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  1. Fast response of InSb Schottky detector.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Ikuo; Hishiki, Shigeomi; Kogetsu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Masaki

    2007-05-01

    An InSb Schottky detector, fabricated from an undoped InSb wafer with Hall mobility which is higher than those of previously employed InSb wafers, was used for alpha particle detection. The output pulse of this InSb detector showed a very fast rise time, which was comparable with the output pulses of scintillation detectors.

  2. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of 47 electronic states of InSb, InSb + , and InSb -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1990-07-01

    Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of 26 electronic states of InSb, 12 electronic states of InSb+, and 9 electronic states of InSb- are obtained using complete active space self-consistent field, first-order configuration interaction, second-order configuration interaction, and relativistic configuration interaction methods (CASSCF/FOCI/SOCI/RCI), including spin-orbit interaction. The SOCI calculations included up to 700 000 configurations. Spectroscopic constants obtained predict several allowed electronic transitions for InSb, InSb+, and InSb- which are yet to be observed. The ground states of InSb, InSb+, and InSb- are found to be X 3Σ-0+, X 4Σ-1/2, and X 2Σ+1/2 with the constants InSb X 3Σ-0+:Re =3.02 Å, ωe =121 cm-1, De =1.35 eV; X 3Σ-1 : Re =3.03 Å, ωe =136 cm-1, Te =494 cm-1; InSb+ X 4Σ-1/2 : Re =3.351 Å, ωe =63 cm-1, De =0.37 eV; and InSb- X 2Π3/2 : Re =2.695 Å, ωe =191 cm-1, De =2.5 eV. The adiabatic ionization potential and electron affinity of InSb are calculated as 6.33 and 1.41 eV, respectively. Analogous to the recently observed A 3Π-X3Σ- system of GaAs, spectral bands in the 20 200 cm-1 region are predicted for InSb. Another 3Π(II)-X3Σ- system is predicted at 15 830 cm-1. Both the 3Π states in these systems are found to be predissociated through crossing of a repulsive 5Σ- curve. The two low-lying electronic states of InSb- (2Σ+1/2, 2Π1/2) undergo relativistic avoided crossing.

  3. Hole-dominated transport in InSb nanowires grown on high-quality InSb films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarni, Zaina; George, David; Singh, Abhay; Lin, Yuankun; Philipose, U.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed an effective strategy for synthesizing p-type indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires on a thin film of InSb grown on glass substrate. The InSb films were grown by a chemical reaction between S b 2 S 3 and I n and were characterized by structural, compositional, and optical studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the surface of the substrate is covered with a polycrystalline InSb film comprised of sub-micron sized InSb islands. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that the film is stoichiometric InSb. The optical constants of the InSb film, characterized using a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) shows a maximum value for refractive index at 3.7 near 1.8 eV, and the extinction coefficient (k) shows a maximum value 3.3 near 4.1 eV. InSb nanowires were subsequently grown on the InSb film with 20 nm sized Au nanoparticles functioning as the metal catalyst initiating nanowire growth. The InSb nanowires with diameters in the range of 40-60 nm exhibit good crystallinity and were found to be rich in Sb. High concentrations of anions in binary semiconductors are known to introduce acceptor levels within the band gap. This un-intentional doping of the InSb nanowire resulting in hole-dominated transport in the nanowires is demonstrated by the fabrication of a p-channel nanowire field effect transistor. The hole concentration and field effect mobility are estimated to be ≈1.3 × 1017 cm-3 and 1000 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, at room temperature, values that are particularly attractive for the technological implications of utilizing p-InSb nanowires in CMOS electronics.

  4. Design, fabrication, and characterization of InSb avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abautret, J.; Evirgen, A.; Perez, J. P.; Christol, P.; Rouvié, A.; Cluzel, R.; Cordat, A.; Rothman, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this communication, the potentiality of InSb material as an avalanche photodiode (APD) device is investigated. Current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics at 77K of InSb pin photodiodes were simulated by using ATLAS software from SILVACO, in dark conditions and under illumination. In order to validate parameter values used for the modeling, theoretical J-V results were compared with experimental measurements performed on InSb diodes fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. Next, assuming a multiplication process only induced by the electrons (e-APD), different designs of separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) APD structure were theoretically investigated and the first InSb SAM APD structure with 1μm thick multiplication layer was then fabricated and characterized.

  5. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Abautret, J. Evirgen, A.; Perez, J. P.; Christol, P.; Rothman, J.; Cordat, A.

    2015-06-28

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  6. Formation and electronic properties of InSb nanocrosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissard, Sébastien R.; van Weperen, Ilse; Car, Diana; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Immink, George W. G.; Kammhuber, Jakob; Cornelissen, Ludo J.; Szombati, Daniel B.; Geresdi, Attila; Frolov, Sergey M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Signatures of Majorana fermions have recently been reported from measurements on hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire devices. Majorana fermions are predicted to obey special quantum statistics, known as non-Abelian statistics. To probe this requires an exchange operation, in which two Majorana fermions are moved around one another, which requires at least a simple network of nanowires. Here, we report on the synthesis and electrical characterization of crosses of InSb nanowires. The InSb wires grow horizontally on flexible vertical stems, allowing nearby wires to meet and merge. In this way, near-planar single-crystalline nanocrosses are created, which can be measured by four electrical contacts. Our transport measurements show that the favourable properties of the InSb nanowire devices--high carrier mobility and the ability to induce superconductivity--are preserved in the cross devices. Our nanocrosses thus represent a promising system for the exchange of Majorana fermions.

  7. Megapixel digital InSb detector for midwave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkedy, Lior; Markovitz, Tuvy; Calahorra, Zipi; Hirsh, Itay; Shtrichman, Itay

    2011-06-01

    Since the late 1990s Semiconductor devices (SCDs) has developed and manufactured a variety of InSb two-dimensional (2D) focal plane arrays (FPAs) that were implemented in many infrared (IR) systems and applications. SCD routinely manufactures both analog and digital InSb FPAs with array formats of 320×256, 480×384, and 640×512 elements, and pitch size in the range 15 to 30 μm. These FPAs are available in many packaging configurations, including fully integrated detector-Dewar-cooler-assembly, with either closed-cycle Stirling or open-loop Joule-Thomson coolers. In response to a need for very high resolution midwave IR (MWIR) detectors and systems, SCD has developed a large format 2D InSb detector with 1280×1024 elements and pixel size of 15 μm. A digital readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is coupled by flip-chip bonding to the megapixel InSb array. The ROIC is fabricated in CMOS 0.18-μm technology, that enables the small pixel circuitry and relatively low power generation at the focal plane. The digital ROIC has an analog to digital (A/D) converter per-channel and allows for full frame readout at a rate of 100 Hz. Such on-chip A/D conversion eliminates the need for several A/D converters with fairly high power consumption at the system level. The digital readout, together with the InSb detector technology, lead to a wide linear dynamic range and low residual nonuniformity, which is stable over a long period of time following a nonuniformity correction procedure. A special Dewar was designed to withstand harsh environmental conditions while minimizing the contribution to the heat load of the detector. The Dewar together with the low power ROIC, enable a megapixel detector with overall low size, weight, and power with respect to comparable large format detectors. A variety of applications with this detector make use of different cold shields with different f-number and spectral filters. In this paper we present actual performance characteristics of the

  8. InAs-mediated growth of vertical InSb nanowires on Si substrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, InSb nanowires are grown vertically on Si (111) with metal organic chemical vapor deposition using InAs as seed layer, instead of external metal catalyst. Two groups of InSb nanowires are fabricated and characterized: one group presents Indium droplets at the nanowire's free end, while the other, in contrast, ends without Indium droplet but with pyramid-shaped InSb. The indium-droplet-ended nanowires are longer than the other group of nanowires. For both groups of InSb nanowires, InAs layers play an important role in their formation by serving as a template for growing InSb nanowires. The results presented in this work suggest a useful approach to grow catalyst-free InSb nanowires on Si substrates, which is significant for their device applications. PMID:23883403

  9. Growth of truncated pyramidal InSb nanostructures on GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thainoi, Supachok; Kiravittaya, Suwit; Poempool, Thanavorn; Zon; Sopitpan, Suwat; Kanjanachuchai, Songphol; Ratanathammaphan, Somchai; Panyakeow, Somsak

    2017-06-01

    Growth and structural characterization of InSb nanostructures formed on GaAs is presented. Saturated InSb nanostructure have a truncated pyramidal shape with rectangular base. In addition, some InSb nanostructures have twin truncated pyramidal configurations. The twin truncated pyramids align in parallel with each other and along [110] direction. We attribute the formation of rectangular base to the growth of highly mismatched InSb/GaAs system while the formation of twin configuration due to the nucleation of InSb islands on top of two-dimensional InSb plateau. The latter is suggested by an observation on the initial state of InSb nanostructure formation.

  10. Super-Hard induced gap in InSb nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Peng; Hocevar, Moïra; Plissard, Sébastien; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Frolov, Sergey

    In recent years, Majorana bound states were observed experimentally in InSb nanowire-superconductor hybrid devices, which manifested themselves as a zero-bias conductance peak (ZBP). However, there was still significant conductance inside the superconducting gap, which would smear sub-gap features. Moreover, fermionic states inside the gap would also break topological protection. Therefore, a hard gap is required in search of more deterministic signatures of Majorana bound states, and building up Majorana qubits. We report the observation of a hard induced gap in an InSb Josephson junction with an optimized superconducting contact recipe. The gap is resolved in magnetic field up to 2 Tesla, and demonstrates a peculiar kinked field dependence. In addition, we observed rich sub-gap features: Andreev levels appeared close to pinch off regime, while multiple Andreev reflection appeared in open regime.

  11. Observation of Conductance Quantization in InSb Nanowire Networks.

    PubMed

    Fadaly, Elham M T; Zhang, Hao; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Car, Diana; Gül, Önder; Plissard, Sébastien R; Op Het Veld, Roy L M; Kölling, Sebastian; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2017-07-14

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs) are prime candidates for robust topological quantum bits, holding a great promise for quantum computing. Semiconducting nanowires with strong spin orbit coupling offer a promising platform to harness one-dimensional electron transport for Majorana physics. Demonstrating the topological nature of MZMs relies on braiding, accomplished by moving MZMs around each other in a certain sequence. Most of the proposed Majorana braiding circuits require nanowire networks with minimal disorder. Here, the electronic transport across a junction between two merged InSb nanowires is studied to investigate how disordered these nanowire networks are. Conductance quantization plateaus are observed in most of the contact pairs of the epitaxial InSb nanowire networks: the hallmark of ballistic transport behavior.

  12. Spin polarized current in InSb based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, M.; Bhowmick, M.; Heremans, J. J.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.

    2009-03-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in developing and exploring spin based semiconductor devices and phenomena. One of the key challenges in developing spin based devices is to generate, control, and measure spin currents directly. In this talk, we report interband circular photogalvanic (CPG) effects using pulsed near-infrared radiation in InSb quantum wells and two InSb films grown on GaAs and InP substrates. We observe a CPG current whose direction and magnitude depend on the helicity of the incident light, the angle of incidence, and temperature. Our observation is important to understand zero- field spin splitting mechanisms in a system with strong spin- orbit interaction.

  13. Ballistic transport in InSb Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasco, John Jeffrey; Gill, Stephen; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Mason, Nadya

    We present transport measurements on Josephson junctions consisting of InSb nanowires contacted by Al at various junction lengths. Junction behavior as a function of gate voltage, electric field, and magnetic field is discussed. We show that short junctions behave as 1D quantum wires, exhibiting quantized conductance steps. In addition, we show how Josephson behavior changes as transport evolves from ballistic to diffusive as a function of contact spacing.

  14. Tuning the polarity of charge transport in InSb nanowires via heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnida, Katarzyna E.; Bäβler, Svenja; Akinsinde, Lewis; Gooth, Johannes; Nielsch, Kornelius; Socha, Robert P.; Łaszcz, Adam; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2015-07-01

    InSb nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared by pulsed electrodeposition combined with a porous template technique. The resulting polycrystalline material has a stoichiometric composition (In:Sb = 1:1) and a high length-to-diameter ratio. Based on a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and field-effect measurements, the band gap, the charge carrier polarity, the carrier concentration, the mobility and the effective mass for the InSb NWs was investigated. In this preliminary work, a transition from p-type to n-type charge transport was observed when the InSb NWs were subjected to annealing.

  15. Surface passivation of backside-illuminated InSb FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng; Zheng, Kelin; Wang, Liwen; Geng, Dongfeng; Su, Xianjun

    2016-10-01

    A method of passivation of etch-thinned bulk InSb by anodic oxide grown by wet anodization and vacuum deposition of SiNx layers have been investigated Thinned bulk n-type InSb with (111) orientation forms distinctively two types of interfaces on the indium and antimony faces, respectively. The junctions are diffused on the indium face. The paper presents the process and characterization for surface passivation of the backside illuminated Sb face that absorbs the photons. The surface passivation and the interfaces are characterized with Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) devices. The effect of anodic oxide/SiNx passivation was compared to SiNx passivation. The electrical features observed in the C-V curves of MIS structures indicate that anodic oxide grown by wet anodization has the better effect on reducing the surface states and surface recombination velocity. The low-frequency-like response in the inversion region of the C-V curves was explained in view of the oxidation states of In and Sb. Finally, by growing the 30nm anodic oxide and depositing 400nm SiNx on diode structure of InSb, the performance of FPA in this case was compared with the SiNx only method. The results showed the performance of device is better than for the SiNx only method.

  16. Hard Superconducting Gap in InSb Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gül, Önder; Zhang, Hao; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; van Woerkom, David J; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Geresdi, Attila; Koelling, Sebastian; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2017-04-12

    Topological superconductivity is a state of matter that can host Majorana modes, the building blocks of a topological quantum computer. Many experimental platforms predicted to show such a topological state rely on proximity-induced superconductivity. However, accessing the topological properties requires an induced hard superconducting gap, which is challenging to achieve for most material systems. We have systematically studied how the interface between an InSb semiconductor nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor affects the induced superconducting properties. Step by step, we improve the homogeneity of the interface while ensuring a barrier-free electrical contact to the superconductor and obtain a hard gap in the InSb nanowire. The magnetic field stability of NbTiN allows the InSb nanowire to maintain a hard gap and a supercurrent in the presence of magnetic fields (∼0.5 T), a requirement for topological superconductivity in one-dimensional systems. Our study provides a guideline to induce superconductivity in various experimental platforms such as semiconductor nanowires, two-dimensional electron gases, and topological insulators and holds relevance for topological superconductivity and quantum computation.

  17. Hard Superconducting Gap in InSb Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Topological superconductivity is a state of matter that can host Majorana modes, the building blocks of a topological quantum computer. Many experimental platforms predicted to show such a topological state rely on proximity-induced superconductivity. However, accessing the topological properties requires an induced hard superconducting gap, which is challenging to achieve for most material systems. We have systematically studied how the interface between an InSb semiconductor nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor affects the induced superconducting properties. Step by step, we improve the homogeneity of the interface while ensuring a barrier-free electrical contact to the superconductor and obtain a hard gap in the InSb nanowire. The magnetic field stability of NbTiN allows the InSb nanowire to maintain a hard gap and a supercurrent in the presence of magnetic fields (∼0.5 T), a requirement for topological superconductivity in one-dimensional systems. Our study provides a guideline to induce superconductivity in various experimental platforms such as semiconductor nanowires, two-dimensional electron gases, and topological insulators and holds relevance for topological superconductivity and quantum computation. PMID:28355877

  18. Hard Superconducting Gap in InSb Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gül, Önder; Zhang, Hao; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; van Woerkom, David J.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Geresdi, Attila; Koelling, Sebastian; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-04-01

    Topological superconductivity is a state of matter that can host Majorana modes, the building blocks of a topological quantum computer. Many experimental platforms predicted to show such a topological state rely on proximity-induced superconductivity. However, accessing the topological properties requires an induced hard superconducting gap, which is challenging to achieve for most material systems. We have systematically studied how the interface between an InSb semiconductor nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor affects the induced superconducting properties. Step by step, we improve the homogeneity of the interface while ensuring a barrier-free electrical contact to the superconductor, and obtain a hard gap in the InSb nanowire. The magnetic field stability of NbTiN allows the InSb nanowire to maintain a hard gap and a supercurrent in the presence of magnetic fields (~ 0.5 Tesla), a requirement for topological superconductivity in one-dimensional systems. Our study provides a guideline to induce superconductivity in various experimental platforms such as semiconductor nanowires, two dimensional electron gases and topological insulators, and holds relevance for topological superconductivity and quantum computation.

  19. Low-background InSb array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, R. D.; Yang, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Photovoltaic indium antimonide (PV InSb) detector technology has matured over the past several years to enable a wide variety of applications to use this high-performance detector material to advantage. The operating conditions for most of the applications to date for back-side illuminated PV InSb arrays have encompassed focal plane temperatures ranging from 40 to approximately 95 K, with the majority in the narrower range between 60 and 80 K. Background flux conditions have ranged from 10 to the 10th power ph/sq cm/sec to 10 to the 16th power ph/sq cm/sec, most typically between 10 to the 12th power and 10 to the 14th power ph/sq cm/sec. Appropriately, the array parameters were optimized for maximum performance over these temperature and background ranges. The key parameters which were peaked in this process were the resistance-area product of the detectors and their quantum efficiency. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Infrared Array Camera requirements, however, present very low temperature and background operating conditions, plus the need for very high signal to noise ratios. Preliminary analysis indicates that back-side illuminated PV InSb arrays can be optimized for operation under these conditions, and some performance projections will be presented.

  20. InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device: The 20 element linear imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, R. D.; Koch, T. L.; Parrish, W. J.; Langan, J. D.; Chase, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of the 8585 InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device (CCIRID) chip are reported. The InSb material characteristics are described along with mask and process modifications. Test results for the 2- and 20-element CCIRID's are discussed, including gate oxide characteristics, charge transfer efficiency, optical mode of operation, and development of the surface potential diagram.

  1. Optimizing indium antimonide (InSb) detectors for low background operation. [infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treffers, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    The various noise sources that affect InSb detectors (and similar voltaic devices) are discussed and calculated. Methods are given for measuring detector resistance, photon loading, detector and amplifier capacitance, amplifier frequency response, amplifier noise, and quantum efficiency. A photovoltaic InSb detector with increased sensitivity in the 1 to 5.6 mu region is dicussed.

  2. Ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, ShiQuan; Cheng, XinLu; Zhao, JianLing; Zhang, Hong

    2013-07-28

    In this paper, phonon spectra of InSb at different electronic temperatures are presented. Based on the phonon dispersion relationship, we further perform a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation. The phonon entropy, phonon heat capacity, and phonon contribution to Helmholtz free energy and internal energy of InSb are calculated as functions of temperature at different electronic temperatures. The abrupt change in the phonon entropy- temperature curve from T{sub e} = 0.75 to 1.0 eV provides an indication of InSb undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid. It can be considered as a collateral evidence of non-thermal melting for InSb under intense electronic excitation effect.

  3. Modeling and deformation analyzing of InSb focal plane arrays detector under thermal shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Qingduan; Zhang, Liwen; Lv, Yanqiu

    2014-03-01

    A higher fracture probability appearing in indium antimonide (InSb) infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) subjected to the thermal shock test, restricts its final yield. In light of the proposed equivalent method, where a 32 × 32 array is employed to replace the real 128 × 128 array, a three-dimensional modeling of InSb IRFPAs is developed to explore its deformation rules. To research the damage degree to the mechanical properties of InSb chip from the back surface thinning process, the elastic modulus of InSb chip along the normal direction is lessened. Simulation results show when the out-of-plane elastic modulus of InSb chip is set with 30% of its Young's modulus, the simulated Z-components of strain distribution agrees well with the top surface deformation features in 128 × 128 InSb IRFPAs fracture photographs, especially with the crack origination sites, the crack distribution and the global square checkerboard buckling pattern. Thus the Z-components of strain are selected to explore the deformation rules in the layered structure of InSb IRFPAs. Analyzing results show the top surface deformation of InSb IRFPAs originates from the thermal mismatch between the silicon readout integrated circuits (ROIC) and the intermediate layer above, made up of the alternating indium bump array and the reticular underfill. After passing through both the intermediate layer and the InSb chip, the deformation amplitude is reduced firstly from 2.23 μm to 0.24 μm, finally to 0.09 μm. Finally, von Mises stress criterion is employed to explain the causes that cracks always appear in the InSb chip.

  4. Effects of Initial In Coverage for Preparation of InSb Bilayer on Electrical Properties of InSb Films Grown By Surface Reconstruction Controlled Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masayuki; Yasui, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Koji; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Maezawa, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of initial In coverage for the preparation of InSb bilayer on electrical properties of InSb films grown by surface reconstruction controlled epitaxy. The electron mobility of the InSb films was affected by the initial In coverage of the In-induced surface reconstruction on Si(111) surface. Electron mobility increased with the increase in the initial In coverage up to 1.5 monolayers (ML), and decreased with further increase in In coverage. The InSb film grown with an optimal initial In coverage of 1.5 ML has a high electron mobility of about 40,000 cm2/(V·s) at room temperature. This may be due to the reduction of the 2×1-Sb surface phase or In islands on the surface after the preparation of the InSb bilayer, which cause dislocations in the film. Therefore, the perfectness of the order of atomic planes in Si-Sb-In is very important for a uniform InSb/Si interface formation before the subsequent InSb molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth.

  5. Zero-bias peak in InSb nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Chen, Jun; Hocevar, Moïra; Plissard, Sébastien; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Frolov, Sergey

    2015-03-01

    Zero-bias conductance peaks(ZBP) in InSb nanowires has been reported as a strong signature of Majorana bound states in semiconductors. We made similar superconductor-InSb nanowire-normal contact hybrid devices with NbTiN on bottom gates and found some features that may corresponding to Majorana bound states. By setting a barrier and tuning gates under the nanowire that are in proximity of superconductors, ZBPs appear at finite magnetic field and usually persist for several hundred miliTesla. In different devices, ZBPs appear at different magnetic field, which may result from different chemical potentials. To achieve a so-called hard induced gap and cleaner devices, we are trying various contact materials and etching methods.

  6. Zero-bias peak splitting in InSb nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Peng; Hocevar, Moïra; Plissard, Sébastien; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Frolov, Sergey

    2015-03-01

    Zero-bias conductance peak(ZBP) has been reported as a signature of Majorana fermions in InSb nanowires. Other features like ZBP phase diagram in chemical potential vs magnetic field and peak splitting are proposed as additional evidences of Majorana fermions. We make superconductor-InSb nanowire hybrid devices with the aim of exploring these features and beyond. By means of high-k HfOx as the dielectric layer, we obtain large gate-tunability of chemical potential, which may enable us to map out ZBP phase diagram. Here we report observation of ZBP at finite magnetic field. Such peak is tunable with gates underneath the superconductor. In particular, it splits and merges again as a function of the center gate. We study such splitting in the context of a pair of coupled Majorana bound states.

  7. Towards high mobility InSb nanowire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gül, Önder; van Woerkom, David J.; van Weperen, Ilse; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2015-05-01

    We study the low-temperature electron mobility of InSb nanowires. We extract the mobility at 4.2 K by means of field effect transport measurements using a model consisting of a nanowire-transistor with contact resistances. This model enables an accurate extraction of device parameters, thereby allowing for a systematic study of the nanowire mobility. We identify factors affecting the mobility, and after optimization obtain a field effect mobility of ˜ 2.5× {{10}4} cm2 V-1 s-1. We further demonstrate the reproducibility of these mobility values which are among the highest reported for nanowires. Our investigations indicate that the mobility is currently limited by adsorption of molecules to the nanowire surface and/or the substrate.

  8. Towards high mobility InSb nanowire devices.

    PubMed

    Gül, Önder; van Woerkom, David J; Weperen, Ilse van; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2015-05-29

    We study the low-temperature electron mobility of InSb nanowires. We extract the mobility at 4.2 K by means of field effect transport measurements using a model consisting of a nanowire-transistor with contact resistances. This model enables an accurate extraction of device parameters, thereby allowing for a systematic study of the nanowire mobility. We identify factors affecting the mobility, and after optimization obtain a field effect mobility of [Formula: see text] cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We further demonstrate the reproducibility of these mobility values which are among the highest reported for nanowires. Our investigations indicate that the mobility is currently limited by adsorption of molecules to the nanowire surface and/or the substrate.

  9. Spin polarized current in an InSb film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Matthew; Heremans, J. J.; Khodaparast, Giti A.

    2008-03-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in developing and exploring spin based semiconductor devices and phenomena. One of the key challenges in developing spin based devices is to generate, control, and measure spin currents directly. In this talk, we report interband circular photogalvanic (CPG) effects using pulsed near-infrared radiations in an InSb film grown by the MOCVD technique. The film is n-type Te-doped with electron density of ˜ 6.0 x10^15 cm-3 and mobility of 58,500 cm^2/Vs at 100 K. We observe a CPG current whose direction and magnitude depend on the helicity of the incident light, the angle of the incidence, and temperature. Our observation is important to understand zero-field spin splitting mechanisms in a system with strong-spin orbit interaction.

  10. InSb infrared photodetectors on Si substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, E.; Xu, J.; Kim, J.D.; Ferguson, I.; Razeghi, M.

    1996-05-01

    The InSb infrared photodetectors grown heteroepitaxially on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. Excellent InSb material quality is obtained on 3-in Si substrates (with a GaAs predeposition) as confirmed by structural, optical, and electrical analysis. InSb infrared photodectors on Si substrates that can operate from 77 K to room temperature have been demonstrated. The peak voltage-responsivity at 4 {micro}m is about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 3} V/W and the corresponding Johnson-noise-limited detectivity is calculated to be 2.8 {times} 10{sup 10} cm-Hz{sup 1/2}/W. This is the first important stage in developing InSb detector arrays or monolithic focal plane arrays (FPA`s) on silicon. The development of this technology could provide a challenge to traditional hybrid FPA`s in the future.

  11. Effect of Marangoni Convection on InSb Single Crystal Growth by Horizontal Bridgman Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012637 TITLE: Effect of Marangoni Convection on InSb Single Crystal...692 © 2002 Materials Research Society H8.6 Effect of Marangoni Convection on InSb Single Crystal Growth by Horizontal Bridgman Method K. Kodera1, A...Japan 2 Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432, JAPAN ABSTRACT It is necessary to clarify the effect of Marangoni

  12. Growth of InSb and InAs(1-x)Sb(x) by OM-CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, P. K.; Bedair, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OM-CVD) growth of InSb and InAs(1-x)Sb(x) has been obtained using triethylindium (TEI), trimethylantimony (TMS), and arsine (AsH3) on (100) GaAs, (100) InSb, and (111)-B InSb substrates. InSb with excellent morphology was achieved on both (100) InSb and (111)-B InSb substrates. The measured electron mobility at 300 K of undoped InSb grown on (100) GaAs semi-insulating substrates was 40,000 sq cm/V-s at a carrier concentration of ND-NA = 2.0 x 10 to the 16th per cu cm. Carrier concentration of ND-NA = 1.2 x 10 to the 15th per cu cm has been measured at 77 K. InAs(1-x)Sb(x) (x = 0.07-0.75) with mirror-like surfaces have been grown on (100) InSb and InAs substrates. This composition range of x between 0.55 and 0.75 (Eg = 0.1 eV) has been successfully achieved for the first time. Solid composition variations as a function of growth temperature and InSb substrate orientations are also discussed.

  13. Resonant Terahertz InSb Waveguide Device for Sensing Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Shourie Ranjana J.; Bhatt, Piyush; Deshmukh, Prathmesh; Sangala, Bagvanth R.; Satyanarayan, M. N.; Umesh, G.; Prabhu, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    We have demonstrated the possibility of employing a device, designed to operate at terahertz (THz) frequencies, for sensing materials. The device consists of a waveguide section with a pair of stubs located at the middle and oriented transversely to the waveguide axis. The two stubs function as a resonator and, hence, the device would behave as a filter in the THz domain. The device was fabricated by laser micromachining of InSb pellets and was characterized by THz time-domain transmission spectroscopy. For a waveguide width of 740 μm and stub length of 990 μm, a transmission minimum is seen to occur at 0.265 THz. We investigated the capability of the device to sense polystyrene, dissolved in toluene, loaded into the stubs. The consequent change in the refractive index in the stubs alters the transmitted signal intensity. Our results show that, a change in concentration of polystyrene even by 1 mol/L, leads to measurable change in the transmission coefficient close to the resonant frequency of the device. Thus, our device operating at THz frequencies shows promising potential as chemical and bio sensors.

  14. Optical and Structural Properties of Silicon with Ion-Beam Synthesized InSb Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, F. F.; Romanov, I. A.; Vlasukova, L. A.; Milchanin, O. V.; Parkhomenko, I. N.; Kovaleva, T. B.; Korolik, O. V.; Mudryi, A. V.; Wendler, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman scattering (RS), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques are used to study the structure, phase composition, and radiative properties of silicon with implanted InSb nanocrystals produced by implanting Sb+ and In+ ions with energies of 350 keV and fluences of 3.5·1016 cm-2 followed by heat treatment at 1100°C for 3, 10, and 60 min. The TEM and RS data confirm the formation of InSb nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 2 to 50 nm in the implanted and annealed samples. A broad band in the 0.8-1.05 eV range is detected in low-temperature (4.2 K) PL spectra of the annealed samples. The possible mechanisms for the luminescence in this range are luminescence of InSb nanocrystals and radiative recombination between the conduction band of silicon and an In acceptor.

  15. Theoretical investigation of the isomer shift of InSb under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Dewhurst, J. K.; Nordström, L.; Johansson, B.

    2002-04-01

    The nuclear calibration constant α for 121Sb is calculated from the correlation between the experimental isomer shift (IS) and theoretical contact charge densities. The contact charge densities are calculated using the full-potential linear augmented-plane-wave method, within both the local density and the generalized gradient approximations. The IS for Sb in various phases of InSb under pressure is then calculated. This study shows that before the transition of InSb to a metallic state, the Sb IS becomes more positive with increasing pressure. After each subsequent phase transformation the IS shows a large change in the negative direction. These results used in conjunction with Mössbauer experiments may be useful in identifying phases of InSb at high pressure.

  16. Hybrid Quantum Point Contact-Superconductor Devices Using InSb Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Stephen; Damasco, John Jeffrey; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Mason, Nadya

    Recent experiments using hybrid nanowire (NW)-superconductor (SC) devices have provided evidence for Majorana quasiparticles in tunneling experiments. However, these tunneling experiments are marked by a soft superconducting gap, which likely originates from disorder at the NW-SC interface. Hence, clean NW-SC interfaces are important for future Majorana studies. By carefully processing the NW-SC interface, we have realized quantized conductance steps in quantum point contacts fabricated from InSb NWs and superconducting contacts. We study the length dependence of ballistic behavior and the induced superconductivity in InSb NWs by quantum point contact spectroscopy. Additionally, we discuss how the transport in InSb NW-SC quantum point contacts evolves in magnetic field.

  17. Effects of substrate orientation on the growth of InSb nanostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. Y.; Torfi, A.; Pei, C.; Wang, W. I.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the effects of substrate orientation on InSb quantum structure growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are presented. Motivated by the observation that (411) evolves naturally as a stable facet during MBE crystal growth, comparison studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the crystal orientation of the underlying GaSb substrate on the growth of InSb by MBE. By depositing InSb on a number of different substrate orientations, namely: (100), (311), (411), and (511), a higher nanostructure density was observed on the (411) surface compared with the other orientations. This result suggests that the (411) orientation presents a superior surface in MBE growth to develop a super-flat GaSb buffer surface, naturally favorable for nanostructure growth.

  18. Magneto-optical properties of InSb for terahertz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chochol, Jan; Postava, Kamil; Čada, Michael; Vanwolleghem, Mathias; Halagačka, Lukáš; Lampin, Jean-François; Pištora, Jaromír

    2016-11-01

    Magneto-optical permittivity tensor spectra of undoped InSb, n-doped and p-doped InSb crystals were determined using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the Fourier transform far-infrared spectroscopy (far-FTIR). A Huge polar magneto-optical (MO) Kerr-effect (up to 20 degrees in rotation) and a simultaneous plasmonic behavior observed at low magnetic field (0.4 T) and room temperature are promising for terahertz nonreciprocal applications. We demonstrate the possibility of adjusting the the spectral rage with huge MO by increase in n-doping of InSb. Spectral response is modeled using generalized magneto-optical Drude-Lorentz theory, giving us precise values of free carrier mobility, density and effective mass consistent with electric Hall effect measurement.

  19. Effects of buffer layers on the structural and electronic properties of InSb films

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, X.; Rudawski, N.G.; Wang, P.T.; Goldman, R.S.; Partin, D.L.; Heremans, J.

    2005-02-15

    We have investigated the effects of various buffer layers on the structural and electronic properties of n-doped InSb films. We find a significant decrease in room-temperature electron mobility of InSb films grown on low-misfit GaSb buffers, and a significant increase in room-temperature electron mobility of InSb films grown on high-misfit InAlSb or step-graded GaSb+InAlSb buffers, in comparison with those grown directly on GaAs. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates a significant increase in threading dislocation density for InSb films grown on the low-misfit buffers, and a significant decrease in threading dislocation density for InSb films grown on high-misfit or step-graded buffers, in comparison with those grown directly on GaAs. Cross-sectional TEM reveals the role of the film/buffer interfaces in the nucleation (filtering) of threading dislocations for the low-misfit (high-misfit and step-graded) buffers. A quantitative analysis of electron mobility and carrier-concentration dependence on threading dislocation density suggests that electron scattering from the lattice dilation associated with threading dislocations has a stronger effect on electron mobility than electron scattering from the depletion potential surrounding the dislocations. Furthermore, while lattice dilation is the predominant mobility-limiting factor in these n-doped InSb films, ionized impurity scattering associated with dopants also plays a role in limiting the electron mobility.

  20. Effects of buffer layers on the structural and electronic properties of InSb films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, X.; Rudawski, N. G.; Wang, P. T.; Goldman, R. S.; Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the effects of various buffer layers on the structural and electronic properties of n-doped InSb films. We find a significant decrease in room-temperature electron mobility of InSb films grown on low-misfit GaSb buffers, and a significant increase in room-temperature electron mobility of InSb films grown on high-misfit InAlSb or step-graded GaSb +InAlSb buffers, in comparison with those grown directly on GaAs. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates a significant increase in threading dislocation density for InSb films grown on the low-misfit buffers, and a significant decrease in threading dislocation density for InSb films grown on high-misfit or step-graded buffers, in comparison with those grown directly on GaAs. Cross-sectional TEM reveals the role of the film/buffer interfaces in the nucleation (filtering) of threading dislocations for the low-misfit (high-misfit and step-graded) buffers. A quantitative analysis of electron mobility and carrier-concentration dependence on threading dislocation density suggests that electron scattering from the lattice dilation associated with threading dislocations has a stronger effect on electron mobility than electron scattering from the depletion potential surrounding the dislocations. Furthermore, while lattice dilation is the predominant mobility-limiting factor in these n-doped InSb films, ionized impurity scattering associated with dopants also plays a role in limiting the electron mobility.

  1. Recent progress in InSb based quantum detectors in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, Philip; Aronov, Daniel; Ezra, Michael ben; Barkai, Itzik; Berkowicz, Eyal; Brumer, Maya; Fraenkel, Rami; Glozman, Alex; Grossman, Steve; Jacobsohn, Eli; Klin, Olga; Lukomsky, Inna; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Snapi, Noam; Yassen, Michael; Weiss, Eliezer

    2013-07-01

    InSb is a III-V binary semiconductor material with a bandgap wavelength of 5.4 μm at 77 K, well matched to the 3-5 μm MWIR atmospheric transmission window. When configured as a Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector, InSb photodiodes offer a large quantum efficiency, combined with excellent uniformity and high pixel operability. As such, InSb arrays exhibit good scalability and are an excellent choice for large format FPAs at a reasonable cost. The dark current is caused by Generation-Recombination (G-R) centres in the diode depletion region, and this leads to a typical operating temperature of ˜80 K in detectors with a planar implanted p-n junction. Over the last 15 years SCD has developed and manufactured a number of different 2-dimensional planar FPA formats, with pitches in the range of 15-30 μm. In recent years a new epi-InSb technology has been developed at SCD, in which the G-R contribution to the dark current is reduced. This enables InSb detector operation at 95-100 K, with equivalent performance to standard InSb at 80 K. In addition, using a new patented XBnn device architecture in which the G-R current is totally suppressed, epitaxial InAsSb detectors have been developed with a bandgap wavelength of 4.2 μm, which can operate in the 150-170 K range. In this short review of the past two decades, a number of key achievements in SCD's InSb based detector development program are described. These include High Operating Temperature (HOT) epi-InSb FPAs, large format megapixel FPAs with high functionality using a digital Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC), and ultra low Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) FPAs based on the HOT XBnn architecture.

  2. InSb nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Deacon, R. S.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Ishibashi, K.

    2016-05-01

    By employing a micrometer precision mechanical transfer technique, we embed individual InSb nanowires into a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the characteristics of a double quantum dot formed in an InSb nanowire interacting with a single mode microwave field. The charge stability diagram can be obtained from the amplitude and phase response of the resonator independently from the dc transport measurement. As the charge transits between dot-dot, or dot-lead, the change of resonator transmission is compared and the charge-cavity coupling strength is extracted to be in the magnitude of several MHz.

  3. InSb nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.; Deacon, R. S. Ishibashi, K.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

    2016-05-16

    By employing a micrometer precision mechanical transfer technique, we embed individual InSb nanowires into a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the characteristics of a double quantum dot formed in an InSb nanowire interacting with a single mode microwave field. The charge stability diagram can be obtained from the amplitude and phase response of the resonator independently from the dc transport measurement. As the charge transits between dot-dot, or dot-lead, the change of resonator transmission is compared and the charge-cavity coupling strength is extracted to be in the magnitude of several MHz.

  4. Hybrid superconductor-quantum point contact devices using InSb nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. T.; Damasco, J.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Mason, N.

    2016-12-01

    Proposals for studying topological superconductivity and Majorana bound states in a nanowire proximity coupled to superconductors require that transport in the nanowire is ballistic. Previous works on hybrid nanowire-superconductor systems have shown evidence for Majorana bound states, but these experiments were also marked by disorder, which disrupts ballistic transport. In this paper, we demonstrate ballistic transport in the InSb nanowires interfaced directly with superconducting Al by observing quantized conductance at zero-magnetic field. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nanowire is proximity coupled to the superconducting contacts by observing Andreev reflection. These results are important steps for robustly establishing topological superconductivity in the InSb nanowires.

  5. Multifunctional sensors operating at 300 K based on quasi-ballistic InSb quantum well nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbertson, Adam; Moseley, Dominic; Kustov, Mikhail; Solin, Stuart; Cohen, Lesley; Bending, Simon

    2015-03-01

    The high mobility (μ) of InSb quantum well (QW) heterostructures at 300 K makes them ideally suited for both magnetic and optical sensing. While macroscopic InSb Hall sensors offer the best magnetic sensitivity at 300 K of any material, the operation of sub-micron InSb QW Hall probes have not been reported. Ballistic transport at 300 K in nano-InSb devices was recently described. Here we report the 300 K sensing properties of InSb QW structures fabricated into scanning probe geometries operating in the photoconductive (PC), Hall, and magnetoconductive modes. Sub-micron InSb QW probes exhibit excellent magnetic sensitivity <1 μT/ √Hz and are demonstrated in a scanning Hall probe measurement. InSb QWs exhibit long lived negative photoconductivity in the visible to near-IR for cw excitation, however, significant improvements in dynamic response are found with ac modulated techniques. From spatially resolved PC measurements we determine μτ ~ 3.5 x10-3 cm2/V. These results provide a benchmark for developing novel InSb QW-metal hybrid nanosensors. On sabbatical from Washington University in St. Louis.

  6. High resolution InSb quantum well ballistic nanosensors for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.; Lambert, C. J.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-12-04

    We report the room temperature operation of a quasi-ballistic InSb quantum well Hall sensor that exhibits a high frequency sensitivity of 560nT/√Hz at 20uA bias current. The device utilizes a partitioned buffer layer design that suppresses leakage currents through the mesa floor and can sustain large current densities.

  7. Design of epitaxial CdTe solar cells on InSb substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Tao; Kanevce, Ana; Sites, James R.

    2015-11-01

    Epitaxial CdTe has been shown by others to have a radiative recombination rate approaching unity, high carrier concentration, and low defect density. It has, therefore, become an attractive candidate for high-efficiency solar cells, perhaps becoming competitive with GaAs. The choice of substrate is a key design feature for epitaxial CdTe solar cells, and several possibilities (CdTe, Si, GaAs, and InSb) have been investigated by others. All have challenges, and these have generally been addressed through the addition of intermediate layers between the substrate and CdTe absorber. InSb is an attractive substrate choice for CdTe devices, because it has a closemore » lattice match with CdTe, it has low resistivity, and it is easy to contact. However, the valence-band alignment between InSb and p-type CdTe, which can both impede hole current and enhance forward electron current, is not favorable. Three strategies to address the band-offset problem are investigated by numerical simulation: heavy doping of the back part of the CdTe layer, incorporation of an intermediate CdMgTe or CdZnTe layer, and the formation of an InSb tunnel junction. Lastly, wach of these strategies is predicted to be helpful for higher cell performance, but a combination of the first two should be most effective.« less

  8. Wet etching of InSb surfaces in aqueous solutions: Controlled oxide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aureau, D.; Chaghi, R.; Gerard, I.; Sik, H.; Fleury, J.; Etcheberry, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the wet etching of InSb surfaces by two different oxidant agents: Br2 and H2O2 and the consecutive oxides generation onto the surfaces. The strong dependence between the chemical composition of the etching baths and the nature of the final surface chemistry of this low band-gap III-V semiconductor will be especially highlighted. One aqueous etching solution combined hydrobromic acid and Bromine (HBr-Br2:H2O) with adjusted concentrations. The other solution combines orthophosphoric and citric acids with hydrogen peroxide (H3PO4-H2O2:H2O). Depending on its composition, each formulation gave rise to variable etching rate. The dosage of Indium traces in the etching solution by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) gives the kinetic variation of the dissolution process. The variations on etching rates are associated to the properties and the nature of the formed oxides on InSb surfaces. Surface characterization is specifically performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A clear evidence of the differences between the formed oxides is highlighted. Atomic force microscopy is used to monitor the surface morphology and pointed out that very different final morphologies can be reached. This paper presents new results on the strong variability of the InSb oxides in relation with the InSb reactivity toward environment interaction.

  9. Solidification of InSb-GaSb alloy and InSb with vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Weijun

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of vibration on the composition homogeneity and microstructure of alloy semiconductors solidified with the Vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger (VBS) technique. InSb-GaSb and InSb were directionally solidified in a VBS apparatus with axial vibration of the ampoule.

  10. Ab initio calculations of the optical properties of crystalline and liquid InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Haruyuki; Mizutani, Goro

    2015-11-15

    Ab initio calculations of the electronic and optical properties of InSb were performed for both the crystalline and liquid states. Two sets of atomic structure models for liquid InSb at 900 K were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. To reduce the effect of structural peculiarities in the liquid models, an averaging of the two sets of the calculated electronic and optical properties corresponding to the two liquid models was performed. The calculated results indicate that, owing to the phase transition from crystal to liquid, the density of states around the Fermi level increases. As a result, the energy band gap opening near the Fermi level disappears. Consequently, the optical properties change from semiconductor to metallic behavior. Namely, owing to the melting of InSb, the interband transition peaks disappear and a Drude-like dispersion is observed in the optical dielectric functions. The optical absorption at a photon energy of 3.06 eV, which is used in Blu-ray Disc systems, increases owing to the melting of InSb. This increase in optical absorption is proposed to result from the increased optical transitions below 2 eV.

  11. Size-dependent energy levels of InSb quantum dots measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Vaxenburg, Roman; Liu, Wenyong; Rupich, Sara M; Lifshitz, Efrat; Efros, Alexander L; Talapin, Dmitri V; Sibener, S J

    2015-01-27

    The electronic structure of single InSb quantum dots (QDs) with diameters between 3 and 7 nm was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). In this size regime, InSb QDs show strong quantum confinement effects which lead to discrete energy levels on both valence and conduction band states. Decrease of the QD size increases the measured band gap and the spacing between energy levels. Multiplets of equally spaced resonance peaks are observed in the tunneling spectra. There, multiplets originate from degeneracy lifting induced by QD charging. The tunneling spectra of InSb QDs are qualitatively different from those observed in the STS of other III-V materials, for example, InAs QDs, with similar band gap energy. Theoretical calculations suggest the electron tunneling occurs through the states connected with L-valley of InSb QDs rather than through states of the Γ-valley. This observation calls for better understanding of the role of indirect valleys in strongly quantum-confined III-V nanomaterials.

  12. Design of epitaxial CdTe solar cells on InSb substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Tao; Kanevce, Ana; Sites, James R.

    2015-11-01

    Epitaxial CdTe has been shown by others to have a radiative recombination rate approaching unity, high carrier concentration, and low defect density. It has, therefore, become an attractive candidate for high-efficiency solar cells, perhaps becoming competitive with GaAs. The choice of substrate is a key design feature for epitaxial CdTe solar cells, and several possibilities (CdTe, Si, GaAs, and InSb) have been investigated by others. All have challenges, and these have generally been addressed through the addition of intermediate layers between the substrate and CdTe absorber. InSb is an attractive substrate choice for CdTe devices, because it has a close lattice match with CdTe, it has low resistivity, and it is easy to contact. However, the valence-band alignment between InSb and p-type CdTe, which can both impede hole current and enhance forward electron current, is not favorable. Three strategies to address the band-offset problem are investigated by numerical simulation: heavy doping of the back part of the CdTe layer, incorporation of an intermediate CdMgTe or CdZnTe layer, and the formation of an InSb tunnel junction. Lastly, wach of these strategies is predicted to be helpful for higher cell performance, but a combination of the first two should be most effective.

  13. Self-assembly of a 1-eicosanethiolate layer on InSb(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Yissel; Muscat, Anthony J.

    2016-05-01

    1-Eicosanethiolate molecules form relatively weak bonds with the surface of InSb(100) limiting the order of the self-assembled monolayer despite the long length of the alkyl chain. Heating to only 225 °C in vacuum completely desorbed the eicosanethiolate layer from the surface based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Even after deposition times as long as 20 h in ethanol, the asymmetric methylene stretch was at 2925 cm-1 in the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrum, which is indicative of alkane chains that are incompletely ordered. Atomic force microscopy images combined with ellipsometry showed that the eicosanethiolate layer conformed to the rough InSb(100) starting surface (2.3 ± 0.2 nm RMS). The reoxidation kinetics in air of InSb(100) and InSb(111)B covered with eicosanethiolate layers was the same despite the lower surface roughness of the latter (0.64 ± 0.14 nm). The bond that the S head group makes with the substrate is the primary factor that determines the cohesiveness of the molecules on the surface. Although interactions between the alkane chains in the layer are sufficient to form a self-assembled layer, the fluidity of the molecules in the layer compromised the chemical passivation of the surface resulting in reoxidation in air after 20 min.

  14. Enhanced Raman Scattering from InSb Nanodots; Temperature and Laser-Power Dependent Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Noboru; Takayama, Haruki; Morohashi, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    InSb nanodots were uniquely fabricated by vapor-transport on a Si substrate which had previously been bombarded by FBI Ga ions. The InSb nanodots were then examined by spatially-resolved Raman scattering using an Ar-ion laser (λ= 514.5 and 488 nm with P=1˜15 mW) with an optical microscope and CCD detector. In addition to the TO and LO peaks of InSb observed at ˜180 and 191 cm-1 respectively, two peaks were observed at ˜110 and 150 cm-1. Those Raman peaks were tentatively attributed to the 2TA and TO-TA second-order Raman processes. Those two peak intensities appeared to grow at the expense of the TO and LO Raman peak intensities with increasing the sample temperature from 10 K to 450 K. Also, the two-phonon peak intensities increased non-linearly with the probing laser power used. Hot carriers and their interactions with phonons in the restricted regions will be discussed together with Raman scattering results obtained from single-crystal InSb.

  15. Photon detection by an InSb compound semiconductor detector with reduced leakage current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Kanno, Ikuo

    2012-12-01

    An InSb detector was fabricated using a liquid phase epitaxially grown crystal. By changing the electrode structure design, the leakage current of the detector was reduced. In addition, the result of 137Cs-gamma-ray measurement was discussed with a charge collection model with using a modified Hecht's equation.

  16. Stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled InSb infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-10-10

    The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 deg. C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar.

  17. Room temperature-synthesized vertically aligned InSb nanowires: electrical transport and field emission characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned single-crystal InSb nanowires were synthesized via the electrochemical method at room temperature. The characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrum revealed that in the syntheses of InSb nanowires, energy bandgap shifts towards the short wavelength with the occurrence of an electron accumulation layer. The current–voltage curve, based on the metal–semiconductor–metal model, showed a high electron carrier concentration of 2.0 × 1017 cm−3 and a high electron mobility of 446.42 cm2 V−1 s−1. Additionally, the high carrier concentration of the InSb semiconductor with the surface accumulation layer induced a downward band bending effect that reduces the electron tunneling barrier. Consequently, the InSb nanowires exhibit significant field emission properties with an extremely low turn-on field of 1.84 V μm−1 and an estimative threshold field of 3.36 V μm−1. PMID:23399075

  18. Modeling and stress analysis of large format InSb focal plane arrays detector under thermal shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Wen; Meng, Qing-Duan; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Yu, Qian; Lv, Yan-Qiu; Si, Jun-Jie

    2013-09-01

    Higher fracture probability, appearing in large format InSb infrared focal plane arrays detector under thermal shock loadings, limits its applicability and suitability for large format equipment, and has been an urgent problem to be solved. In order to understand the fracture mechanism and improve the reliability, three dimensional modeling and stress analysis of large format InSb detector is necessary. However, there are few reports on three dimensional modeling and simulation of large format InSb detector, due to huge meshing numbers and time-consuming operation to solve. To solve the problems, basing on the thermal mismatch displacement formula, an equivalent modeling method is proposed in this paper. With the proposed equivalent modeling method, employing the ANSYS software, three dimensional large format InSb detector is modeled, and the maximum Von Mises stress appearing in InSb chip dependent on array format is researched. According to the maximum Von Mises stress location shift and stress increasing tendency, the adaptability range of the proposed equivalent method is also derived, that is, for 16 × 16, 32 × 32 and 64 × 64 format, its adaptability ranges are not larger than 64 × 64, 256 × 256 and 1024 × 1024 format, respectively. Taking 1024 × 1024 InSb detector as an example, the Von Mises stress distribution appearing in InSb chip, Si readout integrated circuits and indium bump arrays are described, and the causes are discussed in detail. All these will provide a feasible research plan to identify the fracture origins of InSb chip and reduce fracture probability for large format InSb detector.

  19. MBE Growth and Transfer of HgCdTe Epitaxial Films from InSb Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lyon, T. J.; Rajavel, R. D.; Nosho, B. Z.; Terterian, S.; Beliciu, M. L.; Patterson, P. R.; Chang, D. T.; Boag-O'Brien, M. F.; Holden, B. T.; Jacobs, R. N.; Benson, J. D.

    2010-07-01

    An investigation of the heteroepitaxial growth of HgCdTe films onto InSb(211)B substrates is reported. High-quality HgCdTe(211)B single-crystal films have been successfully deposited onto InSb(211)B substrates and have been characterized with x-ray diffraction rocking curve analysis, etch pit density analysis, and surface void defect mapping. X-ray rocking curve (422) reflection full-width at half-maximum of 60 arcsec has been obtained for 7- μm-thick x = 0.22 HgCdTe epitaxial films, and etch pit densities of 3 × 106 cm-2 to 3 × 107 cm-2 have been observed. A significant reduction in HgCdTe void defect densities to 100 cm-2 to 200 cm-2 has been observed on InSb, including a complete absence of large “void cluster” defects that are often observed for growth on CdZnTe. Wafer bow induced by the growth of HgCdTe on InSb is less than 1 μm for 2-inch-diameter substrates. Significant diffusion of In into HgCdTe is observed for HgCdTe/InSb wafers that are subjected to Hg anneals at 250°C to 300°C. A preliminary investigation of the transfer of HgCdTe films from InSb onto Si substrates has also been undertaken, using an adhesive wafer bonding approach evaluated with scanning acoustic microscopy. The infrared transmission characteristics of the bonding adhesive have been investigated with respect to postgrowth annealing procedures to establish the compatibility of the bonding approach with HgCdTe device processing and detector operation.

  20. Multi-step plasma etching process for development of highly photosensitive InSb mid-IR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Chulkyun; Choi, Minkyung; Yang, In-Sang; Park, Sehun; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2014-06-01

    Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) with CH4/H2/Ar or Cl2/Ar and ion beam etching (IBE) with Ar has been widely used for indium-contained compound semiconductors such as InAs, InP and InSb. To improve the performance of InSb FPAs, reduction of the ion-induced defects and the surface roughness is one of the key issues. To find the optimized plasma etching method for the fabrication of InSb devices, conventional plasma etching processes were comparatively investigated. RIBE of InSb was observed to generate residual by-products such as carbide and chloride causing the degradation of devices. On the other hand, very smooth surface was obtained by etching with N2. However, the etch rate of the N2 etching was too slow for the application to the device fabrication. As an alternative way to solve these problems, a multi-step plasma etching process, a combination of the Ar etching and the N2 etching, for InSb was developed. As gradually increasing the amount of N2 gas flow during the etching process, the plasma damage causing the surface roughen decreased and consequently smoother surface close to that of N2 RIE could be obtained. Furthermore, Raman analysis of the InSb surface after the plasma etching indicated clearly that the multi-step etching process was an effective approach in reducing the ion-induced damages on the surface.

  1. Growth of InSb on GaAs Using InAlSb Buffer Layers

    SciTech Connect

    BIEFELD, ROBERT M.; PHILLIPS, JAMIE D.

    1999-09-20

    We report the growth of InSb on GaAs using InAlSb buffers of high interest for magnetic field sensors. We have grown samples by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition consisting of {approximately} 0.55 {micro}m thick InSb layers with resistive InAlSb buffers on GaAs substrates with measured electron nobilities of {approximately}40,000 cm{sup 2}/V.s. We have investigated the In{sub 1{minus}x}Al{sub x}Sb buffers for compositions x{le}0.22 and have found that the best results are obtained near x=0.12 due to the tradeoff of buffer layer bandgap and lattice mismatch.

  2. Projected noise in submillimeter-wave mixers with InSb Schottky diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U.

    1980-01-01

    The reduction of the equivalent noise temperature in liquid-nitrogen-cooled submillimeter-wave mixers by the use of Schottky barriers on InSb instead of GaAs is evaluated by an analytical model that assumes limited local oscillator power and matched impedances. The calculations, executed at 1.0 and 1.8 THz, take plasma resonance and skin effect into account. For single and multiple contacts on homogeneous semiconductor materials of optimum doping, the noise of InSb diodes is smaller than that of GaAs diodes by a factor of 3 to 14. A simplified model is used to predict the performance of epitaxial structures as well as alternative materials.

  3. Structural stability and electronic properties of InSb nanowires: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yong; Tang, Li-Ming Ning, Feng; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Wang, Dan

    2015-03-28

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural stability and electronic properties of InSb nanowires (NWs). The results show that, in contrast to the bulk InSb phase, wurtzite (WZ) NWs are more stable than zinc-blende (ZB) NWs when the NW diameter is smaller than 10 nm. Nonpassivated ZB and WZ NWs are found to be metallic and semiconducting, respectively. After passivation, both ZB and WZ NWs exhibit direct-gap semiconductor character, and the band gap magnitude of the NWs strongly depends on the suppression of surface states by the charge-compensation ability of foreign atoms to surface atoms. Moreover, the carrier mobility of the NW can be strengthened by halogen passivation.

  4. Twin-Induced InSb Nanosails: A Convenient High Mobility Quantum System.

    PubMed

    de la Mata, María; Leturcq, Renaud; Plissard, Sébastien R; Rolland, Chloé; Magén, César; Arbiol, Jordi; Caroff, Philippe

    2016-02-10

    Ultra narrow bandgap III-V semiconductor nanomaterials provide a unique platform for realizing advanced nanoelectronics, thermoelectrics, infrared photodetection, and quantum transport physics. In this work we employ molecular beam epitaxy to synthesize novel nanosheet-like InSb nanostructures exhibiting superior electronic performance. Through careful morphological and crystallographic characterization we show how this unique geometry is the result of a single twinning event in an otherwise pure zinc blende structure. Four-terminal electrical measurements performed in both the Hall and van der Pauw configurations reveal a room temperature electron mobility greater than 12,000 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1). Quantized conductance in a quantum point contact processed with a split-gate configuration is also demonstrated. We thus introduce InSb "nanosails" as a versatile and convenient platform for realizing new device and physics experiments with a strong interplay between electronic and spin degrees of freedom.

  5. Spectral dependencies of terahertz emission from InAs and InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Adomavicius, R.; Molis, G.; Krotkus, A.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2005-12-26

    Spectral dependences of the THz radiation from the laser-illuminated surfaces of InAs and InSb have been investigated experimentally at high optical fluences for the laser wavelengths ranging from 0.6 to 2 {mu}m. Efficient THz generation was discovered in the excitation range around 1.6 {mu}m. The influence of the intervalley scattering was clearly evidenced. The energy position of the subsidiary conduction band valleys was evaluated from this study to be equal 1.08 and 0.53 eV for InAs and InSb, respectively. It has been concluded that THz emission at high excitation fluencies is dominated by the shift current effect.

  6. Growth of high mobility InSb by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Green, L.; Heremans, J.

    1994-02-01

    Thin films of InSb have been grown on insulating GaAs substrates using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique with trimethyl indium and trimethyl antimony as reactants. We find that the mobilities obtained are usually low unless indium is predeposited onto the substrate. This indium predeposition technique greatly improves the yield of InSb films with mobilities of ~50000 crn2V-1S-1 at room temperature and a typical thickness of 2 microns. With this predeposition technique, the electron mobilities of these films become relatively independent of the vapor stroichiometry during growth and of the growth temperature. The electron mobilities are also very uniform across a wafer. These properties are obtained even when the film growth rate exceeds 2 μm/h.

  7. Terahertz emission from InSb illuminated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlauskas, A.; Subačius, L.; Krotkus, A.; Malevich, V. L.

    2017-02-01

    Athough terahertz (THz) radiation from semiconductor surfaces illuminated by femtosecond laser pulses was observed a long time ago, the mechanisms responsible for this radiation still remains questionable, especially in narrow band gap semiconductors. Four different crystallographic orientation {(1 0 0), (1 1 0), (1 1 1) and (1 1 2)} InSb samples were analyzed in this investigation. THz amplitude dependences on the excitation wavelength and azimuthal angle are presented in this paper. We have shown that the second order nonlinear effect—optical rectification—is responsible for THz radiation in InSb. The microscopic origin of this effect is related to the orientation of electrons momenta by the optical radiation and anisotropy of the conduction band at high energies. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that electric field screening by intrinsic carriers diminishes the contribution of the third order nonlinear effect in this material.

  8. Polymorphism and the crystal structures of InSb at elevated temperature and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S.-C.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents polycrystalline X-ray diffraction data for three high-pressure phases of InSb. The study employed two types of diamond-anvil pressure cells. The X-ray diffraction parameters were recorded at different fixed pressures and temperatures on flat film. The experiment utilized Zr-filtered Mo radiation. The intensities were estimated from the X-ray photographs using a semiautomated microdensitometer.

  9. Standardizing large format 5" GaSb and InSb substrate production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Becky; Flint, J. Patrick; Dallas, G.; Smith, B.; Tybjerg, M.; Aravazhi, Shanmugam; Furlong, Mark J.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on the maturation of large diameter GaSb and InSb substrate production and the key aspects of product quality and process control that have enabled a level of standardization to be achieved that is on par with mass produced compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs and InP. The evolution of commercial production processes for the crystal growth, wafering and epitaxy-ready polishing of antimonide substrates will be discussed together with specific reference to the process tool sets and production methodologies that have transformed a niche material in to one that has set new standards for wafer level product quality, conformity and control. Results will be presented on the production of single crystal >/=6" ingots grown by a modified version of the Czochralski (LEC) technique. Crystal defect mapping will demonstrate that industry standard InSb (211) growth processes have been refined to consistently deliver ultralow dislocation density substrates. Statistical process control data will be presented for large format 5" epitaxy ready finishing processes and compared alongside in-house data for GaAs and InP. Various surface analytical tools are used to characterize 5" InSb and GaSb substrates and our method of providing a unique characterization `finger print' with each substrate discussed. We conclude that improvements in InSb and GaSb product quality and consistency have been driven by the industry's persistent need to improve device performance and yield. Whilst substrate size requirements in antimonide wafer production may have peaked, we will discuss how to moving to the next step in substrate diameters, 6", is very attainable and within relatively short timescales too.

  10. Negative magnetoresistance in (InSb)1-xYx at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Heremans, J.; Partin, D. L.; Thrush, C. M.; Naik, R.

    1998-02-01

    We report the low temperature negative magnetoresistance and magnetization of molecular beam epitaxy grown (InSb)1-xYx for a range of yttrium concentrations (0.03%⩽x⩽4.0%). Our experimental results from x-ray diffraction, Hall effect, and magnetization measurements suggest that the yttrium atoms are located as interstitials in the InSb lattice and hence do not hybridize their outer shell d electrons with the InSb band leading to localized moments. Although the magnetization versus magnetic field (B) data do not fit brilliouin function for all the temperatures studied, we clearly observe a correlation between the measured negative magnetoresistance and the magnetic moment. We believe that the s-d exchange interaction between the localized electrons of Y atoms and the conduction electrons gives rise to the large negative magnetoresistance observed. A theoretical model is used to explain the scattering mechanism. According to this model, when the conduction electrons in the lower subband of InSb have energy E smaller than the Zeeman splitting AM, where A is the s-d exchange integral and M is the magnetic moment, the lower subband conduction electrons are scattered from the d spins without changing their spin projections. On the other hand, as E becomes greater than AM, the spin-flip process can be thermally activated. For the conduction electrons in the upper subband, both spin-flip and spin-non-flip coexist. Therefore the model uses two distinctive relaxation times rather than just one. A numerical calculation is performed to fit the relation between the magnetoresistance and the magnetic moment of the yttrium atoms.

  11. Simultaneous sensing of film thickness and temperature using an InSb Hall element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuji, Jun-ichiro; Ueda, Tohru

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a unique sensing method to apply an InSb Hall element that enables simultaneous sensing device to detect thickness of insulating film on an iron plate and temperature. We made a trial thickness-temperature sensor consists of an InSb Hall element and a small permanent magnet. Here, the film thickness is detected by the variation in distance between the Hall element with the magnet and the iron plate. The temperature characteristic of an InSb Hall element depends on the drive circuit to generate the Hall voltage. Therefore, the Hall element is driven using a constant voltage source and a constant current source by time-division to obtain two kinds of Hall output voltages. Two output Hall voltages driven by two kinds of bias circuits are measured in the film thickness range from 0 to 500 μm, and for a temperature range of -10 to 70 °C. The inverse response surfaces that are used to identify the thickness of insulating film and temperature are formulated using experimental results. The results obtained show that it is possible to detect film thickness and temperature by obtaining two kinds of Hall voltages.

  12. Nanoporosity-induced superhydrophobicity and large antireflection in InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Debi Prasad; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-05-01

    A porous nanostructure evolves in InSb due to keV ion implantation which leads to superhydrophobic and large antireflective property, indicating a single-step facile fabrication to introduce both functionalities. In particular, it is observed that the contact angle of a water droplet on the nanoporous InSb surface exceeds 150°, revealing the transition to a superhydrophobic surface. Correlation between the contact angle and the porous nanostructures is qualitatively understood in light of the Cassie-Baxter model. It is found that a decrease in the fraction of solid surface wetted by the water droplet and a corresponding increase in the air-water interface fraction lead to the enhancement in the hydrophobicity. We further observe that the large broadband antireflection (in the range of 200-800 nm) is also correlated to the nanoporous structure, arising out of a large reduction in the refractive index due to its increasing porosity. Such a surface with the combination of superhydrophobicity and large antireflection can be very useful for applications of InSb nanostructures in electronic, photonic devices, or infrared detectors.

  13. Nanoporosity-induced superhydrophobicity and large antireflection in InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Debi Prasad; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-05-09

    A porous nanostructure evolves in InSb due to keV ion implantation which leads to superhydrophobic and large antireflective property, indicating a single-step facile fabrication to introduce both functionalities. In particular, it is observed that the contact angle of a water droplet on the nanoporous InSb surface exceeds 150°, revealing the transition to a superhydrophobic surface. Correlation between the contact angle and the porous nanostructures is qualitatively understood in light of the Cassie-Baxter model. It is found that a decrease in the fraction of solid surface wetted by the water droplet and a corresponding increase in the air-water interface fraction lead to the enhancement in the hydrophobicity. We further observe that the large broadband antireflection (in the range of 200–800 nm) is also correlated to the nanoporous structure, arising out of a large reduction in the refractive index due to its increasing porosity. Such a surface with the combination of superhydrophobicity and large antireflection can be very useful for applications of InSb nanostructures in electronic, photonic devices, or infrared detectors.

  14. Wet Etching Characterization of InSb for Thermal Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kow‑Ming; Luo, Jiunn‑Jye; Chiang, Cheng‑Der; Liu, Kou‑Chen

    2006-03-01

    A citric acid/hydrogen peroxide-based chemical system has been reported for the first time to meet the requirements of continuously scaling down the pixel area for InSb high-density infrared camera applications. This chemical system with a reaction-rate-limited mechanism was concluded to have superior etching performance compared with the nitric acid-based solution. It is established that this etching mechanism has better control over device structure uniformity due to its linear proportionality to etching time and its nondependence on agitation and exposed etched area. Two different chemical systems have been studied to form the high-density mesa structures in this study. The wet etching characteristics corresponding to these chemical solutions were measured and analyzed. From atomic force microscopy (AFM), the results clearly indicate that the surface-reaction-rate-limited dominant-control mechanism for InSb mesa etching in citric acid/hydrogen peroxide produces a fairly smooth morphology near junction edges and well-controlled sidewall profiles. Good step coverage for dielectric deposition as shown by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and a highly uniformly distributed dark current of InSb pn junction arrays at 77 K have proven the feasibility of the citric acid/hydrogen peroxide wet etching process to bring superior etching performance compared with the nitric acid-based solution.

  15. Coherent Charge Transport in Ballistic InSb Nanowire Josephson Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Li, S.; Kang, N.; Fan, D. X.; Wang, L. B.; Huang, Y. Q.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising for investigating Majorana modes and topological quantum computation in solid-state devices. An experimental realisation of ballistic, phase-coherent superconductor-nanowire hybrid devices is a necessary step towards engineering topological superconducting electronics. Here, we report on a low-temperature transport study of Josephson junction devices fabricated from InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and provide a clear evidence for phase-coherent, ballistic charge transport through the nanowires in the junctions. We demonstrate that our devices show gate-tunable proximity-induced supercurrent and clear signatures of multiple Andreev reflections in the differential conductance, indicating phase-coherent transport within the junctions. We also observe periodic modulations of the critical current that can be associated with the Fabry-Pérot interference in the nanowires in the ballistic transport regime. Our work shows that the InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are of excellent material quality and hybrid superconducting devices made from these nanowires are highly desirable for investigation of the novel physics in topological states of matter and for applications in topological quantum electronics. PMID:27102689

  16. Coherent Charge Transport in Ballistic InSb Nanowire Josephson Junctions.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Kang, N; Fan, D X; Wang, L B; Huang, Y Q; Caroff, P; Xu, H Q

    2016-04-22

    Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising for investigating Majorana modes and topological quantum computation in solid-state devices. An experimental realisation of ballistic, phase-coherent superconductor-nanowire hybrid devices is a necessary step towards engineering topological superconducting electronics. Here, we report on a low-temperature transport study of Josephson junction devices fabricated from InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and provide a clear evidence for phase-coherent, ballistic charge transport through the nanowires in the junctions. We demonstrate that our devices show gate-tunable proximity-induced supercurrent and clear signatures of multiple Andreev reflections in the differential conductance, indicating phase-coherent transport within the junctions. We also observe periodic modulations of the critical current that can be associated with the Fabry-Pérot interference in the nanowires in the ballistic transport regime. Our work shows that the InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are of excellent material quality and hybrid superconducting devices made from these nanowires are highly desirable for investigation of the novel physics in topological states of matter and for applications in topological quantum electronics.

  17. Schottky barrier and contact resistance of InSb nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dingxun; Kang, N.; Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Dick, Kimberly A.; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the electrical contact properties of semiconductor nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs) plays a crucial role in the use of semiconducting NWs as building blocks for future nanoelectronic devices and in the study of fundamental physics problems. Here, we report on a study of the contact properties of Ti/Au, a widely used contact metal combination, when contacting individual InSb NWs via both two-probe and four-probe transport measurements. We show that a Schottky barrier of height {{{Φ }}}{{SB}}˜ 20 {{meV}} is present at the metal-InSb NW interfaces and its effective height is gate-tunable. The contact resistance ({R}{{c}}) in the InSb NWFETs is also analyzed by magnetotransport measurements at low temperatures. It is found that {R}{{c}} in the on-state exhibits a pronounced magnetic field-dependent feature, namely it is increased strongly with increasing magnetic field after an onset field {B}{{c}}. A qualitative picture that takes into account magnetic depopulation of subbands in the NWs is provided to explain the observation. Our results provide solid experimental evidence for the presence of a Schottky barrier at Ti/Au-InSb NW interfaces and can be used as a basis for design and fabrication of novel InSb NW-based nanoelectronic devices and quantum devices.

  18. Study of advanced InSb arrays for SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Alan; Feitt, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The Santa Barbara Research Center has completed a study leading to the development of advanced Indium Antimonide detector arrays for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Focal Plane Array Detector (FPAD) Subsystem of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Band 1. The overall goal of the study was to perform design tradeoff studies, analysis and research to develop a Direct Readout Integrated Circuit to be hybridized to an advanced, high performance InSb detector array that would satisfy the technical requirements for Band 1 as specified in the IRAC Instrument Requirements Document (IRD), IRAC-202. The overall goal of the study was divided into both a near-term goal and a far-term goal. The near-term goal identifies current technology available that approaches, and in some cases meets the program technological goals as specified in IRAC-202. The far-term goal identifies technology development required to completely achieve SIRTF program goals. Analyses of potential detector materials indicates that InSb presently meets all Band 1 requirements and is considered to be the baseline approach due to technical maturity. The major issue with regard to photovoltaic detectors such as InSb and HgCdTe is to achieve a reduction in detector capacitance.

  19. Optimizing spin-orbit splittings in InSb Majorana nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Troyer, Matthias; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Bauer, Bela; Nayak, Chetan

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures represent a promising platform for the detection of Majorana zero modes and subsequently the processing of quantum information using their exotic non-Abelian statistics. Theoretical modeling of such low-dimensional heterostructures is generally based on phenomenological effective models. However, a more microscopic understanding of the band structure and, especially, of the spin-orbit coupling of electrons in these devices is important for optimizing their parameters for applications in quantum computing. In this paper, we approach this problem by first obtaining a highly accurate effective tight-binding model of bulk InSb from ab initio calculations. This model is symmetrized and correctly reproduces both the band structure and the wave function character. It is then used to simulate slabs of InSb in external electric fields. The results of this simulation are used to determine a growth direction for InSb nanowires that optimizes the conditions for the experimental realization of Majorana zero modes.

  20. Interband magneto-spectroscopy in InSb square and parabolic quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kasturiarachchi, T.; Edirisooriya, M.; Mishima, T. D.; Doezema, R. E.; Santos, M. B.; Saha, D.; Pan, X.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.

    2015-06-07

    We measure the magneto-optical absorption due to intersubband optical transitions between conduction and valence subband Landau levels in InSb square and parabolic quantum wells. InSb has the narrowest band gap (0.24 eV at low temperature) of the III–V semiconductors leading to a small effective mass (0.014 m{sub 0}) and a large g–factor (−51). As a result, the Landau level spacing is large at relatively small magnetic fields (<8 T), and one can observe spin-splitting of the Landau levels. We examine two structures: (i) a multiple-square-well structure and (ii) a structure containing multiple parabolic wells. The energies and intensities of the strongest features are well explained by a modified Pidgeon-Brown model based on an 8-band k•p model that explicitly incorporates pseudomorphic strain. The strain is essential for obtaining agreement between theory and experiment. While modeling the square well is relatively straight-forward, the parabolic well consists of 43 different layers of various thickness to approximate a parabolic potential. Agreement between theory and experiment for the parabolic well validates the applicability of the model to complicated structures, which demonstrates the robustness of our model and confirms its relevance for developing electronic and spintronic devices that seek to exploit the properties of the InSb band structure.

  1. Plasma-Cleaned InSb (112)B for Large-Area Epitaxy of HgCdTe Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaime-Vasquez, M.; Martinka, M.; Stoltz, A. J.; Jacobs, R. N.; Benson, J. D.; Almeida, L. A.; Markunas, J. K.

    2008-09-01

    Plasma etching of (112)B InSb to prepare this semiconductor for the heteroepitaxy deposition of CdTe and initial studies of CdTe epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on InSb (112)B substrates cleaned with various plasma treatments are presented. X-ray diffraction rocking curve maps of the MBE CdTe epilayers on 3-inch InSb (112)B substrates have full-width at half-maxima (FWHM) values in the range of 20 arcsec to 30 arcsec. An etch pit density analysis of the 3-inch CdTe epilayers reveals a defect density of 1.0 × 107 cm-2 and 7.7 × 105 cm-2 at the center and edge of the wafer, respectively. Evaluation of a standard HgCdTe annealing process suggests that the removal of the InSb substrate is likely to be needed prior to any postgrowth annealing in Hg overpressure. Finally, we present a low-energy helium plasma exposure of wet-etched InSb (112)B substrates that provides a uniform epi-ready surface that is nearly stoichiometric, and free of oxide and residual contaminants.

  2. Formation of long single quantum dots in high quality InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dingxun; Li, Sen; Kang, N; Caroff, Philippe; Wang, L B; Huang, Y Q; Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Xu, H Q

    2015-09-28

    We report on realization and transport spectroscopy study of single quantum dots (QDs) made from InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The nanowires employed are 50-80 nm in diameter and the QDs are defined in the nanowires between the source and drain contacts on a Si/SiO2 substrate. We show that highly tunable QD devices can be realized with the MBE-grown InSb nanowires and the gate-to-dot capacitance extracted in the many-electron regimes is scaled linearly with the longitudinal dot size, demonstrating that the devices are of single InSb nanowire QDs even with a longitudinal size of ∼700 nm. In the few-electron regime, the quantum levels in the QDs are resolved and the Landég-factors extracted for the quantum levels from the magnetotransport measurements are found to be strongly level-dependent and fluctuated in a range of 18-48. A spin-orbit coupling strength is extracted from the magnetic field evolutions of a ground state and its neighboring excited state in an InSb nanowire QD and is on the order of ∼300 μeV. Our results establish that the MBE-grown InSb nanowires are of high crystal quality and are promising for the use in constructing novel quantum devices, such as entangled spin qubits, one-dimensional Wigner crystals and topological quantum computing devices.

  3. Mid-infrared to ultraviolet optical properties of InSb grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard Yeo, Yee-Chia; Tan, Kian Hua; Jia, Bo Wen; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2015-06-14

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to investigate the optical properties of an InSb film grown on a GaAs (100) substrate, and to compare the optical properties of InSb film with those of bulk InSb. The film was grown by molecular beam epitaxy under conditions intended to form 90° misfit dislocations at the InSb-GaAs interface. The complex dielectric function obtained in a wide spectroscopic range from 0.06–4.6 eV shows the critical point transitions E{sub 0}, E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1}, E{sub 0}{sup ′}, and E{sub 2}. The amplitudes, energy transitions, broadenings, and phase angles have been determined using a derivative analysis. Comparing film and bulk critical point results reveal that the epitaxial film is nearly relaxed and has bulk-like optical characteristics.

  4. Characterization of InSb Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Inert Gas Condensation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Sneha G; Kordesch, Martin E

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of indium antimonide (InSb) were synthesized using a vapor phase synthesis technique known as inert gas condensation (IGC). NPs were directly deposited, at room temperature and under high vacuum, on glass cover slides, TEM grids and (111) p-type silicon wafers. TEM studies showed a bimodal distribution in the size of the NPs with average particle size of 13.70 nm and 33.20 nm. The Raman spectra of InSb NPs exhibited a peak centered at 184.27 cm(-1), which corresponds to the longitudinal optical (LO) modes of phonon vibration in InSb. A 1:1 In-to-Sb composition ratio was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies revealed polycrystalline behavior of these NPs with lattice spacing around 0.37 and 0.23 nm corresponding to the growth directions of (111) and (220), respectively. The average crystallite size of the NPs obtained using XRD peak broadening results and the Debye-Scherrer formula was 25.62 nm, and the value of strain in NPs was found to be 0.0015. NP's band gap obtained using spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was around 0.43-0.52 eV at 300 K, which is a blue shift of 0.26-0.35 eV. The effects of increased particle density resulting into aggregation of NPs are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Characterization of InSb Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Inert Gas Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Sneha G.; Kordesch, Martin E.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of indium antimonide (InSb) were synthesized using a vapor phase synthesis technique known as inert gas condensation (IGC). NPs were directly deposited, at room temperature and under high vacuum, on glass cover slides, TEM grids and (111) p-type silicon wafers. TEM studies showed a bimodal distribution in the size of the NPs with average particle size of 13.70 nm and 33.20 nm. The Raman spectra of InSb NPs exhibited a peak centered at 184.27 cm-1, which corresponds to the longitudinal optical (LO) modes of phonon vibration in InSb. A 1:1 In-to-Sb composition ratio was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies revealed polycrystalline behavior of these NPs with lattice spacing around 0.37 and 0.23 nm corresponding to the growth directions of (111) and (220), respectively. The average crystallite size of the NPs obtained using XRD peak broadening results and the Debye-Scherrer formula was 25.62 nm, and the value of strain in NPs was found to be 0.0015. NP's band gap obtained using spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was around 0.43-0.52 eV at 300 K, which is a blue shift of 0.26-0.35 eV. The effects of increased particle density resulting into aggregation of NPs are also discussed in this paper.

  6. Evolution of structural and electronic properties of highly mismatched InSb films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, X.; Goldman, R. S.; Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J. P.

    2000-12-01

    We have investigated the evolution of structural and electronic properties of highly mismatched InSb films, with thicknesses ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 μm. Atomic force microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction show that the 0.1 μm films are nearly fully relaxed and consist of partially coalesced islands, which apparently contain threading dislocations at their boundaries. As the film thickness increases beyond 0.2 μm, the island coalescence is complete and the residual strain is reduced. Although the epilayers have relaxed equally in the <110> in-plane directions, the epilayer rotation about an in-plane axis (epilayer tilt) is not equal in both <110> in-plane directions. Interestingly, the island-like surface features tend to be preferentially elongated along the axis of epilayer tilt. Furthermore, epilayer tilt which increases the substrate offcut (reverse tilt) is evident in the [110] direction. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates that both pure-edge and 60° misfit dislocations contribute to the relaxation of strain. In addition, as the film thickness increases, the threading dislocation density decreases, while the corresponding room-temperature electron mobility increases. The other structural features, including the residual strain, and the surface and interface roughness, do not appear to impact the electron mobility in these InSb films. Together, these results suggest that free-carrier scattering from the threading dislocations is the primary room-temperature mobility-limiting mechanism in highly mismatched InSb films. Finally, we show quantitatively that free-carrier scattering from the lattice dilation associated with threading dislocations, rather than scattering from a depletion potential surrounding the dislocations, is the dominant factor limiting the electron mobility.

  7. Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C.; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally, studying the sub-band evolution in a rotating magnetic field reveals an orbital degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands for perpendicular fields above 1T.

  8. Quantized Conductance in InSb nanowires at zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    We present measurements of InSb nanowires in the ballistic transport regime. In 1D materials such as nanowires, electron scattering has an increased chance of back-reflection, obscuring the observation of quantized conductance at low magnetic fields. By improving the contacts to the nanowire as well as its dielectric environment backscattering events are minimized and conductance quantization is observable at zero magnetic field with high device yield. We study the evolution of individual sub-bands in an external magnetic field, observing a degeneracy between the 2nd and 3rd sub-band when the magnetic field is orientated perpendicular to the nanowire axis.

  9. Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W A; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2016-06-08

    Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one-dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally we study the contribution of orbital effects to the sub-band dispersion for different orientation of the magnetic field, observing a near-degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands.

  10. Coupling InSb quantum dots to a superconducting microwave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Maja; Kammhuber, Jakob; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sebastien; Bakkers, Erik; Dicarlo, Leo; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    2014-03-01

    We present measurements of a superconducting half-wave resonator coupled to two InSb nanowire quantum dots. Precise nanowire alignment at the electric field antinodes at opposite ends of the microwave cavity allows for a maximal electric field along the wire axis, without compromising the intrinsic quality factor of the cavity. This architecture may be useful for reaching the strong coupling limit between a single spin and a microwave photon, paving the way to on-chip coupling of single spins for quantum information processing.

  11. Initial Transient in Zn-doped InSb Grown in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A G.; Marin, C.; Volz, M.; Duffar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Three Zn-doped InSb crystals were directionally solidified under microgravity conditions at the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The distribution of the Zn was measured using SIMS. A short diffusion-controlled transient, typical for systems with k greater than 1 was demonstrated. Static pressure of approximately 4000 N/m2 was imposed on the melt, to prevent bubble formation and dewetting. Still, partial de-wetting has occurred in one experiment, and apparently has disturbed the diffusive transport of Zn in the melt.

  12. Charge Collection Process of a Liquid-Phase Epitaxially Grown InSb Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Kanno, Ikuo

    2011-09-01

    The energy spectra of the gamma rays emitted by 241Am, 133Ba, and 137Cs were measured using an InSb detector made from a liquid-phase epitaxially (LPE) grown crystal. To understand the relationship between the maximum channel numbers of energy spectra and the maximum energies of gamma rays, a charge collection process is discussed. We performed numerical simulations of the charge collection process with a modified Hecht's equation. We showed that the entire LPE-InSb crystal including outside the depletion layer worked as a sensitive volume.

  13. Elemental Topological Insulator with Tunable Fermi Level: Strained α-Sn on InSb(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfuss, A.; Dudy, L.; Scholz, M. R.; Roth, H.; Höpfner, P.; Blumenstein, C.; Landolt, G.; Dil, J. H.; Plumb, N. C.; Radovic, M.; Bostwick, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Fleszar, A.; Bihlmayer, G.; Wortmann, D.; Li, G.; Hanke, W.; Claessen, R.; Schäfer, J.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the epitaxial fabrication and electronic properties of a topological phase in strained α-Sn on InSb. The topological surface state forms in the presence of an unusual band order not based on direct spin-orbit coupling, as shown in density functional and GW slab-layer calculations. Angle-resolved photoemission including spin detection probes experimentally how the topological spin-polarized state emerges from the second bulk valence band. Moreover, we demonstrate the precise control of the Fermi level by dopants.

  14. Localization and antilocalization in InSb and InAs antidot lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. A.; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yue; Guan, Yafei; Heremans, J. J.; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; Van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the observation of localization, antilocalization and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations in antidot lattices patterned on high-mobility InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. In addition, the antidot lattices display ballistic commensurability features. The strength of the localization peak in InSb antidot lattices decreases exponentially with temperature, with a high characteristic temperature of ∼25 K between 0.4 and 50 K. Analysis of the AAS oscillations enables the extraction of phase and spin coherence lengths in InAs.

  15. Structural characterization of InSb thin films grown by electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Joginder Rajaram, P.

    2015-06-24

    In the present work we have grown InSb thin films on brass substrates, using the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical baths used in the growth were made up of aqueous solutions of InCl{sub 3} and SbCl{sub 3} mixed together in various proportions. The films grown were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX). Compositional studies show that stoichiometric InSb films can be prepared from a bath containing 0.05M InCl{sub 3} and 0.04M SbCl{sub 3}. XRD studies reveal that the films grown are polycrystalline having the zinc blende structure with (111) orientation. Crystallite size, dislocation density and strain were calculated using the XRD results. Optical transmission spectra were recorded using an FTIR spectrophotometer. The value of direct band gap was found to be around 0.20 eV for the thin films having the best stoichiometry.

  16. Controlling the Inherent Magnetoresistance in thin InSb epilayers on GaAs (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Harris, J. J.; Clowes, S. K.; Brandford, W. R.; Cohen, L. F.; Solin, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    There is great advantage to controlling the magnetoresistance (MR) in high mobility semiconductors for a number of applications which require thin active surface layers. Previously we have produced n type thin epilayers of InSb with the highest reported mobility and we have used these epilayers to explore novel geometries that enhance the high field MR. Here we show that by virtue of the inherent inhomogeneity in the growth direction, thin InSb epilayers can be designed to have significant MR without external geometric manipulation. The observations can be explained using a transport model that describes the electrical properties of the layers including contributions from conduction and impurity bands. We will explore using the model, the possibility of maximizing or minimizing the inherent MR in these layers and we show experimentally how to create thin high mobility layers where the inherent MR is significantly reduced or enhanced without compromising the layer mobility. T. Zhang et al. Appl. Phys Lett. 84, 4463 (2004). W.R. Branford et al., Appl. Phys Lett. 86, 202116 (2005). J.J. Harris et al., Semicond. Sci. Tech. 19, 1406 (2004). T. Zhang et al., Semicond. Sci. Tech., in press.

  17. Electrodeposition of InSb branched nanowires: Controlled growth with structurally tailored properties

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Suprem R.; Mohammad, Asaduzzaman; Janes, David B.; Akatay, Cem; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A.; Maeda, Kosuke; Deacon, Russell S.; Ishibashi, Koji; Chen, Yong P.; Sands, Timothy D.

    2014-08-28

    In this article, electrodeposition method is used to demonstrate growth of InSb nanowire (NW) arrays with hierarchical branched structures and complex morphology at room temperature using an all-solution, catalyst-free technique. A gold coated, porous anodic alumina membrane provided the template for the branched NWs. The NWs have a hierarchical branched structure, with three nominal regions: a “trunk” (average diameter of 150 nm), large branches (average diameter of 100 nm), and small branches (average diameter of sub-10 nm to sub-20 nm). The structural properties of the branched NWs were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In the as-grown state, the small branches of InSb NWs were crystalline, but the trunk regions were mostly nanocrystalline with an amorphous boundary. Post-annealing of NWs at 420 °C in argon produced single crystalline structures along 〈311〉 directions for the branches and along 〈111〉 for the trunks. Based on the high crystallinity and tailored structure in this branched NW array, the effective refractive index allows us to achieve excellent antireflection properties signifying its technological usefulness for photon management and energy harvesting.

  18. High sensitivity of middle-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on an individual InSb nanowire

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Single-crystal indium antimony (InSb) nanowire was fabricated into middle-infrared photodetectors based on a metal–semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) structure. The InSb nanowires were synthesized using an electrochemical method at room temperature. The characteristics of the FET reveal an electron concentration of 3.6 × 1017 cm−3 and an electron mobility of 215.25 cm2 V−1 s−1. The photodetectors exhibit good photoconductive performance, excellent stability, reproducibility, superior responsivity (8.4 × 104 A W−1), and quantum efficiency (1.96 × 106%). These superior properties are attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and single-crystal 1D nanostructure of photodetectors that significantly reduce the scattering, trapping, and the transit time between the electrodes during the transport process. Furthermore, the M-S-M structure can effectively enhance space charge effect by the formation of the Schottky contacts, which significantly assists with the electron injection and photocurrent gain. PMID:23866944

  19. Interband and intraband relaxation dynamics in InSb based quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, M.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.; Saha, D.; Sanders, G.; Stanton, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    We utilize pump/probe spectroscopy to determine the interband and intraband relaxation dynamics in InSb based quantum wells. Using non-degenerate pump/probe techniques, we observed several time scales for relaxation. One time scale τ3 ranging from 2 ps to 5 ps is due to the intraband relaxation dynamics. Here, both the emission of LO phonons (within the Γ valley) and carrier scattering between the X, L, and Γ valleys contribute to the relaxation. An observed longer relaxation time, τ2 ≈ 20 ps, is attributed to electron-hole recombination across the gap (the interband relaxation time). Finally, using a mid-infrared (MIR) degenerate pump/probe scheme, we observed a very fast relaxation time of ˜1 ps, which is due to the saturation of the band-to-band absorption. Our results are important for developing concepts for InSb devices operating in the THz or MIR optical ranges with the endless need for faster response.

  20. Reconstructions of the sulfur-passivated InSb (100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciochoń, Piotr; Olszowska, Natalia; Wróbel, Sonia; Kołodziej, Jacek

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the properties of the InSb (100) surface passivated with sulfur dimers emitted by the solid-state electrochemical cell in ultra-high vacuum. Annealing the passivated surface in the temperature equal to T = 326 °C led to the formation of the c(4 × 8) surface reconstruction, while increasing the temperature to T = 348 °C resulted in the transition to c(4 × 12) reconstruction. To the best of our knowledge these reconstructions have not been reported to date and are characterized by the exceptionally good crystallographic order. XPS studies revealed that there are at least 4 different chemical species of sulfur present on the surface and the estimated thickness of the sulfur layers is equal to around 4 Å. The surface reconstructions are characterized by the lowered intensity of the surface electronic states and resonances near the Fermi level, compared to the clean InSb surface, making them potentially very useful for the fabrication of InSb-based electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Wigner Crystal and Colossal Magnetoresistance in InSb Doped with Mn

    PubMed Central

    Obukhov, S. A.; Tozer, S. W.; Coniglio, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report magnetotransport investigation of nonmagnetic InSb single crystal doped with manganese at Mn concentration NMn ~ 1,5 × 1017 cm−3 in the temperature range T = 300 K–40 mK, magnetic field B = 0–25T and hydrostatic pressure P = 0–17 kbar. Resistivity saturation was observed in the absence of magnetic field at temperatures below 200 mK while applied increasing external magnetic field induced colossal drop of resistivity (by factor 104) at B ~ 4T with further gigantic resistivity increase (by factor 104) at 15T. Under pressure, P = 17 kbar, resistivity saturation temperature increased up to 1,2 K. Existing models are discussed in attempt to explain resistivity saturation, dramatic influence of magnetic field and pressure on resistivity with the focus on possible manifestation of three dimensional Wigner crystal formed in InSb by light electrons and heavy holes. PMID:26307952

  2. 3D simulation of detector parameters for backside illuminated InSb 2D arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Tal; Nahum, Vered; Saguy, Erez; Calahorra, Zippora; Shtrichman, Itay

    2007-09-01

    Accurate and reliable numerical simulation tools are necessary for the development of advanced semiconductor devices. SCD is using the Silvaco Atlas simulation tool to simultaneously solve the Poisson, Continuity and transport equations for 3D detector structures. In this work we describe a set of systematic experiments performed in order to calibrate the Atlas simulation to SCD's backside illuminated InSb focal plane arrays (FPA) realized with planar technology. From these experiments we extract physical parameters such as diffusion length, surface recombination velocity, and SRH lifetime. The actual and predicted performance (e.g. dark-current and MTF) of present and future detectors is presented. We have studied arrays with pitch in the range of 15 to 30 μm. We find that the MTF width is inversely proportional to the pitch. Thus, the spatial resolution of the detector improves with decreasing pixel size as expected. Using the Atlas simulation we predict the performance of planar InSb arrays with smaller pixel dimensions, e.g., 12 and 10 μm.

  3. Growth and characterization of 6" InSb substrates for use in large-area infrared-imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Mark J.; Dallas, Gordon; Meshew, Greg; Flint, J. Patrick; Small, David; Martinez, Becky; Mowbray, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we report on an industry first; the growth and characterization of 6" diameter indium antimonide (InSb) substrates that are suitable for use in the fabrication of MWIR focal plane infrared detectors. Results will be presented on the production of single crystal 6" InSb ingots grown by the Czochralski (Cz) technique. We will also assess the electrical quality of new 6" InSb crystals and present uniformity information on Hall mobility, resistivity and carrier level from which we will infer comparisons on the relative dark current performance of the material grown. High quality, epitaxy-ready type surfaces have been prepared and we will demonstrate how the key surface quality characteristics of roughness (<0.5nm rms), oxide thickness (<100Å) and flatness (<7 μm TTV) have been maintained across production processes that scale 4" to 6" wafer formats. We conclude by presenting our road map for the development of large area InSb substrates and describe how developments in Czochralski crystal growth and surface finishing technology will support industry's requirements to deliver higher performance, large format IR focal place array type devices.

  4. Growth and characterization of 6" InSb substrates for use in large area infrared imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Mark J.; Dallas, Gordon; Meshew, Greg; Flint, J. Patrick; Small, David; Martinez, Becky; Mowbray, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report on an industry first; the growth and characterization of 6" diameter indium antimonide (InSb) substrates that are suitable for use in the fabrication of MWIR focal plane infrared detectors. Results will be presented on the production of single crystal 6" InSb ingots grown by the Czochralski (Cz) technique. We will also assess the electrical quality of new 6" InSb crystals and present uniformity information on Hall mobility, resistivity and carrier level from which we will infer comparisons on the relative dark current performance of the material grown. High quality, epitaxy-ready type surfaces have been prepared and we will demonstrate how the key surface quality characteristics of roughness (< 0.5 nm rms), oxide thickness (<100 Å) and flatness (<7 μm TTV) have been maintained across production processes that scale 4" to 6" wafer formats. We conclude by presenting our road map for the development of large area InSb substrates and describe how developments in Czochralski crystal growth and surface finishing technology will support industry's requirements to deliver higher performance, large format IR focal plane array type devices.

  5. Molar and excess volumes of liquid In-Sb, Mg-Sb, and Pb-Sb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.R.; Kaminski, M.A. ); Eckert, C.A. )

    1990-04-01

    By a direct Archimedes' technique, volumetric data were obtained for liquid In, Mg, Pb, and Sb and mixtures of In-Sb, Mg-Sb, and Pb-Sb. In this paper the excess volumes for the alloys studied are presented and discussed.

  6. Behavior of GaSb (100) and InSb (100) surfaces in the presence of H2O2 in acidic and basic cleaning solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dongwan; Na, Jihoon; Lee, Seunghyo; Lim, Sangwoo

    2017-03-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) and indium antimonide (InSb) have attracted strong attention as new channel materials for transistors due to their excellent electrical properties and lattice matches with various group III-V compound semiconductors. In this study, the surface behavior of GaSb (100) and InSb (100) was investigated and compared in hydrochloric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture (HPM) and ammonium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM) solutions. In the acidic HPM solution, surface oxidation was greater and the etching rates of the GaSb and InSb surfaces increased when the solution is concentrated, which indicates that H2O2 plays a key role in the surface oxidation of GaSb and InSb in acidic HPM solution. However, the GaSb and InSb surfaces were hardly oxidized in basic APM solution in the presence of H2O2 because gallium and indium are in the thermodynamically stable forms of H2GaO3- and InO2-, respectively. When the APM solution was diluted, however, the Ga on the GaSb surface was oxidized by H2O, increasing the etching rate. However, the effect of dilution of the APM solution on the oxidation of the InSb surface was minimal; thus, the InSb surface was less oxidized than the GaSb surface and the change in the etching rate of InSb with dilution of the APM solution was not significant. Additionally, the oxidation behavior of gallium and indium was more sensitive to the composition of the HPM and APM solutions than that of antimony. Therefore, the surface properties and etching characteristics of GaSb and InSb in HPM and APM solutions are mainly dependent on the behavior of the group III elements rather than the group V elements.

  7. 10μm pitch family of InSb and XBn detectors for MWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershon, G.; Avnon, E.; Brumer, M.; Freiman, W.; Karni, Y.; Niderman, T.; Ofer, O.; Rosenstock, T.; Seref, D.; Shiloah, N.; Shkedy, L.; Tessler, R.; Shtrichman, I.

    2017-02-01

    There has been a growing demand over the past few years for infrared detectors with a smaller pixel dimension. On the one hand, this trend of pixel shrinkage enables the overall size of a given Focal Plan Array (FPA) to be reduced, allowing the production of more compact, lower power, and lower cost electro-optical (EO) systems. On the other hand, it enables a higher image resolution for a given FPA area, which is especially suitable in infrared systems with a large format that are used with a wide Field of View (FOV). In response to these market trends SCD has developed the Blackbird family of 10 μm pitch MWIR digital infrared detectors. The Blackbird family is based on three different Read- Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) formats: 1920×1536, 1280×1024 and 640×512, which exploit advanced and mature 0.18 μm CMOS technology and exhibit high functionality with relatively low power consumption. Two types of 10 μm pixel sensing arrays are supported. The first is an InSb photodiode array based on SCD's mature planar implanted p-n junction technology, which covers the full MWIR band, and is designed to operate at 77K. The second type of sensing array covers the blue part of the MWIR band and uses the patented XBn-InAsSb barrier detector technology that provides electro-optical performance equivalent to planar InSb but at operating temperatures as high as 150 K. The XBn detector is therefore ideal for low Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) applications. Both sensing arrays, InSb and XBn, are Flip-chip bonded to the ROICs and assembled into custom designed Dewars that can withstand harsh environmental conditions while minimizing the detector heat load. A dedicated proximity electronics board provides power supplies and timing to the ROIC and enables communication and video output to the system. Together with a wide range of cryogenic coolers, a high flexibility of housing designs and various modes of operation, the Blackbird family of detectors presents solutions for EO

  8. Low-background performance of a monolithic InSb CCD array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. D.; Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.; Matsumoto, T.

    1982-01-01

    A 20 element monolithic InSb charge coupled device (CCD) detector array was measured under low background conditions to assess its potential for orbital astronomical applications. At a temperature of 64 K, previous results for charge transfer efficiency (CTE) were reproduced, and a sensitivity of about 2 x 10 to the minus 15th power joules was measured. At 27 and 6 K, extended integration times were achieved, but CTE was substantially degraded. The noise was approximately 6000 charges, which was in excess of the level where statistical fluctuations from the illumination could be detected. A telescope demonstration was performed showing that the array sensitivity and difficulty of operation were not substantially different from laboratory levels. Ways in which the device could be improved for astronomical applications were discussed.

  9. Submillimeter wave absorption of n-type InSb at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of two high-purity n-InSb samples is measured in the 10-40 per cm range using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The absorption coefficient spectrum is presented for both samples at 4.2 K. It is also shown for the lower resistance sample cooled to 2.2 K and heated by dc bias to elevated electron gas temperatures of 7.5 and 17.9 K. ac Drude theory gives rather poor agreement with experiment at 2.2 and 4.2 K but does much better when the sample electron gas is heated. In contrast, a simple quantum mechanical theory of absorption based on inverse Bremsstrahlung yields promising agreement at the lower temperatures although its applicability is questionable. The non-Drudian absorption is shown to have a favorable effect on the performance of InSb hot-electron bolometers.

  10. Elemental Topological Dirac Semimetal: α-Sn on InSb(111).

    PubMed

    Xu, Cai-Zhi; Chan, Yang-Hao; Chen, Yige; Chen, Peng; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Dejoie, Catherine; Wong, Man-Hong; Hlevyack, Joseph Andrew; Ryu, Hyejin; Kee, Hae-Young; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Hussain, Zahid; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Chiang, Tai-Chang

    2017-04-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are rare but important as a versatile platform for exploring exotic electronic properties and topological phase transitions. A quintessential feature of TDSs is 3D Dirac fermions associated with bulk electronic states near the Fermi level. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have observed such bulk Dirac cones in epitaxially grown α-Sn films on InSb(111), the first such TDS system realized in an elemental form. First-principles calculations confirm that epitaxial strain is key to the formation of the TDS phase. A phase diagram is established that connects the 3D TDS phase through a singular point of a zero-gap semimetal phase to a topological insulator phase. The nature of the Dirac cone crosses over from 3D to 2D as the film thickness is reduced.

  11. Superconducting gap closing and Zero-bias peak in InSb nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Chen, Jun; Hocevar, Moïra; Plissard, Sébastien; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Frolov, Sergey

    In a 1D superconductor-nanowire-normal contact system, Majorana bound states are expected to appear after topological phase transition. Although there are many experiments reported possible zero-bias conductance peak from Majorana bound states, mapping out of the topological phase diagram is still missing.In our InSb nanowire hybrid devices, we observed possible superconducting gap closing and re-opening with magnetic field. These gap closings appear near conductance resonances which show some feature of 1D subband edges. Interestingly, zero-bias conductance peak appears inside the split regime of crossings at finite magnetic field. The magnetic field onset of the zero-bias peak can be tuned by gates underneath the superconductor, which may result from the changing of chemical potential.

  12. Quantized Conductance and Large g-Factor Anisotropy in InSb Quantum Point Contacts.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fanming; van Veen, Jasper; de Vries, Folkert K; Beukman, Arjan J A; Wimmer, Michael; Yi, Wei; Kiselev, Andrey A; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Sokolich, Marko; Manfra, Michael J; Nichele, Fabrizio; Marcus, Charles M; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2016-12-14

    Because of a strong spin-orbit interaction and a large Landé g-factor, InSb plays an important role in research on Majorana fermions. To further explore novel properties of Majorana fermions, hybrid devices based on quantum wells are conceived as an alternative approach to nanowires. In this work, we report a pronounced conductance quantization of quantum point contact devices in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells. Using a rotating magnetic field, we observe a large in-plane (|g1| = 26) and out-of-plane (|g1| = 52) g-factor anisotropy. Additionally, we investigate crossings of subbands with opposite spins and extract the electron effective mass from magnetic depopulation of one-dimensional subbands.

  13. Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump—terahertz probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Hebling, János; Hwang, Harold Y.; Yeh, Ka-Lo; Nelson, Keith A.

    2009-04-01

    Picosecond carrier dynamics in indium antimonide (InSb) following excitation by below band gap broadband far-infrared radiation was investigated at 200 and 80 K. Using a THz-pump/THz-probe scheme with pump THz fields of 100 kV/cm and an intensity of 100MW/cm2 , we observed carrier heating and impact ionization dynamics. The number of carriers produced exceeds 1016cm-3 , corresponding to a change in carrier density ΔN/N of 700% at 80 K. The onset of a well-defined absorption peak at 1.2 THz is an indication of changes in longitudinal optical (LO) and longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon populations due to cooling of the hot electrons.

  14. Elemental Topological Dirac Semimetal: α -Sn on InSb(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Cai-Zhi; Chan, Yang-Hao; Chen, Yige; ...

    2017-04-04

    Three-dimensional (3D) topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are rare but important as a versatile platform for exploring exotic electronic properties and topological phase transitions. A quintessential feature of TDSs is 3D Dirac fermions associated with bulk electronic states near the Fermi level. We have observed such bulk Dirac cones in epitaxially grown α-Sn films on InSb(111), the first such TDS system realized in an elemental form, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. First-principles calculations confirm that epitaxial strain is key to the formation of the TDS phase. A phase diagram is established that connects the 3D TDS phase through a singular point ofmore » a zero-gap semimetal phase to a topological insulator phase. The nature of the Dirac cone crosses over from 3D to 2D as the film thickness is reduced.« less

  15. Growth of semiconductor compound single crystal InSb by floating zone method (M-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, I.

    1993-01-01

    Floating zone methods have potential applications in growing single high-quality semi-conductor crystals. In this method, melts can be sustained without containers and, therefore, are free from contamination from the containers. The main objective of this project is to use the Image Furnace to study a large diameter, (20 mm) single crystal of InSb under microgravity conditions. The behavior of the liquid column is recorded on the VTR tapes and is compared with what is expected theoretically. The single crystal grown in space is characterized by comparing it with single crystals grown on the ground with respect to crystallographic and electronic properties. The goal of this project is to confirm the effects of the microgravity on the single crystals.

  16. Cleaning chemistry of InSb(100) molecular beam epitaxy substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Lewis, B. F.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    InSb has been used as a substrate for molecular beam epitaxy. For good epitaxial growth, a substrate surface which is smooth and clean on an atomic scale is required. Chemical cleaning procedures provide an oxide film to passivate the surface. This film is then desorbed by in situ heating. The material forming the film should, therefore, have a high vapor pressure at some temperature less than the substrate melting temperature. A chloride film appears to satisfy the latter requirement. The present investigation is, therefore, concerned with the formation of a chloride film rather than an oxide film. Carbon contamination has been found to cause problems in chemical cleaning procedures. The level of carbon contamination found in the case of chloride film formation, is therefore compared with the corresponding level observed in procedures using oxide films. It appears that a chloride film grown in connection with a short exposure time to a Cl2 plasma is preferable to other passivation films studied.

  17. Magnetotransport and magneto-optical properties of δ-doped InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, J.; Partin, D. L.; Morelli, D. T.; Thrush, C. M.; Karczewski, G.; Furdyna, J. K.

    1993-08-01

    Results of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH), cyclotron resonance (CR), and Hall-effect measurements on δ-doped InSb:Si films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on insulating InP substrates are reported. The investigation covers samples with sheet densities of Si dopant atoms ranging from 1×1011 to 1×1013 cm-2, temperatures from 4.2 to 300 K, and fields from 0 to 7 T. The SdH oscillations show that the samples contain electrons of two-dimensional nature, occupying multiple subbands. The effective masses obtained from the CR data correspond well to the subband occupation densities. The Hall measurements as well as the CR experiments also give evidence for the presence of additional electrons, with the conduction-band-edge mass m*=0.014m0 of bulk InSb, which exist presumably in the bulk of the films.

  18. Evaluation of electron mobility in InSb quantum wells by means of percentage-impact

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, T. D.; Edirisooriya, M.; Santos, M. B.

    2014-05-15

    In order to quantitatively analyze the contribution of each scattering factor toward the total carrier mobility, we use a new convenient figure-of-merit, named a percentage impact. The mobility limit due to a scattering factor, which is widely used to summarize a scattering analysis, has its own advantage. However, a mobility limit is not quite appropriate for the above purpose. A comprehensive understanding of the difference in contribution among many scattering factors toward the total carrier mobility can be obtained by evaluating percentage impacts of scattering factors, which can be straightforwardly calculated from their mobility limits and the total mobility. Our percentage impact analysis shows that threading dislocation is one of the dominant scattering factors for the electron transport in InSb quantum wells at room temperature.

  19. Development of InSb charge-coupled infrared imaging devices: Linear imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The following results were accomplished in the development of charge coupled infrared imaging devices: (1) a four-phase overlapping gate with 9 transfers (2-bits) and 1.0-mil gate lengths was successfully operated, (2) the measured transfer efficiency of 0.975 for this device is in excellent agreement with predictions for the reduced gate length device, (3) mask revisions of the channel stop metal on the 8582 mask have been carried out with the result being a large increase in the dc yield of the tested devices, (4) partial optical sensitivity to chopped blackbody radiation was observed for an 8582 9-bit imager, (5) analytical consideration of the modulation transfer function degradation caused by transfer inefficiency in the CCD registers was presented, and (6) for larger array lengths or for the insertion of isolated bits between sensors, improvements in InSb fabrication technology with corresponding decrease in the interface state density are required.

  20. Advanced InSb monolithic Charge Coupled Infrared Imaging Devices (CCIRID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Thom, R. D.; Parrish, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued development of monolithic InSb charge coupled infrared imaging devices (CCIRIDs) is discussed. The processing sequence and structural design of 20-element linear arrays are discussed. Also, results obtained from radiometric testing of the 20-element arrays using a clamped sample-and-hold output circuit are reported. The design and layout of a next-generation CCIRID chip are discussed. The major devices on this chip are a 20 by 16 time-delay-and-integration (TDI) area array and a 100-element linear imaging array. The development of a process for incorporating an ion implanted S(+) planar channel stop into the CCIRID structure and the development of a thin film transparent photogate are also addressed. The transparent photogates will increase quantum efficiency to greater than 70% across the 2.5 to 5.4 micrometer spectral region in future front-side illuminated CCIRIDs.

  1. Reducing noise from a Stirling micro cooler used with an InSb diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Nicolas R.; Ashley, Michael C. B.

    2014-07-01

    Stirling micro coolers, such as the K508 from Ricor, are useful components of scientific instruments when there is a need to remove modest amounts of heat (~1/2W) at liquid nitrogren temperatures with an input power of less than 10W. The action of the cooler can, however, couple noise into sensitive detectors through a variety of mechanisms such as electromagnetic interference, mechanical vibration, and small temperature fluctuations. We report on successful noise-mitigation strategies for our application, an InSb diode for detecting light at 2.4 microns. The largest benefit was obtained by sychronizing the integration times with the position of the piston in the micro cooler. The piston position was determined using a hall-effect rotor position sensor in the driving motor.

  2. Quantum coherence oscillations in InSb and InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. A.; Chen, Hong; Heremans, J. J.; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.

    2006-03-01

    Quantum oscillation phenomena in parallel arrays of loops have been investigated in InSb/AlInSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures, notable for their strong spin-orbit interaction. The arrays consist of parallel lines of hexagonal lattice cells, forming linear concatenations of loops. From the h/2e periodicity, the dominance of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations is deduced. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the oscillations enables the extraction of spin and phase coherence lengths in InSb and InAs. The spin coherence lengths show a weak drop with increasing temperature, akin to the mobility mean free path behavior, and consistent with a dominant Elliott-Yafet related spin relaxation mechanism in both heterostructures. The phase coherence lengths follow a power law without observed saturation at the lowest temperatures. NSF DMR-0094055 (JJH), DMR-0080054, DMR-0209371 (MBS).

  3. InSb linear multiplexed FPAs for the CRAF/Cassini visible and infrared mapping spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niblack, Curtiss; Blessinger, Michael; Forsthoefel, John; Staller, Craig; Sobel, Harold

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a review of a custom multiplexer circuit designed for use with a 256 element InSb linear array in the CRAF/Cassini VIMS instruments. The requirements, operation noise model and test results from a prototype 1 x 64 array are discussed. The infrared focal plane array (FPA) preliminary design and the impact of the new multiplexer on the instruments' predicted performance will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on the multiplexer that was designed for the CRAF/Cassini missions. The FPA assembly combines electronic and optical components into a single hermetically sealed hybrid package. The detector configuration is that of a linear dual-multiplexed indium antimonide array with 256 elements, each 103 x 200 on 123-micron centers.

  4. Mn doped InSb studied at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, S. J. C.; Bocquel, J.; Koenraad, P. M.; Feeser, C. E.; Parashar, N. D.; Wessels, B. W.

    2015-11-30

    We present an atomically resolved study of metal-organic vapor epitaxy grown Mn doped InSb. Both topographic and spectroscopic measurements have been performed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The measurements on the Mn doped InSb samples show a perfect crystal structure without any precipitates and reveal that Mn acts as a shallow acceptor. The Mn concentration of the order of ∼10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} obtained from the cross-sectional STM data compare well with the intended doping concentration. While the pair correlation function of the Mn atoms showed that their local distribution is uncorrelated beyond the STM resolution for observing individual dopants, disorder in the Mn ion location giving rise to percolation pathways is clearly noted. The amount of clustering that we see is thus as expected for a fully randomly disordered distribution of the Mn atoms and no enhanced clustering or second phase material was observed.

  5. Observation of Structural Anisotropy and the Onset of Liquidlike Motion During the Nonthermal Melting of InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, K.J.; Lindenberg, A.M.; Arthur, J.; Brennan, S.; Luening, K.; Hastings, J.B.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Blome, C.; Duesterer, S.; Ischebeck, R.; Schlarb, H.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Schneider, J.; Sheppard, J.; Wark, J.S.; Caleman, C.; Bergh, M.

    2005-09-16

    The melting dynamics of laser excited InSb have been studied with femtosecond x-ray diffraction. These measurements observe the delayed onset of diffusive atomic motion, signaling the appearance of liquidlike dynamics. They also demonstrate that the root-mean-squared displacement in the [111] direction increases faster than in the [110] direction after the first 500 fs. This structural anisotropy indicates that the initially generated fluid differs significantly from the equilibrium liquid.

  6. Observation of structural anisotropy and the onset of liquidlike motion during the nonthermal melting of InSb.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, K J; Lindenberg, A M; Larsson, J; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Blome, C; Synnergren, O; Sheppard, J; Caleman, C; MacPhee, A G; Weinstein, D; Lowney, D P; Allison, T; Matthews, T; Falcone, R W; Cavalieri, A L; Fritz, D M; Lee, S H; Bucksbaum, P H; Reis, D A; Rudati, J; Macrander, A T; Fuoss, P H; Kao, C C; Siddons, D P; Pahl, R; Moffat, K; Als-Nielsen, J; Duesterer, S; Ischebeck, R; Schlarb, H; Schulte-Schrepping, H; Schneider, J; von der Linde, D; Hignette, O; Sette, F; Chapman, H N; Lee, R W; Hansen, T N; Wark, J S; Bergh, M; Huldt, G; van der Spoel, D; Timneanu, N; Hajdu, J; Akre, R A; Bong, E; Krejcik, P; Arthur, J; Brennan, S; Luening, K; Hastings, J B

    2005-09-16

    The melting dynamics of laser excited InSb have been studied with femtosecond x-ray diffraction. These measurements observe the delayed onset of diffusive atomic motion, signaling the appearance of liquidlike dynamics. They also demonstrate that the root-mean-squared displacement in the [111] direction increases faster than in the [110] direction after the first 500 fs. This structural anisotropy indicates that the initially generated fluid differs significantly from the equilibrium liquid.

  7. Thin InSb layers with metallic gratings: a novel platform for spectrally-selective THz plasmonic sensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuai; Bhattarai, Khagendra; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Talbayev, Diyar

    2016-08-22

    We present a computational study of terahertz optical properties of a grating-coupled plasmonic structure based on micrometer-thin InSb layers. We find two strong absorption resonances that we interpret as standing surface plasmon modes and investigate their dispersion relations, dependence on InSb thickness, and the spatial distribution of the electric field. The observed surface plasmon modes are well described by a simple theory of the air/InSb/air tri-layer. The plasmonic response of the grating/InSb structure is highly sensitive to the dielectric environment and the presence of an analyte (e.g., lactose) at the InSb interface, which is promising for terahertz plasmonic sensor applications. We determine the sensor sensitivity to be 7200 nm per refractive index unit (or 0.06 THz per refractive index unit). The lower surface plasmon mode also exhibits a splitting when tuned in resonance with the vibrational mode of lactose at 1.37 THz. We propose that such interaction between surface plasmon and vibrational modes can be used as the basis for a new sensing modality that allows the detection of terahertz vibrational fingerprints of an analyte.

  8. High-performance metal/SiO2/InSb capacitor fabricated by photoenhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai Ping; Lee, Si-Chen; Liu, Kou-Chen; Pang, Yen-Ming; Yang, Sheng-Jehn

    1991-03-01

    The high performance AuCr/Si02/InSb metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor was fabricated successfully using photo-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The 1200 A thick Si02 layer was deposited on the InSb substrate at the temperature below 200 °C. Their electrical and structural properties were analyzed by capacitance-voltage and Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively. The capacitance-voltage results show that the optimal growth temperature of Si02 is 150 °C at which the fiat-band voltage of the capacitor is close to ideal and slow interface state density is less than 5 x 1O'° cm2. For Si02 deposited at lower temperature, although the flatband voltage and interface state are poorer, the subsequent thermal annealing at 150 °C for 12 hours improves both quantities to the level as the optimal condition. However, for Si02 deposited at higher temperature (190 °C), the flatband voltage shifts to -4 V and the slow state density increases to 1.1 x 1011 cm2. It is found from Auger depth profile that whatever the deposition temperature was a Si-rich region followed by an oxygen-rich region was formed at the 5i02/InSb interface. These observations are shown to be consistent with the electrical characteristics of the capacitor.

  9. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality InSb on InP and GaAs substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, J. E.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Chen, Y. C.; Tsukamoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of InSb were grown on InP and GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The dependence of the epilayer quality on flux ratio, J sub Sb4/J sub In, was studied. Deviation from an optimum value of J sub Sb4/J sub In (approx. 2) during growth led to deterioration in the surface morphology and the electrical and crystalline qualities of the films. Room temperature electron mobilities as high as 70,000 and 53,000 sq cm /V-s were measured in InSb layers grown on InP and GaAs substrates, respectively. Unlike the previous results, the conductivity in these films is n-type even at T = 13 K, and no degradation of the electron mobility due to the high density of dislocations was observed. The measured electron mobilities (and carrier concentrations) at 77 K in InSb layers grown on InP and GaAs substrates are 110,000 sq cm/V-s (3 x 10(15) cm(-3)) and 55,000 sq cm/V-s (4.95 x 10(15) cm(-3)), respectively, suggesting their application to electronic devices at cryogenic temperatures.

  10. Anomalous oscillations of the Josephson supercurrent in InSb nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geresdi, Attila; Szombati, Dániel B.; Cornelissen, Ludo J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires proximity coupled to superconducting leads provide an ideal experimental platform to investigate the Josephson effect in tunable ballistic channels in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling and large Landé g-factor. The interplay of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the intrinsic spin-orbit field may lead to an anomalous supercurrent which is a proposed signature of the coupling between two Majorana modes through the channel. Here we present our experimental studies of the Josephson supercurrent in InSb nanowires. Ohmic contacts to bulk superconductor NbTiN leads enable us to trace supercurrents up to B = 3 T magnetic field. The gate control over the channel allows us to investigate the amplitude of the critical current from the tunneling regime to a few transparent modes, where nonsinusoidal current-phase relationship (CPR) is expected, verified by the presence of fractional Shapiro steps under microwave irradiation. The evolution of the critical current with the external magnetic field is shown to exhibit non-monotonic behavior depending on the gate configuration, consistently with the theory of Josephson junctions hosting Majorana modes.

  11. Assessing the thermoelectric properties of single InSb nanowires: the role of thermal contact resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazji, S.; Swinkels, M. Y.; De Luca, M.; Hoffmann, E. A.; Ercolani, D.; Roddaro, S.; Abstreiter, G.; Sorba, L.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Zardo, I.

    2016-06-01

    The peculiar shape and dimensions of nanowires (NWs) have opened the way to their exploitation in thermoelectric applications. In general, the parameters entering into the thermoelectric figure of merit are strongly interdependent, which makes it difficult to realize an optimal thermoelectric material. In NWs, instead, the power factor can be increased and the thermal conductivity reduced, thus boosting the thermoelectric efficiency compared to bulk materials. However, the assessment of all the thermoelectric properties of a NW is experimentally very challenging. Here, we focus on InSb NWs, which have proved to be promising thermoelectric materials. The figure of merit is accurately determined by using a novel method based on a combination of Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Remarkably, this type of experiment provides a powerful approach allowing us to neglect the role played by thermal contact resistance. Furthermore, we compare the thermal conductivity determined by this novel method to the one determined on the same sample by the thermal bridge method. In this latter approach, the thermal contact resistance is a non-negligible parameter, especially in NWs with large diameters. We provide experimental evidence of the crucial role played by thermal contact resistance in the assessment of the thermal properties of nanostructures, using two different measurement methods of the thermal conductivity.

  12. State-resolved ultrafast dynamics of impact ionization in InSb

    PubMed Central

    Tanimura, H.; Kanasaki, J.; Tanimura, K.

    2014-01-01

    Impact ionization (IMP) is a fundamental process in semiconductors, which results in carrier multiplication through the decay of a hot electron into a low-energy state while generating an electron-hole pair. IMP is essentially a state selective process, which is triggered by electron-electron interaction involving four electronic states specified precisely by energy and momentum conservations. However, important state-selective features remain undetermined due to methodological limitations in identifying the energy and momentum of the states involved, at sufficient temporal resolution, to reveal the fundamental dynamics. Here we report state-resolved ultrafast hot electron dynamics of IMP in InSb, a semiconductor with the lowest band-gap energy. The ultrafast decay of state-resolved hot-electron populations and the corresponding population increase at the conduction band minimum are directly captured, and the rate of IMP is unambiguously determined. Our analysis, based on the direct knowledge of state-resolved hot electrons, provides far deeper insight into the physics of ultrafast electron correlation in semiconductors. PMID:25355408

  13. Growth of InSb and InI Crystals on Earth and in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Churilov, A.; Volz, M. P.; Riabov, V.; Van den Berg, L.

    2015-01-01

    During the past 40 years, dozens of semiconductor crystal growth experiments have been conducted in space laboratories. The subsequent analysis of the space-grown crystals revealed (i) that weak convection existed in virtually all melt-growth experiments, (ii) de-wetting significantly reduced the level of stress-induced defects, and (iii) particularly encouraging results were obtained in vapor-growth experiments. In 2002, following a decade of ground based research in growing doped Ge and GaSb crystals, a series of crystal growth experiments was performed at the ISS, within the SUBSA (Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules) investigation. Te- and Zn-doped InSb crystals were grown from the melt. The specially designed furnace provided a side-view of the melt and precise seeding measurement of the growth rate. At present, under sponsorship of CASIS (Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, www.iss-casis.org), we are conducting ground-based experiments with indium mono-iodide (InI) in preparation for the "SUBSA II" ISS investigation, planned for 2017. The experiments include: i) Horizontal Bridgman (HB) growth and ii) Vapor Transport (VT) growth. Finite element modeling will also be conducted, to optimize the design of the flight ampoules, for vapor and melt growth.

  14. Te-and Zn-Doped InSb Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Volz, M.; Bonner, W. A.; Duffar, T.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, within the SUBSA (Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules) investigation, seven doped InSb crystals were grown in microgravity at the International Space Station. The key goals of the SUBSA investigation are: (a) to clarify the origin of the melt convection in space laboratories; (b) to reduce melt convection to the level which allows reproducible diffusion-controlled segregation; (e) to explore the submerged baffle process and liquid encapsulation in microgravity. 30 crystal growth experiments were conducted in the ground unit, to optimize the design of flight ampoules and to test the transparent SUBSA furnace developed by TecMasters Inc. The specially designed furnace, allowed observation of the crystal growth process (melting, seeding, motion of the solid-liquid interface, etc.). In the summer of 2002, eight crystal growth experiments were conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility at the ISS. Four Te-doped (k = 0.5) and three Zn-doped (k2.9) crystals were grown on undoped seeds. In one experiment, we were not able to seed and grow. The seven grown crystals were sectioned and analyzed using SIMS. The design of the SUBSA ampoules, the segregation data and the video images obtained during the SUBSA flight experiments will be presented and discussed.

  15. Novel high fill-factor, small pitch, reticulated InSb IR FPA design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawe, R., Jr.; Martin, C.; Garter, M.; Endres, D.; Fischer, B.; Davis, M.; Devitt, J.; Greiner, M.

    2005-05-01

    The evolution of InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) at L-3 Communications Cincinnati Electronics (L-3 CE) has resulted in large format, high reliability, and high yields for 256x256, 640x512, 1Kx1K and even 2Kx2K formats using our patented front-side illuminated, reticulated pixel design. Baseline processes matured at 30um pitch and gradually were made producible at 25um pitch. Recent progress in process technology, specifically dry etch plasma processes and photolithography tools, has created a new set of processes/design capabilities which enable 15um pixel pitch FPAs, thus allowing us to develop a 15um pitch FPA with 4 times as many pixels, in the same foot print as the previous 30um pitch designs. We have developed a new 15um pitch, reticulated pixel design, implemented on a 512x512 format, which can then be sized into larger arrays, similar to the evolution that occurred on 30um pitch FPAs. As unit cell dimensions shrink by a factor of two, both the feature size and the alignment tolerances begin to limit optical fill factor. Addition of a novel micro-optic design, which optimizes signal collection to near 100% efficiency while maintaining near theoretical pixel MTF, will be presented.

  16. Wavelength-dependent absorption in structurally tailored randomly branched vertical arrays of InSb nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Asaduzzaman; Das, Suprem R; Khan, M Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A; Janes, David B

    2012-12-12

    Arrays of semiconductor nanowires are of potential interest for applications including photovoltaic devices and IR detectors/imagers. While nominally uniform arrays have typically been studied, arrays containing nanowires with multiple diameters and/or random distributions of diameters could allow tailoring of the photonic properties of the arrays. In this Letter, we demonstrate the growth and optical properties of randomly branched InSb nanowire arrays. The structure mentioned can be approximated as three vertically stacked regions, with average diameters of 20, 100, and 150 nm within the respective layers. Reflectance and transmittance measurements on structures with different average nanowire lengths have been performed over the wavelength range of 300-2000 nm, and absorbance has been calculated from these measurements. The structures show low reflectance over the visible and IR regions and wavelength-dependent absorbance in the IR region. A model considering the diameter-dependent photonic coupling (at a given wavelength) and random distribution of nanowire diameters within the regions has been developed. The diameter-dependent photonic coupling results in a roll-off in the absorbance spectra at wavelengths well below the bulk cutoff of ∼7 μm, and randomness is observed to broaden the absorbance response. Varying the average diameters would allow tailoring of the wavelength dependent absorption within various layers, which could be employed in photovoltaic devices or wavelength-dependent IR imagers.

  17. State-resolved ultrafast dynamics of impact ionization in InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, H.; Kanasaki, J.; Tanimura, K.

    2014-10-01

    Impact ionization (IMP) is a fundamental process in semiconductors, which results in carrier multiplication through the decay of a hot electron into a low-energy state while generating an electron-hole pair. IMP is essentially a state selective process, which is triggered by electron-electron interaction involving four electronic states specified precisely by energy and momentum conservations. However, important state-selective features remain undetermined due to methodological limitations in identifying the energy and momentum of the states involved, at sufficient temporal resolution, to reveal the fundamental dynamics. Here we report state-resolved ultrafast hot electron dynamics of IMP in InSb, a semiconductor with the lowest band-gap energy. The ultrafast decay of state-resolved hot-electron populations and the corresponding population increase at the conduction band minimum are directly captured, and the rate of IMP is unambiguously determined. Our analysis, based on the direct knowledge of state-resolved hot electrons, provides far deeper insight into the physics of ultrafast electron correlation in semiconductors.

  18. Te-and Zn-Doped InSb Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Volz, M.; Bonner, W. A.; Duffar, T.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, within the SUBSA (Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules) investigation, seven doped InSb crystals were grown in microgravity at the International Space Station. The key goals of the SUBSA investigation are: (a) to clarify the origin of the melt convection in space laboratories; (b) to reduce melt convection to the level which allows reproducible diffusion-controlled segregation; (e) to explore the submerged baffle process and liquid encapsulation in microgravity. 30 crystal growth experiments were conducted in the ground unit, to optimize the design of flight ampoules and to test the transparent SUBSA furnace developed by TecMasters Inc. The specially designed furnace, allowed observation of the crystal growth process (melting, seeding, motion of the solid-liquid interface, etc.). In the summer of 2002, eight crystal growth experiments were conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility at the ISS. Four Te-doped (k = 0.5) and three Zn-doped (k2.9) crystals were grown on undoped seeds. In one experiment, we were not able to seed and grow. The seven grown crystals were sectioned and analyzed using SIMS. The design of the SUBSA ampoules, the segregation data and the video images obtained during the SUBSA flight experiments will be presented and discussed.

  19. Gain and tuning characteristics of mid-infrared InSb quantum dot diode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; Hayton, J.; Yin, M.; Krier, A.

    2014-07-21

    There have been relatively few reports of lasing from InSb quantum dots (QDs). In this work, type II InSb/InAs QD laser diodes emitting in the mid-infrared at 3.1 μm have been demonstrated and characterized. The gain was determined to be 2.9 cm{sup −1} per QD layer, and the waveguide loss was ∼15 cm{sup −1} at 4 K. Spontaneous emission measurements below threshold revealed a blue shift of the peak wavelength with increasing current, indicating filling of ground state heavy hole levels in the QDs. The characteristic temperature, T{sub 0} = 101 K below 50 K, but decreased to 48 K at higher temperatures. The emission wavelength of these lasers showed first a blue shift followed by a red shift with increasing temperature. A hybrid structure was used to fabricate the laser by combining a liquid phase epitaxy grown p-InAs{sub 0.61}Sb{sub 0.13}P{sub 0.26} lower cladding layer and an upper n{sup +} InAs plasmon cladding layer which resulted in a maximum operating temperature (T{sub max}) of 120 K in pulsed mode, which is the highest reported to date.

  20. Structural and morphological features of ultrathin epitaxial InSb films in AlAs matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotovkina, D. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents results of the investigation of structural and morphological features of epitaxial InSb layers in the AlAs matrix. Our research group used transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specimens were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and prepared in the cross section (110) and plan view foils (100). We found a formation of the embedded epitaxial layer of solid solution InxAl1-xSbyAs1-y in the AlAs matrix during precipitation of In and Sb on the AlAs surface. The embedded layer had continuous area (wetting layer) and islands. The study revealed two types of islands in the epitaxial layer the first having coherent interfacing with the matrix lattice and the second a relaxed island. We estimated concentration of In, Sb in the solid solution by the indirect method. We used the method of geometric phase to analyze the distribution of misfit dislocation cores on the interface. Every misfit dislocation was formed by two close 600-dislocations with the Burgers vectors like a /2 <110>. The sum Burgers vector of the dislocation pair was in the plane of the interface.

  1. Effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb superlattice buffer layer on the structural and electronic properties of InSb films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Min; Cui, Lijie; Wang, Baoqiang; Zhu, Zhanping; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-07-01

    The effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb buffer layers on InSb thin films grown on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated. The crystal quality and the surface morphology of InSb are characterized by XRD and AFM. The carrier transport property is researched through variable temperature hall test. The sharp interface between InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb is demonstrated important for the high quality InSb thin film. We try different superlattice buffer layers by changing ratios, 2-0.5, thickness, 300-450 nm, and periods, 20-50. According to the function of the dislocation density to the absolute temperature below 150 K with different periods of SL buffers, we can find that the number of periods of superlattice is a major factor to decrease the density of threading dislocations. With the 50 periods SL buffer layer, the electron mobility of InSb at the room temperature and liquid nitrogen cooling temperature is ∼63,000 and ∼4600 cm2/V s, respectively. We deduce that the interface in the SL structure works as a filter layer to prevent the dislocation propagating to the upper InSb thin films.

  2. Electrical properties and thermal stability in stack structure of HfO2/Al2O3/InSb by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Baik, Min; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Kang, Yu-Seon; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; An, Youngseo; Choi, Seongheum; Kim, Hyoungsub; Song, Jin-Dong; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2017-09-12

    Changes in the electrical properties and thermal stability of HfO2 grown on Al2O3-passivated InSb by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated. The deposited HfO2 on InSb at a temperature of 200 °C was in an amorphous phase with low interfacial defect states. During post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 400 °C, In-Sb bonding was dissociated and diffusion through HfO2 occurred. The diffusion of indium atoms from the InSb substrate into the HfO2 increased during PDA at 400 °C. Most of the diffused atoms reacted with oxygen in the overall HfO2 layer, which degraded the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET). However, since a 1-nm-thick Al2O3 passivation layer on the InSb substrate effectively reduced the diffusion of indium atoms, we could significantly improve the thermal stability of the capacitor. In addition, we could dramatically reduce the gate leakage current by the Al2O3 passivation layer. Even if the border traps measured by C-V data were slightly larger than those of the as-grown sample without the passivation layer, the interface trap density was reduced by the Al2O3 passivation layer. As a result, the passivation layer effectively improved the thermal stability of the capacitor and reduced the interface trap density, compared with the sample without the passivation layer.

  3. Demonstrating 1 nm-oxide-equivalent-thickness HfO2/InSb structure with unpinning Fermi level and low gate leakage current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Hai-Dang; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Nguyen, Minh-Thuy; Nguyen, Hong-Quan; Duong, Quoc-Van; Luc, Quang-Ho; Wang, Shin-Yuan; Nguyen, Manh-Nghia; Yi Chang, Edward

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the band alignment, interface, and electrical characteristics of HfO2/InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structure have been investigated. By using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the conduction band offset of 1.78 ± 0.1 eV and valence band offset of 3.35 ± 0.1 eV have been extracted. The transmission electron microscopy analysis has shown that HfO2 layer would be a good diffusion barrier for InSb. As a result, 1 nm equivalent-oxide-thickness in the 4 nm HfO2/InSb structure has been demonstrated with unpinning Fermi level and low leakage current of 10-4 A/cm-2. The Dit value of smaller than 1012 eV-1cm-2 has been obtained using conduction method.

  4. Calculation of the electron spin relaxation times in InSb and InAs by the projection-reduction method

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Nam Lyong

    2014-12-07

    The electron spin relaxation times in a system of electrons interacting with piezoelectric phonons mediated through spin-orbit interactions were calculated using the formula derived from the projection-reduction method. The results showed that the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the relaxation times in InSb and InAs were similar. The piezoelectric material constants obtained by a comparison with the reported experimental result were P{sub pe}=4.0×10{sup 22} eV/m for InSb and P{sub pe}=1.2×10{sup 23} eV/m for InAs. The result also showed that the relaxation of the electron spin by the Elliot-Yafet process is more relevant for InSb than InAs at a low density.

  5. Interaction of Mn with GaAs and InSb: incorporation, surface reconstruction and nano-cluster formation.

    PubMed

    Burrows, C W; Hatfield, S A; Bastiman, F; Bell, G R

    2014-10-01

    The deposition of Mn on to reconstructed InSb and GaAs surfaces, without coincident As or Sb flux, has been studied by reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy. On both Ga- and As-terminated GaAs(0 0 1), (2 × n) Mn-induced reconstruction domains arise with n = 2 for the most well ordered reconstructions. On the Ga-terminated (4 × 6), the Mn-induced (2 × 2) persists up to around 0.5 ML Mn followed by Mn nano-cluster formation. For deposition on initially β2(2 × 4)-reconstructed GaAs(0 0 1), the characteristic trench structure of the reconstruction is partially preserved even beyond 1 monolayer Mn coverage. On both the β2(2 × 4) and c(4 × 4) surfaces, MnAs-like nano-clusters form alongside the reconstruction changes. In contrast, there are no new Mn-induced surface reconstructions on InSb. Instead, the Sb-terminated surfaces of InSb (0 0 1), (1 1 1)A and (1 1 1)B revert to reconstructions characteristic of clean In-rich surfaces after well defined coverages of Mn proportional to the Sb content of the starting reconstruction. These surfaces are decorated with self-assembled MnSb nanoclusters. These results are discussed in terms of basic thermodynamic quantities and the generalized electron counting rule.

  6. Dewetting and Segregation of Zn-Doped InSb in Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Duffar, T.; Volz, M.

    2009-01-01

    In directional solidification, dewetting is characterized by the lack of contact between the crystal and the crucible walls, due to the existence of a liquid meniscus at the level of the solid-liquid interface. This creates a gap of a few tens of micrometers between the crystal and the crucible. One of the immediate consequences of this phenomenon is the dramatic improvement of the quality of the crystal. This improvement is partly due to the modification of the solid-liquid interface curvature and partly to the absence of sticking and spurious nucleation at the crystal-crucible interface. Dewetting has been, commonly observed during the growth of semiconductors in crucibles under microgravity conditions where it appears to be very stable: the gap between the crystal and the crucible remains constant along several centimetres of growth. The physical models of the phenomenon are well established and they predict that dewetting should not occur in microgravity, if sufficient static pressure is imposed on the melt, pushing it towards the crucible. We present the results of InSb(Zn) solidification experiments conducted at the International Space Station (ISS) where, in spite of a spring exerting a pressure on the liquid, partial dewetting did occur. This surprising result is discussed in terms of force exerted .by the spring on the liquid and of possibility that the spring did not work properly. Furthermore, it appears that the segregation of the Zn was not affected by the occurrence of the dewetting. The data suggest that there was no significant interference of convection with segregation of Zn in InSb.

  7. Atomic structure of InSb(001) and GaAs(001) surfaces imaged with noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, J J; Such, B; Szymonski, M; Krok, F

    2003-06-06

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) has been used to study the c(8x2) InSb(001) and the c(8x2) GaAs(001) surfaces prepared by sputter cleaning and annealing. Atomically resolved tip-surface interaction maps display different characteristic patterns depending on the tip front atom type. It is shown that representative AFM maps can be interpreted consistently with the most recent structural model of A(III)B(V)(001) surface, as corresponding to the A(III) sublattice, to the B(V) sublattice, or to the combination of both sublattices.

  8. Electrical properties of InAs1-xSbx and InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelander, Claes; Caroff, Philippe; Plissard, Sébastien; Dick, Kimberly A.

    2012-06-01

    Results of electrical characterization of Au nucleated InAs1-xSbx nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. An almost doubling of the extracted field effect mobility compared to reference InAs nanowires is observed for a Sb content of x = 0.13. Pure InSb nanowires on the other hand show considerably lower, and strongly diameter dependent, mobility values. Finally, InAs of wurtzite crystal phase overgrown with an InAs1-xSbx shell is found to have a substantial positive shift in threshold voltage compared to reference nanowires.

  9. Frequency dependence of two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1-xCdxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A. M.; Pidgeon, C. R.; Dempsey, J.

    1980-07-01

    The frequency dependence of two-photon absorption is measured over a wide range in InSb and Hg0.78Cd0.22Te, showing good agreement with a nonparabolic-band perturbation calculation and wide divergence from "tunneling" theory. Associated photoconductivity measurements, required in the analysis, confirm that Auger scattering is the dominant process at room temperature in n-InSb, but at low temperatures have yielded a direct value of the lifetime of τ(77 K)=143 ns for radiative recombination.

  10. An investigation of the multicarrier transport properties of ?-doped InSb at high temperatures using a mobility spectrum technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaev, I. A.; Studenikin, S. A.; Tkachenko, V. A.; Tkachenko, O. A.; Heremans, J. P.; Partin, D. L.; Morelli, D. T.; Thrush, C. M.

    1996-12-01

    Transport properties of Si-0268-1242/11/12/016/img12-doped InSb grown by molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The mobility spectrum (MS) analysis made over a wide temperature range reveals three species of carriers: those associated with the bulk of the film, and electrons in quantized subbands in the 0268-1242/11/12/016/img12-layer. At low temperatures the MS data are consistent with self-consistent calculations and measurements of the Shubnikov - de Haas oscillations. The far-infrared cyclotron resonance lineshapes are well described by the Drude approximation using the obtained values of subband mobilities, concentrations and effective masses.

  11. Phonon modulation of the spin-orbit interaction as a spin relaxation mechanism in InSb quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Sanz, L.; Marques, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    We calculate the spin relaxation rates in a parabolic InSb quantum dots due to the spin interaction with acoustical phonons. We considered the deformation potential mechanism as the dominant electron-phonon coupling in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. By studying suitable choices of magnetic field and lateral dot size, we determine regions where the spin relaxation rates can be practically suppressed. We analyze the behavior of the spin relaxation rates as a function of an external magnetic field and mean quantum dot radius. Effects of the spin admixture due to Dresselhaus contribution to spin-orbit interaction are also discussed.

  12. 60 keV Ar⁺-ion induced modification of microstructural, compositional, and vibrational properties of InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, D. P.; Garg, S. K.; Som, T.; Satpati, B.; Kanjilal, A.; Dhara, S.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-10-14

    Room temperature irradiation of InSb(111) by 60 keV Ar⁺-ions at normal (0°) and oblique (60°) angles of incidence led to the formation of nanoporous structure in the high fluence regime of 1×10¹⁷ to 3×10¹⁸ ions cm⁻². While a porous layer comprising of a network of interconnected nanofibers was generated by normal ion incidence, evolution of plate-like structures was observed for obliquely incident ions. Systematic studies of composition and structure using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman mapping, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a high degree of oxidation of the ion-induced microstructures with the presence of In₂O₃ and Sb₂O₃ phases and presence of nanocrystallites within the nanoporous structures. The observed structural evolution was understood in terms of processes driven by ion-induced defect accumulation within InSb.

  13. Thermodynamic Assessment of the In-Ni-Sb System and Predictions for Thermally Stable Contacts to InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhanmin; Xie, Wei; Wang, Kunpeng; Du, Guangwei; Qiao, Zhiyu

    2013-08-01

    Thermodynamic assessment of the In-Ni-Sb ternary system has been performed using the CALPHAD technique. The phases ζ(Ni2In) and ζ(NiSb) with the same B8-type structure in the subbinary systems are modified using the same three-sublattice model: (Ni,Va)1/3(Ni,Va)1/3(Ni,X)1/3 (X = In, Sb), in order to give the continuous solid solution phase ζ in the In-Ni-Sb ternary system a better description. This modification is also made to the Gibbs free energy expression of the InSb phase. The parameters of the thermodynamic descriptions of the In-Ni-Sb ternary system are optimized on the basis of the three modified subbinary systems. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters of the In-Ni-Sb system is obtained according to five isothermal sections and three vertical sections. Most of the experimental data can be satisfactorily reproduced by the present parameters. The liquidus projection and the invariant reactions are also presented. By simply considering the standards of melting temperature and thermodynamic stability, part of the ζ-phase is more suitable as a contact material to InSb semiconductor.

  14. GROWTH OF In2O3 ON In METAL AND ON InSb BY THE ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaida, K.; Bouslama, M.; Ghaffour, M.; Besahraoui, F.; Chelahi-Chikr, Z.; Ouerdane, A.; Abdellaoui, A.; Gendry, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the development of indium oxide such as In2O3 on the III-V semiconductors shows successful technological applications as in the gas sensor field, the emission devices, the biotechnology, etc. The indium oxide In2O3 attracted considerable research due to many methods of its synthesis. In our study, we were interested in developing the indium oxide In2O3 on the In metal and InSb surfaces by electron beam stimulated oxidation. The formation of In2O3 on InSb was advantaged by a previous treatment due to the sputtering of the surface by the argon ions at low energy 300 eV with a current density 2 μA/cm2 followed by heating in UHV at 300°C. Our results were monitored by the analysis techniques including the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) well suited to study the surface with respect to physical structure and chemical composition.

  15. Electronic structures of [001]- and [111]-oriented InSb and GaSb free-standing nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Gaohua; Luo, Ning; Yang, Zhihu; Chen, Keqiu; Xu, H. Q. E-mail: hongqi.xu@ftf.lth.se

    2015-09-07

    We report on a theoretical study of the electronic structures of InSb and GaSb nanowires oriented along the [001] and [111] crystallographic directions. The nanowires are described by atomistic, tight-binding models, including spin-orbit interaction. The band structures and the wave functions of the nanowires are calculated by means of a Lanczos iteration algorithm. For the [001]-oriented InSb and GaSb nanowires, the systems with both square and rectangular cross sections are considered. Here, it is found that all the energy bands are doubly degenerate. Although the lowest conduction bands in these nanowires show good parabolic dispersions, the top valence bands show rich and complex structures. In particular, the topmost valence bands of the nanowires with a square cross section show a double maximum structure. In the nanowires with a rectangular cross section, this double maximum structure is suppressed, and the top valence bands gradually develop into parabolic bands as the aspect ratio of the cross section is increased. For the [111]-oriented InSb and GaSb nanowires, the systems with hexagonal cross sections are considered. It is found that all the bands at the Γ-point are again doubly degenerate. However, some of them will split into non-degenerate bands when the wave vector moves away from the Γ-point. Although the lowest conduction bands again show good parabolic dispersions, the topmost valence bands do not show the double maximum structure. Instead, they show a single maximum structure with its maximum at a wave vector slightly away from the Γ-point. The wave functions of the band states near the band gaps of the [001]- and [111]-oriented InSb and GaSb nanowires are also calculated and are presented in terms of probability distributions in the cross sections. It is found that although the probability distributions of the band states in the [001]-oriented nanowires with a rectangular cross section could be qualitatively described by one-band effective

  16. Anti-phase domain suppression and increased electron mobilities in InSb epilayers and quantum wells on off-axis Ge(211) and GeOI(001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Mukul C.; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Hossain, Khalid; Holland, Orin W.

    2011-03-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy of InSb epilayers and Si δ -doped InSb/ Al x In 1-x Sb quantum wells (QWs) on off-axis Ge(211) and Ge-On-Insulator (GeOI)-On-Si substrates. The high carrier mobilities in n -type InSb and p -type Ge QWs provide a motivation to integrate these structures on a single substrate for an improved CMOS technology. Growth on GeOI substrates may also make possible the integration of InSb infrared detectors with Si transistors. We evaluate the suppression of anti-phase domains (APDs) through analysis of Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) patterns obtained during growth on off-axis substrates. The narrowest X-ray rocking curve width is 100 arc sec for a 4.0- μ m-thick InSb epilayer. The highest room temperature electron mobilities of a 4.0- μ m-thick InSb epilayer and an InSb QW are 64,000 and 23,500 cm2 /V-s for growth on off-axis Ge(211) and GeOI(001) substrates, respectively. We attribute the single-domain RHEED patterns, reduced X-ray rocking curve widths, and increased electron mobilities to the suppression of APDs in the structures grown on off-axis Ge(211) and GeOI(001) substrates. This work was supported by OCAST and NSF Grant DMR-0520550.

  17. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of InSb/InAs nanostructures with InSb thickness in the above-monolayer range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firsov, D. D.; Komkov, O. S.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Kop'ev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of type-II InSb/InAs periodic nanostructures containing above-monolayer (ML)-thick InSb insertions, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, are studied by using an FTIR spectrometer in wide temperature range. The samples exhibit bright PL in the 3.5-5.5 μm range, which is attributed to recombination of holes localized in InSb with electrons accumulated nearby in the InAs matrix. An increase in the InSb nominal thickness from 1 ML to 1.6 ML results in an increase of the PL peak wavelength up to 5.5 μm (300 K), and significantly improves luminescence intensity at 300 K due to a twice larger energy of hole localization. The InSb/InAs nanostructures also demonstrate an anomalous ‘blue’ shift of the PL peak energy as the temperature increases in the 12-80 K range, which is attributed to the thermally induced population of localized states in the InSb insertions, emerging due to composition/thickness fluctuations. Sb segregation in the cap InAs barrier smooths the potential inhomogeneities in the insertions, which reduces the broadening parameter.

  18. Influence of Contact Angle, Growth Angle and Melt Surface Tension on Detached Solidification of InSb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yazhen; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

    2000-01-01

    We extended the previous analysis of detached solidification of InSb based on the moving meniscus model. We found that for steady detached solidification to occur in a sealed ampoule in zero gravity, it is necessary for the growth angle to exceed a critical value, the contact angle for the melt on the ampoule wall to exceed a critical value, and the melt-gas surface tension to be below a critical value. These critical values would depend on the material properties and the growth parameters. For the conditions examined here, the sum of the growth angle and the contact angle must exceed approximately 130, which is significantly less than required if both ends of the ampoule are open.

  19. Revealing the band structure of InSb nanowires by high-field magnetotransport in the quasiballistic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneau, Florian; Gül, Önder; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sebastien R.; Escoffier, Walter; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Duchemin, Ivan; Raquet, Bertrand; Goiran, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The charge transport properties of individual InSb nanowires based transistors are studied at 4.2 K in the quasiballistic regime. The energy level separations at zero magnetic field are extracted from a bias voltage spectroscopy. The magnetoconductance under a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the nanowire axis is investigated up to 50 T. Owing to the magnetic reduction of the backscattering, the electronic states of the quasi-one-dimensional electron gas are revealed by Landauer-Büttiker conductance quantization. The results are compared to theoretical predictions revealing the spin and orbital degeneracy lifting. At sufficiently high magnetic field the measurements show the evolution to the quantum Hall effect regime with the formation of Landau orbits and conducting edge states.

  20. InSb Nanowires with Built-In GaxIn1-xSb Tunnel Barriers for Majorana Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Diana; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Zhang, Hao; Op het Veld, Roy L. M.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Fadaly, Elham M. T.; Gül, Önder; Kölling, Sebastian; Plissard, Sebastien R.; Toresen, Vigdis; Wimmer, Michael T.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs), prime candidates for topological quantum bits, are detected as zero bias conductance peaks (ZBPs) in tunneling spectroscopy measurements. Implementation of a narrow and high tunnel barrier in the next generation of Majorana devices can help to achieve the theoretically predicted quantized height of the ZBP. We propose a material-oriented approach to engineer a sharp and narrow tunnel barrier by synthesizing a thin axial segment of GaxIn1-xSb within an InSb nanowire. By varying the precursor molar fraction and the growth time, we accurately control the composition and the length of the barriers. The height and the width of the GaxIn1-xSb tunnel barrier are extracted from the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB)-fits to the experimental I-V traces.

  1. InSb Nanowires with Built-In GaxIn1-xSb Tunnel Barriers for Majorana Devices.

    PubMed

    Car, Diana; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Zhang, Hao; Op Het Veld, Roy L M; de Moor, Michiel W A; Fadaly, Elham M T; Gül, Önder; Kölling, Sebastian; Plissard, Sebastien R; Toresen, Vigdis; Wimmer, Michael T; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2017-02-08

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs), prime candidates for topological quantum bits, are detected as zero bias conductance peaks (ZBPs) in tunneling spectroscopy measurements. Implementation of a narrow and high tunnel barrier in the next generation of Majorana devices can help to achieve the theoretically predicted quantized height of the ZBP. We propose a material-oriented approach to engineer a sharp and narrow tunnel barrier by synthesizing a thin axial segment of GaxIn1-xSb within an InSb nanowire. By varying the precursor molar fraction and the growth time, we accurately control the composition and the length of the barriers. The height and the width of the GaxIn1-xSb tunnel barrier are extracted from the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) fits to the experimental I-V traces.

  2. Cleaning chemistry of GaAs(100) and InSb(100) substrates for molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Lewis, B. F.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Ploog (1980) and Bachrach and Krusor (1981) have pointed out the importance of substrate preparation and surface cleaning for obtaining high quality films with the aid of molecular beam epitaxial growth techniques. In the present investigation, high resolution X-ray photoemission (XPS) is used to determine the oxide removal mechanism for GaAs(100) substrates which have undergone a standardized cleaning procedure. Other objectives of the investigation are related to a comparison of different cleaning procedures in order to minimize carbon contamination, the extension of these cleaning techniques to other III-V compound semiconductors such as InSb, and the evaluation of the sensitivity of the compositional results to electron-induced damage effects.

  3. Grating-coupled surface plasmons on InSb: a versatile platform for terahertz plasmonic sensing (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbayev, Diyar; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Lin, Shuai; Bhattarai, Khagendra

    2017-05-01

    Detection and identification of molecular materials based on their THz frequency vibrational resonances remains an open technological challenge. The need for such technology is illustrated by its potential uses in explosives detection (e.g., RDX) or identification of large biomolecules based on their THz-frequency vibrational fingerprints. The prevailing approaches to THz sensing often rely on a form of waveguide spectroscopy, either utilizing geometric waveguides, such as metallic parallel plate, or plasmonic waveguides made of structured metallic surfaces with sub-wavelength corrugation. The sensitivity of waveguide-based sensing devices is derived from the long (1 cm or longer) propagation and interaction distance of the THz wave with the analyte. We have demonstrated that thin InSb layers with metallic gratings can support high quality factor "true" surface plasmon (SP) resonances that can be used for THz plasmonic sensing. We find two strong SP absorption resonances in normal-incidence transmission and investigate their dispersion relations, dependence on InSb thickness, and the spatial distribution of the electric field. The sensitivity of this approach relies on the frequency shift of the SP resonance when the dielectric function changes in the immediate vicinity of the sensor, in the region of deeply sub-wavelength thickness. Our computational modeling indicates that the sensor sensitivity can exceed 0.25 THz per refractive index unit. One of the SP resonances also exhibits a splitting when tuned in resonance with a vibrational mode of an analyte, which could lead to new sensing modalities for the detection of THz vibrational features of the analyte.

  4. Observation of Structural Anisotropy and the Onset of Liquid-like Motion during the Non-thermal Melting of InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, K.J.; Lindenberg, A.M.; Larsson, J.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Blome, C.; Synnergren, O.; Sheppard, J.; Caleman, C.; MacPhee, A.G.; Weinstein, D.; Lowney, D.P.; Allison, T.K.; Matthews, T.; Falcone, R.W.; Cavalieri, A.L.; Dritz, D.M.; Lee, S.H.; Bucksbau, P.H.p a Reis, D.A.; Rudati, J.; Macrander, A.T.; Fuoss, P.H.; /Argonne /BNL, NSLS /Chicago U. /Bohr Inst. /DESY /Duisburg U. /ESRF, Grenoble /LLNL, Livermore /Lund Inst. Tech. /Oxford U. /Uppsala U. /SLAC /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-30

    The melting dynamics of laser excited InSb have been studied with femtosecond x-ray diffraction. These measurements observe the delayed onset of diffusive atomic motion, signaling the appearance of liquid-like dynamics. They also demonstrate that the root mean-squared displacement in the [111] direction increases faster than in the [110] direction after the first 500 fs. This structural anisotropy indicates that the initially generated fluid differs significantly from the equilibrium liquid.

  5. Terahertz polarization converter and one-way transmission based on double-layer magneto-plasmonics of magnetized InSb.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fei; Xu, Shi-Tong; Wang, Xiang-Hui; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

    2016-11-14

    In this work, we investigate the nonreciprocal circular dichroism for terahertz (THz) waves in magnetized InSb by the theoretical calculation and numerical simulation, which indicates that longitudinally magnetized InSb can be applied to the circular polarizer and nonreciprocal one-way transmission for the circular polarization THz waves. Furthermore, we propose a double-layer magnetoplasmonics based on the longitudinally magnetized InSb, and find two MO enhancement mechanisms in this device: the magneto surface plasmon resonance on the InSb-metal surface and Fabry-Pérot resonances between two orthogonal metallic gratings. These two resonance mechanisms enlarge the MO polarization rotation and greatly reduce the external magnetic field below 0.1T. The one-way transmission and perfect linear polarization conversion can be realized over 70dB, of which the transmittance can be modulated from 0 to 80% when the weak magnetic field changes from 0 to 0.1T under the low temperature around 200K. This magnetoplasmonic device has broad potential as a THz isolator, modulator, polarization convertor, and filter in the THz application systems.

  6. Demonstrating 1 nm-oxide-equivalent-thickness HfO{sub 2}/InSb structure with unpinning Fermi level and low gate leakage current density

    SciTech Connect

    Trinh, Hai-Dang; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Nguyen, Hong-Quan; Luc, Quang-Ho; Nguyen, Minh-Thuy; Duong, Quoc-Van; Nguyen, Manh-Nghia; Wang, Shin-Yuan; Yi Chang, Edward

    2013-09-30

    In this work, the band alignment, interface, and electrical characteristics of HfO{sub 2}/InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structure have been investigated. By using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the conduction band offset of 1.78 ± 0.1 eV and valence band offset of 3.35 ± 0.1 eV have been extracted. The transmission electron microscopy analysis has shown that HfO{sub 2} layer would be a good diffusion barrier for InSb. As a result, 1 nm equivalent-oxide-thickness in the 4 nm HfO{sub 2}/InSb structure has been demonstrated with unpinning Fermi level and low leakage current of 10{sup −4} A/cm{sup −2}. The D{sub it} value of smaller than 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1}cm{sup −2} has been obtained using conduction method.

  7. XPS study of interface formation of CVD SiO2 on InSb. [X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The interfacial chemistry of CVD SiO2 films deposited on thin native oxides grown on InSb substrates is examined using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and a relatively benign chemical etching technique for depth profiling. An intensity analysis of XPS spectra is used to derive the compositional structure of the interfaces obtained in the SiO2/native oxide/InSb system. Peak positions in these spectra are used to follow the change in substrate surface potential during the etch sequence, and to establish the chemical nature of the species formed during deposition and subsequent processing. Reaction of the substrate with oxygen resulted in an In-rich native oxide and 1-2 monolayers of excess elemental Sb at the native-oxide/substrate interface, incompletely oxidized silane reduced the native oxide, leaving less than 1 monolayer of elemental In at the SiO2/native oxide interface. Etch removal of this thin In-rich layer leads to a change in the substrate surface potential of 0.06 eV, corresponding to a net increase in positive charge. The results are consistent with simple thermodynamic considerations; they are also compared to previously reported studies of deposited dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductors.

  8. Reconstruction phase transition c(4×4) - (1×3) on the (001)InSb surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakarov, A.; Galitsyn, Yu.; Mansurov, V.; Zhuravlev, K.

    2017-01-01

    The (001) surface of InSb is the most common growth surface, forming a number of surface reconstructions depending on the both ratio of group III and V species presented on surface and substrate temperature. In the present work surface structures were studied using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The c(4×4)↔(1×3) reconstruction transition was investigated in details. The intensity of fractional spots of c(4×4) structure was measured during the variation of antimony flux at different substrate temperatures. At the substrate temperatures of T<400 °C, hysteresis loop of fractional spot intensity appeared during the forward and reverse Sb flux variation, testifying that c(4×4)↔(1×3) transition is discontinuous first order phase transition. At the temperatures T>400 °C, hysteresis loop was not observed, that corresponds to continuous phase transition. It was shown that phase transition is analogous to the van der Waals transition. We developed a model to describe c(4×4)↔(1×3) transition in the framework of the lattice gas approximation. This model takes into account the complex nature of indirect interactions that result in the effective attraction between lattice gas cells forming surface reconstruction. The calculated surface state isotherms are in a good agreement with the experimental isotherms.

  9. CdTe nBn photodetectors with ZnTe barrier layer grown on InSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhao-Yu; Campbell, Calli M.; Lassise, Maxwell B.; Lin, Zhi-Yuan; Becker, Jacob J.; Zhao, Yuan; Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2016-09-01

    We have demonstrated an 820 nm cutoff CdTe nBn photodetector with ZnTe barrier layer grown on an InSb substrate. At room temperature, under a bias of -0.1 V, the photodetector shows Johnson and shot noise limited specific detectivity (D*) of 3 × 1013 cm Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 800 nm and 2 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W at 200 nm. The D* is optimized by using a top contact design of ITO/undoped-CdTe. This device not only possesses nBn advantageous characteristics, such as generation-recombination dark current suppression and voltage-bias-addressed two-color photodetection, but also offers features including responsivity enhancements by deep-depletion and by using a heterostructure ZnTe barrier layer. In addition, this device provides a platform to study nBn device physics at room temperature, which will help us to understand more sophisticated properties of infrared nBn photodetectors that may possess a large band-to-band tunneling current at a high voltage bias, because this current is greatly suppressed in the large-bandgap CdTe nBn photodetector.

  10. ASTROCAM: offner re-imaging 1024 X 1024 InSb camera for near-infrared astrometry on the USNO 1.55-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Vrba, Frederick J.; Toomey, Douglas W.; Lucke, Bob L.; Wang, Shu-i.; Henden, Arne A.; Robichaud, Joseph L.; Onaka, Peter M.; Hicks, Brian; Harris, Frederick H.; Stahlberger, Werner E.; Kosakowski, Kris E.; Dudley, Charles C.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2003-03-01

    In order to extend the US Naval Observatory (USNO) small-angle astrometric capabilities to near infrared wavelengths we have designed and manufactured a 1024 x 1024 InSb re-imaging infrared camera equipped with an array selected from the InSb ALADDIN (Advanced Large Area Detector Development in InSb) development program and broadband and narrowband 0.8 - 3.8 μm filters. Since the USNO 1.55-m telescope is optimized for observations at visible wavelengths with an oversized secondary mirror and sky baffles, the straylight rejection capabilities of the ASTROCAM Lyot stop and baffles are of critical importance for its sensitivity and flat- fielding capabilities. An Offner relay was chosen for the heart of the system and was manufactured from the same melt of aluminum alloy to ensure homologous contraction from room temperature to 77 K. A blackened cone was installed behind the undersized hole (the Lyot stop) in the Offner secondary. With low distortion, a well-sampled point spread function, and a large field of view, the system is well suited for astrometry. It is telecentric, so any defocus will not result in a change of image scale. The DSP-based electronics allow readout of the entire array with double-correlated sampling in 0.19 seconds, but shorter readout is possible with single sampling or by reading out only small numbers of subarrays. In this paper we report on the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the system and present images and results on the sensitivity and astrometric stability obtained with the system, now operating routinely at the 1.55-m telescope with a science-grade ALADDIN array.

  11. Interface and facet control during Czochralski growth of (111) InSb crystals for cost reduction and yield improvement of IR focal plane array substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Nathan W.; Perez-Rubio, Victor; Bolke, Joseph G.; Alexander, W. B.

    2014-10-01

    Focal plane arrays (FPAs) made on InSb wafers are the key cost-driving component in IR imaging systems. The electronic and crystallographic properties of the wafer directly determine the imaging device performance. The "facet effect" describes the non-uniform electronic properties of crystals resulting from anisotropic dopant segregation during bulk growth. When the segregation coefficient of dopant impurities changes notably across the melt/solid interface of a growing crystal the result is non-uniform electronic properties across wafers made from these crystals. The effect is more pronounced in InSb crystals grown on the (111) axis compared with other orientations and crystal systems. FPA devices made on these wafers suffer costly yield hits due to inconsistent device response and performance. Historically, InSb crystal growers have grown approximately 9-19 degree off-axis from the (111) to avoid the facet effect and produced wafers with improved uniformity of electronic properties. It has been shown by researchers in the 1960s that control of the facet effect can produce uniform small diameter crystals. In this paper, we share results employing a process that controls the facet effect when growing large diameter crystals from which 4, 5, and 6" wafers can be manufactured. The process change resulted in an increase in wafers yielded per crystal by several times, all with high crystal quality and uniform electronic properties. Since the crystals are grown on the (111) axis, manufacturing (111) oriented wafers is straightforward with standard semiconductor equipment and processes common to the high-volume silicon wafer industry. These benefits result in significant manufacturing cost savings and increased value to our customers.

  12. Bi and InSb Nano-Hall Probes for direct magnetic imaging with Room Temperature Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy(RT-SHPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ahmet; Dede, Munir; Sandhu, Adarsh; Masuda, Hiroshi; Bending, Simon J.

    2002-03-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM)[1] is a quantitative and non-invasive technique to image magnetic samples with high spatial and magnetic field resolution: ~ 120nm & 60mG/Hz^1/2 at room temperature. A nano-Hall probe is scanned over the sample surface to measure the surface magnetic fields using conventional scanning tunneling microscopy-positioning techniques. We have developed new down to ~120x120nm size Bi and InSb Hall probes machined FIB milling. 120nm Bi sensors[2] have a sensitivity of 3.3x10-4 Ω/G and a noise level of 7.2 G/Hz^1/2 . The new InSb sensors have a sensitivity of 0.03 Ω/G and a noise level of 8 mG/Hz^1/2 at room temperature. This corresponds to ×8 better noise performance compared to conventional GaAs, based sensors used in RT-SHPM. We used these new sensors to study magnetic domain structures of crystalline garnet films and Ni_80Fe_20 rectangular permalloy microstructures microfabricated by lift-off technique. Bi and InSb nano-Hall probes are shown to be high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and low noise alternatives to GaAs sensors for RT-SHPM. There seems to be more room for improving the spatial resolution down to <50nm and the noise of Hall probes to 1mG/Hz^1/2 at room temperature. [1] A. Oral et. al. Appl. Phys. Lett., 69, 1324 (1996), A. Sandhu et. al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(5B), L524 (2001) [2] A. Sandhu, H. Masuda, K. Kurosawa K, A. Oral and S.J. Bending, Electronics Letters 37 (22), 1335-1336 (2001).

  13. Ultrafast scattering processes of hot electrons in InSb studied by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, H.; Kanasaki, J.; Tanimura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast scattering processes of hot electrons photoinjected into the conduction band of InSb have been studied using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The nascent distributions of hot-electron packets are captured directly in energy and momentum spaces, and their ultrafast scattering processes are traced at femtosecond temporal resolution on a state-resolved basis. Hot electrons injected in the Γ valley with excess energies above the minimum of the L valley show ultrafast intervalley scattering, with transition times of the order of 40 fs. The relaxation processes in the L valley are resolved in energy and momentum spaces, including their backscattering into the Γ valley during relaxation. In contrast, relaxation of hot electrons with excess energy below the minimum of the L valley is governed by the direct impact ionization (IMP). We reveal state-selective features of the IMP process, and we have determined the direct IMP rate to be 7 ×1012s-1 for hot electrons with excess energy in the range of 0.35 to 0.6 eV. The direct IMP process results in a rapid increase, within 300 fs after excitation, of the electron density at the conduction band minimum (CBM), and phonon-assisted IMP by hot electrons scattered in the L valley and those backscattered into the Γ valley persistently enhances the electron density up to 8 ps after excitation. By analyzing correlations between the IMP rates of hot electrons and the electron densities near the CBM, an important role of a transient Auger recombination is proposed to quantify the yield of low-energy electrons generated in the IMP process.

  14. A Study of the Irradiance- and Temperature-Dependence of Mid-Wave-Infrared (MWIR) Absorption in Indium Antimonide (InSb)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    developed utilizing LabView 8.5. The transmission of the InSb sample was measured at different laser powers and temperatures. As the temperature...the focal point. Noting the enormous amount of irradiance generated by a small amount of laser power when focused from when not being focused...Figure 1.2-1). A land object may emit an irradiance on a detector 3 system of 10 pW/cm 2 , where a laser can easily generate an irradiance of 1 mW

  15. Detailed investigation of InSb p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor prepared by photo-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Biing-Der; Lee, Si-Chen; Sun, Tai-Ping; Yang, Sheng-Jenn

    1995-05-01

    The InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with three different channel lengths 5, 15, and 30 micron were fabricated successfully. The SiO2 prepared by photo-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used both as the gate insulator and the source/drain passivation layer to reduce the source/drain pn junction surface leakage current. The common-source current-voltage characteristics show a breakdown voltage exceeding 2 V indicating an excellent pn junction reverse characteristics. The capacitance-voltage and the transferred current versus gate voltage characteristics are discussed in detail to explain the geometry effect on the device performance.

  16. The origin of instability in metal/SiO2/InSb capacitor fabricated by photo-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lee, Si-Chen; Yang, Sheng-Jenn

    1989-10-01

    The AuCr/SiO2/InSb MOS capacitor was fabricated using photoenhanced CVD. The electrical and structural properties were analyzed by capacitance-voltage and AES, respectively. The high-frequency (1 MHz) capacitance-voltage measurements were usually performed after positive or negative bias-temperature stressing. Both the flat-band voltage shift and the change of hysteresis of capacitance-voltage curve indicate the existence of enormous negative mobile charges in the bulk SiO2. Auger depth profile reveals that these negative mobile charges are metallic indium and antimony ions.

  17. The electronic structure and half-metallic properties of zincblende TiBi (001) surfaces and TiBi(001)/InSb(001) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, N.; Ahmadian, F.; Baghoolizadeh, F.

    2016-12-01

    First principles calculations were performed using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT) to study bulk TiBi in rock salt (RS), hexagonal NiAs, and zincblende (ZB) structures, free (001) surfaces of ZB TiBi, and interface of ZB TiBi with InSb(001). The nonmagnetic NiAs structure was ground state structure of bulk TiBi and nonmagnetic RS and ferromagnetic ZB structures were introduced as metastable structures. It was found that ZB TiBi is a half-metallic (HM) ferromagnet with a minority band gap of about 1.43 eV. The origin of half-metallicity was also discussed. The obtained phase diagram showed more stability of the Bi (001) terminated surface compared with the Ti (001) termination. The Ti (001) termination keeps HM property, while half-metallicity was destroyed at Bi (001) termination. The ZB TiBi/InSb (001) interface revealed HM property showing that InSb semiconductor is a suitable substrate for growing ZB TiBi in spintronics.

  18. Drifts exhibited by cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors and their importance to the ATSR-2 and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-07-10

    The spectral responsivity of commercially available InSb detectors with low-pass cold filters attached to their cold shields for optimum operation in the 1.6-2.6 microm wavelength range is observed to drift slowly with time. These drifts are shown to arise because of a thin film of water-ice deposited on the cold low-pass filters mounted on the cold shields of the detectors. The temporal characteristics of these drifts are shown to strongly depend on wavelength. A model is proposed for the behavior of the water present in the Dewar vacuum, which can explain and predict the temporal characteristics of the observed drifts for all wavelengths. These observations are particularly relevant to space instruments that use cryogenically cooled IR filter radiometers for Earth observation. The temporal profile of drifts observed in missions such as Landsat-5 is identical to that observed in cryogenically cooled filtered InSb detectors during laboratory measurements. This study confirms that the deposition of a thin film of a material such as ice on the cold bandpass filters and windows is therefore the most likely source of the oscillatory drifts observed in the response of some of the channels of the ATSR-2, Landsat-4, and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions.

  19. Oxidized crystalline (3 × 1)-O surface phases of InAs and InSb studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tuominen, M. E-mail: pekka.laukkanen@utu.fi; Lång, J.; Dahl, J.; Yasir, M.; Mäkelä, J.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Laukkanen, P. E-mail: pekka.laukkanen@utu.fi; Kokko, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Osiecki, J. R.; Schulte, K.

    2015-01-05

    The pre-oxidized crystalline (3×1)-O structure of InAs(100) has been recently found to significantly improve insulator/InAs junctions for devices, but the atomic structure and formation of this useful oxide layer are not well understood. We report high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of (3×1)-O on InAs(100) and InSb(100). The findings reveal that the atomic structure of (3×1)-O consists of In atoms with unexpected negative (between −0.64 and −0.47 eV) and only moderate positive (In{sub 2}O type) core-level shifts; highly oxidized group-V sites; and four different oxygen sites. These fingerprint shifts are compared to those of previously studied oxides of III-V to elucidate oxidation processes.

  20. Growth, steady-state, and time-resolved photoluminescence study of CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures on InSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    DiNezza, Michael J.; Liu, Shi; Kirk, Alexander P.; Zhang, Yong-Hang; Zhao, Xin-Hao

    2013-11-04

    CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DHs) are grown on InSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy and reveal strong photoluminescence with over double the intensity of a GaAs/AlGaAs DH with an identical layer structure design grown on GaAs. Time-resolved photoluminescence of the CdTe/MgCdTe DH gives a Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime of 86 ns, which is more than one order of magnitude longer than that of typical polycrystalline CdTe films. These findings indicate that monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe DHs effectively reduce surface recombination, have limited nonradiative interface recombination, and are promising for solar cells that could reach power conversion efficiencies similar to that of GaAs.

  1. Influence of the carrier mobility distribution on the Hall and the Nernst effect measurements in n-type InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.; Khodaparast, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report magneto-resistance measurements on an n-doped InSb film, to separate the contributions of the electrical currents from the heat currents. We have demonstrated a prototype for a magnetic field sensor which is powered by heat currents and does not require any electrical current. We fabricated two Hall bars, where a low frequency (f = 0.05 Hz) AC current, was applied between the two contacts in one of the Hall bars. Separating the f and 2f components of the voltage measured across the second Hall bar was used to distinguish between the electrical and the heat contributions to the electron currents. Our observations can be modeled using a Gaussian distribution of mobility within the sample.

  2. Influence of the carrier mobility distribution on the Hall and the Nernst effect measurements in n-type InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.; Khodaparast, G. A.

    2016-01-14

    In this study, we report magneto-resistance measurements on an n-doped InSb film, to separate the contributions of the electrical currents from the heat currents. We have demonstrated a prototype for a magnetic field sensor which is powered by heat currents and does not require any electrical current. We fabricated two Hall bars, where a low frequency (f = 0.05 Hz) AC current, was applied between the two contacts in one of the Hall bars. Separating the f and 2f components of the voltage measured across the second Hall bar was used to distinguish between the electrical and the heat contributions to the electron currents. Our observations can be modeled using a Gaussian distribution of mobility within the sample.

  3. Strained band edge characteristics from hybrid density functional theory and empirical pseudopotentials: GaAs, GaSb, InAs and InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakan, Aslı; Sevik, Cem; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2016-03-01

    The properties of a semiconductor are drastically modified when the crystal point group symmetry is broken under an arbitrary strain. We investigate the family of semiconductors consisting of GaAs, GaSb, InAs and InSb, considering their electronic band structure and deformation potentials subject to various strains based on hybrid density functional theory. Guided by these first-principles results, we develop strain-compliant local pseudopotentials for use in the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM). We demonstrate that the newly proposed empirical pseudopotentials perform well close to band edges and under anisotropic crystal deformations. Using the EPM, we explore the heavy hole-light hole mixing characteristics under different stress directions, which may be useful in manipulating their transport properties and optical selection rules. The very low 5 Ry cutoff targeted in the generated pseudopotentials paves the way for large-scale EPM-based electronic structure computations involving these lattice mismatched constituents.

  4. Influence of the exchange and correlation functional on the structure of amorphous InSb and In3SbTe2 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabardi, Silvia; Caravati, Sebastiano; Los, Jan H.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Bernasconi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of the amorphous phase of InSb and In3SbTe2 compounds of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. Models of the amorphous phase have been generated by quenching from the melt by molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory. In particular, we have studied the dependence of the structural properties on the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. It turns out that the use of the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional provides models with a much larger fraction of In atoms in a tetrahedral bonding geometry with respect to previous results obtained with the most commonly used Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof functional. This outcome is at odd with the properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change compound for which the two exchange-correlation functionals yield very similar results on the structure of the amorphous phase.

  5. High resolution 1280×1024, 15 μm pitch compact InSb IR detector with on-chip ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, O.; Pivnik, I.; Ilan, E.; Calalhorra, Z.; Koifman, A.; Vaserman, I.; Oiknine Schlesinger, J.; Gazit, R.; Hirsh, I.

    2009-05-01

    Over the last decade, SCD has developed and manufactured high quality InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which are currently used in many applications worldwide. SCD's production line includes many different types of InSb FPA with formats of 320x256, 480x384 and 640x512 elements and with pitch sizes in the range of 15 to 30 μm. All these FPAs are available in various packaging configurations, including fully integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assemblies (DDCA) with either closed-cycle Sterling or open-loop Joule-Thomson coolers. With an increasing need for higher resolution, SCD has recently developed a new large format 2-D InSb detector with 1280x1024 elements and a pixel size of 15μm. The InSb 15μm pixel technology has already been proven at SCD with the "Pelican" detector (640x512 elements), which was introduced at the Orlando conference in 2006. A new signal processor was developed at SCD for use in this mega-pixel detector. This Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) is designed for, and manufactured with, 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The migration from 0.5 to 0.18 μm CMOS technology supports SCD's roadmap for the reduction of pixel size and power consumption and is in line with the increasing demand for improved performance and on-chip functionality. Consequently, the new ROIC maintains the same level of performance and functionality with a 15 μm pitch, as exists in our 20 μm-pitch ROICs based on 0.5μm CMOS technology. Similar to Sebastian (SCD ROIC with A/D on chip), this signal processor also includes A/D converters on the chip and demonstrates the same level of performance, but with reduced power consumption. The pixel readout rate has been increased up to 160 MHz in order to support a high frame rate, resulting in 120 Hz operation with a window of 1024×1024 elements at ~130 mW. These A/D converters on chip save the need for using 16 A/D channels on board (in the case of an analog ROIC) which would operate at 10 MHz and consume about 8Watts A Dewar has been

  6. Structural and electrical properties of high-quality 0.41 μm-thick InSb films grown on GaAs (1 0 0) substrate with In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}Sb continuously graded buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Sang Hoon; Song, Jin Dong; Lim, Ju Young; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Geun

    2012-10-15

    High-quality InSb was grown on a GaAs (1 0 0) substrate with an InAlSb continuously graded buffer (CGB). The temperatures of In, Al K-cells and substrate were modified during the growth of InAlSb CGB. The cross-section TEM image reveals that the defects due to lattice-mismatch disappear near lateral structures in CGB. The measured electron mobility of 0.41 μm-thick InSb was 46,300 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 300 K. These data surpass the electron mobility of state-of-the-art InSb grown by other methods with similar thickness of InSb.

  7. Surface morphologies and electrical properties of molecular beam epitaxial InSb and InAs(x)Sb(1-x) grown on GaAs and InP substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, J. E.; Chen, Y. C.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Tsukamoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    Surface morphologies and electrical properties of molecular beam epitaxial InSb and InAs(x)Sb(1-x) grown on GaAs and InP substrates are discussed. The crystals are all n-type at 300 K and lower temperatures. The surface morphology and electrical characteristics are strongly dependent on Sb(4)/In flux ratio and substrate temperature. The highest mobilities in InSb on InP are 70,000 at 300 K and 110,000 cm(2)/V.s (n=3x10(15) cm(-3)) at 77 K. The mobilities in the alloys also increase monotonically with lowering of temperature. Good quality InAs(x)Sb(1-x) was grown directly on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy.

  8. Enhanced ZT of InxCo4Sb12-InSb Nanocomposites Fabricated by Hydrothermal Synthesis Combined with Solid-Vapor Reaction: A Signature of Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Materials.

    PubMed

    Gharleghi, Ahmad; Hung, Peng-Chun; Lin, Fei-Hung; Liu, Chia-Jyi

    2016-12-28

    A rapid route of synthesizing pristine Co4Sb12 at relatively low temperature was previously developed. However, filling the voids using the same procedure is not successful. We develop a new route to fabricate In-filled cobalt skutterudites with InSb nanoinclusions InxCo4Sb12-(InSb)y via solid-vapor reaction between hydrothermally synthesized Co4Sb12 powder and the indium chunk. The nanocomposites are characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With the success of partial filling of In into the voids and InSb nanoinclusions, the power factor of the InxCo4Sb12-(InSb)y nanocomposites is significantly enhanced, and the thermal conductivity is lowered as compared with the pristine Co4Sb12. As a result, ZT with its highest value of 1.0 is attained for the hierarchical structured In0.04Co4Sb12-(InSb)0.05 nanocomposite at 575 K. The attained ZT value is among the highest ever reported value at T ≤ 575 K for In-filled cobalt skutterudites.

  9. STUDY BY AES AND EELS OF InP, InSb, InPO4 AND InxGa1-xAs SUBMITTED TO ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffour, M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Bouslama, M.; Ouerdane, A.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2012-02-01

    The surface of materials plays an important role in their technological applications. In the interest to study the stability of materials and their behavior, we irradiate them by the electrons by using the electron spectroscopy such as the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). These methods have proved their good sensitivity to study material surfaces. In this paper, we give some results about the effect of the electron beam irradiating the compounds InP, InSb, InPO4 and InxGa1-xAs. The III-V semiconductors InP and InSb seem to be sensitive to the electron irradiation. This breaks the chemical bonds between the element III and V which leads to an oxidation process at the surface. The AES and EELS spectroscopy are also used to characterize the oxide InPO4 whose thickness is about 10 Å grown on the substrate InP(100). The irradiation of the system InPO4/InP(100) by the electron beam of 5 keV energy leads to a structural change of the surface, so that there is breaking of chemical bonds between indium and phosphorus (In-P) and formation of new oxide other than InPO4. In this study we show an important result concerning the effect of the electron beam on the compound InxGa1-xAs by varying the parameter x to obtain In0.2Ga0.8As and In0.53Ga0.47As. It appears that the electron beam affects In0.2Ga0.8As too much in comparison with In0.53Ga0.47As. In the case of the irradiation of In0.2Ga0.8As, there is breaking of chemical bonds between indium and GaAs leading to formation of indium oxide associated to GaAs.

  10. Ferromagnets based on diamond-like semiconductors GaSb, InSb, Ge, and Si supersaturated with manganese or iron impurities during laser-plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, E. S.; Podol'skii, V. V.; Lesnikov, V. P.; Sapozhnikov, M. V.; Druzhnov, D. M.; Gusev, S. N.; Gribkov, B. A.; Filatov, D. O.; Stepanova, Yu. S.; Levchuk, S. A.

    2008-01-15

    Properties of thin (30-100 nm) layers of diluted magnetic semiconductors based on diamond-like compounds III-V (InSb and GaSb) and elemental semiconductors Ge and Si doped with 3d impurities of manganese and iron up to 15% were measured and discussed. The layers were grown by laser-plasma deposition onto heated single-crystal gallium arsenide or sapphire substrates. The ferromagnetism of layers with the Curie temperature up to 500 K appeared in observations of the ferromagnetic resonance, anomalous Hall effect, and magneto-optic Kerr effect. The carrier mobility of diluted magnetic semiconductors is a hundred times larger than that of the previously known highest temperature magnetic semiconductors, i.e., copper and chromium chalcogenides. The difference between changes in the magnetization with temperature in diluted semiconductors based on III-V, Ge, and Si was discussed. A complex structure of the ferromagnetic resonance spectrum in Si:Mn/GaAs was observed. The results of magnetic-force microscopy showed a weak correlation between the surface relief and magnetic inhomogeneity, which suggests that the ferromagnetism is caused by the 3d-impurity solid solution, rather than ferromagnetic phase inclusions.

  11. Unveiling and controlling the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor surfaces: Crystalline oxidized InSb(100)(1 Ã-- 2)-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lâng, J. J. K.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Tuominen, M.; Hedman, H.-P.; Vähä-Heikkilä, M.; Polojärvi, V.; Salmi, J.; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Schulte, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Punkkinen, R.; Laukkanen, P.; Guina, M.; Kokko, K.

    2014-07-01

    The exothermic nature of oxidation causes nearly all semiconductor applications in various fields like electronics, medicine, photonics, and sensor technology to acquire an oxidized semiconductor surface part during the application manufacturing. The significance of understanding and controlling the atomic scale properties of oxidized semiconductor surfaces is expected to increase even further with the development of nanoscale semiconductor crystals. The nature of oxidized semiconductor layers is, however, hard to predict and characterize as they are usually buried and amorphous. To shed light on these issues, we pursue a different approach based on oxidized III-V semiconductor layers that are crystalline. We present a comprehensive characterization of oxidized crystalline InSb(100)(1×2)-O layers by ab initio calculations, photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and spectroscopy, and demonstrate the electronic band structures of different oxidized phases of the semiconductor, which elucidate the previous contradictory semiconductor-oxidation effects. At 0.5 monolayer (ML) oxidation, oxygen atoms tend to occupy subsurface Sb sites, leading to metallic states in the semiconductor band gap, which arise from top dimers. When the oxidation is increased to the 1.0-2.0 ML concentration, oxygen occupies also interstitial sites, and the insulating band structure without gap states is stabilized with unusual occupied In dangling bonds. In contrast, the 2.5-3.0 ML oxide phases undergo significant changes toward a less ordered structure. The findings suggest a methodology for manipulating the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor layers.

  12. 76 FR 75942 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

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  16. Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in InN x Bi y Sb1-x-y /InSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhigang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yan Yang; Shen Li, Shu

    2017-07-01

    Quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, a fundamentally new quantum state of matter and topological phase transitions are characteristics of a kind of electronic material, popularly referred to as topological insulators (TIs). TIs are similar to ordinary insulator in terms of their bulk bandgap, but have gapless conducting edge-states that are topologically protected. These edge-states are facilitated by the time-reversal symmetry and they are robust against nonmagnetic impurity scattering. Recently, the quest for new materials exhibiting non-trivial topological state of matter has been of great research interest, as TIs find applications in new electronics and spintronics and quantum-computing devices. Here, we propose and demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that QSH effect and topological phase transitions can be realized in {{InN}}x{{Bi}}y{{Sb}}1-x-y/InSb semiconductor quantum wells (QWs). The simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and bismuth in InSb is instrumental in lowering the bandgap, while inducing opposite kinds of strain to attain a near-lattice-matching conducive for lattice growth. Phase diagram for bandgap shows that as we increase the QW thickness, at a critical thickness, the electronic bandstructure switches from a normal to an inverted type. We confirm that such transition are topological phase transitions between a traditional insulator and a TI exhibiting QSH effect—by demonstrating the topologically protected edge-states using the bandstructure, edge-localized distribution of the wavefunctions and edge-state spin-momentum locking phenomenon, presence of non-zero conductance in spite of the Fermi energy lying in the bandgap window, crossover points of Landau levels in the zero-mode indicating topological band inversion in the absence of any magnetic field and presence of large Rashba spin-splitting, which is essential for spin-manipulation in TIs.

  17. Effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the electronic, thermodynamic, magnetic and transport properties of GaAs, InAs and InSb quantum dots with Gaussian confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Aalu; Boyacioglu, Bahadir; Erkaslan, Ugur; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    The effect of Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the electronic, thermodynamic, magnetic and transport properties of a one-electron Gaussian quantum dot is investigated in the presence of a magnetic field and its interaction with the electron spin using the canonical ensemble approach. The temperature-dependent energy, magnetization, susceptibility, specific heat and the persistent current are calculated as a function of the spin-orbit coupling parameter. The results are applied to GaAs, InAs and InSb quantum dots.

  18. Lattice location and local magnetism of recoil implanted Fe impurities in wide and narrow band semiconductors CdTe, CdSe, and InSb: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, S. K.; Mishra, S. N.

    2014-05-07

    Employing the time differential perturbed angular distribution method, we have measured local susceptibility and spin relaxation rate of {sup 54}Fe nuclei implanted in III-V and II-VI semiconductors, CdTe, CdSe, and InSb. The magnetic response of Fe, identified to occupy the metal as well as the semi-metal atom sites, exhibit Curie-Weiss type susceptibility and Korringa like spin relaxation rate, revealing the existence of localized moments with small spin fluctuation temperature. The experimental results are supported by first principle electronic structure calculations performed within the frame work of density functional theory.

  19. 76 FR 15360 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  20. INDIUM ANTIMONIDE (InSb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Yu. A.

    The following sections are included: * Basic Parameters * Basic Parameters at 300 K * Basic Parameters at 77 K * Band Structure and Carrier Concentration * Temperature Dependences * Dependences on Hydrostatic Pressure * Effective Masses * Donors and Acceptors * Electrical Properties * Mobility and Hall Effect * Transport Properties in High Electric Field * Impact Ionization * Recombination Parameters * Optical Properties * Thermal Properties * Mechanical Properties, Elastic Constants, Lattice Vibrations, Other Properties * References

  1. Valence band structure of InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy semiconductors calculated using valence band anticrossing model.

    PubMed

    Samajdar, D P; Dhar, S

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E - energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data.

  2. Valence Band Structure of InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix Alloy Semiconductors Calculated Using Valence Band Anticrossing Model

    PubMed Central

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E − energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data. PMID:24592181

  3. GaInSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells with InSb- and GaAs-like interfaces investigated by temperature- and magnetic field-dependent photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiren; Guo, Shaoling; Shao, Jun; Xing, Junliang; Niu, Zhichuan; Zhu, Liangqing; Zha, F.-X.

    2016-05-07

    GaInSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells (QWs) with typical InSb- and GaAs-like interfaces (IFs) are investigated by temperature- and magnetic field-dependent photoluminescence (PL), respectively. The results show that (i) as temperature rises the PL energy of the QWs with either InSb- or GaAs-like IFs blueshifts slightly below 50 K but redshifts above and broadens rapidly, and the mechanism behind this is correlated to the IF roughness-related layer thickness fluctuation equivalent to a localization energy of about 9.5 meV; (ii) the PL diminishes monotonously as magnetic field rises except for the delocalized PL process of the InSb-like IF QWs, and the magnetic field-induced PL quenching is attributed to the IF roughness-induced electron-hole separation in the type-II QWs; and (iii) the magnetic field-dependent PL energy follows a typical excitonic diamagnetic shift for both located and dislocated states, and the deduced exciton binding energy, reduced effective mass, and average wavefunction extent are insensitive to the IF type. Comparison of different IF-type GaInSb/InAs QWs indicates that while the PL of the InSb-like IF sample contains type-I component as the IF confines heavy holes and acts as pseudo-barrier for electrons, leading to the coexistence of electrons and holes at the IFs, the IF-type does not affect the carrier localization and the in-plane excitonic behavior obviously.

  4. 78 FR 67452 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

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    ... 69434; 69 FR 19611; 70 FR 48797; 70 FR 53412; 70 FR 57353; 70 FR 61493; 70 FR 67776; 70 FR 72689; 70 FR... January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elaine M. Papp, Chief, Medical Programs... applicants has satisfied the entry conditions for obtaining an exemption from the vision requirements (64 FR...

  5. 76 FR 25762 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

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    2011-05-05

    ... 62741; 70 FR 2701; 70 FR 7545; 70 FR 12265; 70 FR 14747; 70 FR 17504; 70 FR 30997; 70 FR 16886; 70 FR... Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf... applicants has satisfied the entry conditions for obtaining an exemption from the vision requirements (65 FR...

  6. First-principles studies of orbital and spin-orbit properties of GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2016-10-01

    We employ first-principles techniques tailored to properly describe semiconductors (semilocal exchange potential added to the exchange-correlation functional), to obtain the electronic band structures of both the zinc-blende and wurtzite phases of GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InSb. We extract the spin-orbit fields for the relevant valence and conduction bands at the zone center, by fitting the spin splittings resulting from the lack of space inversion symmetry of these bulk crystal structures, to known functional forms—third-order polynomials. We also determine the orientations of the spin-orbit vector fields (for conduction bands) and the average spins (valence bands) in the momentum space. We describe the dependence of the spin-orbit parameters on the cation and anion atomic weights. These results should be useful for spin transport, spin relaxation, and spin optical orientation modeling of semiconductor heterostructures, as well as for realistic studies of semiconductor-based Majorana nanowires, for which accurate values of spin-orbit couplings are needed.

  7. Gapped superconductivity with all symmetries in InSb (110) quantum wells in proximity to s -wave superconductor in Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase or with a supercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Wu, M. W.

    2017-02-01

    We show that all the singlet even-frequency, singlet odd-frequency, triplet even-frequency, and triplet odd-frequency pairings, together with the corresponding order parameters (gaps), can be realized in InSb (110) spin-orbit-coupled quantum well in proximity to s -wave superconductor in Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase or with a supercurrent. It is revealed that with the singlet even-frequency order parameter induced by the proximity effect, triplet even-frequency pairing is induced due to the broken spin-rotational symmetry by the spin-orbit coupling. Since the translational symmetry is broken by the center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pair in Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase or with a supercurrent, the singlet odd-frequency pairing can be induced. With the translational and spin-rotational asymmetries, the triplet odd-frequency pairing is also realized. Then, we show that the corresponding order parameters can be obtained from the self-energy of the electron-electron Coulomb interaction with the dynamic screening. The singlet and the induced triplet even-frequency order parameters are found to exhibit the conventional s - and p -wave characters in the momentum space, respectively. Whereas for the induced odd-frequency order parameters in quantum well, the singlet and triplet ones show the p - and d -wave characters, respectively. Moreover, the p -wave character of the singlet odd-frequency order parameter exhibits anisotropy with respect to the direction of the center-of-mass momentum. While for the triplet one, we find that dx2- and dx y-wave characters can be obtained with respect to the direction of the center-of-mass momentum. We show that at proper density, the singlet even-frequency order parameter is suppressed and the induced singlet odd-frequency, triplet even-frequency, and triplet odd-frequency ones can be detected experimentally.

  8. 75 FR 16120 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

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    ... 4010, FR 4011, FR 4012, FR 4017, FR 4019, FR 4023, FR 4013, or FR 4014 by any of the following methods... Delegated Authority the Extension for Three Years, With Revision, of the Following Reports 1. Report title: Report of Selected Balance Sheet Items for Discount Window Borrowers. Agency form numbers: FR 2046. OMB...

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    ... actions in response to violations of Commission APOs and the 24-hour rule. See 56 FR 4846 (February 6, 1991); 57 FR 12335 (April 9, 1992); 58 FR 21991 (April 26, 1993); 59 FR 16834 (April 8, 1994); 60 FR 24880 (May 10, 1995); 61 FR 21203 (May 9, 1996); 62 FR 13164 (March 19, 1997); 63 FR 25064 (May 6,...

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  12. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

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  15. Influence of Bi-related impurity states on the bandgap and spin-orbit splitting energy of dilute III-V-Bi alloys: InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Valence Band Anticrossing (VBAC) Model is used to calculate the changes in band structure of Bi containing alloys such as InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix due to the incorporation of dilute concentrations of bismuth. The coupling parameter CBi which gives the magnitude of interaction of Bi impurity states with the LH, HH and SO sub bands in VBAC depends on the increase in the HH/LH related energy level EHH/LH+, location of the Bi related impurity level EBi and valence band offset ΔEVBM between the endpoint compounds in the corresponding III-V-Bi. The reduction in band gap as well as the enhancement of the spin-orbit splitting energy is well explained using this model and the calculated results are compared with the results of Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, as well as with the available experimental data and are found to have good agreement. The incorporation of Bi mainly perturbs the valence band due to the interaction of the Bi impurity states with the HH, LH and SO bands. The lowering of the conduction band minimum (CBM) due to VCA is added with the upward movement of the HH/LH bands to get the total reduction in band gap for the bismides. The valence band shifts of 31.9, 32.5, 20.8 and 12.4 meV/at%Bi for InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix respectively constitute 65, 76, 59 and 31% of the total band gap reduction and the rest is the contribution of the conduction band shift. The spin-orbit splitting energy also shows significant increase with the maximum change in InPBi and the minimum in InSbBi. The same is true for Ga containing bismides if we make a comparison with the available values for GaAsBi and GaPBi with that of GaSbBi. It has also been observed that the increase in splitting energy is greater in case of the bismides such as InAsBi, InPBi and GaAsBi than the bismides such as InSbBi and GaSbBi with the parent substrates having higher values of splitting energy. This may

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    ... corresponds to FAA AD 2007-14-01, Amendment 39-15123, (72 FR 38006, July 12, 2007)] to require compliance with... 2007-14-01, Amendment 39-15123, (72 FR 38006, July 12, 2007)] to require compliance with FAL specified... also adds new airplanes to the applicability of this AD. AD 2011-24-09 (76 FR 73486, November 29,...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Erick Chuang, (410) 786-1816. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Regulatory Overview In FR Doc. 2011-26812 of November 30, 2011 (76 FR 74122) and FR Doc. 2011-33751 of January 4, 2012 (77 FR 217... for payment in the claims year but did not meet the Medicare requirements for payment (76 FR...

  16. Detached solidification of InSb on earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianbin; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

    2004-01-01

    Detached solidification of lightly gallium-doped indium antimonide was achieved in the laboratory only when the ampoule was coated with hexagonal boron nitride and when the material appeared to be oxide-free. A furnace was constructed with the temperature increasing with height in order to minimize bouyancy-driven convection, so as to maximize transport of segregated dissolved gases into the gap between the growing solid and the ampoule wall. There appeared to be no difference in results with freezing rates of 5 and 10 mm/h. Best results were obtained when the ampoule was backfilled with 20 kPa of Ar-10% H 2 prior to sealing. The detached portions were depressed by several μm from adjacent attached regions, were dull, and sometimes had microfacets and steps.

  17. Detached Solidification of InSb on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianbin; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Detached solidification of lightly gallium-doped indium antimonide was achieved in the laboratory only when the ampoule was coated with hexagonal boron nitride and when the material appeared to be oxide-free. A furnace was constructed with the temperature increasing with height in order to minimize bouyancy-driven convection, so as to maximize transport of segregated dissolved gases into the gap between the growing solid and the ampoule wall. There appeared to be no difference in results with freezing rates of 5 mmh and 10 mm/h. Best results were obtained when the ampoule was backfilled with 20 kPa of Ar-10%H2 prior to sealing. The detached portions were depressed by several pm from adjacent attached regions, were rough, and sometimes had microfacets and steps.

  18. Supercurrents in InSb nanowire Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Peng; Plissard, Sébastien; Car, Diana; Mourik, Vincent; Zuo, Kun; van Woerkom, David; Szombati, Daniel; Kouwenhoven, Leo; Bakkers, Erik; Frolov, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Majorana fermions have been predicted in one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit interactions coupled to superconductors. Effects such as odd number Shapiro steps disappearing and critical currents oscillating in magnetic field have been proposed as signatures of Majorana fermions in Josephson junctions. Here we investigate supercurrents in NbTiN-InSb nanowire-NbTiN Josephson junctions as a function of back gate and magnetic field. When an external magnetic field was applied along the nanowire, we observe gate-tunable oscillations in the critical current. To clarify the origin of this oscillating critical current, we are studying the spectra of Shapiro steps, which may give us a better understanding of such Josephson junctions and guide the search for additional signatures of Majorana fermions.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure induced localization effects in InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A.; Zitouni, K.; Aulombard, R. L.

    1986-05-01

    Magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements were made as a function of free carrier concentration, pressure, temperature and magnetic field in samples of n-InSb with initial n in the range 2.1 × 10 13-1.4 × 10 14 cm -3. The free carrier concentrations could be controlled down to n « 10 11cm-3 both by using the metastable properties of the lattice coupled defects and by keeping the pressure at low temperatures. The results show clear evidence for the interplay between the correlation and the localization effects at the metal-insulator transition.

  20. Detached Solidification of InSb on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianbin; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Detached solidification of lightly gallium-doped indium antimonide was achieved in the laboratory only when the ampoule was coated with hexagonal boron nitride and when the material appeared to be oxide-free. A furnace was constructed with the temperature increasing with height in order to minimize bouyancy-driven convection, so as to maximize transport of segregated dissolved gases into the gap between the growing solid and the ampoule wall. There appeared to be no difference in results with freezing rates of 5 mmh and 10 mm/h. Best results were obtained when the ampoule was backfilled with 20 kPa of Ar-10%H2 prior to sealing. The detached portions were depressed by several pm from adjacent attached regions, were rough, and sometimes had microfacets and steps.

  1. 75 FR 38061 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600 Series Airplanes; Model A300 B4-600R Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... reinforcement of the junction of frame bases at FR48, FR49 and FR51 to FR53 is necessary to enable the aircraft... (42 500 FC ), it has been concluded that a reinforcement of the junction of frame bases at FR48, FR49... above, this AD requires the reinforcement of the affected junction of frame bases. Required...

  2. 75 FR 61975 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600 Series Airplanes, Model A300 B4-600R Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... a reinforcement of the junction of frame bases at FR48, FR49 and FR51 to FR53 is necessary to enable... (42,500 FC ), it has been concluded that a reinforcement of the junction of frame bases at FR48, FR49... above, this AD requires the reinforcement of the affected junction of frame bases. Required...

  3. 76 FR 58269 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... procedures prescribed in 5 CFR 1320.12. On May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26900), EPA sought comments on this ICR... Manufacturing were proposed on October 4, 2001 (66 FR 50768), and promulgated on October 18, 2002 (67 FR...

  4. 75 FR 14441 - General Services Administration; Office of Governmentwide Policy; Submission for Review; Tangible...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Register at 72 FR 64648, November 16, 2007 and 73 FR 67175, November 13, 2008. Comments were received... over specific reporting requirements in the provisions of existing awards. The response in 73 FR...

  5. Quadrupole moments of high spin isomers in sup 213 Fr, sup 212 Fr, and sup 211 Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Hardeman, F.; Neyens, G.; Scheveneels, G.; Nouwen, R.; S'heeren, G.; Van Den Bergh, M.; Coussement, R. ); Byrne, A.P.; Muesseler, R.; Huebel, H.; Baldsiefen, G. )

    1991-02-01

    The level mixing spectroscopy method has been applied to measure the static quadrupole moments of six isomeric states in {sup 213}Fr, {sup 212}Fr, and {sup 211}Fr ({ital Z}=87). For isomers with the proton configuration {pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{sup 4}{ital i}{sub 13/2} a large increase of the quadrupole moment was observed with the removal of neutrons from the closed {ital N}=126 core: {ital Q}(29/2{sup +},{sup 213}Fr)={minus}70(7) {ital e} fm{sup 2}, {ital Q}(15{sup {minus}},{sup 212}Fr)={minus}80(12) {ital e} fm{sup 2}, and {ital Q}(29/2{sup +},{sup 211}Fr)={minus}107(18) {ital e} fm{sup 2}. Quadrupole moments for very high spin states were also measured: {ital Q}(65/2{sup {minus}},{sup 213}Fr)={minus}219(53) {ital e} fm{sup 2}, {ital Q}(27{sup {minus}},{sup 212}Fr)={minus}152(31) {ital e} fm{sup 2}, and {ital Q}(45/2{sup {minus}},{sup 211}Fr) ={minus}198(56) {ital e} fm{sup 2}. The observed values are in good agreement with shell-model calculations, but are lower than that predicted using the deformed-independent particle model. The implantation behavior of Fr in a Tl host is also discussed.

  6. 76 FR 58300 - Affirmative Decisions on Petitions for Modification Granted in Whole or in Part

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Affected: 30 CFR 75.1700 (Oil and gas wells). Docket Number: M-2009-005-C. FR Notice: 74 FR 23747 (May 20... CFR 75.1700 (Oil and gas wells). Docket Number: M-2009-006-C. FR Notice: 74 FR 23748 (May 20, 2009.... Regulation Affected: 30 CFR 75.1700 (Oil and gas wells). Docket Number: M-2009-039-C. FR Notice: 74 FR...

  7. Dust in 3CR radio galaxies: On the FR 1 - FR 2 difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S. A. H.; Haas, M.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Klaas, U.; Meisenheimer, K.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.

    2004-11-01

    We compare three 3CR samples of 11 FR 1 galaxies, 17 FR 2 galaxies and 18 lobe-dominated quasars contained in the ISO Data Archive. In contrast to the powerful FR 2 galaxies with edge-brightened lobes, the low radio power FR 1 galaxies in our sample do not exhibit any high MIR or FIR dust luminosity, which is typical for a buried, intrinsically more luminous AGN. This consolidates the fact already inferred from optical studies that their AGNs have only a relatively low luminosity. Also the FR 1 galaxies show a high FIR/MIR luminosity ratio, compared to quasars, suggesting that their FIR luminosity is substantially powered by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) of the giant elliptical hosts. Finally, we discuss the FR 1 - FR 2 morphological dichotomy. FR 1 galaxies do not have more interstellar matter (ISM) than FR 2s as traced - on the large scale - by the cool FIR emitting dust and - in the nuclear region - by the warm MIR emitting dust. Due to the lack of central gas we suggest that the black holes of our FR 1 galaxies are fed at a lower accretion rate than those of the FR 2 galaxies. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  8. 78 FR 19098 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... 1, 2012, and which was previously made effective September 30, 2011, at 76 FR 45667 (August 1, 2011); delayed to November 30, 2011, at 76 FR 59896 (September 28, 2011); to January 1, 2012, at 76 FR 73508 (November 29, 2011); to October 1, 2012, at 76 FR 82115 (December 30, 2011); and to March 27, 2013, at 77 FR...

  9. Quadrupole moment of 203Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, S. G.; Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Binnersley, C. L.; Bissell, M. L.; Cocolios, T. E.; Goodacre, T. Day; de Groote, R. P.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Ruiz, R. F. Garcia; Gins, W.; Heylen, H.; Koszorús, Á.; Neyens, G.; Stroke, H. H.; Vernon, A. R.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Yang, X. F.

    2017-09-01

    The spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment of the neutron-deficient francium isotope 203Fr was measured by using high-resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) at the CERN Isotope Separation On-Line Device (ISOLDE) facility. A remeasurement of the 207Fr quadrupole moment was also performed, resulting in a departure from the established literature value. A sudden increase in magnitude of the 203Fr quadrupole moment, with respect to the general trend in the region, points to an onset of static deformation at N =116 in the 87Fr isotopic chain. Calculation of the static and total deformation parameters show that the increase in static deformation only cannot account for the observed departure of its relative charge radius from the 82Pb chain.

  10. 75 FR 79759 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Action 04/16/10 75 FR 2012 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes Agency Contact: Mohammed Khan Phone: 202 586-7892 Email: mohammed.khan@ee.doe.gov RIN: 1904-AA90 BILLING CODE 6450-01-S ...

  11. 78 FR 79333 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    .... Discussion On June 9, 2000, we issued AD 2000-12-12, Amendment 39-11790 (65 FR 39072, June 23, 2000). That AD... superseded AD 95-10-03, Amendment 39-9220 (60 FR 25604, May 12, 1995). Since we issued AD 2000-12-12, Amendment 39-11790 (65 FR 39072, June 23, 2000), The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which is...

  12. 77 FR 34943 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...-01) The Graduate Fellowship Programs Participants Study, 70 FR 51348-51351 (August 30, 2005). 2. (18... Graduate Fellowship Programs Participants Study, 70 FR 51348- 51351 (August 30, 2005). 18-17-02 Follow...

  13. 75 FR 68169 - Participants' Choices of TSP Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Thrift Savings Plan regulations, which was published in the Federal Register of June 1, 2005 (70 FR 32208... correction was published in the Federal Register on June 1, 2005 (70 FR 32208). As published, the final...

  14. 75 FR 62111 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ..., 1993; 58 FR 10562). KPAC.01, Classified Container Information Form DA 727 (February 22, 1993; 58 FR 10562). KDCE.03, DA Form 727 Classified Container Information File 503-02 (February 22, 1993; 58...

  15. 78 FR 37565 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., 2012. 91700A Reptile Wrangler LLC... 77 FR 74506; December January 17, 2013. 14, 2012. 89184A Cinco... 12777; February April 11, 2013. 25, 2013. 034669 Randar's Reptiles...... 78 FR 12777; February April...

  16. 77 FR 47787 - Additional Requirements for Charitable Hospitals; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ...) that was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, June 26, 2012 (77 FR 38148). The proposed... subject of FR Doc. 2012-15537, is corrected as follows: 1. On page 38153, in the preamble, column 1,...

  17. 78 FR 29624 - Rules on Determining Hearing Appearances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... 76940) \\2\\ and July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39154).\\3\\ \\1\\ The NPRM is available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR2007-1029/pdf/E7-20690.pdf . \\2\\ The final rules are available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2008-12-18/pdf/E8-30056.pdf . \\3\\ The final rules are available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010...

  18. 76 FR 29279 - Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and Unistar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... the Federal Register on April 21, 2010 (76 FR 20867), and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on April 26, 2010 and April 30, 2010 (76 FR 21625 and 76 FR 22778). The purpose of this notice is...

  19. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 79660] [FR... on November 4, 2013 (78 FR 65960) is extended. We will consider all comments that we receive on or...: On November 4, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 65960-65962, Docket No....

  20. 78 FR 80379 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80379-80381] [FR Doc No: 2013-31151] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... (78 FR 76700), the United States Trade Representative published new procurement thresholds. The United... and Remedies (DEC 2013) * * * * * [FR Doc. 2013-31151 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  1. 78 FR 30327 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... William Bean 77 FR 26779; May 7, February 27, 2013. 2012. 71354A Canyon Exotic Game 77 FR 26779; May 7... 26779; May 7, June 21, 2012. 2012. 72653A William Bean 77 FR 26779; May 7, June 21, 2012. 2012. 71823A...

  2. 78 FR 79329 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... (70 FR 43032, July 26, 2005). That AD required actions intended to address an unsafe condition on the products listed above. Since we issued AD 2005-15-04, Amendment 39-14193 (70 FR 43032, July 26, 2005... that are required by AD 2005-15-04, Amendment 39-14193 (70 FR 43032, July 26, 2005), and retained...

  3. 78 FR 65583 - Capital Planning and Stress Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... stress tests of federally insured credit unions (FICUs) with assets of $10 billion or more. NCUA further... stress tests.\\3\\ \\1\\ 76 FR 74631 (Dec. 1, 2011). \\2\\ Id. \\3\\ See 77 FR 61238 (Oct. 9, 2012); 77 FR 62378... Supervisory Stress Testing NCUA will conduct independent stress tests on all covered credit unions based...

  4. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010... correction of the initiation notice on January 12, 2011 (76 FR 2083). On January 13, 2011, Commerce notified... 17, 2011; Responses to the 13 items requested in the Commission's notice of institution (75 FR...

  5. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  6. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  9. 76 FR 72968 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    .... Applicant Federal Register notice Permit issuance date 46259A Jefferey Spivery...... 76 FR 54480; September 1, November 2, 2011. 2011. 52683A Carlos Ramirez........ 76 FR 60862; September 30, November 3, 2011. 2011. 50923A Woolsey Caye 76 FR 60862; September 30, November 3, 2011. 2011. 49805A Graham Banes 76...

  10. 78 FR 2304 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... (November 19, 2012), 77 FR 70511 (November 26, 2012) (SR-CBOE-2012-109) (``Notice''). II. Description of the... corresponding order to the other trading center. \\4\\ See Notice, 77 FR at 70511. \\5\\ See Notice, 77 FR at 70511..., 77 FR at 70512. For examples of some of the circumstances in which the Exchange may decide to...

  11. 78 FR 69612 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Negotiator Nominations and Schedule of Committee Meetings-Title...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 25658) announcing our intent to establish a negotiated rulemaking committee under... in the Federal Register (78 FR 22467), which we corrected on April 30, 2013 (78 FR 25235), announcing... the Federal Register (78 FR 27880) the addition of a fourth hearing. The hearings were held on May...

  12. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 79619-79620] [FR Doc No: 2013-31319] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 155 [CMS.... Background In FR Doc. 2013-25326 of October 30, 2013 (78 FR 65046), final rule entitled ``Patient Protection... Standards; Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014 (78 FR 65046), there...

  13. 77 FR 35652 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... attainment. See 60 FR 36723 (July 18, 1995) (Salt Lake and Davis Counties, Utah, 1-hour ozone); 61 FR 20458... 12, 2003) (St Louis, Missouri, 1-hour ozone); 69 FR 21717 (April 22, 2004) (San Francisco Bay Area, 1.... Louis, Missouri-Illinois, 1997 8-hour ozone), 76 FR 7145 (November 15, 2011) (Charlotte, North Carolina...

  14. 75 FR 69653 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28646] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Case No... 22, 2006. 71 FR 48913. DOE received one comment on the Whirlpool petition, from a private citizen who... Samsung's interim waivers on September 16, 2010. (75 FR 57915; 75 FR 57937). Table 5.1 of Appendix...

  15. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... PERP for portable engines and equipment fall within the scope of previously issued authorizations or...(e)(2)(ii). \\29\\ See 74 FR 32744, 32761 (July 8, 2009); 49 FR 18887, 18889- 18890 (May 3, 1984). \\30\\ CARB, Resolution 07-9 at 5. \\31\\ 49 FR 18887, 18890 (May 3, 1984); see also 76 FR 34693 (June 14,...

  16. 76 FR 13188 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... description of report: These information collections are authorized pursuant to Section 11(d) of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 248(d)) and are voluntary. The ability of the Federal Reserve to maintain the.... Treasury's Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the CTO. The FR 3054a, FR 3054b, FR 3054c, and FR 3054d...

  17. 76 FR 34633 - Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2011-9644 of May 5, 2011 (76 FR 25788), there were a number...InpatientPPS/01_overview.asp ). III. Correction of Errors In FR Doc. 2011-9644 of May 5, 2011 (76 FR...

  18. 78 FR 39730 - Medicare Program; Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To Apply for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Miechal Lefkowitz, (212)-616-2517. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2013-12952 of May 31, 2013 (78 FR 32663), there was a typographical error that is identified and.... Correction of Errors In FR Doc. 2013-12952 of May 31, 2013 (78 FR 32663), make the following corrections:...

  19. 78 FR 79712 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Proposed Rules] [Page 79712] [FR Doc No: 2013-31243] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon..., Secretary. [FR Doc. 2013-31243 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 8011-01-P...

  20. 78 FR 79714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Proposed Rules] [Page 79714] [FR Doc No: 2013-31240] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon.... [FR Doc. 2013-31240 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 8011-01-P...

  1. 78 FR 79712 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Proposed Rules] [Pages 79712-79714] [FR Doc No: 2013-31239] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment..., Secretary. [FR Doc. 2013-31239 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 8011-01-P...

  2. 78 FR 79711 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Proposed Rules] [Pages 79711-79712] [FR Doc No: 2013-31241] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment..._Mailbox@sec.gov . Dated: December 24, 2013. Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2013-31241 Filed...

  3. 78 FR 79714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Proposed Rules] [Pages 79714-79715] [FR Doc No: 2013-31242] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment.... Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2013-31242 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 8011-01-P...

  4. 78 FR 79714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Proposed Rules] [Page 79714] [FR Doc No: 2013-31238] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon...@sec.gov . Dated: December 24, 2013. Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2013-31238 Filed...

  5. 75 FR 51444 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ..., CT. Contracting Activity: Department of Defense, Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA), Boston... 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271); 6/...

  6. 75 FR 43152 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/28/2010 (75 FR 29994-29995) and 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769), the...-01-285-8355--Padded, yellow, 4 x 6'' unruled self stick notes. NSN: 7530-01-385-7560--Padded,...

  7. 77 FR 37043 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 37043] [FR Doc No: 2012-15232] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCMENT: 77 FR 36275 (June 18, 2012). DATE AND TIME:...

  8. 77 FR 37043 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 37043] [FR Doc No: 2012-15194] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. Federal Register Citation of Previous Announcement: 77 FR 35680 (June 14, 2012). DATE AND TIME:...

  9. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table... FR 36220. The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities...

  10. 62 FR 65388 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-12-12

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor ACTION: Proposed rule... tuberculosis (62 FR 54160). An informal public hearing was scheduled for Washington, D.C., and deadlines were... a new standard for occupational exposure to tuberculosis on October 17, 1997 (62 FR 54160)....

  11. 75 FR 68755 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28354] COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: On October 12, 2010 (75 FR 63144-63145), the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights announced a business meeting to be held on Friday,...

  12. 75 FR 62423 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 195 (Friday, October 8, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 62423] [FR Doc No: 2010-25404] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Bureau of Labor Statistics Proposed Collection, Comment Request... Labor Statistics. [FR Doc. 2010-25404 Filed 10-7-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4510-24-P ...

  13. 75 FR 49912 - Foreign-Trade Zone 40-Cleveland, OH; Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... (Board Order 1351, 69 FR 56038, 9/17/04), April 15, 2005 (Board Order 1384, 70 FR 21736, 4/27/05), April 15, 2005 (Board Order 1386, 70 FR 21736, 4/27/05), December 9, 2005 (Board Order 1425, 70 FR 76023-76024, 12/22/05), December 21, 2005 (Board Order 1428, 70 FR 77376, 12/30/05), December 21, 2005 (Board...

  14. 76 FR 26962 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, A300 B2-203, A300 B2K-3C, A300-B4-103, A300 B4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Inspect special Repeat at intervals For airplanes-- area-- not to exceed-- All STGR5 LH and RH 3,600 flight cycles (FR54 through FR58). All STGR22 LH and RH 2,700 flight cycles (FR26 through FR40). All STGR22 RH (FR58 3,000 flight cycles through FR65). All STGR31 LH/RH (FR26 3,000 flight cycles through...

  15. 78 FR 2302 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... Act Release No. 68260 (November 19, 2012), 77 FR 70496 (November 26, 2012) (SR-C2-2012-038) (``Notice... FR at 70496. \\5\\ See Notice, 77 FR at 70496-97 n.5, n.9, and accompanying text. In its proposal, C2..., routing brokers, or another exchange.\\7\\ \\6\\ See Notice, 77 FR at 70497. For examples of some of...

  16. 77 FR 72846 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). \\16\\ See 62 FR 67733 (December 30, 1997). The applicable regulations, now... the California standard. \\17\\ See 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). In order to be consistent with section... EPA review of the State decision to be a narrow one.'' \\22\\ \\22\\ See, e.g., 40 FR 21102-103 (May...

  17. 78 FR 44054 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Proposed Delay of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... effective on January 1, 2012, and the effective date has been extended a number of times, most recently to... (Aug. 1, 2011); to November 30, 2011, 76 FR 59896 (Sept. 28, 2011); to January 1, 2012, 76 FR 73508 (Nov. 29, 2011); to October 1, 2012, 76 FR 82115 (Dec. 30, 2011); to March 27, 2013, 77 FR 60040 (Oct...

  18. 77 FR 41742 - Reorganization and Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202 Under Alternative Site Framework Los...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ..., the Board adopted the alternative site framework (ASF) (74 FR 1170, 01/12/2009; correction 74 FR 3987, 01/22/2009; 75 FR 71069- 71070, 11/22/2010) as an option for the establishment or reorganization of..., notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (77 FR 8804-8805, 02/15/2012) and the...

  19. 78 FR 40043 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... published a final rule to implement Gulf Reef Fish Amendment 37 (78 FR 27084). That final rule, in part... November 10, 2012 (77 FR 28308, May 14, 2012), and extended through May 15, 2013 (77 FR 67303, November 9... opportunity to comment on the proposed rule for Gulf Reef Fish Amendment 37 (78 FR 10122, February 13,...

  20. 76 FR 76375 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2009-2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...: Silicon Carbide From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 22585 (May 2, 1994) (Silicon Carbide). However... rates. \\42\\ See Silicon Carbide, 59 FR at 22586-87. The absence of de facto government control over... management.\\43\\ \\43\\ See, e.g., Silicon Carbide, 59 FR at 22587, and Sparklers, 56 FR at 20589; see also...

  1. 77 FR 43048 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Order 92, 38 FR 3015, 1/31/1973); January 11, 1985 (Board Order 277, 50 FR 2702, 1/18/1985); August 19... FR 9613-9614, 2/28/2005); August 23, 2005 (Board Order 1408, 70 FR 51335, 8/30/2005); and, August 5...; Site 5 (167 acres)--Ohio Northern Global Distribution and Business Training Center, 6722 Commodore...

  2. 75 FR 69484 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Chicago Board Options...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Release Nos. 62945 (September 20, 2010), 75 FR 58460 (September 24, 2010) (SR-BATS-2010-025); 62954 (September 20, 2010), 75 FR 59305 (September 27, 2010) (SR-BX- 2010-66); 62951 (September 20, 2010), 75 FR 59309 (September 27, 2010) (SR-CBOE-2010-087); 62949 (September 20, 2010), 75 FR 59315 (September...

  3. 78 FR 60937 - Joint Industry Plan; Order Approving the Fifth Amendment to the National Market System Plan to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 70274 (August 27, 2013), 78 FR 54305 (``Notice''). II... (June 10, 2010), 75 FR 34183 (June 16, 2010) (SR-FINRA-2010-025); 62883 (September 10, 2010), 75 FR... (February 20, 2013), 78 FR 13113 (February 26, 2013). B. Fifth Amendment to the Plan The Fifth...

  4. 78 FR 18246 - Implementation of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012; Establishment of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... these requirements. DATES: 47 CFR 1.80 and 64.1202, published at 77 FR 71131, November 29, 2012, and at 78 FR 10099, February 13, 2013, are effective March 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., FCC 12- 129, published at 77 FR 71131, November 29, 2012, and at 78 FR 10099, February 13, 2013....

  5. A polynomial f(R) inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by the ultraviolet complete theory of quantum gravity, for example the string theory, we investigate a polynomial f(R) inflation model in detail. We calculate the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio in the f(R) inflation model with the form of f(R) = R + (R{sup 2})/6M{sup 2} + (λn)/2n (R{sup n})/(3M{sup 2}){sup n-1}. Compared to Planck 2013, we find that R{sup n} term should be exponentially suppressed, i.e. |λ{sub n}|∼<10{sup −2n+2.6}.

  6. 75 FR 10692 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 80 Maritime Communications ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), a document in...

  7. 78 FR 1634 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... analysis is required, and the status of regulations previously reported. ADDRESSES: Director, for Internal... ``disability'' in lieu of the term ``handicap,'' changes to definitions, and other sections based on the... Date FR Cite NPRM 02/00/13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: No. Agency Contact: Robert W...

  8. 78 FR 44329 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... analysis is required, and the status of regulations previously reported. ADDRESSES: Acting Assistant... of the term ``disability'' in lieu of the term ``handicap,'' changes to definitions, and other....nasa.gov/open . Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 10/00/13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required...

  9. 78 FR 44251 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... proposing a rule to add the common cold indication to certain over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine active..... 08/25/00 65 FR 51780 Comment Period End 11/24/00 NPRM (Amendment) (Common Cold)...... 11/00/13... Certain Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed. 5 Over-the-Counter (OTC) 0910-AF31 Drug Review--Cough/Cold...

  10. 78 FR 40430 - De Facto

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Silicon ] Carbide from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 22585 (May 2, 1994) (``Silicon Carbide'').\\5\\ However, if the Department determined that an exporter of NME-produced... control is critical in determining whether an exporter should receive a separate rate. \\8\\ See Silicon...

  11. 77 FR 59339 - Contractor Qualifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 188 (Thursday, September 27, 2012)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 59339] [FR Doc No: 2012-23905] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 209 Contractor Qualifications CFR Correction In Title 48 of the Code of Federal...

  12. 78 FR 20244 - Product Valuation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Natural Resources Revenue 30 CFR Part 1206 Product Valuation CFR Correction In FR Doc. 2013... ``Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement'' is corrected to read ``Office of Natural Resources...

  13. 76 FR 30326 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. ACTION... Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. Telephone: 202-586-3806 or e- mail: Sean.Oehlbert... Energy. Anne M. Harrington, Deputy Administrator, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation. [FR Doc....

  14. Final CSAPR Revisions Rule (77 FR 10324)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA finalizes revisions to the Transport Rule (76 FR 48208). These revisions address discrepancies in unit-specific modeling assumptions that affect the proper calculation of Transport Rule state budgets and assurance levels in several states.

  15. 75 FR 68789 - Sunshine Act Notices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... (Ninth Floor) Status: This meeting will be open to the public. Items To Be Discussed: Correction and... Werth, Secretary and Clerk of the Commission. [FR Doc. 2010-28223 Filed 11-8-10; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  16. 78 FR 44247 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... published previously a final rule establishing energy conservation standards for ice-cream freezers, self... measuring ice maker energy use. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/00/13 Final Action...

  17. 76 FR 6134 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    .... Robert E. Feldman, Executive Secretary of the Corporation, at 202-898-7043. Dated: January 31, 2011. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Robert E. Feldman, Executive Secretary. [FR Doc. 2011-2445 Filed...

  18. 78 FR 35812 - Revisions to Procedural Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory history: 77 FR 23176 (April 18, 2012... because these changes were approved by the Citizens Awareness Court for use in Nuclear Regulatory...

  19. 78 FR 70207 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... FR 46 at junction radius level. This frame, that was previously repaired due to a crack finding in... Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the MCAI, the regulatory evaluation,...

  20. 77 FR 22804 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; Correction AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission. Federal Register CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: 77 FR 22344. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED TIME...

  1. 77 FR 7942 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Action 10/31/11 76 FR 67037 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact: Mohammed Khan, Phone: 202 586-7892, Email: mohammed.khan@ee.doe.gov Wes Anderson, Phone: 202 586-7335, Email: wes...

  2. 77 FR 23513 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... ``News & Events'' on the NTSB home page at www.ntsb.gov . Schedule updates including weather-related..., Iowa, April 17, 2011 (DCA-11-FR-002) NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Telephone: (202) 314-6100. The press and...

  3. 77 FR 39677 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 129 (Thursday, July 5, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 39677] [FR Doc No: 2012-16331] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice....

  4. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... travel for persons with peanut allergies. See 75 FR 32318 (June 8, 2010). Comments on the matters... coordination regarding the proposals. Accordingly, the Department finds that good cause exists to extend...

  5. Loop quantum f(R) theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Ma, Yongge

    2011-09-01

    As modified gravity theories, the four-dimensional metric f(R) theories are cast into connection-dynamical formalism with real su(2) connections as configuration variables. This formalism enables us to extend the nonperturbative loop quantization scheme of general relativity to any metric f(R) theories. The quantum kinematical framework of f(R) gravity is rigorously constructed, where the quantum dynamics can be launched. Both Hamiltonian constraint operator and master constraint operator for f(R) theories are well defined. Our results show that the nonperturbative quantization procedure of loop quantum gravity are valid not only for general relativity but also for a rather general class of four-dimensional metric theories of gravity.

  6. 77 FR 56607 - Shoshone Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... conference call is open to the public. The following business will be conducted: Finish reviewing project..., Forest Supervisor. [FR Doc. 2012-22531 Filed 9-12-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-11-P ...

  7. 76 FR 63601 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...: 624 Ninth Street, NW., Room 540, Washington, DC 20425. Meeting Agenda This meeting is open to the..., 2011. Kimberly A. Tolhurst, Senior Attorney-Advisor. [FR Doc. 2011-26583 Filed 10-11-11; 11:15 am...

  8. 77 FR 62237 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...: Open. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Commission will consider and act upon the following in open session..., Administrative Assistant. [FR Doc. 2012-25234 Filed 10-10-12; 11:15 am] BILLING CODE 6735-01-P ...

  9. 75 FR 82025 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 249 (Wednesday, December 29, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 82025] [FR Doc No: 2010-32962] EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ``Federal Register'' CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT...

  10. 75 FR 68010 - Federal Salary Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Management, 1900 E Street, NW., Room 5H17, Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charles D. Grimes...-performance-policy@opm.gov . For the President's Pay Agent. John Berry, Director. [FR Doc. 2010-27835 Filed 11...

  11. 76 FR 17521 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... 327 RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC... Register of February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10672), regarding Assessments, Large Bank Pricing. This correction...

  12. 78 FR 67201 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the presiding... sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . ACCESSIBILITY: LSC complies with the Americans...

  13. 78 FR 38076 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... disrupting the meeting, please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music.... Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . ACCESSIBILITY: LSC complies with...

  14. 78 FR 45568 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ..., please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From... Counsel, at (202) 295-1500. Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov...

  15. 78 FR 73210 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ..., please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From... & General Counsel, at (202) 295-1500. Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc...

  16. 78 FR 39781 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From time to time, the Chair may... may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . Accessibility: LSC complies with the...

  17. 78 FR 30339 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From.... Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . ACCESSIBILITY: LSC complies with...

  18. 78 FR 36602 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ..., please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From... sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . ACCESSIBILITY: LSC complies with the Americans...

  19. 78 FR 28895 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From... Counsel, at (202) 295-1500. Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov...

  20. 78 FR 40515 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ..., please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From... & General Counsel, at (202) 295-1500. Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc...

  1. 78 FR 33114 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ..., please refrain from placing the call on hold if doing so will trigger recorded music or other sound. From.... Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . Accessibility: LSC complies with...

  2. 78 FR 71725 - Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements AGENCY: Surface Transportation..., Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements. See 78 FR 18421-01 (Mar. 26, 2013). This collection has been...

  3. Wormhole solutions in f(R) gravity satisfying energy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-10-01

    Without reference to exotic sources construction of viable wormholes in Einstein’s general relativity remained ever a myth. With the advent of modified theories, however, specifically the f(R) theory, new hopes arose for the possibility of such objects. From this token, we construct traversable wormholes in f(R) theory supported by a fluid source which respects at least the weak energy conditions. We provide an example (Example 1) of asymptotically flat wormhole in f(R) gravity without ghosts.

  4. 78 FR 20620 - Procurement List; Additions to and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ...: 7510-00-NIB-9843--Self Stick Rectangular Flag, .5'' x 1.7'', Multi Pack (Red/yellow/blue/green) NPA.... DATES: Effective Date: 5/6/2013. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely.../2012 (77 FR 25146-25147), 5/11/ 2012 (77 FR 27737), 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), 6/29/2012 (77...

  5. Nuclear Data Sheets for 225Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2005-05-16

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to {sup 225}Fr have been evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation includes literature available by 16 May 2005 and supersedes the previous publication for {sup 225}Fr (Y.A. Akovali, ''Nuclear Data Sheets 60, 617 (1990)'', literature cutoff date 1 June 1989). Data have been incorporated from the following references: 1987Co19, 1997BuO3 and 2003AuO3.

  6. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  7. 76 FR 50714 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Documenting Contractor Performance; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Documenting Contractor Performance; Correction AGENCY: Department of... Performance. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published June, 28, 2011, at 76 FR 37704,...

  8. 75 FR 49934 - Notice of Request for Public Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... establish two certification programs, a temporary certification program and a permanent certification... (``Establishment of the Temporary Certification Program for Health Information Technology,'' 75 FR 36158...

  9. 75 FR 10254 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    .... 20100050, Draft EIS, BLM, CA, Stirling Energy Systems (SES) Solar 2 Project, Construct and Operate..., 2010. Robert W. Hargrove, Director, NEPA Compliance Division, Office of Federal Activities. [FR...

  10. 76 FR 80344 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-32942] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information...: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. [[Page 80345

  11. 75 FR 27846 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage and Economic Injury Loans): Walker. Contiguous Counties... 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-11745...

  12. 78 FR 52517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Counseling Record (July 6, 2011, 76 FR 39389). Changes: * * * * * ] System name: Delete entry and replace with ``Chaplain Counseling Care Files.'' * * * * * Retention and disposal: Delete entry and replace...

  13. Exploring plane-symmetric solutions in f(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Shamir, M. F.

    2016-02-15

    The modified theories of gravity, especially the f(R) gravity, have attracted much attention in the last decade. This paper is devoted to exploring plane-symmetric solutions in the context of metric f(R) gravity. We extend the work on static plane-symmetric vacuum solutions in f(R) gravity already available in the literature [1, 2]. The modified field equations are solved using the assumptions of both constant and nonconstant scalar curvature. Some well-known solutions are recovered with power-law and logarithmic forms of f(R) models.

  14. 75 FR 27845 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ..., Hardin, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lewis, Macon, Robertson, Smith, Stewart, Trousdale, Wayne, Wilson... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR...

  15. 77 FR 75560 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances, Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... insecticide chlorantraniliprole on multiple commodities. This document corrects inadvertent errors and... for residues of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in or on multiple commodities. (77 FR 60311). That...

  16. Gravitomagnetic gyroscope precession in Palatini f(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2009-04-15

    We study gravitomagnetic effects in the Palatini formalism of f(R) gravity. On using the Kerr-de Sitter metric, which is a solution of f(R) field equations, we calculate the impact of f(R) gravity on the gravitomagnetic precession of an orbiting gyroscope. We show that, even though an f(R) contribution is present in principle, its magnitude is negligibly small and far to be detectable in the present (like GP-B) and foreseeable space missions or observational tests around the Earth.

  17. Pollen Fertility Restoration by Nuclear Gene Fr in Cms Bean: Nuclear-Directed Alteration of a Mitochondrial Population

    PubMed Central

    He, S.; Lyznik, A.; Mackenzie, S.

    1995-01-01

    Two nuclear genes, Fr and Fr2, have been identified that restore pollen fertility to cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by apparently distinct mechanisms. Whereas Fr2 appears to suppress the expression of a male sterility associated mitochondrial sequence (designated pvs), Fr restores pollen fertility by causing the elimination of this unusual mitochondrial DNA segment. To further investigate the mechanism of Fr action, Fr and Fr2 were cointroduced into the nucleus of a bean line containing the sterility inducing cytoplasm. When the effect of pvs was suppressed by Fr2, the presence of Fr no longer directed the elimination of the mitochondrial pvs sequence. This result suggests that the Fr function is dependent on proper expression of the pvs sequence. To evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of Fr action, we undertook a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to trace the fate of the pvs sequence in different tissues of F(2) and F(3) fertile-restored plants derived from a genetic cross between a cytoplasmic male sterile line of common bean, CMS-Sprite (frfr), and fertility restorer line R351 (FrFr). We demonstrate that the Fr-directed disappearance of pvs sequence occurs during flower development. Elimination of the pvs sequence from developing megaspores results in permanent fertility restoration in the following generations. Genetic analysis demonstrated that permanent fertility restoration, that is, the complete elimination of pvs from reproductive tissues requires two doses of the Fr allele or the absence of fr in F(2) individuals. The effect of Fr was reversible until full fertility was achieved. On the basis of these results, we propose a model for the mechanism of pvs elimination by the Fr gene and discuss the dynamics of pvs-containing mitochondrial transmission in the presence of the Fr gene. PMID:7713444

  18. 76 FR 2712 - Ocwen Loan Servicing, LLC, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under Barclays Capital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Register on December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76488). The notice as amended on December 17, 2010 to include workers... January 3, 2011 (76 FR 178). At the request of the company, the Department reviewed the certification...

  19. 77 FR 32704 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Granting Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ..., 2012), 77 FR 22367 (``Notice''). \\5\\ See letter to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Commission, from.... 66625 (March 20, 2012), 77 FR 17548 (March 26, 2012) (SR-MSRB-2012-04). The MSRB noted that,...

  20. 78 FR 79362 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Nicollet County, Minnesota, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Incorporated Areas. DATES: The proposed rule published October 6, 2011, at 76 FR 62006, is withdrawn as of... INFORMATION: On October 6, 2011, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 62006, proposing...

  1. 78 FR 79298 - Securities Exempted; Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-End Management Investment Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Business Investment Companies, 23 FR 10484 (Dec. 30, 1958). \\2\\ Amendments to the Offering Exemption Under Regulation E of the Securities Act of 1933, 49 FR 35342 (Sept. 7, 1984). As part of Regulation E, rule...

  2. 78 FR 13007 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    .../2001 66 FR 52867. PACT--Pennsylvania Allegheny 03/04/1996 NOX 10/12/2001 66 FR 52044. County Thermal... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone,...

  3. 77 FR 60096 - Adding International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Certificate to List of Certificates a Recognized...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... International Anti-Fouling System Certificate. See, respectively, 74 FR 21554, May 8, 2009; and 76 FR 76896, Dec... Security Delegation No. 0170.1 and Aug. 8, 2011 Delegation of Authority, Anti-Fouling Systems. 2. Revise...

  4. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular...; Proposed Circular'' and ``Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Circular'' (76 FR 60593) and ``Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular'' (76 FR 60590). Corrections The...

  5. 76 FR 15224 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: March 15,...

  6. 76 FR 18104 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor. ACTION...: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. William E....

  7. 78 FR 33977 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, District of Columbia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...?collectionCode=CFR . C. Maryland Section 52.1072 Conditional approval. On April 17, 2003, (68 FR 19106), EPA... section is being removed because on April 15, 2004 (69 FR 19937), 40 CFR 52.1072 was stayed...

  8. 76 FR 66995 - David T. Koon, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...); Sheran Arden Yeates, 71 FR 39130, 39131 (2006); Dominick A. Ricci, 58 FR 51104, 51105 (1993); Bobby Watts... registration (when required), the Agency has revoked the practitioner's registration. James Stephen...

  9. 77 FR 38289 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ..., without extension, Capital Assessments and Stress Testing information collection (FR Y- 14A/Q/M). The... Stress Testing information collection (FR Y-14A/Q/M). In recognition of the complexities of the...

  10. 78 FR 25254 - Announcing an Open Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... following items: --Cybersecurity Executive Order 13636, Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (78 FR 11737, February 19, 2013); Development of New Cybersecurity Framework; Request for Information (RFI)--Developing a Framework to Improve Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (78 FR 13024, February...

  11. 78 FR 72063 - Open Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... include the following items: --Cybersecurity Executive Order 13636, Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (78 FR 11737, February 19, 2013); Development of New Cybersecurity Framework; Request for Information (RFI)--Developing a Framework to Improve Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (78 FR 13024...

  12. 77 FR 69910 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Release No. 67481 (July 20, 2012), 77 FR 43879 (July 26, 2012). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67794 (September 6, 2012), 77 FR 56247 (September 12, 2012). For the Commission, by the Division of...

  13. 76 FR 27904 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ..., Lead, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Sulfur.../1992, 57 FR 8082. 1-2-22 Cutback asphalt 9/26/1980 11/5/1981, 46 FR 54943. 1-2-22.5 ``Department...

  14. 77 FR 50163 - Affirmative Decisions on Petitions for Modification Granted in Whole or in Part

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... facilities). Docket Number: M-2011-010-M FR Notice: 76 FR 69766 (11/9/2011). Petitioner: Specialty Granules... Granules, Inc., 1101 Opal Court, Suite 315 Hagerstown, Maryland 21740. Mine: Specialty Granules (Ione) LLC...

  15. 76 FR 16595 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Extension of Public Comment Period on Proposed Range Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... of comments on the proposed rule published on February 4, 2011, (76 FR 6383), is extended from April... Spring, MD, (301) 713-1401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On February 4, 2011 (76 FR 6383), we...

  16. 78 FR 16817 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... implemented the final rule (65 FR 16336, March 28, 2000) that divided the Florida west coast subzone of the... southern Florida west coast subzone (78 FR 15642, March 12, 2013). Under 50 CFR 622.43(a), NMFS is...

  17. 77 FR 30559 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued...

  18. 75 FR 5040 - Extension of Period for Comments on Enhancement in the Quality of Patents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... of Patents, 74 FR 65093 (Dec. 9, 2009), 1350 Off. Gaz. Pat. Office 46 (Jan. 5, 2010). The USPTO..., 2010. See Request for Comments on Enhancement in the Quality of Patents, 74 FR at 65094, 1350 Off. Gaz...

  19. 76 FR 21381 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; ATRYN; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Register of March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15323). The document announced the determination of the regulatory review...-796-9138. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-6509, appearing on page 15323, in the Federal...

  20. 76 FR 40374 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Control Number 0910-0646)--Extension In the Federal Register of July 28, 2009 (74 FR 37163), FDA published... April 13, 2011 (76 FR 20677), FDA published a 60-day notice requesting public comment on the proposed...

  1. 77 FR 64827 - Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... filed by Lutron Electronics Co., Inc. (``Lutron'') of Coopersburg, Pennsylvania. 76 FR 35015-16. The... bonding from the parties and interested non-parties. 77 FR 43612-14 (July 25, 2012). On August 2 and...

  2. 77 FR 69499 - Certain LED Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Litepanels, Ltd. (collectively, ``Litepanels''). 76 FR 55416 (Sept. 7, 2011). The complaint alleged... disapprove the Commission's action. See Presidential Memorandum of July 21, 2005, 70 FR 43251 (July 26,...

  3. 76 FR 25565 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations Supplement; Guidance on Personal Services (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... their own procedures. DoD published an interim rule at 75 FR 54524 on September 8, 2010, to implement... published at 75 FR 54524 on September 8, 2010, with the following changes: 0 1. The authority citation...

  4. 77 FR 55186 - Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission Statement, 77 FR, No. 131, July 9... Statement, 77 FR, No. 131, July 9, 2012, is amended to read as follows: Timeframe for Recruitment...

  5. 76 FR 43347 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on February 26, 2009 (74 FR 8813). The last notification was filed with...) of the Act on June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31816). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...

  6. 76 FR 32886 - Control of Emissions From New Highway Vehicles and Engines; Guidance on EPA's Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... protection and infrastructure requirements, and requirements regarding unregulated pollutants. \\7\\ See 75 FR... final guidance. \\9\\ See 75 FR 39251 (July 8, 2010). Public comments received in response to the public...

  7. 77 FR 46960 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Forest County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... information on the Class I Area redesignation, see 73 FR 23086, April 29, 2008, and 77 FR 20575, April 5, 2012..., Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Sulfur oxides, Volatile organic compounds....

  8. 77 FR 8002 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    .../22/05 70 FR 14435 ANPRM Comment Period End 07/28/05 Availability of Draft Guidelines.... 07/07/06 71.../23/05 70 FR 70734 NPRM 07/26/11 76 FR 44664 NPRM Comment Period End 11/23/11 Final Action 12/00/12... boats, and other passenger vessels. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite Notice of Intent to Establish 03/30...

  9. FR Cnc revisited: photometry, polarimetry and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, A.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; Andreev, M.; Barnes, J. R.; Montes, D.; Pavlenko, E.; Pandey, J. C.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Medhi, B. J.; Parihar, P. S.; Henden, A.; Sergeev, A.; Zaitsev, S. V.; Karpov, N.

    2012-03-01

    This paper is part of a multiwavelength study aimed at using complementary photometric, polarimetric and spectroscopic data to achieve an understanding of the activity process in late-type stars. Here, we present the study of FR Cnc, a young, active and spotted star. We performed analysis of All Sky Automated Survey 3 (ASAS-3) data for the years 2002-08 and amended the value of the rotational period to be 0.826518 d. The amplitude of photometric variations decreased abruptly in the year 2005, while the mean brightness remained the same, which was interpreted as a quick redistribution of spots. BVRC and IC broad-band photometric calibration was performed for 166 stars in FR Cnc vicinity. The photometry at Terskol Observatory shows two brightening episodes, one of which occurred at the same phase as the flare of 2006 November 23. Polarimetric BVR observations indicate the probable presence of a supplementary source of polarization. We monitored FR Cnc spectroscopically during the years 2004-08. We concluded that the radial velocity changes cannot be explained by the binary nature of FR Cnc. We determined the spectral type of FR Cnc as K7V. Calculated galactic space-velocity components (U, V, W) indicate that FR Cnc belongs to the young disc population and might also belong to the IC 2391 moving group. Based on Li Iλ6707.8 measurement, we estimated the age of FR Cnc to be between 10 and 120 Myr. Doppler tomography was applied to create a starspot image of FR Cnc. We optimized the goodness of fit to the deconvolved profiles for axial inclination, equivalent width and v sin i, finding v sin i=46.2 km s-1 and i= 55°. We also generated a synthetic V-band light curve based on Doppler imaging that makes simultaneous use of spectroscopic and photometric data. This synthetic light curve displays the same morphology and amplitude as the observed one. The starspot distribution of FR Cnc is also of interest since it is one of the latest spectral types to have been imaged. No

  10. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr-213206 and 221Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7 s1 /2 to 7 p1 /2 transition for francium isotopes 206 -213Fr with reference to 221Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7 s1 /2 to 7 p3 /2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D1 and D2 transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  11. 78 FR 1704 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... would address Petition for Rulemaking, PRM-40-27 submitted by the State of Colorado and Organization of Agreement States. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/26/10 75 FR 43425 NPRM Comment Period Extended........ 11/18/10 75 FR 70618 NPRM Comment Period End 02/15/11 Final Rule 01/00/13 Regulatory Flexibility...

  12. 76 FR 28696 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    .../05/1996 11/9/1998 63 FR 60214 ....... X Chemical & Polymer Manufacturing. 446 Storage of Petroleum.... 458 Large Commercial Bread Bakeries 09/05/1996 11/9/1998 63 FR 60214 ....... X 459 Automotive, Truck... Products Coatings......... 09/25/2008 4/9/2010 75 FR 18068 ....... X 464 Organic Chemical Manufacturing...

  13. 78 FR 79636 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... 79636-79637] [FR Doc No: 2013-31146] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection.... DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published April 25, 2013 (78 FR 24634) is reopened. We..., 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 24634-24663, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011) a...

  14. 78 FR 80381 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-72; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80381-80382] [FR Doc No: 2013-31152] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... rule adopts, without change, an interim rule which was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 37686...-wide Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-31152 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  15. 78 FR 79620 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 79620-79621] [FR Doc No: 2013-30792] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisitions Regulations System... FR 76700, December 18, 2013): Supply contract Construction Trade agreement (equal to or contract... removing ``$202,000'' and adding ``$204,000'' in its place. [FR Doc. 2013-30792 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45...

  16. 78 FR 80382 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Terms of Service and Open-Ended Indemnification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80382-80384] [FR Doc No: 2013-31150] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... 78 FR 37686 on June 21, 2013, to implement a recent DOJ OLC opinion, entitled ``Memorandum for... 12, 13, 32, 43, and 52, which was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 37686 on June 21,...

  17. 78 FR 79567 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income Deductions and Resource Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Page 79567] [FR Doc No: 2013-31351] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253... ICR associated with the final rule published in the Federal Register on August 27, 2013, at 78 FR... Nutrition Service. [FR Doc. 2013-31351 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-30-P...

  18. 78 FR 79721 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... 79721-79723] [FR Doc No: 2013-31229] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-71182; File No... Exchange Act Release No. 63955 (February 24, 2011), 76 FR 11533 (March 2, 2011) (SR-ISE-2010-73). For... Release No. 54389 (August 31, 2006), 71 FR 52829 (September 7, 2006) (Original QCT Exemption)....

  19. 78 FR 79662 - Approval of Subzone Status; VF Jeanswear; Hackleburg, Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 79662] [FR... (78 FR 59469, 9/27/2013). The FTZ staff examiner reviewed the application and determined that it meets... activation limit. Dated: December 19, 2013. Andrew McGilvray, Executive Secretary. [FR Doc. 2013-31352...

  20. 78 FR 79652 - Taxation of U.S. Persons That Are Shareholders of Section 1291 Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-30844] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-113350...). DATES: The proposed rule published in the Federal Register on April 1, 1992 (57 FR 11024) is withdrawn... regulations (INTL-656-87, 1992-18 IRB 23, 57 FR 11024), including Sec. 1.1291-1 that provided guidance on...

  1. 78 FR 79449 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities, FCC 04-137, published at 69 FR 53346, September 1, 2004, and at 69 FR 53382, September 1, 2004. In the Report and Order, the Commission... Service, FCC 06-182, published at 72 FR 6960, February 14, 2007. The ruling applied several of the...

  2. 78 FR 79461 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... and restaurants. In the Federal Register of November 1, 2013 (78 FR 65663), FDA published a 60-day... referenced our Federal Register notice published on November 8, 2013 (78 FR 67169) (``the November 8, 2013... provided in the nutrition labeling of food. In the Federal Register of July 11, 2003 (68 FR 41434),...

  3. 78 FR 79403 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... of California Santa Cruz published in the Federal Register on October 30, 2013 (78 FR 64918... time. The Federal Register notice that NMFS incorrectly published on December 23, 2013 (78 FR 77433... Proposed IHA notice of December 23, 2013 (78 FR 77433), as the public was already afforded an...

  4. 78 FR 79340 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Stage II Vapor Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... worse. The EPA approved these rules on April 15, 1994 (59 FR 17940). The four areas where Stage II is... Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver, published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41731). Each year, non-ORVR... to and will soon surpass the emission reductions achieved by Stage II alone (see 77 FR 28772). In...

  5. 77 FR 15273 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... and regulatory provisions necessary to administer the provisions of RCRA Cluster XX, and designates... Cluster XX, prepared on April 22, 2011. The DEQ incorporates the Federal regulations by reference and...-1262, 75 FR 12989-13009, 75 FR 31716-31717 and 75 FR 33712-33724 for RCRA Cluster XX. The...

  6. 76 FR 45705 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); Is not...

  7. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... 2010-23-09, Amendment 39-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010), for Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect... FR 68179, November 5, 2010), and adding the following new AD: Austro Engine GmbH: Docket No....

  8. 76 FR 54373 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... certain publication listed in this AD as of November 22, 2010 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010). ADDRESSES...-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on June 9, 2011 (76 FR 33660). That NPRM proposed to continue to require...

  9. 77 FR 58027 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: New Source Review-Prevention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...) Program for Particulate Matter Less than 2.5 Micrometers (PM 2.5 ),'' 73 FR 28321 (May 16, 2008... Significant Monitoring Concentration (SMC),'' 75 FR 64864 (October 20, 2010), hereafter referred to as the... Florida's NSR PSD program. See 77 FR 44198. Comments on the proposed rulemaking were due on or...

  10. 75 FR 58305 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Revised Format for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Company. Article 11. Emission Limitations for Specific Types of Operations 11-1 Existing Foundries..... 7...-5 Fluoride Emission 2/6/1981 11/27/1981, 46 FR Limitations for 57892. Existing Primary Aluminum..... 12/29/2005, 70 FR 77026.... Paragraph (ee). Fluoride Emission Limitations for 3/11/2003, 68 FR 11472...

  11. 76 FR 28455 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... determined that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 67105... amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). \\2\\ The Commission has found the...

  12. 76 FR 27663 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... determined that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 67105... amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). \\2\\ The Commission has found...

  13. 76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 67082 (November 1, 2010... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review: Correction, 76 FR 2083 (January 12, 2011) (``Correction Notice... Determination of Circumvention of ] Antidumping Duty Order, 58 FR 26100 (April 30, 1993). The order...

  14. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... FR 67082 (November 1, 2010). As a result of its review, the ] Department determined that revocation... Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 12939 (March 9, 2011). On July 7, 2011, the ITC... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy, 76 FR 39896 (July 7, 2011), and USITC Publication...

  15. 77 FR 37937 - License Renewal Application for Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... the license for the ISFSI would be forty (40) years. On February 16, 2011 (76 FR 8872), revisions to... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28,...

  16. 75 FR 14474 - STP Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... report (ER), was published in the Federal Register on October 24, 2007 (72 FR 60394). A notice of... FR 68597). A notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) and to conduct the scoping process was published in the Federal Register on December 21, 2007 (72 FR 72774). The purpose...

  17. 78 FR 17259 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... (September 28, 2012), 77 FR 60735 (October 4, 2012) (Notice of Filing of Amendments No. 1 and Order Granting...-2013- 001) 78 FR 4526 (January 22, 2013). ] Pursuant to MIAX Rule 404, the Exchange currently lists and...\\ \\7\\ See 77 FR at 60737. The Exchange's rules that apply to the trading of standard options would...

  18. 77 FR 69910 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    .... \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66614 (March 16, 2012), 77 FR 16883. \\4\\ See letters to... Exchange Act Release No. 66889 (May 1, 2012), 77 FR 26812 (May 7, 2012). \\6\\ See letter to Elizabeth M... (June 20, 2012), 77 FR 38100 (June 26, 2012) (``Order Instituting Proceedings''). \\11\\ See letters to...

  19. 78 FR 40539 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... (December 30, 2008), 74 FR 480 (January 6, 2009) (SR-CBOE-2008-133) (adopting the amended procedures on a temporary basis through January 30, 2009), 59331 (January 30, 2009), 74 FR 6333 (February 6, 2009) (extending the amended procedures on a temporary basis through May 29, 2009), 60020 (June 1, 2009), 74 FR...

  20. 76 FR 71975 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... state and country of incorporation for each entity provided in organization chart of the FR Y-6 and FR Y... organization chart, verification of domestic branch data, and information about shareholders. The Federal... the state and country of incorporation for each entity provided in organization chart of the FR Y-6...

  1. 77 FR 4995 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of... 731-TA-739......... Japan......... Clad Steel Plate (3rd Review)..... David Goldberger (202)...

  2. 78 FR 27891 - Promulgation of State Implementation Plan Revisions; Infrastructure Requirements for the 1997 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... (60 FR 36715), 9 (60 FR 36715), and 10 (60 FR 36715), ARM (regulating construction of new or modified... respect to new and modified minor sources. 4. Adequate resources and local and regional government... permits. These are all permits required to construct a new or modified stationary source, and, under 75-2...

  3. 75 FR 14438 - PPL Montana, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Stats. & Regs. 31,160, at P 531 (2004) (Order No. 2003-A); order on reh'g, Order No. 2003-B, 70 FR 265..., 70 FR 37,661 (June 30, 2005), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,190 (2005). \\2\\ Preventing Undue... Interconnection Agreements and Procedures, Order No. 2003, 68 FR 49,846 (Aug. 19, 2003), FERC Stats. & Regs ] 31...

  4. 75 FR 2582 - Proposed Modification of the Atlanta, GA, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ..., in Covington, GA, as published in the Federal Register on Friday, December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63818), FR... Federal Aviation Administration Proposed Modification of the Atlanta, GA, Class B Airspace Area; Public... Friday, December 4, 2009, concerning a proposal to revise Class B airspace at Atlanta, GA, (74 FR...

  5. 77 FR 55515 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 57376 (February 25, 2008), 73 FR 11689 (March 4, 2008) (order approving...). \\4\\ 73 FR at 11692. The Exchange will list Range Options on the S&P 500 Index (Ticker: SRO) beginning... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66277 (January 30, 2012), 77 FR 5595 (February 3, 2012). Clearing Trading...

  6. 75 FR 34100 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Less Than Fair Value: Silicon Carbide from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 22585 (May 2, 1994) (Silicon Carbide). Absence of De Jure Control The Department considers the following de jure criteria in... Republic of China, 60 FR 22544, 22545 (May 8, 1995); see also Silicon Carbide, 59 FR at 22586-87. The...

  7. 75 FR 22543 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. Model L 23 Super Blanik Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On March 29, 2010, we issued AD 2010-08-01, Amendment 39-16256 (75 FR 17295; April... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... amends Sec. 39.13 by removing Amendment 39-16256 (75 FR 17295; April 6, 2010), and adding the...

  8. 77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... interim rule published at 77 FR 31720-31722 on May 30, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Claudia... rule \\1\\ effective and published on May 30, 2012, in the Federal Register (77 FR 31720-31722, Docket No..., the interim rule that amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 77 FR 31720-31722 on May...

  9. 75 FR 26121 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review Under Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR... implications, as specified in Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). This rule applies to... Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks EPA interprets EO 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23...

  10. 77 FR 72746 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ....1451, 80.1453, 80.1454, and 80.1460 published at 77 FR 61281 (October 9, 2012). Because EPA did not...: EPA published a direct final rule on October 9, 2012 (77 FR 61281) to amend provisions in the... the parallel proposed rule also published on October 9, 2012 (77 FR 61313). As stated in the direct...

  11. 78 FR 40523 - Order Exempting Market Makers Participating in NASDAQ Stock Market LLC's Market Quality Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 68515 (Dec. 21, 2012), 77 FR 77141 (Dec. 31, 2012) (``Notice''). On February 7.... 68925 (Feb. 14, 2013), 78 FR 12116 (Feb. 21, 2013). The Approval Order grants approval of the proposed...).\\6\\ \\5\\ 15 U.S.C. 78k(d)(1). \\6\\ See, e.g., Exchange Act Release Nos. 6726 (Feb. 8, 1962), 27 FR...

  12. 76 FR 35959 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines; Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement: Treatment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Board issued an interim final rule (CPP interim rule) (74 FR 26077) to allow bank holding companies that... Board published a final rule on the capital treatment of the Senior Perpetual Preferred Stock. See 74 FR.... See 74 FR 26077, 26079 (June 1, 2009). The Board received two comments on the CPP interim rule....

  13. 78 FR 63852 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... October 25, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013) remains September 19... 2013-16-10, Amendment 39-17548 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013), currently requires incorporating... published in the Federal Register. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15,...

  14. 75 FR 73967 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., 2000 edition of the Federal Register and codified in 40 CFR part 62, subpart I. (65 FR 20090). However... Order Reviews A. General Requirements Under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May...

  15. 77 FR 43301 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits'' notice published in the January 3, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR 148). II... in the ``Background'' section of the January 3, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR 148) notice, the... (75 FR 21314). The final FY 2011 DSH allotments being published in this notice are approximately...

  16. 76 FR 148 - Medicaid Program; Final FY 2009 and Preliminary FY 2011 Disproportionate Share Hospital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... limits determined. The notice published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2008 (73 FR 77704... correction notice published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2009 (74 FR 4439) provided a correction to.... Finally, the notice published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21314), included...

  17. 77 FR 217 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment; Ambulatory Surgical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ..., Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program Issues. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2011-28612 of November 30, 2011 (76 FR 74122), (hereinafter referred to as the CY 2012 OPPS/ASC final... they had been included in the CY 2012 OPPS/ASC final rule with comment period (76 FR 74122)...

  18. 75 FR 30756 - Medicare Program; Supplemental Proposed Changes to the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ..., 2010. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule FR Doc. No. 2010-12567, published elsewhere in...) 786-4487. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2010-12567 filed May 21, 2010, there are... the FY 2011 IPPS/LTCH PPS proposed rule (75 FR 23852).'' Therefore, in section III. of this...

  19. 75 FR 78916 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... 10, 2004 edition of the Federal Register and codified in 40 CFR Part 62, subpart VV. (69 FR 54756... (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not a ``significant regulatory action'' and therefore... Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001). This action merely approves State...

  20. 75 FR 34428 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...), and Cherry Point Range Complexes to the Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command, 1562 Mitscher Avenue... Navy's VACAPES, JAX, and Cherry Point Range Complexes were published on June 15, 2009 (VACAPES: 74 FR 28328; JAX: 74 FR 28349; Cherry Point: 74 FR 28370), and remain in effect through June 4, 2014. They are...

  1. 77 FR 17033 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... GOMEX Range Complex were published on February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9250), and remain in effect through... Register notice and 50 CFR part 218 subpart D. On February 1, 2012, NMFS published a final rule (77 FR 4917... issued on February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9250). The application requested authorization, for a period of...

  2. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 79658] [FR..., the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service published in the Federal Register (78 FR 63959-63960... 20th day of December 2013 . Kevin Shea, Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service....

  3. 78 FR 79728 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 79728] [FR Doc No: 2013-31346] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment... Analyst. [FR Doc. 2013-31346 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4830-01-P...

  4. 78 FR 79672 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 79672-79673] [FR Doc No: 2013-31310] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN... Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2013-31310 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  5. 78 FR 79661 - Gallatin County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 79661] [FR Doc No: 2013-31295] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Gallatin County Resource Advisory... case by case basis. Dated: December 19, 2013. Mary C Erickson, Forest Supervisor. [FR Doc....

  6. 75 FR 36680 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... March 31, 2010, Rhodes Technologies, 498 Washington Street, Coventry, Rhode Island 02816, made... pertaining to Rhodes Technologies, 72 FR 3417 (2007), comments and requests for hearings on applications to... Register on September 23, 1975, (40 FR 43745), all applicants for registration to import a basic class of...

  7. 75 FR 27821 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 95 (Tuesday, May 18, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 27821-27824] [FR... published in the Federal Register on April 10, 2002 at 67 FR 17464. This new notice includes additions to... routine use language. No changes are made to the exemptions claimed for the system. The entire notice is...

  8. 76 FR 76730 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... current data item, ``UNALLOCATED''. In addition, the Federal Reserve would make minor changes to the FR...] [FR Doc No: 2011-31431] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. SUMMARY: On June 15, 1984, the...

  9. 75 FR 62436 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Plants.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bruce P. Lin, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear... Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc. 2010-25405 Filed 10-7-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...] [FR Doc No: 2010-25405] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0097] Notice of Issuance of...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. ...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. ...

  12. 77 FR 74507 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and..., marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal... Gary Benmark 77 FR 41198; July 12, 2012 August 18, 2012. 045532 NOAA/National Marine 77 FR 41198;...

  13. 77 FR 3556 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-1379] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA...-6292), or Ms. Kimberly Toone, Office of Information Technology, RAD-20, Federal Railroad Administration..., Acting Director, Office of Financial Management, Federal Railroad Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-1379...

  14. 77 FR 3555 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-1380] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA...-6292), or Ms. Kimberly Toone, Office of Information Technology, RAD-20, Federal Railroad Administration... Logue, Acting Director, Office of Financial Management, Federal Railroad Administration. [FR Doc. 2012...

  15. 77 FR 8114 - Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... (Oct. 25, 2011). It received one comment on the preliminary plan from the law firm of Hughes Hubbard... and the identification of specific rules to be included in the plan. 76 FR 66004 (Oct. 25, 2011) and... documents filed with the agency will be filed by electronic means. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011)....

  16. 78 FR 9691 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ..., Annually; Liquidity risk reports, monthly. Reporters: Bank holding companies, state member banks, branches... Principal or Municipal Securities Representative Associated with a Bank Municipal Securities Dealer; Uniform... Bank Municipal Securities Dealer. Agency form number: FR MSD-4; FR MSD-5. OMB control number:...

  17. 77 FR 26777 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...; August October 21, 2011. Wildlife 24, 2011. Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute..., 2011. 57273A University of 76 FR 78308; February 6, 2012. Georgia Research December 16, 2011..., 2012. Tennessee, College 2, 2012. of Veterinary Medicine. Marine Mammals 791721 U.S. Geological 76 FR...

  18. 75 FR 36393 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...; discussion groups: Two times a year. FR 1373b, small-panel survey: Two times a year; large-panel survey, one...; discussion groups, 60 hours. FR 1373b: small-panel, 6 hours; large- panel 32 hours. Estimated average hours... techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before August...

  19. 76 FR 53129 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... financial data, an organization chart, verification of domestic branch data, and information about... (``foreign banking organizations''). These collections are itemized below. This proposal, as discussed in... Organizations. Agency form number: FR Y-6 and FR Y-7. OMB control number: 7100-0297. Frequency: Annual...

  20. 76 FR 49769 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    .... It collects financial data, an organization chart, verification of domestic branch data, and... Holding Companies, and Annual Report of Foreign Banking Organizations. Agency form number: FR Y-10, FR Y-6...: Annual. Reporters: Bank holding companies (BHCs), foreign banking organizations (FBOs), state member...

  1. 75 FR 6558 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., and the effective date for the amendments was July 1, 2010. 74 FR 5498 (January 29, 2009) (UDAP Rule... amendments to the UDAP Rule. 74 FR 20804 (May 5, 2009). List of Subjects in 12 CFR Part 706 Credit, Credit... payments pursuant to a pension, retirement, or disability program. (f) Household goods. Clothing,...

  2. 77 FR 76452 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 249 (Friday, December 28, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 76452] [FR Doc No: 2012-31281] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration.../adcommit.html . Larry Mitchell, Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. [FR...

  3. 78 FR 31909 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Confidential Financial Disclosure Report (August 9, 1996, 61 FR 41572). Reason: The report is covered by the Systems of Records Notices OGE/GOVT-1, Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Reports and..., 2003, 68 FR 24744) and OGE/GOVT-2 Executive Branch Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports...

  4. 78 FR 22802 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... 1051, January 7, 2000), which applies to certain Boeing Model 747-100B, -200, -300, and 747SP series... the installation required by paragraph (c) of AD 2000-01-05, Amendment 39-11502 (65 FR 1051, January 7... paragraph (i)(5) of this AD: Paragraph (c) of AD 2000- 01-05, Amendment 39-11502 (65 FR 1051, January...

  5. 76 FR 63656 - Front Range Resource Advisory Council Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 198 (Thursday, October 13, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 63656] [FR Doc No: 2011-26447] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCOF00000-L18200000-XX0000.... Dated: October 5, 2011. John Mehlhoff, Acting State Director. [FR Doc. 2011-26447 Filed 10-12-11; 8:45...

  6. 76 FR 65696 - Battelle Energy Alliance, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscope This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c...: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: FEI Company, the Netherlands. Intended Use: See notice at 76 FR 56156.... Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: FEI Company, Czech Republic. Intended Use: See notice at 76 FR...

  7. 76 FR 38456 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... at grade diamond crossing with Oregon Pacific Railroad and seven shared highway-rail grade crossings... Conventional Equipment, 65 FR 42529 (July 10, 2000); see also Joint Statement of Agency Policy Concerning... Systems, 65 FR 42626 (July 10, 2000). A copy of the petition, as well as any written communications...

  8. 75 FR 41405 - Energy Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Rulemaking,'' 67 FR 53461 (August 16, 2002), DOE published procedures and policies on February 19, 2003, to... rulemaking process. 68 FR 7990. DOE has made its procedures and policies available on the Office of the... of the Regulatory Flexibility Act and the procedures and policies published on February 19,...

  9. 75 FR 53720 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 169 (Wednesday, September 1, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 53720-53721] [FR Doc No: 2010-21776] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of... Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration. [FR Doc. 2010-21776 Filed 8-31-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  10. 78 FR 43867 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    .../SORNs/component/ngia/index.html . The proposed deletions are not within the purview of subsection (r) of..., Department of Defense. Deletions: B0502-03, Master Billet/Access Records (March 19, 2002, 67 FR 12532... deleted. B1211-03, Passport and Visa Files (January 18, 2002, 67 FR 2639). Reason: This system was...

  11. 78 FR 44102 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Defense. Deletions: AAFES 0702.43 Travel Advance Files (August 9, 1996, 61 FR 41588). AAFES 0408.17 HPP Employee Upward Mobility Program Files (August 9, 1996, 61 FR 41578). AAFES 0702.22 Check-Cashing Privilege...), as amended. The proposed deletion is not within the purview of subsection (r) of the Privacy Act of...

  12. 78 FR 21600 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal... System name: DLA Drug-Free Workplace Program Records (May 20, 2010; 75 FR 28242) Reason: Records are... ] Register on June 21, 2010, at 75 FR 35099. Therefore, S380.50, DLA Drug-Free Workplace Program Records can...

  13. 78 FR 31569 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 101 (Friday, May 24, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 31569-31570] [FR Doc No: 2013-12377] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National... 20, 2013. Melanie J. Gray, Program Analyst, Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy. [FR...

  14. 77 FR 29674 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 97 (Friday, May 18, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 29674-29675] [FR Doc No: 2012-12120] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National... Policy. [FR Doc. 2012-12120 Filed 5-17-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  15. 75 FR 26761 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 26761-26762] [FR Doc No: 2010-11313] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National..., Director, Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy. [FR Doc. 2010-11313 Filed 5-11-10; 8:45 am]...

  16. 78 FR 31570 - National Cancer Institute: Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 101 (Friday, May 24, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 31570] [FR Doc No: 2013-12376] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer... Advisory Committee Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-12376 Filed 5-23-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  17. 77 FR 31030 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

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    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 101 (Thursday, May 24, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 31030] [FR Doc No: 2012-12650] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer..., Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy. [FR Doc. 2012-12650 Filed 5-23-12; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  18. 75 FR 13139 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

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    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: The National Indian Gaming... comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR... March 4, 2010 (75 FR 3756). ] DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual is...

  19. 75 FR 3756 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

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    2010-01-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: National... period for comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63765, 74 FR 63787). DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual...

  20. 75 FR 19626 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

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    ..., entitled ``DoD Personnel Accountability and Assessment System.'' [FR Doc. 2010-8656 Filed 4-14-10; 8:45 am... Defense. Deletion: S900.10. System name: Personnel Roster/Locator Files (December 26, 2002; 67 FR 78780...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. ...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. ...

  3. 76 FR 51400 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Rhodes Technologies to ensure that the company's registration... 28, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on May 4, 2011 76 FR 25374, Rhodes Technologies, 498... explained in the Correction to Notice of Application pertaining to Rhodes Technologies, 72 FR 3417...

  4. Cosmological viable mimetic f(R) and f(R, T) theories via Noether symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.; Güdekli, E.

    2015-07-01

    Extended f(R) theories of gravity have been investigated from the symmetry point of view. We briefly has been investigated Noether symmetry of two types of extended f(R) theories: f(R, T) theory, in which curvature is coupled non-minimally to the trace of energy-momentum tensor Tμν and mimetic f(R) gravity, a theory with a scalar field degree of freedom, but ghost-free and with internal conformal symmetry. In both cases we write point-like Lagrangian for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological background in the presence of ordinary matter. We have been shown that some classes of models existed with Noether symmetry in these viable extensions of f(R) gravity. As a motivated idea, we have been investigating the stability of the solutions and the bouncing and ΛCDM models using the Noether symmetries. We have been shown that in mimetic f(R) gravity bouncing and ΛCDM solutions are possible. Also a class of solutions with future singularities has been investigated.

  5. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f(R) cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Shamir, M. F.

    2016-12-15

    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f(R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f(R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f(R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f(R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f(R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  6. Solar System Tests of f(R) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun-Qi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we revisit the solar system tests of f(R) gravity. When the sun sits in a vacuum, the field f‧ is light, which leads to a metric different from the observations. We reobtain this result in a simpler way by directly focusing on the equations of motion for f(R) gravity in the Jordan frame (JF). The discrepancy between the metric in the f(R) gravity and the observations can be alleviated by the chameleon mechanism. The implications from the chameleon mechanism on the functional form f(R) are discussed. Considering the analogy of the solar system tests to the false vacuum decay problem, the effective potentials in different cases are also explored. The combination of analytic and numerical approaches enables us to ascertain whether an f(R) model can pass the solar system tests or not.

  7. f(R) gravity and chameleon theories

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2008-11-15

    We analyze f(R) modifications of Einstein's gravity as dark energy models in the light of their connection with chameleon theories. Formulated as scalar-tensor theories, the f(R) theories imply the existence of a strong coupling of the scalar field to matter. This would violate all experimental gravitational tests on deviations from Newton's law. Fortunately, the existence of a matter dependent mass and a thin-shell effect allows one to alleviate these constraints. The thin-shell condition also implies strong restrictions on the cosmological dynamics of the f(R) theories. As a consequence, we find that the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to be extremely close to -1 in the recent past. We also examine the potential effects of f(R) theories in the context of the Eoet-wash experiments. We show that the requirement of a thin shell for the test bodies is not enough to guarantee a null result on deviations from Newton's law. As long as dark energy accounts for a sizeable fraction of the total energy density of the Universe, the constraints that we deduce also forbid any measurable deviation of the dark energy equation of state from -1. All in all, we find that both cosmological and laboratory tests imply that f(R) models are almost coincident with a {lambda}CDM model at the background level.

  8. In Vitro Hemodynamic Evaluation of Five 6 Fr and 8 Fr Arterial Cannulae in Simulated Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Palanzo, David; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate five small-bore arterial cannulae (6Fr and 8Fr) in terms of pressure drop and hemodynamic performance in simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits. The experimental circuits consisted of a Jostra HL-20 roller pump, a Terumo Capiox Baby FX05 oxygenator with integrated arterial filter, an arterial and a venous tubing (1/4, 3/16, or 1/8 in × 150 cm), and an arterial cannula (Medtronic Bio-Medicus 6Fr and 8Fr, Maquet 6Fr and 8Fr, or RMI Edwards 8Fr). The circuit was primed using lactated Ringer's solution and heparinized packed human red blood cells (hematocrit 30%). Trials were conducted at different flow rates (6Fr: 200-400 mL/min; 8Fr: 200-600 mL/min) and temperatures (35 and 28°C). Flow and pressure data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. Higher circuit pressure, circuit pressure drop, and hemodynamic energy loss across the circuit were recorded when using small-bore arterial cannula and small inner diameter arterial tubing in a neonatal CPB circuit. The maximum preoxygenator pressures reached 449.7 ± 1.0 mm Hg (Maquet 6Fr at 400 mL/min), and 395.7 ± 0.4 mm Hg (DLP 8Fr at 600 mL/min) when using 1/8 in ID arterial tubing at 28°C. Hypothermia further increased circuit pressure drop and hemodynamic energy loss. Compared with the others, the RMI 8Fr arterial cannula had significantly lower pressure drop and energy loss. Maquet 6Fr arterial cannula had a greater pressure drop than the DLP 6Fr. A small-bore arterial cannula and arterial tubing created high circuit pressure drop and hemodynamic energy loss. Appropriate arterial cannula and arterial tubing should be considered to match the expected flow rate. Larger cannula and tubing are recommended for neonatal CPB. Low-resistance neonatal arterial cannulae need to be developed.

  9. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-OpenDaylight...

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    ... Act on July 1, 2013 (78 FR 39326). The last notification was filed with the Department on August 14... 16, 2013 (78 FR 56939). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division....

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    ... Interstate Rule); Revisions to Acid Rain Program; Revisions to the NO X SIP Call; Final Rule,'' 70 FR 25162... 40 Sulfuric Acid 11/30/1995 9/26/1997, 62 FR 50514 Production Units- Sulfur Dioxide, Acid Mist and...

  11. 77 FR 30505 - Cornell University, et al.; Notice of Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific...

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    ...., Switzerland. Intended Use: See notice at 77 FR 23660, April 20, 2012. Comments: None received. Decision...: Dectris Ltd., Switzerland. Intended Use: See notice at 77 FR 23660, April 20, 2012. Comments:...

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    ... Presidential Proclamations No. 8114, 72 FR 13655, 13659 (March 22, 2007), and No. 8596, 75 FR 68153 (November 4... Annex to the World Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (``ATC''), and the...

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    2010-05-28

    ..., Hennepin, Illinois. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21355). The... published in the Federal Register on May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26793) At the request of the State, the...

  14. 76 FR 13122 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

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  15. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2010 Winter II Quota

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    2010-09-07

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS published a final rule in the Federal Register on November 3, 2003 (68 FR 62250... increase table (table 4) published in the 2010 final scup specifications (74 FR 67978, December 22,...

  16. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

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    2012-12-26

    ... Value: Silicon Carbide from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 22585 (May 2, 1994) (``Silicon Carbide... rate margin. \\30\\ See Preliminary Determination, 77 FR at 46049. \\31\\ See, e.g., Crystalline Silicon...

  17. 76 FR 77552 - Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same; Determination Not To Review an...

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    2011-12-13

    ... August 18, 2011, based on a ] complaint filed by SLED. 76 FR 51396-97 (Aug. 18, 2011). A corrected Notice... Investigations will not participate as a party in this investigation. 76 FR 52348-49 (Aug. 22, 2011)....

  18. 77 FR 66907 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

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    ... annual fee. \\7\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 55202 (January 30, 2007), 72 FR 6017 (February 8.... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 50838 (December 10, 2004), 69 FR 75578 (December 17, 2004) (approving...

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