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Sample records for fr01se10r bifenazate pesticide

  1. 75 FR 53586 - Bifenazate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... following reasons: i. The toxicology database for bifenazate does not indicate that the immune system is the primary target organ. The observed effects on the immune system have been well characterized and were seen.... The overall weight of evidence suggests that bifenazate does not directly target the immune...

  2. 40 CFR 180.572 - Bifenazate; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of bifenazate (1-methylethyl 2-(4-methoxy -3-yl)hydrazinecarboxylate) including its metabolites and... specified are to be determined by measuring only the sum of bifenazate and its metabolite diazinecarboxylic... metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities listed in the following table. Compliance with...

  3. 40 CFR 180.572 - Bifenazate; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of bifenazate (1-methylethyl 2-(4-methoxy -3-yl)hydrazinecarboxylate) including its metabolites and... specified are to be determined by measuring only the sum of bifenazate and its metabolite diazinecarboxylic... metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities listed in the following table. Compliance with...

  4. Dissipation kinetics of bifenazate in tea under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, Annamalai; Senthurpandian, Velu Kalaipandian; Shanmugaselvan, Veilumuthu Anandham

    2014-02-15

    Field experiments were conducted during April and May of 2011 in Valparai, Coonoor and Gudalur (Tamil Nadu, India) to determine the residues of bifenazate in black tea. From this study, residue levels of bifenazate at different harvest intervals, persistence, dissipation pattern during processing, rate constant and half-life values were calculated. Residues of bifenazate dissipated exponentially after spraying and at Gudalur trial, on the 16th day after application residues were below the maximum residue level of 0.02 mg/kg set by the European Union. However, no residues were detected in the tea brew. Regression lines drawn for bifenazate showed that it followed first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 1.03 to 1.36 days for bifenazate and a pre-harvest interval of 16 days is suggested.

  5. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACMT Recognition Awards Annual Scientific Meeting Travel Scholarships Pesticides Public Health > Public > Toxicology FAQ's > Pesticides Pesticides What are pesticides ? How do pesticides work ? How ...

  6. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  7. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  8. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to ... effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures ...

  9. Evaluation of site-specific tactics using bifenazate and Neoseiulus californicus for management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruohan; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of site-specific tactics for management of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a major pest of greenhouse and field-grown strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Two site-specific (spot) treatments, the miticide bifenazate (Acramite(®)) and the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor, were compared with whole-plot treatments of bifenazate or N. californicus to determine whether T. urticae could be effectively managed in field-grown strawberry using only site-specific tactics. Additionally, the cost of site-specific tactics was compared with whole-plot treatments to determine the economic value of using site-specific management tactics for T. urticae in strawberries. In the greenhouse, all treatments equivalently reduced the number of T. urticae below control. In the field during the 2011-2012 season, more T. urticae eggs and motiles were in the whole-plot treatments of both N. californicus and bifenazate in the mid-season and late season, respectively, compared with the spot treatments. With the exception of site-specific N. californicus during the 2011-2012 field season, there were no differences in marketable yields between plots with site-specific treatments and whole-plot management. An economic analysis demonstrated a significant cost savings (75.3 %) with site-specific treatments of N. californicus compared with whole-plot application of N. californicus. Similarly, a 24.7 % reduction in cost was achieved in using site-specific bifenazate compared with whole-plot application of bifenazate. The findings indicate that site-specific treatments with N. californicus and bifenazate are competitive alternatives to whole-field application for T. urticae management in strawberries. PMID:27502111

  10. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

  11. 75 FR 13282 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ..., tangelo, calamondin, kumquat, and pummelo; olives; pome fruits: Apple, Pear, Crabapple, Loquat, Mayhaw..., highbush blueberry, lowbush blueberry, buffalo currant, Chilean guava, black currant, red currant.... Active ingredient: Bifenazate. Proposed Uses: Sugar apple, cherimoya, atemoya, custard apple,...

  12. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  13. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  14. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  15. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  16. Comparative biology and pesticide susceptibility of Amblydromella caudiglans and Galendromus occidentalis as spider mite predators in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2015-09-01

    The successful integrated mite management program for Washington apples was based on conservation of the mite predator Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt). In the 1960s, this mite was assumed to be the only phytoseiid in Washington commercial apple orchards, due to its preference for the most common mite pest of that period, Tetranychus mcdanieli McGregor, as well as its resistance to organophosphate pesticides. A recent survey of phytoseiids in Washington apple found that another phytoseiid, Amblydromella caudiglans (Schuster) has become common. It is a more generalized predator than G. occidentalis (it is not a Tetranychus spp. specialist) and is not known to be organophosphate-resistant. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the life history, prey consumption, and pesticide tolerance of these two species. Galendromus occidentalis developed more quickly than A. caudiglans, but had slightly lower egg survival. Although A. caudiglans attacked more Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs than G. occidentalis, it could not reproduce on this diet. Both predators performed equally well on a diet of T. urticae protonymphs. Unlike G. occidentalis, A. caudiglans experienced significant mortality when exposed to carbaryl, azinphosmethyl, and bifenazate. Both predators experienced significant mortality due to imidacloprid and spinetoram. These results highlight the key differences between these two predators; the shift away from organophosphate use as well as the change in dominant mite pest to Panonychus ulmi (Koch) may be driving factors for the observed increased abundance of A. caudiglans in Washington apple.

  17. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  18. [Pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, A

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides em leader ) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts em leader ). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented. PMID:12813483

  19. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn About Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Products NPRO: Pesticide Product Search Pesticide Ingredients ...

  20. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  1. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  2. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  3. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  4. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  5. Pesticides and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gaylen

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the dangers of pesticides to the world ecosystem as well as the economic necessity which an affluent society has created are the two sides of the pesticide problem discussed in this issue. An attempt is made to clarify the issue, to recognize the ways that pesticides exert their effects, and to relate what measures can be taken to…

  6. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  7. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  8. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use. PMID:23184103

  9. Pesticides and health risks.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Robyn C; Huffling, Katie; Sattler, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are a category of chemicals formulated to kill or repel a pest or halt its reproduction. In this article we review the toxicological and epidemiological literature; describe common potential pesticide exposures; and focus on the associated health risks to fetal development. Clinical implications are reviewed, and recommendations are made regarding the integration of this environmental health concern into nursing education, practice, research, and policy/advocacy work. Recommendations for pesticide elimination and reduction in health care settings are included. PMID:20409108

  10. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…

  11. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  12. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  13. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  14. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  15. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  16. Pesticides in Iowa precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nations, B.K.; Hallberg, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Rainfall was sampled for pesticides to assess their occurrence in precipitation and potential impacts on water resources. Three areas in Iowa were sampled; two localities were in rural settings, and a third in an urban area. Fourteen pesticides, including ten herbicides and four insecticides, were detected from October 1987 through September 1990. Atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor were the most commonly detected, with one or more of these four herbicides found in almost every rainfall sample during the growing season. Concentrations of individual pesticides ranged from 0.1 ??g L-1 to 40.0 ??g L-1, with most detections under 1.0 ??g L-1. Pesticide detections in rainfall began in April and ended in July or August, probably related to the timing of chemical application and greater volatilization rates during warmer weather. Samples from the urban site had detections of the same agricultural chemicals found at the rural sites, but in lesser quantities. In addition to the commonly detected herbicides, three of the four insecticides detected in rainfall were only found in urban samples. Two of these have urban as well as agricultural uses. Some variation of pesticide detections were seen at the three sampling localities, related to regional and local use patterns. Concentrations were greater at sampling sites near fields where pesticides are applied, suggesting that local volatilization and distance of transport affect the concentrations in rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were highest at the beginning of a rainfall event with concentrations becoming lower in samples taken later in the event.

  17. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  18. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... (77 FR 74003) (FRL-9362-3). In that document, EPA requested comment on a draft PR notice that provided... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the...

  19. What Is a Pesticide?

    MedlinePlus

    ... must be identified by name on the pesticide product's label together with its percentage by weight. There are ... identify inert ingredients by name or percentage on product labels. In general, only the total percentage of all ...

  20. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  1. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  2. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  3. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  4. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  5. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  6. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... referred to as ``mold-related pesticides''). ``Fungicides'' are antimicrobial pesticides that destroy fungi... efficacy data when any specific species of fungus is listed on the label of fungicides, or when...

  7. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  8. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  9. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  10. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  11. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  12. Pesticide use in agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, R L; Tinney, J C; MacGregor, J T; Starler, N J

    1978-01-01

    During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses. PMID:104870

  13. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  14. Pesticides in fog.

    PubMed

    Glotfelty, D E; Seiber, J N; Liljedahl, L A

    The discovery of the very acidic nature of fog and clouds has created much interest in sampling, analysing, and elucidating the chemistry of fog, principally because an understanding of the chemical transformations leading to acid fog may provide important clues to the origin of acid rain. Recently, the knowledge of the chemistry of fog has expanded to include carbonyl compounds, volatile organic acids, and alkyl sulphonates. We have discovered that a variety of pesticides and their toxic alteration products are present in fog, and that they occasionally reach high concentrations relative to reported rainwater concentrations. In our experiments, we were able to measure the air-water distribution coefficients of pesticides between the liquid fog and the interstitial gas phase. These measurements reveal that some chemicals are enriched several thousandfold in the suspended liquid fog droplets compared to equilibrium distributions expected from Henry's Law coefficients for pure aqueous solutions.

  15. Pesticides and healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R N

    1989-01-01

    Despite concern over long-term human and environmental health risks, Canadian and international pesticide use continues to increase. Enormous gaps in pesticide toxicity data persist and, though equivocal, there is mounting evidence that certain pesticide families are carcinogenic. Farmworkers are at greatest risk of pesticide poisoning and long-term health effects, and unions representing farmworkers have initiated a boycott of California grapes to draw attention to the need to reduce pesticide use and improve health and safety conditions. The boycott is a model of "healthy public policy" in action, and can be one element in a public health strategy to reduce significantly pesticide use and promote less toxic alternatives and less chemically dependent forms of agriculture and silviculture. PMID:2790629

  16. Pesticide residues in eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Cromartie, E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.

    1969-01-01

    Bald and golden eagles found sick or dead in 18 States and Canada during 1964-1965 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues in bald eagles were considerably higher than in golden eagles. Residues of DDE, DDD, and dieldrin were detected in all samples of bald eagle carcasses; other compounds found, less frequently were heptachlor epoxide, endrin, and DCBP, a metabolite of DDT. DDE was detected in all samples of golden eagle carcasses; DDD, DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were detected less frequently.

  17. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  18. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  19. Pesticides in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mañay, N; Rampoldi, O; Alvarez, C; Piastra, C; Heller, T; Viapiana, P; Korbut, S

    2004-01-01

    This is a review, from an independent and scientific point of view, of the different aspects involved in the issue of pesticides in Uruguay. In its preparation, the University, responsible official institutions, nongovenment environmental organizations, and independent experts have been consulted. As to the legal framework, the responsibilities of the institutions are described and evaluated. The earlier and current regulations for the registration and sale of pesticides are presented, as well as the available information on the active ingredients most used in Uruguay. Official control is evaluated in reference to pesticide residues in food, drinking water, and the environment and to final waste disposal. Maximum allowed residue limits and the responsibilities of the corresponding governmental institutions are presented. Emphasis is placed on the fact that there are no publicly available data. Several research programs are presented, mainly from academia, and usually are not completed due to lack of financial support. In the conclusions the most problematic aspects are pointed out, emphasizing the need to improve national regulations for the country to establish an effective system of control. The importance of financial support to achieve this control and to conduct interdisciplinary studies to determine the real situation is discussed. All compounds are listed in Table 19. PMID:14738198

  20. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  1. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P),...

  2. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  3. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  4. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  5. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  6. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  7. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  8. 75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  9. Persistent pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Albert, L A

    1996-01-01

    As part of the recent increase in the international interest in persistent organic pollutants and their environmental and health hazards, it was found that although most of them have been severely controlled in developed countries, in most developing countries--including Mexico--their import, use, and in some cases production have continued up to the present without sufficient or adequate controls. Despite the large and continuing use of persistent organic chemicals in Mexico in agriculture, public health, and industry, data on their import, production, use, disposal, and the presence of their residues in the environment, food, and human tissues are extremely scarce and widely dispersed. This review is devoted only to the use of persistent pesticides in Mexico; it is the first effort to locate, gather, and analyze this information and to summarize and discuss the past and current situation of the control of these chemicals in Mexico. This review discusses the general background for the use of these pesticides in the country, including historical development, the reasons for substitution by less persistent products in crops intended for export, and the undesirable effect of this substitution on the health of migratory agricultural workers. The current status of the legal framework for the control of pesticides in Mexico is presented with emphasis on its slow and haphazard development; the legal, technical, and administrative reasons for the insufficient enforcement and oversight of the existing regulations and standards are highlighted. The low priority of this research area for the Mexican science and technology authorities and the negative consequences of this low priority on the existence of sufficient reliable data on pesticide residues in the environment and humans in Mexico are also discussed. The available data on production and uses of persistent pesticides in Mexico are presented, and the existing information on their residues in the environment, biota

  10. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  11. Photocatalytic oxidation of pesticide rinsate.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen S

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide rinsate has been considered as one of the major threats for the environment. In this study, photocatalysts such as TiO2 and O3 were used to promote the efficiency of direct UV photolysis to prevent such wastewater pollution. Carbofuran (a carbamate pesticide) and mevinphos (an organophosphate pesticide) with a concentration of 100 mg/L were selected as the test pesticide rinsates. Parent pesticide compound, COD, and microtoxicity analysis were employed to investigate the effect of photocatalyst on the degradation efficiency of pesticide in rinsate. It was found that the photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/O3, UV/TiO2) showed much higher COD removal and microtoxicity reduction efficiency for pesticide rinsate than did direct UV photolysis under the imposed conditions, suggesting that photocatalytic oxidation processes such as UV/O3 and UV/TiO2 could be a better alternative to treat pesticide rinsate. In addition, it was noted that increasing the initial pH of mevinphos rinsate to a basic level was required to reach higher COD removal efficiency and positive microtoxicity reduction efficiency while it was not necessary for the treatment of carbofuran rinsate.

  12. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  13. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...

  14. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  15. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... end of 2010, EPA initiated a ``user acceptance pilot.'' (75 FR 51058, August 18, 2010; EPA-HQ-OPP-2010... comment on a number of these issues. (75 FR 82011, December 29, 2010; EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0648). Based on its... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for...

  16. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  17. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are

  18. Health and environmental hazards of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Iyaniwura, T T

    1991-01-01

    The increase in world population and in demand for food and economic crops has put a pesticide burden on man and the environment. Pesticide residues from vector control and agricultural uses contaminate the terrestrial and aquatic surroundings and contribute to the pollution problem of the environment. Various human toxicoses have resulted from pesticide use. The major pathogenic pesticides are chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. With careful and enlightened use, pesticide toxicity, to both man and the environment, could be significantly reduced.

  19. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs is inviting nominations of qualified...

  20. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-09-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings.

  1. Multiresidue determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mogadati, P.S.; Rosen, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for the multiresidue extraction, cleanup and GC/MS determination of 142 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil have been developed. The use of solid phase extraction cartridges makes it possible to clean up the soil sufficiently so that the equivalent of 40 mg. soil may be injected onto the GC capillary column without overloading or harming the column. Combining this clean-up method with chemical ionization ion trap detection allowed for very low limits of detection.

  2. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Wesseling, Catharina . E-mail: cwesseli@una.ac.cr; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-09-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings.

  3. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and...

  4. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  5. Bulk pesticide storage - state perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Buzicky, G.

    1994-12-31

    State bulk pesticide storage regulations continue to evolve differentially due, in large part, to the absence of federal regulations. This is about to change because of the pending promulgation of 40 CFR Part 165, as amended in 1988 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules regarding storage, handling and disposal. Until final adoption of the rules by EPA, states continue to address bulk pesticide storage and handling according to individual state statute, rules and guidelines.

  6. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  7. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  8. REVIEW OF SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide contamination results from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, or disposal of pesticides, and from agricultural processes. Since most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds, selecting a remedy for pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process....

  9. Pesticides and the Third World.

    PubMed

    Forget, G

    1991-01-01

    Many developing countries are importing industrial processes that make use of toxic chemicals. By the same token, pesticides, which are toxic by design, are also used increasingly in agriculture and in public health programs to control pests and vector-borne diseases. Recent estimates suggest that pesticides account for more than 20,000 fatalities yearly, and that most of these will have occurred in developing countries. This may actually be a gross underreporting. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are still responsible for many of those poisoning cases, herbicides such as paraquat are also increasingly being implicated in fatal poisoning cases. Newer pesticides such as the synthetic derivatives of pyrethrin, which were believed to be relatively safe to humans, now appear to be implicated in some serious cases of intoxication. Community-based pest control using locally available botanical pesticides could have severe consequences unless the toxicity of these compounds is carefully assessed relative to nontarget organisms. A high proportion of pesticide intoxications appear to be due to lack of knowledge, unsafe attitudes, and dangerous practices. The technology available to small farmers for pesticide application is often inappropriate: faulty sprayers, lack of protective equipment adapted to tropical conditions, nonexistent first-aid provisions. Agricultural extension is often not oriented to the transfer of information relative to the dangers inherent in the use of pesticides. The lack of information at all levels may be one of the most important causative factors of chemical intoxication in developing countries. Research should at this time concentrate on behaviors leading to chemical intoxication. This should be done concurrently with proper prospective and retrospective surveys of poisonings in developing country communities. More information should be sought relative to the decision processes of import, legislation, and licensing. Research

  10. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  14. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  1. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... relationship between EPA-approved labels for pesticides registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  2. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  3. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  4. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 103: cadmium pesticide compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration standard, (2) Issuance of each special review document, (3) Registration of a significantly changed use pattern, (4) Registration of a new chemical, or (5) An immediate need for information to resolve controversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use pattern.

  5. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  6. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  7. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... of receipt published on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19388; FRL- 8808-5). One comment was received during... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration Approvals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... pesticide products and amended registrations for currently existing pesticide products. FOR...

  8. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... restricted-use pesticides. District programs will be reviewed by the Division Engineer for the selection...

  9. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  10. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  11. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... restricted-use pesticides. District programs will be reviewed by the Division Engineer for the selection...

  12. Pesticides in Schools: Reducing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Attorney General, Albany.

    This report presents findings of state-wide use of pesticides in New York public schools along with a description of the survey, information about the potential dangers of these chemicals, and the steps schools and communities can take to minimize pesticide use. Findings show that 87 percent of New York's schools use pesticides that contain…

  13. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... restricted-use pesticides. District programs will be reviewed by the Division Engineer for the selection...

  14. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... restricted-use pesticides. District programs will be reviewed by the Division Engineer for the selection...

  15. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... restricted-use pesticides. District programs will be reviewed by the Division Engineer for the selection...

  16. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  17. Pesticide use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ecobichon, D J

    2001-03-01

    Chemical pesticides have been a boon to equatorial, developing nations in their efforts to eradicate insect-borne, endemic diseases, to produce adequate food and to protect forests, plantations and fibre (wood, cotton, clothing, etc.). Controversy exists over the global dependence on such agents, given their excessive use/misuse, their volatility, long-distance transport and eventual environmental contamination in colder climates. Many developing countries are in transitional phases with migration of the agricultural workforce to urban centres in search of better-paying jobs, leaving fewer people responsible for raising traditional foods for themselves and for the new, industrialized workforce. Capable of growing two or three crops per year, these same countries are becoming "breadbaskets" for the world, exporting nontraditional agricultural produce to regions having colder climates and shorter growing seasons, thereby earning much needed international trade credits. To attain these goals, there has been increased reliance on chemical pesticides. Many older, nonpatented, more toxic, environmentally persistent and inexpensive chemicals are used extensively in developing nations, creating serious acute health problems and local and global environmental contamination. There is growing public concern in these countries that no one is aware of the extent of pesticide residue contamination on local, fresh produce purchased daily or of potential, long-term, adverse health effects on consumers. Few developing nations have a clearly expressed "philosophy" concerning pesticides. There is a lack of rigorous legislation and regulations to control pesticides as well as training programs for personnel to inspect and monitor use and to initiate training programs for pesticide consumers.

  18. Accountability in the pesticide industry.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Peter; Waples, Megan

    2003-01-01

    To counter the lack of corporate accountability of the agrochemical industry for the damage caused by its perpetuation of the use of harmful chemical pesticides, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund staff in June 2002 brought together concerned scientists, lawyers, socially responsible investment professionals, and sustainable agriculture advocates at their Pocantico Conference Center. The group's objective was to communicate to market analysts the long-term downside risks of investments in pesticides, in the hope that dissemination of this information would contribute to increasing corporate accountability and safeguarding public and environmental health. Excerpts from its proceedings are presented. PMID:12749634

  19. Apply Pesticides Properly: A Guide for Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual is designed as a guide for pesticide applicators to meet specific standards required for certification by federal regulations or state law. The eight sections included describe: (1) The most common features of pests, how they develop, and the kinds of damage they do; (2) Methods used to control pests and how to combine these methods…

  20. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the <250 μm bed sediments during spring and late summer, and (iii) the hydrological regime or the incoming pesticide loads did not influence the pesticide dissipation, which varied according to the molecules and the wetland biogeochemical conditions. The vegetation enhanced the pesticide degradation during the vegetative phase and the pesticides were released during plant senescence. The dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems.

  2. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the <250 μm bed sediments during spring and late summer, and (iii) the hydrological regime or the incoming pesticide loads did not influence the pesticide dissipation, which varied according to the molecules and the wetland biogeochemical conditions. The vegetation enhanced the pesticide degradation during the vegetative phase and the pesticides were released during plant senescence. The dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  3. Pesticide loading and rinsate recycling facility guide

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-20

    This guide has been prepared by staff of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) to complement the consultant`s Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report and generic engineering plans. This guide informs pesticide applicators of the regulatory aspects of the Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report. Guidance are recommended procedures contained in this Guide are not law or rules at this time, but may be in the future. To clarify what is recommendation and what is present law or rule, a table in Appendix 4 lists topics addressed in this guide and a distinction between what is recommended and what is required. Both the guide and the consultant`s report and plans are meant to provide pesticide applicators with the basis for developing pesticide loading, rinsate, and washwater management plan for your business locations. Staff of the MDA and the MCPA are concerned with the improper management of pesticides and pesticide related wastes.

  4. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  5. Modeling and Predicting Pesticide Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models provide a means for representing a real system in an understandable way. They take many forms, beginning with conceptual models that explain the way a system works, such as delineation of all the factors and parameters of how a pesticide particle moves in the air after a s...

  6. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  7. 40 CFR 180.572 - Bifenazate; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Acerola 0.90 Almond, hulls 15 Apple, wet pomace 1.2 Bean, dry seed 0... 7.0 Passionfruit 0.90 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B 0.70 Peppermint, tops 25... 12/31/09 Soybean, refined oil 20 12/31/09 Soybean, seed 1.5 12/31/09 Timothy, forage 50...

  8. 40 CFR 180.572 - Bifenazate; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 180.572, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the....75 Grape, raisin 1.2 Guava 0.9 Hog, fat 0.10 Hop, dried cones 15 Horse, fat 0.10 Jaboticaba...

  9. 40 CFR 180.572 - Bifenazate; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 180.572, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the....75 Grape, raisin 1.2 Guava 0.9 Hog, fat 0.10 Hop, dried cones 15 Horse, fat 0.10 Jaboticaba...

  10. Ames, pesticides, and cancer revisited.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Chlamtac, Noga

    2002-01-01

    The case for continuing use of existing levels of pesticides in agriculture, espoused by Bruce Ames, is refuted. Ames' contentions that naturally occurring carcinogens are far more widespread than man-made ones, that pesticides prevent cancer by providing fruits and vegetables at lower costs to the poor, and that animal data on high risks with high doses cannot predict low risks from low doses in humans do not address key issues: 1) fruits and vegetables contain mixtures of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens, and selection effects from human exposures to these mixtures go back more than a million years; 2) exposures from bioconcentrations of biopersistent organochlorines in the food chain create particular risks for meat-eaters, who have higher cancer risks than vegetarians; 3) even low doses from ingestion of produce containing pesticide residues can cause tissue injury, which could itself promote cancer; 4) epidemiologic data show rises in cancer incidences in older people in many countries, major differences in cancer risks between countries, and converging trends in risks for populations migrating to certain countries; 5) studies of pesticide-exposed workers consistently show increased rates of cancers and birth defects and cancers in their offspring; 6) epidemiologic studies based on large databases tend to underestimate risks from environmental causes because of exposure misclassification; 7) exposures to many organochlorines may have pervasive effects on endocrine function; 8) crop yields can be increased with less use of pesticides. Studies demonstrating the latter need replication, and should be supported as part of a coherent government agenda to develop alternative farming methods.

  11. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... of May 19, 2010 (75 FR 28012) (FRL-8824-8). In that document, the Agency announced the availability... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment...

  12. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... availability of this draft PR Notice for public comment (67 FR 14941; FRL-6809-9) on March 28, 2002 and... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The... Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are...

  13. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  14. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  15. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  16. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  17. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  18. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  19. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  20. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  1. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  2. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    PubMed

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  3. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Mattes, Brian M; Cothran, Rickey D; Relyea, Rick A; Hoverman, Jason T

    2015-11-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species.

  4. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  5. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  6. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  7. Pesticides sensing by surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kalabina, N.A.; Ksenevich, T.I.; Beloglazov, A.A.; Nikitin, P.I.

    1995-12-31

    High toxicity of pesticides and their wide use in agriculture, represent a general danger for environmental welfare and could become a real threat to life. Screening of pesticides in the environment has become very important during last years due to low threshold values for pesticides in drinking water. An optical biosensor has been developed for detection of pesticides, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Concentration of the pesticides was measured in liquid or gas. The authors specially originated organic film on a disposable element. A setup on the base of the Kretschmann arrangement was improved by using a computer-controlled angular scanning system. The detection concentration limit of dinitrophenole (DNP) was 10{sup {minus}9} M. Some samples exhibited effect down to 10{sup {minus}11} M of DNP. The results obtained provide reason for further development of SPR sensor as applied to pesticides monitoring.

  8. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Santed, Fernando; Colomina, Maria Teresa; Herrero Hernández, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are used extensively throughout the world. The main sources of contamination for humans are dietary ingestion and occupational exposures. The major concerns related to OP exposure are delayed effects following high level exposures as well as the impact of low level exposures during the lifespan which are suggested to be a risk factor for nervous system chronic diseases. Both high and low level exposures may have a particularly high impact in population subgroups such as aged or genetically vulnerable populations. Apart from the principle action of OPs which involves inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, several molecular targets, such as hormones; neurotransmitters; neurotrophic factors; enzymes related to the metabolism of beta amyloid protein as well as inflammatory changes have been identified for OP compounds. Here we review the main neurological and/or cognitive deficits described and the experimental and epidemiological relationships found between pesticide exposure and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) diseases. This report also focuses on possible individual differences making groups resilient or vulnerable to these toxicants. A critical discussion of the evidence obtained from experimental models and possible sources of bias in epidemiological studies is included. In particular this review aims to discuss common targets and pathways identified which may underlie the functional deficits associated with both pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration. PMID:26687930

  9. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. PMID:21531026

  10. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  11. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  12. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  13. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  14. The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws, 2000: A Review of State Pesticide Laws Regarding Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kagan; Feldman, Jay

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews state actions concerning pesticide use around schools, including the federal role in school pesticide use, and presents a list of each state's regulations regarding protecting children from pesticide exposure in schools. A case for protecting children is detailed. The report discusses some of the actions states have taken to…

  15. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  16. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  17. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  18. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  19. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  20. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  1. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  3. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  5. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  7. DISTRIBUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTIAL AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multi-pathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynucl...

  8. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Environmental protection, Agricultural commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides and pests... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code...

  9. 76 FR 49396 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This listing is not... commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  10. Pesticide mitigation strategies for surface water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide residues are being increasingly detected in surface water in agricultural and urban areas. In some cases water bodies are being listed under the Clean Water Act 303(d) as impaired and Total Maximum Daily Loads are required to address the impairments in agricultural areas. Pesticides in sur...

  11. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...-for Tolerance In the Federal Register of November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69690) (FRL- 9325-1), EPA issued a... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA..., is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory...

  12. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...-RR) was published in a separate notice (see 75 FR 11175; March 10, 2010; FRL-8811-6). File symbol... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing...

  13. State pesticide regulatory programs: themes and variations.

    PubMed

    Arne, K H

    1997-01-01

    State pesticide regulation varies with region, with the amount and type of agriculture, with pesticide use, and with political conditions that are sometimes volatile and unpredictable. Dr. Arne offers an overview of state regulatory programs and their connections to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  14. Pesticide fact sheet number 20. 2: Amitrole

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. The Fact Sheet is issued on Amitrole for issuance of each special review document.

  15. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case–control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale genotyping to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene–environment interaction studies. PMID:18940823

  16. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few studies of- long-term exposure. Many reports in the literature describing ;chronic' exposures to pesticides are, in fa...

  17. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  18. Interaction of pesticides with natural organic material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Burcar, P.J.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1969-01-01

    Two examples of the interaction of pesticides with natural organic materials have been investigated. Sodium humate solubilizes DDT in water and humic acid strongly sorbs 2,4,5-T. These two types of interactions are indicative of the types that one would expect when any organic pesticide is applied to a natural soil-water system.

  19. 76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... 14'' to ``nutmeat, processed, except peanuts'' to correct an error in a prior rulemaking. DATES: This... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code...

  20. Pesticide Dealers Training Manual. Manual 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed by pesticide dealers to meet the requirements of the Missouri Pesticide Act of 1974. A complete copy of the Act accompanies the manual. Pertinent sections to dealers are quoted and additionally explained through comment, interpretation, and example. (CS)

  1. Using Pesticides Safely. Special Circular 296.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, W. K.

    The use of pesticides is necessary to aid in the production of food, feed and fiber, and is equally important in the control of home garden and household pests, but correct use is critical in preventing injury to persons, animals, and plants. This circular contains information on State of Pennsylvania and federal pesticide laws; different types of…

  2. Applications of Metabonomics in Pesticide Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomic studies quantitatively measure the small molecule metabolites and their intermediates in the biological samples (serum, urine or tissue extracts) and have gained wide applications in many fields, especially in toxicology. Pesticides are extensively used around the world and pesticide toxicity has become a serious threat to human health. Metabonomic approach has been applied in many aspects of pesticide toxicology research such as eco-environmental toxicity studies, biomarker identification, and mechanism of toxicity studies. Both whole organism animal models and cell culture models are used for metabonomic studies on pesticide toxicology. In the literature, metabonomic analyses on the toxicity of over thirty common pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, have been carried out using magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. The combined toxicity of pesticides or pesticide with heavy metals was also investigated with metabonomic approach. In this article, recent progresses made in applying metabonomic approach in pesticide toxicology are thoroughly reviewed and the challenges with application of this approach are also discussed. PMID:26279326

  3. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few reports of long-term exposure. Reports in the literature describing "chronic" exposures to pesticides are, in fact, a...

  4. Pesticide Fate in a Golf Course Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on the fate of pesticides in a golf course environment was presented to science professionals and golf course personnel at the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents' Association March Mini-Seminar in Bloomington, MN, on 6 March 2007. Topics presented included: the definition of pesticide...

  5. Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Sultana, Nargis

    2007-11-01

    This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other countries, it has started causing environmental problems in the area. In some areas of Punjab and Sindh groundwater has been found contaminated and is constantly being under the process of contamination due to pesticide use. There is considerable evidence that farmers have overused and misused pesticides especially in cotton-growing areas. It is evident from the biological monitoring studies that farmers are at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides due to occupational exposure. Furthermore, the intensive use of pesticides (higher sprays more than the recommended dose) in cotton areas involves a special risk for the field workers, pickers, and of an unacceptable residue concentration in cottonseed oil and cakes. The authors have also discussed the merits and demerits of different studies. The review will set the future course of action of different studies on pesticide exposure in Pakistan. Data limitations are still the major obstacle towards establishing clear environmental trends in Pakistan. The authors suggest that a reliable monitoring, assessment and reporting procedures shall be implemented in accordance with appropriate environmental policies, laws and regulations in order to minimize the pesticides exposure.

  6. 78 FR 53682 - Tetrachlorvinphos; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective August 30, 2013... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following...). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How can I...

  7. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  8. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are designed to be bioactive against certain targets but can cause toxicity to nontarget species by a variety of other modes of action including disturbance of endocrine function. As such, pesticides have been found to bind and alter the function of hormone receptors, ...

  9. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  10. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology

  11. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  12. Microbial biosensors for organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

    2011-09-01

    Organophosphates, amongst the most toxic substance known, are used widely in agriculture around the world. Their extensive use, however, has resulted in their occurrence in the water and food supply threatening humans and animals. Therefore, there is a need for determination of these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, and rapidly in the field. The present work is a brief review on the recent advancements in amperometric, potentiometric, and optical biosensors using genetically engineered microorganisms expressing organophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme intracellularly or anchored on the cell surface for the detection of organophosphate pesticides. The benefits and limitations associated with such microbial biosensors are delineated.

  13. Pesticide Use Plan (PUP) for Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenhals, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and its Worker Protection Standard, EPA authority, state regulations, and Texas Department of Agriculture authority make up a complex set of environment compliance requirements. The Pantex Plant northeast of Amarillo, Texas is currently dedicated to the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Ironically large areas of the Pantex Plant Site have been farmed for over 40 years. Pesticides are an integral part of agronomic production practices once economic thresholds for certain pests are exceeded. Horticulture and industrial operations also use pesticides. Pesticides can migrate to several playa lakes onsite, where they may threaten compliance with the Clean Water Act. Plant personnel are aware of the need to provide a chemically safe work environment, protect the public, and ensure an ecologically healthy environment. Thus a PUP has been developed to coordinate all pesticide use, ensure safety of agricultural and industrial workers, and protect the playa habitat. The PUP provides guidelines for pesticide use, notification, training, and safety.

  14. Pesticide-related health problems and farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Moses, M

    1989-03-01

    1. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are primarily ethnic minorities who are excluded from federal laws that protect other workers. Farmworkers live and work under substandard conditions that place them at increased risk of pesticide-related illness. 2. Agriculture uses 80% of all pesticides in the U.S. Handlers who mix, load and apply pesticides as well as workers cultivating and harvesting crops sprayed with them are at risk of acute poisoning or even death from their exposures. Drift and run-off of agricultural pesticides pollute the air, soil and water, creating additional hazards to workers' families, community residents, and the environment. 3. Chronic effects, including cancer in adults and children, adverse reproductive outcomes, delayed neuropathy and neurobehavioral effects, are also associated with occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:2647086

  15. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and BayluscideTM into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. Objectives: To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. Methods: We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. Results: We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker’s skin contaminated with pesticides. Conclusion: We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25730600

  16. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  17. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  18. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  19. Spreading the Word about Pesticide Hazards and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Norma

    1993-01-01

    Presents a pamphlet and four brochures about pesticide hazards, pesticide use and alternatives, special impacts on children, lawn and garden pest management, and pesticides in food. Discusses the whys and ways of using these materials to inform people about pesticide issues. (MDH)

  20. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  1. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  2. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  4. 40 CFR 158.100 - Pesticide use patterns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide use patterns. 158.100 Section 158.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.100 Pesticide use patterns. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  6. 40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.235 Posted pesticide safety information. (a) Requirement. When handlers (except those employed by a commercial...

  7. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  8. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  9. 40 CFR 170.135 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.135 Posted pesticide safety..., a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a...

  10. 40 CFR 158.100 - Pesticide use patterns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide use patterns. 158.100 Section 158.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.100 Pesticide use patterns. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  12. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  13. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  14. 40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.235 Posted pesticide safety information. (a) Requirement. When handlers (except those employed by a commercial...

  15. 40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.235 Posted pesticide safety information. (a) Requirement. When handlers (except those employed by a commercial...

  16. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  17. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  18. 40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.235 Posted pesticide safety information. (a) Requirement. When handlers (except those employed by a commercial...

  19. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  20. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  1. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  2. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  3. 40 CFR 170.135 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.135 Posted pesticide safety..., a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a...

  4. 40 CFR 170.135 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.135 Posted pesticide safety..., a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a...

  5. 40 CFR 170.135 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.135 Posted pesticide safety..., a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a...

  6. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides.

  7. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  8. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  9. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  10. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  11. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  12. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  13. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  14. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  15. The effect of crop rotation on pesticide leaching in a regional pesticide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Di Guardo, Andrea; Vischetti, Costantino; Trevisan, Marco

    2008-11-01

    New modeling approaches that include the use of GIS are under development in order to allow a more realistic assessment of environmental contamination by pesticides. This paper reports a regional GIS-based risk assessment using a software tool able to simulate complex and real crop rotations at the regional scale. A single pesticide leaching assessment has been done. The mean annual pesticide concentration in leachate has been analyzed using both stochastic and deterministic approaches. The outputs of these simulations were mapped over the sampling locations of the regional pesticide monitoring program, demonstrating that GIS-based risk assessment can be used to establish new monitoring programs. A multiple pesticide leaching assessment for analyzing the risk related to pest control strategies in six different maize-based rotations has been carried out. Additive toxic units approach has been used. Crop rotation allows to mediate the risk related to pesticide use because forces the use of different compounds with different fate and toxicology properties.

  16. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... of leaves and other debris that can collect water. Keep potential nesting places, such as wood and trash piles, off the ground. Close outdoor trash bins and compost containers securely. Remove any standing water in the house (base of shower, dishes left ...

  17. The research of Organophosphorus pesticide biosensor characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Luo, Xixian; Cheng, Yi

    2010-10-01

    To study the fiber-sensor film applied in detecting Organophosphorus pesticide, methyltriethoxysilane was used as precursor, which was doped by FITC- AchE. Consequently, the excellent Acetylcholinesterase biology sensitivity film was prepared. Physics characteristic of the film and sensitivity of Organophosphorus pesticide were researched. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could reach 10-7{10-6 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 10-8 mol/L. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on.

  18. Contamination of the freshwater ecosystem by pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, Oliver B.

    1966-01-01

    A large part of our disquieting present-day pesticide problem is intimately tied to the freshwater ecosystem. Economic poisons are used in so many types of terrain to control so many kinds of organisms that almost all lakes and streams are likely to be contaminated. In addition to accidental contamination many pesticides are deliberately applied directly to fresh waters for suppression of aquatic animals or plants. The problem is intensified because of the extreme susceptibility of freshwater organisms. The complexity of freshwater environments and their variety makes it difficult to comprehend the total effect of pesticides.

  19. Management of pesticide mixing and loading facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dwinell, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Many pesticide applicators have decided that a Chemical Mixing Facility (CMF) is the best way to manage problems of soil and water contamination at pesticide mixing and loading sites. These facilities must be managed properly to avoid the accumulation of potentially hazardous wastes, the creation of a point source of pollution, and possible fines for violation of environmental protection laws. Proper management must include pesticide containers, equipment rinsewater, sludge and sediments that accumulate on the pad, and materials used to contain and collect spills.

  20. Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils.

    PubMed

    Kah, M; Brown, C D

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the fate of a pesticide in soil is fundamental to the accurate assessment of its environmental behaviour and vital in ensuring the safe use of new and existing products. Ionisable pesticides comprise a significant proportion of both existing and new active substances registered for use in agriculture worldwide. This group of pesticides includes chemicals that are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters in many different countries. Despite this, approaches to predict the influence of soil properties on the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils are poorly developed. Current regulatory assessments frequently default to methods developed for nonionic chemicals, although it is evident that ionisable compounds do not often react like neutral molecules. This review presents the state of knowledge on the adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. It first introduces the issues concerning adsorption and the characteristics of this particular kind of chemical. The mechanisms postulated for the adsorption of ionisable pesticides are then described: these are hydrophobic partitioning, ionic exchange, charge transfer, ligand exchange, cation or water bridging, and the formation of bound residues. Relatively little experimental evidence is available, and we are still unable to determine the quantitative contribution of each process in a particular situation. Knowledge is still lacking concerning phenomena occurring at the surfaces of soil particles. Measurements do not allow determination of the operative pH at the surface of soil particles or in microenvironments, and the influence of ionic strength or competition effects is difficult to assess. Subsequently, the review focuses on the influence of soil properties on adsorption and on potential to predict the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils. Unlike hydrophobic compounds, adsorption of ionisable pesticides is highly sensitive to variation in pH. This relationship mainly derives from the

  1. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  2. Airborne pesticide residues along the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.; Foreman, W.T.; Goolsbys, D.A.; Nakagaki, N.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty- five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in 80% or more of the samples. The highest concentrations for chlorpyrifos (1.6 ng/m3), diazinon (0.36 ng/m3), and malathion (4.6 ng/m3) all occurred near major metropolitan areas. These samples represent a 'snapshot in time', a spatial and temporal integration of which pesticides were present in the air during each sampling period. The occurrence and atmospheric concentrations of the observed pesticides were most closely related to their use on cropland within 40 km of the river.The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty-five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in

  3. Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431

  4. 76 FR 22044 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... 32551), antimicrobial pesticides (NAICS 32561), wood preservatives (NAICS 32519), importers of such... water treatment, wood preservative pesticide, or to obtain a tolerance for such a pesticide. Since...

  5. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  6. Processing factor for a selected group of pesticides in a wine-making process: distribution of pesticides during grape processing.

    PubMed

    Pazzirota, T; Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Fernandez-Alba, A R

    2013-01-01

    The processing factors (the pesticide concentration found in the wine/pesticide concentration found in grapes) of acetamiprid, azoxistrobin, carbaril, carbendazime, cyprodinil, dimethoate, dimethormorf, imazalil, imidacloprid, kresoxim methyl, penconazole, procymidone and thiabendazole were determined in a wine-making process. Pesticide analysis was performed using a multi-residue method for the determination of different pesticides both in wine and in grapes by extraction with acetonitrile followed by LC/MS. The pesticide distribution was studied for each step of the process, and the pesticide processing factors were calculated and found to vary among the different pesticides studied. pKow was found to affect a pesticide's processing factor; a linear correlation was obtained for all pesticide processing factors, except for dimethoate, which was the most water soluble. However, no correlation was found between the processing factor and the water solubility of pesticides. PMID:23875669

  7. PR notice 86-4. Notice to registrants of pesticides, and applicants for pesticide registration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces a new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy regarding incomplete applications for registration of pesticides under section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 USC 136a et seq. This notice also specifies new requirements for submitting applications to the Agency in order to implement this policy.

  8. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  9. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ..., Collierville, TN 38017. Product name: Carbon Power Concentrate. Plant growth regulator. Active ingredient... formulating agricultural pesticide formulations, plant growth, regulators, herbicides, fungicides, seed... Biosciences, Inc. Product name: Carbon Power . Plant growth regulator. Active ingredient:...

  10. PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

  11. Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

  12. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  13. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    .... c/o Landis International Inc. requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311)....

  14. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Beketov, Mikhail A; Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Liess, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

  15. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... toxicity study in dogs. Dramatic eye effects (retinal degeneration, lens vascularization, cataracts and... CONTACT: Lois Rossi, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection... information, please follow the instructions at http://www.epa.gov/dockets/contacts.htm ....

  16. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Enrivonmentally Significant Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudzinski, Walter E.; Beu, Steve

    1982-01-01

    A chromatographic procedure for analyzing organophosphorus pesticides (such as PCB's, nitrosamines, and phthalate esters) in orange juice is described, including a summary of the method, instrumentation, methodology, results/discussion, and calculations. (JN)

  17. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

  18. How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

  19. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  20. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0089. Company Name and Address: Arizona Cotton Research and Protection...

  1. Parkinsonism and occupational exposure to pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Engel, L; Checkoway, H; Keifer, M; Seixas, N; Longstreth, W; Scott, K; Hudnell, K; Anger, W; Camicioli, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the risk of parkinsonism related to lifetime occupational exposure to pesticides among a cohort of men, mostly orchardists, in Washington State.
METHODS—All 310 subjects in this study had previously participated in a cohort study of men occupationally exposed to pesticides. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed a self administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on pesticide (insecticide, herbicide, and fungicide) use throughout their working careers. Demographic characteristics were also sought. Subjects had a mean age of 69.6 years (range 49-96, SD 8.1). There were 238 (76.8%) subjects who reported some occupational exposure to pesticides, whereas 72 (23.2%) reported none. Parkinsonism was defined by the presence of two or more of rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and impairment of postural reflexes in subjects not on antiparkinsonian medication, or the presence of at least one sign if they were on such medication. Parkinson's disease was not studied explicitly because of the difficulty in distinguishing it from other parkinsonian syndromes. A generalised linear model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for parkinsonism relative to history of farming, pesticide use, and use of well water.
RESULTS—A PR of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 4.2) was found for subjects in the highest tertile of years of exposure to pesticides; a similarly increased, non-significant, PR was found for the middle tertile (1.9 (95% CI 0.9 to 4.0)), although a trend test did not show a significant exposure-response relation. No increased risks were found associated with specific pesticides or pesticide classes, nor with a history of farming or use of well water.
CONCLUSION—Parkinsonism may be associated with long term occupational exposure to pesticides, although no associations with specific pesticides could be detected. This finding is consistent with most of the

  2. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  3. Understanding Pesticide Behaviour At The Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, N.; White, S. M.; Worrall, F.; Pendlington, D.; Groves, S.

    Pesticides in stream flow at the outlet of a 142ha catchment in Eastern England (Col- worth, Bedfordshire), have been monitored since October 1999. About 50% of the total catchment is directly controlled within one farm and a rotation of wheat, oil seed rape, grass, linseed, beans and peas is grown. The data from this catchment are being used to investigate the performance of the USDA SWAT contaminant transport pack- age at the catchment scale. Three years of stream flow and climate data are available with a useful set of pesticide application and detection data. Following calibration and validation of the hydrology of the catchment, pesticide modelling was carried out for tebuconazole, terbutryn, and terbuthylazine. This paper reports on the results of a sen- sitivity analysis of the model, and the final calibrated pesticide component. Analysis of the results obtained show that the timing and decay of predicted pesticide concen- trations are correct. It is therefore recommended that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behaviour at the catchment scale.

  4. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  5. [Cumulative exposure to pesticide residues in food].

    PubMed

    Kostka, Grazyna; Urbanek-Olejnik, Katarzyna; Liszewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The results of food monitoring studies indicate that humans are constantly exposed to residues ofplant protection products (pesticides) in marketed food products. Hence, assessment of the risk to consumers associated with the consumption of products containing residues of the active substances of pesticides is a key stage in both the registration of pesticides and official control of foodstuffs. However there are frequent cases of exposure not only to individual active substances but also to mixtures of pesticide residues. These levels are usually low, below of effective action, and interaction such as synergism orpotentiation is not expected to occur At the same time, literature data indicate that for mixtures sharing a common MOA (Mode of Action/Mechanism of Action), the probability of additive effects is high, even after adjusting for the low levels of the mixed pesticide residues present. Accordingly, health risk assessment for consumers exposed to such mixtures (cumulative/aggregate risk) has become an issue of topical importance. EU-level initiatives regarding the development of appropriate methodology for the estimation of cumulative/aggregate risk have brought about considerable progress in this area. The article discusses various aspects of estimation of cumulative risk for consumers associated with exposure to mixtures of pesticide residues in food.

  6. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1997-01-01

    For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic effect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental effects. Adducts to hemoglobin have been detected with several pesticides. Determination of chromosomal aberration rates in cultured lymphocytes is an established method of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. There are several studies on the cytogenetic effects of work with pesticide formulations. The majority of these studies report increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges among the exposed workers. Biomarkers will have a major impact on the study of environmental risk factors. The basic aim of scientists exploring these issues is to determine the nature and consequences of genetic change or variation, with the ultimate purpose of predicting or preventing disease. PMID:9255564

  7. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  8. The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws: Review of State Pesticide Laws Regarding Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kagan; Feldman, Jay

    1999-01-01

    There are a variety of state statutes that have been enacted to protect children in schools, but only about half of all state legislatures have examined pesticide use in schools, only 16 states directly address indoor use of pesticides, and the federal government is silent. While the federal government gives states and local governments the…

  9. 75 FR 33744 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment'' (71 FR 47330... ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR... (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), because it would not have substantial direct effects on the States,...

  10. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fumigation with Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. L.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist uses of fumigant pesticides prepared for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. An introduction with the explanation of fumigation is presented. The nine sections included describe: (1) Nature and effects of fumigants; (2) Modern fumigants; (3) Precautions to follow when using fumigants;…

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  12. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... of the Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force (NDETF). This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-2) was issued by the... initial notice in 2000, the membership of the task force has changed and the specific data needs have been... AGENCY Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure...

  13. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is...

  14. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  15. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  16. Selection of Worst-Case Pesticide Leaching Scenarios for Pesticide Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Tiktak, A.; Boesten, J.; Vanderborght, J.

    2010-12-01

    The use of pesticides, fertilizers and manure in intensive agriculture may have a negative impact on the quality of ground- and surface water resources. Legislative action has been undertaken in many countries to protect surface and groundwater resources from contamination by surface applied agrochemicals. Of particular concern are pesticides. The registration procedure plays an important role in the regulation of pesticide use in the European Union. In order to register a certain pesticide use, the notifier needs to prove that the use does not entail a risk of groundwater contamination. Therefore, leaching concentrations of the pesticide need to be assessed using model simulations for so called worst-case scenarios. In the current procedure, a worst-case scenario represents a parameterized pesticide fate model for a certain soil and a certain time series of weather conditions that tries to represent all relevant processes such as transient water flow, root water uptake, pesticide transport, sorption, decay and volatilisation as accurate as possible. Since this model has been parameterized for only one soil and weather time series, it is uncertain whether it represents a worst-case condition for a certain pesticide use. We discuss an alternative approach that uses a simpler model that requires less detailed information about the soil and weather conditions but still represents the effect of soil and climate on pesticide leaching using information that is available for the entire European Union. A comparison between the two approaches demonstrates that the higher precision that the detailed model provides for the prediction of pesticide leaching at a certain site is counteracted by its smaller accuracy to represent a worst case condition. The simpler model predicts leaching concentrations less precise at a certain site but has a complete coverage of the area so that it selects a worst-case condition more accurately.

  17. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  18. Pesticides in Streams in Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water from non-point sources is a national issue. Examples of nonpoint-source contaminants from agricultural activities are pesticides, which include fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides; sediment; nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus); and fecal bacteria. Of these contaminants, pesticides receive the most attention because of the potential toxicity to aquatic life and to humans. Most farmers use pesticides to increase crop yields and values. Herbicides prevent or inhibit the growth of weeds that compete for nutrients and moisture needed by the crops. Herbicides are applied before, during, or following planting. In addition to agricultural use, herbicides are used in urban areas, often in larger rates of application, for weed control such as among rights-of-way. Alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, which are referred to as organonitrogen herbicides, were the four most commonly applied herbicides (1991) in the Central Nebraska Basins (CNB). These herbicides are used for corn, sorghum, and soybean production. Atrazine was the most extensively applied pesticide (1991) in central Nebraska. Insecticides are used to protect the crop seeds in storage prior to planting and also to protect the plants from destruction once the seeds have germinated. Like herbicides, insecticides are also used in urban areas to protect lawns, trees, and ornamentals. Many of the 46 pesticides shown in the table have either a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of Health Advisory Level (HAL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for public water supplies. The purposes of this Fact Sheet are to (1) to provide water-utility managers, water-resources planners and managers, and State regulators an improved understanding of the distributions of concentrations of pesticides in streams and their relation to respective drinking-water regulations or criteria, and (2) to describe concentrations of pesticides in streams draining a

  19. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  20. Managing pesticide chronic health risks: U.S. policies.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Lynn R

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of U.S. government pesticide risk management efforts over time and in recent years, relevant to chronic health risks of pesticides. Pesticides are in widespread usage in the U.S. With hundreds of active ingredients and thousands of products on the market, management of pesticide risks has been a daunting challenge. The first legislation providing federal authority for regulating pesticides was enacted in 1910. With the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and amendments to the pesticide law in 1972, the federal government was for the first time given the authority to regulate health and environmental risks of pesticides. However, older pesticide risks were not addressed until legislation was enacted in 1988, requiring "reregistration" and 1996, requiring that pesticide food standards are safe for children. In result, the U.S. has seen an expansion of development of pesticide products that are registered as "reduced risk" or are biologicals. Additionally a large number of older pesticides have been cancelled or reduced from the market and/or from individual food uses. Through biomonitoring data, the U.S. may now be seeing trends in reduction of exposure to certain pesticides, the organophosphate insecticides. However, pesticide sales data through 2001 do not provide evidence for such trends. PMID:18032337

  1. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  4. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  6. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  7. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-10-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer.

  8. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed Central

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer. PMID:11689348

  9. Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

    2014-09-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (ε) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

  10. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Determination of currently used pesticides in biota.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2012-11-01

    Although pesticides enable control of the quantity and quality of farm products and food, and help to limit diseases in humans transmitted by insects and rodents, they are regarded as among the most dangerous environmental contaminants because of their tendency to bioaccumulate, and their mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. In the past decade, more analytical methods for accurate identification and quantitative determination of traces of pesticides in biota have been developed to improve our understanding of their risk to ecosystems and humans. Because sample preparation is often the rate-determining step in analysis of pesticides in biological samples, this review first discusses extraction and clean-up procedures, after a brief introduction to the classes, and the methods used in the analysis of pesticides in biota. The analytical methods, especially chromatographic techniques and immunoassay-based methods, are reviewed in detail, and their corresponding advantages, limitations, applications, and prospects are also discussed. This review mainly covers reports published since 2008 on methods for analysis of currently used pesticides in biota.

  12. Mechanisms by which pesticides affect insect immunity.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Xu, J

    2012-02-01

    The current state of knowledge regarding the effect of pesticides on insect immunity is reviewed here. A basic understanding of these interactions is needed for several reasons, including to improve methods for controlling pest insects in agricultural settings, for controlling insect vectors of human diseases, and for reducing mortality in beneficial insects. Bees are particularly vulnerable to sublethal pesticide exposures because they gather nectar and pollen, concentrating environmental toxins in their nests in the process. Pesticides do have effects on immunity. Organophosphates and some botanicals have been found to impact hemocyte number, differentiation, and thus affect phagocytosis. The phenoloxidase cascade and malanization have also been shown to be affected by several insecticides. Many synthetic insecticides increase oxidative stress, and this could have severe impacts on the production of some antimicrobial peptides in insects, but research is needed to determine the actual effects. Pesticides can also affect grooming behaviors, rendering insects more susceptible to disease. Despite laboratory data documenting pesticide/pathogen interactions, little field data is available at the population level.

  13. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

    2005-05-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free.

  14. Cut flowers: a potential pesticide hazard.

    PubMed

    Morse, D L; Baker, E L; Landrigan, P J

    1979-01-01

    Following reports of ten cases of possible organophosphate pesticide poisoning in florists exposed to pesticide residues on cut flowers, we conducted a prospective random-sample survey to determine residual pesticide levels on flowers imported into the United States via Miami, Florida. A sample of all flowers imported into Miami on three days in January 1977 showed that 18 (17.7 per cent) of 105 lots contained pesticide residue levels greater than 5 ppm, and that three lots had levels greater than 400 ppm. Azodrin (monocrotophos) was the most important contaminant with levels of 7.7--4,750 ppm detected in nine lots. We examined 20 quarantine workers in Miami and 12 commercial florists exposed to contaminated flowers. Occasional nonspecific symptoms compatible with possible organophosphate exposure were noted, but we found no abnormalities in plasma or red blood cell cholinesterase levels. This study documents a previously unrecognized potential source of occupational pesticide exposure and suggests that safety standards should be set for residue levels on cut flowers.

  15. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  16. STORAGE STABILITY OF PESTICIDES IN EXTRACT SOLVENTS AND SAMPLING MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  17. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  18. [A model study of pesticide biodegradation in soil].

    PubMed

    Bieganska, J

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the efficiency of microbial preparations to degrade pesticide residues in soil. A method to degrade pesticides DNOC and pendimethalin using Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter bacteria with a fertilizer is described.

  19. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the product. (b) Additional data requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides. Additional requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides may include but are not limited to... patterns” under which the individual data are required, with variations including all use patterns,...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the product. (b) Additional data requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides. Additional requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides may include but are not limited to... patterns” under which the individual data are required, with variations including all use patterns,...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the product. (b) Additional data requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides. Additional requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides may include but are not limited to... patterns” under which the individual data are required, with variations including all use patterns,...

  2. MODELING OF MACROSCALE AGRICULTURAL ELEMENTS IN PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yuma County, Arizona, is the site of year around agriculture. To understand the role of agricultural pesticide exposures experienced by children, urinary metabolite concentrations were compared with agricultural use of pesticides. The urinary metabolite and household data wer...

  3. PESTICIDE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES FROM HOUSEHOLD SURFACES TO FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional dietary pesticide exposure assessments have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of infant and children's total exposure can result fr...

  4. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  5. PASSIVE/DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS FOR PESTICIDES IN RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides applied indoors vaporize from treated surfaces (e.g., carpets and baseboards) resulting in elevated air concentrations that may persist for long periods after applications. Estimating long-term respiratory exposures to pesticide vapors in residential indoor environme...

  6. AN INDOOR PESTICIDE AIR AND SURFACE CONCENTRATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental chemicals requires consideration of all processes in the sequence from source to dose. For assessment of exposure to pesticides following their use indoors, data and models are needed to estimate pesticide concentrations...

  7. Guidelines for performance standards of pesticides for safe use

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Defang; Cheng, H.

    1983-02-20

    This article discusses the efforts to conduct more overall and systematic tests of the dynamics of pesticide residue on agricultural crops in China. A national cooperation group for scientific research on pesticide residue was organized and placed under the direct leadership of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The ''National Standards for the Safe Use of Pesticides'' is applicable to 29 types of pesticides on 16 kinds of crops. Standards have also been established for the testing of pesticide residue on agricultural crops and in the soil. Topics considered include the selection of experimental pesticides and crops, the design of potted plants and field experiments, the design of simultaneous experiments, the design of test chemicals, the spot survey of residues, a design for testing the pesticide residue in soil, testing and measuring pesticide residue, and the method of gathering test samples.

  8. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  9. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended.

  10. Overuse or underuse? An observation of pesticide use in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Shi, Guanming; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-12-15

    Pesticide use has experienced a dramatic increase worldwide, especially in China, where a wide variety of pesticides are used in large amounts by farmers to control crop pests. While Chinese farmers are often criticized for pesticide overuse, this study shows the coexistence of overuse and underuse of pesticide based on the survey data of pesticide use in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production in three provinces in China. A novel index amount approach is proposed to convert the amount of multiple pesticides used to control the same pest into an index amount of a referenced pesticide. We compare the summed index amount with the recommended dosage range of the referenced pesticide to classify whether pesticides are overused or underused. Using this new approach, the following main results were obtained. Pesticide overuse and underuse coexist after examining a total of 107 pesticides used to control up to 54 crop pests in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production. In particular, pesticide overuse in more than half of the total cases for 9 crop pest species is detected. In contrast, pesticide underuse accounts for more than 20% of the total cases for 11 pests. We further indicate that the lack of knowledge and information on pesticide use and pest control among Chinese farmers may cause the coexistence of pesticide overuse and underuse. Our analysis provides indirect evidence that the commercialized agricultural extension system in China probably contributes to the coexistence of overuse and underuse. To improve pesticide use, it is urgent to reestablish the monitoring and forecasting system regarding pest control in China.

  11. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  12. 78 FR 70007 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of a Pesticide Chemical in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... additives, Food additives, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: November... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing...

  13. Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural).

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. We calculate that 99.99% (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. We conclude that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests. We also conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures the comparative hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant. PMID:2217210

  14. Dietary pesticides (99. 99% all natural)

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N.; Profet, M.; Gold, L.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. The authors calculate that 99.99{percent} (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. They conclude that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests. They also conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures the comparative hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant.

  15. Fully automated determination of pesticides in wine.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, A

    1997-01-01

    A fully automated solid-phase extraction gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (SPE/GC/MS) method was developed for determination of pesticides in wine. All steps from aspiration of infiltrated wine to printout of the integrated chromatogram were performed without human interaction. A dedicated robot performed addition of internal standard, application of wine onto the SPE cartridge, elution of analytes, drying and concentrating of eluate, and passing of concentrate to the GC sampler. All steps were performed in standard liquid chromatography/GC vials, using a minimum of organic solvent. The method permits determination of 21 different pesticides. Individual detection limits were 0.005-0.01 mg/L. The regression coefficients relating to linearity were > 0.99; only 4,4-dichloro-benzphenone and dicofol showed lower coefficients. The recoveries for 17 pesticides ranged from 80 to 115%.

  16. Enantioselective environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping

    2015-03-16

    The enantioselective environmental toxic effect of chiral pesticides is becoming more important. As the industry develops, increasing numbers of chiral insecticides and herbicides will be introduced into use, potentially posing toxic effects on nontarget living beings. Chiral pesticides, including herbicides such as acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids, and imidazolinones, and insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and DDT often behave enantioselectively during agricultural use. These compounds also pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological threats to nontarget living beings and/or humans, affecting the food chain and entire ecosystems. Thus, to investigate the enantioselective toxic effects of chiral insecticides and herbicides is necessary during environmental protection. The environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides, especially the findings obtained from studies conducted in our laboratory during the past 10 years, is reviewed. PMID:25643169

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J.; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and other natural settings, and the evolution of resistance mechanisms in target pests. Armed with this knowledge base and with the tools of modern biotechnology, researchers are now reporting promising results in engineering more-useful toxins and formulations, in creating transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, and in constructing integrated management strategies to insure that these products are utilized with maximum efficiency and benefit. PMID:9729609

  18. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  20. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons...

  1. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  2. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  3. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  4. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  5. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  6. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  7. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons...

  8. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  9. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  10. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  12. America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

    Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

  13. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... pesticides, the Agency uses a variety of data and different models. This science policy document was... AGENCY Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA announces the withdrawal of the pesticide science policy document ``Use...

  14. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  15. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  16. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  17. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  18. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  19. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  20. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  2. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.910 and 40 CFR 180.920, which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  3. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use...

  4. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  5. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  8. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons...

  9. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons...

  10. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  11. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  12. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  13. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons...

  14. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.910 and 40 CFR 180.920, which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  15. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  16. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200 000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

  17. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  18. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  19. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America

  20. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    PubMed

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  1. Pesticide loadings of select organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in urban public housing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the magnitude and distribution of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide loadings within public housing dwellings in Boston, Massachusetts and compared the results using various sampling methods. We collected dust matrices from living room and kitchen in 42 apar...

  2. Use of pesticide simulation models for assessing pesticide contamination of surface and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, W.L.; Bush, P.B.; Neary, D.G.; Dowd, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Two field scale hydrologic and pesticide routing models, CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion in Agricultural Management Systems) and PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) were used to predict average pesticide concentrations in storm flow and unsaturated subsurface flow after application of forestry herbicides and insecticides. Forest regions in the mountain, Piedmont, and coastal plain physiographic provinces of the South provide important stream sources and groundwater recharge zones for municipal water supplies. Increasing use of herbicides and insecticides in forest management has raised concerns about maintaining future water quality. Thus tools for assessing potential contamination from pesticide use are needed. CREAMS accurately predicted herbicide concentrations in storm flow in mountain watersheds for 2 months. But it is underestimated concentrations for the next 4 months when transport processes not accounted for in the model dominated actual residue movement. PRZM was likewise tested with actual field data on subsurface movement of herbicides in mountain regions and insecticides in deep sands of the coastal plain.

  3. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species. PMID:25843102

  4. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  5. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  6. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  7. Pesticides and myocardial infarction incidence and mortality among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2009-10-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993-1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides.

  8. Pesticides and Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Mortality Among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2009-01-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993–1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides. PMID:19700503

  9. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  10. Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P. Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2012-01-01

    As an agricultural country and one of the world’s major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for managing agricultural pesticides in Thailand. One of the main obstacles to effective pesticide regulation in Thailand is the lack of a consolidated, uniform system designed specifically for pesticide management. This deficit has weakened the enforcement of existing regulations, resulting in misuse/overuse of pesticides, and consequently, increased environmental contamination and human exposure. This article provides a systematic review of how agricultural pesticides are regulated in Thailand. In addition, we provide our perspectives on the current state of pesticide management, the potential health effects of widespread, largely uncontrolled use of pesticides on the Thai people and ways to improve pesticide management in Thailand. PMID:22308095

  11. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Doulia, Danae S; Anagnos, Efstathios K; Liapis, Konstantinos S; Klimentzos, Demetrios A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures. PMID:27262281

  12. Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production

    PubMed Central

    Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M. H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides pose serious threats to both human health and the environment. In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce their use, and in France a recent environmental policy fixed a target of halving the pesticide use by 2018. Organic and integrated cropping systems have been proposed as possible solutions for reducing pesticide use, but the effect of reducing pesticide use on crop yield remains unclear. Here we use a set of cropping system experiments to quantify the yield losses resulting from a reduction of pesticide use for winter wheat in France. Our estimated yield losses resulting from a 50% reduction in pesticide use ranged from 5 to 13% of the yield obtained with the current pesticide use. At the scale of the whole country, these losses would decrease the French wheat production by about 2 to 3 millions of tons, which represent about 15% of the French wheat export. PMID:24651597

  13. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides. PMID:26868575

  14. Degradation of pesticides in biobeds: the effect of concentration and pesticide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Paul; Boxall, Alistair B A; Walker, Allan

    2003-08-27

    Biobeds aim to create an environment whereby any pesticide spills are retained and then degraded, thus reducing the potential for surface or groundwater contamination. Biobeds may receive high concentrations of relatively complex mixtures of pesticides. The effects of concentration and pesticide interaction on degradation rate were therefore investigated. At concentrations up to 20 times the maximum recommended application rate for isoproturon and chlorothalonil, the rate of degradation in topsoil and biomix decreased with increasing concentration. With the exception of isoproturon at concentrations above 11 mg kg(-1), degradation was quicker in biomix (a composted mixture of topsoil, compost, and wheat straw) than in topsoil. One possible explanation for faster isoproturon degradation in topsoil as compared to biomix may be that previous treatments of isoproturon applied to the field soil as part of normal agricultural practices had resulted in proliferation of microbial communities specifically adapted to use isoproturon as an energy source. Such microbial adaptation could enhance the performance of a biobed. Studies with a mixture of isoproturon and chlorothalonil showed that interactions between pesticides are possible. In biomix, the degradation of either isoproturon or chlorothalonil was unaffected by the presence of the other pesticide, whereas in topsoil, isoproturon DT(50) values increased from 18.5 to 71.5 days in the presence of chlorothalonil. These studies suggest that biobeds appear capable of treating high concentrations of more than one pesticide.

  15. Pesticides and pesticide degradation products in stormwater runoff: Sacramento River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Pesticides in stormwater runoff, within the Sacramento River Basin, California, were assessed during a storm that occurred in January 1994. Two organophosphate insecticides (diazinon and methidathion), two carbamate pesticides (molinate and carbofuran), and one triazine herbicide (simazine) were detected. Organophosphate pesticide concentrations increased with the rising stage of the hydrographs; peak concentrations were measured near peak discharge. Diazinon oxon, a toxic degradation product of diazinon, made up approximately 1 to 3 percent of the diazinon load. The Feather River was the principal source of organophosphate pesticides to the Sacramento River during this storm. The concentrations of molinate and carbofuran, pesticides applied to rice fields during May and June, were relatively constant during and after the storm. Their presence in surface water was attributed to the flooding and subsequent drainage, as a management practice to degrade rice stubble prior to the next planting. A photodegradation product of molinate, 4-keto molinate, was in all samples where molinate was detected and made up approximately 50 percent of the total molinate load. Simazine, a herbicide used in orchards and to control weeds along the roadways, was detected in the storm runoff, but it was not possible to differentiate the two sources of that pesticide to the Sacramento River.

  16. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  17. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought. PMID:26951221

  18. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... Tolerance In the Federal Register of May 2, 2012 (77 FR 25954) (FRL-9346-1), EPA issued a document pursuant.../day)) based on decreased body-weight gains in females and increased incidence of cataracts and...

  19. 75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Tolerance In the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 864) (FRL-8801- 5), EPA issued a notice pursuant... rule published in the Federal Register of June 11, 2008 (73 FR 33013) (FRL- 8365-6). C. Exposure... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  20. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  1. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION AMONG TODDLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Response to vaccination may be a sensitive indicator of immunollogic health in young children. Toddlers residing in an intenseive agricultural area along the US/Mexican border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating immunologic function and pesticide exposure by multiple ...

  2. FIFRA-88, GLP, and QA: pesticide registration.

    PubMed

    Sterner, R T; Fagerstone, K A

    1997-01-01

    The 1988 amendment to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA-88) has decreased the number of pesticide registrations in the United States. Subsequent implementation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and quality assurance (QA) standards has increased costs of maintaining these registrations. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) maintains approximately 30 Section 3 (federal) or Section 24c (state) vertebrate pesticide registrations for the Wildlife Services (WS) program to control wild mammals and birds that damage crops, impact endangered species, or pose human health risks. Under FIFRA-88, APHIS summarized, performed, and submitted or gained waivers for > 500 studies requested by the U.S. EPA to assess potential hazards/effects of these pesticides. A summary of FIFRA-88 milestones for registration of 3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride (CPTH), the active ingredient (AI) in a "low-volume, minor-use" avicide (DRC-1339, Starlicide), is used to illustrate GLP/QA/animal welfare issues involved in this process. Trends in the development of new pesticides and veterinary drugs are compared to provide some perspectives on future career paths for QA professionals.

  3. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  4. Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique.

    PubMed

    Bocquené, Gilles; Franco, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In January and February 2002, the presence of certain agricultural pesticides throughout the coastline of the Caribbean island of Martinique was investigated. The tropical climate of the French West Indies is suitable for banana production, which requires intensive use of pesticides. An inventory of all pesticides used on the island (compounds and tonnage) was compiled. Surveys and analyses revealed the presence of pesticides in the plumes of seven rivers. The organochlorine chlordecone and metabolites of aldicarb were detected at nearly all of the monitored sites, even though the use of chlordecone has been prohibited since 1993. Two triazines (ametryn and simazine) were also identified. The concentrations of carbamates and triazines detected in the water and sediment samples from Martinique are comparable to those reported for mainland France. Chlordecone concentrations in the sediment and particulate matter samples were, however, particularly high in the samples from Martinique. Toxicological implications are discussed. Of particular concern are the high levels of chlordecone (which is bioaccumulating and carcinogenic) and further monitoring of this compound is recommended, especially in fish and other sea-food products.

  5. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... glyphosate and its metabolite N-acetyl glyphosate. N-acetyl glyphosate is found in genetically modified (GMO... glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto Company requested this tolerance under the Federal Food... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...

  6. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties.

  7. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  8. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  9. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  10. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    PubMed

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  11. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes. PMID:7161848

  12. 75 FR 75389 - Metrafenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... food processed from those commodities (such as grape juice and wine). Because the processing data... Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but...

  13. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S

    2009-04-01

    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.

  14. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes.

  15. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  16. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS OR CARBAMATE PESTICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter strives to summarize the body of literature exploring the toxic interaction of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in mixtures. This review represents one of the only reviews of the subject that has been published within the last 20 years. Specifically, th...

  17. RESULTS FROM THE AHS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study/Pesticide Exposure Study (AHS/PES) measured exposures resulting from agricultural use of 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos for a subset of applicators in the AHS cohort. Through on-farm measurements and observations, data collected in the exposure study will...

  18. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... cottonseed oil. Pesticide Data Program (PDP) monitoring data for years 2009 and 2010 were used for apples since apple juice had a significant impact on exposure. Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM) default... Tolerance In the Federal Register of September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55329) (FRL- 8886-7), EPA issued a...

  19. Preservation Using Pesticides: Some Words of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Addresses problem of insects and other pests in library facility and material maintenance. Highlights include dangers of chemical pesticides; alternative methods for treatment of book infestations (light and temperature regulation, freezing, establishment of low oxygen atmosphere, microwaves and radiation, boric acid); and state and federal laws…

  20. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  1. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE BEVERAGE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure the exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet, as well as other media. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in composite dietary s...

  2. Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; McCauley, Linda

    2000-01-01

    A workshop brought together scientists, community organization members, and agency representatives to review community-based research on the environmental health risks of pesticide exposure for migrant farmworkers; to share appropriate, successful community-based research methods and models; and to determine future research directions and needs…

  3. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of May 6, 2009 (74 FR 20947) (FRL... characterization and a complete description of the risk assessment process, see http://www.epa.gov/pesticides... mechanism of toxicity with any other substances, and imazosulfuron does not appear to produce a...

  4. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  5. EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

  6. NEUROENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Effects of Pesticides

    1Stoker, TE, Goldman 2, JM and Cooper 2, RL.

    1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborat...

  7. 78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0038, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide... or hearing request, identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0038, by one of the following.... Summary of Petitioned-for Tolerance In the Federal Register of June 5, 2013 (78 FR 33785)...

  8. 75 FR 5526 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ..., but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS... the Federal Register of May 6, 2009 (Volume 74 FR 20949) (FRL- 8412-7), EPA issued a notice...

  9. 77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... . II. Summary of Petitioned-for Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50661)...

  10. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS... May 2, 2012 (77 FR 25954) (FRL-9346-1), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3),...

  11. 75 FR 60321 - Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of October 26, 2009 (74 FR...

  12. 75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... September 4, 2009 (74 FR 45848) (FRL- 8434-4), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3) of...

  13. 75 FR 56892 - Fenarimol; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production... (74 FR 45848) (FRL-8434-4), EPA issued a notice pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21 U.S.C. 346a(d... residues based on USDA Pesticide Data Program (PDP) monitoring data for apples, bananas, cherries,...

  14. 75 FR 29435 - Diquat Dibromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of February 4, 2010 (75...

  15. 78 FR 28507 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532.... Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20334) (FRL-9340-...

  16. 78 FR 78740 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of September 28, 2012 (77 FR 59578) (FRL- 9364-6), EPA issued...

  17. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Mori, M. N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M. H. O.

    2007-11-01

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry—GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  18. SELECTING PLANT SPECIES FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current test protocols used by the US EPA for the registration of pesticides examines plant responses of 10 crop species but may not examine regionally important native plants or crops. In order to test the efficiency of current test protocols we selected six native plant species...

  19. Laser monitoring of pesticides in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Moise, N.; Voicu, Letitia; Negoita, T.; Manolescu, G.; Smarandache, Adriana-Loredana A.

    1998-07-01

    Pesticides monitoring at low concentrations using optical absorption, laser induced fluorescence (LIF), fluorescence lifetime measurements and gas chromatography are reported. The studied pesticides were chlortriasines (athrasine, propasine and simasine) and organophosphoric pesticides (dichlorvos and parathion). Since in normal conditions the chlortriasines show absorption spectra in ultraviolet (around 250 nm), to obtain fluorescence spectra in the visible they were treated with pyridine and ethyl ester of cyanoacetic acid in basic medium. The LIF spectra of chlortriasines are measured at concentrations of pollutants between 5 ppm and 20 ppm. The molecular complex fluorescence spectrum induced by pulsed laser radiation at 545 nm, available from a tunable dye laser, exhibited a maximum of 577 nm; it remained unchanged for three hours, following which the intensity decreases as a consequence of the complex destruction (decomposition). The fluorescence lifetime of the molecular complex measured using a fast photodetector was 2.6 ns, immediately after complex formation. The organophosphoric pesticides were monitored using a rather different initial chemical treatment, at the end of which a quinino-vanado- molibdophosphoric complex (PMo10V2O39)2(C20H24O2N2H2)3 was formed. The fluorescence spectra of these pesticides induced by pulsed laser radiation at 337.1 nm available from a pulsed nitrogen laser (700 ps pulse time width, 300 (mu) J/pulse energy) exhibited a maximum at 445 nm with a FWHM of 80 nm. The low concentration detection limits were 0.2 ppm for P in dichlorvos (dichlorvos concentration 14.18 ppm) and 0.2 ppm for P in parathion (parathion concentration 17.8 ppm). These methods in correlation with optical absorption, classical fluorescence and gas chromatography methods were applied to monitor pesticides in water samples collected from the North Pole zone following two expeditions dated March-April 1995 to Severenaia Zemlia Archipelago and July-August 1996 to

  20. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides.

  1. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides. PMID:24959760

  2. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programmes against ectoparasites and as seed dresser. Owing to their chemical stability, they tend to accumulate in the lipid part of the organisms. The stored pesticides are excreted with the endogenous fat during milk production. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico. From the pesticides, only HCB, beta-HCH, pp'-DDT, op'-DDT and pp'-DDE with major frequency and levels were detected. The HCB mean level was low at 0.008 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomer, only the beta-HCH at 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis was determined, remaining as the main contaminant of the monitored butters. Among DDTs, pp'-DDE was the major constituent (0.043 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.036 mg kg(-1)) and op'-DDT (0.009 mg kg(-1)). Comparing the previous study (1994) and this one (2001), all organochlorine pesticides had a descendent tendency; beta-HCH decreased from 0.095 to 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis, whereas the total DDT decreased from 0.056 to 0.047 mg kg(-1), pp'-DDT from 0.050 to 0.036 mg kg(-1), op'-DDT from 0.018 to 0.009 mg kg(-1), while pp'-DDE increased from 0.032 to 0.043 mg kg(-1). The decreased DDT levels in Mexican butters is caused by the substitution of organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids used by the Mexican Ministry of Health since 1999 in sanitary programmes.

  3. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam’s pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk–benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes. PMID:22690037

  4. Peripheral Nervous System Function and Organophosphate Pesticide Use among Licensed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Jones, Michael P.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence is limited that long-term human exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, without poisoning, is associated with adverse peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Objective: We investigated associations between OP pesticide use and PNS function by administering PNS tests to 701 male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods: Participants completed a neurological physical examination (NPx) and electrophysiological tests as well as tests of hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Self-reported information on lifetime use of 16 OP pesticides was obtained from AHS interviews and a study questionnaire. Associations between pesticide use and measures of PNS function were estimated with linear and logistic regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results: Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were observed for associations between ever use of 10 of the 16 OP pesticides and one or more of six NPx outcomes. Most notably, abnormal toe proprioception was significantly associated with ever use of 6 OP pesticides, with ORs ranging from 2.03 to 3.06; monotonic increases in strength of association with increasing use was observed for 3 of the 6 pesticides. Mostly null associations were observed between OP pesticide use and electrophysiological tests, hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to OP pesticides is associated with signs of impaired PNS function among pesticide applicators. PMID:22262687

  5. Risk mapping of pesticides: the Dutch atlas of pesticide concentrations in surface waters: www.pesticidesatlas.nl.

    PubMed

    de Snoo, G R; Tamis, W L M; Vijver, M G; Musters, C; van 't Zelfde, M

    2006-01-01

    Many pesticides are being measured in surface water. To promote the use of monitoring data in the process of risk mapping, post-registration, and improvement of water quality, a free available Internet tool has been developed to present all measurements of pesticides in surface water on the level of individual active ingredients in a spatial framework: the Dutch pesticides atlas (www.pesticidesatlas.nl). With this communication tool one can easily get maps concerning where a pesticide is being measured, observed and possibly constitutes a problem over the years. Pesticide concentrations are being compared with environmental standards and maps can been made of each pesticide at a national level. The pesticide maps have been linked with GIS land use data. At present statistical correlations can be made between crop areas and pesticides concentrations in the water. Moreover, predictions can be made where a pesticide might be exceeding environmental standards. Policy makers, chemical industry (product stewardship), NGO's and farmers can use the maps as a tool for communication and improving environmental quality. The atlas is also being used to evaluate the effectiveness of pesticide policy over the years. In this contribution the methodological background of the pesticides atlas is presented.

  6. Dietary intake of pesticide chemicals. Calculated daily consumption of pesticides with foods are discussed and compared with currently accepted values.

    PubMed

    Duggan, R E; Weatherwax, J R

    1967-09-01

    Residues of chlorinated organic pesticide chemicals were commonly found in all diet samples and all food classes within samples except beverages at a daily intake of 0.0014 mg per kilogram of body weight. Meat, fish, and poultry were the major source of pesticide residues and, when combined with dairy products, account for more than half of the intake of chlorinated organic pesticide chemicals. Fruits, garden fruits, and grain foods each accounted for about 10 percent of the intake of chlorinated pesticides. The DDT, its two analogs, dieldrin, lindane, and heptachlor epoxide account for 85 percent of the total intake of chlorinated pesticides. A single pesticide, DDT, accounts for one-third of the total. There was no statistically significant change in frequency or quantities of these compounds during this study. Frequency and quantities of the 14 additional chlorinated pesticides were too low to be meaningful.

  7. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios.

  8. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  9. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  11. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Organic Pesticide Active...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 1 Table 1 to Part 455—List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census code Pesticide code Pesticide name CAS No. 1 10501 Dicofol...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2172 Section 158.2172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2172 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides toxicology data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2140 Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  18. 40 CFR 165.81 - Scope of stationary pesticide containers included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of stationary pesticide... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.81 Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. (a) What is a stationary...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  1. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2082 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides toxicology data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2140 Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Organic Pesticide Active...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 1 Table 1 to Part 455—List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census code Pesticide code Pesticide name CAS No. 1 10501 Dicofol...

  6. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and...

  7. 40 CFR 165.81 - Scope of stationary pesticide containers included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of stationary pesticide... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.81 Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. (a) What is a stationary...

  8. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2172 Section 158.2172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2172 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  18. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  1. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  2. 40 CFR 165.81 - Scope of stationary pesticide containers included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of stationary pesticide... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.81 Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. (a) What is a stationary...

  3. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  4. 40 CFR 165.81 - Scope of stationary pesticide containers included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of stationary pesticide... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.81 Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. (a) What is a stationary...

  5. 40 CFR 165.81 - Scope of stationary pesticide containers included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of stationary pesticide... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.81 Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. (a) What is a stationary...

  6. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  7. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  10. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  11. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies. PMID:25649374

  12. Wildlife mortality attributed to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glaser, L.C.; LaRoe, E.T.; Farris, G.S.; Puckett, C.E.; Doran, P.D.; Mac, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides are used widely in agricultural and residential applications as insecticides, herbicides, fungicities. and rodenticides. This family of chemicals replaced the organochlorine pesticides banned for use in the United States in the 1970's. Unlike organochlorine pesticides, which are long-lived in the environment and cause biological damage when they accumulate in an organism's system over time. OP and carbamate pesticides are short-lived in the environment and fast-acting on their 'target pest.' Direct mortality of wildlife from organochlorine pesticides was uncommon (Hayes and Wayland 1975): however, mortality is the primary documented effect on wildlife from OP and carbamate pesticides (Grue et al. 1983). Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide toxicity is not specific to a target 'pest,' and lethal effects are seen in nontarget organisms: birds appear to be the most sensitive class of animals affected by these pesticides. Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides primainly affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity. This enzyme's main function in the nervous system is to break down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. When AChE is altered by OP and carbamate pesticides, it cannot perform this breakdown function and acetylcholine accumulates. Acetylcholine accumulation increases nerve impulse transmission and leads to nerve exhaustion and. ultimately, failure of the nervous system. When the nervous system fails, muscles do not receive the electrical input they require to move. The respiratory muscles are the most critical muscle group affected, and respiratory paralysis is often the immediate cause of death.

  13. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or peripheral nerve conduction, but fewer studies have considered these outcomes. It is possible that the most sensitive manifestation of pesticide neurotoxicity is a general malaise lacking in specificity and related to mild cognitive dysfunction, similar to that described for Gulf War syndrome. Most studies have focused on organophosphate insecticides, but some found neuro-toxic effects from other pesticides, including fungicides, fumigants, and organochlorine and carbamate insecticides. Pesticide exposure may also be associated with increased risk of Parkinson disease; several classes of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, have been implicated. Studies of other neurodegenerative diseases are limited and inconclusive. Future studies will need to improve assessment of pesticide exposure in individuals and consider the role of genetic susceptibility. More studies of pesticides other than organophosphates are needed. Major unresolved issues include the relative importance of acute and chronic exposure, the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning, and the relationship of pesticide-related neurotoxicity to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:15198914

  14. Pesticide exports from U.S. ports, 1997-2000.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Customs records reveal that 3.2 billion pounds of pesticide products were exported in 1997-2000, an average rate of 45 tons per hour. Nearly 65 million pounds of the exported pesticides were either forbidden or severely restricted in the United States; however, no banned pesticide export was recorded for the year 2000. 2.2 million pounds of pesticides regulated under a treaty on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were exported between 1997 and 1999, with no such export in 2000. Exports of pesticides subject to the prior informed consent (PIC) treaty decreased 97% from the 1997 total of nearly 3 million pounds. Thus, international efforts to reduce the trade in hazardous pesticides may be bearing fruit. However, they are balanced by high rates of export of pesticides designated "extremely hazardous" by the WHO (89 million pounds), pesticides associated with cancer (170 million pounds), and pesticides associated with endocrine disrupting effects (368 million pounds), mostly to developing countries. These findings point in two directions: first, progress is possible, and second, the focus of international efforts should be expanded. From public health and environmental protection perspectives, exports of hazardous pesticides remain unacceptably high. PMID:11783856

  15. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management.

  16. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor . E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  17. Limitation of point source pesticide pollution: results of bioremediation system.

    PubMed

    Spanoghe, P; Maes, A; Steurbaut, W

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water is at risk of contamination from the use of some agricultural pesticides. In many circumstances pesticide contamination of water resources is more likely to result from point sources than from diffuse sources following approved application to crops in the field. Such point sources include areas on farms where pesticides are handled, filled into sprayers or where sprayers are washed down. To overcome this way of contamination different kind of bio-remediation systems are nowadays in development. In Flanders, Belgium two pilot plants of bioremediation systems for the in situ retention and/or degradation of pesticides were installed. Both systems were based on the Phytobac concept, a watertight excavation filled with straw, peat, compost and soil. The channel was made in the bottom from plastic foil. All kinds of spray rests were captured by the phytobacs. This study focuses on what level pesticides leach, bio-degrade or are retained by the filling of the phytobac. The soil-properties of the filling were investigated. Pesticide tracers were added for monitoring to both phytobacs. Soil and water samples were taken during one year. Pesticides are retained at least for one month by the filling of the phytobac. Almost no pesticide leached out. In winter hardly any pesticide degradation was observed in the filling of the phytobac. In summer no detectable pesticides were still left in the phytobacs.

  18. Nongenotoxic (epigenetic) carcinogens: pesticides as an example. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Rakitsky, V N; Koblyakov, V A; Turusov, V S

    2000-01-01

    The following groups of pesticides are considered in this review by supposed mechanisms of their carcinogenicity: hepatocarcinogenic pesticides, pesticides - peroxisome proliferators, pesticides as endocrine disruptors, goitrogenic pesticides, pesticides producing sustained cell proliferation and some others. With very rare exceptions, pesticides do not react with DNA directly and the mechanisms of their carcinogenicity are, in general, similar to those of other nongenotoxic (epigenetic) carcinogens, namely: promotion of spontaneous initiation, cytotoxicity with sustained cell proliferation, oxidative stress, formation of activated receptors and some others. Genotoxicity of pesticides varies from its complete absence (propiconazol as an example) to a very pronounced one (captafol) with remaining compounds in between. These two compounds demonstrate full correlation between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (or their absence). Many pesticides give positive results in some tests for genotoxicity but these results are frequently controversial, not readily reproducible, or obtained only at toxic dose levels. The weak genotoxicity of the majority of pesticides is easily explainable by their rather severe testing before their introduction into practical use. The above mechanisms are threshold-based and therefore pesticides are regulated through NOEL/safety factor. There exist examples of lack of correlation between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity: some pesticides are genotoxic (although not strongly) but noncarcinogenic, others are considered as nongenotoxic but are strongly carcinogenic (chlorothalonil, acetochlor). The general scheme of the promoters' effect is presented in which an important role is attributed to the cytochrome P-450 induction (some pesticides are the cytochrome P-450 inducers), formation of reactive oxygen species and peroxitome proliferation. Teratogenesis Carcinog. Mutagen. 20:229-240, 2000. PMID:10910473

  19. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive

  20. Household organophosphorus pesticide use and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Paul, Kimberly; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background Household pesticide use is widespread in the USA. Since the 1970s, organophosphorus chemicals (OPs) have been common active ingredients in these products. Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been linked to pesticide exposures but little is known about the contributions of chronic exposures to household pesticides. Here we investigate whether long-term use of household pesticides, especially those containing OPs, increases the odds of PD. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we assessed frequency of household pesticide use for 357 cases and 807 controls, relying on the California Department of Pesticide Regulation product label database to identify ingredients in reported household pesticide products and the Pesticide Action Network pesticide database of chemical ingredients. Using logistic regression we estimated the effects of household pesticide use. Results Frequent use of any household pesticide increased the odds of PD by 47% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.92)]; frequent use of products containing OPs increased the odds of PD more strongly by 71% [OR = 1.71, (95% CI: 1.21, 2.41)] and frequent organothiophosphate use almost doubled the odds of PD. Sensitivity analyses showed that estimated effects were independent of other pesticide exposures (ambient and occupational) and the largest odds ratios were estimated for frequent OP users who were carriers of the 192QQ paraoxonase genetic variant related to slower detoxification of OPs. Conclusions We provide evidence that household use of OP pesticides is associated with an increased risk of developing PD. PMID:24057998

  1. Pesticide leaching FOCUS scenarios if only dissolved pesticides degrade: re-assessing the importance of soil water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te Brake, B.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Verhoef, A.

    2009-04-01

    Although the pesticide screening policies assume that both dissolved and adsorbed pesticides are subject to transformation (or degradation), it is debatable whether this assumption is correct. Instead, it has been proposed that only dissolved pesticides may degrade, in line with the consensus on other organic contaminants for which only the dissolved or easily accessible fractions are biodegradable. If only dissolved pesticide fractions can degrade, this has major impacts on the pesticide risk assessment in the EU, which so far assumes all pesticide can degrade, whatever their chemical forms. In particular, if only dissolved pesticide degrades, the sorption process becomes completely irrelevant for the long term leached fraction: both regarding its (non)equilibrium and its (non)linearity assumptions. If sorption as such becomes less important, other processes should become more important for the leached fraction, and water flow as the major driving force is a logical candidate. Indeed, the rate of leaching can be shown to depend significantly on the net precipitation, with some prominent adjustments, if sorption becomes less dominant than in the current pesticide screening approaches. It will be shown that the celerity of leaching depends differently on the water flow, than does the leached fraction (which is crucial for pesticide admission policies). Therefore, a reconsideration of EU pesticide screening and admission policies may be necessary.

  2. Pesticide Toxicity Index--a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Moran, Patrick W; Martin, Jeffrey D; Stone, Wesley W

    2014-04-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1-1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values >1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  3. Estimating the biodegradation of pesticide in soils by monitoring pesticide-degrading gene expression.

    PubMed

    Monard, Cécile; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Lima, Oscar; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Binet, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    Assessing in situ microbial abilities of soils to degrade pesticides is of great interest giving insight in soil filtering capability, which is a key ecosystem function limiting pollution of groundwater. Quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was tested as a suitable indicator to monitor pesticide biodegradation performances in soil. RNA extraction protocol was optimized to enhance the yield and quality of RNA recovered from soil samples to perform RT-qPCR assays. As a model, the activity of atrazine-degrading communities was monitored using RT-qPCRs to estimate the level of expression of atzD in five agricultural soils showing different atrazine mineralization abilities. Interestingly, the relative abundance of atzD mRNA copy numbers was positively correlated to the maximum rate and to the maximal amount of atrazine mineralized. Our findings indicate that the quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression may be suitable to assess biodegradation performance in soil and monitor natural attenuation of pesticide.

  4. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  5. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-10-13

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances.

  6. Degradation of some pesticides in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Várnagy, L

    1999-01-01

    On day 9 or 12 of the hatching period different pesticides (parathion, methyl-parathion, carbendazim, 2,4-D-amine Na, phosmethylane) were applied in ecotoxicological trials. The formulations were either injected into the air space of pheasant, quail or hen eggs or hen eggs were treated by the immersion technique. The residues of pesticides were measured in samples on days 13, 14 and 16 of incubation of chicken and pheasant embryos, while the Japanese quail embryos were analysed on days 10-14 of incubation. Analytical chemistry data showed a varying degradation rate of the compounds in avian embryos of the same species. The residues directly affect the embryos, disturbing their normal development and causing pathophysiological and morphological changes.

  7. Monitoring of seasonal vegetables for pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Beena; Madan, V K; Kumar, R; Kathpal, T S

    2002-03-01

    Market samples (60) of six seasonal vegetables were monitored during 1996-1997 to determine the magnitude of pesticidal contamination. The estimation of insecticide residues representing four major chemical groups i.e. organochlorine, organophosphorous, synthetic pyrethroid and carbamate, was done by adopting a multiresidue analytical technique employing GC-ECD and GC-NPD systems with capillary columns. The tested samples showed 100% contamination with low but measurable amounts of residues. Among the four chemical groups, the organophosphates were dominant followed by organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids and carbamates. About 23% of the samples showed contamination with organophosphorous compounds above their respective MRL values. More extensive studies covering different regions of Haryana state are suggested to get a clear idea of the magnitude of vegetable contamination with pesticide residues.

  8. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  9. Determination of Stability from Multicomponent Pesticide Mixes.

    PubMed

    Dorweiler, Kelly J; Gurav, Jagdish N; Walbridge, James S; Ghatge, Vishwas S; Savant, Rahul H

    2016-08-10

    A study was conducted to evaluate the stability of 528 pesticides, metabolites, and contaminants prepared in large multicomponent mixes to enhance laboratory efficiency by allowing maximum use of the useful shelf life of the mixtures. Accelerated aging at 50 °C simulated 6 month, 1 year, and 2 year storage periods at -20 °C. Initial mixture composition was based on the instrument of analysis. After preliminary stability data had been obtained, mixtures were reformulated and re-evaluated. In all, 344 compounds showed satisfactory stability across all treatment groups, 100 compounds showed statistically significant changes between the control and the 6 month simulated storage period (27 with losses >20%), and the remainder showed borderline stability or were tested in one protocol. Stability behavior for organophosphates agreed with the proposed reaction mechanism responsible for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. A small number of compounds increased in response over time, suggesting the occurrence of degradation of precursor pesticides into these respective compounds.

  10. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides.

  11. Regulatory approaches for controlling pesticide residues in food animals.

    PubMed

    Landy, R B; Kim, I S; Lee, Y; Hoffman, M K

    1999-03-01

    Pesticide use is vital to the production of an economical, high-quality food supply throughout the world. The regulatory system in the United States is designed to prevent the entry of unacceptable residues into the food supply. To address the complexities associated with pesticide use, the regulatory apparatus is composed of several federal and numerous state agencies. Based on monitoring results, it appears that most pesticides are being used in the appropriate manner and that thresholds for pesticides, deemed to be adequate to protect human health, are seldom exceeded. With our increasing knowledge of the public health and ecologic threats posed by pesticide residues, our approach to regulating pesticides will continue to evolve.

  12. Performance of coatings for concrete exposed to pesticides and fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Zarate, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    As a result of Congressional amendments for the reauthorization of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (known as FIFRA 1988), EPA is proposing minimum standards for secondary containment of pesticide bulk containers and for containment structures for certain pesticide dispensing operations. Concrete is the most common secondary containment construction material for pesticides but concrete may be susceptible to migration of spilled pesticides due to its porosity and potential for cracking. The research described here was requested by EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs to help identify coatings for concrete that could reduce the migration of pesticides through containment structures. At the time of this writing, the study was about half completed. Preliminary results from twelve generic coating types are discussed.

  13. Public health pesticide use in California: a comparative summary.

    PubMed

    Howard, Timothy S; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki L; Bronson, Larry R

    2010-09-01

    California pesticide use summary data and use reports from local vector control agencies were reviewed to document public health pesticide use patterns. During the 15-year period 1993-2007, public health pesticide use averaged 1.75 million lb (0.79 million kg) (AI), accounted for < 1% of reportable pesticide use statewide, and ranked below major crop uses and many nonagricultural uses. A review of reports from local vector control agencies (2004-07) indicated that their applications were principally for mosquito control and represented > 99% of all reported public health pesticide use. Petroleum distillates, principally larviciding oils, accounted for 88% of public health pesticide use. Pyrethrins and naled, used as mosquito adulticides, increased substantially in recent years (post-2004), coinciding with increased West Nile virus control activities and availability of emergency funding. PMID:21033068

  14. [Investigation of pesticide residues in foods distributed in Kitakyushu City].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Seiichi; Naetoko, Eri; Kawamura, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Rika; Higuchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Tsutomu; Yamato, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masaki

    2004-04-01

    We investigated 160 kinds of pesticide residues in 715 samples of 116 kinds of foods distributed in Kitakyushu city. Sixty kinds of pesticides were detected in 55 kinds of foods (204 samples) in the range of 0.002-22 mg/kg. Five kinds of pesticides in 7 samples violated the residue standards and the indication of "unused". The detection ratios of unregulated pesticide in domestic and imported foods were 27.8 and 33.0%, respectively. Iprodione, dicofol, diethofencarb, procymidone and chlorfenapyr (for domestic food) and total bromine, benomyl, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and dimethoate (for imported food) showed relatively high detection ratios. Chinese cabbage, garland chrysanthemum, tomatoes and green teas (domestic) and broccoli, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, frozen edamame and frozen kidney beans (imported) showed high relative pesticide detection ratios. Residual pesticides were detected with relatively high frequency in imported fruits, imported frozen foods and imported processed foods. PMID:15272606

  15. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  16. Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee (GPSC) to prepare the State of Wyoming Generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Little existing information was available describing pesticide occurrence in ground water; therefore, statewide baseline ground-water sampling was considered a high priority by the GPSC. The GPSC identified 20 pesticides and degradates for baseline ground-water sampling (referred to herein as focal pesticides). Sampling focused on the State's most vulnerable ground water (Wyoming Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee, 1999) as determined by Hamerlinck and Arneson (1998; fig. 1). Ground-water vulnerability is based on inherent sensitivity of the hydrogeology (such as a shallow water table or highly permeable aquifer materials) and overlying land use.

  17. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides. PMID:26867293

  18. Effects of fertilizer and pesticides on concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Harner, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Concrete is the most common material of construction for secondary containment of fertilizers and pesticides because of its relative low cost and structural properties. Concrete, however, is porous to some products it is designed to contain and is subject to corrosion. In this paper, concrete deterioration mechanisms and corrosion resistant concrete formulation are discussed, as well as exposure tests of various concrete mixes to some common liquid fertilizers and herbicides.

  19. Pesticide residues in oranges from Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández, M; Picó, Y; Mañes, J

    2001-07-01

    One hundred and fifty citrus samples from an agricultural co-operative of the Valencian Community (Spain) were analysed for pre- and post-harvest pesticide residues using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Among the residues from post-harvest treatments, imazalil was detected in 112 (74.7%) samples at a mean level of 1.2 mg/kg, thiabendazole in 21 (14.0%) samples at a mean level of 0.47 mg/kg and carbendazim in 5 (3.3%) samples at a mean level of 1.05 mg/kg. Among the residues from pre-harvest treatment, dicofol was detected in 28 (18.7%) samples at a mean level of .28 mg/kg chlorpyriphos in 19 (12.7% samples at a mean level of 0.16 mg/kg and endosulfan in 11 (7.3%) at a mean level of 0.27 mg/kg. Most of the samples contained residues of various pesticides and six samples (4.0%) exceeded the European Union Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). The pesticides that surpassed the MRLs were chlorpyriphos in five samples and dicofol in one.

  20. [Laser Raman spectrum analysis of carbendazim pesticide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Yan, Lin-yuan

    2014-06-01

    Raman signal of solid and liquid carbendazim pesticide was collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The acquired Raman spectrum signal of solid carbendazim was preprocessed by wavelet analysis method, and the optimal combination of wavelet denoising parameter was selected through mixed orthogonal test. The results showed that the best effect was got with signal to noise ratio (SNR) being 62.483 when db2 wavelet function was used, decomposition level was 2, the threshold option scheme was 'rigisure' and reset mode was 'sln'. According to the vibration mode of different functional groups, the de-noised Raman bands could be divided into 3 areas: 1 400-2 000, 700-1 400 and 200-700 cm(-1). And the de-noised Raman bands were assigned with and analyzed. The characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different ranges of wavenumbers. Strong Raman signals were observed in the Raman spectrum at 619, 725, 964, 1 022, 1 265, 1 274 and 1 478 cm(-1), respectively. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of solid carbendazim pesticide. Find characteristic Raman peaks at 629, 727, 1 001, 1 219, 1 258 and 1 365 cm(-1) in Raman spectrum signal of liquid carbendazim. These characteristic peaks were basically tallies with the solid carbendazim. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in food and agricultural products based on Raman spectrum.