection with the dictyosomes. No reaction product was found in early premelanosomes. In premelanosomes, the reaction product of DOPA appears first in vesicles approximately 400 A in diameter which are surrounded by a matrix with a characteristic periodicity. These observations seem to allow the speculation that the coated vesicles function in the transport of tyrosinase, and that the premelanosomes are formed in a process which is not necessarily dependent on the Golgi apparatus as was assumed earlier. PMID:4993485

  5. Effects of high-density lipoproteins on storage at 4 degrees C of fowl spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Blesbois, E; Hermier, D

    1990-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative characterization of lipoproteins found in seminal plasma from domestic cocks was performed after isolation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Trigyceride-rich lipoproteins (very low, intermediate- and low density lipoproteins) were not detectable in seminal plasma. High-density lipoproteins (HDL), identified on the basis of size, chemical composition and protein moiety, were present at a concentration of 66 micrograms/ml. A fraction possibly corresponding to VHDL (very high density lipoproteins, 77% protein, 23% lipid) was also detected but appeared contaminated by a protein-rich opalescent material. Since HDL contains mostly phospholipid and cholesterol, the physiological role of these lipoproteins on the storage of fowl spermatozoa was studied. Replacing seminal plasma with a solution containing chicken HDL at physiological concentration (66 micrograms/ml) had no effect on fertilizing ability of spermatozoa stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h. However, higher concentrations of HDL (560 micrograms/ml) had deleterious effects on spermatozoa stored in vitro.

  6. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone induces growth hormone secretion in adult hypothyroid fowl.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Scanes, C G; Klandorf, H

    1988-02-01

    While thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion in adult anesthetized cockerels, the GH response was blocked in anesthetized birds pretreated with thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). Moreover, whereas GH secretion in conscious adult birds was poorly responsive to TRH stimulation, conscious birds made hypothyroid by goitrogen pretreatment (with propylthiouracil, methimazole, or thiourea) were responsive to TRH challenge. Basal circulating GH concentrations in the goitrogen-pretreated birds were also higher than in the vehicle-injected controls. Surgical thyroidectomy similarly increased the basal GH concentration in adult birds and promoted TRH-induced GH secretion. These results demonstrate inhibitory effects of the thyroid hormones on basal and stimulated GH secretion in adult domestic fowl and suggest that GH release in adults is partly under tonic thyroidal inhibition.

  7. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear.

  8. Characterization of the immunological response to Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D; Robinson, K; Guy, J; Sparagano, O

    2010-04-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite of birds, which adversely affects both production and welfare of commercial poultry. Poultry in commercial production systems chronically exposed to D. gallinae do not appear to develop immunity to the mite. The objective of the current study was to determine the initial immune response of domestic fowl following exposure to D. gallinae. Two groups of birds (11 birds/group) had mite chambers secured to their backs. Controls received no mites, while infested birds received 200 unfed female D. gallinae on day 0 which were then removed on day 1 or 2. Spleen samples were collected on days -1, 1, 2 and 5. The expression of Th1 (IFNgamma, CXCLi2, IL6 and IL18), Th2 (IL4, IL10 and IL13) cytokines/chemokines normalized against a reference gene, GAPDH, were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Although there were no significant differences between treatments, numerical trends were observed. Th2 cytokine expression was not detected in any birds on any day. IL6, CXCLi2, IFNgamma and IL18 expression was increased on day 1 in the infested group, while on day 2 CXCLi2 and IFNgamma were lower and IL6 and IL18 levels were similar between treatments. The IL18 expression was similar between treatments on day 5, while IL6 and IFNgamma levels were increased and CXCLi2 expression was decreased in the infested group. Data suggest that D. gallinae feeding stimulates Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines initially (day 1) followed by their subsequent down regulation. This study is the first report of the characterization of the immunological response of the domestic fowl to controlled numbers of D. gallinae.

  9. Integrated biological treatment of fowl manure for nitrogen recovery and reuse.

    PubMed

    Posmanik, Roy; Nejidat, Ali; Bar-Sinay, Boaz; Gross, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Biowaste such as animal manure poses an environmental threat, due to among others, uncontrolled emissions of ammonia and additional hazardous gases to the atmosphere. This study presents a quantitative analysis of an alternative biowaste management approach aimed at nitrogen recovery and reduction of contamination risks. The suggested technology combines anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich biowaste with biofiltration of the resulting gaseous ammonia. A compost-based biofilter is used to capture the ammonia and convert it to nitrate by nitrifying microorganisms. Nitrogen mass balance was applied to quantify the system's capacity under various fowl manure-loading regimes and ammonia loading rates. The produced nitrate was recovered and its use as liquid fertilizer was evaluated with cucumber plant as a model crop. In addition, emissions of other hazardous gases (N(2)O, CH(4) and H(2)S) were monitored before and after biofiltration to evaluate the efficiency of the system for treating these gases. It was found that nitrate-rich liquid fertilizer can be continuously produced using the suggested approach, with an over 67 percentage of nitrogen recovery, under an ammonia loading rate of up to 40 g NH(3) per cubic meter biofilter per hour. Complete elimination of NH(3), H(2)S, CH(4) and N(2)O was achieved, demonstrating the potential of the suggested technology for mitigating emission of these gases from fowl manure. Moreover, the quality of the recovered fertilizer was demonstrated by higher yield performance of cucumber plant compared with control plants treated with a commonly applied organic liquid fertilizer.

  10. Evidence that adrenaline is released from adrenergic neurones in the rectum of the fowl

    PubMed Central

    Komori, S.; Ohashi, H.; Okada, T.; Takewaki, T.

    1979-01-01

    1 The rectum isolated from the fowl was perfused with Tyrode solution via the caudal mesenteric artery. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were biologically or fluorimetrically assayed in perfusates collected before and during stimulation of Remak's nerve or of the periarterial nerves. 2 Perfusates collected during nerve stimulation relaxed the chick rectum and rat stomach strips which served as assay tissues. This effect was attributed to the action of noradrenaline or adrenaline released from adrenergic nerve endings which appeared in the perfusates. 3 Perfusates obtained during stimulation (30 Hz for 60 s) of Remak's nerve contained both noradrenaline and adrenaline when measured fluorimetrically. The mean output per stimulus train was 0.8 ± 0.2 ng/g wet wt. tissue for noradrenaline and 1.7 ± 0.2 ng/g wet wt. tissue for adrenaline (n = 7). Perfusates obtained during stimulation (30 Hz for 60 s) of the periarterial nerves contained noradrenaline in a concentration of 1.6 ± 0.3 ng/g wet wt. tissue per stimulus train, but almost no adrenaline (n = 7). 4 Neither stimulation of Remak's nerve nor the periarterial nerves liberated catecholamines when the rectum was perfused with Tyrode solution containing low Ca2+ (0.1 mM) and high Mg2+ (10 mM). 5 Infusion of high potassium solution (50 mM) increased markedly the output of noradrenaline and adrenaline. 6 Adrenaline as well as noradrenaline may function as the adrenergic neurotransmitter in the rectum of the fowl. PMID:760900

  11. Field trial in commercial broilers with a multivalent in ovo vaccine comprising a mixture of live viral vaccines against Marek's disease, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y

    2002-01-01

    A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry.

  12. Relationship between oriental migratory locust plague and soil moisture extracted from MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenbo; Shi, Xuezheng; Warner, Eric; Ge, Yunjian; Yu, Dongsheng; Ni, Shaoxiang; Wang, Hongjie

    2008-02-01

    Locust plagues have been the source of some of the most severe natural disasters in human history. Soil moisture content is among the most important of the numerous factors influencing plague onset and severity. This paper describes a study initiated in three pilot locust plague monitoring regions, i.e., Huangzao, Yangguanzhuang, and Tengnan in Huanghua county, Hebei province, China, to examine the impact of soil moisture status on oriental migratory locust [ Locusta migratoria manilensis (L.) Meyen] plague breakout as related to the life cycle, oviposition in autumn, survival in winter, and incubation in summer. Thirty-nine temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) data sets, which represent soil moisture content, were extracted from MODIS remote sensing images for two representative time periods: a severe locust plague breakout year (2001-2002) and a slight plague year (2003-2004). TVDI values demonstrated distinctive soil moisture status differences between the 2 years concerned. Soil moisture conditions in the severe plague year were shown to be lower than those in slight plague year. In all three pilot regions, average TVDI value in the severe plague year was 0.07 higher than that in slight plague year, and monthly TVDI values in locust oviposition period (September and October) and incubation period (March, April and May) were higher than their corresponding monthly figures in slight plague year. No remarkable TVDI differences were found in other months during the locust life cycle between the 2 years. TVDI values for September and October (2001), March, April and May (2002) were 0.11, 0.08, 0.16, 0.11 and 0.16 higher than their corresponding monthly figures in 2003-2004 period, respectively.

  13. Fowl Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways some universities have dealt with eliminating insects and wildlife from their athletic fields. The types problems to look for, the damage pests can cause, the safety issues involved, and tips on remedies are examined. (GR)

  14. Festive Fowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudecki, Maryanna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a multimedia painting lesson based on chickens and their habitats. It describes how the author launched this lesson. Before launching this lesson, the author's third-grade students practice techniques for using tempera paint along with a variety of tools for printmaking. They have knowledge of primary and secondary colors,…

  15. AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus) from Madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Duplantier, J-M; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Brouat, C

    2011-03-01

    The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar's rural zones. Black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). To better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. To this purpose, we combined a population genomics approach and an association study, both performed on 249 AFLP markers, in Malagasy R. rattus. Simulated distributions of genetic differentiation were compared to observed data in four independent pairs, each consisting of one population from the plague focus and one from the plague-free zone. We found 22 loci (9% of 249) with higher differentiation in at least two independent population pairs or with combining P-values over the four pairs significant. Among the 22 outlier loci, 16 presented significant association with plague zone (plague focus vs. plague-free zone). Population genetic structure inferred from outlier loci was structured by plague zone, whereas the neutral loci dataset revealed structure by geography (eastern vs. western populations). A phenotype association study revealed that two of the 22 loci were significantly associated with differentiation between dying and surviving rats following experimental plague challenge. The 22 outlier loci identified in this study may undergo plague selective pressure either directly or more probably indirectly due to hitchhiking with selected loci.

  16. Duck plague epizootics in the United States, 1967-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, K.A.; Kidd, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1967, the first confirmed diagnosis of duck plague (DP) in the USA was made from pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) on commercial duck farms on Long Island, New York. Within 10 mo, DP was confirmed as the cause of death in migratory waterfowl on a Long Island bay. This paper reviews 120 DP epizootics reported from 1967 to 1995 that involved waterfowl species native to North America or were reported in areas with free-flying waterfowl at risk. Duck plague epizootics occurred in 21 states with the greatest number reported in Maryland (29), New York (18), California (16), and Pennsylvania (13). The greatest frequency of epizootics (86%) was detected during the months of March to June. At least 40 waterfowl species were affected with the highest frequency of epizootics reported in captive or captive-reared ducks including muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) (68%), mallard ducks (A. platyrhynchos) (18%) and black ducks (A. rubripes) (14%). The greatest number of waterfowl died in three epizootics that involved primarily migratory birds in 1967 and 1994 in New York (USA) and 1973 in South Dakota (USA). The greatest number of DP epizootics reported since 1967 appear to have involved flocks of non-migratory rather than migratory waterfowl; therefore, in our opinion it remains unknown if DP is enzootic in either non-migratory or migratory waterfowl.

  17. A plague epizootic in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Buskirk, Steven W; Williams, Elizabeth S; Edwards, William H

    2006-01-01

    Plague is the primary cause for the rangewide decline in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) distribution and abundance, yet our knowledge of plague dynamics in prairie dog populations is limited. Our understanding of the effects of plague on the most widespread species, the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), is particularly weak. During a study on the population biology of black-tailed prairie dogs in Wyoming, USA, plague was detected in a colony under intensive monitoring, providing a unique opportunity to quantify various consequences of plague. The epizootic reduced juvenile abundance by 96% and adult abundance by 95%. Of the survivors, eight of nine adults and one of eight juveniles developed antibodies to Yersinia pestis. Demographic groups appeared equally susceptible to infection, and age structure was unaffected. Survivors occupied three small coteries and exhibited improved body condition, but increased flea infestation compared to a neighboring, uninfected colony. Black-tailed prairie dogs are capable of surviving a plague epizootic and reorganizing into apparently functional coteries. Surviving prairie dogs may be critical in the repopulation of plague-decimated colonies and, ultimately, the evolution of plague resistance.

  18. Population genetic structure of the prairie dog flea and plague vector, Oropsylla hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Martin, Andrew P; Jones, Ryan T; Collinge, Sharon K

    2011-01-01

    Oropsylla hirsuta is the primary flea of the black-tailed prairie dog and is a vector of the plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis. We examined the population genetic structure of O. hirsuta fleas collected from 11 prairie dog colonies, 7 of which had experienced a plague-associated die-off in 1994. In a sample of 332 O. hirsuta collected from 226 host individuals, we detected 24 unique haplotype sequences in a 480 nucleotide segment of the cytochrome oxidase II gene. We found significant overall population structure but we did not detect a signal of isolation by distance, suggesting that O. hirsuta may be able to disperse relatively quickly at the scale of this study. All 7 colonies that were recently decimated by plague showed signs of recent population expansion, whereas 3 of the 4 plague-negative colonies showed haplotype patterns consistent with stable populations. These results suggest that O. hirsuta populations are affected by plague-induced prairie dog die-offs and that flea dispersal among prairie dog colonies may not be dependent exclusively on dispersal of prairie dogs. Re-colonization following plague events from plague-free refugia may allow for rapid flea population expansion following plague epizootics.

  19. Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  20. Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing prairie dog colony dynamics in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites i...

  1. [Historical and biological approaches to the study of Modern Age French plague mass burials].

    PubMed

    Bianuccii, Raffaella; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Fornaciari, Gino; Signoli, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The "Black Death" and subsequent epidemics from 1346 to the early 18th century spread from the Caspian Sea all over Europe six hundred years after the outbreak of the Justinian plague (541-767 AD). Plague has been one of the most devastating infectious diseases that affected the humankind and has caused approximately 200 million human deaths historically. Here we describe the different approaches adopted in the study of several French putative plague mass burials dating to the Modern Age (16th-18th centuries). Through complementation of historical, archaeological and paleobiological data, ample knowledge of both the causes that favoured the spread of the Medieval plague in cities, towns and small villages and of the modification of the customary funerary practices in urban and rural areas due to plague are gained.

  2. Yersinia pestis caf1 Variants and the Limits of Plague Vaccine Protection▿

    PubMed Central

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Cornelius, Claire A.; Ciletti, Nancy A.; Elli, Derek; Schneewind, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the highly virulent agent of plague, is a biological weapon. Strategies that prevent plague have been sought for centuries, and immunization with live, attenuated (nonpigmented) strains or subunit vaccines with F1 (Caf1) antigen is considered effective. We show here that immunization with live, attenuated strains generates plague-protective immunity and humoral immune responses against F1 pilus antigen and LcrV. Y. pestis variants lacking caf1 (F1 pili) are not only fully virulent in animal models of bubonic and pneumonic plague but also break through immune responses generated with live, attenuated strains or F1 subunit vaccines. In contrast, immunization with purified LcrV, a protein at the tip of type III needles, generates protective immunity against the wild-type and the fully virulent caf1 mutant strain, in agreement with the notion that LcrV can elicit vaccine protection against both types of virulent plague strains. PMID:18347051

  3. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus.

    PubMed

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-21

    The 14th-18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague's persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death.

  4. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Boris V; Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2015-03-10

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe.

  5. Earthquakes and plague during Byzantine times: can lessons from the past improve epidemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Marketos, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters have always been followed by a fear of infectious diseases. This raised historical debate about one of the most feared scenarios: the outbreak of bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis. One such event was recorded in the Indian state Maharashtra in 1994 after an earthquake. In multidisciplinary historical approach to the evolution of plague, many experts ignore the possibility of natural foci and their activation. This article presents historical records from the Byzantine Empire about outbreaks of the Plague of Justinian occurring months or even up to a year after high-magnitude earthquakes. Historical records of plague outbreaks can be used to document existence of natural foci all over the world. Knowledge of these historical records and the contemporary examples of plague support the assumption that, in terms of organising humanitarian aid, poor monitoring of natural foci could lead to unpredictable epidemiological consequences after high-magnitude earthquakes.

  6. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W. Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2015-01-01

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe. PMID:25713390

  7. Genetic differentiation and phylogeny relationships of functional ApoVLDL-II gene in red jungle fowl and domestic chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Musa, Hassan H; Cheng, Jin H; Bao, Wen B; Li, Bi C; Mekki, Dafaalla M; Chen, Guo H

    2007-08-01

    A total of 243 individuals from Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus), Rugao, Anka, Wenchang and Silikes chicken populations were used for polymorphism analysis in functional apoVLDL-II gene by Restriction fragment length polymorphism and single strand conformation polymorphism markers. The results show that Anka population has highest gene diversity and Shannon information index, while Red jungle fowl shows highest effective number of allele. In addition, the higher coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst) across all loci in apoVLDL-II was indicating that high variation is proportioned among populations. As expected total gene diversity (Ht) has upper estimate compared with within population genetic diversity (Hs) across all loci. The mean Gst value across all loci was (0.194) indicating about 19.4% of total genetic variation could be explained by breeds differences, while the remaining 80.6% was accounted for differences among individuals. The average apoVLDL-II gene flow across all loci in five chicken populations was 1.189. The estimates of genetic identity and distance confirm that these genes are significantly different between genetically fat and lean population, because fat type breed Anka shows highest distance with the other Silikes and Rugao whish are genetically lean. In addition, Wenchang and Red jungle fowl were found more closely and genetically related than the other breeds with 49.4% bootstrapping percentages, then they were related to Silikes by 100% bootstrapping percentages followed by Rugao and finally all of them are related with exotic fat breed Anka.

  8. The functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the mechanical loading of the pubis in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Fechner, Regina; Stratmann, Matthias; Gößling, Rainer; Sverdlova, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues other than muscles are supposed to be of mechanical importance, yet they are rarely integrated into finite element models. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the loading of the pubis of the domestic fowl using 2D finite element analysis. For this purpose, a specimen of the domestic fowl was dissected and soft tissues attaching to the pubis were studied in great detail. Muscles were removed and measurements taken. For the 2D finite element model, the outline was taken from the dissected specimen. Two 2D finite element models were generated: one without and one with ischiopubic membrane. The same muscular loading based on own measurements and electromyographic data was applied to both models. The model without ischiopubic membrane shows anteroventral bending deformation of the scapus pubis, resulting in high compressive and tensile principal stresses at the level of ultimate bone stress values. The model with ischiopubic membrane shows low compressive principal stresses in the pubis consistent with the levels of steady state remodelling of bone. Based on these results, the ischiopubic membrane of the domestic fowl potentially establishes a physiological loading of the pubis and therefore might be of great mechanical significance for the loading of the bone. PMID:23171269

  9. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  10. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  11. Origin of the Old Testament Plagues: Explications and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenkranz, N. Joel; Sampson, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of past disasters may supply insights to mitigate the impact of recurrences. In this context, we offer a unifying causative theory of Old Testament plagues, which has present day public health implications. We propose the root cause to have been an aberrant El Niño-Southern Oscillation teleconnection that brought unseasonable and progressive climate warming along the ancient Mediterranean littoral, including the coast of biblical Egypt, which, in turn, initiated the serial catastrophes of biblical sequence — in particular arthropod-borne and arthropod-caused diseases. Located beyond the boundary of focal climate change, inland Goshen would not have been similarly affected. Implicit in this analysis is a framework to consider a possibility of present day recurrence of similar catastrophes and their impact upon essential public services. PMID:18604309

  12. [Transylvanian refugees and the plague in 1708-1709].

    PubMed

    Kis, D

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming military power of the Habsburg forces Transylvanian sympathizers fled twice to Hungary during the Rákóczi uprising (1704-1711): first in 1704-1706 and then in 1707-1711. In the autumn of 1707 they numbered as much as ten thousand people, and according to the decrees of the diet at Kisvárda, they were settled down in smaller units in around Szabolcs, Szatmár, Bereg, Ung, Ugocsa and Máramaros counties. Though always short of money, the leaders of the ukprising created a system that satisfied the basic needs of these refugees. By the end of the rebellion, nevertheless, as the territory controlled by Rákóczi's armies decreased considerably, the refugees were forced to move on and on, which certainly led to a corruption of their food supplies, accommodation and hygienic conditions. The worst among all came with the plague. The author examines the effects of the epidemic and the counter-measures taken by the individual and the authorities of the uprising. Kis has consulted the main Hungarian books of that age that referred to black death (among others Anna Zay's Herbarium [1719], Samuel Köleséri's Pestis Daicae, György Komáromi Csipkés's Pestis pestise, Ferenc Pápai Páriz's Pax Corporis and A [estos betegség etc., and Máté Tsanaki's A Döghalálról, etc.), as well as many archival papers (the correspondence of Count Sándor Károlyi with his wife Krisztina Barkóczy, thos of General Bercsényi to his wife and Prince Rákóczi, and some doctors' reports, etc.). His main source, however, is Zsigmond Szaniszló's diary. Szaniszló was a former fobiró (chief-sheriff) of the Transsylvanian Torda city, an Anti-Trinitarian stronghold, and remained a leader of his people during the emigration. According to his notes, which the author has compared with the data given by the others, there were hardly any measures taken against plague in this community. Although Szaniszló gives detailed descriptions about the everyday life of the

  13. A bibliography of literature pertaining to plague (Yersinia pestis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.; Frank, Megan K. Eberhardt

    2011-01-01

    Plague is an acute and often fatal zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mainly cycles between small mammals and their fleas; however, it has the potential to infect humans and frequently causes fatalities if left untreated. It is often considered a disease of the past; however, since the late 1800s, plagueis geographic range has expanded greatly, posing new threats in previously unaffected regions of the world, including the Western United States. A literature search was conducted using Internet resources and databases. The keywords chosen for the searches included plague, Yersinia pestis, management, control, wildlife, prairie dogs, fleas, North America, and mammals. Keywords were used alone or in combination with the other terms. Although this search pertains mostly to North America, citations were included from the international research community, as well. Databases and search engines used included Google (http://www.google.com), Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com), SciVerse Scopus (http://www.scopus.com), ISI Web of Knowledge (http://apps.isiknowledge.com), and the USGS Library's Digital Desktop (http://library.usgs.gov). The literature-cited sections of manuscripts obtained from keyword searches were cross-referenced to identify additional citations or gray literature that was missed by the Internet search engines. This Open-File Report, published as an Internet-accessible bibliography, is intended to be periodically updated with new citations or older references that may have been missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the audience (users) think need to be included.

  14. [PLAGUE IN PALERMO IN 1575 AND SOCIAL CONTROL].

    PubMed

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The work moves from the low mortality of the plague of Palermo in 1575 - 1576 in comparison to similar outbreaks and contemporary analysis of the activity of Ingrassia, a man that the city government had wanted at his side. The extraordinary health interventions, including those to favor of the predisposition of health building to isolation, gears for a more wide-ranging than the traditional one. The isolation adopted by Ingrassia wasn't a novelty because it was already in use half a century earlier, as the Previdelli wrote. We assume that the population in crisis, hungry and out of work for the huge military expenditure of king Philip II, would have prompted the City government to use the outbreak for the purposes of . At the same goal always answered in the sixteenth century the establishment of the parish, created to divide the territory in order to guide and control the practice of the faith of the people. Ingrassia, a man next to political power, which in turn welded with the spiritual power in order to implement the Catholic Counter-Reformation, justified the coercive initiatives towards the population. The practice of medicine, as still happens today, is affected by the conditions of the policy, raising one of the fundamental principles of bioethics, the question ofthe independence ofthe doctor: a physician divided by the duty to represent the legitimate interests of the patient and those of political power, perhaps not always shared. It is a new interpretation of the activity of Ingrassia and his results than the plague.

  15. The history of the plague and the research on the causative agent Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Björn P; Dunkelberg, Hartmut

    2004-02-01

    The plague is an infectious bacterial disease having a high fatality rate without treatment. It has occurred in three huge pandemics since the 6th century with millions of deaths and numerous smaller epidemics and sporadic cases. Referring to specific clinical symptoms of pulmonary plague the disease became known as the Black Death. This pandemic probably originated in central Asia and began spreading westward along major trade routes. Upon the arrival in the eastern Mediterranean the disease quickly spread especially by sea traffic to Italy, Greece and France and later throughout Europe by land. Until the 18th century many European cities were frequently affected by other great plague epidemics. The worldwide spread of the third pandemic began when the plague reached Hong Kong and Canton in the year 1894. The gram-negative coccobacillus now designated as Yersinia pestis has been discovered as the causative agent of plague in this Hong Kong outbreak. In the following years the role of rats and fleas and their detailed role in the transmission of plague has been discovered and experimentally verified. Today the plague is still endemic in many countries of the world.

  16. Travel history key to picking up on signs of bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Health officials note an uptick in cases of bubonic plague in the United States this year, with at least 12 reported human cases reported since April 1. The CDC notes that healthcare providers should consider plague in patients who have traveled to plague-endemic areas and exhibit fever, headache, chills, weakness, and one or more swollen or tender and painful lymph nodes, referred to as buboes. Officials note that the disease rarely passes from person to person, but that this is a concern with patients who have developed the pneumonic form of the disease. Health officials note that in recent years there has been an average of seven cases of human plague each year in the United States, and that most of these cases are the bubonic form of the illness. Four patients confirmed to have plague this year have died, including the most recent case, a Utah man in his 70s. Most cases of plague in the United States occur in two regions. The first includes northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and southern Colorado, and the second includes California, southern Oregon, and far western Nevada. When plague is suspected, treatment with antibiotics should begin immediately.

  17. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  18. The trophic responses of two different rodent–vector–plague systems to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Schmid, Boris V.; Liu, Jun; Si, Xiaoyan; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Plague, the causative agent of three devastating pandemics in history, is currently a re-emerging disease, probably due to climate change and other anthropogenic changes. Without understanding the response of plague systems to anthropogenic or climate changes in their trophic web, it is unfeasible to effectively predict years with high risks of plague outbreak, hampering our ability for effective prevention and control of the disease. Here, by using surveillance data, we apply structural equation modelling to reveal the drivers of plague prevalence in two very different rodent systems: those of the solitary Daurian ground squirrel and the social Mongolian gerbil. We show that plague prevalence in the Daurian ground squirrel is not detectably related to its trophic web, and that therefore surveillance efforts should focus on detecting plague directly in this ecosystem. On the other hand, plague in the Mongolian gerbil is strongly embedded in a complex, yet understandable trophic web of climate, vegetation, and rodent and flea densities, making the ecosystem suitable for more sophisticated low-cost surveillance practices, such as remote sensing. As for the trophic webs of the two rodent species, we find that increased vegetation is positively associated with higher temperatures and precipitation for both ecosystems. We furthermore find a positive association between vegetation and ground squirrel density, yet a negative association between vegetation and gerbil density. Our study thus shows how past surveillance records can be used to design and improve existing plague prevention and control measures, by tailoring them to individual plague foci. Such measures are indeed highly needed under present conditions with prevailing climate change. PMID:25540277

  19. The trophic responses of two different rodent-vector-plague systems to climate change.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Schmid, Boris V; Liu, Jun; Si, Xiaoyan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-07

    Plague, the causative agent of three devastating pandemics in history, is currently a re-emerging disease, probably due to climate change and other anthropogenic changes. Without understanding the response of plague systems to anthropogenic or climate changes in their trophic web, it is unfeasible to effectively predict years with high risks of plague outbreak, hampering our ability for effective prevention and control of the disease. Here, by using surveillance data, we apply structural equation modelling to reveal the drivers of plague prevalence in two very different rodent systems: those of the solitary Daurian ground squirrel and the social Mongolian gerbil. We show that plague prevalence in the Daurian ground squirrel is not detectably related to its trophic web, and that therefore surveillance efforts should focus on detecting plague directly in this ecosystem. On the other hand, plague in the Mongolian gerbil is strongly embedded in a complex, yet understandable trophic web of climate, vegetation, and rodent and flea densities, making the ecosystem suitable for more sophisticated low-cost surveillance practices, such as remote sensing. As for the trophic webs of the two rodent species, we find that increased vegetation is positively associated with higher temperatures and precipitation for both ecosystems. We furthermore find a positive association between vegetation and ground squirrel density, yet a negative association between vegetation and gerbil density. Our study thus shows how past surveillance records can be used to design and improve existing plague prevention and control measures, by tailoring them to individual plague foci. Such measures are indeed highly needed under present conditions with prevailing climate change.

  20. Plague in Egypt: Disease biology, history and contemporary analysis: A minireview

    PubMed Central

    Lotfy, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some neighbouring countries disease re-emergence in Egypt should not be excluded. The country is in need for implementation of some preventive measures. PMID:26199744

  1. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each.

  2. [Mechanisms of power in disease: the case of the novel "The Plague" by Albert Camus].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mansilla, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the elements of power that can be found in an epidemic like the plague. To undertake this task we first studied, the form of containment of the plague from a historical perspective and then, compare them with those described by Camus in his novel The Plague. We also studied the experience of sin among humans in an effort to determine divine power. This last point explores the fear of being touched during an epidemic and how this is overcome by the innate feeling of love among men. Finally in the novel, this is illustrated by the love of Orpheus for Eurydice.

  3. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and new measures for controlling plague in 16th-century Alghero, Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582-1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532-1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia.

  4. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  5. Landscape structure and plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs on grasslands of the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collinge, S.K.; Johnson, W.C.; Ray, C.; Matchett, R.; Grensten, J.; Cully, J.F.; Gage, K.L.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Loye, J.E.; Martin, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape structure influences the abundance and distribution of many species, including pathogens that cause infectious diseases. Black-tailed prairie dogs in the western USA have declined precipitously over the past 100 years, most recently due to grassland conversion and their susceptibility to sylvatic plague. We assembled and analyzed two long-term data sets on plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to explore the hypotheses that plague occurrence is associated with colony characteristics and landscape context. Our two study areas (Boulder County, Colorado, and Phillips County, Montana) differed markedly in degree of urbanization and other landscape characteristics. In both study areas, we found associations between plague occurrence and landscape and colony characteristics such as the amount of roads, streams and lakes surrounding a prairie dog colony, the area covered by the colony and its neighbors, and the distance to the nearest plague-positive colony. Logistic regression models were similar between the two study areas, with the best models predicting positive effects of proximity to plague-positive colonies and negative effects of road, stream and lake cover on plague occurrence. Taken together, these results suggest that roads, streams and lakes may serve as barriers to plague in black-tailed prairie dog colonies by affecting movement of or habitat quality for plague hosts or for fleas that serve as vectors for the pathogen. The similarity in plague correlates between urban and rural study areas suggests that the correlates of plague are not altered by uniquely urban stressors. ?? Springer 2005.

  6. Histogenesis of the Oesophagus of Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) at Prehatch and Posthatch

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Sulaiman Olawoye; Nzalak, James Oliver; Kawu, Muhammed Umar; Tizhe, Emmanuel Vandi; Gurumyen, Yilzem George; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The histogenesis of the primordial oesophagus was studied to determine the period in which the tunics of the oesophagus developed and became functional in the helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Eighteen embryos and nine keets were studied at prehatch and posthatch, respectively. Simple columnar epithelium surrounded by mesenchymal cells was obvious at the 8th day of embryonic development. By the 19th day of embryonic development, the four tunics, tunica mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica adventitia/serosa, were beginning to differentiate from the mesenchymal cells and also the primordial oesophageal glands appeared as clusters of cells that invaginate from the epithelium. By the 27th day, the tunics were clearly differentiated and the primordial glands were fully developed as evident with positive reaction to Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS). The tunics of the muscularis were not well developed till at posthatch. This study therefore concludes that the primordial oesophagus is active at the late incubation due to mucin secretion by mucous glands but fully functional at posthatch since the tunica muscularis is completely developed at posthatch. PMID:28053804

  7. Negative allometry of docosahexaenoic acid in the fowl lung and pulmonary surfactant phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Szabó, A; Mézes, M; Balogh, K; Romvári, R; Horn, P; Fébel, Hedvig

    2012-06-01

    In a recent study (Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. (2010)155: 301-308) we reported that the fatty acids (FA) of the avian (7 species) total lung phospholipids (PL) (i.e. lung parenchyma and surfactant together) provide allometric properties. To test whether this allometric scaling also occurs in either of the above components, in six gallinaceous species, in a body weight range from 150 g (Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica) to 19 kg (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo) the PL FA composition (mol%) was determined in the pulmonary surfactant, in native and in thoroughly lavaged lungs (referred to as lung parenchyma). In all three components docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) showed significant and negative allometric scaling (B = -0.056, -0.17 and -0.1, respectively). Surfactant PLs provided further negative allometry for palmitic acid and the opposite was found for palmitoleate and arachidonate. In the lung parenchymal PLs increasing body weight was matched with shorter chain FAs (average FA chain length) and competing n6 and n3 end-product fatty acids (positive allometry for arachidonic acid and negative for DHA). Negative allometric scaling was found for the tissue malondialdehyde concentration in the native and lavaged lungs (B = -0.1582 and -0.1594, respectively). In these tissues strong correlation was found between the MDA concentration and DHA proportion (r = 0.439 and 0.679, respectively), denoting the role of DHA in shaping the allometric properties and influencing the extent of in vivo lipid peroxidation of membrane lipids in fowl lungs.

  8. Partial retinal dysplasia and subsequent degeneration in a mutant strain of domestic fowl (rdd).

    PubMed

    Randall, C J; Wilson, M A; Pollock, B J; Clayton, R M; Ross, A S; Bard, J B; McLachlan, I

    1983-10-01

    An inherited recessive form of retinopathy has been discovered in the domestic fowl (rdd) which is characterized by progressive deterioration of the retina, culminating in blindness by sexual maturity. Morphologically, the condition is recognizable by abnormalities in both the retinal pigment epithelium and the neural retina. Gaps in the pigment epithelium which are first detected macroscopically at nine days of incubation become larger and more numerous until the time of hatching, then disappear during the subsequent week. Undulations in the outer nuclear, outer plexiform, and inner nuclear layers are obvious by 11 days of incubation. There is a marked reduction of photoreceptors at 18 days of incubation as compared to normal controls. After hatching, the thickness of the retina decreases with age, primarily due to cell loss from the photoreceptor region and inner nuclear layer. Detachment of the atrophic retinas generally occurs in adults, and is followed in some adults by granulation and ossification of the vitreous. Problems concerning the site of the lesion are discussed.

  9. Physiological control of growth hormone secretion by thyrotrophin-releasing hormone in the domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Harvey, S; Fraser, H M

    1985-06-01

    Immature cockerels (4- to 5-weeks old) were passively immunized, with antiserum raised in sheep, against thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH). The administration of TRH antiserum (anti-TRH) at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ml/kg lowered, within 1 h, the basal concentration of plasma GH for at least 24 h. The administration of normal sheep serum had no significant effect on the GH concentration in control birds. Although the GH response to TRH (1.0 or 10.0 micrograms/kg) was not impaired in birds treated 1 h previously with anti-TRH, prior incubation (at 39 degrees C for 1 h) of TRH (20 micrograms/ml) with an equal volume of anti-TRH completely suppressed the stimulatory effect of TRH (10 micrograms/kg) on GH secretion in vivo. These results suggest that TRH is physiologically involved in the hypothalamic control of GH secretion in the domestic fowl.

  10. Effects of high and low environmental temperatures on clinical course of fowl cholera in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water were maintained t high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers to determine the influence environmental temperature had on the pathogenesis of fowl cholera. In inoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures, there was a delay in the onset of depression and, in most instances, in mortality in relation to those at low or moderate temperatures. In turkeys inoculated via drinking water and maintained at low temperatures, there was a higher mortality than in those at high or moderate temperatures. In turkeys maintained at low temperatures during the preinoculation period, the onset of depression was accelerated more after inoculation than in those maintained at moderate temperatures before inoculation. The percentage of leukocytes in the hematocrit was higher in turkeys inoculated int he palatine air spaces and maintained at low temperatures than in turkeys similarly inoculated but maintained at high or moderate temperatures. Cloacal temperatures were higher in all inoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures than in those at low or moderate temperatures, and decreased markedly when turkeys became moribund. In turkeys inoculated in the palatine air spaces, deaths from pneumonia occurred more frequently at low temperatures and torticollis occurred more frequently at high temperatures than at the other temperatures.

  11. Mechanical efficiency of limb swing during walking and running in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris)

    PubMed Central

    Rubenson, Jonas; Marsh, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical determinants of the energy cost of limb swing is crucial for refining our models of locomotor energetics, as well as improving treatments for those suffering from impaired limb-swing mechanics. In this study, we use guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) as a model to explore whether mechanical work at the joints explains limb-swing energy use by combining inverse dynamic modeling and muscle-specific energetics from blood flow measurements. We found that the overall efficiencies of the limb swing increased markedly from walking (3%) to fast running (17%) and are well below the usually accepted maximum efficiency of muscle, except at the fastest speeds recorded. The estimated efficiency of a single muscle used during ankle flexion (tibialis cranialis) parallels that of the total limb-swing efficiency (3% walking, 15% fast running). Taken together, these findings do not support the hypothesis that joint work is the major determinant of limb-swing energy use across the animal's speed range and warn against making simple predictions of energy use based on joint mechanical work. To understand limb-swing energy use, mechanical functions other than accelerating the limb segments need to be explored, including isometric force production and muscle work arising from active and passive antagonist muscle forces. PMID:19228989

  12. Testosterone: from initiating change to modulating social organisation in domestic fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, John P.; Murphy, Kenneth J.; Bannon, Finian J.; Hynes, Niamh M.; Hayden, Thomas J.

    2009-07-01

    Testosterone (T) concentrations in many species are sensitive to seasonal changes and to changes in social conditions. However, the effect of the natural or endogenous T increase in the juvenile on their social behaviour is not well understood. In this study, T and behaviour were measured from the pro-social juvenile to the adult stage in semi-feral domestic fowl. During the pro-social phase T levels and the distance chicks maintained between each other, i.e. inter-individual distance (IID) were low. Then, as T increased, a corresponding increase in IID occurred and continued in males until dispersal to individual adult male territories. In the new and initially stable adult social structure, T declined and IID remained high, indicating a new behavioural mechanism was in place. Males first mated as T levels were declining. They were then challenged; then T increased, and then IID increased again. Adult male T levels fluctuate, being low or declining in a socially stable environment and increasing following a challenge, suggesting a regulatory or modulating role for T. The results are consistent with T having an endogenous role: in the juvenile, driving behavioural change towards adulthood, and in adulthood, a modulating role regulating social organisation.

  13. [Efficacy of cefixime and cefepime vs. other cephalosporins in experimental plague of albino mice due to variants FI+ and FI- of the plague microbe].

    PubMed

    Ryzhko, I V; Shcherbaniuk, A I; Moldavan, I A; Tsuraeva, R I; Anisimov, B I; Trishina, A V

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy of cefixime and cefepime vs. ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoperazone was studied in vitro and in the treatment of experimental plague of albino mice due to natural, antigen complete strains of the plague microbe and the pathogen variants deprived of the ability to produce the capsule antigen fraction I (FI- phenotype). The MICs of cefixime and cefepime for 20 FI+ and 20 FI- strains of the plague microbe were 0.02-0.08 mg/l, that corresponded to the MICs of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. The MICs of cefoperazone were somewhat higher (0.1-0.2 mg/l). The ED50 values of cefixime and cefepime for prevention and treatment of experimental plague in mice statistically did not significantly differ from the ED50 values of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoperazone. The efficacy indices (EIs) of cefixime and cefepime were > 10(4) independent of the infective strain phenotype (FI+ or FI-) and did not differ from those of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. The efficacy of cefotaxime and cefoperazone was somewhat lower (EIs 1.7 x 10(3)-8.9 x 10(3)). Both the antibacterials were shown to provide high protective and therapeutic efficacy (80-100% of the survivors) independent of the phenotype (FI+ or FI-) of the pathogen infective strain. The results allowed to consider the antibiotics prospective in prevention and treatment of plague.

  14. Full genome sequences of two reticuloendotheliosis viruses contaminating commercial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinfang; Zhao, Jixun; Su, Jingliang; Pu, Juan; Zhang, Guozhong; Liu, Jinhua

    2009-09-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) fragments are a common contaminant in some commercial vaccines such as fowl poxvirus (FPV) and Marek's disease virus. However, only those strains integrating or containing a near-intact REV provirus are more likely to cause problems in the field. We confirm here, by PCR assays and animal experiments, that vaccines against FPV and herpes virus of turkeys were contaminated with full genome sequences of REV. Further, we determined the complete proviral sequence of two REV isolates from contaminated vaccines. Two REV isolates (REV-99 and REV-06) present in the vaccines were both replication competent, and their proviral genome was 8286 nucleotides in length with two identical long terminal repeats (LTR). The complete genome in these two REV isolates shared 99.8% identity to APC-566 and fowl poxvirus REV proviral inserts (FPV-REV). REV-99 and REV-06 LTR showed over 99% identity to chicken syncytial virus (CSV), but an identity of only 75.8% and 78.0%, respectively, to SNV. Alignments with other available REV gag, pol, and env sequences revealed high similarity at the nucleotide level. The results further indicated that the prototype CSV may be the most-important REV contaminant in the commercial vaccines, and distinct genotypes of REVs may cocirculate in chicken flocks of China at the present time.

  15. Historians and plagues in pre-industrial Italy over the longue durée.

    PubMed

    Henderson, John

    2003-01-01

    This essay deals with plague and plagues in renaissance and early modern Europe over the longue durée, principally from a methodological perspective. I shall combine an historiographical approach with an historical account of developing reactions to plague and in passing compare measures to cope in the early sixteenth century with reactions to the impact of the Great Pox or the Mal de Naples. I shall concentrate on southern Europe and in particular on Italy and my aim is to re-assess the historiography of plague through the lens of some of the more recent Anglo-Saxon literature in this field. In the process I shall outline some of the debates within the field and end with some general methodological observations drawn from early modern Italy.

  16. No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

  17. [Change in the habitat of Yersinia pestis in the Gorno-Altaisk natural focus of plague].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Chipanin, E V; Balakhonov, S V; Denisov, A V; Rozhdestvenskiĭ, E N; Mihaĭlov, E P; Iarygina, M B; Kosilko, S A

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the change that occurred in the habitat of the causative agent of plague in its Gorno-Altaisk natural focus in 1961 to 2012. Since 1961 when the plague microbe was found to come from the southern slopes of the Saylyugem mountain range, which are located in Mongolia, to the northern slopes situated in Russia, a gradual expansion of the habitat of Yersenia pestis subsp. altaica had commenced in South-Eastern Altai. During the considered period, the area where epizootic manifestations were registered showed an 11-fold increase. In most cases, the spread of the plague pathogen within the focus was natural and occurred in the successive and closely related settlements of Mongolian pikas (Ochotona pallasi). By now, the plague microbe has been widely distributed in three populations of this small animal, which inhabit the territory of South-Eastern Altai.

  18. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Guinet, Françoise; Avé, Patrick; Filali, Sofia; Huon, Christèle; Savin, Cyril; Huerre, Michel; Fiette, Laurence; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN) draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla is to protect

  19. Dietary micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) in meat-type guinea fowls and its influence on growth performance, carcass traits and meat lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Demauro, R; Laudadio, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Multitalia) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass traits, and meat fatty acids composition. A total of 120 one-day-old guinea fowl females were randomly assigned to 2 treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 wk of age. Birds were fed 2 wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (195 g/kg) and a test diet containing micronized-dehulled lupin (240 g/kg) as the main protein source. Replacing SBM with treated lupin had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative to the weight of guinea fowls. A decrease (P < 0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed lupin-diet. Breast muscle from birds fed lupin had higher lightness (L*) (P < 0.01) and redness (a*) (P < 0.05) scores and water-holding capacity (P < 0.05) than the SBM-control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed lupin had less total lipids (P < 0.05) and cholesterol (P < 0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.01). Feeding treated lupin increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in breast meat and decreased saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentrations. Our findings suggest that replacing SBM as protein source with micronized-dehulled lupin in meat-type guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative characteristics, enhancing also meat lipid profile with no effect on growth traits.

  20. Complete Protection against Pneumonic and Bubonic Plague after a Single Oral Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Derbise, Anne; Hanada, Yuri; Khalifé, Manal; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background No efficient vaccine against plague is currently available. We previously showed that a genetically attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis producing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen was an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague. This candidate vaccine however failed to confer full protection against bubonic plague and did not produce F1 stably. Methodology/Principal Findings The caf operon encoding F1 was inserted into the chromosome of a genetically attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, yielding the VTnF1 strain, which stably produced the F1 capsule. Given orally to mice, VTnF1 persisted two weeks in the mouse gut and induced a high humoral response targeting both F1 and other Y. pestis antigens. The strong cellular response elicited was directed mostly against targets other than F1, but also against F1. It involved cells with a Th1—Th17 effector profile, producing IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-10. A single oral dose (108 CFU) of VTnF1 conferred 100% protection against pneumonic plague using a high-dose challenge (3,300 LD50) caused by the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, vaccination protected 100% of mice from bubonic plague caused by a challenge with 100 LD50 Y. pestis and 93% against a high-dose infection (10,000 LD50). Protection involved fast-acting mechanisms controlling Y. pestis spread out of the injection site, and the protection provided was long-lasting, with 93% and 50% of mice surviving bubonic and pneumonic plague respectively, six months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice also survived bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by a high-dose of non-encapsulated (F1-) Y. pestis. Significance VTnF1 is an easy-to-produce, genetically stable plague vaccine candidate, providing a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by wild type or un-encapsulated (F1-negative) Y. pestis. To our knowledge, VTnF1 is the only plague vaccine ever reported that could provide high and durable protection

  1. Outbreak of Plague in a High Malaria Endemic Region - Nyimba District, Zambia, March-May 2015.

    PubMed

    Sinyange, Nyambe; Kumar, Ramya; Inambao, Akatama; Moonde, Loveness; Chama, Jonathan; Banda, Mapopa; Tembo, Elliot; Nsonga, Beron; Mwaba, John; Fwoloshi, Sombo; Musokotwane, Kebby; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kapin'a, Muzala; Hang'ombe, Benard Mudenda; Baggett, Henry C; Hachaambwa, Lottie

    2016-08-12

    Outbreaks of plague have been recognized in Zambia since 1917 (1). On April 10, 2015, Zambia's Ministry of Health was notified by the Eastern Provincial Medical Office of possible bubonic plague cases in Nyimba District. Eleven patients with acute fever and cervical lymphadenopathy had been evaluated at two rural health centers during March 28-April 9, 2015; three patients died. To confirm the outbreak and develop control measures, the Zambia Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program (ZFETP) conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in partnership with the University of Zambia's schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and the provincial and district medical offices. Twenty-one patients with clinically compatible plague were identified, with symptom onset during March 26-May 5, 2015. The median age was 8 years, and all patients were from the same village. Blood specimens or lymph node aspirates from six (29%) patients tested positive for Yersinia pestis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There is an urgent need to improve early identification and treatment of plague cases. PCR is a potential complementary tool for identifying plague, especially in areas with limited microbiologic capacity. Twelve (57%) patients, including all six with PCR-positive plague and all three who died, also tested positive for malaria by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Plague patients coinfected with malaria might be misdiagnosed as solely having malaria, and appropriate antibacterial treatment to combat plague might not be given, increasing risk for mortality. Because patients with malaria might be coinfected with other pathogens, broad spectrum antibiotic treatment to cover other pathogens is recommended for all children with severe malaria, until a bacterial infection is excluded.

  2. Use of Beauveria bassiana to control northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) on roosters in an agricultural research facility.

    PubMed

    Rassette, Matthew S W; Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Wahl, Tina; Berres, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Treatment of Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on poultry in research facilities can be challenging. The mite has a rapid reproductive cycle (egg to adult in 5 to 7 d), and chemical treatments can be toxic to birds, personnel, and the environment. In addition, antimite treatment may interfere with experimental research designs. The current study evaluated the efficacy of topical application of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the treatment of a naturally occurring infestation of Northern fowl mites in pen-housed roosters (n = 14; age, 18 mo). Two groups of 7 roosters each were used in 2 experiments: Beauveria (30 mL, 2.9 × 10(10) spores per bird) compared with water (30 mL, control), and Beauveria compared with the common topical organophosphate agent tetrachlorvinphos-dichlorvos (30 mL). We also assessed a higher dose of Beauveria (300 mL, 2.9 × 10(11) spores per bird) in the 7 birds that were not exposed to tetrachlorvinphos-dichlorvos. Beauveria reduced mite levels relative to the control group but did not outperform tetrachlorvinphos-dichlorvos when used at an equal volume and frequency. Increasing the volume and frequency of Beauveria application improved outcomes such that visual inspection failed to detect any mites. The results presented here suggest that, when applied in sufficient doses, Beauveria effectively reduces mites on poultry and can be an important part of an integrated pest management program. Additional research is needed to document the most effective dose, frequency, and location of B. bassiana application to control Northern fowl mites in poultry.

  3. Use of Beauveria bassiana to Control Northern Fowl Mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) on Roosters in an Agricultural Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Rassette, Matthew SW; Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Wahl, Tina; Berres, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on poultry in research facilities can be challenging. The mite has a rapid reproductive cycle (egg to adult in 5 to 7 d), and chemical treatments can be toxic to birds, personnel, and the environment. In addition, antimite treatment may interfere with experimental research designs. The current study evaluated the efficacy of topical application of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the treatment of a naturally occurring infestation of Northern fowl mites in pen-housed roosters (n = 14; age, 18 mo). Two groups of 7 roosters each were used in 2 experiments: Beauveria (30 mL, 2.9 × 1010 spores per bird) compared with water (30 mL, control), and Beauveria compared with the common topical organophosphate agent tetrachlorvinphos–dichlorvos (30 mL). We also assessed a higher dose of Beauveria (300 mL, 2.9 × 1011 spores per bird) in the 7 birds that were not exposed to tetrachlorvinphos–dichlorvos. Beauveria reduced mite levels relative to the control group but did not outperform tetrachlorvinphos–dichlorvos when used at an equal volume and frequency. Increasing the volume and frequency of Beauveria application improved outcomes such that visual inspection failed to detect any mites. The results presented here suggest that, when applied in sufficient doses, Beauveria effectively reduces mites on poultry and can be an important part of an integrated pest management program. Additional research is needed to document the most effective dose, frequency, and location of B. bassiana application to control Northern fowl mites in poultry. PMID:22330786

  4. Amino acid residues 196–225 of LcrV represent a plague protective epitope

    PubMed Central

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Berube, Bryan J.; Segal, Joshua; Elli, Derek; Ciletti, Nancy A.; Anderson, Deborah; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of the type III secretion needles of Yersinia pestis, is the single most important plague protective antigen. Earlier work reported monoclonal antibody MAb 7.3, which binds a conformational epitope of LcrV and protects experimental animals against lethal plague challenge. By screening monoclonal antibodies directed against LcrV for their ability to protect immunized mice against bubonic plague challenge, we examined here the possibility of additional protective epitopes. MAb BA5 protected animals against plague, neutralized the Y. pestis type III secretion pathway and promoted opsonophagocytic clearance of bacteria in blood. LcrV residues 196–225 were necessary and sufficient for MAb-BA5 binding. Compared to full length LcrV, a variant lacking its residues 196–225 retained the ability of eliciting plague protection. These results identify LcrV residues 196–225 as a linear epitope that is recognized by the murine immune system to confer plague protection. PMID:20005318

  5. [The North African plague and Charles Nicolle's theory of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ben, Néfissa Kmar; Moulin, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Many infectious diseases were described in North Africa in 18th-19th centuries by European travellers. Most of them were allegedly imported by new migrant populations coming from sub-Saharan, European or Middle East countries. Plague outbreaks have been described since the Black Death as diseases of the Mediterranean harbours. Charles Nicolle and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute were witnesses to the extinction of plague and typhus fever in Tunisia. Both could be considered as endemo-epidemic diseases propagated by ancient nomad communities for centuries. Typhus was exported to other countries; plague was imported by Mediterranean travellers but also hid in unknown wild-animal reservoirs. The role of the bite of a rat's flea was not confirmed and the pneumonic form might have prevailed in the medieval North African cities. Association between plague, typhus, flu and other causes of immune deficiencies could explain the high morbidity and mortality caused by plague in the past. The authors comment the local history of plague at the light of the evolutionary laws of infectious disease proposed by Charles Nicolle in 1930.

  6. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  7. Climate-driven spatial dynamics of plague among prairie dog colonies.

    PubMed

    Snäll, T; O'Hara, R B; Ray, C; Collinge, S K

    2008-02-01

    We present a Bayesian hierarchical model for the joint spatial dynamics of a host-parasite system. The model was fitted to long-term data on regional plague dynamics and metapopulation dynamics of the black-tailed prairie dog, a declining keystone species of North American prairies. The rate of plague transmission between colonies increases with increasing precipitation, while the rate of infection from unknown sources decreases in response to hot weather. The mean annual dispersal distance of plague is about 10 km, and topographic relief reduces the transmission rate. Larger colonies are more likely to become infected, but colony area does not affect the infectiousness of colonies. The results suggest that prairie dog movements do not drive the spread of plague through the landscape. Instead, prairie dogs are useful sentinels of plague epizootics. Simulations suggest that this model can be used for predicting long-term colony and plague dynamics as well as for identifying which colonies are most likely to become infected in a specific year.

  8. Flea, rodent, and plague ecology at Chuchupate Campground, Ventura County, California.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard M; Smith, Randall T; Madon, Minoo B; Sitko-Cleugh, Erika

    2002-06-01

    Chuchupate Campground in Ventura County, California, was closed to the public for 18 years (1982 to 2000) because of uncontrolled vector fleas and persistent plague antibody titers in rodents. The primary purpose of this study was to clarify the plague ecology of Chuchupate Campground by identifying involved rodents and their vector fleas and by determining many of their ecological parameters: abundance, flea and host preferences and diversities, and flea seasonality. Rodents and fleas were identified to species, some fleas were tested for Yersinia pestis, and rodent bloods were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Y. pestis. During this study, 20 flea species were identified from 10 rodent and one lagomorph species collected. Five species of rodents were seropositive for plague during 13 of the 17 years in which plague testing was conducted. A likely reservoir species was not determined, but evidence of plague resistance was discovered in Merriam's chipmunks (Tamias merriami) and dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes). The "susceptible" rodent and flea complexes at Chuchupate are the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) and its fleas, Oropsylla montana and Hoplopsyllus anomalus, Merriam's chipmunk and its flea, Eumolpianusfornacis, and the dusky-footed woodrat and its flea, Orchopeas sexdentatus. Host preference, diversity, and seasonality of fleas are discussed, as well as the pivotal role of woodrat houses and nests as foci for hosts, fleas, and plague.

  9. Navigable rivers facilitated the spread and recurrence of plague in pre-industrial Europe

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ricci P. H.; Lee, Harry F.; Wu, Connor Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases have become a rising challenge to mankind in a globalizing world. Yet, little is known about the inland transmission of infectious diseases in history. In this study, we based on the spatio-temporal information of 5559 plague (Yersinia pestis) outbreaks in Europe and its neighboring regions in AD1347–1760 to statistically examine the connection between navigable rivers and plague outbreak. Our results showed that 95.5% of plague happened within 10 km proximity of navigable rivers. Besides, the count of plague outbreak was positively correlated with the width of river and negatively correlated with the distance between city and river. This association remained robust in different regression model specifications. An increase of 100 m in the width of river and a shortening of 1 km distance between city and river resulted in 9 and 0.96 more plague outbreaks in our study period, respectively. Such relationship shows a declining trend over our study period due to the expansion of city and technological advancement in overland transportation. This study elucidates the key role of navigable river in the dissemination of plague in historical Europe. PMID:27721393

  10. Small mammal distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area in West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ralaizafisoloarivony, Njaka A; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Mulungu, Loth S; Leirs, Herwig; Msanya, Balthazar M; Deckers, Jozef A; Gulinck, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague endemic area in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. Landsat images and field surveys were used to select trapping locations in different landscapes. Three landscapes with different habitats were selected for trapping of small mammals. Three types of trap were used in order to maximise the number of species captured. In total, 188 animals and thirteen species were captured in 4,905 trap nights. Praomys delectorum and Mastomys natalensis both reported as plague hosts comprised 50% of all the animals trapped. Trap success increased with altitude. Species diversity was higher in plantation forest followed by shrub, compared to other habitats, regardless of landscape type. It would therefore seem that chances of plague transmission from small mammals to humans are much higher under shrub, natural and plantation forest habitats.

  11. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting landscapes in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hieronimo, Proches; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Since 1980 plague has been a human threat in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. However, the spatial-temporal pattern of plague occurrence remains poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to gain understanding of human activity patterns in relation to spatial distribution of fleas in Lushoto District. Data were collected in three landscapes differing in plague incidence. Field survey coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) and physical sample collections were used to collect data in wet (April to June 2012) and dry (August to October 2012) seasons. Data analysis was done using GIS, one-way ANOVA and nonparametric statistical tools. The degree of spatial co-occurrence of potential disease vectors (fleas) and humans in Lushoto focus differs significantly (p ≤ 0.05) among the selected landscapes, and in both seasons. This trend gives a coarse indication of the possible association of the plague outbreaks and the human frequencies of contacting environments with fleas. The study suggests that plague surveillance and control programmes at landscape scale should consider the existence of plague vector contagion risk gradient from high to low incidence landscapes due to human presence and intensity of activities.

  12. Navigable rivers facilitated the spread and recurrence of plague in pre-industrial Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ricci P. H.; Lee, Harry F.; Wu, Connor Y. H.

    2016-10-01

    Infectious diseases have become a rising challenge to mankind in a globalizing world. Yet, little is known about the inland transmission of infectious diseases in history. In this study, we based on the spatio-temporal information of 5559 plague (Yersinia pestis) outbreaks in Europe and its neighboring regions in AD1347–1760 to statistically examine the connection between navigable rivers and plague outbreak. Our results showed that 95.5% of plague happened within 10 km proximity of navigable rivers. Besides, the count of plague outbreak was positively correlated with the width of river and negatively correlated with the distance between city and river. This association remained robust in different regression model specifications. An increase of 100 m in the width of river and a shortening of 1 km distance between city and river resulted in 9 and 0.96 more plague outbreaks in our study period, respectively. Such relationship shows a declining trend over our study period due to the expansion of city and technological advancement in overland transportation. This study elucidates the key role of navigable river in the dissemination of plague in historical Europe.

  13. Local persistence and extinction of plague in a metapopulation of great gerbil burrows, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Schmid, B V; Jesse, M; Wilschut, L I; Viljugrein, H; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2012-12-01

    Speculation on how the bacterium Yersinia pestis re-emerges after years of absence in the Prebalkhash region in Kazakhstan has been ongoing for half a century, but the mechanism is still unclear. One of the theories is that plague persists in its reservoir host (the great gerbil) in so-called hotspots, i.e. small regions in which the conditions remain favourable for plague to persist during times where the conditions in the Prebalkhash region as a whole have become unfavourable for plague persistence. In this paper we use a metapopulation model that describes the dynamics of the great gerbil. With this model we study the minimum size of an individual hotspot and the combined size of multiple hotspots in the Prebalkhash region that would be required for Y. pestis to persist through an inter-epizootic period. We show that the combined area of hotspots required for plague persistence is so large that it would be unlikely to have been missed by existing plague surveillance. This suggests that persistence of plague in that region cannot solely be explained by the existence of hotspots, and therefore other hypotheses, such as survival in multiple host species, and persistence in fleas or in the soil should be considered as well.

  14. Identification of risk factors for plague in the West Nile Region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; MacMillan, Katherine; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

    2014-06-01

    Plague is an often fatal, primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis. We sought to identify risk factors for plague by comparing villages with and without a history of human plague cases within a model-defined plague focus in the West Nile Region of Uganda. Although rat (Rattus rattus) abundance was similar inside huts within case and control villages, contact rates between rats and humans (as measured by reported rat bites) and host-seeking flea loads were higher in case villages. In addition, compared with persons in control villages, persons in case villages more often reported sleeping on reed or straw mats, storing food in huts where persons sleep, owning dogs and allowing them into huts where persons sleep, storing garbage inside or near huts, and cooking in huts where persons sleep. Compared with persons in case villages, persons in control villages more commonly reported replacing thatch roofing, and growing coffee, tomatoes, onions, and melons in agricultural plots adjacent to their homesteads. Rodent and flea control practices, knowledge of plague, distance to clinics, and most care-seeking practices were similar between persons in case villages and persons in control villages. Our findings reinforce existing plague prevention recommendations and point to potentially advantageous local interventions.

  15. Comparative Genomics of 2009 Seasonal Plague (Yersinia pestis) in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Henry S.; Onischuk, Lisa; Leonard, Pascale; Broomall, Stacey; Sickler, Todd; Betters, Janet L.; McGregor, Paul; Donarum, Greg; Liem, Alvin; Fochler, Ed; McNew, Lauren; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Skowronski, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Plague disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis routinely affects animals and occasionally humans, in the western United States. The strains native to the North American continent are thought to be derived from a single introduction in the late 19th century. The degree to which these isolates have diverged genetically since their introduction is not clear, and new genomic markers to assay the diversity of North American plague are highly desired. To assay genetic diversity of plague isolates within confined geographic areas, draft genome sequences were generated by 454 pyrosequencing from nine environmental and clinical plague isolates. In silico assemblies of Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) loci were compared to laboratory-generated profiles for seven markers. High-confidence SNPs and small Insertion/Deletions (Indels) were compared to previously sequenced Y. pestis isolates. The resulting panel of mutations allowed clustering of the strains and tracing of the most likely evolutionary trajectory of the plague strains. The sequences also allowed the identification of new putative SNPs that differentiate the 2009 isolates from previously sequenced plague strains and from each other. In addition, new insertion points for the abundant insertion sequences (IS) of Y. pestis are present that allow additional discrimination of strains; several of these new insertions potentially inactivate genes implicated in virulence. These sequences enable whole-genome phylogenetic analysis and allow the unbiased comparison of closely related isolates of a genetically monomorphic pathogen. PMID:22359605

  16. Safety and efficacy of a metabolic drift live attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum vaccine against fowl typhoid.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad Ali; Sultan, Hesham; Hafez, Hafez M; Krüger, Monika

    2013-03-01

    Fowl typhoid (FT), a systemic disease that results in septicemia in poultry, is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG). Mortality and morbidity rates from FT can reach up to 80%. Attenuated live Salmonella vaccine candidates have received considerable attention because they confer solid immunity, and they can produce systemic and mucosal immunity in the gut when administered orally. In the present study, five metabolic drift (MD) mutants with a single-(designated SG-Rif1, SG-Sm6) or double-attenuating marker (designated SG-Rif1-Sm4, SG-Sm6-Rif10, and SG-Rif1-Sm10) were isolated. The relative colony sizes to wild-type strain after 24 hr at 37 C incubation were 50%, 40%, 30%, 30%, and 20%, respectively. The probability of a back mutation can almost be excluded because the reduced colony sizes were stable after at least 50 passages on culture media. The safety and immunogenicity were evaluated in susceptible 1-day-old commercial layer chickens. After oral administration of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU), all developed MD mutants proved to be safe and did not cause death of any infected birds during 15 days postvaccination, whereas chickens receiving 10(6) CFU SG wild-type strain showed a high mortality rate (40%). Vaccination of commercial layer chicks with SG-Rif1, SG-Sm6, SG-Rif1-Sm4, and SG-Sm6-Rif10 MD mutants could protect chickens against challenge by homologous wild-type strain; however, SG-Rif1-Sm10 could not protect against challenge, indicating hyperattenuation. In conclusion, vaccination with SG MD mutant vaccine appears to be safe and offers protection against FT in chickens.

  17. Effect of fatty acid administration on plasma thyroid hormones in the domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Chua Teco, G N; Chopra, I J

    1988-06-01

    In birds a severe stress is associated with a reduction in concentrations of plasma thyroxine. Studies in man and the rat have demonstrated that severe illness is associated with an increase in serum concentrations of free fatty acids, notably oleic acid, and that they are associated with a reduction in concentrations of serum thyroxine (T4) and/or triiodothyronine (T3). Since stress is associated with increased fatty acids in birds, we have, in the present study, examined the role of oleic acid and another polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, on thyroid function tests (plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and T3 resin uptake (RT3U) index) and on the thyroidal response to exogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the domestic fowl. In the first study we observed that the iv administration of arachidonic (10 mg/kg) or oleic acid (15 mg/kg) to groups of 10-week-old cockerels (six per group) was associated with a significant reduction in concentrations of plasma T4, whereas there was little change in saline-injected controls. However, administration of fatty acids to chickens was not associated with a significant change in RT3U index or in the levels of plasma T3. In the second study, groups of animals (n = 6) were injected with bovine TSH (0.5 IU/kg, im) or saline 2.5 hr after the fatty acid injection and blood samples were obtained at -2.5 to 24 hr after the TSH injection. A similar progressive increase in serum T4 was observed for the three groups studied whereas there was little change in the concentrations of plasma T3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Concentrations of triiodothyronine, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone in the plasma of thyroidectomised fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Sterling, R J; Klandorf, H

    1983-05-01

    Surgical thyroidectomy increased (P less than 0.05) the basal concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the plasma of 10- to 12-week-old domestic fowl. The administration of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) (100 micrograms, sc) increased (P less than 0.01) the GH concentration in both intact and thyroidectomised birds. The magnitude of the TRH-induced increase in GH level was greater (P less than 0.01) in thyroidectomised birds than in intact controls. Although TRH had no effect on LH secretion in the controls, it induced a small (P less than 0.05) rise in the plasma LH level in thyroidectomised birds. In both the intact and thyroidectomised birds the LH concentration was enhanced (P less than 0.05) following the administration of LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) (20 micrograms, sc). The increase in the LH level by LH-RH in the thyroidectomised birds was greater (P less than 0.001) than that in the intact controls. Plasma GH concentrations were unaffected by LH-RH treatment. These results suggest that thyroid hormones inhibit the secretion of LH and GH in birds. In thyroidectomised birds low levels of immunoreactive triiodothyronine (T3)-like material were measurable in the circulation, despite the absence of regenerated thyroid tissue. The administration of TRH (100 micrograms, sc) did not enhance the plasma level of this material in thyroidectomised birds, whereas plasma T3 concentrations were enhanced in intact birds following TRH treatment. These results suggest that the T3 immunoreactive substance in thyroidectomised birds is extrathyroidal in origin.

  19. Host inflammatory response governs fitness in an avian ectoparasite, the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum).

    PubMed

    Owen, Jeb P; Delany, Mary E; Cardona, Carol J; Bickford, Arthur A; Mullens, Bradley A

    2009-06-01

    Vertebrate immune responses to ectoparasites influence pathogen transmission and host fitness costs. Few studies have characterized natural immune responses to ectoparasites and resultant fitness effects on the ectoparasite. These are critical gaps in understanding vertebrate-ectoparasite interaction, disease ecology and host-parasite co-adaptation. This study focused on an ectoparasite of birds--the northern fowl mite (NFM) (Ornithonyssus sylviarum). Based on prior evidence that chickens develop resistance to NFM, these experiments tested two hypotheses: (i) skin inflammation blocks mite access to blood,impairing development, reproduction and survival; and (ii) host immunogenetic variation influences the inflammatory response and subsequent effects on the ectoparasite. On infested hosts, histology of skin inflammation revealed increased epidermal cell number and size, immigration of leukocytes and deposition of serous exudates on the skin surface. Survival of adult mites and their offspring decreased as the area of skin inflammation increased during an infestation. Inflammation increased the distance to blood vessels beyond the length of mite mouthparts (100-160 lm) and prevented protonymphs and adults from reaching a blood source. Consequently, protonymphs could not complete development, evidenced by a significant inverse relationship between inflammation and protonymph feeding success, as well as an increasing protonymph/adult ratio. Adult females were unable to feed and reproduce, indicated by an inverse relationship between inflammation and egg production, and decreasing female/juvenile ratio. These combined impacts of host inflammation reversed NFM population growth. Intensity of inflammation was influenced by the genotype of the major histocompatibility complex(MHC), supporting previous research that linked these immunological loci with NFM resistance. Overall, these data provide a model for a mechanism of avian resistance to an ectoparasitic arthropod and

  20. How do treadmill speed and terrain visibility influence neuromuscular control of guinea fowl locomotion?

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Joanne C.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Locomotor control mechanisms must flexibly adapt to both anticipated and unexpected terrain changes to maintain movement and avoid a fall. Recent studies revealed that ground birds alter movement in advance of overground obstacles, but not treadmill obstacles, suggesting context-dependent shifts in the use of anticipatory control. We hypothesized that differences between overground and treadmill obstacle negotiation relate to differences in visual sensory information, which influence the ability to execute anticipatory manoeuvres. We explored two possible explanations: (1) previous treadmill obstacles may have been visually imperceptible, as they were low contrast to the tread, and (2) treadmill obstacles are visible for a shorter time compared with runway obstacles, limiting time available for visuomotor adjustments. To investigate these factors, we measured electromyographic activity in eight hindlimb muscles of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, N=6) during treadmill locomotion at two speeds (0.7 and 1.3 m s−1) and three terrain conditions at each speed: (i) level, (ii) repeated 5 cm low-contrast obstacles (<10% contrast, black/black), and (iii) repeated 5 cm high-contrast obstacles (>90% contrast, black/white). We hypothesized that anticipatory changes in muscle activity would be higher for (1) high-contrast obstacles and (2) the slower treadmill speed, when obstacle viewing time is longer. We found that treadmill speed significantly influenced obstacle negotiation strategy, but obstacle contrast did not. At the slower speed, we observed earlier and larger anticipatory increases in muscle activity and shifts in kinematic timing. We discuss possible visuomotor explanations for the observed context-dependent use of anticipatory strategies. PMID:26254324

  1. Immunogold identification of the somatotrophs of domestic fowl of different ages.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Gibney, J A; Scanes, C G

    1988-03-01

    The somatotrophs of the pituitary gland of the male domestic fowl were identified by means of an immunoelectron-microscopic method based on gold as the electron-opaque label and an antibody to growth hormone. Gold particles indicating sites of growth hormone were restricted to cells in which virtually all of the granules were labelled. Little, if any, gold label was found outside the granules in these cells designated as somatotrophs, or at sites outside these cells. The size of these gold-labelled secretory granules presumed to contain growth hormone decreased with age, from a mean sectional diameter of 256 +/- 6.2 nm (SEM) at 4-6 weeks to 221 +/- 5.7 nm at 11-18 weeks and 205 +/- 8.6 nm at 24-30 weeks of age. On the basis of these values for mean sectional diameters the change between the first two periods represents a decrease in granule volume of about 36%. However, during the same period the growth hormone concentration of the granules increased. Accordingly, growth hormone content per granule changed little if at all. In contrast, from 11-18 weeks to 24-30 weeks of age there was a decrease of 31% in growth hormone content per granule. These data indicate that growth hormone packaging in the chicken somatotroph changes with age. The first change results in the production of smaller granules of higher growth hormone concentration. During this period growth hormone content per granule remains relatively constant. The later change results in the production of granules of lower growth hormone content than that of younger animals.

  2. Acaricide resistance in northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) populations on caged layer operations in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Mullens, B A; Velten, R K; Hinkle, N C; Kuney, D R; Szijj, C E

    2004-03-01

    Southern California caged layer operations were visited over 3 yr. Northern fowl mites from 26 field populations were tested for acaricide resistance using a capillary pipette and glass dish bioassay. One was a susceptible field population with no pesticide exposure for over 30 yr (reference site for resistance ratio calculation). Technical and commercial formulations of malathion, carbaryl (Sevin), permethrin, and a commercial formulation of tetrachlorvinphos/dichlorvos (Ravap) were tested. Malathion did not have high activity for mites relative to other materials, but resistance to both technical and commercial formulations was low (< 5x). Resistance to other materials was moderate to extreme. Frequency of carbaryl resistance (> 10x) was higher with the commercial (88%) than the technical material (41%); 19% of the populations had resistance > 100x to commercial carbaryl. Frequency of Ravap resistance (> 10x) was 68%; 8% of populations had resistance > 100x. Frequency of permethrin resistance (> 10x) was 72% for the technical material and 88% for the commercial formulation. Extreme permethrin resistance (> 1,000x) was observed in 56 and 50% of mite populations assayed using the technical and commercial formulations, respectively. Among sites, resistance to permethrin was uncorrelated with resistance to other chemicals, suggesting a different resistance mechanism. Resistance to carbaryl and Ravap was highly correlated [r = 0.76 at the LC50 level (concentrations estimated to be lethal to 50% of the test population) and r = 0.99 at the LC95 level], suggesting a common resistance mechanism. Producers currently depend completely on pesticides to control mite infestations. Mite resistance to registered materials emphasizes the need for integrated control measures.

  3. Detection of multiple strains of Pasteurella multocida in fowl cholera outbreaks by polymerase chain reaction-based typing.

    PubMed

    Shivachandra, S B; Kumar, A A; Gautam, R; Saxena, M K; Chaudhuri, P; Srivastava, S K

    2005-12-01

    Applicability of molecular methods for the detection and differentiation of Pasteurella multocida strains involved in two separate fowl cholera outbreaks in a single poultry farm was investigated. A total of 12 and 18 strains of P. multocida obtained from two separate outbreaks were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Phenotypically, all strains were similar; however, DNA-based techniques by employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were found to be highly specific and sensitive for rapid detection and differentiation of strains. All 30 strains gave amplicons of approximately 460 bp and approximately 1,044 bp specific for P. multocida and capsular serogroup A in the Multiplex Capsular PCR typing system. Molecular typing techniques such as repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and single primer PCR differentiated all 30 strains into different profiles. However, similar patterns of genome fragments were observed among all strains following restriction endonuclease analysis using the enzyme HpaII. The current investigation revealed involvement of the same and multiple strains of P. multocida in two outbreaks. The results also indicated that molecular methods of detection and typing are rapid in comparison with conventional methods for epidemiological investigations of fowl cholera outbreaks.

  4. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Busch, Joseph D; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E; Cobble, Kacy R; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William; Shuey, Megan M; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L; Rocke, Tonie E; Wagner, David M

    2013-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  5. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E.; Cobble, Kacy R.; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  6. Duration of plague (Yersinia pestis) outbreaks in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    St Romain, Krista; Tripp, Daniel W; Salkeld, Daniel J; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, triggers die-offs in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), but the time-frame of plague activity is not well understood. We document plague activity in fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows on three prairie dog colonies that suffered die-offs. We demonstrate that Y. pestis transmission occurs over periods from several months to over a year in prairie dog populations before observed die-offs.

  7. Investigations on the incidence of complement fixing antibodies to the avian group-specific ("gs") sarcoma-leukosis antigen in fowl farm workers.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Predescu, E; Stoian, M; Chira, M; Hozoc, M; Suru, M; Ibric, L; Elefterescu, A

    1978-01-01

    The presence of complement fixing antibodies to the avian "gs" sarcoma-leukosis antigen is reported in the personnel of five different fowl farms. Seroconversion was observed in the workers from one of the farms, where the initial antibody incidence was very low.

  8. A historical vignette (15). "Be proud of yourself: you have a history!" The nose and the plague.

    PubMed

    Tainmont, J

    2009-01-01

    The nose and the plague. Although the plague does not cause any specific nasal pathology, the miasma theory and the repulsive smell of the disease were factors that contributed to a strong emphasis on the nose. To stop the spread of the disease, it was thought necessary to saturate the nose with protective scents (hence the nose of the plague doctors) (Figure 1), or simply to hold one's nose. Moreover, the nose was long considered to be an outlet for mucus from the encephalon, and so induced nose bleeding and sneezing were advised when the plague seemed to be attacking the brain.

  9. Epidemiological analysis of the Eyam plague outbreak of 1665–1666

    PubMed Central

    Whittles, Lilith K.

    2016-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is one of the deadliest infectious diseases in human history, and still causes worrying outbreaks in Africa and South America. Despite the historical and current importance of plague, several questions remain unanswered concerning its transmission routes and infection risk factors. The plague outbreak that started in September 1665 in the Derbyshire village of Eyam claimed 257 lives over 14 months, wiping out entire families. Since previous attempts at modelling the Eyam plague, new data have been unearthed from parish records revealing a much more complete record of the disease. Using a stochastic compartmental model and Bayesian analytical methods, we found that both rodent-to-human and human-to-human transmission played an important role in spreading the infection, and that they accounted, respectively, for a quarter and three-quarters of all infections, with a statistically significant seasonality effect. We also found that the force of infection was stronger for infectious individuals living in the same household compared with the rest of the village. Poverty significantly increased the risk of disease, whereas adulthood decreased the risk. These results on the Eyam outbreak contribute to the current debate on the relative importance of plague transmission routes. PMID:27170724

  10. Sylvatic plague reduces genetic variability in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Kristie M; Britten, Hugh B; Restani, Marco

    2004-04-01

    Small, isolated populations are vulnerable to loss of genetic diversity through in-breeding and genetic drift. Sylvatic plague due to infection by the bacterium Yersinia pestis caused an epizootic in the early 1990s resullting in declines and extirpations of many black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in north-central Montana, USA. Plague-induced population bottlenecks may contribute to significant reductions in genetic variability. In contrast, gene flow maintains genetic variability within colonies. We investigated the impacts of the plague epizootic and distance to nearest colony on levels of genetic variability in six prairie dog colonies sampled between June 1999 and July 2001 using 24 variable randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Number of effective alleles per locus (n(e)) and gene diversity (h) were significantly decreased in the three colonies affected by plague that were recovering from the resulting bottlenecks compared with the three colonies that did not experience plague. Genetic variability was not significantly affected by geographic distance between colonies. The majority of variance in gene fieqnencies was found within prairie clog colonies. Conservation of genetic variability in black-tailed prairie dogs will require the preservation of both large and small colony complexes and the gene flow amonog them.

  11. A High-Coverage Yersinia pestis Genome from a Sixth-Century Justinianic Plague Victim

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Harbeck, Michaela; Keller, Marcel; Spyrou, Maria A.; Rott, Andreas; Trautmann, Bernd; Scholz, Holger C.; Päffgen, Bernd; Peters, Joris; McCormick, Michael; Bos, Kirsten; Herbig, Alexander; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The Justinianic Plague, which started in the sixth century and lasted to the mid eighth century, is thought to be the first of three historically documented plague pandemics causing massive casualties. Historical accounts and molecular data suggest the bacterium Yersinia pestis as its etiological agent. Here we present a new high-coverage (17.9-fold) Y. pestis genome obtained from a sixth-century skeleton recovered from a southern German burial site close to Munich. The reconstructed genome enabled the detection of 30 unique substitutions as well as structural differences that have not been previously described. We report indels affecting a lacl family transcription regulator gene as well as nonsynonymous substitutions in the nrdE, fadJ, and pcp genes, that have been suggested as plague virulence determinants or have been shown to be upregulated in different models of plague infection. In addition, we identify 19 false positive substitutions in a previously published lower-coverage Y. pestis genome from another archaeological site of the same time period and geographical region that is otherwise genetically identical to the high-coverage genome sequence reported here, suggesting low-genetic diversity of the plague during the sixth century in rural southern Germany. PMID:27578768

  12. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends.

  13. Vegetation habitats and small mammals in a plague endemic area in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ralaizafisoloarivony, Njaka A; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Mulungu, Loth S; Leirs, Herwig; Msanya, Balthazar M; Deckers, Jozef A; Gulinck, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    Human plague still exists in different parts of the world, including some landscapes in north-eastern Tanzania. Wherever the hotspot of plague, small mammals seem to play a key role as host. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vegetation habitats types and small mammals in a plague endemic area of Lushoto District in Tanzania. A combination of field survey and Landsat images was used to identify the vegetation habitats. Small mammals were trapped in the mapped vegetation units, and identified. In total, six main types of vegetation habitats were investigated. A total of 13 small mammal species, potentially related to plague were trapped. Results show that annual cultivated crops habitat accounted for 80% of Mastomys natalensis while natural forest accounted for 60% of Praomys delectorum. These findings have shed new light on the diversity of rodents in different habitats of natural and semi-natural vegetations, and agricultural crops in the study area, which is an important intermediate step in unravelling the complex human plague system.

  14. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  15. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar. PMID:26844772

  16. The plague of Thebes, a historical epidemic in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Androutsos, George; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Sophocles, one of the most noted playwrights of the ancient world, wrote the tragedy Oedipus Rex in the first half of the decade 430-420 bc. A lethal plague is described in this drama. We adopted a critical approach to Oedipus Rex in analyzing the literary description of the disease, unraveling its clinical features, and defining a possible underlying cause. Our goals were to clarify whether the plague described in Oedipus Rex reflects an actual historical event; to compare it with the plague of Athens, which was described by Thucydides as occurring around the same time Sophocles wrote; and to propose a likely causative pathogen. A critical reading of Oedipus Rex and a comparison with Thucydides' history, as well as a systematic review of historical data, strongly suggests that this epidemic was an actual event, possibly caused by Brucella abortus.

  17. Yersinia-flea interactions and the evolution of the arthropod-borne transmission route of plague

    PubMed Central

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is unique among the enteric group of Gram-negative bacteria in relying on a blood-feeding insect for transmission. The Yersinia-flea interactions that enable plague transmission cycles have had profound historical consequences as manifested by human plague pandemics. The arthropod-borne transmission route was a radical ecologic change from the food- and water-borne transmission route of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, from which Y. pestis diverged only within the last 20,000 years. Thus, the interactions of Y. pestis with its flea vector that lead to colonization and successful transmission are the result of a recent evolutionary adaptation that required relatively few genetic changes. These changes from the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor included loss of insecticidal activity, increased resistance to antibacterial factors in the flea midgut, and extending Yersinia biofilm-forming ability to the flea host environment. PMID:22406208

  18. The Plague of Thebes, a Historical Epidemic in Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulos, Konstantinos P.; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Androutsos, George; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Sophocles, one of the most noted playwrights of the ancient world, wrote the tragedy Oedipus Rex in the first half of the decade 430–420 bc. A lethal plague is described in this drama. We adopted a critical approach to Oedipus Rex in analyzing the literary description of the disease, unraveling its clinical features, and defining a possible underlying cause. Our goals were to clarify whether the plague described in Oedipus Rex reflects an actual historical event; to compare it with the plague of Athens, which was described by Thucydides as occurring around the same time Sophocles wrote; and to propose a likely causative pathogen. A critical reading of Oedipus Rex and a comparison with Thucydides’ history, as well as a systematic review of historical data, strongly suggests that this epidemic was an actual event, possibly caused by Brucella abortus. PMID:22261081

  19. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  20. Investigation of and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Mary; Novak, Mark; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul; Kingry, Luke; Weinburke, Matthew; Buttke, Danielle; Hacker, Gregory; Tucker, James; Niemela, Michael; Jackson, Bryan; Padgett, Kerry; Liebman, Kelly; Vugia, Duc

    2016-01-01

    In August 2015, plague was diagnosed for 2 persons who had visited Yosemite National Park in California, USA. One case was septicemic and the other bubonic. Subsequent environmental investigation identified probable locations of exposure for each patient and evidence of epizootic plague in other areas of the park. Transmission of Yersinia pestis was detected by testing rodent serum, fleas, and rodent carcasses. The environmental investigation and whole-genome multilocus sequence typing of Y. pestis isolates from the patients and environmental samples indicated that the patients had been exposed in different locations and that at least 2 distinct strains of Y. pestis were circulating among vector–host populations in the area. Public education efforts and insecticide applications in select areas to control rodent fleas probably reduced the risk for plague transmission to park visitors and staff. PMID:27870634

  1. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia virus from contaminated live-virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Hu, Yan; Cui, Shuai; Fu, Jiayuan; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Fang, Lichun; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-11-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible causes of the pervasiveness of chicken infectious anemia virus ( CIAV: ) infection in chickens in recent years in China. A total of 14 batches of live-virus vaccines were examined using PCR to detect CIAV contamination, of which only 2 samples (a Newcastle disease vaccine and a fowl pox vaccine) tested positive for CIAV. These Newcastle and fowl pox vaccines were then inoculated into 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. Serum samples were collected from chickens infected with the PCR-positive vaccines, and these tested positive for CIAV-specific antibodies as tested using ELISA. In addition, DNA samples isolated from the serum samples also tested positive by PCR. The results indicated that the samples were contaminated with CIAV and identified 2 exogenous CIAV strains, designated CIAV-N22 and CIAV-F10, in the respective samples. The full genome sequences of these novel CIAV strains were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the CIAV-F10 strain might represent a recombinant viral strain arising from the parental CIAV strains JQ690762 and KJ728816. Overall, the results suggested that vaccination with CIAV-contaminated vaccines contributed to the prevalence and spread of CIAV infection in chickens. Furthermore, the CIAV contaminant was likely subsequently transmitted to commercial chickens through congenital transmission. Our findings therefore highlight the need for more extensive screening of live-virus vaccines for poultry in China to reduce the threat of contamination with exogenous viruses.

  2. Gompertz-Laird model prediction of optimum utilization of crude protein and metabolizable energy by French guinea fowl broilers.

    PubMed

    Nahashon, S N; Aggrey, S E; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary CP and ME on growth parameters of the French guinea fowl, a meat-type variety. In a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, 297 one-day-old French guinea keets (162 females and 135 males) were randomly assigned to experimental diets comprising 3,050, 3,100, and 3,150 kcal of ME/kg, each containing 21, 23, and 25% CP from hatch to 4 wk of age (WOA), and 3,100, 3150, and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg, each containing 19, 21, and 23% CP at 5 to 8 WOA. Using BW and G:F data from hatch to 8 WOA, the Gompertz-Laird growth model was employed to estimate growth patterns of the French guinea fowl. Mean differences in exponential growth rate, age of maximum growth, and asymptotic BW among dietary CP and ME levels were not significant. However, instantaneous growth rate and weight at inflection point were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in birds on the 25% CP diet than those on the 21% CP diet at hatch to 4 WOA (1.12 kg/wk and 0.79 kg vs. 1.04 kg/wk and 0.74 kg, respectively). The exponential growth rate was also higher (P < 0.05) in birds fed the 3,050 kcal of ME/kg diet with either 23 or 25% CP than those fed diets containing 3,050 kcal of ME/kg and 21% CP. Mean G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in birds fed diets containing 3,050 kcal of ME/kg and either 21 or 23% CP than those in other dietary treatments. Therefore, based on the Gompertz-Laird growth model estimates, feeding 21 and 23% CP and 3,100 kcal of ME/kg at hatch to 4 WOA and 19 and 21% CP with 3,150 kcal of ME/kg at 5 to 8 WOA can be recommended as adequate for growth for the French guinea fowl broilers.

  3. Classic flea-borne transmission does not drive plague epizootics in prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Webb, Colleen T; Brooks, Christopher P; Gage, Kenneth L; Antolin, Michael F

    2006-04-18

    We lack a clear understanding of the enzootic maintenance of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague and the sporadic epizootics that occur in its natural rodent hosts. A key to elucidating these epidemiological dynamics is determining the dominant transmission routes of plague. Plague can be acquired from the bites of infectious fleas (which is generally considered to occur via a blocked flea vector), inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets, or contact with a short-term infectious reservoir. We present results from a plague modeling approach that includes transmission from all three sources of infection simultaneously and uses sensitivity analysis to determine their relative importance. Our model is completely parameterized by using data from the literature and our own field studies of plague in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Results of the model are qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with independent data from our field sites. Although infectious fleas might be an important source of infection and transmission via blocked fleas is a dominant paradigm in the literature, our model clearly predicts that this form of transmission cannot drive epizootics in prairie dogs. Rather, a short-term reservoir is required for epizootic dynamics. Several short-term reservoirs have the potential to affect the prairie dog system. Our model predictions of the residence time of the short-term reservoir suggest that other small mammals, infectious prairie dog carcasses, fleas that transmit plague without blockage of the digestive tract, or some combination of these three are the most likely of the candidate infectious reservoirs.

  4. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  5. Classic flea-borne transmission does not drive plague epizootics in prairie dogs

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Colleen T.; Brooks, Christopher P.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    We lack a clear understanding of the enzootic maintenance of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague and the sporadic epizootics that occur in its natural rodent hosts. A key to elucidating these epidemiological dynamics is determining the dominant transmission routes of plague. Plague can be acquired from the bites of infectious fleas (which is generally considered to occur via a blocked flea vector), inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets, or contact with a short-term infectious reservoir. We present results from a plague modeling approach that includes transmission from all three sources of infection simultaneously and uses sensitivity analysis to determine their relative importance. Our model is completely parameterized by using data from the literature and our own field studies of plague in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Results of the model are qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with independent data from our field sites. Although infectious fleas might be an important source of infection and transmission via blocked fleas is a dominant paradigm in the literature, our model clearly predicts that this form of transmission cannot drive epizootics in prairie dogs. Rather, a short-term reservoir is required for epizootic dynamics. Several short-term reservoirs have the potential to affect the prairie dog system. Our model predictions of the residence time of the short-term reservoir suggest that other small mammals, infectious prairie dog carcasses, fleas that transmit plague without blockage of the digestive tract, or some combination of these three are the most likely of the candidate infectious reservoirs. PMID:16603630

  6. Scavenging by mammalian carnivores on prairie dog colonies: implications for the spread of plague.

    PubMed

    Boone, Amanda; Kraft, John P; Stapp, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Plague causes mass mortality of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in shortgrass steppe. Although the pathogen, the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is spread within colonies by flea bites or contact between infected hosts, it is unclear how Y. pestis is transported over long distances between isolated colonies. One possibility is that wideranging, plague-resistant mammalian carnivores pick up fleas when scavenging prairie dog carcasses. Using guinea pigs as surrogates for prairie dogs, we compared how quickly scavengers discovered carcasses on active prairie dog colonies, on colonies recently extirpated by plague, and in grasslands without prairie dogs. In June-July 2007, we monitored the fates of 20 guinea pig carcasses for 4 consecutive days on each site type. Ten carcasses were placed in wire exclosures that restricted access only to arthropods and small rodents; the other 10 were exposed to all scavengers. Scavengers were identified by tracks, evidence of consumption, and/or remote cameras. Carnivores discovered carcasses more quickly on active and plague colonies (mean +/- 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6 +/- 0.7, 1.4 +/- 1.4 days, respectively) than on grasslands (3.1 +/- 0.7 days). By the end of the trials, all (100%) exposed carcasses were removed from active colonies, whereas 60% were removed from plague colonies and 30% were removed from grasslands. Rates of carcass discovery and removal on active colonies were significantly greater than in grasslands, which mirrored differences in carnivore activity recorded during earlier scat surveys. A small fraction (30%-40%) of carcasses in exclosures were eaten by rodents, but only on active and plague colonies, suggesting that small rodents, presumably grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), may also consume carcasses and pick up fleas if carcasses are not removed by carnivores first. These results, combined with observations that fleas remain alive on prairie dogs at least 1 day following their death, suggest that

  7. Use of Rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of C. ludovicianus) when used at concentrations <0.5% of bait mass dosed to deliver >10 mg RB per kg target animal mass. Whiskers with follicles provided the best sample for RB detection.

  8. [The plague and iron - or why didn't everybody die?].

    PubMed

    Palmblad, J

    1994-01-01

    In the years of the Black Death, contemporary observers noted that wealthy men were more likely to die from plague than women and the poor. One hypothesis, seeking an explanation for this phenomenon, is that the iron stores of an individual are a significant virulence factor for Yersina pestis, since this microorganism is dependent on iron for its multiplication. Thus, iron deficiency might confer some protection, whereas sufficient or even overabundant body iron stores contribute to the mortality in plague as well as in some other infectious diseases.

  9. The plague under Commodus as an unintended consequence of Roman grain market regulation.

    PubMed

    Silver, Morris

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins with a review of Roman grain market policies. It is argued that policies such as forced sales and maximum prices made urban consumers hesitant to rely on the market for secure access to grain. Consequently, consumers hoarded grain in their homes. The hoarded grain formed a volatile fuel ready to be ignited by the arrival of the bubonic plague bacillus. This scenario fits events in the city of Rome under Commodus. Attested grain market interventions were followed by a severe epidemic, arguably bubonic plague, which decimated the city's population.

  10. Socio-epidemiological determinants of 2002 plague outbreak in Himachal Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This qualitative investigation was conducted to determine the socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in Himachal Pradesh (HP), India. Methods The data for socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in HP was obtained from residents through 150 in-depth Interviews (IDI) and 30 Focus Group Discussions (FGD) during six visits (from May 2011 to April 2012) by the research team. Natives, health officials and the nomadic population were interviewed. According to their opinion and viewpoints data was collected and their lifestyle and hunting practices were studied in detail. Tape recorders were used during various FGDs and IDIs. The interviews and FGDs were later transcribed and coded. In-depth analysis of the recorded data was done using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results The study reports that the outbreak in 2002 in a few villages of Himachal Pradesh was that of plague and it occurred by the contact of an index case with wild animals after hunting and de-skinning. The first wave of plague transmission which took 16 lives of residents was followed by a second wave of transmission in a ward of a tertiary care hospital where one visitor acquired it from relatives of the index case and succumbed. The life-style practices of residents (hunting behavior, long stay in caves and jungles, overcrowding in houses, poor hygiene and sanitation, belief in ‘God’ and faith healers for cure of diseases) was optimal for the occurrence and rapid spread of such a communicable disease. The man-rodent contact is intensified due to the practice of hunting in such a rodent-ridden environment. The residents harbor a strong belief that plague occurs due to the wrath of gods. Various un-reported outbreaks of plague were also observed by officials, residents and old folk. The persistence of plague in HP is favoured by its hilly terrain, inaccessible areas, inclement weather (snow) in winters, unhygienic lifestyle

  11. Spatial analysis and identification of high risk plague regions in Pakistan based on associated rodent species distribution.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Madiha; Aleem, Maha; Javed, Sundus; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akbar Shah; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-08-02

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestitis, is an infectious bacterial disease that has a high fatality rate if untreated. Rodents are plague reservoirs and play an important role in disease spread. Plague cases have been reported extensively since the second pandemic from the 14th century in countries sharing borders with Pakistan, such as China and India, as well as nearby countries including Russia and central Asia. Despite being centrally located in a plague-infested geographical zone, there has been no plague incidence reported from Pakistan. This study aims to pinpoint some of the potentially important aspects of the disease, which have to be considered when assessing potential risk associated with a plague outbreak in Pakistan. In this context, the occurrence and distribution of plague-associated rodent reservoirs in different regions of Pakistan in relation to those found in the neighboring countries were mapped. In addition, the climatic factors that may also influence disease spread by affecting the growth of the bacteria are also discussed. The combined epidemiological and ecological surveillance studies suggest a prevalence of several potential rodent carriers in certain districts with the possibility of a plague outbreak in Pakistan.

  12. Electrical and mechanical activity of the longitudinal muscle of the anterior mesenteric artery of the domestic fowl

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, T. B.

    1968-01-01

    1. The electrical activity and changes in tension of the longitudinal muscle of the anterior mesenteric artery (LMAMA) of the domestic fowl were recorded simultaneously using the sucrose-gap method. 2. Spontaneous activity consisted of recurring contractions each accompanied by a burst of action potentials. 3. In quiescent preparations, brief electrical stimuli, acetylcholine, or barium chloride produced contractions with the appearance of action potentials. Larger concentrations of barium chloride or acetylcholine produced depolarization and action potentials ceased although contraction was maintained. Whenever depolarization without action potentials occurred, it was associated with a smooth contraction, whereas action potentials were always accompanied by small rapid contractions super-imposed upon the main contraction. 4. When the tone was raised with barium chloride (and in the presence of hyoscine) continuous action potentials occurred; under these circumstances brief electrical stimuli or noradrenaline produced relaxation, cessation of action potentials, and hyperpolarization. PMID:5652877

  13. Residues of stirofos (rabon) in eggs of laying hens treated for northern fowl mite control by dipping.

    PubMed

    Ivey, M C; Devaney, J A; Ivie, G W; Beerwinkle, K R

    1982-03-01

    Laying hens were treated with a wettable powder formulation of stirofos [Rabon, 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethylphosphate] by dipping in a .5 or 1.0% actual ingredient (AI) water suspension of a 50% wettable powder (WP) stirfos formulation. Stirofos residues were detected in eggs within 1 day after treatment and reached maximum levels 3 days after dipping (.021 and .035 ppm in the low- and high-dose birds, respectively). After that time, levels of residues in eggs declined rapidly and no sample contained detectable quantities (less than .004 ppm) of stirofos after 21 days. Dipping may be a practical control method for the northern fowl mite on chickens, because stirofos dips effectively control this mite on laying hens for at least 6 weeks and because resulting residues in eggs are well below established tolerances.

  14. Effectiveness of Ectiban, egg oil, Rabon, or Sevin for control of northern fowl mites on laying hens.

    PubMed

    McKeen, W D; Loomis, E C; Dunning, L L

    1983-12-01

    Two field trials were conducted on different ranches to compare acaricides for control of northern fowl mite (NFM) on White Leghorn hens. In Trial 1 Ectiban spray and dust treatments were compared to Rabon and Sevin spray-treatments; egg oil, Rabon, and Sevin sprays were tested in Trial 2. Concentration and rates of application followed label recommendations for the registered compounds. In Trial 1 Ectiban spray gave excellent NFM control; Ectiban dust, Rabon, and Sevin spray treatments resulted in poor NFM control. Egg oil and Rabon sprays gave effective NFM control in Trial 2. Sevin, as in Trial 1, gave poor NFM control. The failure of Sevin to control mites both times suggests the possibility of NFM resistance to this chemical.

  15. A cluster of primary pneumonic plague transmitted in a truck cab in a new enzootic focus in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huiming; Dong, Xingqi; Li, Furong; Xie, Xu; Song, Zhizhong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Zhongjie; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Hongtao; Yang, Tielong; He, Gao; He, Zeyuan; Fontaine, Robert E; Zeng, Guang

    2013-05-01

    We investigated a cluster of five cases of severe pneumonia from one village in Yunnan Province, China. We searched for severe pneumonia in the village and hospitals. We interviewed patients and family members about exposures. We tested acute and convalescent sera for antigen and antibody of severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and plague. The only common exposure of the five patients was riding together in the enclosed cab of a truck for 1.5 hours while taking the first patient to the hospital. Seroconversion to plague F1 antigen confirmed plague in three survivors. Unfamiliarity of clinicians with plague and lack of sputum examination, blood culture, or postmortem examination delayed the diagnosis. No plague cases occurred among family and village contacts and health care workers. High infectivity in this cluster was limited to a crowded, poorly ventilated truck.

  16. Genetic characterization of novel fowl aviadenovirus 4 isolates from outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome in broiler chickens in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanke; Wan, Wenyan; Gao, Dongsheng; Li, Yongtao; Yang, Xia; Liu, Hongying; Yao, Huixia; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuanqing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Since May 2015, severe outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) associated with infections of fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) have emerged in broiler chickens in several Chinese provinces. To identify the genotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for the recent HHS outbreaks in China, the complete genome sequences of five isolates from outbreaks of HHS in broiler chickens in five provinces were determined. The results demonstrated that a novel fowl aviadenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) genotype was epidemic in China. To investigate the molecular characteristics of these Chinese FAdV-4 isolates, their genome contents were compared with those of reported pathogenic and non-pathogenic FAdV-4 strains. The comparative analysis revealed that the novel Chinese FAdV-4 isolates contain various genomic deletions and multiple distinct amino-acid mutations in their major structural genes. Two additional putative genetic virulence markers in the fiber 2 gene were identified. These findings confirmed some of the genetic differences between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic FAdV-4 isolates. The data presented in this report will enhance the current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of FAdV-4 isolates in China and will provide additional insight into the critical factors that determine the pathogenicity of FAdV-4 strains. Finally, the emergence of this novel and highly pathogenic FAdV-4 genotype emphasizes that preventive measures against FAdV-4 infections on poultry farms should be implemented in China. PMID:27876783

  17. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris)

    PubMed Central

    García-Herreros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied) were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph) methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001). Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs) explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species. PMID:27751988

  18. Contrasted patterns of selection on MHC-linked microsatellites in natural populations of the Malagasy plague reservoir.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, Charlotte; Ivanova, Svilena; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Brouat, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of Madagascar. Black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of Madagascar) are susceptible. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in plague resistance. We therefore used the MHC region as a candidate for detecting signatures of plague-mediated selection in Malagasy black rats, by comparing population genetic structures for five MHC-linked microsatellites and neutral markers in two sampling designs. We first compared four pairs of populations, each pair including one population from the plague focus and one from the disease-free zone. Plague-mediated selection was expected to result in greater genetic differentiation between the two zones than expected under neutrality and this was observed for one MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Img2). For this marker as well as for four other MHC-linked loci, a geographic pattern of genetic structure was found at local scale within the plague focus. This pattern would be expected if plague selection pressures were spatially variable. Finally, another MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Rat21) showed evidences of balancing selection, but it seems more likely that this selection would be related to unknown pathogens more widely distributed in Madagascar than plague.

  19. Protecting Black-Footed Ferrets and Prairie Dogs Against Sylvatic Plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at other federal agencies and the University of Wisconsin, are developing and testing vaccines that can be used to protect black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs against plague. The black-footed ferret is commonly regarded as the most endangered mammal in North America, and sylvatic plague is a major impediment to its recovery. The three prairie dog species (Gunnison's, black-tailed, and white-tailed prairie dogs), upon which the ferret depends for food and whose burrows they use for shelter, have been drastically reduced from historical levels, resulting in the near extinction of the ferret. All three species are considered 'at risk' and have been petitioned for listing as 'threatened' or 'endangered' by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Additionally, the Utah prairie dog is listed as threatened and the Mexican prairie dog is considered endangered in Mexico. Like the black-footed ferret, all five prairie dog species are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Controlling plague outbreaks in prairie dogs and ferrets is a vital concern for ongoing recovery programs and conservation efforts for both species.

  20. A Scottish doctor's association with the discovery of the plague bacillus.

    PubMed

    Yule, W L

    1995-12-01

    Plague killed at least a quarter of the population of Europe in 1348. This was the first wave of the epidemic known as 'The Black Death' which continued for two years and then recurred sporadically till the late 17th Century. In London in 1603, 22.6% of the population died from plague and in the outbreak known as The Great Plague of London in 1694 there were over 70,000 deaths out of a population of 460,000. Many English villages were completely wiped out at this time. Marseilles suffered severely in 1720. The next serious outbreak was in Canton in China in 1894, the disease spreading to Hong Kong. 80,000 died, the great majority of these being in China. A Scottish doctor played an important part in the management of this epidemic when it reached the British colony, and by chance found himself on the periphery of the controversy about who first discovered Yersinia Pestis, the Gram negative bacillus that causes plague.

  1. New Insights into How Yersinia pestis Adapts to Its Mammalian Host during Bubonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Elizabeth; Lemaître, Nadine; Merchez, Maud; Ricard, Isabelle; Reboul, Angéline; Dewitte, Amélie; Sebbane, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Bubonic plague (a fatal, flea-transmitted disease) remains an international public health concern. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of bubonic plague has improved significantly over the last few decades, researchers have still not been able to define the complete set of Y. pestis genes needed for disease or to characterize the mechanisms that enable infection. Here, we generated a library of Y. pestis mutants, each lacking one or more of the genes previously identified as being up-regulated in vivo. We then screened the library for attenuated virulence in rodent models of bubonic plague. Importantly, we tested mutants both individually and using a novel, “per-pool” screening method that we have developed. Our data showed that in addition to genes involved in physiological adaption and resistance to the stress generated by the host, several previously uncharacterized genes are required for virulence. One of these genes (ympt1.66c, which encodes a putative helicase) has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Deletion of ympt1.66c reduced Y. pestis' ability to spread to the lymph nodes draining the dermal inoculation site – probably because loss of this gene decreased the bacteria's ability to survive inside macrophages. Our results suggest that (i) intracellular survival during the early stage of infection is important for plague and (ii) horizontal gene transfer was crucial in the acquisition of this ability. PMID:24675805

  2. Monitoring the plague of oriental migratory locust using multi-temporal Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenbo; Ni, Shaoxiang; Zha, Yong; Shi, Xuezheng

    2006-03-01

    Locust plague is a kind of the world-wide biological calamity to agriculture. In China's history, more than 90% of locust plagues were caused by the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). At the present time, it is difficult for monitoring and forecasting systems in this country to provide real time information of locust plague outbreak in large area. In order to adopt timely measures for prevention and control of locust outbreak, it is necessary to apply advanced remote sensing technology for monitoring and forecasting locust outbreak This paper introduces a case study on monitoring oriental migratory locust plague with remote sensing technology in 3 pilot sites, namely, Huangzao, Yangguangzhuang, and Tengnan, which were the 3 major locust damaged areas in Huanghua City, Hebei Province, China during the period of large scale oriental migratory locust breakout in 2002. In this study, locust damage intensity, areas with various damage intensities and their distribution in pilot sites are determined by means of comparison between Landsat ETM+ image of locust damaged vegetation on 31st May, 2002 and TM image of healthy vegetation before damage on 23rd May, 2002. Then, information of various locust distribution density in pilot sites is extracted by establishing the Locust Density Index (LDI).

  3. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range.

  4. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th–18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague’s persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12994.001 PMID:26795402

  5. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Achtman, M; Zurth, K; Morelli, G; Torrea, G; Guiyoule, A; Carniel, E

    1999-11-23

    Plague, one of the most devastating diseases of human history, is caused by Yersinia pestis. In this study, we analyzed the population genetic structure of Y. pestis and the two other pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica. Fragments of five housekeeping genes and a gene involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide were sequenced from 36 strains representing the global diversity of Y. pestis and from 12-13 strains from each of the other species. No sequence diversity was found in any Y. pestis gene, and these alleles were identical or nearly identical to alleles from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Thus, Y. pestis is a clone that evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis 1,500-20,000 years ago, shortly before the first known pandemics of human plague. Three biovars (Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis) have been distinguished by microbiologists within the Y. pestis clone. These biovars form distinct branches of a phylogenetic tree based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the locations of the IS100 insertion element. These data are consistent with previous inferences that Antiqua caused a plague pandemic in the sixth century, Medievalis caused the Black Death and subsequent epidemics during the second pandemic wave, and Orientalis caused the current plague pandemic.

  6. Utility of Respiratory Vaccination With Recombinant Subunit Vaccines for Protection Against Pneumonic Plague

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Immunity at mucosal sites can prevent pathogen infection of the host. A) oral poliovirus vaccine B) inhaled influenza vaccine C) kennel cough & Newcastle...Utility of respiratory vaccination with recombinant subunit vaccines for protection against pneumonic plague. Douglas S. Reed & Jennifer Smoll...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Utility of respiratory vaccination with recombinant subunit vaccines for

  7. SEROLOGICAL INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PLAGUE MICROBE AND BACTERIA OF THE INTESTINAL GROUP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    31 cases (8.9%). Plague serum agglutinated 46 cultures of enterobacteria from various species out of 165 checked (27.8%). In the tests of the cross...microbe and enterobacteria . The presence in strains of P. pestis of antigens which are inherent to bacteria of the intestinal group was not connected with

  8. Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Carlson, Valerie; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (Cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing Yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. We reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret reintroduction areas by conducting flea control for 3 years. Beginning in 2004, about half of the ferrets residing on dusted and nondusted colonies were vaccinated against plague with an experimental vaccine (F1-V fusion protein). We evaluated 6-month reencounter rates (percentage of animals observed at the end of an interval that were known alive at the beginning of the interval), an index to survival, for ferrets in four treatment groups involving all combinations of vaccination and flea control. For captive-reared ferrets (115 individuals observed across 156 time intervals), reencounter rates were higher for vaccinates (0.44) than for nonvaccinates (0.23, p = 0.044) on colonies without flea control, but vaccination had no detectable effect on colonies with flea control (vaccinates = 0.41, nonvaccinates = 0.42, p = 0.754). Flea control resulted in higher reencounter rates for nonvaccinates (p = 0.026), but not for vaccinates (p = 0.508). The enhancement of survival due to vaccination or flea control supports the hypothesis that enzootic plague reduces ferret survival, even when there was no noticeable decline in prairie dog abundance. The collective effects of vaccination and flea control compel a conclusion that fleas are required for maintenance, and probably transmission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of prairie dogs and, when combined with this study, suggest

  9. [Measures taken against the plague in Diest in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    De Backer, C

    1999-01-01

    Older literature about the city of Diest reveals that in 1348 the plague wiped out half of the population; in 1439, 1523 and 1578-1579, the plague struck again. In the course of time the municipal authorities issued ordinances which were aimed at combating the disease and stopping it spreading. These ordinances were first published and then renewed or modified several times. This was done in the years 1469, 1483 and 1519. These texts have virtually the same contents and all contain about twenty articles of a prophylactic nature. A house where people had died of the plague had to remain shut for a number of months, and the relatives were not allowed in public for a while. Dirty water could not be emptied into the gutters, food had to be placed by the door, the clothes of those who were sick or who had died could not be washed in wells or in the river Demer and could not be sold, people caring for the sick had to wear a white sign, no one was allowed to take in any sick person from outside Diest, etc. Other articles are about refuse in the streets and pigs roaming around freely. Infringements were made punishable by fines, or if the perpetrators were insolvent, they had to make a pilgrimage to Strasbourg, Cologne or Rome. The ordinance of 1469 was issued again in 1472. It seems to be based on an ordinance of the city of Louvain, as this indication of the origin in the text was replaced by the word "Diest", and references to places in Diest were added. The ordinance of 1519 was confirmed in 1523, 1532, 1543-1544, 1558, 1574 and 1579. Separate regulations were issued in 1530, 1532-1533, 1573, 1578-1579, 1599. They relate to infected clothes and household articles, dung heaps, dead animals in the Demer, people who came into contact with anyone suffering from the plague, epidemics in the area, such as Beringen (1556) and Turnhout (1571). Diest also had municipal plague masters; these were surgeons. A number of names and data are known to us from municipal accounts from

  10. Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana.

    PubMed

    Matchett, Marc R; Biggins, Dean E; Carlson, Valerie; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (Cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing Yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. We reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret reintroduction areas by conducting flea control for 3 years. Beginning in 2004, about half of the ferrets residing on dusted and nondusted colonies were vaccinated against plague with an experimental vaccine (F1-V fusion protein). We evaluated 6-month reencounter rates (percentage of animals observed at the end of an interval that were known alive at the beginning of the interval), an index to survival, for ferrets in four treatment groups involving all combinations of vaccination and flea control. For captive-reared ferrets (115 individuals observed across 156 time intervals), reencounter rates were higher for vaccinates (0.44) than for nonvaccinates (0.23, p = 0.044) on colonies without flea control, but vaccination had no detectable effect on colonies with flea control (vaccinates = 0.41, nonvaccinates = 0.42, p = 0.754). Flea control resulted in higher reencounter rates for nonvaccinates (p = 0.026), but not for vaccinates (p = 0.508). The enhancement of survival due to vaccination or flea control supports the hypothesis that enzootic plague reduces ferret survival, even when there was no noticeable decline in prairie dog abundance. The collective effects of vaccination and flea control compel a conclusion that fleas are required for maintenance, and probably transmission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of prairie dogs and, when combined with this study, suggest that the effects of enzootic

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies affected by plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, D.J.; Matchett, M.R.; Toombs, T.P.; Cully, J.F.; Johnson, T.L.; Sidle, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a key component of the disturbance regime in semi-arid grasslands of central North America. Many studies have compared community and ecosystem characteristics on prairie dog colonies to grasslands without prairie dogs, but little is known about landscape-scale patterns of disturbance that prairie dog colony complexes may impose on grasslands over long time periods. We examined spatiotemporal dynamics in two prairie dog colony complexes in southeastern Colorado (Comanche) and northcentral Montana (Phillips County) that have been strongly influenced by plague, and compared them to a complex unaffected by plague in northwestern Nebraska (Oglala). Both plague-affected complexes exhibited substantial spatiotemporal variability in the area occupied during a decade, in contrast to the stability of colonies in the Oglala complex. However, the plague-affected complexes differed in spatial patterns of colony movement. Colonies in the Comanche complex in shortgrass steppe shifted locations over a decade. Only 10% of the area occupied in 1995 was still occupied by prairie dogs in 2006. In 2005 and 2006 respectively, 74 and 83% of the total area of the Comanche complex occurred in locations that were not occupied in 1995, and only 1% of the complex was occupied continuously over a decade. In contrast, prairie dogs in the Phillips County complex in mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush steppe primarily recolonized previously occupied areas after plague-induced colony declines. In Phillips County, 62% of the area occupied in 1993 was also occupied by prairie dogs in 2004, and 12% of the complex was occupied continuously over a decade. Our results indicate that plague accelerates spatiotemporal movement of prairie dog colonies, and have significant implications for landscape-scale effects of prairie dog disturbance on grassland composition and productivity. These findings highlight the need to combine landscape-scale measures of

  12. Comparative studies of elemental composition on ejaculated fowl, bull, rat, dog and boar spermatozoa by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, K; Ozawa, Y; Okauchi, K

    1987-01-01

    1. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of bulk and trace elements on the head, midpiece and tail regions of the ejaculated fowl, bull, rat, dog and boar spermatozoa were performed using X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. 2. Although the pattern of distribution of elements on the surface of the three different subcellular regions was, in general, similar among all the species, there were substantial shifts in absolute concentrations. 3. Concentration of magnesium on the dog spermatozoa was significantly higher (about 2 times) than those of the other species. 4. Zinc, copper, iron and manganese concentrations were higher on fowl spermatozoa compared with those of the other species studied. 5. The Na-to-K ratios on the midpiece ranged from 1.46 (rat) to 2.26 (dog).

  13. Exposure of small rodents to plague during epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Carter, Leon G; Gage, Kenneth L; Tripp, Daniel W; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-07-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes die-offs of colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). It has been argued that other small rodents are reservoirs for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs; yet there is little empirical support for distinct enzootic and epizootic cycles. Between 2004 and 2006, we collected blood from small rodents captured in colonies in northern Colorado before, during, and for up to 2 yr after prairie dog epizootics. We screened 1,603 blood samples for antibodies to Y. pestis, using passive hemagglutination and inhibition tests, and for a subset of samples we cultured blood for the bacterium itself. Of the four species of rodents that were common in colonies, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) was the only species with consistent evidence of plague infection during epizootics, with 11.1-23.1% of mice seropositive for antibody to Y. pestis during these events. Seropositive grasshopper mice, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured the year following epizootics. The appearance of antibodies to Y. pestis in grasshopper mice coincided with periods of high prairie dog mortality; subsequently, antibody prevalence rates declined, with no seropositive individuals captured 2 yr after epizootics. We did not detect plague in any rodents off of colonies, or on colonies prior to epizootics, and found no evidence of persistent Y. pestis infection in blood cultures. Our results suggest that grasshopper mice could be involved in epizootic spread of Y. pestis, and possibly, serve as a short-term reservoir for plague, but provide no evidence that the grasshopper mouse or any small rodent acts as a long-term, enzootic host for Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies.

  14. Modeling susceptible infective recovered dynamics and plague persistence in California rodent-flea communities.

    PubMed

    Foley, Patrick; Foley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Plague persists as an enzootic in several very different rodent-flea communities around the world. In California, a diversity of rodent-flea communities maintains the disease, and a single-host reservoir seems unlikely. Logistic regression of plague presence on climate and topographic variables predicts plague in many localities where it is absent. Thus, a dynamic community-based analysis was needed. Deterministic Susceptible Infective Recovered (SIR) models were adapted for plague and analyzed with an eye for insights concerning disease persistence. An R simulation program, Plaguesirs, was developed incorporating multihost and multivector SIR dynamics, demographic and environmental stochasticity, density dependence, and seasonal variation in birth and death. Flea-rodent utilization matrices allowed us to get transmission rates as well as flea carrying capacities. Rodent densities allowed us to estimate host carrying capacities, while maximum birth rates were mainly approximated through an examination of litter phenology and demography. We ran a set of simulations to assess the role of community structure in maintaining plague in a simulated version of Chuchupate campground in Ventura County. Although the actual campground comprises 10 rodent and 19 flea species, we focused on a subset suspected to act as a reservoir community. This included the vole Microtus californicus, the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, the Ceratophyllid fleas Aetheca wagneri and Malareus telchinum, and the Leptopsyllid flea Peromyscopsylla hesperomys. The dynamics of 21 subsets of this community were simulated for 20 years. Single-rodent communities showed much lower disease persistence than two-rodent communities. However, so long as Malareus was present, endemicity was enhanced; removal of the other two fleas slightly increased disease persistence. Two critical features improved disease persistence: (1) host breeding season heterogeneity and (2) host population augmentation (due to two

  15. Characterization of systemic and pneumonic murine models of plague infection using a conditionally virulent strain.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Ramirez, Karina; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Rodriguez, Ana L; Galen, James E; Nataro, James P; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2013-03-01

    Yersinia pestis causes bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pneumonic infection is the most severe and invariably fatal if untreated. Because of its high virulence, ease of delivery and precedent of use in warfare, Y. pestis is considered as a potential bioterror agent. No licensed plague vaccine is currently available in the US. Laboratory research with virulent strains requires appropriate biocontainment (i.e., Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) for procedures that generate aerosol/droplets) and secure facilities that comply with federal select agent regulations. To assist in the identification of promising vaccine candidates during the early phases of development, we characterized mouse models of systemic and pneumonic plague infection using the Y. pestis strain EV76, an attenuated human vaccine strain that can be rendered virulent in mice under in vivo iron supplementation. Mice inoculated intranasally or intravenously with Y. pestis EV76 in the presence of iron developed a systemic and pneumonic plague infection that resulted in disease and lethality. Bacteria replicated and severely compromised the spleen, liver and lungs. Susceptibility was age dependent, with younger mice being more vulnerable to pneumonic infection. We used these models of infection to assess the protective capacity of newly developed Salmonella-based plague vaccines. The protective outcome varied depending on the route and dose of infection. Protection was associated with the induction of specific immunological effectors in systemic/mucosal compartments. The models of infection described could serve as safe and practical tools for identifying promising vaccine candidates that warrant further potency evaluation using fully virulent strains in BSL-3 settings.

  16. Characterization of systemic and pneumonic murine models of plague infection using a conditionally virulent strain

    PubMed Central

    Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Ramirez, Karina; Drachenberg, Cinthia B.; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Rodriguez, Ana L.; Galen, James E.; Nataro, James P.; Pasetti, Marcela F.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pneumonic infection is the most severe and invariably fatal if untreated. Because of its high virulence, ease of delivery and precedent of use in warfare, Y. pestis is considered a potential bioterror agent. No licensed plague vaccine is currently available in the US. Laboratory research with virulent strains requires appropriate biocontainment (i.e., Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) for procedures that generate aerosol/droplets) and secure facilities that comply with federal select agent regulations. To assist in the identification of promising vaccine candidates during the early phases of development, we characterized mouse models of systemic and pneumonic plague infection using the Y. pestis strain EV76, an attenuated human vaccine strain that can be rendered virulent in mice under in vivo iron supplementation. Mice inoculated intranasally or intravenously with Y. pestis EV76 in the presence of iron developed a systemic and pneumonic plague infection that resulted in disease and lethality. Bacteria replicated and severely compromised the spleen, liver and lungs. Susceptibility was age dependent, with younger mice being more vulnerable to pneumonic infection. We used these models of infection to assess the protective capacity of newly developed Salmonella-based plague vaccines. The protective outcome varied depending on the route and dose of infection. Protection was associated with the induction of specific immunological effectors in systemic/mucosal compartments. The models of infection described could serve as safe and practical tools for identifying promising vaccine candidates that warrant further potency evaluation using fully virulent strains in BSL-3 settings. PMID:23195858

  17. Highly Effective Soluble and Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle Plague Vaccines Against Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2016-01-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis is an ancient disease, responsible for millions of deaths in human history. Unfortunately, there is no FDA-approved vaccine available. Recombinant subunit vaccines based on two major antigens, Caf 1 (F1) and LcrV (V), have been under investigation and showed promise. However, there are two main problems associated with these vaccines. First, the Yersinia capsular protein F1 has high propensity to aggregate, particularly when expressed in heterologous systems such as Escherichia coli, thus affecting vaccine quality and efficacy. Second, the subunit vaccines do not induce adequate cell-mediated immune responses that also appear to be essential for optimal protection against plague. We have developed two basic approaches, structure-based immunogen design and phage T4 nanoparticle delivery, to construct new plague vaccines that may overcome these problems. First, by engineering F1 protein, we generated a monomeric and soluble F1V mutant (F1mutV) which has similar immunogenicity as wild-type F1V. The NH2-terminal β-strand of F1 was transplanted to the COOH-terminus and the sequence flanking the β-strand was duplicated to retain a key CD4+ T cell epitope. Second, we generated a nanoparticle plague vaccine that can induce balanced antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses. This was done by arraying the F1mutV on phage T4 via the small outer capsid (Soc) protein which binds to T4 capsid at nanomolar affinity. Preparation of these vaccines is described in detail and we hope that these would be considered as candidates for licensing a next-generation plague vaccine. PMID:27076150

  18. Influence of satellite-derived rainfall patterns on plague occurrence in northeast Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the tropics, rainfall data are seldom accurately recorded, and are often discontinuous in time. In the scope of plague-research in northeast Tanzania, we adapted previous research to reconstruct rainfall patterns at a suitable resolution (1 km), based on time series of NDVI: more accurate satellite imagery was used, in the form of MODIS NDVI, and rainfall data were collected from the TRMM sensors instead of in situ data. First, we established a significant relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly composited MODIS NDVI. The established linear relationship was then used to reconstruct historic precipitation patterns over a mountainous area in northeastern Tanzania. Results We validated the resulting precipitation estimates with in situ rainfall time series of three meteorological stations located in the study area. Taking the region's topography into account, a correlation coefficient of 0.66 was obtained for two of the three meteorological stations. Our results suggest that the adapted strategy can be applied fruitfully to estimate rainfall variability and seasonality, despite the underestimation of overall rainfall rates. Based on this model, rainfall in previous years (1986) is modelled to obtain a dataset with which we can compare plague occurrence in the area. A positive correlation of 82% is obtained between high rainfall rates and plague incidence with a two month lag between rainfall and plague cases. Conclusions We conclude that the obtained results are satisfactory in support of the human plague research in which this study is embedded, and that this approach can be applied in other studies with similar goals. PMID:21144014

  19. [The Justinian plague (part two). Influence of the epidemic on the rise of the Islamic Empire].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Manfredi, Roberto; Fiorino, Sirio

    2012-09-01

    The Islamic Empire started its tumultuous and rapid expansion from the year 622 A.D. (the year of Mohammed's Egira). This rapid growth coincided with the epidemic spread of the bubonic plague in the Middle East. Although a first epidemic event had been documented in the year 570 A.D. (pre-Islamic phase), in the Arabic peninsula, classically according to M.W. Dols five severe episodes of plague sub-epidemics are considered in the middle-eastern geographic area: the first occurred in 627 and 628 A.D., the fifth in 716 A.D.. Anyway, we may state that at the onset of Islam the geographic region including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran was involved by endemic plague. In their work, on the ground of a literature review, the Authors describe the characteristics of the epidemic phenomenon, and analyze the how the plague affected the interpretation of Prophet's Koran and Hadits. The passive attitude demonstrated by many Muslims during early Islam was not shared by all believers, since others moved towards a more soft approach, which included the behaviour of the so called moving aside , when the contagion was of concern. The epidemic plague significantly contributed to the weakening of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the rapid decline of the Persian Empire, while during the early expansion phases of Islam, it indirectly favoured the nomadic Arab tribes which, moving on desert or semi-desert territories, succeeded in escaping the contagion more easily. Subsequently, when the Arab population became sedentary, after occupying the conquered cities, this initial advantage was significantly reduced.

  20. Intracellular signal transduction pathways in the regulation of fowl sperm motility: evidence for the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) cascade.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, Koji; Omura, Yusuke; Katayama, Seiichi; Tatemoto, Hideki; Narumi, Kazunori; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro

    2009-07-01

    The possible role of PI3-K in the reversible temperature-dependent immobilization of fowl sperm motility was investigated by using PI3-K inhibitor (LY294002) and its inactive analogue (LY303511). The existence of the PI3-K in fowl spermatozoa was also confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Fowl sperm motility in TES/NaCl buffer remained negligible at the avian body temperature of 40 degrees C but was maintained vigorously when the temperature was decreased to 30 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, no stimulation or inhibition of motility was observed after the addition of 2 mM CaCl2 and 10 microM LY294002 or LY303511: around 70-80% of spermatozoa remained motile. In contrast, at 40 degrees C, the motility of spermatozoa was activated immediately after the addition of Ca(2+), but the subsequent addition of LY294002 inhibited the motility again. The addition of LY303511 did not appreciably affect the Ca(2+)-supplemented sperm motility, which was maintained for at least 15 min. The ATP concentrations of spermatozoa after the addition of LY294002 + Ca(2+) or LY303511 + Ca(2+) were almost the same values compared with those of Ca(2+) alone at 40 degrees C, suggesting that the addition of LY294002 was not simply affecting membrane damage or inhibiting energy production in the spermatozoa, but may be acting on some part of the motility-regulating cascade. Immunoblotting of sperm extract using an antibody to PI3-K revealed a major cross-reacting protein of 85 kDa, which corresponds to the molecular weight of the subunit of PI3-K. These results suggest that PI3-K may be positively involved in the calcium-regulated maintenance of flagellar movement of fowl spermatozoa at 40 degrees C.

  1. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl broilers fed micronized-dehulled pea (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Nahashon, S N; Tufarelli, V

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized peas (Pisum sativum) in diets of guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass yields, and fatty acid composition of meat. One hundred forty 1-d-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments, which were fed from hatch to 12 wk. The birds were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets comprising a control diet, which contained SBM (78 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized peas (180 g/kg) as the main protein source. The substitution of SBM with peas had no adverse effect on growth performance, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscle relative weights of the guinea broilers. However, a reduction of abdominal fat content (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed the pea diet compared with the control. Breast and thigh meat of birds fed the pea diet had higher lightness scores (P < 0.05) and water-holding capacity (P < 0.01) than the control. Meat from guinea fowls fed the pea diet had less cholesterol (P < 0.01) and lipids (P < 0.05), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.05). Feeding peas increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and thigh muscles, and decreased the saturated fatty acid concentration. Feeding the pea diet also lowered the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the guinea broiler muscles. Our results suggest that replacing the conventional SBM as the protein source with dehulled-micronized pea meal in diets of guinea fowls broilers can improve carcass quality and favorable lipid profile without adversely affecting growth performance traits.

  2. Antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl egg: comparison with White Leghorn egg.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, T; Koketsu, M

    2007-08-01

    1. The antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and White Leghorn eggs were studied. The mechanism of the antioxidant effect was also investigated. 2. The antioxidant effect on the oxidation of linoleic acid increased in the water-soluble fraction of cake made with silky eggs. In contrast, Leghorn eggs significantly decreased the rate of antioxidant activity. The browning index of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl eggs changed from 0.052 to 1.240 after 20 min at 180 degrees C, while that made with Leghorn eggs changed from 0.037 to 0.710. 3. There are correlations between the rate of browning index and antioxidant activity. Superoxide anion (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in water-soluble fractions of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and hen's eggs were formed during light exposure for 20 min at 10,000 lux, and their formation could be significantly inhibited by the addition of tryptophan or mannitol, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). These results were strong evidence of direct participation of *OH, formed by the Haber-Weiss reaction, in the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes. The rate of decrease in active oxygen by scavengers decreased in Leghorn eggs more efficiently than in silky eggs. 4. The present experiments suggested that the use of silky fowl eggs could improve the quality and oxidative stability of baked cakes.

  3. Landscape and residential variables associated with plague-endemic villages in the West Nile region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Katherine; Enscore, Russell E; Ogen-Odoi, Asaph; Borchert, Jeff N; Babi, Nackson; Amatre, Gerald; Atiku, Linda A; Mead, Paul S; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2011-03-01

    Plague, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, is a severe, often fatal disease. This study focuses on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where limited information is available regarding environmental and behavioral risk factors associated with plague infection. We conducted observational surveys of 10 randomly selected huts within historically classified case and control villages (four each) two times during the dry season of 2006 (N = 78 case huts and N = 80 control huts), which immediately preceded a large plague outbreak. By coupling a previously published landscape-level statistical model of plague risk with this observational survey, we were able to identify potential residence-based risk factors for plague associated with huts within historic case or control villages (e.g., distance to neighboring homestead and presence of pigs near the home) and huts within areas previously predicted as elevated risk or low risk (e.g., corn and other annual crops grown near the home, water storage in the home, and processed commercial foods stored in the home). The identified variables are consistent with current ecologic theories on plague transmission dynamics. This preliminary study serves as a foundation for future case control studies in the area.

  4. Evaluation of Yersinia pestis Transmission Pathways for Sylvatic Plague in Prairie Dog Populations in the Western U.S.

    PubMed

    Richgels, Katherine L D; Russell, Robin E; Bron, Gebbiena M; Rocke, Tonie E

    2016-06-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is periodically responsible for large die-offs in rodent populations that can spillover and cause human mortalities. In the western US, prairie dog populations experience nearly 100% mortality during plague outbreaks, suggesting that multiple transmission pathways combine to amplify plague dynamics. Several alternate pathways in addition to flea vectors have been proposed, such as transmission via direct contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, consumption of carcasses, and environmental sources of plague bacteria, such as contaminated soil. However, evidence supporting the ability of these proposed alternate pathways to trigger large-scale epizootics remains elusive. Here we present a short review of potential plague transmission pathways and use an ordinary differential equation model to assess the contribution of each pathway to resulting plague dynamics in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and their fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta). Using our model, we found little evidence to suggest that soil contamination was capable of producing plague epizootics in prairie dogs. However, in the absence of flea transmission, direct transmission, i.e., contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, could produce enzootic dynamics, and transmission via contact with or consumption of carcasses could produce epizootics. This suggests that these pathways warrant further investigation.

  5. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  6. Evaluation of Yersinia pestis transmission pathways for sylvatic plague in prairie dog populations in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Bron, Gebbiena; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is periodically responsible for large die-offs in rodent populations that can spillover and cause human mortalities. In the western US, prairie dog populations experience nearly 100% mortality during plague outbreaks, suggesting that multiple transmission pathways combine to amplify plague dynamics. Several alternate pathways in addition to flea vectors have been proposed, such as transmission via direct contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, consumption of carcasses, and environmental sources of plague bacteria, such as contaminated soil. However, evidence supporting the ability of these proposed alternate pathways to trigger large-scale epizootics remains elusive. Here we present a short review of potential plague transmission pathways and use an ordinary differential equation model to assess the contribution of each pathway to resulting plague dynamics in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and their fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta). Using our model, we found little evidence to suggest that soil contamination was capable of producing plague epizootics in prairie dogs. However, in the absence of flea transmission, direct transmission, i.e., contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, could produce enzootic dynamics, and transmission via contact with or consumption of carcasses could produce epizootics. This suggests that these pathways warrant further investigation.

  7. Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

  8. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    PubMed

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  9. [Seasonal dynamics of infecting ability of the flea Citellophilus tesquorum altaicus in the Tuva natural focus of the plague].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, L P; Popkov, A F; Galatsevich, N F

    2004-01-01

    The infecting ability of the fleas Citellophilus tesquorum altaicus loff, 1936, the main plague vectors in the Tuva natural focus, was experimentally studied in different periods of the epizootic season. Seasonal dynamics in the efficiency of infecting the long-tailed Siberian souslik with the plague causative agent through flea bites was noticed. Seasonal differences in infectivity of the "blocked" flea bites are revealed. An increase of infected experimental animals with a generalization of infection process in the period of epizooty activation in the natural focus was observed. A resistance of the long-tailed Siberian souslik to the plague agent infection through flea bites in the spring season was registered.

  10. Structure of the C-terminal head domain of the fowl adenovirus type 1 short fibre

    SciTech Connect

    El Bakkouri, Majida; Seiradake, Elena; Cusack, Stephen; Ruigrok, Rob W.H. Schoehn, Guy

    2008-08-15

    There are more than 100 known adenovirus serotypes, including 50 human serotypes. They can infect all 5 major vertebrate classes but only Aviadenovirus infecting birds and Mastadenovirus infecting mammals have been well studied. CELO (chicken embryo lethal orphan) adenovirus is responsible for mild respiratory pathologies in birds. Most studies on CELO virus have focussed on its genome sequence and organisation whereas the structural work on CELO proteins has only recently started. Contrary to most adenoviruses, the vertices of CELO virus reveal pentons with two fibres of different lengths. The distal parts (or head) of those fibres are involved in cellular receptor binding. Here we have determined the atomic structure of the short-fibre head of CELO (amino acids 201-410) at 2.0 A resolution. Despite low sequence identity, this structure is conserved compared to the other adenovirus fibre heads. We have used the existing CELO long-fibre head structure and the one we show here for a structure-based alignment of 11 known adenovirus fibre heads which was subsequently used for the construction of an evolutionary tree. Both the fibre head sequence and structural alignments suggest that enteric human group F adenovirus 41 (short fibre) is closer to the CELO fibre heads than the canine CAdV-2 fibre head, that lies closer to the human virus fibre heads.

  11. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the

  12. Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type I IFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses.

    PubMed

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Winslow, B J; Junker, D E; Reddy, S; Cochran, M; McMillen, J

    1998-10-01

    We have constructed recombinant (r) fowl pox viruses (FPVs) coexpressing chicken type I interferon (IFN) and/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We administered rFPVs and FPV into embryonated chicken eggs at 17 days of embryonation or in chickens after hatch. Administration of FPV or rFPVs did not influence hatchability and survival of hatched chicks. In ovo or after hatch vaccination of chickens with the recombinant viruses resulted in protection against challenge with virulent FPV and NDV. Chickens vaccinated with FPV or FPV-NDV recombinant had significantly lower body weight 2 weeks following vaccination. This loss in body weight was not detected in chickens receiving FPV-IFN and FPV-NDV-IFN recombinants. Chickens vaccinated with FPV coexpressing IFN and NDV genes produced less antibodies against NDV in comparison with chickens vaccinated with FPV expressing NDV genes.

  13. Plague studies in California: a review of long-term disease activity, flea-host relationships and plague ecology in the coniferous forests of the Southern Cascades and northern Sierra Nevada mountains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles R; Tucker, James R; Wilson, Barbara A; Clover, James R

    2010-06-01

    We review 28 years of long-term surveillance (1970-1997) for plague activity among wild rodents from ten locations within three coniferous forest habitat types in the northern Sierra Nevada and the Southern Cascade mountains of northeastern California. We identify rodent hosts and their fleas and document long-term plague activity in each habitat type. The highest seroprevalence for Yersinia pestis occurred in the chipmunks, Tamias senex and T. quadrimaculatus, and the pine squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasii. The most commonly infected fleas were Ceratophyllus ciliatus and Eumolpianus eumolpi from chipmunks and Oropsylla montana and O. idahoensis from ground squirrels. Serological surveillance demonstrated that populations of T. senex, T. quadrimaculatus and T. douglasii are moderately resistant to plague, survive infection, and are, therefore, good sentinels for plague activity. Recaptured T. senex and T. quadrimaculatus showed persistence of plague antibodies and evidence of re-infection over a two year period. These rodent species, their fleas, and the ecological factors common to the coniferous forest habitats likely promote the maintenance of plague foci in northeastern California.

  14. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct.

  15. Effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. We examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster Wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern Colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patterns. Grasshopper mice were frequently infested with high numbers of fleas, most commonly Pleochaetis exilis Jordan and Thrassis fotus Jordan. Flea loads changed in response to both environmental temperature and rainfall. After plague-induced prairie dog die-offs, flea loads and likelihood of infestation were unchanged for P. exilis, but T. fotus loads declined.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group immunized with the 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p < 0.05; 55%) protection estimated on the basis of clinical signs (40%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  17. Use of rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-07-01

    Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of <60 days in black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus) when used at concentrations <0.5% of bait mass dosed to deliver >10 mg RB per kg target animal mass. Whiskers with follicles provided the best sample for RB detection.

  18. The effects of plague on the distribution of property: Ivrea, Northern Italy 1630.

    PubMed

    Alfani, Guido

    2010-03-01

    The demographic effects of the epidemics of plague in Early Modern Europe and their economic consequences illuminate the evolution of property structures and of wealth distribution during and after a mortality crisis. An analysis of the high-quality data available for the Italian city of Ivrea at the time of the 1630 plague shows the exceptional resilience of property structures. Like the social structures of the period, property structures were able to recover quickly, informed as they were by the lessons learnt by trial and error by the patrician families of the late Middle Ages, whose patrimonies had been badly damaged by the Black Death. In a period of recurrent catastrophes that struck European populations during the Old Demographic Regime, apparently 'inegalitarian' institutions seem to have had long-term 'egalitarian' effects.

  19. High Throughput, Multiplexed Pathogen Detection Authenticates Plague Waves in Medieval Venice, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th–16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. Conclusions These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century. PMID:21423736

  20. The Red Sea and the port of Clysma. A possible gate of Justinian's plague.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Petridou, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the sea and land commercial routes of the Byzantine Egypt and their role in the dissemination of the plague bacteria Yersinia pestis from the Red Sea to Mediterranean ports. The Mediterranean port of Pelusium was considered as the starting point of the first plague pandemic, according to the historical and archaeological data; the port of Clysma in the Red Sea, however, can also be assumed as possible entrance gate of the Yersinia pestis. Indeed, it is proposed that the port of Clysma is most likely to have been the gateway of Yersinia pestis in the Byzantine Egypt when the epidemic broke out, given its geographic position and close trade relationship at the time of the epidemic in Pelusium.

  1. Age at vaccination may influence response to sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Tripp, Daniel W.; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy L.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) have been considered at greater risk from Yersinia pestis (plague) infection in the montane portion of their range compared to populations at lower elevations, possibly due to factors related to flea transmission of the bacteria or greater host susceptibility. To test the latter hypothesis and determine whether vaccination against plague with an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) improved survival, we captured prairie dogs from a C. g. gunnisoni or “montane” population and a C. g. zuniensis or “prairie” population for vaccine efficacy and challenge studies. No differences (P = 0.63) were found in plague susceptibility in non-vaccinated animals between these two populations; however, vaccinates from the prairie population survived plague challenge at significantly higher rates (P < 0.01) than those from the montane population. Upon further analysis, we determined that response to immunization was most likely associated with differences in age, as the prairie group was much younger on average than the montane group. Vaccinates that were juveniles or young adults survived plague challenge at a much higher rate than adults (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively), but no difference (P = 0.83) was detected in survival rates between control animals of different ages. These results suggest that host susceptibility is probably not related to the assumed greater risk from plague in the C. g. gunnisoni or “montane” populations of Gunnison’s prairie dogs, and that SPV could be a useful plague management tool for this species, particularly if targeted at younger cohorts.

  2. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pengfei; Xi, Jinxiao; Ding, Jun; Jin, Fachang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Limin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junlin; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bin; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP) caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case.

  3. Age at Vaccination May Influence Response to Sylvatic Plague Vaccine (SPV) in Gunnison's Prairie Dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni).

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Tripp, Dan; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Falendysz, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy; Abbott, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) have been considered at greater risk from Yersinia pestis (plague) infection in the montane portion of their range compared to populations at lower elevations, possibly due to factors related to flea transmission of the bacteria or greater host susceptibility. To test the latter hypothesis and determine whether vaccination against plague with an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) improved survival, we captured prairie dogs from a C. g. gunnisoni or "montane" population and a C. g. zuniensis or "prairie" population for vaccine efficacy and challenge studies. No differences (P = 0.63) were found in plague susceptibility in non-vaccinated animals between these two populations; however, vaccinates from the prairie population survived plague challenge at significantly higher rates (P < 0.01) than those from the montane population. Upon further analysis, we determined that response to immunization was most likely associated with differences in age, as the prairie group was much younger on average than the montane group. Vaccinates that were juveniles or young adults survived plague challenge at a much higher rate than adults (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively), but no difference (P = 0.83) was detected in survival rates between control animals of different ages. These results suggest that host susceptibility is probably not related to the assumed greater risk from plague in the C. g. gunnisoni or "montane" populations of Gunnison's prairie dogs, and that SPV could be a useful plague management tool for this species, particularly if targeted at younger cohorts.

  4. Humoral and cellular immune responses to Yersinia pestis infection in long-term recovered plague patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Du, Chunhong; Zhou, Lei; Bi, Yujing; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wen, Li; Guo, Zhaobiao; Song, Zhizhong; Yang, Ruifu

    2012-02-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous diseases and is caused by Yersinia pestis. Effective vaccine development requires understanding of immune protective mechanisms against the bacterium in humans. In this study, the humoral and memory cellular immune responses in plague patients (n = 65) recovered from Y. pestis infection during the past 16 years were investigated using a protein microarray and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot). The seroprevalence to the F1 antigen in all recovered patients is 78.5%. In patients infected more than a decade ago, the antibody-positive rate still remains 69.5%. There is no difference in the antibody presence between gender, age, and infected years, but it seems to be associated with the F1 antibody titers during infection (r = 0.821; P < 0.05). Except F1 antibody, the antibodies against LcrV and YopD were detected in most of the patients, suggesting they could be the potential diagnostic markers for detecting the infection of F1-negative strains. Regarding cellular immunity, the cell number producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ), stimulated by F1 and LcrV, respectively, in vitro to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 7 plague patients and 4 negative controls, showed no significant difference, indicating F1 and LcrV are not dominant T cell antigens against plague for a longer time in humans. Our findings have direct implications for the future design and development of effective vaccines against Y. pestis infection and the development of new target-based diagnostics.

  5. [The black rat (Rattus rattus) and the plague in ancient and medieval western Europe].

    PubMed

    Audoin-Rouzeau, F

    1999-12-01

    The first time plague affected Western Europe was in the early Middle Ages: rom 541 to 767, there were no fewer than 15 outbreaks in southern parts of the continent. Plague then disappeared from Europe for some seven centuries but came back with a vengeance in 1347, this time by way of the Mediterranean, and ravaged the entire continent for five years, resulting in a serious demographic depression. From then on until 1722 (and 1771 in Moscow), the disease remained endemic to Europe, periodically undermining its economy. These epidemics were major determinants of medieval history, but their study has not been completed to this day. It was not until the 1970s that archeo-zoologists finally discovered that the black rat had indeed been present in Europe since Roman times. Further extensive research revealed that the rat population had gradually grown from a fairly restricted one in the early Middle Ages to a significant one in the 11th and 13th centuries. The rodents spread along the major highways explaining the very different geographical impact of the various plague epidemics of the early and late medieval periods. However, the mystery of the exact mechanisms by which plague spread has still not been entirely elucidated, since the Asian rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, whose role as vector was demonstrated by P. L. Simond, could not have survived in the temperate European climate. Thus, the question of the European vector is still left hanging: was it a human or a rat flea? Was the rat a propagator or simply an initiator? This article considers these unresolved questions by re-examining P. L. Simond's very precise observations.

  6. Critical Factors for Parameterisation of Disease Diagnosis Modelling for Anthrax, Plague and Smallpox

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    197 Suppl 2: S191-5. UNCLASSIFIED 11 UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0699 UNCLASSIFIED 12 35. Lynch JP 3rd, Zhanel GG. Streptococcus pneumonia ... pneumonia . Where information is not available in precise quantitative form, semi-quantitative graphs are provided, which provide a useful summary for...anthrax and its comparison with influenza pneumonia , pneumococcal pneumonia and pneumonic plague are detailed in Table 2. 2.4 Differential Diagnosis

  7. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  8. Continuing evolution and interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in live bird markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Yu-Na; Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Min-Chul; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) provide an ideal environment for the evolution and interspecies transfer of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). In this study, we analyzed AIVs present in LBMs in Korea during the winter seasons of 2006-08. Sixty-five AIVs that belong to four hemagglutination (HA) subtypes ofAIV (H3, H4, H6, and H9) were isolated from 644 pooled tissue or swab samples collected in LBMs. Most H9 subtypes of AIVs were isolated from Galliformes (chickens, silky fowls, pheasants, and guinea fowls), and other subtypes were isolated from Anseriformes (Pekin ducks and mallards). In addition, we obtained a single H3N2 virus from nasal swabs of dogs sold in LBMs, and the virus was genetically identical to the canine influenza virus (CIV) isolated from pet dogs in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Korean H9N2 viruses prevalent in chickens have provided their gene segments to AIVs circulating in ducks. These gene transfers facilitated reassortment events among AIVs and likely generated the ancestors of CIV in Korea. An animal challenge study using chickens, quail, mice, and dogs had shown that the H4 and H6 subtypes could replicate in mice and that some H4 and H6 viruses could replicate in chickens without preadaptation. In addition, two H3 subtype viruses (H3N2 and H3N8) induced interstitial pneumonia that accompanied clinical signs and seroconversion in dogs. Our findings indicate that the newly evolved AIVs have been continuously generated by reassortment in ducks, and these reassortments could result in expanding the host range of AIVs.

  9. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  10. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  11. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Smith, Susan R; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2008-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites.

  12. Impact of the Pla protease substrate α2-antiplasmin on the progression of primary pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Justin L; Schroeder, Jay A; Zimbler, Daniel L; Bellows, Lauren E; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-12-01

    Many pathogens usurp the host hemostatic system during infection to promote pathogenesis. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, expresses the plasminogen activator protease Pla, which has been shown in vitro to target and cleave multiple proteins within the fibrinolytic pathway, including the plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin (A2AP). It is not known, however, if Pla inactivates A2AP in vivo; the role of A2AP during respiratory Y. pestis infection is not known either. Here, we show that Y. pestis does not appreciably cleave A2AP in a Pla-dependent manner in the lungs during experimental pneumonic plague. Furthermore, following intranasal infection with Y. pestis, A2AP-deficient mice exhibit no difference in survival time, bacterial burden in the lungs, or dissemination from wild-type mice. Instead, we found that in the absence of Pla, A2AP contributes to the control of the pulmonary inflammatory response during infection by reducing neutrophil recruitment and cytokine production, resulting in altered immunopathology of the lungs compared to A2AP-deficient mice. Thus, our data demonstrate that A2AP is not significantly affected by the Pla protease during pneumonic plague, and although A2AP participates in immune modulation in the lungs, it has limited impact on the course or ultimate outcome of the infection.

  13. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  14. Flea-borne transmission model to evaluate vaccine efficacy against naturally acquired bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Clayton O; Sebbane, Florent; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J; Andrews, Gerard P; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2004-04-01

    A flea-to-mouse transmission model was developed for use in testing new candidate vaccines for the ability to protect against flea-borne plague. The model was used to evaluate a recombinant fusion protein vaccine consisting of the Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigens. After one to three challenges with Y. pestis-infected fleas, 14 of 15 unvaccinated control mice developed plague, with an average septicemia level of 9.2 x 10(8) Y. pestis CFU/ml. None of 15 vaccinated mice developed the disease after similar challenges, and serological testing indicated that transmitted bacteria were eliminated by the immune system before extensive replication and systemic infection could occur. The transmission and development of disease in control mice correlated with the number of bites by blocked fleas but not with the total number of fleabites. The model provides a means to directly assess the efficacy of new vaccines to prevent naturally acquired bubonic plague and to study events at the vector-host interface that lead to dissemination and disease.

  15. Inhaled Liposomal Ciprofloxacin Protects against a Lethal Infection in a Murine Model of Pneumonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Karleigh A.; Armstrong, Stuart J.; Barnes, Kay B.; Davies, Carwyn; Laws, Thomas; Blanchard, James D.; Harding, Sarah V.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2017-01-01

    Inhalation of Yersinia pestis can lead to pneumonic plague, which without treatment is inevitably fatal. Two novel formulations of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin, ‘ciprofloxacin for inhalation’ (CFI, Lipoquin®) and ‘dual release ciprofloxacin for inhalation’ (DRCFI, Pulmaquin®) containing CFI and ciprofloxacin solution, are in development. These were evaluated as potential therapies for infection with Y. pestis. In a murine model of pneumonic plague, human-like doses of aerosolized CFI, aerosolized DRCFI or intraperitoneal (i.p.) ciprofloxacin were administered at 24 h (representing prophylaxis) or 42 h (representing treatment) post-challenge. All three therapies provided a high level of protection when administered 24 h post-challenge. A single dose of CFI, but not DRCFI, significantly improved survival compared to a single dose of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, single doses of CFI and DRCFI reduced bacterial burden in lungs and spleens to below the detectable limit at 60 h post-challenge. When therapy was delayed until 42 h post-challenge, a single dose of CFI or DRCFI offered minimal protection. However, single doses of CFI or DRCFI were able to significantly reduce the bacterial burden in the spleen compared to empty liposomes. A three-day treatment regimen of ciprofloxacin, CFI, or DRCFI resulted in high levels of protection (90–100% survival). This study suggests that CFI and DRCFI may be useful therapies for Y. pestis infection, both as prophylaxis and for the treatment of plague. PMID:28220110

  16. Multiple mechanisms of transmission of the Caribbean coral disease white plague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, E.; Brandt, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    White plague is one of the most devastating coral diseases in the Caribbean, and yet important aspects of its epidemiology, including how the disease transmits, remain unknown. This study tested potential mechanisms and rates of transmission of white plague in a laboratory setting. Transmission mechanisms including the transport of water, contact with macroalgae, and predation via corallivorous worms and snails were tested on the host species Orbicella annularis. Two of the tested mechanisms were shown to transmit disease: water transport and the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata. Between these transmission mechanisms, transport of water between a diseased coral and a healthy coral resulted in disease incidence significantly more frequently in exposed healthy corals. Transmission via water transport also occurred more quickly and was associated with higher rates of tissue loss (up to 3.5 cm d-1) than with the corallivorous snail treatment. In addition, water that was in contact with diseased corals but was filtered with a 0.22-μm filter prior to being introduced to apparently healthy corals also resulted in the transmission of disease signs, but at a much lower rate than when water was not filtered. This study has provided important information on the transmission potential of Caribbean white plague disease and highlights the need for a greater understanding of how these processes operate in the natural environment.

  17. [A quarantine of plague at the lazaret of Frioul in 1901].

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In September 1901, a cruise for work and pleasure is organized in Mediterranean including VIP all firstclass (politicals, scientists, clergymen...) These were 174 passengers on the ship Senegal. After a departure from Marseille, the ship must quickly turn and go back on account of a sailor in the crew might be sicked with plague. A quarantine was organised in the lazaret of Frioul's island. This man died but an another actually ill will be cured. All the conference participents landed in the Frioul lazaret stayed only seven days on place and remained uninjured. This misadventure will be studied by scientific people and given to authorities. So, Pr Jules Buckoy' communication to the french Academy of medicine. Adrien Proust gave a report. In this doctoral thesis in 1902 Joseph Pellissier reported all the cases of plague cured in the Frioul lazaret. The physician Charles Leroux made an epidemiologic study about effects and troubles with plague serums. A lot of orig- inal and beautiful photographs, notably those by the famous passenger, Léon Gaumont, are joined in our presentation.

  18. Electroporation of a multivalent DNA vaccine cocktail elicits a protective immune response against anthrax and plague.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Mark T; Livingston, Brian D; Pesce, John T; Bell, Matt G; Hannaman, Drew; Keane-Myers, Andrea M

    2012-07-06

    Electroporation of DNA vaccines represents a platform technology well positioned for the development of multivalent biodefense vaccines. To evaluate this hypothesis, three vaccine constructs were produced using codon-optimized genes encoding Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (PA), and the Yersinia pestis genes LcrV and F1, cloned into pVAX1. A/J mice were immunized on a prime-boost schedule with these constructs using the electroporation-based TriGrid Delivery System. Immunization with the individual pDNA vaccines elicited higher levels of antigen-specific IgG than when used in combination. DNA vaccine effectiveness was proven, the pVAX-PA titers were toxin neutralizing and fully protective against a lethal B. anthracis spore challenge when administered alone or co-formulated with the plague pDNA vaccines. LcrV and F1 pVAX vaccines against plague were synergistic, resulting in 100% survival, but less protective individually and when co-formulated with pVAX-PA. These DNA vaccine responses were Th1/Th2 balanced with high levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in splenocyte recall assays, contrary to complimentary protein Alum vaccinations displaying a Th2 bias with increased IL-4 and low levels of IFN-γ. These results demonstrate the feasibility of electroporation to deliver and maintain the overall efficacy of an anthrax-plague DNA vaccine cocktail whose individual components have qualitative immunological differences when combined.

  19. Investigation of vesicle-capsular plague antigen complex formation by elastic laser radiation scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, N. P.; Maximova, Irina S.; Romanov, Sergey V.; Shubochkin, L. P.; Tatarintsev, Sergey N.

    1991-05-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been given to the investigation artificial lipid liposomes, due to their application as "containers" for directed transport of biologically active compounds into particular cells, organs and tissues for prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases. The use of traditional methods of liposome investigation, such as sedimentation, electrophoresis and chromatography is impeded by low liposome resistivity to different deformations. In conjunction with this, optical methods of laser light scattering are promising as they allow nondisturbing, precise and quick investigations. This paper describes the investigation of vesicle systems prepared from egg lecithin of Serva Corporation and their complexes with the capsular antigen of the plague microbe. The capsular antigen Fl was obtained from EV plague microbe grown at 37° C on Huttinger agar. Fl was isolated by gel-filtration on ASA-22 followed by freeze drying of the preparation. Angular dependences of polarized radiation scattering were measured for several liposome suspension samples in a saline solution before and after the interaction with the plague microbe capsular antigen. The aim of the investigation was to analyze the nature of mutual antigen arrangement in a liposome and to develop methods for measuring its inclusion percentage.

  20. Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague risks in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania: a geospatial approach.

    PubMed

    Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Literature suggests that higher resolution remote sensing data integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) can provide greater possibility to refine the analysis of land cover and terrain characteristics for explanation of abundance and distribution of plague hosts and vectors and hence of health risk hazards to humans. These technologies are not widely used in East Africa for studies on diseases including plague. The objective of this study was to refine the analysis of single and combined land cover and terrain characteristics in order to gain an insight into localized plague infection risks in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. The study used a geospatial approach to assess the influence of land cover and terrain factors on the abundance and spatial distribution of plague hosts (small mammals) and plague vectors (fleas). It considered different levels of scale and resolution. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical method was used to clarify the relationships between land cover and terrain variables with small mammals and fleas. Results indicate that elevation positively influenced the presence of small mammals. The presence of fleas was clearly influenced by land management features such as miraba. Medium to high resolution remotely sensed data integrated in a GIS have been found to be quite useful in this type of analysis. These findings contribute to efforts on plague surveillance and awareness creation among communities on the probable risks associated with various landscape factors during epidemics.

  1. Responses of young red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and White Leghorn layers to familiar and unfamiliar social stimuli.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, J; Jensen, P

    2004-03-01

    Social preferences of familiar over unfamiliar social stimuli in chicks may be used to measure sociality, a characteristic important for the welfare of poultry in commercial production. We studied social preferences and reaction to strangers in young White Leghorns and red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) in 3 tests. All chicks were raised and housed in 2 groups of 34 individuals per breed. At 24 to 29 d of age 38 chicks per breed were tested in 2 runway tests. In the first, chicks had a free choice between familiar and unfamiliar breed members, and in the second the choice was between unfamiliar chicks of their own breed and the other breed. On d 41 to 42, spacing and agonistic interactions of 28 pairs of chicks per breed (in half of the pairs, chicks were unfamiliar to each other) were observed in an open field for 10 min (pair test). In the first runway test, clear preference for familiar chicks and avoidance of unfamiliar social stimuli was found only in Leghorns, whereas both breeds showed a preference for their own breed members in the second runway test. Affiliation to the familiar breed, however, was more pronounced in Leghorns. In the pair test, Leghorns were significantly more involved in agonistic interactions than wild-type chicks. Avoidance of unfamiliar and preference for familiar conspecifics might suggest a weaker capacity of Leghorns to cope with novel social and environmental stimuli, which might have implications for the welfare of the birds in production environments when encountering unfamiliar individuals.

  2. Involvement of melatonin and thyroid hormones in the control of sleep, food intake and energy metabolism in the domestic fowl.

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, F F; Forbes, J M; Injidi, M H

    1983-01-01

    Growing male domestic fowl of an egg-laying strain were fed ad libitum and injected intraperitoneally with melatonin or intramuscularly with triiodothyronine (T3) to study the effects on sleep, food intake, blood glucose, e.e.g., oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Melatonin caused a dose-related depression of food intake with sleep and aphagia lasting for 2 1/2 hr following 8 mg, drowsiness and greatly reduced intake following 4 and 2 mg and a slight reduction in food intake after 1 mg. T3 injection was followed by increased feeding within the range 50-200 micrograms. The higher dose (200 micrograms) completely prevented the effects of 10 mg melatonin injected simultaneously. Melatonin (10 mg) depressed plasma glucose levels whereas T3 (200 micrograms) elevated blood glucose. Either darkness or melatonin (10 mg) caused an increase in amplitude and a decrease in frequency of the e.e.g. Birds fasted for 3 hr before injection showed significantly lower oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production when given melatonin (10 mg); T3 had no effect within the 4 hr period after injection and did not modify the effects of melatonin. It is postulated that the rapid effects of melatonin and T3 which were observed result from direct effects of these hormones on the central nervous system. PMID:6410055

  3. Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.

    PubMed

    Martin, C D; Mullens, B A

    2012-09-01

    Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive.

  4. Host resistance, population structure and the long-term persistence of bubonic plague: contributions of a modelling approach in the Malagasy focus.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Fanny; Choisy, Marc; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Débarre, Florence; Brouat, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i) endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii) in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii) the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar.

  5. Colorado animal-based plague surveillance systems: relationships between targeted animal species and prediction efficacy of areas at risk for humans.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Eisen, Rebecca J; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Xiaocheng, Liang; Montenieri, John A; Tanda, Dale; Pape, John; Schriefer, Martin E; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2009-06-01

    Human plague risks (Yersinia pestis infection) are greatest when epizootics cause high mortality among this bacterium's natural rodent hosts. Therefore, health departments in plague-endemic areas commonly establish animal-based surveillance programs to monitor Y. pestis infection among plague hosts and vectors. The primary objectives of our study were to determine whether passive animal-based plague surveillance samples collected in Colorado from 1991 to 2005 were sampled from high human plague risk areas and whether these samples provided information useful for predicting human plague case locations. By comparing locations of plague-positive animal samples with a previously constructed GIS-based plague risk model, we determined that the majority of plague-positive Gunnison's prairie dogs (100%) and non-prairie dog sciurids (85.82%), and moderately high percentages of sigmodontine rodents (71.4%), domestic cats (69.3%), coyotes (62.9%), and domestic dogs (62.5%) were recovered within 1 km of the nearest area posing high peridomestic risk to humans. In contrast, the majority of white-tailed prairie dog (66.7%), leporid (cottontailed and jack rabbits) (71.4%), and black-tailed prairie dog (93.0%) samples originated more than 1 km from the nearest human risk habitat. Plague-positive animals or their fleas were rarely (one of 19 cases) collected within 2 km of a case exposure site during the 24 months preceding the dates of illness onset for these cases. Low spatial accuracy for identifying epizootic activity prior to human plague cases suggested that other mammalian species or their fleas are likely more important sources of human infection in high plague risk areas. To address this issue, epidemiological observations and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) were used to preliminarily identify chipmunks as an under-sampled, but potentially important, species for human plague risk in Colorado.

  6. The quest of influenza A viruses for new hosts.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Guan, Y; Peiris, M; He, S; Webby, R J; Perez, D; Webster, R G

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that stable lineages of influenza viruses are being established in chickens. H9N2 viruses are established in chickens in Eurasia, and there are increasing reports of H3N2, H6N1, and H6N2 influenza viruses in chickens both in Asia and North America. Surveillance in a live poultry market in Nanchang, South Central China, reveals that influenza viruses were isolated form 1% of fecal samples taken from healthy poultry over the course of 16 months. The highest isolation rates were from chickens (1.3%) and ducks (1.2%), followed by quail (0.8%), then pigeon (0.5%). H3N6, H9N2, H2N9, and H4N6 viruses were isolated from multiple samples, while single isolates of H1N1, H3N2, and H3N3 viruses were made. Representatives of each virus subtype were experimentally inoculated into both quail and chickens. All the viruses replicated in the trachea of quail, but efficient replication in chickens was confined to 25% of the tested isolates. In quail, these viruses were shed primarily by the aerosol route, raising the possibility that quail may be the "route modulator" that changes the route of transmission of influenza viruses from fecal-oral to aerosol transmission. Thus, quail may play an important role in the natural history of influenza viruses. The pros and cons of the use of inactivated and recombinant fowl pox-influenza vaccines to control the spread of avian influenza are also evaluated.

  7. [Wild birds--a reservoir for influenza A virus].

    PubMed

    Griot, C; Hoop, R

    2007-11-01

    Influenza A viruses, in particular the H5 and H7 subtypes, have caused epizootic diseases in poultry for a long time. Wild aquatic birds and shorebirds form the natural virus reservoir. All influenza virus subtypes and almost all possible haemagglutinin/neuraminidase combinations have been detected in wild birds, whereas relatively few have been detected in humans and other mammals. In 1997, the emerging and spreading of the highly pathogenic strain H5N1 within Asia was supported by lack of hygiene in commercial poultry units and by the existence of live bird markets. During autumn 2005, migratory birds have been accused for spreading the infection along their flyways to Europe including Switzerland. For early detection of introduction to Europe, many countries have initiated surveillance programs for avian influenza in wild birds. Vaccines against influenza A viruses are existing for birds and are widely used to protect domestic fowl in endemic regions of Asia as well as valuable birds in zoos worldwide. Subtype H5N1 could be the progenitor virus of a new pandemic influenza virus. Therefore, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, Paris) as well as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, Rome) will need to increase their efforts to assist countries to combat the disease in the field.

  8. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

  9. The plagues of Egypt: what killed the animals and the firstborn?

    PubMed

    Hoyte, H M

    1993-05-17

    The Book of Exodus, various translations, chapters 7 to 12--The plagues: 1. The river Nile turned the colour of blood, the water stank and the fish died 2. Hordes of frogs left the river, then they died and their bodies stank 3. Swarms of gnats attacked the people and their animals 4. Swarms of flies then did the same 5. An epidemic disease killed many farm animals 6. Boils and skin sores broke out on the people and their animals 7. A violent hail storm ruined the crops 8. A swarm of locusts ate what was left of them 9. Darkness blanketed the country for three days 10. The eldest child in each family died suddenly, and so did the first born animals. THE PERIOD: Uncertain, but deduced to be about 1470 BC. THE PEOPLE: The Egyptians, a population of about 2.5 million, about one million living in the Nile delta at an average density of about 90 people per km2 of cultivated land, and the Israelites, working as slave-labourers and quartered in the land of Goshen, a relatively small area probably near the margin of the north-east part of the Nile delta. THE PROTAGONISTS: Thutmosis III, Pharoah of Egypt, and Moses, leader of the Israelites. THE PLACE: The encounters between Thutmosis and Moses occurred just before each of the plagues, in or close to the Pharoah's palace. Given Moses' location, this must have been the palace at Memphis, the old capital, near the southern apex or beginning of the delta, not the one at Thebes, 600 km further to the south along the river. The Israelites' perception of the geographical extent of the plagues was therefore limited to what happened in the delta. The statements that plagues 1, 2, 3 and 8 affected "all the land of Egypt" should be interpreted as: all of the Nile delta including the land of Goshen. The other plagues affected parts neighbouring on, but not including, the land of Goshen.

  10. Use of a public telephone hotline to detect urban plague cases.

    PubMed

    Malberg, J A; Pape, W J; Lezotte, D; Hill, A E

    2012-11-01

    Current methods for vector-borne disease surveillance are limited by time and cost. To avoid human infections from emerging zoonotic diseases, it is important that the United States develop cost-effective surveillance systems for these diseases. This study examines the methodology used in the surveillance of a plague epizootic involving tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) in Denver Colorado, during the summer of 2007. A call-in centre for the public to report dead squirrels was used to direct animal carcass sampling. Staff used these reports to collect squirrel carcasses for the analysis of Yersinia pestis infection. This sampling protocol was analysed at the census tract level using Poisson regression to determine the relationship between higher call volumes in a census tract and the risk of a carcass in that tract testing positive for plague. Over-sampling owing to call volume-directed collection was accounted for by including the number of animals collected as the denominator in the model. The risk of finding an additional plague-positive animal increased as the call volume per census tract increased. The risk in the census tracts with >3 calls a month was significantly higher than that with three or less calls in a month. For tracts with 4-5 calls, the relative risk (RR) of an additional plague-positive carcass was 10.08 (95% CI 5.46-18.61); for tracts with 6-8 calls, the RR = 5.20 (2.93-9.20); for tracts with 9-11 calls, the RR = 12.80 (5.85-28.03) and tracts with >11 calls had RR = 35.41 (18.60-67.40). Overall, the call-in centre directed sampling increased the probability of locating plague-infected carcasses in the known Denver epizootic. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of this methodology at monitoring large-scale zoonotic disease occurrence in the absence of a recognized epizootic.

  11. Persistence of black-tailed prairie-dog populations affected by plague in northern Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Pepin, Kim M; Savage, Lisa T; Antolini, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    The spatial distribution of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in North America has changed from large, contiguous populations to small, isolated colonies in metapopulations. One factor responsible for this drastic change in prairie-dog population structure is plague (caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis). We fit stochastic patch occupancy models to 20 years of prairie-dog colony occupancy data from two discrete metapopulations (west and east) in the Pawnee National Grassland in Colorado, USA, that differ in connectivity among suitable habitat patches. We conducted model selection between two hypothesized modes of plague movement: independent of prairie-dog dispersal (colony-area) vs. plague movement consistent with prairie-dog dispersal (connectivity to extinct colonies). The best model, which fit the data well (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.94 west area; 0.79 east area), revealed that over time the proportion of extant colonies was better explained by colony size than by connectivity to extinct (plagued) colonies. The idea that prairie dogs are not likely to be the main vector that spreads Y. pestis across the landscape is supported by the observation that colony extinctions are primarily caused by plague, prairie-dog dispersal is short range, and connectivity to extinct colonies was not selected as a factor in the models. We also conducted simulations with the best model to examine long-term patterns of colony occupancy and persistence of prairie-dog metapopulations. In the case where the metapopulations persist, our model predicted that the western metapopulation would have a colony occupancy rate approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the eastern metapopulation (-50% occupied colonies vs. 20%) in 50 years, but that the western metapopulation has -80% chance of extinction in 100 years while the eastern metapopulation has a less than 25% chance. Extinction probability of individual colonies depended on the frequency with which colonies of the

  12. Identification of New World Quails Susceptible to Infection with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J.

    PubMed

    Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Hron, Tomáš; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Elleder, Daniel; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-02-01

    The J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chickens, jungle fowl, and turkeys. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1. The resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J in a great majority of galliform species has been explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails. The embryo fibroblasts of New World quails are susceptible to infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J, and the cloned Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 confers susceptibility on the otherwise resistant host. New World quails are also susceptible to new avian leukosis virus subgroup J variants but resistant to subgroups A and B and weakly susceptible to subgroups C and D of avian sarcoma/leukosis virus due to obvious defects of the respective receptors. Our results suggest that the avian leukosis virus subgroup J could be transmitted to New World quails and establish a natural reservoir of circulating virus with a potential for further evolution.

  13. A molecular analysis of the patterns of genetic diversity in local chickens from western Algeria in comparison with commercial lines and wild jungle fowls.

    PubMed

    Mahammi, F Z; Gaouar, S B S; Laloë, D; Faugeras, R; Tabet-Aoul, N; Rognon, X; Tixier-Boichard, M; Saidi-Mehtar, N

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic variability of village chickens from three agro-ecological regions of western Algeria: coastal (CT), inland plains (IP) and highlands (HL), to reveal any underlying population structure, and to evaluate potential genetic introgression from commercial lines into local populations. A set of 233 chickens was genotyped with a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. Geographical coordinates were individually recorded. Eight reference populations were included in the study to investigate potential gene flow: four highly selected commercial pure lines and four lines of French slow-growing chickens. Two populations of wild red jungle fowls were also genotyped to compare the range of diversity between domestic and wild fowls. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Multivariate redundancy analyses were performed to assess the relative influence of geographical location among Algerian ecotypes. The results showed a high genetic variability within the Algerian population, with 184 alleles and a mean number of 8.09 alleles per locus. The values of heterozygosity (He and Ho) ranged from 0.55 to 0.62 in Algerian ecotypes and were smaller than values found in Jungle fowl populations and higher than values found in commercial populations. Although the structuring analysis of genotypes did not reveal clear subpopulations within Algerian ecotypes, the supervised approach using geographical data showed a significant (p < 0.01) differentiation between the three ecotypes which was mainly due to altitude. Thus, the genetic diversity of Algerian ecotypes may be under the influence of two factors with contradictory effects: the geographical location and climatic conditions may induce some differentiation, whereas the high level of exchanges and gene flow may suppress it. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and Algerian local populations was observed, which may be due to unrecorded

  14. Participation of tri-iodothyronine and metabolic clearance rate in the inhibition of growth hormone secretion in thyroxine-treated domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Klandorf, H; Scanes, C G

    1990-02-01

    Surgical thyroidectomy increases basal and TRH-induced GH concentrations in the peripheral plasma of immature domestic fowl. Replacement therapy with thyroxine (T4; 100 micrograms/kg per day for 7 days, i.m.) suppressed the GH responses to thyroidectomy. Bolus administration of T4 (10 micrograms/kg, i.m.) to thyroidectomized birds promptly lowered the circulating GH concentrations, which remained suppressed for at least 4 h. Chronic (daily injections for 7 days) or acute (one injection) pretreatment of thyroidectomized birds with iopanoic acid (IOP; 40 mg/bird, i.m.) before the bolus administration of T4 attenuated, but did not prevent, inhibition of circulating GH levels by T4. Administration of IOP (40 mg/bird i.m.) 24 h and immediately before the administration of tri-iodothyronine (T3; 3 micrograms/kg, i.m.) or T4 (10 micrograms/kg, i.m.) also failed to suppress thyroidal inhibition of circulating GH concentrations in thyroidectomized birds. Administration of IOP alone had no effect on GH concentrations. Circulating T3 concentrations were not enhanced following the administration of T4 to IOP-treated birds, indicating its inhibition of hepatic monodeiodinase activity. The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of 125I-labelled chicken GH in the plasma of thyroidectomized fowl was less than that in sham-thyroidectomized birds. Following pretreatment with T4 (100 micrograms/kg per day for 7 days) sham-thyroidectomized and thyroidectomized birds did not differ significantly in their MCR. The GH secretion rate in thyroidectomized birds was similar to that in sham-thyroidectomized birds and in both groups was markedly reduced following pretreatment with T4. These results demonstrate thyroidal inhibition of circulating GH concentrations in fowl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Plague cycles in two rodent species from China: Dry years might provide context for epizootics in wet years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.; Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Plague, a rodent-associated, flea-borne zoonosis, is one of the most notorious diseases in history. Rates of plague transmission can increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas commonly desiccate and die when reared under dry conditions in laboratories, suggesting fleas will be suppressed during droughts in the wild, thus reducing the rate at which plague spreads among hosts. In contrast, fleas might increase in abundance when precipitation is plentiful, producing epizootic outbreaks during wet years. We tested these hypotheses using a 27-yr data set from two rodents in Inner Mongolia, China: Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). For both species of rodents, fleas were most abundant during years preceded by dry growing seasons. For gerbils, the prevalence of plague increased during wet years preceded by dry growing seasons. If precipitation is scarce during the primary growing season, succulent plants decline in abundance and, consequently, herbivorous rodents can suffer declines in body condition. Fleas produce more offspring and better survive when parasitizing food-limited hosts, because starving animals tend to exhibit inefficient behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. Further, rodent burrows might buffer fleas from xeric conditions aboveground during dry years. After a dry year, fleas might be abundant due to the preceding drought, and if precipitation and succulent plants become more plentiful, rodents could increase in density, thereby creating connectivity that facilitates the spread of plague. Moreover, in wet years, mild temperatures might increase the efficiency at which fleas transmit the plague bacterium, while also helping fleas to survive as they quest among hosts. In this way, dry years could provide context for epizootics of plague in wet years.

  16. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  17. An overview of plague in the United States and a report of investigations of two human cases in Kern county, California, 1995.

    PubMed

    Madon, M B; Hitchcock, J C; Davis, R M; Myers, C M; Smith, C R; Fritz, C L; Emery, K W; O'Rullian, W

    1997-06-01

    Plague was confirmed in the United States from nine western states during 1995. Evidence of Yersinia pestis infection was identified in 28 species of wild or domestic mammals. Thirteen of the plague positive species were wild rodents; 15 were predators/carnivores. Yersinia pestis was isolated from eight species of fleas. Seven confirmed cases of human plague were reported in 1995 (New Mexico 3; California 2; Arizona and Oregon 1 each). Five of the seven cases were bubonic; one was septicemic and one a fatal pneumonic case. Months of onset ranged from March through August. In California, during 1995, plague was recorded from 15 of the 58 counties. Over 1,500 animals were tested, of which 208 were plague positive. These included 144 rodents and 64 predators/carnivores. Two confirmed human cases (one bubonic and one fatal pneumonic) occurred, both in Kern County. Case No. 1 was reported from the town of Tehachapi. The patient, a 23 year-old male resident, died following a diagnosis of plague pneumonia. The patient's source of plague infection could not be determined precisely. Field investigations revealed an extensive plague epizootic surrounding Tehachapi, an area of approximately 500-600 square miles (800-970 square kilometers). Case No. 2 was a 57 year-old female diagnosed with bubonic plague; she was placed on an antibiotic regimen and subsequently recovered. The patient lives approximately 20 miles (32 km) north of Tehachapi. Field investigations revealed evidence of a plague epizootic in the vicinity of the victim's residence and adjacent areas. Overall results of the joint field investigations throughout the entire Kern county area revealed a high rate of plague positive animals. Of the numerous samples submitted, 48 non-human samples were plague positive.

  18. Vaccination with F1-V Fusion Protein Protects Black-Footed Ferrets (Mustela Nigripes) Against Plague Upon Oral Challenge with Yersinia Pestis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    with F1-V fusion protein by subcutaneous (SC) injection protects the animals against plague upon injection of the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This...study demonstrates that the F1-V antigen can also protect ferrets against plague contracted via ingestion of a Y. pestis-infected mouse, a probable...boost by feeding each one a Y. pestis-infected mouse. All eight vaccinates survived challenge, while the four controls succumbed to plague within 3 days

  19. The rhetorical construction of the predatorial virus: a Burkian analysis of nonfiction accounts of the Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Weldon, R A

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, a new subgenre of horror films, referred to as plague films, has turned our focus to the threat of a hemorrhagic viral pandemic, comparable to the Spanish Flu epidemic of 1916. Based on the Ebola viral outbreaks of 1976, various writers have presented their accounts under the guise of increasing interest and prevention strategies. Disregarding inappropriate health care practices as the cause of these epidemics, accountability is refocused onto the rhetorically constructed, predatory nature of the virus. By employing Burke's theory of dramatism and pentadic analysis, the author examines this rhetorical construction of Ebola as a predatorial virus and its implications for public perceptions of public health endeavors.

  20. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Banaraja fowls reared in semi-intensive system of management in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Hembram, Ananta; Panda, M. R.; Mohanty, B. N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Dehuri, M.; Sahu, A.; Behera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of three blocks (Chandua, Shamakhunta and Bangriposi) of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females) belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month) were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The method of investigation included collection of fecal sample and gastrointestinal tracts, examination of fecal sample of birds, collection of parasites from different part of gastrointestinal tract, counting of parasites, and examination of the collected parasites by standard parasitological techniques followed by morphological identification as far as possible up to the species level. Results: Overall, 58.75% birds were found infected with various gastrointestinal helminths. Total five species of parasites were detected that included Ascaridia galli (25.63%), Heterakis gallinarum (33.75%), Raillietina tetragona (46.25%), Raillietina echinobothrida (11.87%), and Echinostoma revolutum (1.87%). Both single (19.15%) as well as mixed (80.85%) infection were observed. Highest incidence of infection was observed during rainy season (68.88%) followed by winter (66.66%) and least in summer season (41.81%). Sex-wise incidence revealed slightly higher occurrence among females (59.23%) than males (56.67%). Age-wise prevalence revealed that chicks were more susceptible (77.77%) than adults (51.30%) to gastrointestinal helminths infection. Conclusions: Present study revealed that mixed infection with gastrointestinal helminths of different species was more common than infection with single species and season-wise prevalence was higher in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chicks were found to be more prone to this parasitic infection and a slight higher prevalence among female birds was

  1. Selected clinical chemistry analytes correlate with the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis experimentally induced by fowl aviadenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Liebhart, Dieter; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Hess, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free chickens, which were weighed, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post-infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopical changes were seen in the liver and kidney between 6 and 10 dpi, with no lesions being observed in the other organs. Histological lesions were observed in the liver and pancreas during the same period. Plasma was collected from killed birds of each group at each time point and the following clinical chemistry analytes were investigated: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), bile acids, total protein, albumin, uric acid and lipase. Plasma protein profile, AST and GLDH, together with bile acids values paralleled the macroscopical and histopathological lesions in the liver, while plasma lipase activity levels coincided with lesions observed in pancreas. In agreement with the histology and clinical chemistry, viral load in the target organs, liver and pancreas, was highest at 7 dpi. Thus, clinical chemistry was found to be a valuable tool in evaluating and monitoring the progression of IBH in experimentally infected birds, providing a deeper knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of a FAdV infection in chickens.

  2. Design of a predicted MHC restricted short peptide immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate for Fowl adenovirus C in chicken infection.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Iván; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each genome. We sequenced twelve Cobb chicken MHC alleles from animals of different farms in the central coast of Peru, and subsequently determined three optimal human MHC-I and four optimal human MHC-II substitute alleles for MHC-peptide prediction. The potential MHC restricted short peptide epitope-like candidates were predicted using human specific (with determined suitable chicken substitutes) NetMHC MHC-peptide prediction model with web server features from all the FAdV genomes available. FAdV specific peptides with calculated binding values to known substituted chicken MHC-I and MHC-II were further filtered for diagnostics and potential vaccine epitopes. Promiscuity to the 3/4 optimal human MHC-I/II alleles and conservation among the available FAdV genomes was considered in this analysis. The localization on the surface of the protein was considered for class II predicted peptides. Thus, a set of class I and class II specific peptides from FAdV were reported in this study. Hence, a multiepitopic protein was built with these peptides, and subsequently tested to confirm the production of specific antibodies in chicken.

  3. Design of a predicted MHC restricted short peptide immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate for Fowl adenovirus C in chicken infection

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Iván; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each genome. We sequenced twelve Cobb chicken MHC alleles from animals of different farms in the central coast of Peru, and subsequently determined three optimal human MHC-I and four optimal human MHC-II substitute alleles for MHC-peptide prediction. The potential MHC restricted short peptide epitope-like candidates were predicted using human specific (with determined suitable chicken substitutes) NetMHC MHC-peptide prediction model with web server features from all the FAdV genomes available. FAdV specific peptides with calculated binding values to known substituted chicken MHC-I and MHC-II were further filtered for diagnostics and potential vaccine epitopes. Promiscuity to the 3/4 optimal human MHC-I/II alleles and conservation among the available FAdV genomes was considered in this analysis. The localization on the surface of the protein was considered for class II predicted peptides. Thus, a set of class I and class II specific peptides from FAdV were reported in this study. Hence, a multiepitopic protein was built with these peptides, and subsequently tested to confirm the production of specific antibodies in chicken. PMID:26664030

  4. Fauna, flora, fowl, and fruit: effects of the Columbian Exchange on the allergic response of New and Old World inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, J E

    1992-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange has been described as "the most important event in human history since the end of the Ice Age." This interchange of many species of fauna, flora, fowl, and fruits resulted in new encounters between New and Old World inhabitants. Prominent among these were manifestations of allergic reactions to many of the new substances. Little imagination is required to reflect on what these substances, added to or detracted from both the New and Old World lifestyles, habits, and diets. The numerous peas, vegetable seeds, and grasses, such as sugarcane, introduced during Columbus' later voyages, made an enormous difference in the lives of New World inhabitants, as did the introduction of the cow and horse, not to mention substances such as coconuts and bananas, that are now intimately associated with the Caribbean and the Bahamas. This article focuses on some the more important exchange substances and emphasizes many forms of anaphylaxis: asthma, food allergy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, serum sickness, and other conditions that developed in both New and Old World inhabitants. To mention only a few examples, the Europeans introduced to the New World potential dangers such as honeybees (anaphylaxis). It also gave the New World the cow and the horse (serum sickness), which became the constant companion of Columbus' Indians and the American cowboy. It gave the Italians their thick red gravy, and the New World its pizza (food allergy). The Caribbean received bananas and coconuts and the New World embraced coffee (caffeine addiction). On the other hand, the exchange also caused Europeans to begin puffing away on tobacco.

  5. Erratum to: the acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-10-01

    The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.

  6. The acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-01-01

    The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5 %) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC(50) and LC(95) were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT(50) and LT(95) were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25 %). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC(50) and LC(95) values were 0.033 and 0.052 % (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT(50) and LT(95) values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.025 % DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5 %), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.05 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42 % after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28 %) when compared with that of DMT (52 %). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.

  7. Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Wilder, Aryn P; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2006-10-17

    Plague is a highly virulent disease believed to have killed millions during three historic human pandemics. Worldwide, it remains a threat to humans and is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Dissemination of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, by blocked fleas has been the accepted paradigm for flea-borne transmission. However, this mechanism, which requires a lengthy extrinsic incubation period before a short infectious window often followed by death of the flea, cannot sufficiently explain the rapid rate of spread that typifies plague epidemics and epizootics. Inconsistencies between the expected rate of spread by blocked rat fleas and that observed during the Black Death has even caused speculation that plague was not the cause of this medieval pandemic. We used the primary vector to humans in North America, Oropsylla montana, which rarely becomes blocked, as a model for studying alternative flea-borne transmission mechanisms. Our data revealed that, in contrast to the classical blocked flea model, O. montana is immediately infectious, transmits efficiently for at least 4 d postinfection (early phase) and may remain infectious for a long time because the fleas do not suffer block-induced mortality. These factors match the criteria required to drive plague epizootics as defined by recently published mathematical models. The scenario of efficient early-phase transmission by unblocked fleas described in our study calls for a paradigm shift in concepts of how Y. pestis is transmitted during rapidly spreading epizootics and epidemics, including, perhaps, the Black Death.

  8. Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201, an avirulent strain to humans, provides protection against bubonic plague in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Qi, Zhizhen; Zhang, Xuecan; Wu, Xiaohong; Qiu, Yefeng; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Youquan; He, Jian; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus is considered to be a virulent to larger mammals, including guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. It may be used as live attenuated plague vaccine candidates in terms of its low virulence. However, the Microtus strain's protection against plague has yet to be demonstrated in larger mammals. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the Microtus strain 201 as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. Our results show that this strain is highly attenuated by subcutaneous route, elicits an F1-specific antibody titer similar to the EV and provides a protective efficacy similar to the EV against bubonic plague in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The Microtus strain 201 could induce elevated secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6), as well as chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. However, the protected animals developed skin ulcer at challenge site with different severity in most of the immunized and some of the EV-immunized monkeys. Generally, the Microtus strain 201 represented a good plague vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as its good protection against high dose of subcutaneous virulent Y. pestis challenge.

  9. Tularemia and plague survey in rodents in an earthquake zone in southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes are one the most common natural disasters that lead to increased mortality and morbidity from transmissible diseases, partially because the rodents displaced by an earthquake can lead to an increased rate of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plague and tularemia in rodents in the earthquake zones in southeastern Iran. METHODS: In April 2013, a research team was dispatched to explore the possible presence of diseases in rodents displaced by a recent earthquake magnitude 7.7 around the cities of Khash and Saravan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Rodents were trapped near and in the earthquake zone, in a location where an outbreak of tularemia was reported in 2007. Rodent serums were tested for a serological survey using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the 13 areas that were studied, nine rodents were caught over a total of 200 trap-days. Forty-eight fleas and 10 ticks were obtained from the rodents. The ticks were from the Hyalomma genus and the fleas were from the Xenopsylla genus. All the trapped rodents were Tatera indica. Serological results were negative for plague, but the serum agglutination test was positive for tularemia in one of the rodents. Tatera indica has never been previously documented to be involved in the transmission of tularemia. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of the plague cycle was found in the rodents of the area, but evidence was found of tularemia infection in rodents, as demonstrated by a positive serological test for tularemia in one rodent. PMID:26602769

  10. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, L.

    1975-01-01

    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  11. Fast and simple detection of Yersinia pestis applicable to field investigation of plague foci.

    PubMed

    Simon, Stéphanie; Demeure, Christian; Lamourette, Patricia; Filali, Sofia; Plaisance, Marc; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has a rodent-flea-rodent life cycle but can also persist in the environment for various periods of time. There is now a convenient and effective test (F1-dipstick) for the rapid identification of Y. pestis from human patient or rodent samples, but this test cannot be applied to environmental or flea materials because the F1 capsule is mostly produced at 37°C. The plasminogen activator (PLA), a key virulence factor encoded by a Y. pestis-specific plasmid, is synthesized both at 20°C and 37°C, making it a good candidate antigen for environmental detection of Y. pestis by immunological methods. A recombinant PLA protein from Y. pestis synthesized by an Escherichia coli strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). PLA-specific mAbs devoid of cross-reactions with other homologous proteins were further cloned. A pair of mAbs was selected based on its specificity, sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and ability to react with Y. pestis strains grown at different temperatures. These antibodies were used to develop a highly sensitive one-step PLA-enzyme immunoassay (PLA-EIA) and an immunostrip (PLA-dipstick), usable as a rapid test under field conditions. These two PLA-immunometric tests could be valuable, in addition to the F1-disptick, to confirm human plague diagnosis in non-endemic areas (WHO standard case definition). They have the supplementary advantage of allowing a rapid and easy detection of Y. pestis in environmental and flea samples, and would therefore be of great value for surveillance and epidemiological investigations of plague foci. Finally, they will be able to detect natural or genetically engineered F1-negative Y. pestis strains in human patients and environmental samples.

  12. PRECIPITATION, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND PARASITISM OF PRAIRIE DOGS BY FLEAS THAT TRANSMIT PLAGUE.

    PubMed

    Eads, David; Hoogland, John

    2017-03-30

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that can reduce the fitness of vertebrate hosts. Laboratory populations of fleas decline under dry conditions, implying that populations of fleas will also decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. If precipitation and hence vegetative production are reduced, however, then herbivorous hosts might suffer declines in body condition and have weakened defenses against fleas, so that fleas will increase in abundance. We tested these competing hypotheses using information from 23 yr of research on 3 species of colonial prairie dogs in western USA: Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni, 1989-1994), Utah prairie dogs (C. parvidens, 1996-2005), and white-tailed prairie dogs (C. leucurus, 2006-2012). For all 3 species, flea-counts per individual varied inversely with the number of days in the prior growing season with >10 mm of precipitation, an index of the number of precipitation events that might have caused a substantial, prolonged increase in soil moisture and vegetative production. Flea-counts per Utah prairie dog also varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the prior growing season. Further, flea-counts per Gunnison's and white-tailed prairie dog varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the just-completed January and February. These results complement research on black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus) and might have important ramifications for plague, a bacterial disease, transmitted by fleas, that devastates populations of prairie dogs. In particular, our results might help to explain why, at some colonies, epizootics of plague, which can kill >95% of prairie dogs, are more likely to occur during or shortly after periods of reduced precipitation. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of droughts in the grasslands of western North America. If so, then climate change might affect the occurrence of plague epizootics among prairie dogs and other

  13. Congruences in Chinese and Western medicine from 1830-1911: smallpox, plague and cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    A close examination of three examples, smallpox, plague and cholera, suggest that for acute infectious diseases the Chinese viewed the symptomatologies, the causes, and the rational treatments of these illnesses in many ways similar to that of their contemporary Western counterparts. Rather than holding an opposing, clashing or incongruent system of medical thoughts for these common, well-recognized infectious diseases, the Chinese were prepared, by a long tradition of ontological thinking, to be receptive to the adoption, incorporation or modification of Western medical ideas in the late nineteenth century. PMID:7544052

  14. Effects of microwave and various combinations of ambient temperature and humidity exposures on off-host survival of northern fowl mites.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, J A; Beerwinkle, K R

    1980-10-01

    When northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), were removed from their host and exposed to ambient temperatures ranging from -15 to 49 C with uncontrolled relative humidity (RH) or to temperatures ranging from .3 to 38 C with an RH of ca. 75%, mites lived longest at 4 C. However, temperatures between .3 and 26 C were also conducive to survival. Temperatures above 43 C killed the mites in less than 5 hr; mites exposed to -15 C lived up to 5 days. A constant humidity of ca. 75% was most beneficial to the mites when temperatures ranged from 33 to 38 C. Manipulation of ambient temperature and RH would be effective in exterminating the northern fowl mites on inanimate objects. Mites exposed for different periods to microwave energy at a net power ranging between 165 to 430 kw/m2 were not selectively heated to temperatures above the temperatures of the containers, nor did the irradiation have any other lethal effects on the mites.

  15. Screening of Lactobacillus isolates from gastrointestinal tract of guinea fowl for probiotic qualities using in vitro tests to select species-specific probiotic candidates.

    PubMed

    Vineetha, P G; Tomar, S; Saxena, V K; Susan, C; Sandeep, S; Adil, K; Mukesh, K

    2016-08-01

    A total of 32 Lactobacillus isolates, 8 each from the crop (LGFCP1-LGFCP8), proventriculus (LGFP9-LGFP16), ileum (LGFI17-LGFI24) and caeca (LGFCM25-LGFCM32) were isolated from 25 adult guinea fowl (Pearl variety), 22-28 weeks of age, and characterised morphologically, physiologically, biochemically and by molecular methods. Isolates were screened for their probiotic quality using range of in vitro tests: aggregation test, cell surface hydrophobicity, resistance to bile salts and acidic conditions, enzymatic tests and coaggregation and antagonistic test. Based on in vitro test results and a novel scoring method, the two best isolates were selected and partial 16S rRNA sequencing was done. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) analysis of sequence of isolate LGFCP4 showed 99% genetic identity with Lactobacillus plantarum and LGFP16 with Lactobacillus reuteri. The study shows that these two microbial agents may be suitable as potential probiotic candidates in guinea fowl, as well as in a feed supplement for other poultry species.

  16. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  17. Use of Insecticide Delivery Tubes for Controlling Rodent-Associated Fleas in a Plague Endemic Region of West Nile, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    BOEGLER, KAREN A.; ATIKU, LINDA A.; MPANGA, JOSEPH TENDO; CLARK, REBECCA J.; DELOREY, MARK J.; GAGE, KENNETH L.; EISEN, REBECCA J.

    2015-01-01

    Plague is a primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis that is often fatal in humans. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda where affordable means for the prevention of human plague are currently lacking. Traditional hut construction and food storage practices hinder rodent exclusion efforts, and emphasize the need for an inexpensive but effective host-targeted approach for controlling fleas within the domestic environment. Here we demonstrate the ability of an insecticide delivery tube that is made from inexpensive locally available materials to reduce fleas on domestic rodents. Unbaited tubes were treated with either an insecticide alone (fipronil) or in conjunction with an insect growth regulator [(S)-methoprene], and placed along natural rodent runways within participant huts. Performance was similar for both treatments throughout the course of the study, and showed significant reductions in the proportion of infested rodents relative to controls for at least 100 d posttreatment. PMID:26309315

  18. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

  19. 275 years since the epidemic of plague in Cluj: Dr. Alexandru Lenghel’s contribution to its investigation

    PubMed Central

    ROGOZEA, LILIANA; LEAȘU, FLORIN; DUMITRASCU, DINU IULIU; DUMITRASCU, DAN L.

    2015-01-01

    Plague is one of the most impressive diseases in the cultural history of mankind. Its lethality has influenced the evolution of society and it is frequently represented in fine arts and literature. The principality of Transylvania was also affected by this infection, the plague having strongly impacted both economic and social development. Between 1738 and 1739 an important plague epidemic spread in Transylvania. The authors introduce and discuss a less known work on this epidemic, with focus on its impact on the city of Cluj - a book written in 1930 by Dr. Alexandru Lenghel, who later became a target of political persecution during the Stalinist period, while his work entered a cone of shadow. PMID:26733757

  20. Pneumonic Plague

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & Training Related Bioterrorism Resources Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) Brucella species ( ...

  1. Black plague.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, L

    1997-01-01

    Many African-Americans are reluctant to participate in clinical trials of any type, citing the Federal government's unethical syphilis experiments in the Tuskegee Study. African-Americans are also more predisposed to choose alternative treatments over mainstream therapies. These attitudes contribute to the rise in infection rates in this population that now accounts for 41 percent of all reported cases. It is essential that African-Americans participate in HIV research at every level.

  2. Comparative tests for detection of plague antigen and antibody in experimentally infected wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, A J; Hummitzsch, D E; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R; Searle, L A

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with other standard tests for detection of plague (Yersinia pestis) antibody and antigen in multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha and M. natalensis) which were experimentally infected and then killed at daily intervals postinoculation. For detection of antibody in sera from M. natalensis, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA was equivalent in sensitivity to passive hemagglutination and more sensitive than the IgM ELISA and complement fixation. Antibody was first detected on postinfection day 6 by all four tests, but IgM ELISA titers had declined to undetectable levels after 8 weeks. For detection of fraction 1 Y. pestis antigen in rodent organs, the ELISA was less sensitive than fluorescent antibody but more sensitive than complement fixation or immunodiffusion. Plague fraction 1 antigen was detected in 16 of 34 bacteremic sera from M. coucha and M. natalensis. The threshold sensitivity of the ELISA was approximately 10(5) Y. pestis per ml. PMID:3097065

  3. [Historical review of the plague in South America: a little-known disease in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Sotomayor, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    The plague is an infectious disease that has transcended through history and has been responsible for three pandemics with high mortality rates. During the third pandemic that started in Hong Kong (1894), the disease spread through maritime routes to different regions in the world, including South America. In this region, approximately 16 million people are thought to be at risk in relation to this disease due to specific situations like human-rodent coexistence inside houses in rural areas, homes built with inadequate materials that are vulnerable to invasion by these animals, inappropriate storage of crops and an increase in rainfall and deforestation, which allows for the displacement of wild fauna and man invasion of the natural foci of the disease. Between 1994 and 1999, five countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and the United States of America, reported approximately 1,700 cases with 79 related deaths. In Colombia we have historical data about an "infectious pneumonia" with high mortality rates that occurred during the same months, for three consecutive years (1913 to 1915) in the departments of Magdalena, Atlántico and Bolívar, located in the Colombian Atlantic coast, which suggested plague, but could not be confirmed.

  4. A cure for the plague of parameters: constraining models of complex population dynamics with allometries

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Lawrence N.; Reuman, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of ecology is to discover how dynamics and structure of multi-trophic ecological communities are related. This is difficult, because whole-community data are limited and typically comprise only a snapshot of a community instead of a time series of dynamics, and mathematical models of complex system dynamics have a large number of unmeasured parameters and therefore have been only tenuously related to real systems. These are related problems, because long time-series, if they were commonly available, would enable inference of parameters. The resulting ‘plague of parameters’ means most studies of multi-species population dynamics have been very theoretical. Dynamical models parametrized using physiological allometries may offer a partial cure for the plague of parameters, and these models are increasingly used in theoretical studies. However, physiological allometries cannot determine all parameters, and the models have also rarely been directly tested against data. We confronted a model of community dynamics with data from a lake community. Many important empirical patterns were reproducible as outcomes of dynamics, and were not reproducible when parameters did not follow physiological allometries. Results validate the usefulness, when parameters follow physiological allometries, of classic differential-equation models for understanding whole-community dynamics and the structure–dynamics relationship. PMID:24026824

  5. Modelling the black death. A historical case study and implications for the epidemiology of bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Monecke, Hannelore; Monecke, Jochen

    2009-12-01

    We analysed a plague outbreak in the mining town of Freiberg in Saxony which started in May 1613 and ended in February 1614. This epidemic was selected for study because of the high quality of contemporary sources. It was possible to identify 1400 individual victims meaning that more than 10% of the population of the city perished. The outbreak was modelled by 9 differential equations describing flea, rat, and human populations. This resulted in a close fit to the historical records of this outbreak. An interesting implication of the model is that the introduction of even a small number of immune rats into an otherwise unchanged setting results in an abortive outbreak with very few human victims. Hence, the percentage of immune rats directly influences the magnitude of a human epidemic by diverting search activities of the fleas. Thus, we conclude that the spread of Rattus norvegicus, which might acquire partial herd immunity by exposure to soil- or water-borne Yersinia species due to its preference for wet habitats, contributed to the disappearance of Black Death epidemics from Europe in the 18th century. In order to prove whether or not the parameter values obtained by fitting a given outbreak are also applicable to other cases, we modelled the plague outbreak in Bombay 1905/06 using the same parameter values except for the number of humans as well as of immune and susceptible rats.

  6. The Venetian lazarettos of Candia and the Great Plague (1592 - 1595).

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Tsakris, Athanasios; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2014-03-01

    The present study highlights the history of lazarettos in Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete, Greece), which was the most important Venetian possession in the Mediterranean at the time, while at the same time it recounts the terrible plague which went down in history as the Great Plague of Candia (1592-1595). The study will also attempt to give a satisfactory answer to the epidemiological questions raised by the worst epidemic that Crete had experienced since the era of the Black Death in the 14th century. The city was about to lose more than a half of its population (51.3%), although it was saved from complete annihilation by the composure, courage and inventiveness of its Venetian commander, Filippo Pasqualigo, whose report to the Venetian Senate makes an invaluable source of information regarding the events of this dramatic period. Candia would also witness the emergence of typical human reactions in cases of epidemics and mass deaths, such as running away along with the feeling of self-preservation, dissolute life and ephemeral pleasures, as well as lawlessness and criminality. The lazaretto proved inefficient in the face of a disaster of such scale, whereas the epidemic functioned as a "crash-test" for the Venetian health system. Eventually, in an era when the microbial nature of the disease was unknown, it seems that it was practically impossible to handle emergency situations of large-scale epidemics successfully, despite strict laws and well-organized precautionary health systems.

  7. [Interaction of plague microbe strains varying in plasmid composition with the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis (Roths. 1903)].

    PubMed

    Voronova, G A; Tokmakova, E G; Balakhonov, S V; Bazanova, L P

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of two Yersinia pestis strains varying in plasmid composition with the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis was studied. The reference virulent strain I-2638 having four plasmids (pCad, pPst, pFra, and pTP 33) and its selected avirulent strain I-3480 that had lost the plasmids pCad and pPst formed a proventricular block in the fleas with equal frequency. There were no differences in the block-forming capacity of these strains among the infected females; however, the stock strain was more active in blocking the proventriculus in females in spring than was the mutant one. in summer. The fleas infected with a defect strain failed to transmit the pathogen. It follows that the presence of a proventricular block is not an indicator of how effectively the fleas transmit the causative agent of plague. While being in the insect, both strains of plague microbe did not alter their biological properties. In experiments, the death rate for insects infected with different strains was similar, but higher in spring than that in summer. The males naturally died more frequently than the females.

  8. [ON THE ORIGIN OF HYPERVIRULENCE OF THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF PLAGUE].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, N V; Kislichkina, A A; Platonov, M E; Evseeva, V V; Kadnikova, L A; Lipatnikova, N A; Bogun, A G; Dentovskaya, S V; Anisimov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The attempt to combine Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis into one species has been unsupported by microbiologists due to the specific features of the epidemiology and clinical presentations of their induced diseases and to basic differences in their virulence. Pseudotuberculosis is predominantly a relatively mild human intestinal infection transmitted through contaminated food and plague is an acute generalized disease with high mortality, which is most frequently transmitted by the bites of infected fleas. Y. pestis hypervirulence, the ability of single bacteria to ensure the development of predagonal bacteriemia in rodents, which is sufficient to contaminate the fleas, is one of the main events during pathogen adaptation to a new ecological niche. By analyzing the data of molecular typing of the representative kits of naturally occurring Y. pestis isolates, the authois consider the issues of formation of intraspecies groups with universal hypervirulence, as well as biovars that are highly virulent only to their major host. A strategy for searching for selective virulence factors, the potential molecular targets for vaccination and etiotropic treatment of plague, is discussed.

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    PubMed Central

    Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197

  10. Linking lifestyle of marginalized Gujjar population in Himachal Pradesh with plague outbreaks: a qualitative enquiry.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sonu; Gauri, Ajay; Kaur, Harvinder; Chauhan, Umesh Singh; Singh, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    It was a qualitative enquiry conducted amongst Gujjar population of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh (HP). The study was carried out to link various lifestyle factors of the Gujjar population with the 2002 outbreak of plague in HP. Focus Group discussions guide was prepared beforehand which had information about education, livelihood, dietary pattern, relationships, personal hygiene and habits and health care utilization. It was emerged out of the study that the population has poor literacy levels, poor personal hygiene, overcrowding in hutments, closely-knit social structure, lack of awareness about common diseases, and frequent visits to forests and living in caves during their visits. Further, government health care facilities are not routinely utilized by the Gujjar community. These factors might lead to increased proximity and exposure to wild rats among Gujjar population, thus increasing their susceptibility to plague. They are, therefore a potential link between any source of infection in forests and in native population of HP and other states. The government agencies should take various measures to increase health care access of such vulnerable population through outreach health care programs.

  11. Effects of Land Use on Plague (Yersinia pestis) Activity in Rodents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Douglas J.; Salkeld, Daniel J.; Young, Hillary S.; Makundi, Rhodes; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Lambin, Eric F.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Barry, Michele; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of land-use change on zoonotic disease risk is a pressing global health concern. Here, we compare prevalence of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, in rodents across two land-use types—agricultural and conserved—in northern Tanzania. Estimated abundance of seropositive rodents nearly doubled in agricultural sites compared with conserved sites. This relationship between land-use type and abundance of seropositive rodents is likely mediated by changes in rodent and flea community composition, particularly via an increase in the abundance of the commensal species, Mastomys natalensis, in agricultural habitats. There was mixed support for rodent species diversity negatively impacting Y. pestis seroprevalence. Together, these results suggest that land-use change could affect the risk of local transmission of plague, and raise critical questions about transmission dynamics at the interface of conserved and agricultural habitats. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding disease ecology in the context of rapidly proceeding landscape change. PMID:25711606

  12. Survey of the crayfish plague pathogen presence in the Netherlands reveals a new Aphanomyces astaci carrier.

    PubMed

    Tilmans, M; Mrugała, A; Svoboda, J; Engelsma, M Y; Petie, M; Soes, D M; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S; Oidtmann, B; Roessink, I; Petrusek, A

    2014-07-01

    North American crayfish species as hosts for the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci contribute to the decline of native European crayfish populations. At least six American crayfish species have been reported in the Netherlands but the presence of this pathogenic oomycete with substantial conservational impact has not yet been confirmed in the country. We evaluated A. astaci prevalence in Dutch populations of six alien crustaceans using species-specific quantitative PCR. These included three confirmed crayfish carriers (Orconectes limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii), two recently introduced but yet unstudied crayfish (Orconectes cf. virilis, Procambarus cf. acutus), and a catadromous crab Eriocheir sinensis. Moderate levels of infection were observed in some populations of O. limosus and P. leniusculus. Positive results were also obtained for E. sinensis and two Dutch populations of O. cf. virilis. English population of the latter species was also found infected, confirming this taxon as another A. astaci carrier in European waters. In contrast, Dutch P. clarkii seem only sporadically infected, and the pathogen was not yet detected in P. cf. acutus. Our study is the first confirmation of crayfish plague infections in the Netherlands and demonstrates substantial variation in A. astaci prevalence among potential hosts within a single region, a pattern possibly linked to their introduction history and coexistence.

  13. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague.

    PubMed

    Seery, David B; Biggins, Dean E; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Tanda, Dale T; Gage, Kenneth L

    2003-09-01

    Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.

  14. Continuing evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y K; Ozaki, H; Webby, R J; Webster, R G; Peiris, J S; Poon, L; Butt, C; Leung, Y H C; Guan, Y

    2004-08-01

    H9N2 influenza viruses are panzootic in domestic poultry in Eurasia and since 1999 have caused transient infections in humans and pigs. To investigate the zoonotic potential of H9N2 viruses, we studied the evolution of the viruses in live-poultry markets in Hong Kong in 2003. H9N2 was the most prevalent influenza virus subtype in the live-poultry markets between 2001 and 2003. Antigenic and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) showed that all of the 19 isolates found except one belonged to the lineage represented by A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2). The exception was A/Guinea fowl/NT184/03 (H9N2), whose HA is most closely related to that of the human isolate A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2), a virus belonging to the A/Chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (H9N2) lineage. At least six different genotypes were recognized. The majority of the viruses had nonstructural (and HA) genes derived from the A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like virus lineage but had other genes of mixed avian virus origin, including genes similar to those of H5N1 viruses isolated in 2001. Viruses of all six genotypes of H9N2 found were able to replicate in chickens and mice without adaptation. The infected chickens showed no signs of disease, but representatives of two viral genotypes were lethal to mice. Three genotypes of virus replicated in the respiratory tracts of swine, which shed virus for at least 5 days. These results show an increasing genetic and biologic diversity of H9N2 viruses in Hong Kong and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents.

  15. The role of intrinsic muscle mechanics in the neuromuscular control of stable running in the guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Daley, Monica A; Voloshina, Alexandra; Biewener, Andrew A

    2009-06-01

    Here we investigate the interplay between intrinsic mechanical and neural factors in muscle contractile performance during running, which has been less studied than during walking. We report in vivo recordings of the gastrocnemius muscle of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), during the response and recovery from an unexpected drop in terrain. Previous studies on leg and joint mechanics following this perturbation suggested that distal leg extensor muscles play a key role in stabilisation. Here, we test this through direct recordings of gastrocnemius fascicle length (using sonomicrometry), muscle-tendon force (using buckle transducers), and activity (using indwelling EMG). Muscle recordings were analysed from the stride just before to the second stride following the perturbation. The gastrocnemius exhibits altered force and work output in the perturbed and first recovery strides. Muscle work correlates strongly with leg posture at the time of ground contact. When the leg is more extended in the drop step, net gastrocnemius work decreases (-5.2 J kg(-1) versus control), and when the leg is more flexed in the step back up, it increases (+9.8 J kg(-1) versus control). The muscle's work output is inherently stabilising because it pushes the body back toward its pre-perturbation (level running) speed and leg posture. Gastrocnemius length and force return to level running means by the second stride following the perturbation. EMG intensity differs significantly from level running only in the first recovery stride following the perturbation, not within the perturbed stride. The findings suggest that intrinsic mechanical factors contribute substantially to the initial changes in muscle force and work. The statistical results suggest that a history-dependent effect, shortening deactivation, may be an important factor in the intrinsic mechanical changes, in addition to instantaneous force-velocity and force-length effects. This finding suggests the potential need to

  16. The role of intrinsic muscle mechanics in the neuromuscular control of stable running in the guinea fowl

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Monica A; Voloshina, Alexandra; Biewener, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    Here we investigate the interplay between intrinsic mechanical and neural factors in muscle contractile performance during running, which has been less studied than during walking. We report in vivo recordings of the gastrocnemius muscle of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), during the response and recovery from an unexpected drop in terrain. Previous studies on leg and joint mechanics following this perturbation suggested that distal leg extensor muscles play a key role in stabilisation. Here, we test this through direct recordings of gastrocnemius fascicle length (using sonomicrometry), muscle–tendon force (using buckle transducers), and activity (using indwelling EMG). Muscle recordings were analysed from the stride just before to the second stride following the perturbation. The gastrocnemius exhibits altered force and work output in the perturbed and first recovery strides. Muscle work correlates strongly with leg posture at the time of ground contact. When the leg is more extended in the drop step, net gastrocnemius work decreases (−5.2 J kg−1versus control), and when the leg is more flexed in the step back up, it increases (+9.8 J kg−1versus control). The muscle's work output is inherently stabilising because it pushes the body back toward its pre-perturbation (level running) speed and leg posture. Gastrocnemius length and force return to level running means by the second stride following the perturbation. EMG intensity differs significantly from level running only in the first recovery stride following the perturbation, not within the perturbed stride. The findings suggest that intrinsic mechanical factors contribute substantially to the initial changes in muscle force and work. The statistical results suggest that a history-dependent effect, shortening deactivation, may be an important factor in the intrinsic mechanical changes, in addition to instantaneous force–velocity and force–length effects. This finding suggests the potential need to

  17. Blood flow in guinea fowl Numida meleagris as an indicator of energy expenditure by individual muscles during walking and running

    PubMed Central

    Ellerby, David J; Henry, Havalee T; Carr, Jennifer A; Buchanan, Cindy I; Marsh, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    Running and walking are mechanically complex activities. Leg muscles must exert forces to support weight and provide stability, do work to accelerate the limbs and body centre of mass, and absorb work to act as brakes. Current understanding of energy use during legged locomotion has been limited by the lack of measurements of energy use by individual muscles. Our study is based on the correlation between blood flow and aerobic energy expenditure in active skeletal muscle during locomotion. This correlation is strongly supported by the available evidence concerning control of blood flow to active muscle, and the relationship between blood flow and the rate of muscle oxygen consumption. We used injectable microspheres to measure the blood flow to the hind-limb muscles, and other body tissues, in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) at rest, and across a range of walking and running speeds. Combined with data concerning the various mechanical functions of the leg muscles, this approach has enabled the first direct estimates of the energetic costs of some of these functions. Cardiac output increased from 350 ml min−1 at rest, to 1700 ml min−1 at a running speed (∼ 2.6 m s−1) eliciting a of 90% of . The increase in cardiac output was achieved via approximately equal factorial increases in heart rate and stroke volume. Approximately 90% of the increased cardiac output was directed to the active muscles of the hind limbs, without redistribution of blood flow from the viscera. Values of mass-specific blood flow to the ventricles, ∼ 15 ml min−1 g−1, and one of the hind-limb muscles, ∼ 9 ml min−1 g−1, were the highest yet recorded for blood flow to active muscle. The patterns of increasing blood flow with increasing speed varied greatly among different muscles. The increases in flow correlated with the likely fibre type distribution of the muscles. Muscles expected to have many high-oxidative fibres preferentially increased flow at low exercise intensities. We

  18. Influenza a virus entry: implications in virulence and future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rumschlag-Booms, Emily; Rong, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses have broad host tropism, being able to infect a range of hosts from wild fowl to swine to humans. This broad tropism makes highly pathogenic influenza A strains, such as H5N1, potentially dangerous to humans if they gain the ability to jump from an animal reservoir to humans. How influenza A viruses are able to jump the species barrier is incompletely understood due to the complex genetic nature of the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin, which mediates entry, combined with the virus's ability to use various receptor linkages. Current therapeutics against influenza A include those that target the uncoating process after entry as well as those that prevent viral budding. While there are therapeutics in development that target entry, currently there are none clinically available. We review here the genetics of influenza A viruses that contribute to entry tropism, how these genetic alterations may contribute to receptor usage and species tropism, as well as how novel therapeutics can be developed that target the major surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin.

  19. Mechanism study on a plague outbreak driven by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest china (surveillance from 2000-2015)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Junrong; Liang, Yun; Duan, Ran; Tian, Kecheng; Zhao, Yong; Tang, Guangpeng; You, Lv; Yang, Guirong; Liu, Xuebin; Chen, Yuhuang; Zeng, Jun; Wu, Shengrong; Luo, Shoujun; Qin, Gang; Hao, Huijing; Jing, Huaiqi

    2017-01-01

    Background Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma. Methodology/Principal findings We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years’ surveillance. Conclusions/Significance The results show the prevalence of plague within the natural plague focus is closely related to the stability of local ecology. Before and during the decade of construction the reservoir on the Nanpan River, no confirmed plague has ever emerged. With the impoundment of reservoir and destruction of drowned farmland and vegetation, the infected rodent population previously dispersed was concentrated together in a flood-free area and turned a rest focus alive. Human plague broke out after the enzootic plague via the flea bite. With the construction completed and ecology gradually of human residential environment, animal population and type of vegetation settling down to a new balance, the natural plague foci returned to a rest period. With the rodent density decreased as some of them died, the flea density increased as the rodents lived near or in local farm houses where had more domestic animals, and human has a more concentrated population. In contrast, in the Himalayan marmot foci of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Qilian Mountains. There are few human inhabitants and the local ecology is relatively stable; plague is prevalence, showing no rest period. Thus the plague can be significantly affected by ecological shifts. PMID:28257423

  20. [Marcus Aurelius Antonius (121-180AD), philosopher and Roman emperor, and Galen's plague].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín

    2012-11-01

    The study of the aetiologies of diseases in Ancient Times is usually a speculative intellectual exercise. When some authors attribute a specific aetiology to an old disease, there is a great risk of committing a methodological error, known as presentism by the modern historiography. The authority of the investigator, more than the weight of the scientific truth, is usually the reason why the diagnosis has remained over the years. The great epidemic of the years 164-165AD and afterwards, could have been smallpox (haemorrhagic form). Claude Galen, the famous doctor, described the symptoms in several books of his great Opera Omnia. For this reason, it is currently known among the scholars as Galen's plague. The epidemic was described for the first time in Seleucia (Mesopotamia). Until now, the actual geographic origin is unknown. We propose here that the beginning might be the kingdom of the old Han dynasty (now the Chinese Popular Republic). The epidemic swept the Roman Empire, from the east to the west, and from the southern to the northern borders. An immediate consequence of the infection was a high morbidity and mortality. In this sense, Galen's epidemic was one of the many factors that caused the fall and destruction of the Roman Empire. On the other hand, there is a general agreement among historians, biographers and researchers that the philosopher emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (121-180AD was affected by the infection in the epidemic wave of 164-165AD. The death of Marcus Aurelius occurred on March 17 in the year 180AD, in Vindobonne, or perhaps Sirminium (near to Vienna). Many authors propose that the cause of the emperor's death was the same epidemic. We consider that it is not possible to demonstrate any of those speculative diagnoses. Finally, the epidemic of 189-190AD, that we have named of Commodus, was probably a different disease to the Galen's plague. There were several kinds of animals affected (anthropozoonoses). In this sense, this infection