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Sample records for fr18oc10r pp 63997-64046

  1. {omega} production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, G.; Vidya, M.S.; Deepak, P.N.; Balasubramanyam, J.; Venkataraya

    2005-09-01

    A model-independent irreducible tensor formalism that was developed earlier to analyze measurements of p-vectorp-vector{yields}pp{pi} deg. is extended to present a theoretical discussion of p-vectorp-vector{yields}pp{omega} and of {omega} polarization in pp{yields}pp{omega}-vector and in pp-vector{yields}pp{omega}-vector. The recent measurement of an unpolarized differential cross section for pp{yields}pp{omega} is analyzed by use of this theoretical formalism.

  2. PP prune users guide.

    Treesearch

    N.A. Bolon; R.D. Fight; J.M. Cahill

    1992-01-01

    The PP PRUNE program allows users to conduct a financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). The increase in product value and rate of return from pruning the butt 16.5-foot log can be estimated. Lumber recovery information is based on actual mill experience with pruned and unpruned logs. Users supply lumber prices...

  3. Locally homogeneous pp-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globke, Wolfgang; Leistner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    We show that every n-dimensional locally homogeneous pp-wave is a plane wave, provided it is indecomposable and its curvature operator, when acting on 2-forms, has rank greater than one. As a consequence we obtain that indecomposable, Ricci-flat locally homogeneous pp-waves are plane waves. This generalises a classical result by Jordan, Ehlers and Kundt in dimension 4. Several examples show that our assumptions on indecomposability and the rank of the curvature are essential.

  4. Properties of nanocomposite PP fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smole, Majda S.; Stakne, Kristina; Svetec, Diana G.; Kleinschek, Karin S.; Ribitsch, Volker

    2005-06-01

    PP-based nanocomposite fibres were prepared by direct polymer melt intercalation. With the intention to determine the size and dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, fibres were plasma etched and SEM observations were performed. The influence of nanofiller content and coupling agent on electrokinetic properties was studied. PP monofilament fibres exhibit hydrophobe character with negative zeta potential value. The zeta potential value of co-polymer PP fibre decreases with increasing PPAA content and the isoelectric point IEP of co-polymer samples shifts towards acid region. Addition of modified montmorillonite due to the particles electropositive character, affects the reduction of zeta potential value and a slight shift of IEP towards neutral region is observed. Nano-particles content influences electrokinetic fibres properties, i.e. ZP value is changed, however IE point is not significantly changed by different concentrations of nanofiller. In addition to, mechanical properties of nanocomposite fibres were determined.

  5. Φ Production in pp Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibirtsev, Alexander

    The data for near-threshold cross section for the reaction pppp published by the DISTO and ANKE Collaboration are analyzed in order to evaluate the OZI ratio at low energies by taking into account corrections from the kinematics and the final-state interaction. Combining these new data with the few measurements available at higher energies the limit for the OZI rule violation is evaluated and the possible contribution from a five-quark baryonic resonance coupled to the p system is estimated.

  6. Study of {psi}(2S) decays to {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp, and search for pp threshold enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Sun, W. M.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.

    2010-11-01

    The decays of {psi}(2S) into {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp have been studied with the CLEO-c detector using a sample of 24.5x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) events obtained from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations at {radical}(s)=3686 MeV. The data show evidence for the excitation of several N{sup *} resonances in p{pi}{sup 0} and p{eta} channels in {pi}{sup 0}pp and {eta}pp decays, and f{sub 2} states in {gamma}pp decay. Branching fractions for decays of {psi}(2S) to {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp have been determined. No evidence for pp threshold enhancements was found in the reactions {psi}(2S){yields}Xpp, where X={gamma}, {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}. We do, however, find confirming evidence for a pp threshold enhancement in J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}pp as previously reported by BES.

  7. Analysis of Vernier Scans during the PP2PP run in 2009 (pp at 100 GeV/beam)

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.

    2011-12-13

    At the end of RHIC's 2009 operation a dedicated run for the PP2PP experiment (part of the STAR experiment) took place from Jun 29 to Jul 06 2009. Polarized protons were accelerated to 100 GeV using ramp-file pp100-90pp2pp with a {beta}* = 22 m in IR6. Since only transverse polarization was required no rotator ramp was in use. The PP2PP experiment consists mainly of two Roman Pot detectors (one horizontal and one vertical) on either side of IR6 in the outgoing-beam arms between the Q3 and Q4 magnets. The yellow pots are in sector 5, the blue ones in sector 6. Roman Pot type detectors are installed inside the beampipe causing an accelerator safety concern. To address this concern there is a limit to the allowable total beam current in the machine while Roman Pots are enabled to move closer to the beam. This limit was set to a motion limit of 5 mm from the center of the beampipe and 50 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} beam current per ring. In order to reduce the background in the detectors, beams were scraped using the RHIC collimator system prior to moving the pots closer. This was typically repeated several times throughout a store since beam halo reforms over the course of hours.

  8. Differential regulation of single CFTR channels by PP2C, PP2A, and other phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Pato, M D; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1998-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel activity declines rapidly when excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or human airway cells because of membrane-associated phosphatase activity. In the present study, we found that CFTR channels usually remained active in patches excised from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing CFTR. Those patches with stable channel activity were used to investigate the regulation of CFTR by exogenous protein phosphatases (PP). Adding PP2A, PP2C, or alkaline phosphatase to excised patches reduced CFTR channel activity by > 90% but did not abolish it completely. PP2B caused weak deactivation, whereas PP1 had no detectable effect on open probability (Po). Interestingly, the time course of deactivation by PP2C was identical to that of the spontaneous rundown observed in some patches after excision. PP2C and PP2A had distinct effects on channel gating Po declined during exposure to exogenous PP2C (and during spontaneous rundown, when it was observed) without any change in mean burst duration. By contrast, deactivation by exogenous PP2A was associated with a dramatic shortening of burst duration similar to that reported previously in patches from cardiac cells during deactivation of CFTR by endogenous phosphatases. Rundown of CFTR-mediated current across intact T84 epithelial cell monolayers was insensitive to toxic levels of the PP2A inhibitor calyculin A. These results demonstrate that exogenous PP2C is a potent regulator of CFTR activity, that its effects on single-channel gating are distinct from those of PP2A but similar to those of endogenous phosphatases in CHO, BHK, and T84 epithelial cells, and that multiple protein phosphatases may be required for complete deactivation of CFTR channels.

  9. Progesterone-associated proteins PP12 and PP14 in the human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Rutanen, E M; Koistinen, R; Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Suikkari, A M; Huhtala, M L

    1987-01-01

    Two proteins, designated as PP12 and PP14 were originally isolated from soluble extracts of the human placenta and its adjacent membranes. We have shown that they are synthesized by decidualized/secretory endometrium and not by placenta. Both proteins occur at high concentrations in human amniotic fluid, which is therefore an excellent source for purification. PP12 is a 34-kDa glycoprotein, which has an N-terminal amino acid sequence of Ala-Pro-Trp-Gln-Cys-Ala-Pro-Cys-Ser-Ala. This is identical with that of somatomedin-binding protein purified from the amniotic fluid. PP12 too binds somatomedin-C, or IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I). Human secretory endometrium synthesizes and secretes PP12, and progesterone stimulates its secretion. PP14 is a 28-kDa glycoprotein. Its N-terminal sequence shows homology to that of beta-lactoglobulins from various species. We have found PP14 in the human endometrium, serum and milk. Immunologically, PP14 is related to progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PEP), alpha-2 pregnancy-associated endometrial protein (alpha-2, PEG), endometrial protein 15 (EP15), alpha-uterine protein (AUP) and chorionic alpha-2 microglobulin (CAG-2). In ovulatory menstrual cycles, the concentration of PP14 increases in endometrial tissue as the secretory changes advance. In serum, the PP14 concentration begins to rise later than the progesterone levels, and high serum PP14 levels are maintained for the first days of the next cycle. By contrast, no elevation of serum PP14 level is seen in anovulatory cycles. Our results show that progesterone-associated proteins are synthesized by the human endometrium and appear in the peripheral circulation, where they can be quantitatively measured using immunochemical techniques.

  10. Spinning, structure and properties of PP/CNTs and PP/carbon black composite fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcincin, A.; Hricova, M.; Ujhelyiova, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of the compatibilisers-dispersants and other nanofillers on melt spinning of the polypropylene (PP) composites, containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon black pigment (CBP) has been investigated. Further, the structure and selected properties of composite fibers, such as mechanical and electrical have been studied. The results revealed, that percolation threshold for PP/CBP composite fibres was situated within the concentration of 15 - 20 wt%, what is several times higher than for PP/CNTs fibers.

  11. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO4 nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  12. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The…

  13. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The…

  14. Measurement and analysis of the pp{yields}pp{gamma} reaction at 310 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Nakayama, K.; Wilkin, C.

    2011-05-15

    The pp{yields}pp{gamma} reaction has been studied at a beam energy of 310 MeV by detecting both final protons at the PROMICE-WASA facility and identifying the photon through the resulting missing-mass peak. The photon angular distribution in the center-of-mass system and those of the proton-proton relative momentum with respect to the beam direction and to that of the recoil photon were determined reliably up to a final pp excitation energy of E{sub pp}{approx}30 MeV. Except for very small E{sub pp} values, the behavior of these distributions with excitation energy is well reproduced by a new refined model of the hard bremsstrahlung process. The model reproduces absolutely the total cross section and its energy dependence to within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties.

  15. ICI/BASF PP for acrylics swap

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    ICI (London) and BASF (Ludwigshafen) have announced their long-awaited polypropylene (PP) for acrylics swap deal. ICI is buying BASF's European acrylic resin business, and the German firm will acquire ICI's European PP operations. The deal is due for completion by mid-1993, subject to regulatory approvals. BASF, hitherto a small-scale PP producer, doubles capacity to 600,000 m.t./year and moves up the European PP league to number three, behind Himont and Shell. BASF, whose process is used in the plants, secures a foothold in the UK PP market, where Shell - planning a merger with Himont - is the only other producer, with 170,000 m.t./year. ICI's purchase involves BASF's Resart GmbH and Critesa SA subsidiaries, located at Mainz, Germany and near Barcelona, Spain, respectively. The business - which will add about [Brit pounds]60 million ($93 million) to ICI Acrylics [Brit pounds]300-million revenues - employs 400 people, who will transfer to ICI.

  16. {Delta} isobars and (p,p') reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, F.; Stephenson, E. J.

    2001-09-01

    We explore the role of coupling to {Delta} isobars (in both the N{Delta} and {Delta}{Delta} channels) in medium modifications of the effective NN interaction that drives 200-MeV proton inelastic scattering. A comparison of the predictions to natural-parity (p,p') cross section and analyzing power data show that isobar degrees of freedom in the medium generate overly repulsive effective interactions. Furthermore, this model extension is unable to resolve difficulties observed earlier describing polarization transfer measurements in some high-spin, unnatural-parity (p,p') transitions.

  17. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Fostriecin, Cytostatin, and Key Analogs, with PP1, PP2A, PP5, and (β12–β13)-Chimeras (PP1/PP2A and PP5/PP2A), Provide Further Insight into the Inhibitory Actions of Fostriecin Family Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Swingle, Mark R.; Amable, Lauren; Lawhorn, Brian G.; Buck, Suzanne B.; Burke, Christopher P.; Ratti, Pukar; Fischer, Kimberly L.; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    Fostriecin and cytostatin are structurally related natural inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases, with promising antitumor activity. The total synthesis of these antitumor agents has enabled the production of structural analogs, which are useful to explore the biological significance of features contained in the parent compounds. Here, the inhibitory activity of fostriecin, cytostatin, and 10 key structural analogs were tested in side-by-side phosphatase assays to further characterize their inhibitory activity against PP1c (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit), PP2Ac (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit), PP5c (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 5 catalytic subunit), and chimeras of PP1 (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1) and PP5 (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 5), in which key residues predicted for inhibitor contact with PP2A (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A) were introduced into PP1 and PP5 using site-directed mutagenesis. The data confirm the importance of the C9-phosphate and C11-alcohol for general inhibition and further demonstrate the importance of a predicted C3 interaction with a unique cysteine (Cys269) in the β12–β13 loop of PP2A. The data also indicate that additional features beyond the unsaturated lactone contribute to inhibitory potency and selectivity. Notably, a derivative of fostriecin lacking the entire lactone subunit demonstrated marked potency and selectivity for PP2A, while having substantially reduced and similar activity against PP1 and PP1/PP2A- PP5/PP2A-chimeras that have greatly increased sensitivity to both fostriecin and cytostatin. This suggests that other features [e.g., the (Z,Z,E)-triene] also contribute to inhibitory selectivity. When considered together with previous data, these studies suggest that, despite the high structural conservation of the catalytic site in PP1, PP2A and PP5, the development of highly selective catalytic inhibitors should be feasible. PMID:19592665

  18. New boundaries for the "ppK-" production in p+p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, Eliane

    2014-11-01

    The HADES collaboration has searched for the anti-kaonic nuclear cluster "ppK-" in p+p collisions by its decay into pΛ. In the course of this analysis several cross checks had to be performed. This report discusses two examples thereof. In one test it was checked whether the presence of background events could introduce a bias on the applied partial wave analysis. The second item discussed here is the extraction of the total pK+Λ production cross section necessary to derive the absolute upper limit on the "ppK-" production cross section.

  19. Regulation of PP2A by Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Joshua; Ogretmen, Besim

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is a primary regulator of cellular proliferation through targeting of proliferative kinases, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis inhibitors. It is through the regulation of these regulatory elements that gives PP2A tumor suppressor functions. In addition to mutations on the regulatory subunits, the phosphatase/tumor suppressing activity of PP2A is also inhibited in several cancer types due to overexpression or modification of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as SET/I2PP2A. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the interactions between the lipid signaling molecules, selectively sphingolipids, and the PP2A inhibitor SET for the regulation of PP2A, and the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids as PP2A activators for tumor suppression via targeting SET oncoprotein. PMID:25642418

  20. Regulation of PP2A by Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Joshua; Ogretmen, Besim

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is a primary regulator of cellular proliferation through targeting of proliferative kinases, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis inhibitors. It is through the regulation of these regulatory elements that gives PP2A tumor suppressor functions. In addition to mutations on the regulatory subunits, the phosphatase/tumor suppressing activity of PP2A is also inhibited in several cancer types due to overexpression or modification of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as SET/I2PP2A. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the interactions between the lipid signaling molecules, selectively sphingolipids, and the PP2A inhibitor SET for the regulation of PP2A, and the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids as PP2A activators for tumor suppression via targeting SET oncoprotein.

  1. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, P.L.; Quack, E.; Ruuskanen, P.V. |

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  2. Status of K-pp Search Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Tomofumi

    After the claims on the experimental evidence of the "K-pp" bound state by the FINUDA and DISTO collaborations, there are several new data recently reported. Some of them observed signals, while some others not. These results are introduced and the consistency and sensitivities among these data are briefly discussed.

  3. Leishmania donovani phosphoproteins pp41 and pp29 re-establishes host protective immune response in visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Das, Pranati; Amit, Ajay; Singh, Shubhankar Kumar; Chaudhary, Rajesh; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Yadav, Anupam; Pandey, Krishna; Das, Vidya Nand Rabi; Sundram, Shanty; Das, P; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2015-02-01

    As phospho proteins are reported to be involved in virulence and survival, the ability of Leishmania to inhibit macrophage effector functions may result from a direct interference of leishmanial molecules with macrophage signal transduction pathways. Several such proteins such as pp63, pp41 and pp29 have also been identified as a Th1 stimulatory protein in the Leishmania donovani. In the present study, the immunogenicity of a cocktail of pp63+pp41+pp29 was assessed by estimation of serum antibody titre, nitric oxide(NO) production, estimation of Th1 cytokine(IFN-γ) as well as Th2 cytokines(IL-4), and determination of parasite load in L. donovani infected mice. In the group immunized with antigenic cocktail there was a sharp rise in antibody titer up to Day 20 which reduced considerably by Day 50. Groups of mice vaccinated with pp63, pp41, pp29 and the antigenic cocktail expressed 10-fold, 16-fold, 22-fold and 25-fold increase respectively in NO production by splenocytes. The animal groups immunized with pp63, pp41, pp29 and the antigenic cocktail showed reduced parasite load in the liver and spleen, as well as increased IFN-gamma production in the spleen. Furthermore immunized animals remained with a normal hematological profile, whereas L. donovani in unimmunized mice lead to significant anemia.

  4. Branching fractions for {chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}, pp{eta}, and pp{omega}

    SciTech Connect

    Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hunt, J. M.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.

    2010-07-01

    Using a sample of 25.9x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) decays acquired with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we report branching fractions for the decays {chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}, pp{eta}, and pp{omega}, with J=0, 1, 2. Our results for B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{pi}{sup 0}) and B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{eta}) are consistent with, but more precise than, previous measurements. Furthermore, we include the first measurement of B({chi}{sub cJ{yields}}pp{omega}).

  5. pp interactions in extended air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendi Kohara, A.; Ferreira, Erasmo; Kodama, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  6. Structure investigations of PP-PA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Jaroslaw; Wlochowicz, Andrzej; Slusarczyk, Czeslaw

    1997-02-01

    In the paper we have used the SAXS method in order to determine the supermolecular structure parameters, including the transition layer thickness, of polypropylene/polyamide-6 (PP/PA) blends. The transition layer thickness has been obtained by means of two methods elaborated by Koberstein and co-workers and by Ruland, respectively. Both these methods assume that changes of the electron density in the transition region can be described by a Gaussian function with a standard deviation (sigma) . The parameter (sigma) have been determined graphically from the appropriate plots. Then, the thickness of the phase boundary E was estimated as (root)12(sigma) . The investigated PP/PA blends are multiphase systems and the problem of determination of the boundary width is more complicated because the meaning of Porod's law must be considered with caution. This problem is discussed based on wide range of the investigated samples prepared over various pressure and crystallization temperature conditions.

  7. PP: A Lisp Pretty Printing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function is like PRIN1 except that it does not force ,PRINT-ESCAPE, to be T. The...PRINT-CASE, and ,PRINT- GENSYM , respectively. (’llhe last four of these variables are not supported by release 5 of the I isp Machine System...variables. PP:SET-INTERACTIVE-CONTROL-VARIABLES &key :escape :base :pretty :level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function specifies

  8. Nuclear trafficking of the human cytomegalovirus pp71 (ppUL82) tegument protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Weiping; Westgard, Elizabeth; Huang Liqun; Ward, Michael D.; Osborn, Jodi L.; Chau, Nha H.; Collins, Lindsay; Marcum, Benjamin; Koach, Margaret A.; Bibbs, Jennifer; Semmes, O. John; Kerry, Julie A.

    2008-06-20

    The human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp71 localizes to the nucleus immediately upon infection, and functions to initiate viral gene expression. Analysis of a series of random insertion mutations revealed that sequences within the mid region (MR) of pp71 are important for localization to the nucleus. Fusion of MR sequences with eGFP revealed that amino acids 94 to 300 were sufficient to target proteins to the nucleus. Random substitution mutagenesis within this domain resulted in two double substitution mutants, pp71P203T/T223M and pp71T228M/L275Q, with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization. Disruption of nuclear targeting resulted in relocalization of the fusion proteins to a distinct perinuclear region. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we determined that threonine 223 can be phosphorylated. Mutation of this residue to a phosphomimetic amino acid resulted in abrogation of nuclear targeting. These results strongly suggest that the intracellular trafficking of pp71 is regulated by phosphorylation.

  9. Inner Core Imaging Using P'P'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; Ward, J. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's inner core is a surprisingly complex region of our planet. Simple models of inner core solidification and evolution would lead us to expect a layered structure, which has "frozen in" in information about the state of the core at the time of solidification. However, seismic observations of Earth's inner core are not dominated by a radial "tree-ring" like pattern, but instead have revealed a hemispherical dichotomy in addition to depth dependent variations. There is a degree-one structure in isotropic and anisotropic velocities and in attenuation between the so-called eastern and western hemispheres of the inner core, with different depth distributions proposed for these varying phenomena. A range of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hemispherical differences. These include models that require differences between the two hemispheres at the time of formation, post-solidification texturing, convection in the inner core, or hybrid mechanisms. Regional observations of the inner core suggest that a simple division between East and West may not be able to fully capture the structure present in the inner core. More detailed seismic observations will help us to understand the puzzle of the inner core's evolution. In this study we focus on updating observations of the seismic phase P'P', an inner core sensitive body wave with a more complex path than those typically used to study the inner core. By making new measurements of P'P' we illuminate new regions of the core with a high frequency phase that is sensitive to small scale structures. We examine the differential travel times of the different branches of P'P' (PKIKPPKIKP and PKPPKP), comparing the arrival time of inner core turning branch, P'P'df, with the arrival times of branches that turn in the outer core. P'P' is a relatively small amplitude phase, so we use both linear and non-linear stacking methods to make observations of the P'P' signals. These measurements are sensitive to the broad scale

  10. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV Δpp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged Δpp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ΔUS2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, Δpp65ab protected against ΔUS2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ΔUS2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  11. Comparison of the pp → π+pn and pp → π+d production rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fäldt, G.; Wilkin, C.

    2017-07-01

    Fully constrained bubble chamber data on the pp →π+ pn and pp →π+ d reactions are used to investigate the ratio of the counting rates for the two processes at low pn excitation energies. Whereas the ratio is in tolerable agreement with that found in a high resolution spectrometer experiment, the angular distribution in the final pn rest frame shows that the deviation from the predictions of final state interaction theory must originate primarily from higher partial waves in the pn system. These considerations might also be significant for the determination of the S-wave Λp scattering length from data on the pp →K+ Λp reaction.

  12. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    PubMed Central

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While deletion of pp65ab slightly reduced growth in vitro and increased defective particle formation, the protein composition of secreted virions was largely unchanged. Interestingly, pp65 was not required for primary and persistent infection in animals. Immune responses induced by RhCMVΔpp65ab did not prevent reinfection with rhesus CMV; however, reinfection with RhCMVΔUS2-11, which lacks viral-encoded MHC-I antigen presentation inhibitors, was prevented. Unexpectedly, induction of pp65b-specific T cells alone did not protect against RhCMVΔUS2-11 challenge, suggesting that T cells targeting multiple CMV antigens are required for protection. However, pp65-specific immunity was crucial for controlling viral dissemination during primary infection, as indicated by the marked increase of RhCMVΔpp65ab genome copies in CMV-naive, but not CMV-immune, animals. Our data provide rationale for inclusion of pp65 into CMV vaccines but also demonstrate that pp65-induced T cell responses alone do not recapitulate the protective effect of natural infection. PMID:24691437

  13. Exclusive pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-} reaction: From the threshold to LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Lebiedowicz, P.; Szczurek, A.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate differential distributions for the four-body pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-} (and pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-}) reaction which constitutes an irreducible background to three-body processes pp{yields}ppM, where M are a broad resonances in the {pi}{sup +{pi}-} channel, e.g., M={sigma}, {rho}{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 2}(1275), f{sub 0}(1500). We include both double-diffractive contribution (both Pomeron and Reggeon exchanges) as well as pion-pion rescattering contribution. The first process dominates at higher energies and small pion-pion invariant masses while the second becomes important at lower energies and higher pion-pion invariant masses. The amplitude(s) is(are) calculated in the Regge approach. We compare our results with measured cross sections for the Intersecting Storage Ring and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiments. We make predictions for future experiments at the anti-Proton ANnihilation at DArmstadt (PANDA), Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Tevatron, and LHC energies. Differential distributions in invariant two-pion mass, pion rapidities and transverse momenta of pions are presented. The two-dimensional distribution in (y{sub {pi}}{sup +},y{sub {pi}}{sup -}) is particularly interesting. The higher the incident energy, the higher preference for the same-hemisphere emission of pions. The processes considered constitute a sizeable contribution to the total nucleon-nucleon cross section as well as to pion inclusive cross section.

  14. Spin transfer measurements for pp-->pp at 800 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, M. W.; Bonner, B. E.; Cornelius, W. D.; Hoffman, E. W.; van Dyck, O. B.; York, R. L.; Ransome, R. D.; Hollas, C. L.; Riley, P. J.; Toshioka, K.

    1982-04-01

    The spin depolarization parameters DNN, DSS, DLS, and the spin transfer parameters KNN, KSS, KLS have been measured for pp-->pp at 800 MeV. Angular range is 21 to 90° c.m. for the D parameters, and 46 to 90° c.m. for the K parameters. Typical uncertainties are about +/-0.025. These data, when combined with previous data make possible a complete isovector phase shift and amplitude analysis at 800 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 1H(p,p)1H, E=800 MeV, measured DNN, DSS, DLS, KNN, KSS, KLS, θ=21 to 90° c.m.

  15. Chiral power counting and pp {r_arrow} pp{pi}{sup 0} near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kolck, U.; Miller, G.A.

    1995-10-01

    The pp {r_arrow} pp{pi}{sup 0} reaction is studied near threshold using power counting arguments based on chiral perturbation theory with an explicit {Delta} degree of freedom. Important contributions include the so-called impulse term, rescattering via the {Delta} and rescattering via the (off-shell) seagull term responsible for s-wave pion-nucleon scattering. These contributions largely cancel so that their sum greatly underpredicts the total cross-section. Other mechanisms are also discussed. The inclusion of the previously proposed {sigma} meson exchange mechanism is not sufficient to resolve the discrepancy with experiment.

  16. Receptors on phaeochromocytoma cells for two members of the PP-fold family--NPY and PP.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, T W; Sheikh, S P; O'Hare, M M

    1987-12-10

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) belong to a family of regulatory peptides which hold a distinct tertiary structure, the PP-fold, even in dilute aqueous solution. High-affinity receptors, specific for both PP and NPY, are described on the rat phaeochromocytoma cell line, PC-12. The binding of [125I-Tyr36]PP to PC-12 cells was inhibited by concentrations of unlabeled PP which correspond to physiological concentrations of the hormone, 10(-11)-10(-9) mol/l. The affinity of the receptor for the neuropeptide, NPY, was 10(2)-times lower than that of the PP receptor. C-terminal fragments of both PP (PP24-36) and NPY (NPY13-36) were between 10(2)- and 10(3)-times less potent in displacing the radiolabeled 36-amino-acid peptides from their respective receptors. It is concluded that PC-12 cells are suited for structure-function studies of the PP-fold peptides and studies on the cellular events following cellular binding of PP-fold peptides.

  17. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed.

  18. Development and characterization of antibacterial nanocomposite fiber based on PP/PET/nanosilver compatibilized with PP-g-MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, A.; Golshan Ebrahimi, N.

    2010-03-01

    The polypropylene (PP) /polyethylene terephthalate (PET) /Nanosilver (Ag) nanocomposite fibers were prepared for the achievement of permanent antibacterial activity to common synthetic textile. The fibers were melt-spun by co-extrusion of PP/PET with compatibilizer (PP-g-MA) as core and PP/Ag master-batches as sheath and vice versa then fiber formation was carried out through the spinneret. The effects of content PP-g-MA as compatibilizer were also investigated. The morphology and mechanical properties of uncompatibilized and compatibilized PP/PET fibers were comprehensively assessed utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile test experiments. It was observed that the fibrillar distributed morphology achieved at 3.5 Wt% of PP-g-MA has a significant performance. The antibacterial activity of nanosilver in fibers was evaluated after certain contact time and calculated by percent reduction of two kinds of bacteria; Staphylococus aureus and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial efficacy of spun fibers was excellent when the masterbatch used as the sheath. The SEM micrograph of these fibers (PP/ PP-g-MA/PET)/(PP/Nanosilver) shows nearly good distribution of nanosilver particles with little aggregation. Mechanical and antibacterial properties data have also shown that the fiber has a significant performance when the master-batch used as the sheath.

  19. The extended PP1 toolkit: designed to create specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Mathieu; Peti, Wolfgang; Ragusa, Michael J.; Beullens, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Protein Ser/Thr phosphatase-1 (PP1) catalyzes the majority of eukaryotic protein dephosphorylation reactions in a highly regulated and selective manner. Recent studies have identified an unusually diversified PP1 interactome with the properties of a regulatory toolkit. PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) function as targeting subunits, substrates and/or inhibitors. As targeting subunits, PIPs contribute to substrate selection by bringing PP1 into the vicinity of specific substrates and by modulating substrate specificity via additional substrate docking sites or blocking substrate-binding channels. Many of the nearly 200 established mammalian PIPs are predicted to be intrinsically disordered, a property that facilitates their binding to a large surface area of PP1 via multiple docking motifs. These novel insights offer perspectives for the therapeutic targeting of PP1 by interfering with the binding of PIPs or substrates. PMID:20399103

  20. Leading neutrons from polarized pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2008-10-13

    We calculate the cross section and single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, A{sub n}(t) for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and non-flip amplitudes, which leads to an appreciable spin asymmetry. However, the asymmetry observed recently in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC at very small |t|{approx}0.01 GeV{sup 2} cannot be explained by this mechanism.

  1. Collective phenomena in pp and ep scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, Francesco Giovanni; Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, László

    2017-03-01

    Bjorken scaling violation in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering (DIS) is related to the rise of hadronic cross sections by using the additive quark model. Of special interest is the connection between saturation in the low-x behavior of the DIS structure functions (SF) and possible slow-down of the pp cross section rise due to saturation effects. We also identify saturation effects in the DIS SF with phase transition that can be described by the Van der Waals equation of state.

  2. Psychosine induces the dephosphorylation of neurofilaments by deregulation of PP1 and PP2A phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Zhu, Hongling; Givogri, Maria I.; Chidavaenzi, Robstein L.; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Krabbe disease, a genetic demyelinating syndrome caused by deficiency of galactosyl-ceramidase and the resulting accumulation of galactosyl-sphingolipids, develop signs of a dying-back axonopathy compounded by a deficiency of large-caliber axons. Here, we show that axonal caliber in Twitcher mice, an animal model for Krabbe disease, is impaired in peripheral axons and is accompanied by a progressive reduction in the abundance and phosphorylation of the three neurofilament (NF) subunits. These changes correlate with an increase in the density of NFs per cross-sectional area in numerous mutant peripheral axons and abnormal increases in the activity of two serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) in mutant tissue. Similarly, acutely isolated mutant cortical neurons show abnormal phosphorylation of NFs. Psychosine, the neurotoxin accumulated in Krabbe disease, was sufficient to induce abnormal dephosphorylation of NF subunits in a normal motor neuron cell line as well as in acutely isolated normal cortical neurons. This in vitro effect was mediated by PP1 and PP2A, which specifically dephosphorylated NFs. These results demonstrate that the reduced caliber observed in some axons in Krabbe disease involves abnormal dephosphorylation of NFs. We propose that a psychosine-driven pathogenic mechanism through deregulated phosphotransferase activities may be involved in this process. PMID:22326830

  3. Study of the decay mechanism for B→pp¯K and B→pp¯π

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle Collaboration; Wei, J.-T.; Wang, M.-Z.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Balagura, V.; Barberio, E.; Bay, A.; Belous, K.; Bitenc, U.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, A.; Chen, K.-F.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiang, C.-C.; Cho, I.-S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Cole, S.; Danilov, M.; Dash, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Fratina, S.; Gabyshev, N.; Golob, B.; Ha, H.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, K.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Lin, S.-W.; Liu, Y.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Matyja, A.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, K. S.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schümann, J.; Seidl, R.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shiu, J.-G.; Singh, J. B.; Sokolov, A.; Somov, A.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tajima, O.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tian, X. C.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uehara, S.; Ueno, K.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Vinokurova, A.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Wedd, R.; Won, E.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the characteristics of the low mass pp¯ enhancements near threshold in the three-body decays B→pp¯K and B→pp¯π. We observe that the proton polar angle distributions in the pp¯ helicity frame in the two decays have the opposite polarity, and measure the forward-backward asymmetries as a function of the pp¯ mass for the pp¯K mode. We also search for the intermediate two-body decays, B→p¯Δ and B→pΔ, and set upper limits on their branching fractions. These results are obtained from a 414 fb data sample that contains 449×10BB¯ events collected near the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy ee collider.

  4. Damping of forward neutrons in pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate absorptive corrections to single pion exchange in the production of leading neutrons in pp collisions. Contrary to the usual procedure of convolving the survival probability with the cross section, we apply corrections to the spin amplitudes. The nonflip amplitude turns out to be much more suppressed by absorption than the spin-flip one. We identify the projectile proton Fock state responsible for the absorptive corrections as a color octet-octet 5-quarks configuration. Calculations within two very different models, color-dipole light-cone description, and in hadronic representation, lead to rather similar absorptive corrections. We found a much stronger damping of leading neutrons than in some of previous estimates. Correspondingly, the cross section is considerably smaller than was measured at ISR. However, comparison with recent measurements by the ZEUS collaboration of neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering provides a strong motivation for challenging the normalization of the ISR data. This conjecture is also supported by preliminary data from the NA49 experiment for neutron production in pp collisions at SPS.

  5. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; ...

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possiblemore » effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.« less

  6. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; Tarasov, Andrey

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possible effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.

  7. Strangeness production in AA and pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Boost-invariant hadron production in high-energy collisions occurs in causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) are conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. Their size is determined by two time scales: the equilibration time specifying the formation of a quark-gluon plasma, and the hadronization time, specifying the onset of confinement. The expected values for these scales provide the theoretical basis for the suppression observed for strangeness production in elementary interactions ( pp , e^+e^- below LHC energies. In contrast, the space-time superposition of individual collisions in high-energy heavy-ion interactions leads to higher energy densities, resulting in much later hadronization and hence much larger hadronization volumes. This largely removes the causality constraints and results in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full chemical equilibrium. In the present paper, we determine the collision energies needed for that; we also estimate when pp collisions reach comparable hadronization volumes and thus determine when strangeness suppression should disappear there as well.

  8. Isoliensinine induces dephosphorylation of NF-kB p65 subunit at Ser536 via a PP2A-dependent mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: roles of impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction.

    PubMed

    Shu, Guangwen; Zhang, Lang; Jiang, Shanqing; Cheng, Zhuo; Wang, Guan; Huang, Xu; Yang, Xinzhou

    2016-06-28

    Our previous study discovered that isoliensinine (isolie) triggers hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis via inducing p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536 and inhibition of NF-κB. Here, we showed that isolie promoted p65/PP2A interaction in vitro and in vivo. Repression of PP2A activity or knockdown of the expression of PP2A-C (the catalytic subunit of PP2A) abrogated isolie-provoked p65 dephosphorylation. I2PP2A is an endogenous PP2A inhibitor. Isolie directly impaired PP2A/I2PP2A interaction. Knockdown of I2PP2A boosted p65/PP2A association and p65 dephosphorylation. Overexpression of I2PP2A restrained isolie-induced p65 dephosphorylation. Untransformed hepatocytes were insensitive to isolie-induced NF-κB inhibition and cell apoptosis. In these cells, basal levels of I2PP2A and p65 phosphorylation at Ser536 were lower than in HCC cells. These findings collectively indicated that isolie suppresses NF-κB in HCC cells through impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction and stimulating PP2A-dependent p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536.

  9. Isoliensinine induces dephosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit at Ser536 via a PP2A-dependent mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: roles of impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Guangwen; Zhang, Lang; Jiang, Shanqing; Cheng, Zhuo; Wang, Guan; Huang, Xu; Yang, Xinzhou

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study discovered that isoliensinine (isolie) triggers hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis via inducing p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536 and inhibition of NF-κB. Here, we showed that isolie promoted p65/PP2A interaction in vitro and in vivo. Repression of PP2A activity or knockdown of the expression of PP2A-C (the catalytic subunit of PP2A) abrogated isolie-provoked p65 dephosphorylation. I2PP2A is an endogenous PP2A inhibitor. Isolie directly impaired PP2A/I2PP2A interaction. Knockdown of I2PP2A boosted p65/PP2A association and p65 dephosphorylation. Overexpression of I2PP2A restrained isolie-induced p65 dephosphorylation. Untransformed hepatocytes were insensitive to isolie-induced NF-κB inhibition and cell apoptosis. In these cells, basal levels of I2PP2A and p65 phosphorylation at Ser536 were lower than in HCC cells. These findings collectively indicated that isolie suppresses NF-κB in HCC cells through impairing PP2A/I2PP2A interaction and stimulating PP2A-dependent p65 dephosphorylation at Ser536. PMID:27244888

  10. A new dynamic selection rule for pp into two mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niskanen, J. A.; Myhrer, F.

    1985-07-01

    We show that quark-antiquark annihilation into gluons gives a suppression of pp annihilating into π+/-ϱ+- from pp 1S0 and 3P states at threshold. Permanent address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

  11. Structural basis for transcription regulation by alarmone ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Artsimovitch, Irina; Patlan, Vsevolod; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Vassylyeva, Marina N; Hosaka, Takeshi; Ochi, Kozo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Vassylyev, Dmitry G

    2004-04-30

    Guanosine-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is a major regulator of stringent control, an adaptive response of bacteria to amino acid starvation. The 2.7 A resolution structure of the Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme in complex with ppGpp reveals that ppGpp binds to the same site near the active center in both independent RNAP molecules in the crystal but in strikingly distinct orientations. Binding is symmetrical with respect to the two diphosphates of ppGpp and is relaxed with respect to the orientation of the nucleotide base. Different modes of ppGpp binding are coupled with asymmetry of the active site configurations. The results suggest that base pairing of ppGpp with cytosines in the nontemplate DNA strand might be an essential component of transcription control by ppGpp. We present experimental evidence highlighting the importance of base-specific contacts between ppGpp and specific cytosine residues during both transcription initiation and elongation.

  12. /bar p/p collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. {lambda}0 Polarization in Exclusive pp Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, J.

    2006-09-25

    Among all properties of baryons, the polarization they acquire when created from unpolarized p-nucleus collisions is the most recent discovered one; so far, the origin of this polarization remains unexplained in spite of the experimental evidences accumulated in the past thirty years. Up to these days, {lambda}0 is the most studied baryon for polarization, due to it is very easy to produce {lambda}0's at the energies of the principal high energy physics accelerators of the world. This article is a review of the experimental experience accumulated on the polarization of {lambda}0 in unpolarized exclusive pp collisions as function of xF, PT, and M({lambda}0K+) in the past fifteen years here at the Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, inside Fermilab e690 and Brookhaven National Laboratory e766 collaborations.

  14. Spin transfer measurements for pp-->pp at 647 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, M. W.; Bonner, B. E.; Hoffman, E. W.; van Dyck, O. B.; Hollas, C. L.; Riley, P. J.; McNaughton, K. H.; Imai, K.; Toshioka, K.; Roberts, J.; Turpin, S. E.; Aas, B.; Rahbar, A.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements have been made of the spin depolarization parameters DNN, DSS, and DLS (27°<=θc.m.<=90°) and the spin transfer parameters KNN, KSS, and KLS (56°<=θc.m.<=90°) for pp-->pp at 647 MeV. Typical uncertainties are about 0.03 compared with about 0.1 for previous data. Previous data are reviewed. The present data are in agreement with corrected previous data, and are in agreement with Arndt's phase-shift solutions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 1H(p, p,)1H, E=647 MeV, measured DNN, DSS, DLS, KNN, KSS, KLS, θ=27° to 90° c.m.

  15. The PP2A inhibitor I2PP2A is essential for sister chromatid segregation in oocyte meiosis II.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Touati, Sandra A; Berneau, Stéphane; Cladière, Damien; Hebras, Céline; Groeme, Rachel; McDougall, Alex; Wassmann, Katja

    2013-03-18

    Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs in meiosis I and sister chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining sister chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II [1]. In all model organisms, centromeric cohesin is protected from separase-dependent removal in meiosis I through the activity of PP2A-B56 phosphatase, which is recruited to centromeres by shugoshin/MEI-S332 (Sgo) [2-5]. How this protection of centromeric cohesin is removed in meiosis II is not entirely clear; we find that all the PP2A subunits remain colocalized with the cohesin subunit Rec8 at the centromere of metaphase II chromosomes. Here, we show that sister chromatid separation in oocytes depends on a PP2A inhibitor, namely I2PP2A. I2PP2A colocalizes with the PP2A enzyme at centromeres at metaphase II, independently of bipolar attachment. When I2PP2A is depleted, sister chromatids fail to segregate during meiosis II. Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful sister chromatid segregation by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II.

  16. Properties of PP/MWCNT-COOH /PP composites made by melt mixing versus solution cast /melt mixing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholds, I.; Roja, Z.; Zicans, J.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bitenieks, J.

    2015-03-01

    An approach on improvement of the properties of polypropylene / carbon nanotube (PP/CNT) composites is reported. PP blend compositions with carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) at filler content 1.0 wt.% were researched. One part of the composites was manufactured by direct thermoplastic mixing PP with the filler, but the other one was made from solution casted masterbatch with the following thermoplastic mixing. An increase of mechanical properties (Young's modulus, storage modulus and tensile strength), compared to an increase of glass transition temperature indicated a reinforcement effect of CNTs on PP matrix, determined from the tensile tests and differential mechanical analysis (DMA), while the elongation was reduced, compared to PP matrix. By differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, the effect of nanofiller on the reorganization of PP crystallites was observed. A noticeable enhanced effect on increase of the crystallization temperature was indicated for masterbatch manufactured composite. An increase of thermal stability was also observed, compared to pristine PP and the composite made by direct thermoplastic mixing PP with the filler.

  17. Comparison of forward and backward pp pair knockout in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    DOE PAGES

    Baghdasaryan, H.; Weinstein, L. B.; Laget, J. M.; ...

    2012-06-21

    Measuring nucleon-nucleon Short Range Correlations (SRC) has been a goal of the nuclear physics community for many years. They are an important part of the nuclear wavefunction, accounting for almost all of the high-momentum strength. They are closely related to the EMC effect. While their overall probability has been measured, measuring their momentum distributions is more difficult. In order to determine the best configuration for studying SRC momentum distributions, we measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction, looking at events with high momentum protons (pp > 0.35 GeV/c) and a low momentum neutron (pn < 0.2 GeV/c). We examined two angular configurations: eithermore » both protons emitted forward or one proton emitted forward and one backward (with respect to the momentum transfer, →q). Thus, the measured relative momentum distribution of the events with one forward and one backward proton was much closer to the calculated initial-state pp relative momentum distribution, indicating that this is the preferred configuration for measuring SRC.« less

  18. Setting the scale of the pp and pp total cross sections using AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Domokos, Sophia K.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Mann, Nelia

    2010-11-15

    This paper is an addendum to earlier work where we computed the Pomeron contribution to pp and pp scattering in AdS/QCD. Our model for pp scattering in the Regge regime depends on four parameters: the slope and intercept of the Pomeron trajectory {alpha}{sub c}{sup '}, {alpha}{sub c}(0), a mass scale M{sub d}, which determines a form factor entering into matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, and a coupling {lambda}{sub P} between the lightest spin-two glueball and the proton, which sets the overall scale of the total cross section. Here we perform a more detailed computation of {lambda}{sub P} in the Sakai-Sugimoto model by using the construction of nucleons as instantons of the dual 5D gauge theory and an effective 5D fermion description of these nucleons which has been successfully used to compute a variety of nucleon-meson couplings. We find {lambda}{sub P,SS{approx_equal}}6.38 GeV{sup -1}, which is in reasonable agreement with the value {lambda}{sub P,fit}=8.28 GeV{sup -1} determined by fitting single Pomeron exchange to data.

  19. Comparison of forward and backward pp pair knockout in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, H.; Weinstein, L. B.; Laget, J. M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Sanctis, E.; De Vita, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hicks, K.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pisano, S.; Pozdniakov, S.; Procureur, S.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Saini, M. S.; Saylor, N. A.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.

    2012-06-01

    Measuring nucleon-nucleon short range correlations (SRCs) has been a goal of the nuclear physics community for many years. They are an important part of the nuclear wave function, accounting for almost all of the high-momentum strength. They are closely related to the EMC effect. While their overall probability has been measured, measuring their momentum distributions is more difficult. In order to determine the best configuration for studying SRC momentum distributions, we measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction, looking at events with high-momentum protons (pp>0.35 GeV/c) and a low-momentum neutron (pn<0.2 GeV/c). We examined two angular configurations: either both protons emitted forward or one proton emitted forward and one backward (with respect to the momentum transfer, q⃗). The measured relative momentum distribution of the events with one forward and one backward proton was much closer to the calculated initial-state pp relative momentum distribution, indicating that this is the preferred configuration for measuring SRC.

  20. Intracellular uptake and behavior of two types zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) micelles, SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP as anticancer agents; unique intracellular disintegration of SMA micelles.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Gahininath, Bharate; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2011-11-07

    SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP are micellar drugs, encapsulating zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) with styrene maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and covalent conjugate of ZnPP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) respectively. Their intracellular uptake rate and subcellular localization were investigated. We found SMA-ZnPP showed higher and more efficient (about 2.5 times) intracellular uptake rate than PEG-ZnPP, although both SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP micelles were localized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and inhibited the target enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) similarly. Both micellar ZnPP were taken up into the tumor cells by endocytosis. Furthermore SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP were examined for their drug releasing mechanisms. Liberation of ZnPP from the SMA micelle appears to depend on cellular amphiphilic components such as lecithin, while that for PEG-ZnPP depends on hydrolytic cleavage. These results indicate that these micelle formulations make water insoluble ZnPP to water soluble practical anticancer agents.

  1. Expression of human cytomegalovirus pp150 gene in transgenic Vicia faba L. and immunogenicity of pp150 protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-03-01

    The pp150 gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was transferred into Vicia faba plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Three of five hygromycin resistant V. faba plants were identified as positive by PCR and dot-blot hybridization. The ELISA results indicated that pp150 protein from three plants of transformed V. faba leaves and seeds made up 0.005-0.015% of the total soluble protein. The results of detection by immunoblot and inhibition of immunofluorescent assay (IFA) showed that pp150 soluble protein had immunity activity. HCMV pp150-specific antibody (IgG, IgA) and IFN-gamma producing T cells were detected in 100% of the mice immunized with pp150 transgenic V. faba seeds by ELISA and intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The transgenic V. faba plants will provide new material for the development of edible vaccination against HCMV infection.

  2. Improvement of polypropylene (PP)-modified bitumen through lignin addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanita, E.; Hendrasetyawan, B. E.; Firdaus, D. F.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is usually added to bitumen to improve its mechanical properties, however, both of them have different chemical properties. To achieve best mechanical properties of the mixture, coupling agent such as lignin is importantly required. Lignin is an amorphous biopolymer, has bipolar characteristic due to its distinct chemical function which has carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenol chemical function. Otherwise, bitumen and PP have polar and non-polar characteristic, respectively. In the previous research, it is found that lignin is potential to be used as coupling agent. In order to confirm the potential of lignin as a coupling agent, there are various compounds of lignin on PP-bitumen mixtures used in this research. This experiment consists of several stages, ranging from sample preparation, characterization of raw materials, mixing, and characterization of the PP-Modified Bitumen. This experiment used hot melt mixing to mix lignin, PP, and bitumen. The result of this experimental was analyzed by using FTIR and FESEM. The addition of lignin make Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) getting better mixing and increase mechanical properties. Furthermore, FESEM characterization indicated that the addition of lignin gave better mixing of PP-Bitumen. FTIR showed a new chemical structure due to the addition of lignin. From this experiment, the addition of lignin can improve mixing between PP and Bitumen. So, we can use lignin as coupling agent.

  3. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  4. Protein phosphatase 2A family members (PP2A and PP6) associate with U1 snRNP and the spliceosome during pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kamoun, Malek; Filali, Mohammed; Murray, Michael V.; Awasthi, Sita; Wadzinski, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are both important for multiple steps in the splicing pathway. Members of the PP1 and PP2A subfamilies of phospho-serine/threonine phosphatases play essential but redundant roles in the second step of the splicing reaction. PP6, a member of the PP2A subfamily, is the mammalian homologue of yeast Sit4p and ppe1, which are involved in cell cycle regulation; however, the involvement of PP6 in the splicing pathway remains unclear. Here we show that PP2A family members physically associate with the spliceosome throughout the splicing reaction. PP2A holoenzyme and PP6 were found stably associated with U1 snRNP. Together our findings indicate that these phosphatases regulate splicing catalysis involving U1 snRNP and suggest an important evolutionary conserved role of PP2A family phosphatases in pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:24064353

  5. PP and PS interferometric images of near-seafloor sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    I present interferometric processing examples from an ocean-bottom cable OBC dataset collected at a water depth of 800 m in the Gulf of Mexico. Virtual source and receiver gathers created through cross-correlation of full wavefields show clear PP reflections and PS conversions from near-seafloor layers of interest. Virtual gathers from wavefield-separated data show improved PP and PS arrivals. PP and PS brute stacks from the wavefield-separated data compare favorably with images from a non-interferometric processing flow. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Ambient Metrics for n-Dimensional pp-Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistner, Thomas; Nurowski, Pawel

    2010-06-01

    We provide an explicit formula for the Fefferman-Graham ambient metric of an n-dimensional conformal pp-wave in those cases where it exists. In even dimensions we calculate the obstruction explicitly. Furthermore, we describe all 4-dimensional pp-waves that are Bach-flat, and give a large class of Bach-flat examples which are conformally Cotton-flat, but not conformally Einstein. Finally, as an application, we use the obtained ambient metric to show that even-dimensional pp-waves have vanishing critical Q-curvature.

  7. Micro-canonical pentaquark production in ee and pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fu-Ming; Werner, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The existence of pentaquarks became questionable, because the Θ peak is observed in some p+p collisions, but not in ee annihilations. People think initial baryon number is necessary to produce pentaquarks. In this paper, we estimate and compare the production of Θ(1540) and Ξ(1860) in ee and pp collisions at different energies using Fermi statistical model as originally proposed in its microcanonical form. We find that both Θ(1540) and Ξ(1860) yield more in ee at LEP energies than in pp collisions at SPS and RHIC energies, if pentaquarks do exist. Initial baryon number is not necessary for pentaquark production.

  8. EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, A.; Schaap, D.; Manzella, G. M. R.; Pouliquen, S.; Gorringe, P.

    2012-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted a common text for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). During the one-year consultation phase that followed the release of the EU Green Paper on a Future Maritime Policy for the European Union, stakeholders gave an overwhelming positive response. Facilitating access to high quality marine data will resolve difficulties and stimulate an expansion of value-added public and commercial services, lay the foundations for sound governance and reduce uncertainties on human impact on the planet as well as of forecasts relating to the future state of the marine environment. Better and linked marine data will have an immediate impact on the planning of environmental policy and mitigation measures, and will also facilitate impact assessments and scientific work. The overall objectives of the EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) preparatory action is to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans by means of a dedicated Pilot Portal and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users from industry, public authorities and scientists. The latter implicates that it is also an objective to identify data gaps and arguments why these gaps should be filled in future monitoring. This project will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). This is done done by: 1. providing through a portal: a. access to marine data from measurement stations and ferryboxes. Both near real-time and archived data of time series are to be made available. b. metadata for these data sets using EMODnet/INSPIRE standards. c. metadata maps and overviews for whole sea-basins showing the availability of data and monitoring intensity of that

  9. Synthesis of PP-g-MA as compatibilizer for PP/PLA biocomposites: Thermal, mechanical and biodegradability properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghozali, Muhammad; Rohmah, Elfi Nur

    2017-01-01

    A synthesis of polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator has been conducted in a stainless-steel reactor at 120°C for 1 hours. The composition of maleic anhydride (MA) was varied between 10-40 phr, whereas BPO was between 0.5-2.0 phr. The grafting degree (GD) was determined by calculating the MA monomer grafted into polypropylene (PP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis was performed to study the functional group in the copolymer PP-g-MA. The result shows that the highest GD of 11.85% was obtained when the use of MA and BPO are 40 phr and 1 phr, respectively. PP/PLA biocomposites have been manufactured by adding polypropylene (PP), polylactic acid (PLA) and PP-g-MA as compatibilizer into rheomix at a temperature of 200-210°C with a stirring speed of 25 rpm for 7-10 minutes. PP/PLA biocomposites were varied at a ratio of 0/100, 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, 80/20 and 100/0. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultimate Testing Machine (UTM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and biodegradation analysis were performed to determine the functional groups, thermal stability, tensile strength and the biodegradability level of PP/PLA biocomposites, respectively. Thermal and mechanical analysis results indicate that the addition of PLA into PP/PLA biocomposites can reduce the thermal stability and mechanical properties, however the biodegradability is increased.

  10. PP composites with Hybrid Nanofillers: NTC phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlin, Juha; Immonen, Kirsi

    2010-06-01

    Electric conductive plastic composites have a wide potential for commercial applications, some examples are EMI shielding housings and components in automotive industry and in consumer electronics, equipments in health care sector and fuel cell components. A phenomenon in conductive composites, especially in composites with carbon based fillers, is change of thermal induced change in conductivity as a result of morphological transitions. Usually the observed changes are practically irreversible. The phenomenon may cause increasing resistivity, usually called as "positive temperature coefficient" (PTC) or decreasing resistivity, called "negative temperature coefficient (NTC), where the new morphology created by heat treatment is more favorable for electric conductivity compared to the original state. The existence of NTC is a sing of the lost potential in material design and processing. Therefore detailed information about the phenomenon gives us tools to develop high performance conductive materials. It this paper we discuss about NTC phenomenon observed in PP composites with CNT or in-situ synthesized CNT-PANi hybrid nanofiller with an amphiphilic dispersing agent. The goal of the paper is not to present a comprehensive model of this phenomenon; we present some experimental results which may be related to polymer-filler interactions. These details are a part of this complicated phenomenon.

  11. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  12. High p{sub T} jet production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Eskola, K.J.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    Production rates of large p{sub T} jets in pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are studied using the next-to-leading order calculation of S. D. Ellis, Z. Zunszt and D. Soper. The computed inclusive one-jet cross sections are compared against the CERN and Fermilab jet data from p{bar p} and pp collisions. The dependence of the results on the choice of the parton distributions and renormalization/factorization scales is investigated.

  13. pp-waves with torsion and metric-affine gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasic, Vedad; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2005-10-01

    A classical pp-wave is a four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime which admits a nonvanishing parallel spinor field; here the connection is assumed to be Levi-Civita. We generalize this definition to metric compatible spacetimes with torsion and describe basic properties of such spacetimes. We use our generalized pp-waves for constructing new explicit vacuum solutions of quadratic metric-affine gravity.

  14. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gislene; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-08-29

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55's dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis.

  15. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55’s dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis. PMID:27551057

  16. Distribution of Oil in a PP/EPDM Thermoplastic Elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yutaka; Okada, Tetsuo; Inoue, Takashi

    Distribution of oil in a commercial PP(polypropylene)/EPDM(ethylene-propyrene-diene rubber) thermoplastic elastomer was analyzed by light scattering. It was shown that the oil preferentially stays in EPDM particles at low temperatures and it migrates to PP matrix at high temperatures. That is, the oil is expected to play a dual role; softener at ambient temperature and plasticizer at processing temperature. The temperature dependence of oil distribution was nicely interpreted by a thermodynamic discussion.

  17. Rac GTPase signaling through the PP5 protein phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Saverio; Darden, Thomas; Erxleben, Christian; Romeo, Charles; Russo, Angela; Martin, Negin; Rossie, Sandra; Armstrong, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the Rac-dependent mechanism of KCNH2 channel stimulation by thyroid hormone in a rat pituitary cell line, GH4C1, with the patch-clamp technique. Here we present physiological evidence for the protein serine/threonine phosphatase, PP5, as an effector of Rac GTPase signaling. We also propose and test a specific molecular mechanism for PP5 stimulation by Rac-GTP. Inhibition of PP5 with the microbial toxin, okadaic acid, blocked channel stimulation by thyroid hormone and by Rac, but signaling was restored by expression of a toxin-insensitive mutant of PP5, Y451A, which we engineered. PP5 is unique among protein phosphatases in that it contains an N-terminal regulatory domain with three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) that inhibit its activity. Expression of the TPR domain coupled to GFP blocked channel stimulation by the thyroid hormone. We also show that the published structures of the PP5 TPR domain and the TPR domain of p67, the Rac-binding subunit of NADPH oxidase, superimpose over 92 α carbons. Mutation of the PP5 TPR domain at two predicted contact points with Rac-GTP prevents the TPR domain from functioning as a dominant negative and blocks the ability of Y451A to rescue signaling in the presence of okadaic acid. PP5 stimulation by Rac provides a unique molecular mechanism for the antagonism of Rho-dependent signaling through protein kinases in many cellular processes, including metastasis, immune cell chemotaxis, and neuronal development. PMID:16549782

  18. K restriction inhibits protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) and suppression of PP2B decreases ROMK channel activity in the CCD

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Lin, Dao-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Yan; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2009-01-01

    We used Western blot analysis to examine the effect of dietary K intake on the expression of serine/threonine protein phosphatase in the kidney. K restriction significantly decreased the expression of catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase (PP)2B but increased the expression of PP2B regulatory subunit in both rat and mouse kidney. However, K depletion did not affect the expression of PP1 and PP2A. Treatment of M-1 cells, mouse cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, or 293T cells with glucose oxidase (GO), which generates superoxide anions through glucose metabolism, mimicked the effect of K restriction on PP2B expression and significantly decreased expression of PP2B catalytic subunits. However, GO treatment increased expression of regulatory subunit of PP2B and had no effect on expression of PP1, PP2A, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1D. Moreover, deletion of gp91-containing NADPH oxidase abolished the effect of K depletion on PP2B. Thus superoxide anions or related products may mediate the inhibitory effect of K restriction on the expression of PP2B catalytic subunit. We also used patch-clamp technique to study the effect of inhibiting PP2B on renal outer medullary K (ROMK) channels in the CCD. Application of cyclosporin A or FK506, inhibitors of PP2B, significantly decreased ROMK channels, and the effect of PP2B inhibitors was abolished by blocking p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK. Furthermore, Western blot demonstrated that inhibition of PP2B with cyclosporin A or small interfering RNA increased the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK. We conclude that K restriction suppresses the expression of PP2B catalytic subunits and that inhibition of PP2B decreases ROMK channel activity through stimulation of MAPK in the CCD. PMID:18184875

  19. Evidence for a J/{psi}pp Pauli strong coupling?

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.; Li, X.; Roberts, W.

    2008-03-01

    The couplings of charmonia and charmonium hybrids (generically {psi}) to pp are of great interest in view of future plans to study these states using an antiproton storage ring at GSI. These low to moderate energy {psi}pp couplings are not well understood theoretically, and currently must be determined from experiment. In this paper we note that the two independent Dirac ({gamma}{sub {mu}}) and Pauli ({sigma}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}) pp couplings of the J/{psi} and {psi}{sup '} can be constrained by the angular distribution of e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}(J/{psi},{psi}{sup '}){yields}pp on resonance. A comparison of our theoretical results to recent unpolarized data allows estimates of the pp couplings; in the better determined J/{psi} case the data is inconsistent with a pure Dirac ({gamma}{sub {mu}}) coupling, and can be explained by the presence of a {sigma}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} term. This Pauli coupling may significantly affect the cross section of the PANDA process pp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}J/{psi} near threshold. There is a phase ambiguity that makes it impossible to uniquely determine the magnitudes and relative phase of the Dirac and Pauli couplings from the unpolarized angular distributions alone; we show in detail how this can be resolved through a study of the polarized reactions.

  20. Onset of radial flow in p+p collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Kun; Zhu, Yinying; Liu, Weitao; ...

    2015-02-23

    It has been debated for decades whether hadrons emerging from p+p collisions exhibit collective expansion. The signal of the collective motion in p+p collisions is not as clear as in heavy-ion collisions because of the low multiplicity and large fluctuation in p+p collisions. Tsallis Blast-Wave (TBW) model is a thermodynamic approach, introduced to handle the overwhelming correlation and fluctuation in the hadronic processes. We have systematically studied the identified particle spectra in p+p collisions from RHIC to LHC using TBW and found no appreciable radial flow in p+p collisions below √s = 900 GeV. At LHC higher energy of 7more » TeV in p+p collisions, the radial flow velocity achieves an average of (β) = 0.320 ± 0.005. This flow velocity is comparable to that in peripheral (40-60%) Au+Au collisions at RHIC. In addition, breaking of the identified particle spectra mT scaling was also observed at LHC from a model independent test.« less

  1. PP2A Regulates HDAC4 Nuclear Import

    PubMed Central

    Paroni, Gabriela; Cernotta, Nadia; Dello Russo, Claudio; Gallinari, Paola; Pallaoro, Michele; Foti, Carmela; Talamo, Fabio; Orsatti, Laura; Steinkühler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Different signal-regulated serine/threonine kinases phosphorylate class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) to promote nuclear export, cytosolic accumulation, and activation of gene transcription. However, little is known about mechanisms operating in the opposite direction, which, possibly through phosphatases, should promote class II HDACs nuclear entry and subsequent gene repression. Here we show that HDAC4 forms a complex with the PP2A holoenzyme Cα, Aα, B/PR55α. In vitro and in vivo binding studies demonstrate that the N-terminus of HDAC4 interacts with the catalytic subunit of PP2A. HDAC4 is dephosphorylated by PP2A and experiments using okadaic acid or RNA interference have revealed that PP2A controls HDAC4 nuclear import. Moreover, we identified serine 298 as a putative phosphorylation site important for HDAC4 nuclear import. The HDAC4 mutant mimicking phosphorylation of serine 298 is defective in nuclear import. Mutation of serine 298 to alanine partially rescues the defect in HDAC4 nuclear import observed in cells with down-regulated PP2A. These observations suggest that PP2A, via the dephosphorylation of multiple serines including the 14-3-3 binding sites and serine 298, controls HDAC4 nuclear import. PMID:18045992

  2. Ecotoxicity of pp'DDE to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, Roberta; Croce, Valeria; Noè, Francesca; Ponti, Benedetta; Quadroni, Silvia; Galassi, Silvana

    2013-10-01

    pp'-Dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (pp'DDE), a metabolite of pp'-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane poses a risk for many ecosystems in spite of the banning of the parent compound because of its persistence and bioaccumulability. Nevertheless, the knowledge of acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms is still very poor. In the present study, Daphnia magna was exposed to varying concentrations of pp'DDE in water and through diet to determine both acute toxicity and potential for effects on reproduction and survivability. The 48 h IC50 was 5.08 μg L(-1) (3.76-7.01 μg L(-1)). As pp'DDE concentration in water was not stable and the amount assumed by food cannot be established with certainty, the results of chronic toxicity tests were expressed as the concentration in the organism which caused a negative effect. Grazing activity was affected with a pp'DDE concentration in the organism of 24 ng mg(-1) d.w., while the lowest observed effect concentration for fecundity reduction was 109 ng mg(-1) d.w.

  3. pp-->pΛK+ reaction in search for the K-pp state - quest for a kaonic nuclei -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken; Kienle, Paul; Maggiora, Marco; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2011-10-01

    The dibaryonic kaonic nuclear bound state, K-pp is searched by studying an exclusive p+p→p+Λ+K+ process at several beam energies. A signature of the K-pp is explored in a p+p→X(≡K-pp)+K+ reaction that follows a decay of the X into p+Λ. We found in a missing-mass ΔM(K+) spectrum and a Λp invariant-mass M(Λp) spectrum of DISTO data at 2.85 GeV a resonance with M = 2267 MeV/c2 and Γ = 118 MeV. Those events are found to be associated with a mono energetic kaon. We investigate this resonance as a candidate of the K-pp further also with a different beam energies.

  4. Synthesis of Highly Selective Submicromolar Microcystin‐Based Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatase (PP)2A over PP1

    PubMed Central

    Fontanillo, Miriam; Zemskov, Ivan; Häfner, Maximilian; Uhrig, Ulrike; Salvi, Francesca; Simon, Bernd; Wittmann, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research and therapeutic targeting of the phosphoserine/threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A is hindered by the lack of selective inhibitors. The microcystin (MC) natural toxins target both phosphatases with equal potency, and their complex synthesis has complicated structure–activity relationship studies in the past. We report herein the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of 11 MC analogues, which was accomplished through an efficient strategy combining solid‐ and solution‐phase approaches. Our approach led to the first MC analogue with submicromolar inhibitory potency that is strongly selective for PP2A over PP1 and does not require the complex lipophilic Adda group. Through mutational and structural analyses, we identified a new key element for binding, as well as reasons for the selectivity. This work gives unprecedented insight into how selectivity between these phosphatases can be achieved with MC analogues. PMID:27723199

  5. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken’ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass. PMID:25038254

  6. Site specificity of DSP-PP cleavage by BMP1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Robert T; Lim, Glendale L; Yee, Colin T; Fuller, Robert S; Ritchie, Helena H

    2014-08-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4' (i.e. the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1'P2'P3'P4') sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e. xMQx|DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their effects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here, we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4' sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4' cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site.

  7. Overexpression of RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, induces the growth suppression of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Ochi, Kozo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-01-01

    Two genes encoding RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, which are involved in the synthesis of bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) for the stringent response, were isolated from the moss, Physcomitrella patens. A complementary analysis of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b in Escherichia coli showed that these genes had ppGpp biosynthetic activity. The recombinant PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b were also shown to synthesize ppGpp in vitro. Both proteins were localized to the chloroplasts of P. patens. Expression of the PpRSH genes was induced upon treatment with abscisic acid or abiotic stresses, such as dehydration and UV irradiation. Overexpression of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b caused suppression of the growth in response to 1% (w/v) of glucose. The present study suggests the existence of a mechanism to regulate the growth of P. patens, which is governed by plant RSH in chloroplasts.

  8. Auxin promotes the transition from chloronema to caulonema in moss protonema by positively regulating PpRSL1and PpRSL2 in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Dolan, Liam

    2011-10-01

    Protonemata are multicellular filamentous networks that develop following the germination of a haploid moss spore and comprise two different cell types - chloronema and caulonema. The ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE1 (PpRSL1) and PpRSL2 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and auxin promote the development of caulonema in Physcomitrella patens but the mechanism by which these regulators interact during development is unknown. We characterized the role of auxin in regulating the function of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 in the chloronema-to-caulonema transition during protonema development. Here, we showed that a gradient of cell identity developed along protonemal filaments; cells were chloronemal in proximal regions near the site of spore germination becoming progressively more caulonemal distally as filaments elongated. Auxin controlled this transition by positively regulating the expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 genes. Auxin did not induce caulonemal development in Pprsl1 Pprsl2 double mutants that lack PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 gene activity while constitutive co-expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 in the absence of auxin was sufficient to program constitutive caulonema development. Together, these data indicate that auxin positively regulates PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 whose expression is sufficient to promote caulonema differentiation in moss protonema.

  9. Silencing I2PP2A Rescues Tau Pathologies and Memory Deficits through Rescuing PP2A and Inhibiting GSK-3β Signaling in Human Tau Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yao; Ma, Rong-Hong; Li, Xia-Chun; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Shi, Hai-Rong; Wei, Wei; Luo, Dan-Ju; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Increase of inhibitor-2 of protein phosphatase-2A I2PP2A is associated with protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) inhibition and tau hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Down-regulating I2PP2A attenuated amyloidogenesis and improved the cognitive functions in transgenic mice expressing amyloid precursor protein (tg2576). Here, we found that silencing I2PP2A by hippocampal infusion of Lenti - siI2PP2A down-regulated I2PP2A (~45%) with reduction of tau phosphorylation/accumulation, improvement of memory deficits, and dendritic plasticity in 12-month-old human tau transgenic mice. Silencing I2PP2A not only restored PP2A activity but also inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) with a significant activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt. In HEK293/tau and N2a/tau cells, silencing I2PP2A by pSUPER - siI2PP2A also significantly reduced tau hyperphosphorylation with restoration of PP2A activity and inhibition of GSK-3β, demonstrated by the decreased GSK-3β total protein and mRNA levels, and the increased inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β at serine-9. Furthermore, activation of PKA but not Akt mediated the inhibition of GSK-3β by I2PP2A silencing. We conclude that targeting I2PP2A can improve tau pathologies and memory deficits in human tau transgenic mice, and activation of PKA contributes to GSK-3β inhibition induced by silencing I2PP2A in vitro, suggesting that I2PP2A is a promising multiple target of AD. PMID:24987368

  10. Ectopic expression of inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) can be used to analyze roles of PP1 in Drosophila development.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Daimark; Szöor, Balázs; Gross, Sascha; Vereshchagina, Natalia; Alphey, Luke

    2003-01-01

    We have identified two proteins that bind with high specificity to type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP1) and have exploited their inhibitory properties to develop an efficient and flexible strategy for conditional inactivation of PP1 in vivo. We show that modest overexpression of Drosophila homologs of I-2 and NIPP1 (I-2Dm and NIPP1Dm) reduces the level of PP1 activity and phenotypically resembles known PP1 mutants. These phenotypes, which include lethality, abnormal mitotic figures, and defects in muscle development, are suppressed by coexpression of PP1, indicating that the effect is due specifically to loss of PP1 activity. Reactivation of I-2Dm:PP1c complexes suggests that inhibition of PP1 activity in vivo does not result in a compensating increase in synthesis of active PP1. PP1 mutants enhance the wing overgrowth phenotype caused by ectopic expression of the type II TGF beta superfamily signaling receptor Punt. Using I-2Dm, which has a less severe effect than NIPP1Dm, we show that lowering the level of PP1 activity specifically in cells overexpressing Punt is sufficient for wing overgrowth and that the interaction between PP1 and Punt requires the type I receptor Thick-veins (Tkv) but is not strongly sensitive to the level of the ligand, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), nor to that of the other type I receptors. This is consistent with a role for PP1 in antagonizing Punt by preventing phosphorylation of Tkv. These studies demonstrate that inhibitors of PP1 can be used in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner to examine the developmental roles of PP1. PMID:12750335

  11. Review of hydrophilic PP membrane for organic waste removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariono, Danu; Wardani, Anita Kusuma

    2017-05-01

    The acceleration of industrialization in developing countries has given an impact of environmental pollution rapidly, such as contamination of groundwater with organic waste. To solve this problem, some membrane techniques have been performed to remove organic waste from water, such as membrane contactors, membrane bioreactors, and supported liquid membranes. Polypropylene (PP) membrane is one of the promising candidates for these membrane processes due to its chemical stability, low cost, good mechanical resistance, and being easily available. However, different processes require membranes with different surface properties. Hydrophobic PP membranes with excellent chemical stability can be directly used in membrane contactors, in which the organic phase wets the porous membrane and slightly excessive pressure applied to the other phase. On the other hand, hydrophilization of PP membrane is necessary for some other processes, such as for fouling reduction on membrane bioreactors due to organic matters deposition. The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of removal of organic waste by PP membrane. Moreover, the effects of PP surface hydrophilization on antifouling properties are also discussed.

  12. PP2C gamma: a human protein phosphatase with a unique acidic domain.

    PubMed

    Travis, S M; Welsh, M J

    1997-08-04

    We have cloned a novel cDNA from human skeletal muscle which encodes a protein phosphatase with a unique acidic domain. It is 34% identical to mammalian PP2C alpha and PP2C beta and we call it PP2C gamma. It more closely resembles PP2Cs from Paramecium tetraurelia and Schizosaccharomyces pombe than mammalian PP2Cs. Northern blot analysis shows that PP2C gamma is widely expressed, and is most abundant in testis, skeletal muscle, and heart. Like known PP2Cs, recombinant PP2C gamma requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. Unlike any other known phosphatase, PP2C gamma has a highly acidic domain: 75% of the 54 residues are glutamate or aspartate.

  13. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  14. Molecular mechanism of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1cα-PP1r7) in spermatogenesis of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Song, Zhen Hui; Zhu, Hong Hong; Zhou, Zuo Yong; Zeng, Yuan Qin

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariasis is one of the most important, but neglected, zoonoses, which is mainly caused by Toxocara canis. To better understand the role of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in reproductive processes of male adult T. canis, differential expression analysis was used to reveal the profiles of PP1 catalytic subunit α (PP1cα) gene Tc-stp-1 and PP1 regulatory subunit 7 (PP1r7) gene TcM-1309. Indirect fluorescence immunocytochemistry was carried out to determine the subcellular distribution of PP1cα. Double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) assays were employed to illustrate the function and mechanism of PP1cα in male adult reproduction. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed transcriptional consistency of Tc-stp-1 and TcM-1309 in sperm-producing germline tissues and localization research showed cytoplasmic distribution of PP1cα in sf9 cells, which indicated relevant involvements of PP1cα and PP1r7 in spermatogenesis. Moreover, spatiotemporal transcriptional differences of Tc-stp-1 were determined by gene knockdown analysis, which revealed abnormal morphologies and blocked meiotic divisions of spermatocytes by phenotypic aberration scanning, thereby highlighting the crucial involvement of PP1cα in spermatogenesis. These results revealed a PP1cα-PP1r7 mechanism by which PP1 regulates kinetochore-microtubule interactions in spermatogenesis and provided important clues to identify novel drug or vaccine targets for toxocariasis control.

  15. pp wave big bangs: Matrix strings and shrinking fuzzy spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sumit R.; Michelson, Jeremy

    2005-10-15

    We find pp wave solutions in string theory with null-like linear dilatons. These provide toy models of big bang cosmologies. We formulate matrix string theory in these backgrounds. Near the big bang 'singularity', the string theory becomes strongly coupled but the Yang-Mills description of the matrix string is weakly coupled. The presence of a second length scale allows us to focus on a specific class of non-Abelian configurations, viz. fuzzy cylinders, for a suitable regime of parameters. We show that, for a class of pp waves, fuzzy cylinders which start out big at early times dynamically shrink into usual strings at sufficiently late times.

  16. Near-Threshold Production of ϕ Mesons in pp Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, M.; Maeda, Y.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koch, H. R.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Barsov, S.; Borgs, W.; Büscher, M.; Dimitrov, V. I.; Dymov, S.; Hejny, V.; Kleber, V.; Koptev, V.; Kulessa, P.; Mersmann, T.; Merzliakov, S.; Mussgiller, A.; Nekipelov, M.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Pysz, K.; Schleichert, R.; Stein, H. J.; Ströher, H.; Watzlawik, K.-H.; Wüstner, P.

    2006-06-01

    The pp→ppϕ reaction has been studied at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Jülich, using the internal beam and ANKE facility. Total cross sections have been determined at three excess energies γ near the production threshold. The differential cross section closest to threshold at γ=18.5MeV exhibits a clear S wave dominance as well as a noticeable effect due to the proton-proton final-state interaction. Taken together with data for ppω production, a significant enhancement of the ϕ/ω ratio of a factor 8 is found compared to predictions based on the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule.

  17. ρ0 Meson Production in the pp Reactions with Disto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabura, P.; Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R.; Bland, L. C.; Brenschede, A.; Brochard, F.; Bussa, M. P.; Choi, Seonho; Colantoni, M. L.; Dressler, R.; Dzemidzic, M.; Faivre, J.-Cl.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Foryciarz, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; Heinz, S.; Jacobs, W. W.; Kühn, W.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Manara, A.; Panzieri, D.; Pfaff, H.-W.; Piragino, G.; Popov, A.; Ritman, J.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tosello, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Zosi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Total and differential cross sections for the exclusive reaction ppppρ0 observed via the π+π- decay channel have been measured at pbeam= 3.67 GeV/c. The observed total meson production cross section is determined to be (23.4 ± 0.8 ± 8)μb and is significantly lower than typical cross sections used in model calculations for heavy ion collisions. The differential cross sections measured indicate a strong anisotropy ( ˜ \\cos2 θ ρ0^ CM) in the ρ0 meson production.

  18. PP13, Maternal ABO Blood Groups and the Risk Assessment of Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Meiri, Hamutal; Erez, Offer; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Barna, Laszlo; Szilagyi, Andras; Ackerman, Ron; Sammar, Marei; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Kovalszky, Ilona; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Chong Jai; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Gonen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Placental Protein 13 (PP13), an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. Methods and Findings We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078) and Hispanic (n = 242) women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13 - blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. Conclusions ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test. PMID:21799738

  19. Polarisations of the Z and W bosons in the processes pp → ZH and pp → W ± H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Junya

    2017-08-01

    The Z boson in the process pp → ZH and the W + and W - in the process pp → W ± H can be in polarised states. The polarisation density matrix of the Z ( W) boson contains the complete information about a state of polarisation of the Z ( W) boson, and HZZ, HZγ and HWW interactions may be studied in detail from a careful analysis of these matrices. In this paper, a systematic approach to analyse these polarisation density matrices is presented. With the aim of making maximum use of the polarisation information, all of the elements of the polarisation density matrices are related with observables, which are measurable at the environment of pp collisions. Consequences of non-standard HZZ, HZγ and HWW interactions for these observables are discussed.

  20. Characterization of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases from the moss Physcomitrella patens: PpPIPK1 and PpPIPK2.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Laura; Balbi, Virginia; Dove, Stephen K; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Mikami, Koji; Sommarin, Marianne

    2009-03-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) play a major role in eukaryotic cells, despite being a minor component of most membranes. This is the first report on PI metabolism in a bryophyte, the moss Physcomitrella patens. Moss PI composition is similar to that of other land plants growing under normal conditions. In contrast to the large number of PIPK genes present in flowering plants, the P. patens genome encodes only two type I/II PIPK genes, PpPIPK1 and PpPIPK2, which are very similar at both the nucleotide and protein product levels. However, the expression of the two genes is differentially regulated, and in vitro biochemical characterization shows that the resulting enzymes have different substrate specificities. PpPIPK1 uses PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P with similar preference and also metabolizes PtdIns(3,4)P(2) to produce PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), a PI not yet detected in intact plant cells. PpPIPK2 prefers PtdIns as substrate and is much less active towards PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P. Thus, PpPIPK2 shows properties reminiscent of both PtdInsP-kinase and PtdIns-kinases. Moreover, a substitution of glutamic acid by alanine in the activation loop drastically reduced PpPIPK1 activity and altered the substrate specificity to PtdIns5P being the preferred substrate compared with PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P. These findings demonstrate that the substrate specificity of plant PIPKs is determined in a plant-specific manner, which provides new insights into the regulatory modes of PIPK activity in plants.

  1. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Aluminum setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-10-02

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Aluminum stores.

  2. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Au setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-08-25

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Au stores.

  3. An Ultra-High-Throughput Screen for Catalytic Inhibitors of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases Types 1 and 5 (PP1C and PP5C).

    PubMed

    Swingle, Mark; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Saldanha, S Adrian; Chase, Peter; Eberhart, Christina; Salter, Edward A; D'Arcy, Brandon; Schroeder, Chad E; Golden, Jennifer E; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Hodder, Peter; Honkanen, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Although there has been substantial success in the development of specific inhibitors for protein kinases, little progress has been made in the identification of specific inhibitors for their protein phosphatase counterparts. Inhibitors of PP1 and PP5 are desired as probes for research and to test their potential for drug development. We developed and miniaturized (1536-well plate format) nearly identical homogeneous, fluorescence intensity (FLINT) enzymatic assays to detect inhibitors of PP1 or PP5. The assays were used in an ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) campaign, testing >315,000 small-molecule compounds. Both assays demonstrated robust performance, with a Z' of 0.92 ± 0.03 and 0.95 ± 0.01 for the PP1 and PP5 assays, respectively. Screening the same library with both assays aided the identification of class inhibitors and assay artifacts. Confirmation screening and hit prioritization assays used [(32)P/(33)P]-radiolabel protein substrates, revealing excellent agreement between the FLINT and radiolabel assays. This screening campaign led to the discovery of four novel unrelated small-molecule inhibitors of PP1 and ~30 related small-molecule inhibitors of PP5. The results suggest that this uHTS approach is suitable for identifying selective chemical probes that inhibit PP1 or PP5 activity, and it is likely that similar assays can be developed for other PPP-family phosphatases.

  4. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Hung; Liang, Huike; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Li, Tianhong; Qi, Yafei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE), we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO) and Prunus persica FT (PpFT) from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time. PMID:25905637

  5. Genetic characterization of two fully sequenced multi-drug resistant plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 from Leclercia adecarboxylata

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengjun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Qiang; Luo, Wenbo; Tong, Yigang; Zhang, Defu; Wang, Qian; Feng, Wei; Chen, Weijun; Fan, Yahan; Xia, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported the complete sequence of the resistance plasmid pP10164-NDM, harboring blaNDM (conferring carbapenem resistance) and bleMBL (conferring bleomycin resistance), which is recovered from a clinical Leclercia adecarboxylata isolate P10164 from China. This follow-up work disclosed that there were still two multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 coexisting in this strain. pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 were completely sequenced and shown to carry a wealth of resistance genes, which encoded the resistance to at least 10 classes of antibiotics (β-lactams. macrolides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, amphenicols, quaternary ammonium compounds, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, and rifampicin) and 7 kinds of heavy mental (mercury, silver, copper, nickel, chromate, arsenic, and tellurium). All of these antibiotic resistance genes are associated with mobile elements such as transposons, integrons, and insertion sequence-based transposable units, constituting a total of three novel MDR regions, two in pP10164-2 and the other one in pP10164-3. Coexistence of three resistance plasmids pP10164-NDM, pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 makes L. adecarboxylata P10164 tend to become extensively drug-resistant. PMID:27658354

  6. The Hyperon {Lambda}(1405) in p+p reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenson, Johannes

    2011-10-21

    We present an analysis of the hyperon {Lambda}(1405) for p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy. The data were taken with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES). A {Lambda}(1405) signal could be reconstructed in both charged decay channels ({Lambda}(1405){yields}{Sigma}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}).

  7. Optical screw-wrench for interlocking 2PP-microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Zyla, G.; Ksouri, S. I.; Esen, C.; Ostendorf, A.

    2016-03-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) has emerged as a powerful platform for processing three-dimensional microstructures with high resolution. Furthermore, by adding nanoparticles of different materials to the photopolymer the microstructures can be functionalized, e.g. magnetic or electric properties can be adjusted. However, to combine different functions within one microstructure or to manufacture complex microsystems, assembling techniques for multiple 2PP written building blocks are required. In this paper a qualitative approach for assembling microstructures utilizing optical forces is presented. Therefore, screw and nut shaped microstructures are produced by 2PP-technique and screwed together using a holographic optical tweezer (HOT). The interlocking structures are trapped and rotated into each other to cause connection. In this paper the used parameters and possible designs of the interlocking connection are discussed. These findings provide not only the assembling of building blocks to complex microstructures, rather different functionalized 2PP-microstructures can be combined by simply screwing them together with the use of optical forces.

  8. Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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V.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Rusakov, S. V.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Barducci, D.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Cremonesi, M.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Diamond, B.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Forthomme, L.; Kenny, R. P., III; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Kumar, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at √{ s} = 5 , 7, and 13TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0pb-1 (5 TeV), 6.2pb-1 (7 TeV), and 0.7pb-1 (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v2) and third-order (v3) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v2 of KS0 and Λ / Λ ‾ particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v2 values of charged hadrons (mostly pions), KS0 , and Λ / Λ ‾, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pT ≈ 2GeV/ c. For 13 TeV data, the v2 signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. These observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

  9. Associated strangeness production in pp collisions near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, P.

    2004-08-01

    Motivated by the ongoing discussion concerning the nature of the scalar resonances f0(980) and a0(980), the COSY-11 collaboration has taken exclusive data on the ppppK+K- reaction near the production threshold. A first total cross section σ = (1.80 ± 0.27-0.35+0.28) nb for the excess energy Q = 17 MeV has been determined. In contrary to the η, ω, and η' single meson production studies which clearly show the strong pp final state interaction (FSI), the cross section values obtained at COSY-11 and DISTO can be both described by a fit with a four-body phase space including the proton-proton final state interaction as well as with one-meson exchange calculations neglecting FSI effects. Therefore, one might think about a compensation of the strong pp interaction through a pK- FSI effect or an additional degree of freedom caused by the four-body final state. In the latter case, strong FSI effects can be expected at Q-values very close to the K+K- production threshold. Such a motivation triggered — in combination with the investigation of the KK¯ interaction being relevant to the structure of the f0 (980) — further measurements at the excess energies Q = 10 and Q = 28 MeV at COSY-11.

  10. Toughening of wood plastic composite based on X-PP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meekum, U.; Khongrit, A.

    2016-03-01

    Wood plastic composite(WPC) based on crosslinked polypropylene(X-PP)/wood flour was explored. The peroxide/silane was used as crosslinking system. The sauna incubation under moisture saturated oven was applied to accelerate the competition of the siloxy/moisture networking reaction. There were three parts of the research work; design of experiment, toughening of WPC and the effect of peroxide, silane and PP copolymer on properties of the WPC, respectively. In this published work, the toughness improvement of the composite was focused. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer(EPDM) were employed to improve impact strength via blending with x-PP matrix. Composites were compounded into pellets by co-rotational twin screw extruder and test specimens were prepared by injection molding. Sauna incubation at 105°C for 12 hrs in oven chamber was performed to accelerate the final silane condensation crosslink reaction. MFI, impact strength, flexural properties and heat deflection temperature measurement were conducted. Impact strength, HDT and flexural modulus were improved with increasing UHMWPE content, and the optimal values around 5-10 phr of UHMWPE were achieved. Addition of EPDM elastomer to the matrix blends, reduced flexural strength and modulus but increased impact strength. While incorporation of EPDM into the PP/UHMWPE blends was exhibited much higher impact strength than that of the PP/UHMWPE binary blends. Silane crosslinked through sauna treatment improved the impact strength. HDT were also much risen for the crosslinked composite comparing with the non-crosslinked one.

  11. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Zongqiang; Zhang Ke; Zhang Zhiping; Liu Yalan; Zhou Yafeng; Wei Hongping; Zhang Xian-En

    2009-09-30

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  12. Improved murine glioma detection following modified diet and photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Pogue, Brian W.

    2007-02-01

    The Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) - Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) system is unique in the world of photosensitizers in that the prodrug ALA is enzymatically transformed via the tissue of interest into fluorescently detectable levels of PpIX. This system can be used to monitor cellular metabolism of tumor tissue for applications such as therapy monitoring. Detecting PpIX fluorescence noninvasively has proven difficult due to the high levels of PpIX produced in the skin compared to other tissue both with and without ALA administration. In the current study, methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration have been examined. Use of a purified diet is found to decrease both skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration, while addition of a broad spectrum antibiotic to the water shows little effect. Following ALA administration, improved brain tumor detection is seen when skin PpIX fluorescence is photobleached via blue light prior to transmission spectroscopic measurements of tumor bearing and control animals. Both of these methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration are shown to have a large effect on the ability to detect tumor tissue PpIX fluorescence noninvasively in vivo.

  13. Mechanism of Inhibition of PP2A Activity and Abnormal Hyperphosphorylation of Tau by I2PP2A/SET

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Lisette; Chen, She; Liu, Fei; Li, Bin; Khatoon, Sabiha; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity, which is compromised in Alzheimer disease brain, is regulated by two endogenous inhibitors, one of them being I2PP2A, a 277 amino acid long protein also known as SET. Here we report that both the amino terminal fragment (I2NTF; aa 1–175) and the carboxy terminal fragment (I2CTF; aa 176–277) of I2PP2A inhibit PP2A by binding to its catalytic subunit PP2Ac and cause hyperphosphorylation of tau. The C-terminal acidic region in I2CTF and Val 92 in I2NTF are essential for their association with PP2Ac and inhibition of the phosphatase activity. PMID:21806989

  14. Cloning and characterization of a novel mammalian PP2C isozyme.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y; Quirion, R; Shen, S H

    1998-12-25

    PP2C is a structurally diversified protein phosphatase family with a wide range of functions in cellular signal transduction. A novel PP2C subtype, designated PP2Cdelta, was identified from a rat cDNA clone, which encodes a protein of 392 amino acid residues. While PP2Cdelta shares approximately 30% sequence identity in its catalytic domain with the mammalian PP2C, it lacks a 90-residue carboxyl-terminal sequence conserved in mammalian PP2C. Northern blot analysis showed that PP2Cdelta is widely expressed in rat tissues. The transcription of the PP2Cdelta gene was activated in response to stress, such as the addition of ethanol to the culture medium or UV irradiation of cells. Recombinant PP2Cdelta purified from bacteria exhibited a potent Mn2+-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase activity. Unlike other members of the PP2C family, the activity of PP2Cdelta was inhibited, rather than stimulated, by Mg2+. Transfection with PP2Cdelta resulted in inhibition of cell growth, precluding generation of stable 293 or CHO transfectants. Using a modified tetracycline-regulated PP2Cdelta-GFP dicistronic expression cassette, it was revealed that overexpression of PP2Cdelta blocked cell cycle progression and arrested cells at early S phase, resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis and leading to cell death. These results suggest that PP2Cdelta plays a role in regulation of cell cycle progression via dephosphorylation of its substrates whose appropriate phosphorylation states might be crucial for cell proliferation.

  15. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken'ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Targeting of Protein Phosphatases PP2A and PP2B to the C-terminus of the L-type Calcium Channel Cav1.2†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Ginsburg, Kenneth S.; Hall, Duane D.; Zimmermann, Maike; Stein, Ivar S.; Zhang, Mingxu; Tandan, Samvit; Hill, Joseph A.; Horne, Mary C.; Bers, Donald; Hell, Johannes W.

    2010-01-01

    The L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 forms macromolecular signaling complexes that comprise the β2 adrenergic receptor, trimeric Gs protein, adenylyl cyclase, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA1) for efficient signaling in heart and brain. The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP2B are part of this complex. PP2A counteracts increase in Cav1.2 channel activity by PKA and other protein kinases, whereas PP2B can either augment or decrease Cav1.2 currents in cardiomyocytes depending on the precise experimental conditions. We found that PP2A binds to two regions in the C-terminus of the central, pore-forming α1 subunit of Cav1.2: one region spans residues 1795-1818 and the other residues 1965-1971. PP2B binds immediately downstream of residue 1971. Injection of a peptide that contained residues 1965-1971 and displaced PP2A but not PP2B from endogenous Cav1.2 increased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated L-type Ca2+ currents in acutely isolated cardiomyocytes. Together with our biochemical data, these physiological results indicate that anchoring of PP2A at this site of Cav1.2 in the heart negatively regulates cardiac L-type currents, likely by counterbalancing basal and stimulated phosphorylation that is mediated by PKA and possibly other kinases. PMID:21053940

  17. Combining polyethylene and polypropylene: Enhanced performance with PE/iPP multiblock polymers.

    PubMed

    Eagan, James M; Xu, Jun; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Thurber, Christopher M; Macosko, Christopher W; LaPointe, Anne M; Bates, Frank S; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2017-02-24

    Polyethylene (PE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) constitute nearly two-thirds of the world's plastic. Despite their similar hydrocarbon makeup, the polymers are immiscible with one another. Thus, common grades of PE and iPP do not adhere or blend, creating challenges for recycling these materials. We synthesized PE/iPP multiblock copolymers using an isoselective alkene polymerization initiator. These polymers can weld common grades of commercial PE and iPP together, depending on the molecular weights and architecture of the block copolymers. Interfacial compatibilization of phase-separated PE and iPP with tetrablock copolymers enables morphological control, transforming brittle materials into mechanically tough blends.

  18. PP2A inhibition as a novel therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Paula; Cristóbal, Ion; Manso, Rebeca; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Rojo, Federico

    2015-08-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a well-known tumor suppressor frequently inhibited in human cancer. Alterations affecting PP2A subunits together with the deregulation of endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as CIP2A and SET have been described as contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A in prostate cancer. Moreover, recent findings highlight that functional inactivation of PP2A could represent a key event in the acquisition of castration-resistant phenotype and a novel molecular target with high impact at both clinical and therapeutic levels in prostate cancer.

  19. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation promotes axonal growth and recovery in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Kun; Yu, Wei; Gao, Shutao; Hu, Shunze; Sun, Xuying; Huang, Hui

    2015-12-15

    Current treatments to restore neurological deficits caused by axonal disconnection following central nervous system (CNS) injury are extremely limited. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), one of the main serine-threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells, dephosphorylates collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) in the developing CNS. In our study, we found that the major CNS inhibiting substrates, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin associated glycoproteins (MAG), activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but inactivated PP2A and downstream CRMP2. Both EGFR inactivation and PP2A activation promoted axon elongation in vitro in the presence of inhibitory substrates. EGFR blockage by AG1478 selectively attenuated the inactive form of PP2A in pY307 phosphorylation, thus increasing PP2A activity. EGFR activation by EGF attenuated PP2A activity, whereas mutation of Y307 to phenylalanine abolished the effect. Furthermore, PP2A activity was down-regulated immediately after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Chronic application of d-erythro-sphingosine (DES), the PP2A agonist, to spinal cord-lesioned rats enhanced the activity of this phosphatase and dephosphorylated CRMP2 around the lesion. PP2A activation induced significant axon sprouting in the lesioned spinal cord and promoted function recovery after SCI. These findings suggest that PP2A works downstream of EGFR and dephosphorylates CRMP2 after CNS injury. Therefore, therapies targeting PP2A may be effective following SCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural basis of PP2A activation by PTPA, an ATP-dependent activation chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Feng; Stanevich, Vitali; Wlodarchak, Nathan; Sengupta, Rituparna; Jiang, Li; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Xing, Yongna

    2013-10-08

    Proper activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit is central for the complex PP2A regulation and is crucial for broad aspects of cellular function. The crystal structure of PP2A bound to PP2A phosphatase activator (PTPA) and ATPγS reveals that PTPA makes broad contacts with the structural elements surrounding the PP2A active site and the adenine moiety of ATP. PTPA-binding stabilizes the protein fold of apo-PP2A required for activation, and orients ATP phosphoryl groups to bind directly to the PP2A active site. This allows ATP to modulate the metal-binding preferences of the PP2A active site and utilize the PP2A active site for ATP hydrolysis. In vitro, ATP selectively and drastically enhances binding of endogenous catalytic metal ions, which requires ATP hydrolysis and is crucial for acquisition of pSer/Thr-specific phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both PP2A- and ATP-binding are required for PTPA function in cell proliferation and survival. Our results suggest novel mechanisms of PTPA in PP2A activation with structural economy and a unique ATP-binding pocket that could potentially serve as a specific therapeutic target.

  1. The Role of the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Placental Protein 13 (PP13) in Pregnancy Evaluated with Recombinant PP13 and the DelT221 PP13 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Sammar, Marei; Nisamblatt, Shahar; Gonen, Ron; Huppertz, Berthold; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Osol, George; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Placental protein 13 (PP13), a placenta specific protein, is reduced in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. A naturally occurring PP13 deletion of thymidine at position 221 (DelT221 or truncated variant) is associated with increased frequency of severe preeclampsia. In this study we compared the full length (wildtype) PP13 and the truncated variant. Methods Full length PP13 or its DelT221 variant were cloned, expressed and purified from E-Coli. Both variants were administrated into pregnant rats at day 8 of pregnancy for slow release (>5 days) through osmotic pumps and rat blood pressure was measured. Animals were sacrificed at day 15 or day 21 and their utero-placental vasculature was examined. Results The DelT221 variant (11 kDA) lacked exon 4 and a part of exon 3, and is short of 2 amino acids involved in the carbohydrate (CRD) binding of the wildtype (18 kDA). Unlike the wildtype PP13, purification of DelT221 variant required special refolding. PP13 specific poly- clonal antibodies recognized both PP13 and DelT221 but PP13 specific monoclonal antibodies recognized only the wildtype, indicating the loss of major epitopes. Wildtype PP13 mRNA and its respective proteins were both lower in PE patients compared to normal pregnancies. The DelT221 mutant was not found in a large Caucasian cohort. Pregnant rats exposed to wildtype or DelT221 PP13 variants had significantly lower blood pressure compared to control. The wildtype but not the DelT221 mutant caused extensive vein expansion. Conclusion This study revealed the importance of PP13 in regulating blood pressure and expanding the utero-placental vasculature in pregnant rats. PP13 mutant lacking amino acids of the PP13 CRD domain fails to cause vein expansion but did reduce blood pressure. The study provides a basis for replenishing patients at risk for preeclampsia by the full length but not the truncated PP13. PMID:25079598

  2. Cytosolic ppGpp accumulation induces retarded plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuta; Masuda, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria a second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), synthesized upon nutrient starvation, controls many gene expressions and enzyme activities, which is necessary for growth under changeable environments. Recent studies have shown that ppGpp synthase and hydrolase are also conserved in eukaryotes, although their functions are not well understood. We recently showed that ppGpp-overaccumulation in Arabidopsis chloroplasts results in robust growth under nutrient-limited conditions, demonstrating that the bacterial-like stringent response at least functions in plastids. To test if ppGpp also functions in the cytosol, we constructed the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Bacillus subtilis ppGpp synthase gene yjbM. Upon induction of the gene, the mutant synthesizes ∼10-20-fold higher levels of ppGpp, and its fresh weight was reduced to ˜80% that of the wild type. These results indicate that cytosolic ppGpp negatively regulates plant growth and development.

  3. Molecular mutagenesis of ppGpp: turning a RelA activator into an inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Beljantseva, Jelena; Kudrin, Pavel; Jimmy, Steffi; Ehn, Marcel; Pohl, Radek; Varik, Vallo; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Shingler, Victoria; Tenson, Tanel; Rejman, Dominik; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2017-01-01

    The alarmone nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance and virulence, making (p)ppGpp-mediated signaling a promising target for development of antibacterials. Although ppGpp itself is an activator of the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase RelA, several ppGpp mimics have been developed as RelA inhibitors. However promising, the currently available ppGpp mimics are relatively inefficient, with IC50 in the sub-mM range. In an attempt to identify a potent and specific inhibitor of RelA capable of abrogating (p)ppGpp production in live bacterial cells, we have tested a targeted nucleotide library using a biochemical test system comprised of purified Escherichia coli components. While none of the compounds fulfilled this aim, the screen has yielded several potentially useful molecular tools for biochemical and structural work. PMID:28157202

  4. Superstring theory on pp waves with ADE geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abounasr, R.; Belhaj, A.; Rasmussen, J.; Saidi, E. H.

    2006-03-01

    We study the BMN correspondence between certain Penrose limits of type IIB superstrings on pp-wave orbifolds with ADE geometries and the set of four-dimensional {\\cal N}=2 superconformal field theories constructed as quiver gauge models classified by finite ADE Lie algebras and affine \\widehatADE Kac-Moody algebras. These models have 16 preserved supercharges and are based on systems of D3-branes and wrapped D5- and D7-branes. We derive explicitly the metrics of these pp-wave orbifolds and show that the BMN extension requires, in addition to D5-D5 open strings in bi-fundamental representations, D5-D7 open strings involving orientifolds with Sp(N) gauge symmetry. We also give the correspondence rule between leading string states and gauge-invariant operators in the {\\cal N}=2 quiver gauge models.

  5. Basal Levels of (p)ppGpp in Enterococcus faecalis: the Magic beyond the Stringent Response

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Miller, James H.; Liu, Kuanqing; Wang, Jue D.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Lemos, José A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The stringent response (SR), mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp, is a conserved bacterial adaptation system controlling broad metabolic alterations necessary for survival under adverse conditions. In Enterococcus faecalis, production of (p)ppGpp is controlled by the bifunctional protein RSH (for “Rel SpoT homologue”; also known as RelA) and by the monofunctional synthetase RelQ. Previous characterization of E. faecalis strains lacking rsh, relQ, or both revealed that RSH is responsible for activation of the SR and that alterations in (p)ppGpp production negatively impact bacterial stress survival and virulence. Despite its well-characterized role as the effector of the SR, the significance of (p)ppGpp during balanced growth remains poorly understood. Microarrays of E. faecalis strains producing different basal amounts of (p)ppGpp identified several genes and pathways regulated by modest changes in (p)ppGpp. Notably, expression of numerous genes involved in energy generation were induced in the ∆rsh ∆relQ [(p)ppGpp0] strain, suggesting that a lack of basal (p)ppGpp places the cell in a “transcriptionally relaxed” state. Alterations in the fermentation profile and increased production of H2O2 in the (p)ppGpp0 strain substantiate the observed transcriptional changes. We confirm that, similar to what is seen in Bacillus subtilis, (p)ppGpp directly inhibits the activity of enzymes involved in GTP biosynthesis, and complete loss of (p)ppGpp leads to dysregulation of GTP homeostasis. Finally, we show that the association of (p)ppGpp with antibiotic survival does not relate to the SR but rather relates to basal (p)ppGpp pools. Collectively, this study highlights the critical but still underappreciated role of basal (p)ppGpp pools under balanced growth conditions. PMID:24065631

  6. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class ("PP2C7s") which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key evolutionary

  7. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R. Glen; Moorhead, Greg B. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class (“PP2C7s”) which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key

  8. Identified hadron production in pp collisions measured with ALICE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales Morales, Yasser; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The production of identified hadrons in proton-proton collisions is frequently studied as a reference for the investigation of the strongly-interacting medium created in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, at LHC energies measurements in pp and p-Pb collisions as a function of the event multiplicity have shown some features reminiscent of those related to collective effects in Pb-Pb collisions. Thanks to its excellent PID capabilities and p Τ coverage, the ALICE detector offers a unique opportunity for the measurement of p Τ spectra, integrated yields (dN/dy) and mean transverse momenta (

    ) of identified light-flavour hadrons at midrapidity over a wide p Τ range. In this contribution, results on π, K, p, {{{K}}}{{S}}0, Λ, Ξ, Ω and K*0 as a function of multiplicity in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s}=7 {TeV} are presented. The results are compared with those measured in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. A similar evolution of the spectral shape, the p Τ-differential particle ratios and the integrated yield ratios with the charged particle multiplicity in both small and large systems is observed. The production rates of strange hadrons in pp collisions increase more than those of non-strange particles, showing an enhancement pattern with multiplicity which is remarkably similar to the one measured in p-Pb collisions. In addition, results on the production of light flavour hadrons in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s}=13 {TeV}, the highest centre-of-mass energy reached so far in the laboratory, are also presented and the behaviour observed as a function of \\sqrt{s} are discussed.

  9. Prompt photon production in p-p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleymans, J.; Quack, E.; Redlich, K.

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive photon cross-section in p-p collisions is presented. The dependence of the {gamma} rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. A comparison is made with experimental data for centre-of-mass energies ranging from 23 GeV to 1.8 TeV. Predictions of the cross-sections are given for two different sets of structure functions for RHIC and LHC energies.

  10. Angular Distributions of η Meson Production in pp Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, I.; Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R.; Bland, L. C.; Brenschede, A.; Brochard, F.; Bussa, M. P.; Choi, Seonho; Colantoni, M. L.; Dressler, R.; Dzemidzic, M.; Faivre, J.-Cl.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Foryciarz, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; Heinz, S.; Jacobs, W. W.; Kühn, W.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Manara, A.; Panzieri, D.; Pfaff, H.-W.; Piragino, G.; Popov, A.; Ritman, J.; Salabura, P.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tosello, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Zosi, G.

    With the DISTO spectrometer, exclusive η production in pp collisions have been measured at kinetic energies of Tbeam=2.15, 2.50 and 2.85 GeV, respectively, via the π+π-π0 decay channel. The resulting angular distributions of the η are important for the interpretation of dilepton spectra obtained in elementary as well as heavy ion reactions.

  11. Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-12-13

    Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at √s = 5,7, and 13TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0pb–1 (5 TeV), 6.2pb–1 (7TeV), and 0.7pb–1 (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v2) and third-order (v3) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v2 of KS0 and Λ/Λ¯ particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v2 values of chargedmore » hadrons (mostly pions), KS0, and Λ/Λ¯, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pT ≈ 2GeV/c. For 13 TeV data, the v2 signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. Finally, these observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.« less

  12. Generation IV PR and PP Methods and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-10-13

    This paper presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Particular current relevant activities will be discussed in this regard. The methodology has been illustrated in a series of demonstration and case studies and these will be summarized in the paper.

  13. Associated charmonium production in low energy pp annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.; Li, X.

    2007-03-01

    The QCD mechanisms underlying the exclusive strong decays and hadronic production amplitudes of charmonium remain poorly understood, despite decades of study and an increasingly detailed body of experimental information. One set of hadronic channels of special interest are those that include baryon-antibaryon states. These are being investigated experimentally at BES and CLEO-c in terms of their baryon resonance content, and are also of interest for the future PANDA experiment, in which charmonium and charmonium hybrids will be produced in pp annihilation in association with light mesons. In this paper we develop a simple initial-state light meson emission model of the near-threshold associated charmonium production processes pp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{psi}, and evaluate the differential and total cross sections for these reactions in this model. (Here we consider the states {psi}={eta}{sub c}, J/{psi}, {psi}{sup '}, {chi}{sub 0} and {chi}{sub 1}.) The predicted near-threshold cross section for pp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}J/{psi} is found to be numerically similar to two previous theoretical estimates, and is roughly comparable to the (sparse) existing data for this process. The theoretical charmonium angular distributions predicted by this model are far from isotropic, which may be of interest for PANDA detector design studies.

  14. Polarization Processes of Nanocomposite Silicate-EVA and PP Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Gian Carlo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Testa, Luigi; Motori, Antonio; Saccani, Andrea; Patuelli, Francesca

    Recent works indicate that polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) filled by nanosilicates may present low content of space charge and high electric strength. Investigations are being made to explain nanocomposite behaviour and characterize their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, the results of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy performed on EVA and PP filled by layered nanosized silicates are reported. Isochronal and isothermal curves of complex permittivity, as well as activation energies of the relaxation processes, are presented and discussed. Nanostructuration gives rise to substantial changes in the polarisation and dielectric loss behaviour. While the relaxation process of EVA, associated with glass transition of the material amorphous phase, results unchanged from base to nanostructured material, nanocomposites EVA and PP have shown the rise of a new process at higher temperatures respect to the typical host material processes, as well as a different distribution of relaxation processes. Changes in space charge accumulation in relation to the effectiveness of the purification process performed upon nanostructured materials are also reported: while the dispersion of the clean clays leads to a reduction of the space charge, especially at high fields, an unclean filler gives rise to significant homo-charge accumulation and interfacial polarisation phenomena.

  15. IViPP: A Tool for Visualization in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hieu; Skiba, Elizabeth; Baldwin, Doug

    2011-10-01

    Experiments and simulations in physics generate a lot of data; visualization is helpful to prepare that data for analysis. IViPP (Interactive Visualizations in Particle Physics) is an interactive computer program that visualizes results of particle physics simulations or experiments. IViPP can handle data from different simulators, such as SRIM or MCNP. It can display relevant geometry and measured scalar data; it can do simple selection from the visualized data. In order to be an effective visualization tool, IViPP must have a software architecture that can flexibly adapt to new data sources and display styles. It must be able to display complicated geometry and measured data with a high dynamic range. We therefore organize it in a highly modular structure, we develop libraries to describe geometry algorithmically, use rendering algorithms running on the powerful GPU to display 3-D geometry at interactive rates, and we represent scalar values in a visual form of scientific notation that shows both mantissa and exponent. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), with special thanks to Craig Sangster at LLE.

  16. Experimental Search for the Kaonic Nuclear State K-pp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken

    We search for the most basic kaonic nuclear state, K-pp, by studying an exclusive p + p → p + Λ + K+ process at Tp = 3.1 GeV using FOPI apparatus at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. A possible signature of the K-pp is searched as a p + p → K-pp + K+ → p + Λ + K+ reaction in the event sample of pΛK+ three body process. A missing-mass ΔM(K+) spectrum, a Λp invariant-mass M(Λp) spectrum and a mono energetic kaon will characterize such a two body process. The reaction channel is basically the same as the one which T. Yamazaki et al. very recently reported a possible hint of such state with M = 2267 MeV/c2 and Γ = 118 MeV from a re-analysis of the DISTO experiment data. The DISTO data was taken at Tp = 2.85 GeV. The beam energy of the FOPI experiment is chosen to optimize the signal to background ratio and also to see the background shape separately. FOPI data taking took place in August-September 2009 and analysis is currently undergoing.

  17. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates heterochromatin formation in interphase

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Inês J.; Budzak, James; Di Giacinto, Maria L.; Ligammari, Lorena; Gokhan, Ezgi; Spanos, Christos; Moralli, Daniela; Richardson, Christine; de las Heras, Jose I.; Salatino, Silvia; Schirmer, Eric C.; Ullman, Katharine S.; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Green, Catherine; Rappsilber, Juri; Lamble, Sarah; Goldberg, Martin W.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Vagnarelli, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Repo-Man is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting subunit that regulates mitotic progression and chromatin remodelling. After mitosis, Repo-Man/PP1 remains associated with chromatin but its function in interphase is not known. Here we show that Repo-Man, via Nup153, is enriched on condensed chromatin at the nuclear periphery and at the edge of the nucleopore basket. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates the formation of heterochromatin, dephosphorylates H3S28 and it is necessary and sufficient for heterochromatin protein 1 binding and H3K27me3 recruitment. Using a novel proteogenomic approach, we show that Repo-Man is enriched at subtelomeric regions together with H2AZ and H3.3 and that depletion of Repo-Man alters the peripheral localization of a subset of these regions and alleviates repression of some polycomb telomeric genes. This study shows a role for a mitotic phosphatase in the regulation of the epigenetic landscape and gene expression in interphase. PMID:28091603

  18. Thermal Degradation of Filler/PP Composite and Its Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Hiroshi; Funami, Fumiyasu; Yasuda, Naoki; Nomura, Manabu; Yui, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Nobuo

    To examine thermal degradation accelerated by filling inorganic particles in polypropylene (PP), the composites were made with three types of inorganic powders : talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. They were easily degraded with the fillers in this order in the thermal aging test. A commercial heat resistance agent, ‘Plenlizer MK-400’, was added while making the composites. The degradation resistance of the agent remarkably appeared in the reverse order. That is, thermal degradation was most depressed in talc-filled composite with the agent. In another experience, soxhlet extraction was carried out to the filler with an organic solvent, o-xylene, that was able to dissolve PP. A lot of inorganic ions were detected in the extractant. In particular, the detected amount of aluminum ion increased in the order of talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. This order was the same as the fillers indicated by the degree of degradation. Infrared analysis of the agent with inorganic ions in chloroform showed that the peaks due to the agent were much stronger with aluminum ion than those with iron ion. These results suggested that a cause of degradation was aluminum ion dispersed from particles to PP matrix during the molding.

  19. Silencing PP2A Inhibitor by Lenti-shRNA Interference Ameliorates Neuropathologies and Memory Deficits in tg2576 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gong-Ping; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Shi, Hai-Rong; Liu, Xing-Hua; Chai, Gao-Shang; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Peng, Cai-Xia; Hu, Juan; Li, Xia-Chun; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Deficits of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) play a crucial role in tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloid overproduction, and synaptic suppression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which PP2A is inactivated by the endogenously increased inhibitory protein, namely inhibitor-2 of PP2A (I2PP2A). Therefore, in vivo silencing I2PP2A may rescue PP2A and mitigate AD neurodegeneration. By infusion of lentivirus-shRNA targeting I2PP2A (LV-siI2PP2A) into hippocampus and frontal cortex of 11-month-old tg2576 mice, we demonstrated that expression of LV-siI2PP2A decreased remarkably the elevated I2PP2A in both mRNA and protein levels. Simultaneously, the PP2A activity was restored with the mechanisms involving reduction of the inhibitory binding of I2PP2A to PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC), repression of the inhibitory Leu309-demethylation and elevation of PP2AC. Silencing I2PP2A induced a long-lasting attenuation of amyloidogenesis in tg2576 mice with inhibition of amyloid precursor protein hyperphosphorylation and β-secretase activity, whereas simultaneous inhibition of PP2A abolished the antiamyloidogenic effects of I2PP2A silencing. Finally, silencing I2PP2A could improve learning and memory of tg2576 mice with preservation of several memory-associated components. Our data reveal that targeting I2PP2A can efficiently rescue Aβ toxicities and improve the memory deficits in tg2576 mice, suggesting that I2PP2A could be a promising target for potential AD therapies. PMID:23922015

  20. Pathologic significance of SET/I2PP2A-mediated PP2A and non-PP2A pathways in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shi-Wen; Xu, Siliang; Chen, Haibin; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Zuoqing; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    SET (SE translocation, SET), a constitutive inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is a multifunctional oncoprotein involved in DNA replication, histone modification, nucleosome assembly, gene transcription and cell proliferation. It is widely expressed in human tissues including the gonadal system and brain. Intensive studies have shown that overexpressed SET plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and may also contribute to the malignant transformation of breast and ovarian cancers. Recent studies indicated that through interaction with PP2A, SET may upregulate androgen biosynthesis and contribute to hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. This review article summarizes data concerning the SET expression in ovaries from PCOS and normal women, and analyzes the role/regulatory mechanism of SET for androgen biosynthesis in PCOS, as well as the significance of this action in the development of PCOS. The potential value of SET-triggered pathway as a therapeutic target and the application of anti-SET reagents for treating hyperandrogenism in PCOS patients are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-02

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes.

  2. Substrate analysis of Arabidopsis PP2C-type protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Umbrasaite, Julija; Schweighofer, Alois; Meskiene, Irute

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation by protein kinases can be reversed by the action of protein phosphatases. In plants, the Ser/Thr-specific phosphatases dominate among the protein phosphatase families with the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) being the most abundant among them. PP2Cs are monomeric enzymes that require metal cations for their activity and are insensitive to known phosphatase inhibitors. PP2Cs were shown to counteract the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase/MAPK) activities in plants and to regulate developmental and stress signaling pathways. Studies of PP2C activities can be performed in vitro using recombinant proteins. The potential substrates of PP2Cs can be tested for dephosphorylation by the phosphatase in vitro. We have found that the stress-induced PP2Cs from alfalfa and Arabidopsis interact with stress-activated MAPKs in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens. Consequently, recombinant MAPKs were employed as substrates for dephosphorylation by selected PP2Cs from different family clusters. The members of the PP2C phosphatase family demonstrated specificity toward the substrate already in vitro, supporting the notion that protein phosphatases are specific enzymes. The PP2C from Arabidopsis thaliana cluster B, Arabidopsis PP2C-type phosphatase (AP2C1), and its homolog from Medicago sativa, Medicago PP2C-type phosphatase (MP2C), were able to dephosphorylate and inactivate MAPKs, whereas the ABSCISIC ACID (ABA)-INSENSITIVE 2 (ABI2) and HOMOLOGY TO ABI1 (HAB1) PP2Cs from the distinct Arabidopsis cluster A were not able to do so. The method described here can be used for the determination of PP2C protein activity and for studying the effect of mutations introduced into their catalytic domains.

  3. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  4. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  5. An altered form of pp60/sup c-src/ is expressed primarily in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Le Beau, J.M.; Wiestler, O.D.; Walter, G.

    1987-11-01

    The expression of two forms of pp60/sup c-scr/, pp60 and pp60/sup +/, was measured in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. Both forms were expressed in the CNS, whereas only pp60 was primarily detected in the peripheral nervous system. Our findings suggest that pp60/sup +/ may play a role in events important to the CNS.

  6. ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Epshtein, Vitaly; Benjamin, Bradley; Proshkin, Sergey; Mironov, Alexander; Cashel, Michael; Nudler, Evgeny

    2016-05-20

    The small molecule alarmone (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial adaptation to nutrient deprivation by altering the initiation properties of RNA polymerase (RNAP). ppGpp is generated in Escherichia coli by two related enzymes, RelA and SpoT. We show that ppGpp is robustly, but transiently, induced in response to DNA damage and is required for efficient nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER). This explains why relA-spoT-deficient cells are sensitive to diverse genotoxic agents and ultraviolet radiation, whereas ppGpp induction renders them more resistant to such challenges. The mechanism of DNA protection by ppGpp involves promotion of UvrD-mediated RNAP backtracking. By rendering RNAP backtracking-prone, ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair and prompts transitions between repair and recovery states.

  7. Study of Processing and Mechanical Behavior of Pp/clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Melt Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Sareh Mosleh; Janghorban, Kamal

    In this research, the melt blending technique was used to prepare various polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposites containing 1,3,5,7 wt% montmorillonite (MMT). A commercial organoclay (denoted K-10) served as the filler for PP matrix and the polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) was used as compatibalizer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), results of which showed that the nanocomposites are best described as intercalated-exfoliated systems. PP/MMT nanocomposites showed good thermal stability in the TGA analysis. Introducion of 3% MMT in the nanocomposites increased the onset temperature of the degradation by 27.5 °C compared to that of pure PP. Test results showed that PP/clay nanocomposites had an enhanced tensile strength, hardness and decreased wear rates.

  8. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  9. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  10. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  11. Study of e+e-→pp¯ via initial-state radiation at BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindemann, D.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wang, W. F.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    The process e+e-→pp¯γ is studied using 469fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, at an e+e- center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV. From the analysis of the pp¯ invariant mass spectrum, the energy dependence of the cross section for e+e-→pp¯ is measured from threshold to 4.5 GeV. The energy dependence of the ratio of electric and magnetic form factors, |GE/GM|, and the asymmetry in the proton angular distribution are measured for pp¯ masses below 3 GeV. The branching fractions for the decays J/ψ→pp¯ and ψ(2S)→pp¯ are also determined.

  12. Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Tenson, Tanel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    The alarmone (p)ppGpp is involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular leves of (p)ppGpp, the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters. PMID:25853779

  13. Updating Boer-Mulders functions from unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We extract the Boer-Mulders functions for the proton by combining the unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data measured by the E866/NuSea Collaboration by the assumption that the cos2{phi} asymmetry is from the Boer-Mulders functions. Using the extracted Boer-Mulders functions, we present the predictions for the cos2{phi} asymmetries in future pp experiments at J-PARC and pp experiments at PANDA and PAX.

  14. PpIX induces mitochondria-related apoptosis in murine leukemia L1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Pan; Li, Long; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a well-known sensitizer that can enhance laser light or ultrasound induced cytotoxicity in photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy. However, PpIX alone could effectively cause anti-tumor effect and the underlying mechanisms are rarely been reported. Therefore, this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which PpIX revealed anti-proliferative effect on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The accumulation of PpIX in L1210 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated with flow cytometry. The subcellular localization of PpIX and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation were determined by confocal microscope. The cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD and DAPI staining were used to detect apoptotic cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes were tested by rhodamine123 staining. DNA damage was measured by comet assay. PpIX preferentially accumulated in L1210 cells compared to PBMCs and PpIX mainly located in the mitochondria of L1210 cells. PpIX at a concentration of 1 µg/ml or above exerted significant anti-tumor effect and the cell viability loss presented PpIX dose-dependent manner. Typical apoptotic features such as chromatin condensation were observed by DAPI staining. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD analysis showed 5 µg/ml PpIX could induce about 24% cell apoptosis, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In addition, the PpIX caused MMP loss, AIF translocation to nucleus and serious DNA damage were also suppressed by CsA. The results indicate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were involved in PpIX caused cell damage on L1210 cells.

  15. A PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme directly regulates PIN phosphorylation and auxin efflux in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhang, Chen; Kania, Urszula; Chen, Fang; Xue, Qin; McCray, Tyra; Li, Gang; Qin, Genji; Wakeley, Michelle; Terzaghi, William; Wan, Jianmin; Zhao, Yunde; Xu, Jian; Friml, Jirí; Deng, Xing Wang; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-06-01

    The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin depends on the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins. While PINIOD (PID) kinase is directly involved in the phosphorylation of PIN proteins, the phosphatase holoenzyme complexes that dephosphorylate PIN proteins remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mutations simultaneously disrupting the function of Arabidopsis thaliana FyPP1 (for Phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase1) and FyPP3, two homologous genes encoding the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase6 (PP6), cause elevated accumulation of phosphorylated PIN proteins, correlating with a basal-to-apical shift in subcellular PIN localization. The changes in PIN polarity result in increased root basipetal auxin transport and severe defects, including shorter roots, fewer lateral roots, defective columella cells, root meristem collapse, abnormal cotyledons (small, cup-shaped, or fused cotyledons), and altered leaf venation. Our molecular, biochemical, and genetic data support the notion that FyPP1/3, SAL (for SAPS DOMAIN-LIKE), and PP2AA proteins (RCN1 [for ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1] or PP2AA1, PP2AA2, and PP2AA3) physically interact to form a novel PP6-type heterotrimeric holoenzyme complex. We also show that FyPP1/3, SAL, and PP2AA interact with a subset of PIN proteins and that for SAL the strength of the interaction depends on the PIN phosphorylation status. Thus, an Arabidopsis PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme acts antagonistically with PID to direct auxin transport polarity and plant development by directly regulating PIN phosphorylation.

  16. Updating Boer-Mulders functions from unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We extract the Boer-Mulders functions for the proton by combining the unpolarized pd and pp Drell-Yan data measured by the E866/NuSea Collaboration by the assumption that the cos⁡2ϕ asymmetry is from the Boer-Mulders functions. Using the extracted Boer-Mulders functions, we present the predictions for the cos⁡2ϕ asymmetries in future pp experiments at J-PARC and pp¯ experiments at PANDA and PAX.

  17. RHIC FY15 pp Run RHIC and AGS polarization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Adams, P.

    2016-02-20

    The polarization information is important for the spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). There are discrepancies between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements. First, the face value of AGS polarization is higher than RHIC ones in general. Second, the measured polarization profile (described by the profile ratio R) is stronger in AGS than in RHIC. This note analyzes the polarization data from FY15 pp run period. The results show that the differences between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements are reasonable, but the R value difference is puzzling. The difference between blue and yellow ring is worth of spin simulation to explain.

  18. Semiclassical treatment of pp formation in p-H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.

    2005-05-01

    As the energy of an antiproton colliding with a hydrogen atom decreases, the probability for formation of protonium (pp) increases. In this work, we present a calculation of protonium formation using the Electron-Nuclear Dynamics (END) theory for projectile energies from 1 eV to 10 eV. We present preliminary results for the protonium formation cross section, the stopping cross section (nuclear and electronic). In particular, we explore the role of non-adiabatic effects and the ionization channel within the END formalism.

  19. Double Parton Interactions in pp and pA Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treleani, Daniele; Calucci, Giorgio; Salvini, Simona

    2016-11-01

    As a consequence of the increasingly large flux of partons at small x, Double Parton Interactions (DPI) play an increasingly important role at high energies. A detail understanding of DPI dynamics is therefore mandatory, for a reliable subtraction of the background in the search of new physics. On the other hand, DPI are an interesting topic of research by themselves, as DPI probe the hadron structure in a rather different way, as compared with the large pt processes usually considered. In this note we will make a short illustration of some of the main features characterizing DPI in pp and in pA collisions.

  20. Inclusive Jet Production in pp¯ Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abdesselam, A.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Begel, M.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Duensing, S.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gao, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hou, S.; Huang, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jaffré, M.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Leggett, C.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Luo, C.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Moore, R. W.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Nunnemann, T.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Papageorgiou, K.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Peters, O.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramberg, E.; Rapidis, P. A.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rha, J.; Ridel, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Tripathi, S. M.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.-M.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Wijngaarden, D. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2001-02-01

    We report a new measurement of the pseudorapidity ( η) and transverse-energy ( ET) dependence of the inclusive jet production cross section in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using 95 pb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The differential cross section d2σ/\\(dETdη\\) is presented up to \\|η\\| = 3, significantly extending previous measurements. The results are in good overall agreement with next-to-leading order predictions from QCD and indicate a preference for certain parton distribution functions.

  1. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-05

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  2. Near-threshold production of phi mesons in pp collisions.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, M; Maeda, Y; Keshelashvili, I; Koch, H R; Mikirtytchiants, S; Barsov, S; Borgs, W; Büscher, M; Dimitrov, V I; Dymov, S; Hejny, V; Kleber, V; Koptev, V; Kulessa, P; Mersmann, T; Merzliakov, S; Mussgiller, A; Nekipelov, M; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Pysz, K; Schleichert, R; Stein, H J; Ströher, H; Watzlawik, K-H; Wüstner, P

    2006-06-23

    The pp-->ppphi reaction has been studied at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Jülich, using the internal beam and ANKE facility. Total cross sections have been determined at three excess energies epsilon near the production threshold. The differential cross section closest to threshold at epsilon=18.5 MeV exhibits a clear S wave dominance as well as a noticeable effect due to the proton-proton final-state interaction. Taken together with data for ppomega production, a significant enhancement of the phi/omega ratio of a factor 8 is found compared to predictions based on the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule.

  3. From pp to AA ultra-relativistic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovici, M.; Pop, A.; Andrei, C.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Herghelegiu, A.; Tarzila, M.

    2017-06-01

    Detailed comparisons between pp (√{s }=7 TeV), p-Pb (√{SN N }=5.02 TeV) and Pb-Pb (√{SN N }=2.76 TeV) collisions in terms of ratios of normalized pT spectra, Bjorken energy density and correlation between the kinetic freeze-out temperature (Tki n f o) and average transverse expansion velocity (< βT >) parameters as a function of charged particle multiplicity/centrality are presented.

  4. Inclusive jet production in pp(macro) collisions.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B; Abdesselam, A; Abolins, M; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Alves, G A; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Baarmand, M M; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, T C; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begel, M; Belyaev, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Boehnlein, A; Bojko, N I; Borcherding, F; Brandt, A; Breedon, R; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, D; Casilum, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chekulaev, S V; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cochran, J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cummings, M A; Cutts, D; Davis, G A; Davis, K; De, K; Del Signore, K; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Di Loreto, G; Doulas, S; Draper, P; Ducros, Y; Dudko, L V; Duensing, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Dyshkant, A; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fahland, T; Feher, S; Fein, D; Ferbel, T; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Y; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Frame, K C; Fuess, S; Gallas, E; Galyaev, A N; Gao, M; Gavrilov, V; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gilmartin, R; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, P I; González Solís, J L; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graf, N; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Grinstein, S; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Gupta, A; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heuring, T; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Hou, S; Huang, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jaffré, M; Jerger, S A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Karmgard, D; Kim, S K; Klima, B; Klopfenstein, C; Knuteson, B; Ko, W; Kohli, J M; Kostritskiy, A V; Kotcher, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovsky, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kuznetsov, V E; Landsberg, G; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipton, R; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L; Lundstedt, C; Luo, C; Maciel, A K; Madaras, R J; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Martin, R D; Mauritz, K M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Meng, X C; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mokhov, N; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M; da Motta, H; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Negroni, S; Norman, D; Nunnemann, T; Oesch, L; Oguri, V; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pan, L J; Papageorgiou, K; Para, A; Parashar, N; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Patwa, A; Pawlik, B; Perkins, J; Peters, M; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piekarz, H; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Ramberg, E; Rapidis, P A; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roco, M; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rutherfoord, J; Santoro, A; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schwartzman, A; Sen, N; Shabalina, E; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V; Slattery, P; Smith, E; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Sorín, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Steinbrück, G; Stephens, R W; Stichelbaut, F; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Taylor, W; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thompson, J; Toback, D; Tripathi, S M; Trippe, T G; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; van Gemmeren, P; Vaniev, V; Van Kooten, R; Varelas, N; Volkov, A A; Vorobiev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, H; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; White, A; White, J T; Whiteson, D; Wightman, J A; Wijngaarden, D A; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yasuda, T; Yip, K; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Z; Zanabria, M; Zheng, H; Zhou, Z; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2001-02-26

    We report a new measurement of the pseudorapidity (eta) and transverse-energy ( E(T)) dependence of the inclusive jet production cross section in pp(macro) collisions at square root of s = 1.8 TeV using 95 pb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The differential cross section d(2)sigma/(dE(T)d eta) is presented up to eta = 3, significantly extending previous measurements. The results are in good overall agreement with next-to-leading order predictions from QCD and indicate a preference for certain parton distribution functions.

  5. PR55α, a Regulatory Subunit of PP2A, Specifically Regulates PP2A-mediated β-Catenin Dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Yang, Jun; Liu, Yajuan; Chen, Xi; Yu, Tianxin; Jia, Jianhang; Liu, Chunming

    2009-01-01

    A central question in Wnt signaling is the regulation of β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation. Multiple kinases, including CKIα and GSK3, are involved in β-catenin phosphorylation. Protein phosphatases such as PP2A and PP1 have been implicated in the regulation of β-catenin. However, which phosphatase dephosphorylates β-catenin in vivo and how the specificity of β-catenin dephosphorylation is regulated are not clear. In this study, we show that PP2A regulates β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation in vivo. We demonstrate that PP2A is required for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Drosophila. Moreover, we have identified PR55α as the regulatory subunit of PP2A that controls β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation. PR55α, but not the catalytic subunit, PP2Ac, directly interacts with β-catenin. RNA interference knockdown of PR55α elevates β-catenin phosphorylation and decreases Wnt signaling, whereas overexpressing PR55α enhances Wnt signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that PR55α specifically regulates PP2A-mediated β-catenin dephosphorylation and plays an essential role in Wnt signaling. PMID:19556239

  6. Characterization and interstrain transfer of prophage pp3 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Shen, Wei; Tan, Yinling; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yan; Gong, Yali; Yang, Yuhui; Zhu, Hongbin; Hu, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Prophages are major contributors to horizontal gene transfer and drive the evolution and diversification of bacteria. Here, we describe the characterization of a prophage element designated pp3 in the clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate PA1. pp3 spontaneously excises from the PA1 genome and circularizes at a very high frequency of 25%. pp3 is likely to be a defective prophage due to its inability to form plaques on P. aeruginosa indicator strains, and no phage particles could be detected in PA1 supernatants. The pp3-encoded integrase is essential for excision by mediating site-specific recombination at the 26-bp attachment sequence. Using a filter mating experiment, we demonstrated that pp3 can transfer into P. aeruginosa recipient strains that do not possess this element naturally. Upon transfer, pp3 integrates into the same attachment site as in PA1 and maintains the ability to excise and circularize. Furthermore, pp3 significantly promotes biofilm formation in the recipient. Sequence alignment reveals that the 26-bp attachment site recognized by pp3 is conserved in all P. aeruginosa strains sequenced to date, making it possible that pp3 could be extensively disseminated in P. aeruginosa. This work improves our understanding of the ways in which prophages influence bacterial behavior and evolution. PMID:28346467

  7. Protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) function in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, P L

    1998-12-01

    In the past few years, molecular cloning studies have revealed the primary structure of plant protein serine/threonine phosphatases. Two structurally distinct families, the PP1/PP2A family and the PP2C family, are present in plants as well as in animals. This review will focus on the plant PP2C family of protein phosphatases. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis have identified PP2C enzymes as key players in plant signal transduction processes. For instance, the ABI1/ABI2 PP2Cs are central components in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. Arabidopsis mutants containing a single amino acid exchange in ABI1 or ABI2 show a reduced response to ABA. Another member of the PP2C family, kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP), appears to be an important element in some receptor-like kinase (RLK) signalling pathways. Finally, an alfalfa PP2C acts as a negative regulator of a plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Thus, the plant PP2Cs function as regulators of various signal transduction pathways.

  8. The Structural Basis for Tight Control of PP2A Methylation and Function by LCMT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Stanevich, Vitali; Jiang, Li; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Li, Yongfeng; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Li, Zhu; Menden, Patrick; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Xing, Yongna

    2012-05-29

    Proper formation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes is essential for the fitness of all eukaryotic cells. Carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit plays a critical role in regulating holoenzyme assembly; methylation is catalyzed by PP2A-specific methyltransferase LCMT-1, an enzyme required for cell survival. We determined crystal structures of human LCMT-1 in isolation and in complex with PP2A stabilized by a cofactor mimic. The structures show that the LCMT-1 active-site pocket recognizes the carboxyl terminus of PP2A, and, interestingly, the PP2A active site makes extensive contacts to LCMT-1. We demonstrated that activation of the PP2A active site stimulates methylation, suggesting a mechanism for efficient conversion of activated PP2A into substrate-specific holoenzymes, thus minimizing unregulated phosphatase activity or formation of inactive holoenzymes. A dominant-negative LCMT-1 mutant attenuates the cell cycle without causing cell death, likely by inhibiting uncontrolled phosphatase activity. Our studies suggested mechanisms of LCMT-1 in tight control of PP2A function, important for the cell cycle and cell survival.

  9. The Structural Basis for Tight Control of PP2A Methylation and Function by LCMT-1

    SciTech Connect

    V Stanevich; L Jiang; K Satyshur; Y Li; P Jeffrey; Z Li; P Menden; M Semmelhack; Y Xing

    2011-12-31

    Proper formation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes is essential for the fitness of all eukaryotic cells. Carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit plays a critical role in regulating holoenzyme assembly; methylation is catalyzed by PP2A-specific methyltransferase LCMT-1, an enzyme required for cell survival. We determined crystal structures of human LCMT-1 in isolation and in complex with PP2A stabilized by a cofactor mimic. The structures show that the LCMT-1 active-site pocket recognizes the carboxyl terminus of PP2A, and, interestingly, the PP2A active site makes extensive contacts to LCMT-1. We demonstrated that activation of the PP2A active site stimulates methylation, suggesting a mechanism for efficient conversion of activated PP2A into substrate-specific holoenzymes, thus minimizing unregulated phosphatase activity or formation of inactive holoenzymes. A dominant-negative LCMT-1 mutant attenuates the cell cycle without causing cell death, likely by inhibiting uncontrolled phosphatase activity. Our studies suggested mechanisms of LCMT-1 in tight control of PP2A function, important for the cell cycle and cell survival.

  10. ToF-SIMS imaging of PE/PP polymer using multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Toyomitsu; Ikemoto, Takashi; Kohno, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in PE/PP blended-polymer film was determined by applying principal components analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) imaging, together with preprocessing by pixel binning, normalization, and autoscaling to increase image contrast by reducing topographic and charge-distribution effects. The PE/PP distribution was confirmed by MVA conducted on the image data over static limit. The MCR score with normalized-autoscaling was found to give the PE/PP distribution distinctly.

  11. Androgen ablation elicits PP1-dependence for AR stabilization and transactivation in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaming; Han, Weiwei; Gulla, Sarah; Simon, Nicholas I; Gao, Yanfei; Liu, Jihong; Wang, Liang; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Previous reports have documented protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) as an essential androgen receptor (AR) activator. However, more systemic studies are needed to further define PP1 effects on AR, particularly in the settings of prostate cancer cells and under conditions mimicking androgen ablation. PP1 effects on AR protein expression, degradation, ubiquitination, and stabilization were examined in non-prostate cancer cells, followed by validation on exogenous settings in androgen-sensitive (LNCaP and VCaP) and castration-resistant (C4-2) prostate cancer cells. Effects of PP1 on AR protein expression, on AR-mediated transcription of exogenous reporter and endogenous gene, and on LNCaP and C4-2 cell proliferation were monitored under androgen-containing versus androgen-depleted conditions to assess the effects of PP1 on AR responsiveness to androgen. In this report, we determined that PP1 functions to stabilize AR proteins that exclusively undergo the proteasome-dependent degradation, and the stimulatory effects of PP1 were predominantly mediated by the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). Consistently, PP1 enhances AR protein stability by disrupting the LBD-mediated and K48-linked ubiquitination cascade. We further validated the above findings in the prostate cancer cells by showing that PP1 inhibition can increase ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent degradation of endogenous AR under androgen deprivation. Significantly, we found that PP1 could markedly activate AR transcriptional activities under conditions mimicking androgen ablation and that androgen sensitivity was substantially evoked by PP1 inhibition in the prostate cancer cell lines. As summarized in a simplified model, our studies defined an essential PP1-mediated pathway for AR protein stabilization that can compensate the loss of androgen and established a mechanistic link between PP1 and androgen responsiveness. The amplified PP1-dependence for AR activation under the androgen ablated conditions provides a

  12. First exclusive measurements of the K - pp state populated in the pp → K + Λ p reaction at 2.85 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Kienle, P.; Suzuki, K.; Maggiora, M.; Alexeev, (M.; Balestra, F.; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R.; Bland, L. C.; Brenschede, A.; Brochard, F.; Bussa, M. P.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, Seonho; Colantoni, M. L.; Dressler, R.; Dzemidzic, M.; Faivre, J.-Cl.; Ferrero, L.; Foryciarz, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; Heinz, S.; Jacobs, W. W.; Kühn, W.; Maggiora, A.; Panzieri, D.; Pfaff, H.-W.; Pontecorvo, G.; Popov, A.; Ritman, J.; Salabura, P.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tosello, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Zosi), G.

    2009-09-01

    We have analyzed data of the DISTO experiment on the exclusive pp → K + Λ p process at T p = 2.85 GeV to search for a K - pp ( ≡ X) nuclear bound state to be formed in the pp → K + + X reaction. The deviation spectra of the K + missing-mass Δ M ( K + ) and Λ p invariant-mass M(Λ p) with selection of large-angle proton emission revealed a structure with M X = 2265 ±2 MeV/ c 2 and Γ X = 118 ±8 MeV.

  13. N* production from pp and p-barp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiajun; Cao Xu; Molina, R.; Oset, E.; Zou, B. S.

    2011-10-21

    With an effective Lagrangian approach, we give a full analysis on the NN{yields}NN{pi}{pi} and pp{yields}pn{pi}{sup +} reactions for proton beam energy from 1 to 1.5 GeV. The results are very consistent with the experiment data from CELSIUS, KEK, COSY, and so on. Based on these results, we consider the N-barN{yields}N-barN{pi}{pi} and p-barp{yields}p-barn{pi}{sup +} for proton beam energy up to 4 GeV. Compare to the pp collisions, there are many benefits to study N* resonances in these two reactions. And for the high proton beam energy up to 15 GeV, we consider some new resonances with hidden charm which are definitely beyond three constituent quarks model in the p-barp{yields}p-barpJ/{psi} and p-barp{yields}p-barp{eta}{sub c}, where there are very nice places to find these new N{sub cc}-bar*. The predicted results about p-barp collisions can be looked for at the forthcoming PANDA/FAIR experiments.

  14. Structure of glycopeptides isolated from bovine milk component PP3.

    PubMed

    Girardet, J M; Coddeville, B; Plancke, Y; Strecker, G; Campagna, S; Spik, G; Linden, G

    1995-12-15

    The heat-stable acid-soluble phosphoglycoprotein component PP3 was isolated from the bovine milk proteose peptone fraction by concanavalin A affinity chromatography. Glycopeptides were released by pronase digestion of the milk component PP3 and were subsequently separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on CarboPac PA-1. The primary structures of the glycan and peptide moieties of eight N-glycopeptides have been established by combining methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, 400-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and peptide sequence analysis. All the analyzed fractions contained biantennary N-acetyllactosamine-type carbohydrate chains, some of them with a GalNAc(beta 1-4)GlcNAc or a NeuAc(alpha 2-6)GalNAc(beta 1-4)GlcNAc group. This particular sequence did or did not replace the Gal(beta 1-4)GlcNAc group usually found in most N-linked glycans. Moreover, the sialylated Gal and GalNAc residues were only found on the Man(alpha 1-3) antenna.

  15. Targeting of PP2C in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ota, Irene M; Mapes, James

    2007-01-01

    Type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases or PP2Cs are monomeric metal-requiring protein phosphatases that are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are seven PP2Cs called PTCs (phosphatase 2C). Molecular genetic studies have implicated PTCs in many different functions, including RNA splicing, the unfolded protein response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and cell-cycle regulation. We have shown that three PTCs (Ptc1, Ptc2, and Ptc3), regulate the stress-activated high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Proteomics studies have provided additional possible functions for these phosphatases by identifying interacting proteins. These studies have also provided the possible means by which these phosphatases are targeted to their substrates. For example, Nbp2-Ptc1 was identified as an interacting pair in yeast two-hybrid studies, and Nbp2 was found together with Ptc1 and HOG pathway kinases. We have shown that Nbp2 is an adapter in this pathway, mediating interaction between Ptc1 and the Pbs2 MAP/ERK kinase in the HOG pathway.

  16. Internal meson dominance for pp-bar annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, G.; Genz, H.; Tatur, S.

    1989-04-01

    The previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model of pp-bar..-->..YY-bar, YY-bar /sup */, and Y/sup */Y-bar/sup */ (Y denotes hyperon) at low energies is modified and thereby extended to also include pp-bar..-->..nn-bar and ..delta../sup ++/Delta-bar/sup - -/. It is assumed that the same nonperturbative mechanism that mixes the different qq-bar pairs within the neutral, nonstrange mesons is also responsible for the scattering, annihilation, and creation of qq-bar pairs within the baryon-antibaryon system. More specifically, we assume that processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-bar within the baryon-antibaryon system with q = d or u and Q = d, u, or s quarks is mediated by fusion of the qq-bar to a pseudoscalar or vector meson that also within the system decays into QQ-bar. The /sup 1/S/sub 0/ pseudoscalar-meson model disagrees with experiment whereas the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ vector-meson fusion model is in reasonable agreement with it. As compared to the previously considered /sup 3/S/sub 1/ internal fusion model the main change is an extension of the approximate agreement to the nonstrange final-state baryons. This is achieved since strange baryons in the model are only produced via the small ..omega..-phi mixing.

  17. 5-ALA/PpIX fluorescence detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Vladimirov, Borislav; Terziev, Ivan; Ivanova, Radina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2009-07-01

    In the recent study delta-ALA/PpIX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus, stomach and colon. ALA is administered per os six to eight (depending on the lesion location) hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for the LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to re-absorption of oxy-hemoglobin in this spectral area. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence spectra are used to develop simple but effective algorithm, based on dimensionless ratio of the signals at 560 and 635 nm, for differentiation of normal/abnormal gastrointestinal tissues. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  18. The spectroscopy analyses of PpIX by ultrasound irradiation and its sonotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Kaili; Song, Ming; Liu, Quanhong

    2013-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been used as a sensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as well as in sonodynamic therapy (SDT). The photo-bleaching of PpIX has been well investigated in many experimental systems and some photo-products have also been identified in PDT. But until now, little information has been reported about the sono-damage of PpIX in SDT. So, the present study was to investigate changes of PpIX properties before and after different ultrasound treatment, and the potential interactions between PpIX, ultrasound and the irradiated cells. In cell-free system, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of PpIX in different solutions were measured by ultraviolet spectrometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The terephthalic acid dosimetry was applied to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasound cavitation by monitoring hydroxyl radical (OH) production on the thermolysis of H2O in the ultrasound field. In in vitro study, confocal microscopy was applied to detect the sub-cellular localization of PpIX in S180 cells before and after ultrasound exposure. Flow cytometry was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during PpIX-SDT. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cell viability of S180 cells after SDT treatment with or without ROS scavengers. The results show that PpIX displayed different spectral patterns in different solutions. PpIX was decomposed by ultrasound exposure as measured by the decreased absorption and fluorescence peak values in RPMI-1640 medium. In addition, the decomposition of PpIX was found to be simultaneously accompanied by OH production with increasing output power from ultrasound generator. PpIX at 1μg/ml significantly enhanced the ultrasound induced cavitation as measured by OH generation, and which was greatly eliminated by NaN3, histidine, mannitol, EDTA and catalase, but not by SOD. The in vitro study indicates more PpIX entered into S180 cells after ultrasound exposure. And, the extra-cellular Pp

  19. Delayed Amyloid Plaque Deposition and Behavioral Deficits in Outcrossed AβPP/PS1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Brian A.; Kerrisk, Meghan E.; Kaufman, Adam C.; Nygaard, Haakon B.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; Koleske, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia characterized by amyloid plaque accumulation, synapse/dendrite loss, and cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) recapitulate several aspects of this disease and provide a useful model system for studying elements of AD progression. AβPP/PS1 mice have been previously shown to exhibit behavioral deficits and amyloid plaque deposition between 4–9 months of age. We crossed AβPP/PS1 animals with mice of a mixed genetic background (C57BL/6 × 129/SvJ) and investigated the development of AD-like features in the resulting outcrossed mice. The onset of memory-based behavioral impairment is delayed considerably in outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice relative to inbred mice on a C57BL/6 background. While inbred AβPP/PS1 mice develop deficits in radial-arm water maze performance and novel object recognition as early as 8 months, outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice do not display defects until 18 months. Within the forebrain, we find that inbred AβPP/PS1 mice have significantly higher amyloid plaque burden at 12 months than outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice of the same age. Surprisingly, inbred AβPP/PS1 mice at 8 months have low plaque burden suggesting that plaque burden alone cannot explain the accompanying behavioral deficits. Analysis of AβPP processing revealed that elevated levels of soluble Aβ correlate with the degree of behavioral impairment in both strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that animal behavior, amyloid plaque deposition, and AβPP processing are sensitive to genetic differences between mouse strains. PMID:23047754

  20. Delayed amyloid plaque deposition and behavioral deficits in outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Couch, Brian A; Kerrisk, Meghan E; Kaufman, Adam C; Nygaard, Haakon B; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Koleske, Anthony J

    2013-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia characterized by amyloid plaque accumulation, synapse/dendrite loss, and cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) recapitulate several aspects of this disease and provide a useful model system for studying elements of AD progression. AβPP/PS1 mice have been previously shown to exhibit behavioral deficits and amyloid plaque deposition between 4-9 months of age. We crossed AβPP/PS1 animals with mice of a mixed genetic background (C57BL/6 × 129/SvJ) and investigated the development of AD-like features in the resulting outcrossed mice. The onset of memory-based behavioral impairment is delayed considerably in outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice relative to inbred mice on a C57BL/6 background. While inbred AβPP/PS1 mice develop deficits in radial-arm water maze performance and novel object recognition as early as 8 months, outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice do not display defects until 18 months. Within the forebrain, we find that inbred AβPP/PS1 mice have significantly higher amyloid plaque burden at 12 months than outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice of the same age. Surprisingly, inbred AβPP/PS1 mice at 8 months have low plaque burden, suggesting that plaque burden alone cannot explain the accompanying behavioral deficits. Analysis of AβPP processing revealed that elevated levels of soluble Aβ correlate with the degree of behavioral impairment in both strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that animal behavior, amyloid plaque deposition, and AβPP processing are sensitive to genetic differences between mouse strains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Association of Metal Homeostasis and (p)ppGpp Regulation in the Pathophysiology of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Winter, C; Gaca, A O; Lemos, J A

    2017-07-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, the regulatory nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp, collectively, (p)ppGpp, are required for growth in blood, survival within macrophages, and virulence. However, a clear understanding of how (p)ppGpp promotes virulence in E. faecalis and other bacterial pathogens is still lacking. In the host, the essential transition metals iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are not readily available to invading pathogens because of a host-driven process called nutritional immunity. Considering its central role in adaptation to nutritional stresses, we hypothesized that (p)ppGpp mediates E. faecalis virulence through regulation of metal homeostasis. Indeed, supplementation of serum with either Fe or Mn restored growth and survival of the Δrel ΔrelQ [(p)ppGpp(0)] strain to wild-type levels. Using a chemically defined medium, we found that (p)ppGpp accumulates in response to either Fe depletion or Mn depletion and that the (p)ppGpp(0) strain has a strong growth requirement for Mn that is alleviated by Fe supplementation. Although inactivation of the nutrient-sensing regulator codY restored some phenotypes of the (p)ppGpp(0) strain, transcriptional analysis showed that the (p)ppGpp/CodY network does not promote transcription of known metal transporters. Interestingly, physiologic and enzymatic investigations suggest that the (p)ppGpp(0) strain requires higher levels of Mn in order to cope with high levels of endogenously produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because (p)ppGpp mediates antibiotic persistence and virulence in several bacteria, our findings have broad implications and provide new leads for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive strategies against E. faecalis and beyond. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. pp{yields}p{Lambda}K{sup +} reaction in search for the K{sup -}pp state - quest for a kaonic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Ken; Kienle, Paul; Maggiora, Marco; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2011-10-21

    The dibaryonic kaonic nuclear bound state, K{sup -}pp is searched by studying an exclusive p+p{yields}p+{Lambda}+K{sup +} process at several beam energies. A signature of the K{sup -}pp is explored in a p+p{yields}X({identical_to}K{sup -}pp)+K{sup +} reaction that follows a decay of the X into p+{Lambda}. We found in a missing-mass {Delta}M(K{sup +}) spectrum and a {Lambda}p invariant-mass M({Lambda}p) spectrum of DISTO data at 2.85 GeV a resonance with M = 2267 MeV/c{sup 2} and {Gamma} = 118 MeV. Those events are found to be associated with a mono energetic kaon. We investigate this resonance as a candidate of the K{sup -}pp further also with a different beam energies.

  3. Survival probability of large rapidity gaps in {bar p}p, pp, {gamma}p, and {gamma}{gamma} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M. M.; Halzen, F.

    2001-06-01

    Using an eikonal analysis, we simultaneously fit a QCD-inspired parametrization of all accelerator data on forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering amplitudes, together with cosmic ray data (using Glauber theory), to predict proton-air and proton-proton cross sections at energies near s{approx}30 TeV. The p-air cosmic ray measurements greatly reduce the errors in the high energy proton-proton and proton-air cross section predictions -- in turn, greatly reducing the errors in the fit parameters. From this analysis, we can then compute the survival probability of rapidity gaps in high energy {bar p}p and pp collisions, with high accuracy in a quasi-model-free environment. Using an additive quark model and vector meson dominance, we note that the survival probabilities are identical, at the same energy, for {gamma}p and {gamma}{gamma} collisions, as well as for nucleon-nucleon collisions. Significantly, our analysis finds large values for gap survival probabilities: {approx}30% at s=200 GeV, {approx}21% at s=1.8 TeV and {approx}13% at s=14 TeV.

  4. The Molecular Chaperone Hsp70 Activates Protein Phosphatase 5 (PP5) by Binding the Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Connarn, Jamie N.; Assimon, Victoria A.; Reed, Rebecca A.; Tse, Eric; Southworth, Daniel R.; Zuiderweg, Erik R. P.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is auto-inhibited by intramolecular interactions with its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Hsp90 has been shown to bind PP5 to activate its phosphatase activity. However, the functional implications of binding Hsp70 to PP5 are not yet clear. In this study, we find that both Hsp90 and Hsp70 bind to PP5 using a luciferase fragment complementation assay. A fluorescence polarization assay shows that Hsp90 (MEEVD motif) binds to the TPR domain of PP5 almost 3-fold higher affinity than Hsp70 (IEEVD motif). However, Hsp70 binding to PP5 stimulates higher phosphatase activity of PP5 than the binding of Hsp90. We find that PP5 forms a stable 1:1 complex with Hsp70, but the interaction appears asymmetric with Hsp90, with one PP5 binding the dimer. Solution NMR studies reveal that Hsc70 and PP5 proteins are dynamically independent in complex, tethered by a disordered region that connects the Hsc70 core and the IEEVD-TPR contact area. This tethered binding is expected to allow PP5 to carry out multi-site dephosphorylation of Hsp70-bound clients with a range of sizes and shapes. Together, these results demonstrate that Hsp70 recruits PP5 and activates its phosphatase activity which suggests dual roles for PP5 that might link chaperone systems with signaling pathways in cancer and development. PMID:24327656

  5. AbetaPP/APLP2 family of Kunitz serine proteinase inhibitors regulate cerebral thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Previti, Mary Lou; Nieman, Marvin T; Davis, Judianne; Schmaier, Alvin H; Van Nostrand, William E

    2009-04-29

    The amyloid beta-protein precursor (AbetaPP) is best recognized as the precursor to the Abeta peptide that accumulates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, but less is known about its physiological functions. Isoforms of AbetaPP that contain a Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain are expressed in brain and, outside the CNS, in circulating blood platelets. Recently, we showed that KPI-containing forms of AbetaPP regulates cerebral thrombosis in vivo (Xu et al., 2005, 2007). Amyloid precursor like protein-2 (APLP2), a closely related homolog to AbetaPP, also possesses a highly conserved KPI domain. Virtually nothing is known of its function. Here, we show that APLP2 also regulates cerebral thrombosis risk. Recombinant purified KPI domains of AbetaPP and APLP2 both inhibit the plasma clotting in vitro. In a carotid artery thrombosis model, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice exhibit similar significantly shorter times to vessel occlusion compared with wild-type mice indicating a prothrombotic phenotype. Similarly, in an experimental model of intracerebral hemorrhage, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice produce significantly smaller hematomas with reduced brain hemoglobin content compared with wild-type mice. Together, these results indicate that AbetaPP and APLP2 share overlapping anticoagulant functions with regard to regulating thrombosis after cerebral vascular injury.

  6. M-theory on pp-waves with a holomorphic superpotential and its matrix description

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-11-23

    We study relationships between a new class of inhomogeneous pp-waves in D = 11 supergravity and Matrix models with a generic superpotential. One can consider supermembrane in the pp-wave background and obtain the interacting matrix model via discretizing the membrane worldvolume.

  7. Noninvasive murine glioma detection improved following photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Davis, Scott C.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2008-02-01

    Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) is a prodrug which can be administered to cells, animals or patients after which it is transformed via the Heme synthesis pathway into the fluorescent molecule Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PpIX has been shown to be useful as both a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and as a fluorescence imaging contrast agent. The ALA-PpIX system not only provides contrast for fluorescence imaging but also gives information about the metabolic activity of the imaged tissue and thus could be useful for monitoring cancer therapy. In the current study skin photobleaching was examined to determine if PpIX fluorescence contrast in malignant brain tumors could be better visualized noninvasively. Red light photobleaching decreased skin PpIX fluorescence and increased the ability to noninvasively quantify PpIX fluorescence in murine gliomas, as in vivo measurements of mean PpIX fluorescence more closely matched ex vivo quantification following skin photobleaching. Three doses of blue light photobleaching (4 J/cm2, 8 J/cm2 and 12 J/cm2) were tested and determined to give similar levels of skin photobleaching as well as a similar window of decreased skin PpIX fluorescence for noninvasive fluorescence imaging following the photobleaching dose administration.

  8. Synaptic NMDA receptor stimulation activates PP1 by inhibiting its phosphorylation by Cdk5

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hailong; Sun, Lu; Siddoway, Benjamin A.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Yang, Hongtian; Gu, Hua; Nairn, Angus C.

    2013-01-01

    The serine/threonine protein phosphatase protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is known to play an important role in learning and memory by mediating local and downstream aspects of synaptic signaling, but how PP1 activity is controlled in different forms of synaptic plasticity remains unknown. We find that synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation in neurons leads to activation of PP1 through a mechanism involving inhibitory phosphorylation at Thr320 by Cdk5. Synaptic stimulation led to proteasome-dependent degradation of the Cdk5 regulator p35, inactivation of Cdk5, and increased auto-dephosphorylation of Thr320 of PP1. We also found that neither inhibitor-1 nor calcineurin were involved in the control of PP1 activity in response to synaptic NMDA receptor stimulation. Rather, the PP1 regulatory protein, inhibitor-2, formed a complex with PP1 that was controlled by synaptic stimulation. Finally, we found that inhibitor-2 was critical for the induction of long-term depression in primary neurons. Our work fills a major gap regarding the regulation of PP1 in synaptic plasticity. PMID:24189275

  9. From the Biology of PP2A to the PADs for Therapy of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Maria; Calin, George A.; Perrotti, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, an emerging role of phosphatases in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors has been established. The tumor-suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) belongs to the serine–threonine phosphatases family and accounts for the majority of serine–threonine phosphatase activity in eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have shown that inhibition of PP2A expression and/or function may contribute to leukemogenesis in several hematological malignancies. Likewise, overexpression or aberrant expression of physiologic PP2A inhibitory molecules (e.g., SET and its associated SETBP1 and CIP2A) may turn off PP2A function and participate to leukemic progression. The discovery of PP2A as tumor suppressor has prompted the evaluation of the safety and the efficacy of new compounds, which can restore PP2A activity in leukemic cells. Although further studies are needed to better understand how PP2A acts in the intricate phosphatases/kinases cancer network, the results reviewed herein strongly support the development on new PP2A-activating drugs and the immediate introduction of those available into clinical protocols for leukemia patients refractory or resistant to current available therapies. PMID:25763353

  10. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  11. Targeting Inhibitors of the Tumor Suppressor PP2A for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Amy S.; Allen-Petersen, Brittany; Daniel, Colin J.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Sarah; Impey, Soren; Oddo, Jessica; Vitek, Michael P.; Lopez, Charles; Christensen, Dale J.; Sheppard, Brett; Sears, Rosalie C.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is usually diagnosed in the advanced stages when few effective therapies are available. Given the aggressive clinical course of this disease and lack of good treatment options, the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is of the upmost importance. Several pathways shown to contribute to pancreatic cancer progression are negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Here, the endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, SET (also known as I2PP2A) and Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), were shown to be overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer, contributing to decreased PP2A activity, and overexpression and stabilization of the oncoprotein c-Myc, a key PP2A target. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A increases PP2A activity, increases c-Myc degradation, and decreases the tumorigenic potential of pancreatic cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, treatment with a novel SET inhibitor, OP449, pharmacologically recapitulates the phenotypes and significantly reduces proliferation and tumorigenic potential of several pancreatic cancer cell lines, with an accompanying attenuation of cell growth and survival signaling. Furthermore, primary cells from pancreatic cancer patients were sensitive to OP449 treatment, indicating that PP2A regulated pathways are highly relevant to this deadly disease. PMID:24667985

  12. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals new roles for the protein phosphatase PP6 in mitotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Rusin, Scott F.; Schlosser, Kate A.; Adamo, Mark E.; Kettenbach, Arminja N.

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism controlling mitotic progression. Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is an essential enzyme with conserved roles in chromosome segregation and spindle assembly from yeast to humans. We applied a baculovirus-mediated gene silencing approach to deplete HeLa cells of the catalytic subunit of PP6 (PP6c) and analyzed changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome in mitotic cells by quantitative mass spectrometry–based proteomics. We identified 408 phosphopeptides on 272 proteins that increased and 298 phosphopeptides on 220 proteins that decreased in phosphorylation upon PP6c depletion in mitotic cells. Motif analysis of the phosphorylated sites combined with bioinformatics pathway analysis revealed previously unknown PP6c–dependent regulatory pathways. Biochemical assays demonstrated that PP6c opposed casein kinase 2–dependent phosphorylation of the condensin I subunit NCAP-G, and cellular analysis showed that depletion of PP6c resulted in defects in chromosome condensation and segregation in anaphase, consistent with dysregulation of condensin I function in the absence of PP6 activity. PMID:26462736

  13. Evidence for CP violation in B+ → ppK+ decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; 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Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-03

    Three-body B+ → ppK+ and B(+) → ppπ(+) decays are studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence of CP violation in the B(+) → ppK(+) decay is found in regions of the phase space, representing the first measurement of this kind for a final state containing baryons. Measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry of the light meson in the pp rest frame yield A(FB)(ppK(+),m(pp)<2.85 GeV/c(2)) = 0.495 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) and A(FB)(ppπ(+),m(pp) <2.85 GeV/c(2)) = -0.409 ± 0.033 (stat) ± 0.006 (syst). In addition, the branching fraction of the decay B(+) → Λ(1520)p is measured to be B(B(+) → Λ(1520)p) = (3.15 ± 0.48 (stat) ± 0.07 (syst) ± 0.26 (BF)) × 10(-7), where BF denotes the uncertainty on secondary branching fractions.

  14. Molecular Mechanism and Evolution of Guanylate Kinase Regulation by (p)ppGpp

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Claas, Kathy R.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Keck, James L.; Wang, Jue D.

    2015-02-01

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK), revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A survey of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria, where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). We propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria.

  15. Molecular mechanism and evolution of guanylate kinase regulation by (p)ppGpp

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; ...

    2015-02-05

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. In this paper, we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK), revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A surveymore » of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria, where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). Finally, we propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria.« less

  16. Modulation of cell spreading and migration by pp125FAK phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, S.; Mahooti-Brooks, N.; Hu, G.; Madri, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    We provide evidence for both matrix-dependent and pp60v-src tyrosine kinase-dependent modulation of cell migration via tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK, a focal adhesion kinase, thought to be involved in integrin-mediated signaling. Enhanced pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and cell spreading was associated with decreased migration. Cells plated on type I collagen were less spread and exhibited lower levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and faster migration rates compared with cells on fibronectin that were well spread, which exhibited enhanced levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and slower migration rates. Inside-out signaling via expression of pp60v-src or its kinase-negative mutant caused a decrease in cell migration by changing the extent of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation to above or below the levels obtained with control cells plated on fibronectin. Hence, pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation appears to play a role in the signaling cascade pathway involved in regulation of extracellular matrix-modulated, integrin-mediated cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7677174

  17. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades.

  18. Cytotoxicity of PP(Arg)2- and PP(Ala)2(Arg)2-based photodynamic therapy and early stage of apoptosis induction in human breast cancers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Małecki, Maciej; Milczarek, Małgorzata; Lubelska, Katarzyna; Padzik-Graczyk, Alfreda

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are cell energetic centers where ATP is produced. They also play a very important role in the PDT as intracellular sites of photosensitizer localization. Photosensitizers gathering in mitochondria (like porphyrin derivatives used in this work) are more effective in tumor cell destruction. Moreover, it was assumed that di-amino acid substituents attached to porphyrin ring will strengthen the effectivity of interaction with membrane receptors of examined cells. MTT assay was performed to investigate the influence of PP(Arg)(2) and PP(Ala)(2)(Arg)(2)-based PDT on breast cancer cell viability for 24 h, 48 h and 120 h after cell irradiation. Then the influence of PP(Ala)(2)(Arg)(2)- and PP(Arg)(2)-mediated PDT on early mitochondrial apoptosis induction via measurements of the transmembrane mitochondrial potential changes was examined. Results showed that lower energy doses and maximal nontoxic photosensitizer doses of PP(Ala)(2)(Arg)(2) and PP(Arg)(2) applied in PDT can imply apoptotic cell death. It was confirmed that modification of the protoporphyrin IX by attaching two alanine substituents raised the efficiency of photodynamic therapy.

  19. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades. PMID:26690982

  20. Additional diterpenes from Physcomitrella patens synthesized by copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin; Bach, Søren Spanner; Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Lunde, Christina; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional diterpene synthase, copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (PpCPS/KS), catalyses the formation of at least four diterpenes, including ent-beyerene, ent-sandaracopimaradiene, ent-kaur-16-ene, and 16-hydroxy-ent-kaurene. The enzymatic activity has been confirmed through generation of a targeted PpCPS/KS knock-out mutant in P. patens via homologous recombination, through transient expression of PpCPS/KS in Nicotiana benthamiana, and expression of PpCPS/KS in E. coli. GC-MS analysis of the knock-out mutant shows that it lacks the diterpenoids, supporting that all are products of PpCPS/KS as observed in N. benthamiana and E. coli. These results provide additional knowledge of the mechanism of this bifunctional diterpene synthase, and are in line with proposed reaction mechanisms in kaurene biosynthesis.

  1. VII Workshop Italiano sulla fisica pp a LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCpp2016 è la settima edizione dell'incontro nazionale sulla fisica p-p a LHC. Questa serie di incontri è nata a Pisa nel 2003 con lo scopo di stimolare lo scambio di idee tra le comunità sperimentali di ATLAS, CMS e LHCB e la comunità teorica. Caratteristica fondamentale di questi incontri è la preparazione di larga parte dei talk in collaborazione tra i vari esperimenti e la comunità teorica. Largo spazio nella preparazione e presentazione dei talk viene dato ai giovani ricercatori. In questa settima edizione, che si tiene di nuovo a Pisa, vogliamo concentrare l'attenzione sulle potenzialità di scoperta offerte dai dati raccolti durante il runII di LHC.

  2. pp interaction at very high energies in cosmic ray experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendi Kohara, A.; Ferreira, Erasmo; Kodama, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    An analysis of p-air cross section data from extensive air shower measurements is presented, based on an analytical representation of the pp scattering amplitudes that describes with high precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies. The theoretical basis of the representation, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permits reliable extrapolation to high energy cosmic ray (CR) and asymptotic energy ranges. Calculations of σ p-airprod based on Glauber formalism are made using the input values of the quantities σ , ρ , BI and BR at high energies, with attention given to the independence of the slope parameters, with {{B}R}\

  3. Effects of diffraction in pp and pA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Gösta

    2017-04-01

    Diffractive excitation is a large fraction of the pp cross section, also at high energies. Diffraction has been described by multi-Regge diagrams, or in the Good-Walker formalism as a result of fluctuations. The two formalisms are, however, just different sides of the same phenomenon. The dipole cascade formalism in impact parameter space is well suited to describe diffractive excitation including effects of saturation. Diffractive excitation is also an important effect in pA scattering, where the Glauber formalism has been used to estimate the number of NN subcollisions and of "wounded" nucleons. Diffractive excitation has here been either neglected or included in a simplified way, not including excitation of target nucleons. In this talk we discuss how these effects can be included with the help of the dipole cascade model DIPSY.

  4. CCK, PYY and PP: the control of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Simpson, K; Parker, J; Plumer, J; Bloom, S

    2012-01-01

    The control of food intake consists of neural and hormonal signals between the gut and central nervous system (CNS). Gut hormones such as CCK, PYY and PP signal to important areas in the CNS involved in appetite regulation to terminate a meal. These hormones can act directly via the circulation and activate their respective receptors in the hypothalamus and brainstem. In addition, gut vagal afferents also exist, providing an alternative pathway through which gut hormones can communicate with higher centres through the brainstem. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that peripheral administration of certain gut hormones reduces food intake and leads to weight loss. Gut hormones are therefore potential targets in the development of novel treatments for obesity and analogue therapies are currently under investigation.

  5. Rheological and thermal properties of PP-based WPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, V.; Mollica, F.; El Kissi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) has attracted great interest in outdoor building products for the reduced cost and the possibility of using recycled materials. Nevertheless the material shows two problems: the large viscosity due to the presence of high concentrations of filler and the degradation of cellulose during processing The aim of this work was to investigate the rheological and thermal properties of WPC. The material used for the experiments was a commercial PP-based WPC compound, with different concentrations of natural fibers (30, 50, 70% wt.). The thermal properties were studied to check for degradation of natural fibers during the subsequent rheological tests. Analyzing the storage and loss moduli and the complex viscosity curves obtained using a parallel plate rheometer it was possible to observe some features related to the viscoelastic nature of the composite.

  6. {phi} meson production in pp annihilation at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Srisuphaphon, S.; Yan, Y.; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2011-10-01

    Apparent channel-dependent violations of the Okubo-Zwieg-Iizuka (OZI) rule in nucleon-antinucleon annihilation reactions in the presence of an intrinsic strangeness component in the nucleon are discussed. Admixture of ss quark pairs in the nucleon wave function enables the direct coupling to the {phi}-meson in the annihilation channel without violating the OZI rule. Three forms are considered in this work for the strangeness content of the proton wave function, namely, the uud cluster with a ss sea-quark component, kaon-hyperon clusters based on a simple chiral quark model, and the pentaquark picture uudss. Nonrelativistic quark model calculations reveal that the strangeness magnetic moment {mu}{sub s} and the strangeness contribution to the proton spin {sigma}{sub s} from the first two models are consistent with recent experimental data, where {mu}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub s} are negative. For the third model, the uuds subsystem with the configurations [31]{sub FS}[211]{sub F}[22]{sub S} and [31]{sub FS}[31]{sub F}[22]{sub S} leads to negative values of {mu}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub s}. With effective quark line diagrams incorporating the {sup 3}P{sub 0} model, we give estimates for the branching ratios of the annihilation reactions at rest pp{yields}{phi}X (X={pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, {rho}{sup 0}, {omega}). Results for the branching ratios of {phi}X production from atomic pp s-wave states are for the first and third model found to be strongly channel dependent, in good agreement with measured rates.

  7. Molecular cloning, expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Yan; He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Song, Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Li, Ling; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cai, Wen-Jing; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-11-01

    In the wild, mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) only feed on live prey fish, refusing dead prey. When reared in ponds, training will result in some mandarin fish accepting artificial diets. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of the individual difference. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a suppressor of learning and long-term memory (LTM) in mammals. In the present study, the relationship between PP1 and the individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish was investigated. The complete CDS (coding sequence) of four PP1 isoforms (PP1caa, PP1cab, PP1cb and PP1cc) were cloned in mandarin fish. The amino acid sequences of these PP1 isoforms are highly conserved in different species. The mRNA expressions of PP1caa and PP1cb in brain of artificial diet feeders were significantly higher than those in nonfeeders, suggesting the deficiency in the maintenance of long-term memory of its natural food habit (live prey fish). The SNP loci in PP1caa and PP1cb were also found to be associated with the individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish. These SNPs of PP1caa and PP1cb genes could be useful markers for gene-associated breeding of mandarin fish, which could accept artificial diets. In conclusion, different mRNA expression and SNPs of PP1caa and PP1cb genes in feeders and nonfeeders of artificial diets might contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Basal levels of (p)ppGpp in Enterococcus faecalis: the magic beyond the stringent response.

    PubMed

    Gaca, Anthony O; Kajfasz, Jessica K; Miller, James H; Liu, Kuanqing; Wang, Jue D; Abranches, Jacqueline; Lemos, José A

    2013-09-24

    The stringent response (SR), mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp, is a conserved bacterial adaptation system controlling broad metabolic alterations necessary for survival under adverse conditions. In Enterococcus faecalis, production of (p)ppGpp is controlled by the bifunctional protein RSH (for "Rel SpoT homologue"; also known as RelA) and by the monofunctional synthetase RelQ. Previous characterization of E. faecalis strains lacking rsh, relQ, or both revealed that RSH is responsible for activation of the SR and that alterations in (p)ppGpp production negatively impact bacterial stress survival and virulence. Despite its well-characterized role as the effector of the SR, the significance of (p)ppGpp during balanced growth remains poorly understood. Microarrays of E. faecalis strains producing different basal amounts of (p)ppGpp identified several genes and pathways regulated by modest changes in (p)ppGpp. Notably, expression of numerous genes involved in energy generation were induced in the rsh relQ [(p)ppGpp(0)] strain, suggesting that a lack of basal (p)ppGpp places the cell in a "transcriptionally relaxed" state. Alterations in the fermentation profile and increased production of H2O2 in the (p)ppGpp(0) strain substantiate the observed transcriptional changes. We confirm that, similar to what is seen in Bacillus subtilis, (p)ppGpp directly inhibits the activity of enzymes involved in GTP biosynthesis, and complete loss of (p)ppGpp leads to dysregulation of GTP homeostasis. Finally, we show that the association of (p)ppGpp with antibiotic survival does not relate to the SR but rather relates to basal (p)ppGpp pools. Collectively, this study highlights the critical but still underappreciated role of basal (p)ppGpp pools under balanced growth conditions. Drug-resistant bacterial infections continue to pose a significant public health threat by limiting therapeutic options available to care providers. The stringent response (SR), mediated by the accumulation of

  9. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composite

    Treesearch

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Plasma-assisted surface treatment on thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and polypropylene (PP) film was investigated to obtain interfacial adhesion at the wood fiber and PP interface. A metal plate between electrodes prevented thermal damage to the TMP fiber handsheets and PP film. Oxygen-plasma treatment provided better surface activation on the TMP fiber and...

  10. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications.

  11. 78 FR 19194 - P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying... Division, P&P Computers (``P&P'') was convicted of violating the International Emergency Economic Powers... IEEPA and the Iranian Transactions Regulations by exporting computer and related equipment from the...

  12. PP2B and PP1α cooperatively disrupt 7SK snRNP to release P-TEFb for transcription in response to Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruichuan; Liu, Min; Li, Huan; Xue, Yuhua; Ramey, Wanichaya N.; He, Nanhai; Ai, Nanping; Luo, Haohong; Zhu, Ying; Zhou, Nan; Zhou, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), consisting of Cdk9 and cyclin T, stimulates RNA polymerase II elongation and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA processing. To accommodate different growth conditions and transcriptional demands, a reservoir of P-TEFb is kept in an inactive state in the multisubunit 7SK snRNP. Under certain stress or disease conditions, P-TEFb is released to activate transcription, although the signaling pathway(s) that controls this is largely unknown. Here, through analyzing the UV- or hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced release of P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP, an essential role for the calcium ion (Ca2+)–calmodulin–protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) signaling pathway is revealed. However, Ca2+ signaling alone is insufficient, and PP2B must act sequentially and cooperatively with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α) to disrupt 7SK snRNP. Activated by UV/HMBA and facilitated by a PP2B-induced conformational change in 7SK snRNP, PP1α releases P-TEFb through dephosphorylating phospho-Thr186 in the Cdk9 T-loop. This event is also necessary for the subsequent recruitment of P-TEFb by the bromodomain protein Brd4 to the preinitiation complex, where Cdk9 remains unphosphorylated and inactive until after the synthesis of a short RNA. Thus, through cooperatively dephosphorylating Cdk9 in response to Ca2+ signaling, PP2B and PP1α alter the P-TEFb functional equilibrium through releasing P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP for transcription. PMID:18483222

  13. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators.

  14. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; ...

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculationsmore » and various Monte Carlo event generators.« less

  15. A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease.

    PubMed

    Boevink, Petra C; Wang, Xiaodan; McLellan, Hazel; He, Qin; Naqvi, Shaista; Armstrong, Miles R; Zhang, Wei; Hein, Ingo; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R J

    2016-01-29

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c-1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease.

  16. Ongoing advances in quantitative PpIX fluorescence guided intracranial tumor resection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jonathan D.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Bravo, Jaime J.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-03-01

    Aminolevulinc-acid induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) is being investigated as a biomarker to guide neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. ALA-PpIX fluorescence can be observed visually in the surgical field; however, raw fluorescence emissions can be distorted by factors other than the fluorophore concentration. Specifically, fluorescence emissions are mixed with autofluorescence and attenuated by background absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Recent work at Dartmouth has developed advanced fluorescence detection approaches that return quantitative assessments of PpIX concentration, which are independent of background optical properties. The quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach has increased sensitivity to residual disease within the resection cavity at the end of surgery that was not visible to the naked eye through the operating microscope. This presentation outlines clinical observations made during an ongoing investigation of ALA-PpIX based guidance of tumor resection. PpIX fluorescence measurements made in a wide-field hyperspectral imaging approach are co-registered with point-assessment using a fiber optic probe. Data show variations in the measured PpIX accumulation among different clinical tumor grades (i.e. high grade glioma, low grade glioma), types (i.e. primary tumors. metastases) and normal structures of interest (e.g. normal cortex, hippocampus). These results highlight the contrast enhancement and underscore the potential clinical benefit offered from quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration during resection of intracranial tumors.

  17. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Xiong, Qing; Cheng, Tong; Li, Qing-Tian; Liu, Xin-Lei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lai, Yong-Cai; Du, Wei-Guang; Man, Wei-Qun; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-03-28

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic locus during domestication. Introgression of genes from wild soybeans may broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits. Here, through whole-genome sequencing of an RIL population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44, and mapping of QTLs for seed weight, we discover that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase of seed weight/size in transgenic plants. The PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes. The PP2C-1 was further found to associate with a transcription factor GmBZR1 and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1. In contrast, a PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at N-terminus does not exhibit this function. Moreover, the GmBZR1 can promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants. Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions, we find that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele, suggesting that these accessions can be improved through introduction of the PP2C-1 allele. Our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1, which can enhance seed weight/size. Manipulation of the allele by molecule-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  18. Characterization of pp85; A target of oncogenes and growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.; Liu, Y.; Schaffhausen, B.S. ); Druker, B.; Roberts, T.M. )

    1990-06-01

    An 85,000-molecular-weight polypeptide (85 K polypeptide) has previously been identified as a common substrate for tyrosine phosphorylation upon polyomavirus middle T transformation or upon platelet-derived growth factor stimulation of 3T3 cells. In each case, pp85 has an associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.The tissue distribution of pp85 was determined by middle T blotting experiments; the highest levels were found in brain, lung, and spleen tissues. High-resolution examination of 85 K by isoelectric focusing demonstrated that there are at least 10 different forms. These were resolved into two families, 85 K and 86 K; the ratio of the two families changed in different cells. Similar forms were found for pp85 associated with pp60{sup v-{ital src}}. Individual species within each family differed by phosphorylation. This paper reports that analysis of pp85 and pp86 by immunoprecipitation with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed increasing phosphorylation in response to middle T or pp60{sup v-{ital src}} transformation.

  19. Phenothiazines induce PP2A-mediated apoptosis in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Alejandro; Pan, Li; Groen, Richard W.J.; Baleydier, Frederic; Kentsis, Alex; Marineau, Jason; Grebliunaite, Ruta; Kozakewich, Elena; Reed, Casie; Pflumio, Francoise; Poglio, Sandrine; Uzan, Benjamin; Clemons, Paul; VerPlank, Lynn; An, Frank; Burbank, Jason; Norton, Stephanie; Tolliday, Nicola; Steen, Hanno; Weng, Andrew P.; Yuan, Huipin; Bradner, James E.; Mitsiades, Constantine; Look, A. Thomas; Aster, Jon C.

    2014-01-01

    T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive cancer that is frequently associated with activating mutations in NOTCH1 and dysregulation of MYC. Here, we performed 2 complementary screens to identify FDA-approved drugs and drug-like small molecules with activity against T-ALL. We developed a zebrafish system to screen small molecules for toxic activity toward MYC-overexpressing thymocytes and used a human T-ALL cell line to screen for small molecules that synergize with Notch inhibitors. We identified the antipsychotic drug perphenazine in both screens due to its ability to induce apoptosis in fish, mouse, and human T-ALL cells. Using ligand-affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a perphenazine target. T-ALL cell lines treated with perphenazine exhibited rapid dephosphorylation of multiple PP2A substrates and subsequent apoptosis. Moreover, shRNA knockdown of specific PP2A subunits attenuated perphenazine activity, indicating that PP2A mediates the drug’s antileukemic activity. Finally, human T-ALLs treated with perphenazine exhibited suppressed cell growth and dephosphorylation of PP2A targets in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the recurring identification of phenothiazines as a class of drugs with anticancer effects. Furthermore, these data suggest that pharmacologic PP2A activation in T-ALL and other cancers driven by hyperphosphorylated PP2A substrates has therapeutic potential. PMID:24401270

  20. [Two-photon excitation fluorescence of 5-ALA induced PpIX in DHL cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zu-Fang; Chen, Rong; Li, Yong-Zeng; Chen, Guan-Nan; Chen, Xian-Ling; Feng, Shang-Yuan; Jia, Pei-Min

    2008-11-01

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is a novel imaging technique, which is primarily sensitive to a specimen's response coming from an in-focus plane, thus has low photo-bleaching and photo-damage to biological samples. 5-ALA induced production of PpIX in DHL cells was excited by 820 nm femtosecond laser; two-photon excitation fluorescence of single cell was obtained in Lambda mode of laser scanning confocal microscope. The specific fluorescence intensity of PpIX which accumulated in DHL cells was measured at 2, 4 and 10 mmol x L(-1) concentration of 5-ALA with different incubation time, which reflected the kinetics of 5-ALA accumulated in DHL cells. Accumulation of PpIX in DHL cells was a dynamic change process. Biphasic alterations of PpIX accumulation were noted: PpIX content enhanced with the increasing time and reached the maximal value around 3 h, however PpIX content decreased in the subsequent incubation time. Results indicate that two-photon fluorescence based on laser scanning microscope can be a useful technology for studying the kinetics of 5-ALA induced PpIX production in DHL cells and other leukemia cells.

  1. Greatwall dephosphorylation and inactivation upon mitotic exit is triggered by PP1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sheng; Vigneron, Suzanne; Robert, Perle; Strub, Jean Marc; Cianferani, Sara; Castro, Anna; Lorca, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Entry into mitosis is induced by the activation of cyclin-B-Cdk1 and Greatwall (Gwl; also known as MASTL in mammals) kinases. Cyclin-B-Cdk1 phosphorylates mitotic substrates, whereas Gwl activation promotes the phosphorylation of the small proteins Arpp19 and ENSA. Phosphorylated Arpp19 and/or ENSA bind to and inhibit PP2A comprising the B55 subunit (PP2A-B55; B55 is also known as PPP2R2A), the phosphatase responsible for cyclin-B-Cdk1 substrate dephosphorylation, allowing the stable phosphorylation of mitotic proteins. Upon mitotic exit, cyclin-B-Cdk1 and Gwl kinases are inactivated, and mitotic substrates are dephosphorylated. Here, we have identified protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) as the phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation of the activating site (Ser875) of Gwl. Depletion of PP1 from meioticXenopusegg extracts maintains phosphorylation of Ser875, as well as the full activity of this kinase, resulting in a block of meiotic and mitotic exit. By contrast, preventing the reactivation of PP2A-B55 through the addition of a hyperactive Gwl mutant (GwlK72M) mainly affected Gwl dephosphorylation on Thr194, resulting in partial inactivation of Gwl and in the incomplete exit from mitosis or meiosis. We also show that when PP2A-B55 is fully reactivated by depleting Arpp19, this protein phosphatase is able to dephosphorylate both activating sites, even in the absence of PP1.

  2. A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease

    PubMed Central

    Boevink, Petra C.; Wang, Xiaodan; McLellan, Hazel; He, Qin; Naqvi, Shaista; Armstrong, Miles R.; Zhang, Wei; Hein, Ingo; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c–1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease. PMID:26822079

  3. Distinct roles of ppGpp and DksA in Legionella pneumophila differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dalebroux, Zachary D.; Yagi, Brian F.; Sahr, Tobias; Buchrieser, Carmen; Swanson, Michele S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY To transit between hosts, intracellular Legionella pneumophila transform into a motile, infectious, transmissive state. Here we exploit the pathogen’s life cycle to examine how guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and DksA cooperate to govern bacterial differentiation. Transcriptional profiling revealed that during transmission alarmone accumulation increases the mRNA for flagellar and Type IV-secretion components, secreted host effectors, and regulators, and decreases transcripts for translation, membrane modification and ATP synthesis machinery. DksA is critical for differentiation, since mutants are defective for stationary phase survival, flagellar gene activation, lysosome avoidance, and macrophage cytotoxicity. The roles of ppGpp and DksA depend on the context. For macrophage transmission, ppGpp is essential, whereas DksA is dispensable, indicating ppGpp can act autonomously. In broth, DksA promotes differentiation when ppGpp levels increase, or during fatty acid stress, as judged by flaA expression and evasion of degradation by macrophages. For flagella morphogenesis, DksA is required for basal fliA (σ28) promoter activity. When alarmone levels increase, DksA cooperates with ppGpp to generate a pulse of Class II rod RNA or to amplify the Class III sigma factor and Class IV flagellin RNAs. Thus, DksA responds to the level of ppGpp and other stress signals to coordinate L. pneumophila differentiation. PMID:20199605

  4. Catalytic mechanism and allosteric regulation of an oligomeric (p)ppGpp synthetase by an alarmone

    PubMed Central

    Steinchen, Wieland; Schuhmacher, Jan S.; Altegoer, Florian; Fage, Christopher D.; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Bange, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-based second messengers serve in the response of living organisms to environmental changes. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) [collectively named “(p)ppGpp”] act as alarmones that globally reprogram cellular physiology during various stress conditions. Enzymes of the RelA/SpoT homology (RSH) family synthesize (p)ppGpp by transferring pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP. Little is known about the catalytic mechanism and regulation of alarmone synthesis. It also is unclear whether ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functions. Here, we unravel the mechanism and allosteric regulation of the highly cooperative alarmone synthetase small alarmone synthetase 1 (SAS1) from Bacillus subtilis. We determine that the catalytic pathway of (p)ppGpp synthesis involves a sequentially ordered substrate binding, activation of ATP in a strained conformation, and transfer of pyrophosphate through a nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction. We show that pppGpp—but not ppGpp—positively regulates SAS1 at an allosteric site. Although the physiological significance remains to be elucidated, we establish the structural and mechanistic basis for a biological activity in which ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functional roles. PMID:26460002

  5. Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) composites filled with modified shell waste.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z T; Chen, T; Li, H Y; Xia, M S; Ye, Y; Zheng, H

    2013-11-15

    Shell waste, with its high content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) plus organic matrix, has a potential to be used as a bio-filler. In this work, shell waste was modified by furfural and then incorporated to reinforce polypropylene (PP). The shell waste and modified powder were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical and thermal properties of neat PP and PP composites were investigated as well. Thermal gravimetric (TG) analyses confirmed the reinforcing role of modified powder in PP composites. The mechanical properties studied showed that adding modified powder could significantly increase the impact strength, elongation at break point and flexural modulus of composites. The maximum incorporation content could reach 15 wt.% with a good balance between toughness and stiffness of PP composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the modified powder could act as a nucleating agent and thus increase the crystallization temperature of PP. Polarized optical microscopy (POM) observation also indicated that the introduction of modified powder could promote the heterogeneous nucleation of PP matrix.

  6. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation.

  7. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation. PMID:23900426

  8. Anticancer effect of PP31J isolated from Physalis pubescens L. in human cervical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenjie; Wang, Qianqian; Chen, Lifeng; Huang, Lu; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Extracts derived from Physalis pubescens L. may function as cancer therapies. The pharmacological effects of PP31J on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were investigated in this study. HeLa cells were treated with PP31J, and then cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution were measured using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry. Protein expression levels of regulators of cell apoptosis and cell cycle were also examined using western blotting. Our data show that PP31J inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. Significant growth inhibition compared to the vehicle-treated group was observed using a concentration of 5 μM PP31J at 24, 48, and 72 h. PP31J also selectively arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 phase at 40 μM (P < 0.05) and in the G2/M phase at 20 μM (P < 0.01) and 40 μM (P < 0.001). Our results further demonstrate a significant increase in cell apoptosis (P < 0.001) following PP31J treatment (10, 20, and 40 μM). Immunoblotting data show that PP31J downregulated (P < 0.01) the expression of Bcl-xL and decreased (P < 0.05) the expression of Survivin and Cyclin D1 at 20 and 40 μM. This study shows the anti-tumor activity of PP31J in HeLa cells and that the effects of PP31J on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction were partially attributed to the regulation of Cyclin D1, Survivin, and Bcl-xL. PMID:28559997

  9. Targeting inhibitors of the tumor suppressor PP2A for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Amy S; Allen-Petersen, Brittany; Daniel, Colin J; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Sarah; Impey, Soren; Oddo, Jessica; Vitek, Michael P; Lopez, Charles; Christensen, Dale J; Sheppard, Brett; Sears, Rosalie C

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is usually diagnosed in the advanced stages when few effective therapies are available. Given the aggressive clinical course of this disease and lack of good treatment options, the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer is of the upmost importance. Several pathways that have shown to contribute to pancreatic cancer progression are negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Here, the endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, SET (also known as I2PP2A) and cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), were shown to be overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer, contributing to decreased PP2A activity and overexpression and stabilization of the oncoprotein c-Myc, a key PP2A target. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A increases PP2A activity, increases c-Myc degradation, and decreases the tumorigenic potential of pancreatic cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, treatment with a novel SET inhibitor, OP449, pharmacologically recapitulates the phenotypes and significantly reduces proliferation and tumorigenic potential of several pancreatic cancer cell lines, with an accompanying attenuation of cell growth and survival signaling. Furthermore, primary cells from patients with pancreatic cancer were sensitive to OP449 treatment, indicating that PP2A-regulated pathways are highly relevant to this deadly disease. The PP2A inhibitors SET and CIP2A are overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and are important for pancreatic cancer cell growth and transformation; thus, antagonizing SET and/or CIP2A may be an innovative approach for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Targeting c-MYC by antagonizing PP2A inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Janghorban, Mahnaz; Farrell, Amy S; Allen-Petersen, Brittany L; Pelz, Carl; Daniel, Colin J; Oddo, Jessica; Langer, Ellen M; Christensen, Dale J; Sears, Rosalie C

    2014-06-24

    The transcription factor c-MYC is stabilized and activated by phosphorylation at serine 62 (S62) in breast cancer. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical negative regulator of c-MYC through its ability to dephosphorylate S62. By inactivating c-MYC and other key signaling pathways, PP2A plays an important tumor suppressor function. Two endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, I2PP2A, Inhibitor-2 of PP2A (SET oncoprotein) and cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), inactivate PP2A and are overexpressed in several tumor types. Here we show that SET is overexpressed in about 50-60% and CIP2A in about 90% of breast cancers. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A reduces the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro or in vivo with OP449, a novel SET antagonist, also decreases the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells and induces apoptosis. We show that this is, at least in part, due to decreased S62 phosphorylation of c-MYC and reduced c-MYC activity and target gene expression. Because of the ubiquitous expression and tumor suppressor activity of PP2A in cells, as well as the critical role of c-MYC in human cancer, we propose that activation of PP2A (here accomplished through antagonizing endogenous inhibitors) could be a novel antitumor strategy to posttranslationally target c-MYC in breast cancer.

  11. Differential expression between "DSP-only" and DSP-PP523 transcripts in rat molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Qin; Song, Ryan M; Ritchie, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To compare the expression patterns of two multiple transcripts derived from DSP-PP gene during tooth development. One is DSP-only transcript (i.e. does not encode PP) and the other is DSP-PP523 transcript, a main DSP-PP transcript. Unique antisense and sense riboprobes were generated from DSP-only and DSPPP523 cDNAs for in situ studies to examine DSP-only and DSP-PP523 transcript expression in developing molars. Paraffin-embedded sections (5-7μ m) from embryonic 20day, postnatal 2, 3 and 6days were deparaffined and hydrated. Tissues were prehybridized, then hybridized with DSP-only and DSP-PP523 anti-sense (AS) or sense (S) Digoxigenin labeled-riboprobes overnight, and washed. Anti-Digoxigenin antibodies conjugated to alkaline phosphatase were used to detect the presence of bound riboprobes by color reaction with NBT/BCIP. Stro-1 antibody was used for immunohistochemical analysis of Stro-1 protein expression in rat molars. We found that unlike the DSP-PP523 transcript, the DSP-only transcript does not express in the entire polarized mature odontoblasts but is expressed in the areas subjacent to the mature odontoblast layer. In addition, DSP-only transcript is expressed in the dental pulp. Interestingly, Stro-1 protein, a stem cell marker, was also identified in the areas subjacentto odontoblasts and in dental pulp. Differential expression of DSP-only and DSP-PP523 transcripts suggest that these two kinds of transcripts may play different roles during dentinogenesis. DSP-PP523 transcript is expressed in mature odontoblasts, which actively participates in dentin formation. DSP-only transcript might have a different function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  13. PP: A graphics post-processor for the EQ6 reaction path code

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.W.

    1994-09-01

    The PP code is a graphics post-processor and plotting program for EQ6, a popular reaction-path code. PP runs on personal computers, allocates memory dynamically, and can handle very large reaction path runs. Plots of simple variable groups, such as fluid and solid phase composition, can be obtained with as few as two keystrokes. Navigation through the list of reaction path variables is simple and efficient. Graphics files can be exported for inclusion in word processing documents and spreadsheets, and experimental data may be imported and superposed on the reaction path runs. The EQ6 thermodynamic database can be searched from within PP, to simplify interpretation of complex plots.

  14. Is the Z0 observed in pp collisions a composite object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, F. M.

    1983-12-01

    If the Z0 boson is made of colored subconstituents it can be produced in pp (and pp) collisions through the subprocess gluon + gluon --> Z0 + gluon. The rate is estimated from the Z0 - γ mixing parameter and found comparable to that of the Drell-Yan process. Events with a large pTZ0 and a large pT balancing gluon should be observed at the pp collider. Address after October 1, 1983: Dêpartment de Physique Mathématique, USTL, 34060 Montpellier Cedex, France.

  15. Energy calibration of tagged photons by the d(γ,π-pp) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yun-Cheng; Nobuyuki, Chiga; Yu, Fujii; Kenta, Futatsukawa; Osamu, Hashimoto; Kentaro, Hirose; Takatsugu, Ishikawa; Hiroki, Kanda; Masashi, Kaneta; Daisuke, Kawama; Yue, Ma; Kazushige, Maeda; Tomofumi, Maruta; Nayuta, Maruyama; Akihiko, Matsumura; Youhei, Miyagi; Koji, Miwa; Satoshi, Nakamura N.; Hajime, Shimizu; Koutarou, Shirotori; Koutaku, Suzuki; Tadaaki, Tamae; Hirokazu, Tamura; Kyo, Tsukada; Wang, Tie-Shan; Hirohito, Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    The energy of tagged photons, which were provided from the internal photon tagging system of the Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, has been calibrated using the d(γ,π-pp) reaction. Charged pions and protons in the final state were detected with the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer (NKS2). Photon energies were obtained from the reaction of d(γ,π-pp). The derived photon energy was consistent with the design of the tagger system and the previous measurement using electron-positron pair production. The consistency demonstrates the performance of NKS2 and the capability of the photon energy calibration using d(γ,π-pp).

  16. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break.

  17. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break. PMID:21378115

  18. Associated strangeness production in the pp{yields}pK{sup +}K{sup -}p and pp{yields}pK{sup +{pi}0{Sigma}0} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Jujun; Wilkin, Colin

    2010-08-15

    The total and differential cross sections for associated strangeness production in the pp{yields}pK{sup +}K{sup -}p and pp{yields}pK{sup +{pi}0{Sigma}0} reactions have been studied in a unified approach using an effective Lagrangian model. It is assumed that both the K{sup -}p and {pi}{sup 0{Sigma}0} final states originate from the decay of the {Lambda}(1405) that was formed in the production chain pp{yields}p(N*(1535){yields}K{sup +{Lambda}}(1405)). The available experimental data are well reproduced, especially the ratio of the two total cross sections, which is much less sensitive to the particular model of the entrance channel. The significant coupling of the N*(1535) to {Lambda}(1405)K is further evidence for large ss-bar components in the quark wave function of the N*(1535).

  19. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan; Cheng, Long; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  20. Regulation of the phosphatase PP2B by protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, Patrick J.; Scott, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Protein dephosphorylation is important for regulating cellular signaling in a variety of contexts. Protein phosphatase-2B (PP2B), or calcineurin, is a widely expressed serine/threonine phosphatase that acts on a large cross section of potential protein substrates when activated by increased levels of intracellular calcium in concert with calmodulin. PxIxIT and LxVP targeting motifs are important for maintaining specificity in response to elevated calcium. In the present study, we describe the mechanism of PP2B activation, discuss its targeting by conserved binding motifs and review recent advances in the understanding of an A-kinase anchoring protein 79/PP2B/protein kinase A complex’s role in synaptic long-term depression. Finally, we discuss potential for targeting PP2B anchoring motifs for therapeutic benefit. PMID:27911714

  1. DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP44L (VIEWING PORTAL), ALTITUDE CHAMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP44L (VIEWING PORTAL), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. B Production In p-p and A-A Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.; Singha, Bijit

    2017-09-01

    This is an extension of our recent work on D+(c\\bar {d}),Do(c\\bar {u}) production from p-p and d-Au collisions to B+(b\\bar {d}),Bo(b\\bar {u}) production from p-p and A-A collisions. The rapidity cross sections for B+(c\\bar {d}),Bo(b\\bar {u}) production from both p-p and A-A collisions are estimated. Our present work makes use of previous work on J/Ψ, Ψ'(2S), ϒ(n S) production in p-p and A-A collisions, with the main new aspect being the fragmentation probability, D_{b → b\\bar {q}}, which turns out to be similar to the fragmentation probability D_{c → c\\bar {q}} used in our recent work.

  5. Intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale in high multiplicity p+p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, Larry; Tribedy, Prithwish

    2015-11-02

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. Here, we show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. It is presumed that the origin of such intrinsic fluctuations is non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. Furthermore, we find that fluctuations as large as O(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to rare high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.

  6. All roads lead to PP2A: Exploiting the therapeutic potential of this phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Sangodkar, Jaya; Farrington, Caroline; McClinch, Kimberly; Galsky, Matthew D.; Kastrinsky, David B.; Narla, Goutham

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. A confirmed tumor suppressor protein, PP2A is genetically altered or functionally inactivated in many cancers highlighting a need for its therapeutic reactivation. In this review we will discuss recent literature on PP2A: the elucidation of its structure and the functions of its subunits, and the identification of molecular lesions and post-translational modifications leading to its dysregulation in cancer. A final section will discuss the proteins and small molecules that modulate PP2A and how these might be used to target dysregulated forms of PP2A to treat cancers and other diseases. PMID:26507691

  7. Positive regulation of TRAF6-dependent innate immune responses by protein phosphatase PP1-γ.

    PubMed

    Opaluch, Amanda M; Schneider, Monika; Chiang, Chih-yuan; Nguyen, Quy T; Maestre, Ana M; Mulder, Lubbertus C F; Secundino, Ismael; De Jesus, Paul D; König, Renate; Simon, Viviana; Nizet, Victor; MacLeod, Graham; Varmuza, Susannah; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Chanda, Sumit K

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune sensors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) differentially utilize adaptor proteins and additional molecular mediators to ensure robust and precise immune responses to pathogen challenge. Through a gain-of-function genetic screen, we identified the gamma catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1-γ) as a positive regulator of MyD88-dependent proinflammatory innate immune activation. PP1-γ physically interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, and enhances the activity of TRAF6 towards itself and substrates such as IKKγ, whereas enzymatically inactive PP1-γ represses these events. Importantly, these activities were found to be critical for cellular innate responses to pathogen challenge and microbial clearance in both mouse macrophages and human monocyte lines. These data indicate that PP1-γ phosphatase activity regulates overall TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase function and promotes NF-κB-mediated innate signaling responses.

  8. Structural relationship between a bacterial developmental protein and eukaryotic PP2C protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Adler, E; Donella-Deana, A; Arigoni, F; Pinna, L A; Stragler, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SpoIIE is a Ser protein phosphatase whose action on the phosphoprotein SpoIIAA triggers the cell type-specific activation of a sporulation transcription factor. Here we report that SpoIIE displays sequence similarity to the PP2C family of eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, and that residues common to these proteins are required for the function of both SpoIIE and TPD1, a yeast PP2C. These findings suggest that SpoIIE and the PP2C protein phosphatases are structurally related, and reveal a striking formal similarity between the SpoIIAA regulatory circuit and that of mammalian mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase. This similarity may reflect an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of biological regulation based on the interplay of His protein kinase-like Ser kinases and PP2C-like protein phosphatases.

  9. Recognition of a PP2C interaction motif in several plant protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ohta, Masaru; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) constitute a major class of phosphatases in plants. PP2Cs play important roles in many signaling pathways by countering the action of specific protein kinases. In addition to their role in several environmental stress-related signal transduction pathways, they are also involved in plant metabolism. Protein phosphatases often physically associate with their protein kinase counterparts. One approach to understanding PP2C function is to identify their interacting protein kinases. We describe a yeast two-hybrid assay system used in our lab to determine the interaction between members of the PP2C family and protein kinases in the SOS2 family. This chapter and the cited articles describing related work might be of help in discovering interactions between other protein phosphatases and kinases.

  10. Facile Method to Fabricate Highly Thermally Conductive Graphite/PP Composite with Network Structures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Changping; Ni, Haiying; Chen, Jun; Yang, Wei

    2016-08-03

    Thermally conductive polymer composites have aroused significant academic and industrial interest for several decades. Herein, we report a novel fabrication method of graphite/polypropylene (PP) composites with high thermal conductivity in which graphite flakes construct a continuous thermally conductive network. The thermal conductivity coefficient of the graphite/PP composites is markedly improved to be 5.4 W/mK at a graphite loading of 21.2 vol %. Such a great improvement of the thermal conductivity is ascribed to the occurrence of orientations of crystalline graphite flakes with large particles around PP resin particles and the formation of a perfect thermally conductive network. The model of Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) is adopted to interpret the outstanding thermally conductive property of the graphite/PP composites. This work provides a guideline for the easy fabrication of thermally conductive composites with network structures.

  11. Remarks on B-physics with interactions of pp and e sup + e sup minus

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, A. Paris-6 Univ., 75 Paris-7 Univ., 75 ); Snyder, A. )

    1990-08-01

    We compare the B-physics that could be studied with pp or e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. The pp colliders at cm energies of 16 TeV (LHC) and 40 TeV (SSC) as well as asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders at the {Upsilon}(4S) cm energy are considered. In the case of pp interactions, we discuss the B production using pp colliders and a p beam with an external fixed target. For this preliminary comparison we explore the possibility of searching CP violation in the B{sub d}{sup 0}, {bar B}{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} decays. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Spectroscopic observation of SN 2017pp by NUTS (NOT Un-biased Transient Survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Tronsgaard, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports the spectroscopic classification of SN 2017pp in PGC 1378162. The candidate was discovered by F. Ciabattari, E. Mazzoni, S. Donati (ISSP; http://italiansupernovae.org).

  13. Nonlinear response of polypropylene (PP)/Clay nanocomposites under dynamic oscillatory shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Kyu; Lim, Hyung Tag; Ahn, Kyung Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Dynamic oscillatory shear flow tests, i.e. small, medium, and large amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS, MAOS, and LAOS), are useful to study polymer composite systems. In this study, MAOS and LAOS tests were used to investigate the dynamic behavior of electrically activated polypropylene (PP)/Clay nanocomposites. The morphology of PP/Clay nanocomposites could be controlled by the applied time, type (AC and DC), and strength of the electric field. Various electrically activated PP/Clay nanocomposites were compared in terms of I 3/1, which was determined from FT-Rheology within the MAOS and LAOS region. Nonlinear-Linear viscoelastic Ratio (NLR), which developed by Lim et al. (2011), was calculated to measure the dispersion quality of the PP/Clay nanocomposites.

  14. The PP2PP experiment at RHIC: silicon detectors installed in Roman Pots for forward proton detection close to the beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bültmann, S.; Chen, W.; Chiang, I. H.; Chrien, R. E.; Drees, A.; Gill, R. L.; Guryn, W.; Landgraf, J.; Li, Z.; Ljubicic, T. A.; Lynn, D.; Pearson, C.; Pile, P.; Radeka, V.; Rusek, A.; Sakitt, M.; Scheetz, R.; Tepikian, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Pawlik, B.; Haguenauer, M.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Nurushev, S. B.; Runtzo, M. F.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Alekseev, I. G.; Kanavets, V. P.; Koroleva, L. I.; Morozov, B. V.; Svirida, D. N.; Khodinov, A.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Tang, C.; Whitehead, L.; Yeung, S.; De, K.; Guler, N.; Li, J.; Öztürk, N.; Sandacz, A.

    2004-12-01

    The PP2PP experiment is one of five experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York. It is designed to measure the elastic scattering of protons at √{s} = 50-500 GeV. The detector consists of silicon strip detectors mounted in Roman Pots and installed in the RHIC ring 60 m from the interaction region. During the engineering run of 2002 and physics run of 2003 the detectors were inserted as close as 15 mm from the proton beam. An overview of the experiment and details of the detector design and performance will be presented.

  15. PpRab1, a Rab GTPase from maritime pine is differentially expressed during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Cairney, John; Rodríguez, María Pérez; Cánovas, Francisco; Oliveira, Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2007-09-01

    Rab-related small GTP-binding proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of the vesicular transport system in eukaryotic cells. We report the characterization of a previously isolated full-length cDNA PpRab1 from Pinus pinaster. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of G1-G5 conserved domains of the GTPase Ras superfamily and a double cysteine motif in the C-terminal, characteristic of Rab proteins. The PpRab1 protein shows high sequence similarity to several Rab1 GTP-binding proteins in plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, within the Ras superfamily, PpRab1 is more closely related to the Rab family and within this, PpRab1 protein was found to cluster with Arabidopsis subfamily AtRABE, whose members are known to regulate ER-to-Golgi membrane trafficking steps. PpRab1 transcripts were expressed at constitutively high levels for the initial stages of zygotic embryo development, and then their relative abundance decreased as embryo matures. The PpRab1 transcript is not embryo-specific as it was found in roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. An increase in PpRab1 expression level was observed when seeds are germinated and collected at successive time points of development. In situ RT-PCR analysis revealed an expression signal in early zygotic embryos. In view of the proposed roles of Rab1 GTP-binding protein, the possible function of the protein encoded by PpRab1 in embryogenesis is discussed.

  16. Expression and mechanism of regulation of PP2A/Pr65 in ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiuqiu; Wang, Guannan; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhong, Ming

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of PP2A/PR65 protein in ameloblastoma and the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PP2A/PR65. The association between PP2A/PR65 and the clinicopathological characteristics of tumor specimens in ameloblastoma were to provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of ameloblastoma. Streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) immunohistochemical staining was used to detect PP2A/Pr65 expression changes in a total of 68 cases of ameloblastoma, six ameloblastic carcinomas, 21 squamous cell carcinomas and seven normal oral mucosas. Western blot was used to analyze PP2A/PR65 protein expression in 15 cases of ameloblastoma and three cases of normal oral mucosa. Of the 68 cases analyzed, four cases were negative, 25 cases were weakly positive, 20 cases were moderately positive and 19 cases were strongly positive. In six cases of ameloblastic carcinoma, three cases were weak positive, one case was positive, two cases were strongly positive and none were negative. In 21 cases of squamous cell carcinomas, three cases were negative, 17 cases were weakly positive, one case was moderately positive and none were strongly positive. Western blot analysis showed that, PP2A/Pr65 protein expression was lower in ameloblastoma tissue compared with normal oral mucosa. Reduced expression of PP2A/PR65 in ameloblastoma compared with normal oral mucosa indicates that PP2A/PR65 is involved in the occurrence and development of ameloblastoma. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Going low: measurement of Solar pp-neutrino flux with liquid scintillator detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. Yu; Borexino collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Recently Borexino collaboration announced the first direct measurement of the low-energy neutrino flux from the pp-reaction in the Sun. Together with previous measurements of solar neutrino fluxes from 7Be, 8B and pep reactions the measurement completes the study of the neutrino fluxes from the pp-chain of solar reactions. Technical details of the analysis are presented, and results and implications are discussed.

  18. Reaction mechanisms in 12C(γ,pp) near 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, E. D.; McDonald, W. J.; Opper, A. K.; Quraan, M. A.; Rodning, N. L.; Rozon, F. M.; Feldman, G.; Kolb, N. R.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Tiller, D. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Korkmaz, E.; O'rielly, G. V.

    1996-03-01

    Inclusive 12C(γ,pp) cross sections have been measured with tagged photons in the range Eγ=187-227 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The large angular acceptance allowed the measurement of noncoplanar pp emission. The cross sections were compared to a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade calculation. Agreement was reasonable for the shapes of the cross sections but the calculated total cross section was 3.9 times larger than the data.

  19. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) – A Placental Immunoregulatory Galectin Protecting Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nándor Gábor; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Kárpáti, Éva; Erez, Offer; Szilágyi, András; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sammar, Marei; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Matkó, János; Závodszky, Péter; Papp, Zoltán; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13). It has a “jelly-roll” fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ, suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low concentrations in first trimester maternal sera are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing blood pressure

  20. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  1. CMV pp65 and IE-1 T cell epitopes recognized by healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Stefanie L; Bettinotti, Maria; Selleri, Silvia; Adams, Sharon; Marincola, Francesco M; Stroncek, David F

    2007-03-28

    Adoptive immune and vaccine therapies have been used to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in recipients of hematopoietic progenitor cell transplants, but the nature of T cell responses to CMV have not been completely characterized. Peptide pools and individual peptides derived from the immune-dominant CMV proteins pp65 and IE-1 and antigen-specific, cytokine flow cytometry were used to characterize the prevalence and frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells in 20 healthy CMV-seropositive subjects. CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 were detected in 35% of subjects and to IE-1 in 40% of subjects. CD4+ T cell responses to pp65 were detected in 50% of subjects, but none were detected to IE-1. Several new IE-1 HLA class I epitopes were identified, including 4 restricted to HLA-C antigens. One region of IE-1 spanning amino acids 300 to 327 was rich in class I epitopes. The HLA class I restrictions of IE-1 peptides were more promiscuous than those of pp65 peptides. Since naturally occurring CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 were detectable in many subjects, but only CD8+ T cell responses to IE-1 were detected, pp65 may be better than IE-1 for use in vaccine and adoptive immune therapies.

  2. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-02-24

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  3. ppGpp and cytotoxicity diversity in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates.

    PubMed

    Stella, A E; Luz Hessel DA Cunha, D; Piazza, R M F; Spira, B

    2017-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a known food pathogen, which main reservoir is the intestine of ruminants. The abundance of different STEC lineages in nature reflect a heterogeneity that is characterised by the differential expression of certain genotypic characteristics, which in turn are influenced by the environmental conditions to which the microorganism is exposed. Bacterial homeostasis and stress response are under the control of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), which intrinsic levels varies across the E. coli species. In the present study, 50 STEC isolates from healthy sheep were evaluated regarding their ppGpp content, cytotoxicity and other relevant genetic and phenotypic characteristics. We found that the level of ppGpp and cytotoxicity varied considerably among the examined strains. Isolates that harboured the stx2 gene were the least cytotoxic and presented the highest levels of ppGpp. All stx2 isolates belonged to phylogroup A, while strains that carried stx1 or both stx1 and stx2 genes pertained to phylogroup B1. All but two stx2 isolates belonged to the stx2b subtype. Strains that belonged to phylogroup B1 displayed on average low levels of ppGpp and high cytotoxicity. Overall, there was a negative correlation between cytotoxicity and ppGpp.

  4. Effect of Cold-Drawn Fibers on the Self-Reinforcement of PP/LDPE Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying-Guo; Su, Bei; Wu, Hai-Hong

    2017-08-01

    In our previous study, a method to fabricate super-ductile polypropylene/low-density polyethylene (PP/LDPE) blends was proposed, and a fiber-shape structure was shown to be formed, presenting necking propagation during tensile testing. In this study, the mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the necking region of tested super-ductile PP/LDPE samples were carefully investigated and further compared with the melt-stretched, untested, and thermo-mechanical-history-removed samples by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing. The results suggest that the tested samples have high mechanical properties and are more thermo-mechanically stable than the common PP/LDPE blends and melt-stretched samples. Additionally, to investigate their structure-property relationship, the necking region of the tested samples was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and hot-stage polarized light microscopy. It can be concluded that the variation of the microstructure can be attributed to the cold-drawn fibers (CDFs), which were more stable thermally, formed during the tensile test. Furthermore, the CDFs were used for the filler in PP/LDPE blends. The experimental results of the different PP/LDPE composites indicate that the CDFs are a good reinforcement candidate and have the ability to improve the mechanical properties of the PP/LDPE blends.

  5. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  6. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-Yi; Xu, Yun-Fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-Da; Wang, Hao-An; Wang, Wen-Bo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2015-02-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  7. A subset of RAB proteins modulates PP2A phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Mattioni, Anna; Boldt, Karsten; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Castagnoli, Luisa; Ueffing, Marius; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-09-09

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most abundant serine-threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells. PP2A is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme participating in a variety of physiological processes whose deregulation is often associated to cancer. The specificity and activity of this phosphatase is tightly modulated by a family of regulatory B subunits that dock the catalytic subunit to the substrates. Here we characterize a novel and unconventional molecular mechanism controlling the activity of the tumor suppressor PP2A. By applying a mass spectrometry-based interactomics approach, we identified novel PP2A interacting proteins. Unexpectedly we found that a significant number of RAB proteins associate with the PP2A scaffold subunit (PPP2R1A), but not with the catalytic subunit (PPP2CA). Such interactions occur in vitro and in vivo in specific subcellular compartments. Notably we demonstrated that one of these RAB proteins, RAB9, competes with the catalytic subunit PPP2CA in binding to PPP2R1A. This competitive association has an important role in controlling the PP2A catalytic activity, which is compromised in several solid tumors and leukemias.

  8. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-01-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members. PMID:25708299

  9. New KF-PP-SVM classification method for EEG in brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Banghua; Han, Zhijun; Zan, Peng; Wang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Classification methods are a crucial direction in the current study of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To improve the classification accuracy for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, a novel KF-PP-SVM (kernel fisher, posterior probability, and support vector machine) classification method is developed. Its detailed process entails the use of common spatial patterns to obtain features, based on which the within-class scatter is calculated. Then the scatter is added into the kernel function of a radial basis function to construct a new kernel function. This new kernel is integrated into the SVM to obtain a new classification model. Finally, the output of SVM is calculated based on posterior probability and the final recognition result is obtained. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed KF-PP-SVM method, EEG data collected from laboratory are processed with four different classification schemes (KF-PP-SVM, KF-SVM, PP-SVM, and SVM). The results showed that the overall average improvements arising from the use of the KF-PP-SVM scheme as opposed to KF-SVM, PP-SVM and SVM schemes are 2.49%, 5.83 % and 6.49 % respectively.

  10. PP2C family members play key roles in regulation of cell survival and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shinri; Toriumi, Shinnosuke; Saito, Jun-Ichi; Awano, Kenjiro; Kudo, Tada-Aki; Kobayashi, Takayasu

    2006-07-01

    Although unlimited proliferation of cancer cells is supported by multiple signaling pathways involved in the regulation of proliferation, survival, and apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms coordinating these different pathways to promote the proliferation and survival of cancer cells have remained unclear. SAPK and integrin-ILK signaling pathways play key roles in the promotion of apoptosis and cell proliferation/survival, respectively. Studies of TNFalpha- and H2O2-induced apoptosis revealed that ASK1, a component of the SAPK system, mediates the TNFalpha and H2O2 signaling of apoptosis. ASK1 is activated by autophosphorylation of a specific threonine residue (T845) following TNFalpha stimulation. Our recent studies indicate that PP2Cepsilon, a member of the PP2C family, associates with and inactivates ASK1 by dephosphorylating T845. In contrast, PP2Cdelta/ILKAP, a second PP2C family member, activates ASK1 by enhancing cellular phosphorylation of T845. PP2Cdelta/ILKAP also forms a complex with ILK1 to inhibit the GSK3beta-mediated integrin-ILK1 signaling in vivo, inhibiting cell cycle progression. These observations raise the possibility that PP2Cdelta/ILKAP acts to control the cross-talk between integrin-induced and TNFalpha-induced signaling pathways, inhibiting the former and stimulating the latter, thereby inhibiting proliferation and survival and promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells.

  11. PP2A activation by beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists: novel regulatory mechanism of keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Chen, Jin; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2003-06-20

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell migration is important for devising novel therapies to control metastasis or enhance wound healing. Previously, we demonstrated that beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) activation in keratinocytes inhibited their migration by decreasing the phosphorylation of a critical promigratory signaling component, the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). Here we demonstrate that beta2-AR-induced inhibition of migration is mediated by the activation of the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A. Pretreating human keratinocytes with the PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, prevented the beta2-AR-induced inhibition of migration, either as isolated cells or as a confluent sheet of cells repairing an in vitro "wound" and also prevented the beta2-AR-induced reduction in ERK phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with human corneal epithelial cells. In keratinocytes, immunoprecipitation studies revealed that beta2-AR activation resulted in the rapid association of beta2-AR with PP2A as well as a 37% increase in association of PP2A with ERK2. Finally, beta2-AR activation resulted in a rapid and transient 2-fold increase in PP2A activity. Thus, we provide the first evidence that beta2-AR activation in keratinocytes modulates migration via a novel pathway utilizing PP2A to alter the promigratory signaling cascade. Exploiting this pathway may result in novel therapeutic approaches for control of epithelial cell migration.

  12. The role of SET/I2PP2A in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kake, Satoru; Tsuji, Shunya; Enjoji, Shuhei; Hanasaki, Sayaka; Hayase, Hiroshi; Yabe, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Yuiko; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Liu, Hao-Ping; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Usui, Tatsuya; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2017-06-27

    Canine mammary tumor is the most common neoplasm in female dogs, and it has generated considerable attention as a translational model for human breast cancer. Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor, and SET/I2PP2A, the endogenous inhibitory protein of PP2A, binds directly to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Here, we investigated the role of SET in the tumorigenic growth in canine mammary tumor as well as in the sensitivity of tumors to existing therapeutics. Elevated protein levels of SET were observed in advanced-stage of canine mammary tumor tissues of dogs compared with paired normal tissues. Knockdown of SET expression in a canine mammary tumor cell line CIP-m led to increased PP2A activity and decreased cell proliferation, colony formation, and in vivo tumor growth. We observed suppression of mTOR, β-catenin, and NFκB signaling by SET knockdown. The sensitivity of CIP-m cells to doxorubicin was decreased by SET knockdown, while SET knockdown in CIP-m cells did not affect sensitivity to 4-OH-tamoxifen, carboplatin, bortezomib, and X-ray radiation. These data suggest that SET plays important roles in the tumor progression of a subset of canine mammary tumor by suppressing PP2A activity and enhancing mTOR, β-catenin, and NFκB signaling.

  13. Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals that PP4 dephosphorylates KAP-1 impacting the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Goodarzi, Aaron A; Adelmant, Guillaume O; Pan, Yunfeng; Jeggo, Penelope A; Marto, Jarrod A; Chowdhury, Dipanjan

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphatase PP4C has been implicated in the DNA damage response (DDR), but its substrates in DDR remain largely unknown. We devised a novel proteomic strategy for systematic identification of proteins dephosphorylated by PP4C and identified KRAB-domain-associated protein 1 (KAP-1) as a substrate. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of KAP-1 at S824 (via ATM) and at S473 (via CHK2). A PP4C/R3β complex interacts with KAP-1 and silencing this complex leads to persistence of phospho-S824 and phospho-S473. We identify a new role for KAP-1 in DDR by showing that phosphorylation of S473 impacts the G2/M checkpoint. Depletion of PP4R3β or expression of the phosphomimetic KAP-1 S473 mutant (S473D) leads to a prolonged G2/M checkpoint. Phosphorylation of S824 is necessary for repair of heterochromatic DNA lesions and similar to cells expressing phosphomimetic KAP-1 S824 mutant (S824D), or PP4R3β-silenced cells, display prolonged relaxation of chromatin with release of chromatin remodelling protein CHD3. Our results define a new role for PP4-mediated dephosphorylation in the DDR, including the regulation of a previously undescribed function of KAP-1 in checkpoint response. PMID:22491012

  14. Secondary structure of RNA from bacteriophages f2 Qbeta, and PP7.

    PubMed Central

    Edlind, T D; Bassel, A R

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy of RNA-protein monolayers prepared under partial denaturing conditions has been used to compare the secondary structure of coliphage f2 and Qbeta and Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PP7 RNAs. The secondary structure map of f2 RNA contains a central open loop and four symmetrically placed hairpins, which is similar to the pattern reported by Jacobson (A. B. Jacobson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:307-311, 1976) for the closely related phage MS2. With the same denaturing conditions, Qbeta RNA, which is 20% larger than f2 or PP7 RNA, has a central open loop and a smaller terminal loop. PP7 RNA has two large, closed secondary structures, one of which is nearly central. The base composition of PP7 RNA was determined and is similar to that of the group I coliphage RNAs. Thus, the greater amount of large base-paired structure is not related to an increased guanine-plus-cytosine content of PP7 RNA. With increased denaturing conditions, the central, closed structure of PP7 RNA is converted into an open loop. The central structures of all three phages include about 700 nucleotides. The relevance of these findings to the genetic maps of the coliphage RNAs is discussed. Images PMID:409852

  15. Effect of Cold-Drawn Fibers on the Self-Reinforcement of PP/LDPE Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying-Guo; Su, Bei; Wu, Hai-Hong

    2017-07-01

    In our previous study, a method to fabricate super-ductile polypropylene/low-density polyethylene (PP/LDPE) blends was proposed, and a fiber-shape structure was shown to be formed, presenting necking propagation during tensile testing. In this study, the mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the necking region of tested super-ductile PP/LDPE samples were carefully investigated and further compared with the melt-stretched, untested, and thermo-mechanical-history-removed samples by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing. The results suggest that the tested samples have high mechanical properties and are more thermo-mechanically stable than the common PP/LDPE blends and melt-stretched samples. Additionally, to investigate their structure-property relationship, the necking region of the tested samples was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and hot-stage polarized light microscopy. It can be concluded that the variation of the microstructure can be attributed to the cold-drawn fibers (CDFs), which were more stable thermally, formed during the tensile test. Furthermore, the CDFs were used for the filler in PP/LDPE blends. The experimental results of the different PP/LDPE composites indicate that the CDFs are a good reinforcement candidate and have the ability to improve the mechanical properties of the PP/LDPE blends.

  16. Avian retrovirus pp32 DNA endonuclease is phosphorylated on Ser in the carboxyl-terminal region.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, R; Mumm, S; Grandgenett, D P

    1988-01-01

    The avian retrovirus pp32 DNA endonuclease and the beta polypeptide of the reverse transcriptase contain the same three phosphoserine (p-Ser) tryptic peptides. At least 95% of the Pi label is nearly equally distributed between two major p-Ser tryptic peptides derived from either beta or pp32. These polymerase gene-derived proteins were metabolically labeled with various radioactive amino acids or Pi, and the purified protein was subjected to cyanogen bromide or hydroxylamine cleavage. The results indicated that the two major p-Ser tryptic peptides map to the COOH-termini of both proteins. The two major p-Ser tryptic peptides isolated from Pi-labeled pp32 were subjected to proteolysis by three separate specific proteases. Analysis of the data suggested that these p-Ser are located on pp32 at amino acid positions 262 and 282 from the amino terminus of pp32 (286 amino acids in length). At present, we cannot exclude the possibility that one or both p-Ser peptides map between amino acid positions 124 to 150. The role of this site-specific phosphorylation of pp32 and beta is also discussed. Images PMID:2835511

  17. Regulation of σ factor competition by the alarmone ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Jishage, Miki; Kvint, Kristian; Shingler, Victoria; Nyström, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Many regulons controlled by alternative σ factors, including σS and σ32, are poorly induced in cells lacking the alarmone ppGpp. We show that ppGpp is not absolutely required for the activity of σS-dependent promoters because underproduction of σ70, specific mutations in rpoD (rpoD40 and rpoD35), or overproduction of Rsd (anti-σ70) restored expression from σS-dependent promoters in vivo in the absence of ppGpp accumulation. An in vitro transcription/competition assay with reconstituted RNA polymerase showed that addition of ppGpp reduces the ability of wild-type σ70 to compete with σ32 for core binding and the mutant σ70 proteins, encoded by rpoD40 and rpoD35, compete less efficiently than wild-type σ70. Similarly, an in vivo competition assay showed that the ability of both σ32 and σS to compete with σ70 is diminished in cells lacking ppGpp. Consistently, the fraction of σS and σ32 bound to core was drastically reduced in ppGpp-deficient cells. Thus, the stringent response encompasses a mechanism that alters the relative competitiveness of σ factors in accordance with cellular demands during physiological stress. PMID:12023304

  18. The "K-pp" System Investigated with a Coupled-Channel Complex Scaling Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doté, Akinobu

    Nuclear systems with anti-kaons (kaonic nuclei) are expected to have exotic nature such as formation of a dense state, due to the strong attraction between an anti-kaon and a nucleon. In this article, the current theoretical studies of the most essential kaonic nucleus "K-pp" are reviewed and our study of "K-pp" based on a coupled-channel Complex Scaling Method is reported. With a new version of our chiral SU(3)-based potential constrained by a precise measurement of kaonic hydrogen atom (SIDDHARTA experiment), the "K-pp" state is found to be rather shallowly bound: BK - pp = 15-22 MeV and Γ M = 20-50 MeV. The "K-pp" seems to have another pole, and it might possibly have so-called a double-pole structure, similarly to the Λ (1405). Recent results of the K-pp search experiments (J-PARC E15 and E27) are discussed in comparison with several new theoretical studies.

  19. Pp'DDT and pp'DDE accumulation in a food chain of Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy): testing steady-state condition.

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, Roberta; Croce, Valeria; Galassi, Silvana; Volta, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Although pp'DDT usage was strongly limited or banned in most parts of the world during the last three or four decades, the parent compound, its homologues and their metabolites still occur at levels which might pose a risk for many ecosystem components. A case of DDT pollution of industrial origin was discovered in 1996 in Lake Maggiore, the second largest (212 km2) and deepest (370 m) lake in Italy, causing concern for wildlife and human health. The extensive monitoring of many biotic and abiotic compartments which followed from 1998 in order to assess the pollution level and its trend in time, provided a great availability of data referring to DDT contamination of the different fish species of the lake. In this study, the recent contamination levels in selected fish species were compared to those measured in 1998 to evaluate the temporal pollution trend of the lake and its natural recovery, given that no remediation measures were carried out on the contaminated soils and sediments in this time span. Moreover, a modelling approach to test the equilibrium condition between water and pelagic fish species was used. Analytical results of pp'DDT and pp'DDE concentrations in lake water were used as input data in the bioenergetic model by Connolly & Pedersen (1988) to calculate concentrations in two fish species and to compare the predicted and the measured contamination. Sampling and analytical determination of DDT homologues in lake water: Five water sampling campaigns were carried out from May 2002 to February 2004 in three sampling sites of Lake Maggiore. Suspended and dissolved pollutants were determined separately. Quantitative DDT homologue analyses were performed by HRGC coupled with ECD detection by the external standard method. Single water extracts were put together in correspondence with the stratification zones of the water column inferred on the basis of the temperature profile to improve analytical sensitivity. Selection of fish data: Concentrations of DDT

  20. The melt-recrystallization behavior of highly oriented α-iPP fibers embedded in a HIPS matrix.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liwei; Li, Huihui; Qiu, Zhaobin; Yan, Shouke

    2015-03-21

    The melt-recrystallization behavior of α-iPP fibers embedded in an amorphous HIPS matrix has been studied by means of optical microscopy. The amorphous HIPS serving as a supporter of iPP fibers does not become involved in the nucleation and crystallization process of the molten highly oriented iPP fibers. It also does not provide any birefringence under the optical microscope with crossed polarizers. This enables the study of orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization through a control of the melting status of the fibers. Through melting the fibers at different temperatures above 175 °C and subsequent recrystallization, some β-iPP crystals were always produced. The content of the β-iPP crystal depends strongly on the melting temperature and melting time of the iPP fibers. It was confirmed that melting the iPP fibers at relatively lower temperature, e.g. 176 °C, less amount of β-iPP crystals were observed. The content of β-iPP crystal enhances first with increasing melting temperature and then decreases with further increase of the fiber melting temperature. The β-iPP crystallization is found to be most favorable upon melting the fibers at 178 °C for 2 min. This demonstrates the requirement of a certain chain or chain segment orientation for generating β-iPP crystallization on the one hand, while higher orientation of the iPP chains or chain segments encourages the growth of iPP crystals in the α-form on the other hand. This has been further confirmed by varying the melting time of the fiber at different temperatures, since relaxation of the iPP molecular chains at a fixed temperature is time dependent. Moreover, the complete transformation of α-iPP fibers in some local places into β-iPP crystals implies that the αβ-transition may not be required for the orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization.

  1. Many Means to a Common End: the Intricacies of (p)ppGpp Metabolism and Its Control of Bacterial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Colomer-Winter, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In nearly all bacterial species examined so far, amino acid starvation triggers the rapid accumulation of the nucleotide second messenger (p)ppGpp, the effector of the stringent response. While for years the enzymes involved in (p)ppGpp metabolism and the significance of (p)ppGpp accumulation to stress survival were considered well defined, a recent surge of interest in the field has uncovered an unanticipated level of diversity in how bacteria metabolize and utilize (p)ppGpp to rapidly synchronize a variety of biological processes important for growth and stress survival. In addition to the classic activation of the stringent response, it has become evident that (p)ppGpp exerts differential effects on cell physiology in an incremental manner rather than simply acting as a biphasic switch that controls growth or stasis. Of particular interest is the intimate relationship of (p)ppGpp with persister cell formation and virulence, which has spurred the pursuit of (p)ppGpp inhibitors as a means to control recalcitrant infections. Here, we present an overview of the enzymes responsible for (p)ppGpp metabolism, elaborate on the intricacies that link basal production of (p)ppGpp to bacterial homeostasis, and discuss the implications of targeting (p)ppGpp synthesis as a means to disrupt long-term bacterial survival strategies. PMID:25605304

  2. Involvement of I2PP2A in the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and its reversal by Memantine.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Khatoon, Sabiha; Iqbal, Inge-Grundke; Iqbal, Khalid

    2006-07-10

    The activity of protein phosphatase (PP)-2A, which regulates tau phosphorylation, is compromised in Alzheimer disease brain. Here we show that the transient transfection of PC12 cells with inhibitor-2 (I2PP2A) of PP2A causes abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau at Ser396/Ser404 and Ser262/Ser356. This hyperphosphorylation of tau is observed only when a sub-cellular shift of I2PP2A takes place from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and is accompanied by cleavage of I2PP2A into a 20 kDa fragment. Memantine, an un-competitive inhibitor of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, inhibits this abnormal phosphorylation of tau and cell death and prevents the I2PP2A-induced inhibition of PP2A activity in vitro. These findings demonstrate novel mechanisms by which I2PP2A regulates the intracellular activity of PP2A and phosphorylation of tau, and by which Memantine modulates PP2A signaling and inhibits neurofibrillary degeneration.

  3. [Preparation and activity validation of PP7 bacteriophage-like particles displaying PAP114-128 peptide].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanli; Sun, Yanhua

    2016-10-01

    Objective To obtain the PP7 bacteriophage-like particles carrying the peptide of prostatic acid phosphatase PAP114-128, and prove that they retain the original biological activity. Methods First, the plasmid pETDuet-2PP7 was constructed as follows: the gene of PP7 coat protein dimer was amplified by gene mutation combined with overlapping PCR technology, and inserted into the vector pETDuet-1. Following that, the plasmid pETDuet-2PP7-PAP114-128 was constructed as follows: the PP7 coat protein gene carrying the coding gene of PAP114-128 peptide was amplified using PCR, and then inserted into the vector pETDuet-2PP7. Both pETDuet-2PP7 and pETDuet-2PP7-PAP114-128 were transformed into E.coli and expressed. The expression product was verified by SDS-PAGE, double immunodiffusion assay and ELISA. Results The gene fragment of PP7 coat protein dimer was obtained by overlapping PCR using Ex Taq DNA polymerase, and the antigenicity of its expression product was the same as that of the coat protein of wild-type PP7 bacteriophage. Moreover, the PAP114-128 peptide epitope that was displayed on the surface of PP7 bacteriophage was identical with the corresponding epitope of natural human PAP, and it was able to induce high levels of antibodies. Conclusion The gene of PP7 coat protein dimer with repeated sequences can be prepared by gene mutation combined with overlapping PCR. Based on this, PP7 bacteriophage-like particles carrying PAP peptide can be prepared, which not only solves the problem of the instability of the peptides, but also lays a foundation for the study on their delivery and function.

  4. Investigating hadronic resonances in pp interactions with HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przygoda, Witold

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we report on the investigation of baryonic resonance production in proton-proton collisions at the kinetic energies of 1.25 GeV and 3.5 GeV, based on data measured with HADES. Exclusive channels npπ+ and ppπ0 as well as ppe+e- were studied simultaneously in the framework of a one-boson exchange model. The resonance cross sections were determined from the one-pion channels for Δ(1232) and N(1440) (1.25 GeV) as well as further Δ and N* resonances up to 2 GeV/c2 for the 3.5 GeV data. The data at 1.25 GeV energy were also analysed within the framework of the partial wave analysis together with the set of several other measurements at lower energies. The obtained solutions provided the evolution of resonance production with the beam energy, showing a sizeable non-resonant contribution but with still dominating contribution of Δ(1232)P33. In the case of 3.5 GeV data, the study of the ppe+e- channel gave the insight on the Dalitz decays of the baryon resonances and, in particular, on the electromagnetic transition form-factors in the time-like region. We show that the assumption of a constant electromagnetic transition form-factors leads to underestimation of the yield in the dielectron invariant mass spectrum below the vector mesons pole. On the other hand, a comparison with various transport models shows the important role of intermediate ρ production, though with a large model dependency. The exclusive channels analysis done by the HADES collaboration provides new stringent restrictions on the parameterizations used in the models.

  5. TEST OF PARITY CONSERVATION IN pp SCATTERING AT 46 MEV

    SciTech Connect

    von Rossen, P.; von Rossen, U.; Conzett, H.E.

    1980-06-01

    An experiment has been designed to measure the effect of parity non conservation in {vector p}-p scattering near 50 MeV. A target-detector system has been constructed which permits an extremely accurate comparison of the cross sections for incident protons of positive versus negative helicity. Our first measurements give a value of A{sub z}=(-1.3±2.3)x10{sup -7} for the longitudinal analyzing power. The present is done with a 50-MeV polarized proton beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-Inch cyclotron. The atomic-beam type polarized ion source permits selection of ground state atomic hydrogen hyperfine states to provide the reversal of the proton polarization, This is done by rapid and automatic switching of the weak and intermediate field RF transitions, This selection in the neutral atomic beam minimizes beam intensity and position modulations which are coherent (i.e, in phase) with the reversal of the spin, as compared with any scheme whereby the spin reversal is achieved by magnetic and/or electric fields acting on an ion beam. Since the polarization direction is provided by the magnetic field, the beam from the cyclotron has only transverse (vertical) polarition. A solenoidal magnetic field used to precess the spin axis 90° into the horizontal plane, after which a dipole beam through an angle of 47.7° and precesses the spin axis into the beam direction, Thus, spin-reversal at the source results in proton helicity reversal at the target.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Yan; Fu, Mingjun; Yang, Keng; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a cellular serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating most cellular functions. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A (PmPP2A-A, PP2A-B and PP2A-C) were cloned from Penaeus monodon, which are the first available for shrimps. Sequence analysis showed that PmPP2A-A, PmPP2A-B and PmPP2A-C encoded polypeptides of 591, 443, and 324 amino acids, respectively. The mRNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A were expressed constitutively in all tissues examined, and predominantly in the ovaries. In ovarian maturation stages, the three subunits of PmPP2A were continuously but differentially expressed. Dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of three subunits of PmPP2A, and the results indicated that PmPP2A played a negative regulatory role in the process of ovarian maturation. In addition, the recombinant proteins of three subunits of PmPP2A were successfully obtained, and the phosphatase activity of PmPP2A was tested in vitro. The results of this study will advance our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of PmPP2A in Penaeus monodon.

  7. Step-Cycle Mechanical Processing of Gels of sPP-b-EPR-b-sPP Triblock Copolymer in Mineral Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Niu, Y; Fredrickson, G; Kramer, E; Shin, Y; Shimizu, F; Zuo, F; Rong, L; Hsiao, B; Coates, G

    2010-01-01

    Gels of syndiotactic polypropylene-b-ethylene-propylene-rubber-b-syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP-EPR-sPP) were prepared by dissolving {approx}6 wt % of the triblock copolymer in mineral oil at 170 C and then cooling to room temperature in several steps to crystallize the sPP block. The gel was subjected to step-cycle processing by first extending it to a given maximum tensile strain, followed by decreasing the load to zero. The cycle was then repeated to a higher maximum strain and so on until the sample either failed or it reached an ultimate predetermined strain. The true stress and true strain {var_epsilon}{sub H} during each cycle were recorded, including the true strain at zero load {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} after each cycle that resulted from the plastic deformation of the sPP crystals in the gel. The initial Young's modulus E{sub init} and maximum tangent modulus E{sub max} in each cycle undergo dramatic changes as a function of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, with Einit decreasing for {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} {le} 0.1 and then increasing slowly as {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} increases to 1 while E{sub max} increases rapidly over the entire range of {var_epsilon}{sub H,p}, resulting in a ratio of E{sub max}/E{sub init} > 1000 at the highest maximum (nominal) strain of 20. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering patterns from the deformed and relaxed gels, as well as on previous results on deformation of semicrystalline random copolymers by Strobl and co-workers, we propose that the initial decrease in Einit with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is due to a breakup of the network of the original sPP crystal lamellae while the increase in E{sub max} with {var_epsilon}{sub H,p} is caused by the conversion of the sPP lamellae into fibrils of an aspect ratio that increases with further plastic deformation. The gel elastic properties can be understood as those of a short fiber composite with a highly deformable matrix. At zero stress the random copolymer midblock chains that connect the

  8. Overexpression of the PP2A-C5 gene confers increased salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongbin; Zhu, Yinfeng; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways in plants. PP2A is made of 3 subunits: a scaffolding subunit A, a regulatory subunit B, and a catalytic subunit C. It is believed that the B subunit recognizes specific substrates and the C subunit directly acts on the selected substrates, whereas the A subunit brings a B subunit and a C subunit together to form a specific PP2A holoenzyme. Because there are multiple isoforms for each PP2A subunit, there could be hundreds of novel PP2A holoenzymes in plants. For an example, there are 3 A subunits, 17 B subunits, and 5 C subunits in Arabidopsis, which could form 255 different PP2A holoenzymes. Understanding the roles of these PP2A holoenzymes in various signaling pathways is a challenging task. In a recent study,1 we discovered that PP2A-C5, the catalytic subunit 5 of PP2A, plays an important role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. We found that a knockout mutant of PP2A-C5 (i.e. pp2a-c5–1) was very sensitive to salt treatments, whereas PP2A-C5-overexpressing plants were more tolerant to salt stresses. Genetic analyses between pp2a-c5–1 and Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) mutants indicated that PP2A-C5 does not function in the same pathway as SOS genes. Using yeast 2-hybrid analysis, we found that PP2A-C5 interacts with several vacuolar membrane bound chloride channel proteins. We hypothesize that these vacuolar chloride channel proteins might be PP2A-C5's substrates in vivo, and the action of PP2A-C5 on these channel proteins could increase or activate their activities, thereby result in accumulation of the chloride and sodium contents in vacuoles, leading to increased salt tolerance in plants. PMID:28045581

  9. Sphingosine analogue drug FTY720 targets I2PP2A/SET and mediates lung tumour suppression via activation of PP2A-RIPK1-dependent necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Saddoughi, Sahar A; Gencer, Salih; Peterson, Yuri K; Ward, Katherine E; Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Oaks, Joshua; Bielawski, Jacek; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Thomas, Raquela J; Selvam, Shanmugam P; Senkal, Can E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; De Palma, Ryan M; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Liu, Angen; Habib, Amyn A; Stahelin, Robert V; Perrotti, Danilo; Ogretmen, Besim

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms that alter protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent lung tumour suppression via the I2PP2A/SET oncoprotein are unknown. We show here that the tumour suppressor ceramide binds I2PP2A/SET selectively in the nucleus and including its K209 and Y122 residues as determined by molecular modelling/simulations and site-directed mutagenesis. Because I2PP2A/SET was found overexpressed, whereas ceramide was downregulated in lung tumours, a sphingolipid analogue drug, FTY720, was identified to mimick ceramide for binding and targeting I2PP2A/SET, leading to PP2A reactivation, lung cancer cell death, and tumour suppression in vivo. Accordingly, while molecular targeting of I2PP2A/SET by stable knockdown prevented further tumour suppression by FTY720, reconstitution of WT-I2PP2A/SET expression restored this process. Mechanistically, targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 mediated PP2A/RIPK1-dependent programmed necrosis (necroptosis), but not by apoptosis. The RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin and knockdown or genetic loss of RIPK1 prevented growth inhibition by FTY720. Expression of WT- or death-domain-deleted (DDD)-RIPK1, but not the kinase-domain-deleted (KDD)-RIPK1, restored FTY720-mediated necroptosis in RIPK1(-/-) MEFs. Thus, these data suggest that targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 suppresses lung tumour growth, at least in part, via PP2A activation and necroptosis mediated by the kinase domain of RIPK1. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  10. Sphingosine analogue drug FTY720 targets I2PP2A/SET and mediates lung tumour suppression via activation of PP2A-RIPK1-dependent necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Saddoughi, Sahar A; Gencer, Salih; Peterson, Yuri K; Ward, Katherine E; Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Oaks, Joshua; Bielawski, Jacek; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Thomas, Raquela J; Selvam, Shanmugam P; Senkal, Can E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; De Palma, Ryan M; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Liu, Angen; Habib, Amyn A; Stahelin, Robert V; Perrotti, Danilo; Ogretmen, Besim

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms that alter protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent lung tumour suppression via the I2PP2A/SET oncoprotein are unknown. We show here that the tumour suppressor ceramide binds I2PP2A/SET selectively in the nucleus and including its K209 and Y122 residues as determined by molecular modelling/simulations and site-directed mutagenesis. Because I2PP2A/SET was found overexpressed, whereas ceramide was downregulated in lung tumours, a sphingolipid analogue drug, FTY720, was identified to mimick ceramide for binding and targeting I2PP2A/SET, leading to PP2A reactivation, lung cancer cell death, and tumour suppression in vivo. Accordingly, while molecular targeting of I2PP2A/SET by stable knockdown prevented further tumour suppression by FTY720, reconstitution of WT-I2PP2A/SET expression restored this process. Mechanistically, targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 mediated PP2A/RIPK1-dependent programmed necrosis (necroptosis), but not by apoptosis. The RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin and knockdown or genetic loss of RIPK1 prevented growth inhibition by FTY720. Expression of WT- or death-domain-deleted (DDD)-RIPK1, but not the kinase-domain-deleted (KDD)-RIPK1, restored FTY720-mediated necroptosis in RIPK1−/− MEFs. Thus, these data suggest that targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 suppresses lung tumour growth, at least in part, via PP2A activation and necroptosis mediated by the kinase domain of RIPK1. PMID:23180565

  11. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy pp and pp¯ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energymore » $pp$ and $$p\\bar p $$ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $$1/p_T^n$$ at high $$p_T$$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $$p_T$$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $$p_T$$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $$p_T$$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $$p \\bar p$$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Lastly, because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $$p\\bar p$$ collisions.« less

  12. Site Specificity of Cleavage of DSP-PP by BMP1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Robert T.; Lim, Glendale L.; Yee, Colin T.; Fuller, Robert S.; Ritchie, Helena H.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4′ (i.e., the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1′P2′P3′P4′) sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e., xMQx | DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP,. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their affects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4′ sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4′ cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site. PMID:25158199

  13. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  14. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  15. Joint Use of PP and PS AVOA Data to Estimate Fluid Indicator in Vertically Fractured Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, B.; Sen, M. K.; Gu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of fractures induces anisotropy in medium. This anisotropy might be a comprehensive result of fractures' properties, such as the direction, spacing, apertures, intensity, microstructure, fluid infill, and so on. Among these properties, the preferential orientation of fracture networks makes the medium azimuthally anisotropic with respect to seismic wave propagation. To the medium containing a set of vertical fractures, the tangential weakness does not vary with the fluid content, however on which the normal weakness shows great dependence. Based on the theory of linear slip model and the sensitivity to fracture weakness of PP- and PS-reflection coefficients which can be derived by a Born formula, we did both the PP-AVOA and PS-AVOA numerical experiment and also the joint inversion of fluid indicator. Results show that when the fractures have low saturation of gas, the fluid indicator estimated from PP-AVOA data is precise enough; when gas saturation goes up to 70%, joint inversion can help to improve the poor quality of PP-AVOA data inversion. Under high gas-saturated case, both PP inversion and joint inversion are sensitive to the errors in g, where g is the square of the ratio of S- and P- wave velocity in the unfractured medium. This dependency can be reduced by adding a different weight to PP and PS data during the inversion.Based on the result of numerical experiment, we processed field data in Sichuan Basin in China. The inversion result is consistent with the well interpretation. The first column in figure represents the PP- and PS-reflectivity computed by matrix method(Fryer and Frazer,1984). The second column is the result of Born linearized method. In the last column, upper one shows the estimated fluid indicator in different gas saturation case and the below one consider the effect of error in g on the inversion results.

  16. The effect of deleting residue C269 in the β12-β13 loop of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)catalytic subunit on the interaction between PP2A and metal ions, especially Mn(2+).

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hao; Wei, Qun

    2011-12-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most important Ser/Thr phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. The enzymatic core of PP2A (PP2A(D)) consists of a scaffold subunit (A subunit) and a catalytic subunit (C subunit). When residue Cys269 in the β12-β13 loop of the PP2A C subunit was deleted (ΔC269), the activity and the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of PP2A(D) decreased. Specify the effects of some metal ions on PP2A(D) were also changed. Mn(2+) in particular was an efficient activator of ΔC269 and altered the intrinsic fluorescence spectrum of ΔC269. Remarkably, after pre-treatment of ΔC269 with Mn(2+), the effects of other metal ions showed the same trends as they had on the WT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that deletion of Cys269 decreased the polarity of the β12-β13 loop of PP2A Cα. We conclude that deletion of residue Cys269 alters the conformation and activity of PP2A(D) and influences the interaction between PP2A and various metal ions, notably Mn(2+). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A PP6-Type Phosphatase Holoenzyme Directly Regulates PIN Phosphorylation and Auxin Efflux in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhang, Chen; Kania, Urszula; Chen, Fang; Xue, Qin; Mccray, Tyra; Li, Gang; Qin, Genji; Wakeley, Michelle; Terzaghi, William; Wan, Jianmin; Zhao, Yunde; Xu, Jian; Friml, Jiří; Deng, Xing Wang; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin depends on the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins. While PINIOD (PID) kinase is directly involved in the phosphorylation of PIN proteins, the phosphatase holoenzyme complexes that dephosphorylate PIN proteins remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mutations simultaneously disrupting the function of Arabidopsis thaliana FyPP1 (for Phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase1) and FyPP3, two homologous genes encoding the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase6 (PP6), cause elevated accumulation of phosphorylated PIN proteins, correlating with a basal-to-apical shift in subcellular PIN localization. The changes in PIN polarity result in increased root basipetal auxin transport and severe defects, including shorter roots, fewer lateral roots, defective columella cells, root meristem collapse, abnormal cotyledons (small, cup-shaped, or fused cotyledons), and altered leaf venation. Our molecular, biochemical, and genetic data support the notion that FyPP1/3, SAL (for SAPS DOMAIN-LIKE), and PP2AA proteins (RCN1 [for ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1] or PP2AA1, PP2AA2, and PP2AA3) physically interact to form a novel PP6-type heterotrimeric holoenzyme complex. We also show that FyPP1/3, SAL, and PP2AA interact with a subset of PIN proteins and that for SAL the strength of the interaction depends on the PIN phosphorylation status. Thus, an Arabidopsis PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme acts antagonistically with PID to direct auxin transport polarity and plant development by directly regulating PIN phosphorylation. PMID:22715043

  18. Mechanism of PP2A-mediated IKKβ dephosphorylation: a systems biological approach

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Johannes; Barisic, Sandra; Schumann, Eva; Allgöwer, Frank; Sawodny, Oliver; Sauter, Thomas; Kulms, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Biological effects of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) can differ tremendously depending on the cellular context. For example, NFκB induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) is converted from an inhibitor of death receptor induced apoptosis into a promoter of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB)-induced apoptosis. This conversion requires prolonged NFκB activation and is facilitated by IL-1 + UVB-induced abrogation of the negative feedback loop for NFκB, involving a lack of inhibitor of κB (IκBα) protein reappearance. Permanent activation of the upstream kinase IKKβ results from UVB-induced inhibition of the catalytic subunit of Ser-Thr phosphatase PP2A (PP2Ac), leading to immediate phosphorylation and degradation of newly synthesized IκBα. Results To investigate the mechanism underlying the general PP2A-mediated tuning of IKKβ phosphorylation upon IL-1 stimulation, we have developed a strictly reduced mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations which includes the essential processes concerning the IL-1 receptor, IKKβ and PP2A. Combining experimental and modelling approaches we demonstrate that constitutively active, but not post-stimulation activated PP2A, tunes out IKKβ phosphorylation thus allowing for IκBα resynthesis in response to IL-1. Identifiability analysis and determination of confidence intervals reveal that the model allows reliable predictions regarding the dynamics of PP2A deactivation and IKKβ phosphorylation. Additionally, scenario analysis is used to scrutinize several hypotheses regarding the mode of UVB-induced PP2Ac inhibition. The model suggests that down regulation of PP2Ac activity, which results in prevention of IκBα reappearance, is not a direct UVB action but requires instrumentality. Conclusion The model developed here can be used as a reliable building block of larger NFκB models and offers comprehensive simplification potential for future modeling of NFκB signaling. It gives more insight into the newly discovered

  19. Preparation of EPR/silica filler by a co-irradiation method forming PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Dang, Shuaiying; Huang, Zhijuan; Xu, Yongshen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to prepare ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR)/silica filler by co-irradiation method forming polypropylene (PP)/EPR/silica nanocomposites. The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on EPR was first studied by co-irradiation in the micro-suspension without any chemical initiator, and the effects of MAH concentration and the total co-irradiation dose on the graft degree of MAH were investigated. Then PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites were successfully prepared by blending of PP matrix and EPR/silica filler, which was obtained by co-irradiation using a mixture of EPR/MAH microsuspension in xylene and tetraethoxysilane/KH560 sol in formic acid. FTIR and SEM results showed that the reactions between MAH on EPR chains and KH560 surrounding silica particles were adopted to form the EPR/silica filler with strong bonding and well silica dispersion. Mechanical properties of PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with different silica contents and the comparisons with PP, PP/EPR and PP/silica films were studied. The rigid silica particles were trapped in EPR shell and well dispersed in PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with good compatibility and strong interfacial adhesion, achieving overall improvements in stiffness, strength and toughness compared with pure PP.

  20. Fabrication of PP-g-PEGMA-g-heparin and its hemocompatibility: From protein adsorption to anticoagulant tendency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; shi, Qiang; Zhao, Jie; Yin, Jinghua; Stagnaro, Paola

    2012-05-01

    We described a two-step process to fabricate the heparinized polypropylene (PP) film using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a trifunctional reagent and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as a spacer. The modified PP films were characterized by attenuated total reflectance FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; the content of PEGMA and heparin were determined by gravimetric method and a toluidine blue assay, respectively. For the PP-g-PEGMA films, it was found that small size protein BSA tended to adsorb on the surface of low molecular weight monomer grafted PP, whereas big spindle-shaped fibrinogen tended to adsorb on the surface of high molecular weight monomer grafted PP. We gave a definition of anti-protein adsorptive factor r with two model proteins, albumin and fibrinogen. The results by platelet adhesion and plasma recalcification time (PRT) experiments indicated that the factor r could be used to quantitatively evaluate the anticoagulant tendency of PP-g-PEGMA modified films. For the PP-g-PEGMA-g-heparin modified films, the surface was proved to have a high bioactivity by the adsorption of AT III assay and very low platelet adhesion. It indicated that immobilization of heparin on the PP film with PEGMA as a spacer was an effective way to improve the hemocompatibility of PP.

  1. Identified particle production in pp collisions at = 7 and 13 TeV measured with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Proton-proton (pp) collisions have been used extensively as a reference for the study of interactions of larger colliding systems at the LHC. Recent measurements performed in high-multiplicity pp and proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions have shown features that are reminiscent of those observed in lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions. In this context, the study of identified particle spectra and yields as a function of multiplicity is a key tool for the understanding of similarities and differences between small and large systems. We report on the production of pions, kaons, protons, , Λ, Ξ, Ω and K *0 as a function of multiplicity in pp collisions at = 7 TeV measured with the ALICE experiment. The work presented here represents the most comprehensive set of results on identified particle production in pp collisions at the LHC. Spectral shapes, studied both for individual particles and via particle ratios as a function of p T, exhibit an evolution with charged particle multiplicity that is similar to the one observed in larger systems. In addition, results on the production of light flavour hadrons in pp collisions at = 13 TeV, the highest centre-of-mass energy ever reached in the laboratory, are also presented and compared with previous, lower energy results.

  2. Dual Regulation of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) by PP2A-Cdc55 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Baro, Barbara; Hernáez, María Luisa; Gil, Concha; Queralt, Ethel

    2013-01-01

    Exit from mitosis in budding yeast is triggered by activation of the key mitotic phosphatase Cdc14. At anaphase onset, the protease separase and Zds1 promote the downregulation of PP2ACdc55 phosphatase, which facilitates Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Net1 and provides the first wave of Cdc14 activity. Once Cdk1 activity starts to decline, the mitotic exit network (MEN) is activated to achieve full Cdc14 activation. Here we describe how the PP2ACdc55 phosphatase could act as a functional link between FEAR and MEN due to its action on Bfa1 and Mob1. We demonstrate that PP2ACdc55 regulates MEN activation by facilitating Cdc5- and Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Bfa1 and Mob1, respectively. Downregulation of PP2ACdc55 initiates MEN activity up to Cdc15 by Bfa1 inactivation. Surprisingly, the premature Bfa1 inactivation observed does not entail premature MEN activation, since an additional Cdk1-Clb2 inhibitory signal acting towards Dbf2-Mob1 activity restrains MEN activity until anaphase. In conclusion, we propose a clear picture of how PP2ACdc55 functions affect the regulation of various MEN components, contributing to mitotic exit. PMID:24339788

  3. Cationic bactericidal peptide 1018 does not specifically target the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Liis; Tenson, Tanel; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial stringent response is a key regulator of bacterial virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance, and is a promising target for the development of new antibacterial compounds. The intracellular nucleotide (p)ppGpp acts as a messenger orchestrating the stringent response. A synthetic peptide 1018 was recently proposed to specifically disrupt biofilms by inhibiting the stringent response via direct interaction with (p)ppGpp (de la Fuente-Núñez et al. (2014) PLoS Pathogens). We have interrogated the specificity of the proposed molecular mechanism. When inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic and biofilm growth is tested simultaneously in the same assay, peptides 1018 and the control peptide 8101 generated by an inversion of the amino acid sequence of 1018 are equally potent, and, importantly, do not display a preferential activity against biofilm. 1018 inhibits planktonic growth of Escherichia coli equally efficiently either when the alleged target, (p)ppGpp, is essential (MOPS media lacking amino acid L-valine), or dispensable for growth (MOPS media supplemented with L-valine). Genetic disruption of the genes relA and spoT responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis moderately sensitizes – rather than protects – E. coli to 1018. We suggest that the antimicrobial activity of 1018 does not rely on specific recognition of the stringent response messenger (p)ppGpp. PMID:27819280

  4. {lambda}{sup 0} Polarization in Exclusive pp Reactions From the FNAL e690 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, J.; Berisso, M. C.; Christian, D. C.; Gottschalk, E. E.; Gutierrez, G.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wehmann, A.; Gara, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knapp, B. C.; Kreisler, M. N.; Lee, S.; Markianos, K.; Moreno, G.; Reyes, M. A.; Wesson, D.

    2009-04-20

    It is an experimental evidence that all baryons are created polarized from unpolarized p-nucleus collisions. So far, the origin of this polarization remains unexplained in spite of the experimental evidences accumulated in the past thirty years. Up to these days, {lambda}{sup 0} is the most studied baryon for polarization, for it is copiously produced in p--nucleus collisions at the energies of the principal high energy physics accelerators of the world. This paper is an overview of the experimental evidences accumulated on the polarization of {lambda}{sup 0} from unpolarized exclusive pp collisions as function of x{sub F}, P{sub T}, and M({lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +}) in the past fifteen years inside Fermilab e690 experiment, in the particular reactions pp{yields}p{lambda}{sup 0}K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}, pp{yields}pp{lambda}{sup 0}{lambda}{sup -0}, pp{yields}p{lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +}, produced at 800 GeV.

  5. PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Samuel; Fey, Dirk; McCloy, Rachael A; Parker, Benjamin L; Mitchell, Nicholas J; Payne, Richard J; Daly, Roger J; James, David E; Caldon, C Elizabeth; Watkins, D Neil; Croucher, David R; Burgess, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Entry into mitosis is driven by the phosphorylation of thousands of substrates, under the master control of Cdk1. During entry into mitosis, Cdk1, in collaboration with MASTL kinase, represses the activity of the major mitotic protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thereby ensuring mitotic substrates remain phosphorylated. For cells to complete and exit mitosis, these phosphorylation events must be removed, and hence, phosphatase activity must be reactivated. This reactivation of phosphatase activity presumably requires the inhibition of MASTL; however, it is not currently understood what deactivates MASTL and how this is achieved. In this study, we identified that PP1 is associated with, and capable of partially dephosphorylating and deactivating, MASTL during mitotic exit. Using mathematical modelling, we were able to confirm that deactivation of MASTL is essential for mitotic exit. Furthermore, small decreases in Cdk1 activity during metaphase are sufficient to initiate the reactivation of PP1, which in turn partially deactivates MASTL to release inhibition of PP2A and, hence, create a feedback loop. This feedback loop drives complete deactivation of MASTL, ensuring a strong switch-like activation of phosphatase activity during mitotic exit. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Samuel; Fey, Dirk; McCloy, Rachael A.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Payne, Richard J.; Daly, Roger J.; James, David E.; Caldon, C. Elizabeth; Watkins, D. Neil; Croucher, David R.; Burgess, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entry into mitosis is driven by the phosphorylation of thousands of substrates, under the master control of Cdk1. During entry into mitosis, Cdk1, in collaboration with MASTL kinase, represses the activity of the major mitotic protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thereby ensuring mitotic substrates remain phosphorylated. For cells to complete and exit mitosis, these phosphorylation events must be removed, and hence, phosphatase activity must be reactivated. This reactivation of phosphatase activity presumably requires the inhibition of MASTL; however, it is not currently understood what deactivates MASTL and how this is achieved. In this study, we identified that PP1 is associated with, and capable of partially dephosphorylating and deactivating, MASTL during mitotic exit. Using mathematical modelling, we were able to confirm that deactivation of MASTL is essential for mitotic exit. Furthermore, small decreases in Cdk1 activity during metaphase are sufficient to initiate the reactivation of PP1, which in turn partially deactivates MASTL to release inhibition of PP2A and, hence, create a feedback loop. This feedback loop drives complete deactivation of MASTL, ensuring a strong switch-like activation of phosphatase activity during mitotic exit. PMID:26872783

  7. Near-threshold ω and φ meson productions in pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, K.; Nakayama, K.

    2003-09-01

    Using a relativistic effective Lagrangian at the hadronic level, near-threshold ω- and φ-meson productions in proton-proton (pp) collisions, pp→ppω/φ, are studied within the distorted wave Born approximation. Both initial and final state pp interactions are included. In addition to total cross section data, both ω and φ angular distribution data are used to constrain further the model parameters. For the pp→ppω reaction, we consider two different possibilities: with and without the inclusion of nucleon resonances. The nucleon resonances are included in a way to be consistent with the π-p→ωn reaction. It is shown that the inclusion of nucleon resonances can describe the data better overall than without their inclusion. However, the SATURNE data in the range of excess energies Q<31 MeV are still underestimated by about a factor of 2. As for the pp→ppφ reaction, it is found that the presently limited available data from DISTO can be reproduced by four sets of values for the vector and tensor φNN coupling constants. Further measurements of the energy dependence of the total cross section near threshold energies should help to constrain better the φNN coupling constant.

  8. PP2A phosphatase acts upon SAS-5 to ensure centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Flückiger, Isabelle; Polanowska, Jolanta; Keller, Debora; Reboul, Jérôme; Gönczy, Pierre

    2011-04-19

    Centrosome duplication occurs once per cell cycle and ensures that the two resulting centrosomes assemble a bipolar mitotic spindle. Centriole formation is fundamental for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the evolutionarily conserved proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but how they function is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is also critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos. We find that PP2A subunits genetically and physically interact with the SAS-5/SAS-6 complex. Furthermore, we show that PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation promotes centriolar targeting of SAS-5 and ensures SAS-6 delivery to the site of centriole assembly. We find that PP2A is similarly needed for the presence of HsSAS-6 at centrioles and for centriole formation in human cells. These findings lead us to propose that PP2A-mediated loading of SAS-6 proteins is critical at the onset of centriole formation.

  9. Sperm development and motility are regulated by PP1 phosphatases in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-ching; Go, Aiza C; Samson, Mark; Cintra, Thais; Mirsoian, Susan; Wu, Tammy F; Jow, Margaret M; Routman, Eric J; Chu, Diana S

    2012-01-01

    Sperm from different species have evolved distinctive motility structures, including tubulin-based flagella in mammals and major sperm protein (MSP)-based pseudopods in nematodes. Despite such divergence, we show that sperm-specific PP1 phosphatases, which are required for male fertility in mouse, function in multiple processes in the development and motility of Caenorhabditis elegans amoeboid sperm. We used live-imaging analysis to show the PP1 phosphatases GSP-3 and GSP-4 (GSP-3/4) are required to partition chromosomes during sperm meiosis. Postmeiosis, tracking fluorescently labeled sperm revealed that both male and hermaphrodite sperm lacking GSP-3/4 are immotile. Genetic and in vitro activation assays show lack of GSP-3/4 causes defects in pseudopod development and the rate of pseudopodial treadmilling. Further, GSP-3/4 are required for the localization dynamics of MSP. GSP-3/4 shift localization in concert with MSP from fibrous bodies that sequester MSP at the base of the pseudopod, where directed MSP disassembly facilitates pseudopod contraction. Consistent with a role for GSP-3/4 as a spatial regulator of MSP disassembly, MSP is mislocalized in sperm lacking GSP-3/4. Although a requirement for PP1 phosphatases in nematode and mammalian sperm suggests evolutionary conservation, we show PP1s have independently evolved sperm-specific paralogs in separate lineages. Thus PP1 phosphatases are highly adaptable and employed across a broad range of sexually reproducing species to regulate male fertility.

  10. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Attenuates Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of PP2A Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui-Cui; Kuai, Xue-Xian; Li, Ya-Li; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on tau hyperphosphorylation induced by wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were preincubated with CIG (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml, resp.) for 24 h and then exposed to 10 µM WT and 10 µM GFX for 3 h after washing out CIG. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cultured cells. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation level of tau protein, glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3 β ), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The activity of PP2A was detected by a biochemical assay. Results. Preincubation of CIG significantly attenuated the WT/GFX-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Thr217, Ser396, and PHF-1 and improved the damage of morphology and microtubular cytoskeleton of the cells. CIG did not prevent the decrease in p-AKT-ser473 and p-GSK-3 β -ser9 induced by WT/GFX. However, CIG significantly elevated the activity of PP2A by reducing the demethylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) at Leu309 and the ratio of PME-1/LCMT in the WT/GFX-treated cells. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to the treatment of AD.

  11. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Attenuates Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of PP2A Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui-cui; Kuai, Xue-xian; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jian-chun; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on tau hyperphosphorylation induced by wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were preincubated with CIG (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml, resp.) for 24 h and then exposed to 10 µM WT and 10 µM GFX for 3 h after washing out CIG. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cultured cells. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation level of tau protein, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The activity of PP2A was detected by a biochemical assay. Results. Preincubation of CIG significantly attenuated the WT/GFX-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Thr217, Ser396, and PHF-1 and improved the damage of morphology and microtubular cytoskeleton of the cells. CIG did not prevent the decrease in p-AKT-ser473 and p-GSK-3β-ser9 induced by WT/GFX. However, CIG significantly elevated the activity of PP2A by reducing the demethylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) at Leu309 and the ratio of PME-1/LCMT in the WT/GFX-treated cells. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to the treatment of AD. PMID:24454482

  12. The therapeutic effects of SET/I2PP2A inhibitors on canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Enjoji, Shuhei; Yabe, Ryotaro; Fujiwara, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Shunya; Vitek, Michael P; Mizuno, Takuya; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Usui, Tatsuya; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Canine melanoma is one of the most important diseases in small animal medicine. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well conserved serine/threonine phosphatase, plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor. SET/I2PP2A is an endogenous inhibitor for PP2A, which directly binds to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Elevated SET protein levels have been reported to exacerbate human tumor progression. The role of SET in canine melanoma, however, has not been understood. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic role for SET inhibitors in canine melanoma. The expression of SET protein was observed in 6 canine melanoma cell lines. We used CMeC-1 cells (primary origin) and CMeC-2 cells (metastatic origin) to generate cell lines stably expressing SET-targeting shRNAs. Knockdown of SET expression in CMeC-2, but not in CMeC-1, leads to decreased cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Phosphorylation level of p70 S6 kinase was decreased by SET knockdown in CMeC-2, suggesting the involvement of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70 S6 kinase signaling. The SET inhibitors, OP449 and FTY720, more effectively killed CMeC-2 than CMeC-1. We observed PP2A activation in CMeC-2 treated with OP449 and FTY720. These results demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET inhibitors for canine melanoma.

  13. The therapeutic effects of SET/I2PP2A inhibitors on canine melanoma

    PubMed Central

    ENJOJI, Shuhei; YABE, Ryotaro; FUJIWARA, Nobuyuki; TSUJI, Shunya; VITEK, Michael P.; MIZUNO, Takuya; NAKAGAWA, Takayuki; USUI, Tatsuya; OHAMA, Takashi; SATO, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Canine melanoma is one of the most important diseases in small animal medicine. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well conserved serine/threonine phosphatase, plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor. SET/I2PP2A is an endogenous inhibitor for PP2A, which directly binds to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Elevated SET protein levels have been reported to exacerbate human tumor progression. The role of SET in canine melanoma, however, has not been understood. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic role for SET inhibitors in canine melanoma. The expression of SET protein was observed in 6 canine melanoma cell lines. We used CMeC-1 cells (primary origin) and CMeC-2 cells (metastatic origin) to generate cell lines stably expressing SET-targeting shRNAs. Knockdown of SET expression in CMeC-2, but not in CMeC-1, leads to decreased cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Phosphorylation level of p70 S6 kinase was decreased by SET knockdown in CMeC-2, suggesting the involvement of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70 S6 kinase signaling. The SET inhibitors, OP449 and FTY720, more effectively killed CMeC-2 than CMeC-1. We observed PP2A activation in CMeC-2 treated with OP449 and FTY720. These results demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET inhibitors for canine melanoma. PMID:26062569

  14. Phosphorylation of PP1 Regulator Sds22 by PLK1 Ensures Accurate Chromosome Segregation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hequan; Wang, Chunli; Wang, Ming; Gao, Xinjiao; Yan, Maomao; Akram, Saima; Peng, Wei; Zou, Hanfa; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Jiajia; Chu, Youjun; Dou, Zhen; Barrett, Gregory; Green, Hadiyah-Nichole; Wang, Fangjun; Tian, Ruijun; He, Ping; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2016-09-30

    During cell division, accurate chromosome segregation is tightly regulated by Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and opposing activities of Aurora B kinase and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the aforementioned hierarchical signaling cascade during mitotic chromosome segregation have remained elusive. Sds22 is a conserved regulator of PP1 activity, but how it regulates PP1 activity in space and time during mitosis remains elusive. Here we show that Sds22 is a novel and cognate substrate of PLK1 in mitosis, and the phosphorylation of Sds22 by PLK1 elicited an inhibition of PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of Aurora B at threonine 232 (Thr(232)) in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of a phosphomimetic mutant of Sds22 causes a dramatic increase in mitotic delay, whereas overexpression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant of Sds22 results in mitotic arrest. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation of Sds22 by PLK1 strengthens the binding of Sds22 to PP1 and inhibits the dephosphorylation of Thr(232) of Aurora B to ensure a robust, error-free metaphase-anaphase transition. These findings delineate a conserved signaling hierarchy that orchestrates dynamic protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of critical mitotic regulators during chromosome segregation to guard chromosome stability.

  15. PP6 controls T cell development and homeostasis by negatively regulating distal TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Shi, Hao; Shen, Ye; Peng, Chao; Liu, Yan; Li, Chenyu; Deng, Kejing; Geng, Jianguo; Xu, Tian; Zhuang, Yuan; Zheng, Biao; Tao, Wufan

    2015-02-15

    T cell development and homeostasis are both regulated by TCR signals. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, serve as important switches controlling multiple downstream pathways triggered by TCR recognition of Ags. It has been well documented that protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in negative regulation of proximal TCR signaling. However, how TCR signals are terminated or attenuated in the distal TCR signaling pathways is largely unknown. We investigated the function of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP) 6 in TCR signaling. T cell lineage-specific ablation of PP6 in mice resulted in enhanced thymic positive and negative selection, and preferential expansion of fetal-derived, IL-17-producing Vγ6Vδ1(+) T cells. Both PP6-deficient peripheral CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytolytic cells could not maintain a naive state and became fast-proliferating and short-lived effector cells. PP6 deficiency led to profound hyperactivation of multiple distal TCR signaling molecules, including MAPKs, AKT, and NF-κB. Our studies demonstrate that PP6 acts as a critical negative regulator, not only controlling both αβ and γδ lineage development, but also maintaining naive T cell homeostasis by preventing their premature activation before Ag stimulation.

  16. Release property and antioxidant effectiveness of tocopherol-incorporated LDPE/PP blend films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Lee, D S; Yam, K L

    2012-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polypropylene (PP) blend films in various blending ratios containing 3000 mg  kg⁻¹ of tocopherol were manufactured by an extrusion process. Tocopherol release properties were characterised and correlated with antioxidant effectiveness in retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid contacting the films at 40°C. The conditions without tocopherol (control) and with instant tocopherol addition corresponding to the amount included in the films were also prepared and compared with the film-contacting solutions. The effect of tocopherol inclusion and the blending ratio on their physical properties was also examined. A wide range of tocopherol diffusivity in 6.6 × 10⁻¹⁶-4.6 × 10⁻¹⁴m² s⁻¹ were obtained by blend films. As PP content increases, the diffusivity decreased sharply at the beginning and levelled off later. The slower release of tocopherol in LDPE/PP blend films corresponding to lower tocopherol diffusivity retained the higher tocopherol concentration in the linoleic acid system providing better antioxidant effectiveness of the extended induction period in oxidation. The tocopherol inclusion reduced tensile strength and transparency significantly in an affordable range with higher tensile strength given by a higher PP ratio. LDPE/PP blending can be a useful tool to modulate the release profile of tocopherol and thus the antioxidant effectiveness of the tocopherol-incorporated antioxidant packaging film.

  17. PpAtg30 Tags Peroxisomes for Turnover by Selective Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Manjithaya, Ravi; Mathewson, Richard D.; Subramani, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Summary Autophagy, an intrinsically nonselective process, can also target selective cargo for degradation. The mechanism of selective peroxisome turnover by autophagy-related processes (pexophagy), termed micropexophagy and macropexophagy,is unknown. We show how a Pichia pastoris protein, PpAtg30, mediates peroxisome selection during pexophagy. It is necessary for pexophagy, but not for other selective and nonselective autophagy-related processes. It localizes at the peroxisome membrane via interaction with peroxins, and during pexophagy it colocalizes transiently at the preautophagosomal structure (PAS) and interacts with the autophagy machinery. PpAtg30 is required for formation of pexophagy intermediates, such as the micropexophagy apparatus (MIPA) and the pexophagosome (Ppg). During pexophagy, PpAtg30 undergoes multiple phosphorylations, at least one of which is required for pexophagy. PpAtg30 overexpression stimulates pexophagy even under peroxisome-induction conditions, impairing peroxisome biogenesis. Therefore, PpAtg30 is a key player in the selection of peroxisomes as cargo and in their delivery to the autophagy machinery for pexophagy. PMID:18331717

  18. Effects of mixing protocol and mixing time on viscoelasticity of compatibilized PP/PS blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehiyan, Reza; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Jun Hyup; Hyun, Kyu

    2014-08-01

    Linear and non-linear viscoelastic properties of Polypropylene (PP)/Polystyrene (PS) blends with organoclay (C20A) as a compatibilizer were investigated using dynamic oscillatory measurement, i.e., small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) tests. Four different mixing protocols were applied to probe the effect of mixing sequence on rheological properties. Moreover, each protocol was conducted at three mixing times, i.e., 1, 3, and 8 min, to investigate the effect of mixing time on final rheological properties. Final results revealed that mixing time had no significant effect on either the viscoelastic response of the simultaneously mixed blends or the PP+C20A/PS (PP and C20A mixed for 30 seconds and then PS added) blend. On the other hand, rheological properties of the PS+C20A/PP (PS and C20A mixed for 30 seconds and then PP added) blend significantly increased upon 1 min of total mixing time, whereas 3 and 8 min of mixing demonstrated almost the same results as their other blended counterparts. TEM pictures revealed migration of C20A particles from PS phase towards the interface with increasing mixing time.

  19. Quantitative comparison of measurement methods for the evaluation of micro- and nanostructures written with 2PP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnisch, Emely Marie; König, Niels; Schmitt, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) has become an established process for fabricating individual micro-and nanostructures nearly in the last two decades. Its high degree of freedom opened up novel possibilities for a large range of applications like functional structures for cell growth, photonic crystals, nanoantennas, diffractive optical elements and lab-on-a-chip structures (just to name a few). Since the measurement of structures written with 2PP is always very time consuming, we present a comparison between white light interferometry (WLI) and confocal microscopy (CM) which were used for measuring structures written with 2PP. By performing a GageRR analysis with both metrology devices, we calculated the process tolerance one has to accept when measuring these structures with WLI or CM.

  20. Completeness of general pp-wave spacetimes and their impulsive limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland; Švarc, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We investigate geodesic completeness in the full family of pp-wave (or Brinkmann) spacetimes in their extended and impulsive forms. This class of geometries contains the recently studied gyratonic pp-waves, modelling the exterior field of a spinning beam of null particles, as well as N-fronted waves with parallel rays, which generalize classical pp-waves by allowing for a general wave surface. The problem of geodesic completeness reduces to the question of completeness of trajectories on a Riemannian manifold under an external force field. Building upon respective recent results, we derive completeness criteria in terms of the spatial asymptotics of the profile function in the extended case. In the impulsive case, we use a fixed-point argument to show that, irrespective of the behaviour of the profile function, all geometries in the class are complete.

  1. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors. Based on biochemical data and our previously determined crystal structures of ABI2 and the SnRK2.6-HAB1 complex, we present the catalytic mechanism of PP2C and provide new insight into PP2C-SnRK2 interactions and possible roles of other SnRK2 kinases in ABA signaling.

  2. GridPP - Preparing for LHC Run 2 and the Wider Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    This paper elaborates upon the operational status and directions within the UK Computing for Particle Physics (GridPP) project as it approaches LHC Run 2. It details the pressures that have been gradually reshaping the deployed hardware and middleware environments at GridPP sites - from the increasing adoption of larger multicore nodes to the move towards alternative batch systems and cloud alternatives - as well as changes being driven by funding considerations. The paper highlights work being done with non-LHC communities and describes some of the early outcomes of adopting a generic DIRAC based job submission and management framework. The paper presents results from an analysis of how GridPP effort is distributed across various deployment and operations tasks and how this may be used to target further improvements in efficiency.

  3. C-terminal truncation of GSK-3β enhances its dephosphorylation by PP2A.

    PubMed

    Jin, Nana; Wu, Yue; Xu, Wen; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2017-03-07

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is the major tau kinase. Its phosphorylation at Ser9 suppresses the activity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, GSK-3β is truncated at the C-terminus by over-activated calpain I, leading to an increase in its activity. However, the effect of truncation on its phosphorylation is unknown. We found here that in AD brain and in cultured cells, C-terminally truncated GSK-3β is less phosphorylated at Ser9 than the full-length enzyme. The truncation promotes GSK-3β nuclear translocation and enhances its interaction with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to dephosphorylation. Thus, the truncation of GSK-3β may enhance its activity through Ser9 dephosphorylation by PP2A. Our findings shed new light onto the role of calpain - GSK-3β - PP2A in tau pathogenesis of AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Double-Pole Structure on a Prototype of Kaonic Nuclei "K-pp"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doté, Akinobu; Inoue, Takashi; Myo, Takayuki

    We have investigated a prototype system of kaonic nuclei, "K-pp", with a coupled-channel Complex Scaling Method combined with Feshbach projection, using an energy-dependent \\bar{K}N potential based on chiral SU(3) theory. A deeply bound state with huge decay width is obtained as a candidate of self-consistent solutions (a quasi self-consistent solution), in addition to the shallowly bound state with 20-30 MeV binding energy. As a result, we consider that the "K-pp" has a double-pole structure as well as the excited hyperon Λ(1405). Furthermore, we expect that the signal observed in DISTO and J-PARC E27 experiments might be related to the lower-pole state of the "K-pp".

  5. Observation of χcJ decaying into the pp¯K+K- final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, L.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, R. R.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Grishin, S.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, G. C.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Z. Q.; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sonoda, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tang, X. F.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wan, X.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, M.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, L.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.; Zweber, P.

    2011-06-01

    First measurements of the decays of the three χcJ states to pp¯K+K- final states are presented. Intermediate ϕ→K+K- and Λ(1520)→pK- resonance states are observed, and branching fractions for χcJ→p¯K+Λ(1520), Λ(1520)Λ¯(1520), and ϕpp¯ are reported. We also measure branching fractions for direct χcJ→pp¯K+K- decays. These are first observations of χcJ decays to unstable baryon resonances and provide useful information about the χcJ states. The experiment uses samples of χcJ mesons produced via radiative transitions from 106×106 ψ' mesons collected in the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e+e- collider.

  6. Tensor Correlations Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdasaryan, H; Weinstein, L B; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, K P; Amarian, M; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Boltmann, S; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hyde, C E; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nepali, C; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tedeschi, D J; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-11-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at an incident energy of 4.7 GeV over a wide kinematic range. We identified spectator correlated pp and pn nucleon pairs by using kinematic cuts and measured their relative and total momentum distributions. This is the first measurement of the ratio of pp to pn pairs as a function of pair total momentum ptot. For pair relative momenta between 0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c, the ratio is very small at low ptot and rises to approximately 0.5 at large ptot. This shows the dominance of tensor over central correlations at this relative momentum.

  7. The prospective pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (ppCRRT) registry: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Scott M; Goldstein, Stuart L; Alexander, Steven R

    2014-11-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), which provides gradual, predictable clearance and fluid removal, is commonly used to manage acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload in critically ill children. The Prospective Pediatric CRRT (ppCRRT) Registry, founded in 2001 and comprising 13 pediatric centers in the United States, represents the largest cohort of children receiving CRRT to date. Data from the ppCRRT has been used to describe pediatric CRRT demographics and epidemiology, improve technical aspects of CRRT provision for children, and identify novel or underappreciated risk factors affecting survival. Whereas the registry has successfully answered many questions, a number of questions remain unanswered and new ones have arisen. This article describes the ppCRRT Registry, including its major findings, the lessons learned, and the limitations inherent in its design. Additionally, using the registry as a framework, areas of future study are identified and potential methodologies examined.

  8. Effects of layer-multiplying and interface on the content of β-transcrystallization in PP

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fan; Li, Jiang E-mail: nic7702@scu.edu.cn; Guo, Shaoyun E-mail: nic7702@scu.edu.cn

    2015-05-22

    The alternating multilayered polypropylene (PP layer)/β-nucleating agent filled-polypropylene (β-PP layer) were prepared through layer-multiplying extrusion combined with an assembly of layer-multiplying elements (LM Es). The content of β-crystal was firstly evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which indicated that the relative amount of the β-crystal increased from 38.67% to 81.22% with the increase of layer numbers from 2-layer to 128-layer. It was well consistent with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology observation of β-crystal by polarizing microscope (POM) revealed that the closely packed nuclei in the interface could induce numerous β-transcrystallization in pure PP layer due to the confinement effect. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetic analysis via Mozhishen’s methods manifested that the crystallization rate was greatly enhanced by the augment of the layered interface.

  9. DSP-PP Precursor Protein Cleavage by Tolloid-Related-1 Protein and by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Helena H.; Yee, Colin T.; Tang, Xu-na; Dong, Zhihong; Fuller, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP), acidic proteins critical to dentin mineralization, are translated from a single transcript as a DSP-PP precursor that undergoes specific proteolytic processing to generate DSP and PP. The cleavage mechanism continues to be controversial, in part because of the difficulty of obtaining DSP-PP from mammalian cells and dentin matrix. We have infected Sf9 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to produce large amounts of secreted DSP-PP240, a variant form of rat DSP-PP. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that DSP-PP240 secreted by Sf9 cells undergoes specific cleavage at the site predicted from the N-terminal sequence of PP extracted from dentin matrix: SMQG447↓D448DPN. DSP-PP240 is cleaved after secretion by a zinc-dependent activity secreted by Sf9 cells, generating DSP430 and PP240 products that are stable in the medium. DSP-PP processing activity is constitutively secreted by Sf9 cells, but secretion is diminished 3 days after infection. Using primers corresponding to the highly conserved catalytic domain of Drosophila melanogaster tolloid (a mammalian BMP1 homolog), we isolated a partial cDNA for a Spodopotera frugiperda tolloid-related-1 protein (TLR1) that is 78% identical to Drosophila TLR1 but only 65% identical to Drosophila tolloid. Tlr1 mRNA decreased rapidly in Sf9 cells after baculovirus infection and was undetectable 4d after infection, paralleling the observed decrease in secretion of the DSP-PP240 processing activity after infection. Human BMP1 is more similar to Sf9 and Drosophila TLR1 than to tolloid, and Sf9 TLR1 is more similar to BMP1 than to other mammalian homologs. Recombinant human BMP1 correctly processed baculovirus-expressed DSP-PP240 in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that the physiologically accurate cleavage of mammalian DSP-PP240 in the Sf9 cell system represents the action of a conserved processing enzyme and support the proposed role of BMP1 in processing DSP-PP in

  10. DSP-PP precursor protein cleavage by tolloid-related-1 protein and by bone morphogenetic protein-1.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Helena H; Yee, Colin T; Tang, Xu-Na; Dong, Zhihong; Fuller, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP), acidic proteins critical to dentin mineralization, are translated from a single transcript as a DSP-PP precursor that undergoes specific proteolytic processing to generate DSP and PP. The cleavage mechanism continues to be controversial, in part because of the difficulty of obtaining DSP-PP from mammalian cells and dentin matrix. We have infected Sf9 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to produce large amounts of secreted DSP-PP(240), a variant form of rat DSP-PP. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that DSP-PP(240) secreted by Sf9 cells undergoes specific cleavage at the site predicted from the N-terminal sequence of PP extracted from dentin matrix: SMQG(447)↓D(448)DPN. DSP-PP(240) is cleaved after secretion by a zinc-dependent activity secreted by Sf9 cells, generating DSP(430) and PP(240) products that are stable in the medium. DSP-PP processing activity is constitutively secreted by Sf9 cells, but secretion is diminished 3 days after infection. Using primers corresponding to the highly conserved catalytic domain of Drosophila melanogaster tolloid (a mammalian BMP1 homolog), we isolated a partial cDNA for a Spodopotera frugiperda tolloid-related-1 protein (TLR1) that is 78% identical to Drosophila TLR1 but only 65% identical to Drosophila tolloid. Tlr1 mRNA decreased rapidly in Sf9 cells after baculovirus infection and was undetectable 4d after infection, paralleling the observed decrease in secretion of the DSP-PP(240) processing activity after infection. Human BMP1 is more similar to Sf9 and Drosophila TLR1 than to tolloid, and Sf9 TLR1 is more similar to BMP1 than to other mammalian homologs. Recombinant human BMP1 correctly processed baculovirus-expressed DSP-PP(240) in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that the physiologically accurate cleavage of mammalian DSP-PP(240) in the Sf9 cell system represents the action of a conserved processing enzyme and support the proposed role of BMP1 in

  11. [Preparation of microencapsulated red phosphorus and its flame-retardant application in PP composites].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Jun; Li, Zhe-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Xiang; Fang, Jin; Yang, Xu-Jie; Lu, Lu-De; Pu, Long-Juan

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, the melamine-formaldehyde prepolymer (MFP) was first synthesized at pH 8-8.5 under about 80 degrees C with melamine, formaldehyde, triethanolamine and methanol as the starting materials. Subsequently, the microencapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) was successfully prepared by in-situ polymerization at pH 5.5 under 65 degrees C, using MFP and red phosphorus (RP) powders as raw materials, and potassium persulphate (KPS) as catalyst. The obtained products were detected by differential scan calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that KPS is useful in enhancing the reaction activity of MFP, which can make RP be well encapsulated by melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) and reduce the reaction time. The DSC, SEM and XPS results show that it won't get well-encapsulated MRP only under acidic condition and without any KPS. When a proper quantity of KPS is employed, the RP particles can be almost completely-encapsulated by MF and the peak temperature of oxidation reaction for MRP is 480 degrees C, which is much higher than that of RP, extending the applications for MRP. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates that the coating material on the surface of RP accurately is MF, in agreement with the reference. Polyproplene (PP) composites with different formulations were prepared by melt extrusion. It was shown that the flame-retardant efficiencies are very low when the PP composites only contain MRP or MH. However, the flame-retardant property can obviously improve if MRP and MH are both used in the PP composites. When PP : MRP: MH = 100 (phr) : 15 (phr) : 50 (phr), the limited oxygen index of the MRP/MH/PP composite is 26%, and vertical firing ranks UL-94 V-0. In addition, the possible flame-retardant mechanism of the PP composites has also been discussed, and further verified by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. PP2A-activating drugs selectively eradicate TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Neviani, Paolo; Harb, Jason G.; Oaks, Joshua J.; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Walker, Christopher J.; Ellis, Justin J.; Ferenchak, Gregory; Dorrance, Adrienne M.; Paisie, Carolyn A.; Eiring, Anna M.; Ma, Yihui; Mao, Hsiaoyin C.; Zhang, Bin; Wunderlich, Mark; May, Philippa C.; Sun, Chaode; Saddoughi, Sahar A.; Bielawski, Jacek; Blum, William; Klisovic, Rebecca B.; Solt, Janelle A.; Byrd, John C.; Volinia, Stefano; Cortes, Jorge; Huettner, Claudia S.; Koschmieder, Steffen; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Devine, Steven; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Croce, Carlo M.; Garzon, Ramiro; Ogretmen, Besim; Arlinghaus, Ralph B.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Bittman, Robert; Hokland, Peter; Roy, Denis-Claude; Milojkovic, Dragana; Apperley, Jane; Goldman, John M.; Reid, Alistair; Mulloy, James C.; Bhatia, Ravi; Marcucci, Guido; Perrotti, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) depends on the requirement for BCR-ABL1 kinase activity in CML progenitors. However, CML quiescent HSCs are TKI resistant and represent a BCR-ABL1 kinase–independent disease reservoir. Here we have shown that persistence of leukemic HSCs in BM requires inhibition of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and expression — but not activity — of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene. Examination of HSCs from CML patients and healthy individuals revealed that PP2A activity was suppressed in CML compared with normal HSCs. TKI-resistant CML quiescent HSCs showed increased levels of BCR-ABL1, but very low kinase activity. BCR-ABL1 expression, but not kinase function, was required for recruitment of JAK2, activation of a JAK2/β-catenin survival/self-renewal pathway, and inhibition of PP2A. PP2A-activating drugs (PADs) markedly reduced survival and self-renewal of CML quiescent HSCs, but not normal quiescent HSCs, through BCR-ABL1 kinase–independent and PP2A-mediated inhibition of JAK2 and β-catenin. This led to suppression of human leukemic, but not normal, HSC/progenitor survival in BM xenografts and interference with long-term maintenance of BCR-ABL1–positive HSCs in serial transplantation assays. Targeting the JAK2/PP2A/β-catenin network in quiescent HSCs with PADs (e.g., FTY720) has the potential to treat TKI-refractory CML and relieve lifelong patient dependence on TKIs. PMID:23999433

  13. Chk1 targeting reactivates PP2A tumor suppressor activity in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Anchit; Kauko, Otto; Böckelman, Camilla; Laine, Anni; Schreck, Ilona; Partanen, Johanna I.; Szwajda, Agnieszka; Bormann, Stefanie; Bilgen, Turker; Helenius, Merja; Pokharel, Yuba R.; Pimanda, John; Russel, Mike R.; Haglund, Caj; Cole, Kristina A.; Klefström, Juha; Aittokallio, Tero; Weiss, Carsten; Ristimäki, Ari; Visakorpi, Tapio; Westermarck, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Checkpoint kinase Chk1 is constitutively active in many cancer cell types and new generation Chk1 inhibitors show marked antitumor activity as single agents. Here we present a hitherto unrecognized mechanism that contributes to the response of cancer cells to Chk1 targeted therapy. Inhibiting chronic Chk1 activity in cancer cells induced the tumor suppressor activity of protein phosphatase PP2A, which by dephosphorylating MYC serine 62, inhibited MYC activity and impaired cancer cell survival. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Chk1 inhibition activated PP2A by decreasing the transcription of CIP2A, a chief inhibitor of PP2A activity. Inhibition of cancer cell clonogenicity by Chk1 inhibition could be rescued in vitro either by exogenous expression of CIP2A or by blocking the CIP2A-regulated PP2A complex. Chk1-mediated CIP2A regulation was extended in tumor models dependent on either Chk1 or CIP2A. The clinical relevance of CIP2A as a Chk1 effector protein was validated in several human cancer types, including neuroblastoma where CIP2A was identified as a NMYC-independent prognostic factor. Since the Chk1-CIP2A-PP2A pathway is driven by DNA-PK activity, functioning regardless of p53 or ATM/ATR status, our results offer explanative power for understand how Chk1 inhibitors mediate single-agent anticancer efficacy. Further, they define CIP2A-PP2A status in cancer cells as a pharmacodynamic marker for their response to Chk1-targeted therapy. PMID:24072747

  14. BioPP: a tool for web-publication of biological networks

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ganesh A; Nudelman, German; Patil, Sonali; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2007-01-01

    Background Cellular processes depend on the function of intracellular molecular networks. The curation of the literature relevant to specific biological pathways is important for many theoretical and experimental research teams and communities. No current tool supports web publication or hosting of user-developed large scale annotated pathway diagrams. Sharing via web publication is needed to allow real-time access to the current literature pathway knowledgebase, both privately within a research team or publicly among the outside research community. Web publication also facilitates team and/or community input into the curation process while allowing centralized control of the curation and validation process. We have developed new tool to address these needs. Biological Pathway Publisher (BioPP) is a software suite for converting CellDesigner Systems Biology Markup Language (CD-SBML) formatted pathways into a web viewable format. The BioPP suite is available for private use and for depositing knowledgebases into a newly created public repository. Results BioPP suite is a web-based application that allows pathway knowledgebases stored in CD-SBML to be web published with an easily navigated user interface. The BioPP suite consists of four interrelated elements: a pathway publisher, an upload web-interface, a pathway repository for user-deposited knowledgebases and a pathway navigator. Users have the option to convert their CD-SBML files to HTML for restricted use or to allow their knowledgebase to be web-accessible to the scientific community. All entities in all knowledgebases in the repository are linked to public database entries as well as to a newly created public wiki which provides a discussion forum. Conclusion BioPP tools and the public repository facilitate sharing of pathway knowledgebases and interactive curation for research teams and scientific communities. BioPP suite is accessible at PMID:17519033

  15. PNUTS/PP1 Regulates RNAPII-Mediated Gene Expression and Is Necessary for Developmental Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ciurciu, Anita; Duncalf, Louise; Jonchere, Vincent; Lansdale, Nick; Vasieva, Olga; Glenday, Peter; Rudenko, Andreii; Vissi, Emese; Cobbe, Neville; Alphey, Luke; Bennett, Daimark

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, tight regulation of gene expression ensures appropriate tissue and organismal growth throughout development. Reversible phosphorylation of the RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) is critical for the regulation of gene expression states, but how phosphorylation is actively modified in a developmental context remains poorly understood. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is one of several enzymes that has been reported to dephosphorylate the RNAPII CTD. However, PP1's contribution to transcriptional regulation during animal development and the mechanisms by which its activity is targeted to RNAPII have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that the Drosophila orthologue of the PP1 Nuclear Targeting Subunit (dPNUTS) is essential for organismal development and is cell autonomously required for growth of developing tissues. The function of dPNUTS in tissue development depends on its binding to PP1, which we show is targeted by dPNUTS to RNAPII at many active sites of transcription on chromosomes. Loss of dPNUTS function or specific disruption of its ability to bind PP1 results in hyperphosphorylation of the RNAPII CTD in whole animal extracts and on chromosomes. Consistent with dPNUTS being a global transcriptional regulator, we find that loss of dPNUTS function affects the expression of the majority of genes in developing 1st instar larvae, including those that promote proliferative growth. Together, these findings shed light on the in vivo role of the PNUTS-PP1 holoenzyme and its contribution to the control of gene expression during early Drosophila development. PMID:24204300

  16. Absence of intraepidermal glycosyltransferase ppGalNac-T3 expression in familial tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Orit; Bergman, Reuven; Mandel, Ulla; Maor, Gila; Goldberg, Ruth; Richard, Gabriele; Sprecher, Eli

    2005-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive, tumor-like calcifications in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. The disease is associated with primary hyperphosphatemia due to increased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate. We recently identified mutations in GALNT3 as the proximal cause of this metabolic disorder. GALNT3 encodes the glycosyltransferase UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 (ppGalNAc-T3), which initiates mucin-type O-glycosylation and thus takes part in posttranslational modification and formation of mucin-type glycoproteins. A number of studies have previously described the histopathological and ultrastructural features of lesional skin in HFTC, but little is currently known about the morphology of the normal-appearing non-lesional skin. We obtained biopsies of uninvolved skin from two HFTC patients carrying a known splice site mutation in GALNT3. Light and electron microscopic examination of a biopsy of one of the two patients did not reveal abnormal findings in the epidermis or dermis. However, immunohistochemical studies of frozen skin sections of biopsies of the two patients using monoclonal antibodies directed against three ppGalNac isoforms revealed the complete absence of immunostaining for ppGalNAc-T3 while the staining pattern for ppGalNAc-T2 and -T6 was identical in skin biopsies obtained from HFTC patients and healthy control individuals. Our data provide for the first time evidence for ppGalNAc-T3 deficiency in the skin of HFTC patients and suggest that immunostaining of skin biopsy samples for ppGal-Nac-T3 might be a useful tool for the diagnosis of HFTC.

  17. Propofol inhibits high glucose-induced PP2A expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qichao; Zhao, Yanjun; Duan, Wenming; Liu, Yi; Chen, Xiangyuan; Zhu, Minmin

    2017-04-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia is a common clinical metabolic disorder. Hyperglycemia could induce endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction and inflammation, resulting in endothelial injury. Propofol is a widely used anesthetic drug in clinical settings. Our previous studies indicated that propofol, via inhibiting high glucose-induced phosphatase A2 (PP2A) expression, attenuated high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thus improving endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction and inflammation. However, the mechanisms by which propofol attenuated high glucose-induced PP2A expression is still obscure. In the present study, we examined how propofol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial PP2A expression. Compared with 5mM glucose treatment, 15mM glucose up-regulated expression and activity of PP2A, increased cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMK II) phosphorylation and Ca(2+) accumulation. More importantly, propofol decreased PP2A expression and activity, attenuated CREB, CaMK II phosphorylation and Ca(2+) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrated that the effect of propofol was similar to that of MK801, an inhibitor of NMDA receptor. In contrast, rapastinel, an activator of NMDA receptor, antagonized the effect of propofol. Also, the effect of KN93, an inhibitor of CaMK II, was similar to that of propofol, except KN93 had no effect on 15mM glucose-mediated Ca(2+) accumulation. Our data indicated that propofol, via inhibiting NMDA receptor, attenuated 15mM glucose-induced Ca(2+) accumulation, CaMK II and CREB phosphorylation, thus inhibiting PP2A expression and improving 15mM glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DksA and (p)ppGpp have unique and overlapping contributions to Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Holley, Concerta L; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Ellinger, Sheila; Johnson, Paula; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Janowicz, Diane M; Katz, Barry P; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-08-01

    The (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is important for bacterial survival in nutrient limiting conditions. For maximal effect, (p)ppGpp interacts with the cofactor DksA, which stabilizes (p)ppGpp's interaction with RNA polymerase. We previously demonstrated that (p)ppGpp was required for the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans. Here, we constructed an H. ducreyi dksA mutant and showed it was also partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. To understand the roles of (p)ppGpp and DksA in gene regulation in H. ducreyi, we defined genes potentially altered by (p)ppGpp and DksA deficiency using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). In bacteria collected at stationary phase, lack of (p)ppGpp and DksA altered expression of 28% and 17% of H. ducreyi open reading frames, respectively, including genes involved in transcription, translation, and metabolism. There was significant overlap in genes differentially expressed in the (p)ppGpp mutant relative to the dksA mutant. Loss of (p)ppGpp or DksA resulted in the dysregulation of several known virulence determinants. Deletion of dksA downregulated lspB and rendered the organism less resistant to phagocytosis and increased its sensitivity to oxidative stress. Both mutants had reduced ability to attach to human foreskin fibroblasts; the defect correlated with reduced expression of the Flp adhesin proteins in the (p)ppGpp mutant but not in the dksA mutant, suggesting that DksA regulates the expression of an unknown cofactor(s) required for Flp-mediated adherence. We conclude that both (p)ppGpp and DksA serve as major regulators of H. ducreyi gene expression in stationary phase and have both overlapping and unique contributions to pathogenesis.

  19. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase- and Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-binding Domains of the Alpha4 Protein Are Both Required for Alpha4 to Inhibit PP2A Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    LeNoue-Newton, Michele; Watkins, Guy R.; Zou, Ping; Germane, Katherine L.; McCorvey, Lisa R.; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Spiller, Benjamin W.

    2012-04-30

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including post-translational modifications and association with regulatory proteins. Alpha4 is one such regulatory protein that binds the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and protects it from polyubiquitination and degradation. Alpha4 is a multidomain protein with a C-terminal domain that binds Mid1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, and an N-terminal domain containing the PP2Ac-binding site. In this work, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain of mammalian Alpha4 determined by x-ray crystallography and use double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy to show that it is a flexible tetratricopeptide repeat-like protein. Structurally, Alpha4 differs from its yeast homolog, Tap42, in two important ways: (1) the position of the helix containing the PP2Ac-binding residues is in a more open conformation, showing flexibility in this region; and (2) Alpha4 contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif. The effects of wild-type and mutant Alpha4 on PP2Ac ubiquitination and stability were examined in mammalian cells by performing tandem ubiquitin-binding entity precipitations and cycloheximide chase experiments. Our results reveal that both the C-terminal Mid1-binding domain and the PP2Ac-binding determinants are required for Alpha4-mediated protection of PP2Ac from polyubiquitination and degradation.

  20. Phosphorylation of eIF2α triggered by mTORC1 inhibition and PP6C activation is required for autophagy and is aberrant in PP6C-mutated melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wengrod, Jordan; Wang, Ding; Weiss, Sarah; Zhong, Hua; Osman, Iman; Gardner, Lawrence B

    2015-03-10

    Amino acid deprivation promotes the inhibition of the kinase complex mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) and activation of the kinase GCN2 (general control nonrepressed 2). Signaling pathways downstream of both kinases have been thought to independently induce autophagy. We showed that these two amino acid-sensing systems are linked. We showed that pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 led to activation of GCN2 and phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in a mechanism dependent on the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6C). Autophagy induced by pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 required PP6C, GCN2, and eIF2α phosphorylation. Although some of the PP6C mutants found in melanoma did not form a strong complex with PP6 regulatory subunits and were rapidly degraded, these mutants paradoxically stabilized PP6C encoded by the wild-type allele and increased eIF2α phosphorylation. Furthermore, these PP6C mutations were associated with increased autophagy in vitro and in human melanoma samples. Thus, these data showed that GCN2 activation and phosphorylation of eIF2α in response to mTORC1 inhibition are necessary for autophagy. Additionally, we described a role for PP6C in this process and provided a mechanism for PP6C mutations associated with melanoma.

  1. Measurement of Solar pp-neutrino flux with Borexino: results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. Yu; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, O.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of the Solar pp-neutrino flux completed the measurement of Solar neutrino fluxes from the pp-chain of reactions in Borexino experiment. The result is in agreement with the prediction of the Standard Solar Model and the MSW/LMA oscillation scenario. A comparison of the total neutrino flux from the Sun with Solar luminosity in photons provides a test of the stability of the Sun on the 105 years time scale, and sets a strong limit on the power production by the unknown energy sources in the Sun.

  2. Real-time spectroscopy of solar pp-neutrinos using 150Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2012-03-01

    The potential real-time spectroscopy of solar pp-neutrinos using 150Nd as target is investigated. The threshold of 196 keV would be the lowest of all solar neutrino experiments running so far. Experimental rates and parameters are discussed, about 906 SNU can be expected from pp-neutrinos and another 574 SNU from 7Be. Furthermore, it is investigated whether charged current reactions might cause a new background component for future double beta decay experiments based on a large amount of 150Nd.

  3. The protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) superfamily: detection of bacterial homologues.

    PubMed

    Bork, P; Brown, N P; Hegyi, H; Schultz, J

    1996-07-01

    A thorough sequence analysis of the various members of the eukaryotic protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family revealed the conservation of 11 motifs. These motifs could be identified in numerous other sequences, including fungal adenylate cyclases that are predicted to contain a functionally active PP2C domain, and a family of prokaryotic serine/threonine phosphatases including SpoIIE. Phylogenetic analysis of all the proteins indicates a widespread sequence family for which a considerable number of isoenzymes can be inferred.

  4. Regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) tumor suppressor function by PME-1.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-12-15

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a major role in maintaining cellular signaling homeostasis by dephosphorylation of a variety of signaling proteins and acts as a tumor suppressor. Protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) negatively regulates PP2A activity by highly complex mechanisms that are reviewed here. Importantly, recent studies have shown that PME-1 promotes oncogenic MAPK/ERK and AKT pathway activities in various cancer types. In human glioma, high PME-1 expression correlates with tumor progression and kinase inhibitor resistance. We discuss the emerging cancer-associated function of PME-1 and its potential clinical relevance.

  5. PP-selective BACE inhibitors (ASBI): novel class of therapeutic agents for alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Olivier; Spilman, Patricia; Zhang, Qiang; Libeu, Clare P; Poksay, Karen; Gorostiza, Olivia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Bredesen, Dale E; John, Varghese

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach was used to identify AβPP-selective BACE inhibitors (ASBI) and to evaluate their in vivo ability to modulate AβPP processing selectively. We identified a bioflavonoid nutritional supplement as a molecular lead that acts as an ASBI in cell models, and show that increasing brain levels of this bioflavonoid through a pro-drug approach leads to reduction of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. ASBIs represent a novel class of candidate therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Off-shell effects for the reaction pp{yields}{pi}d at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.; Locher, M.P.; Lu, Y.

    1995-08-01

    The reaction pp {yields} {pi}d is studied in a relativistic meson rescattering model. For 1.3 < T{sub p} < 2.4 GeV, the differential cross section and the asymmetry are calculated and compared to experiment. The model introduces simple form factors for the leading {pi}N partial waves, which depend on the virtuality of the exchanged {pi} and {rho} mesons. All remaining input is derived from experimental constraints. The data can be described by energy-independent form factors. The asymmetries are sensitive to pp distortion factors and further details of the model. A paper describing our results was published.

  7. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Niyazov; L.B. Weinstein; et al

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for ''fast'' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back-to-back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  8. Reaction mechanisms in {sup 12}C({gamma},{ital pp}) near 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, E.D.; McDonald, W.J.; Opper, A.K.; Quraan, M.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Rozon, F.M.; Feldman, G.; Kolb, N.R.; Pywell, R.E.; Skopik, D.M.; Tiller, D.E.; Vogt, J.M.; Korkmaz, E.; ORielly, G.V.

    1996-03-01

    Inclusive {sup 12}C({gamma},{ital pp}) cross sections have been measured with tagged photons in the range {ital E}{sub {gamma}}=187{endash}227 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The large angular acceptance allowed the measurement of noncoplanar {ital pp} emission. The cross sections were compared to a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade calculation. Agreement was reasonable for the shapes of the cross sections but the calculated total cross section was 3.9 times larger than the data. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Two-nucleon momentum distributions measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n.

    PubMed

    Niyazov, R A; Weinstein, L B; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bertozzi, W; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ingram, W; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kelley, J H; Kellie, J; Khandaker, M; Kim, D H; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, M S; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Li, Ji; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McLauchlan, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B

    2004-02-06

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for "fast" nucleons (p>250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back to back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Calculations by Sargsian and by Laget also indicate that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking one nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  10. Twist-three Fragmentation Function Contribution to the Single Spin Asymmetry in pp Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Yuan, Feng; Zhou, Jian

    2010-01-29

    We study the twist-three fragmentation function contribution to the single transverse spin asymmetries in inclusive hadron production in pp collisions, pp->h+X. In particular, we evaluate the so-called derivative contribution which dominates the spin asymmetry in the forward direction of the polarized proton. With certain parametrizations for the twist-three fragmentation function, we estimate its contribution to the asymmetry of pi0 production at RHIC energy. We find that the contribution is sizable and might be responsible for the big difference between the asymmetries in eta and pi0 productions observed by the STAR collaboration at RHIC.

  11. Reinterpretation of the 2H(d,pp)nn reaction at 80 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Robert E.

    1981-12-01

    Leeman et al. measured 2H(d,pp)nn cross sections at 80 MeV. They interpreted their results in terms of double spectator processes and had limited success in fitting their spectra. We obtain good fits to all their reported data by assuming final-state interactions between both final n-p pairs and ignoring the double spectator process. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 2H(d,pp)nn, E=80 MeV; calculated σ(E1,E2,θ1,θ2) assuming n-p final-state interactions. Improved fits over original interpretation assuming double spectator process.

  12. Search for the decay B ¯0→Λc+p ¯pp ¯

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lee, M. J.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Campagnari, C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Bougher, J.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; de Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Ahmed, H.; Feltresi, E.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Anulli, F.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindemann, D.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wang, W. F.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; de Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Babar Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We report a search for the decay B ¯0→Λc+p ¯pp ¯. Using a data sample of 471×106 BB ¯ pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II2 storage ring at SLAC, we find no events and set an upper limit on the branching fraction B(B ¯0→Λc+p ¯pp ¯)×B(Λ/c+→pK-π+)0.050<2.8×10-6 at 90% C.L., where we have normalized B(Λc+→pK-π+) to the world average value.

  13. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyazov, R. A.; Weinstein, L. B.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Bertozzi, W.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Chen, S.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J. P.; de Sanctis, E.; Dashyan, N.; Devita, R.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Eckhause, M.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Forest, T. A.; Funsten, H.; Gavalian, G.; Gilad, S.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Gordon, C. I.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ingram, W.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kelley, J. H.; Kellie, J.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, Ji; Livingston, K.; Lukashin, K.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McLauchlan, S.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S. A.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Todor, L.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D. P.; Whisnant, C. S.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Zhang, B.

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for “fast” nucleons (p>250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back to back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Calculations by Sargsian and by Laget also indicate that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking one nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  14. Diffractively Produced Charm Final States in 800-GeV/c pp Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. H.; Berisso, M. C.; Christian, D. C.; Félix, J.; Gara, A.; Gottschalk, E.; Gutiérrez, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knapp, B. C.; Kreisler, M. N.; Lee, S.; Markianos, K.; Moreno, G.; Reyes, M. A.; Sosa, M.; Wehmann, A.; Wesson, D.

    2001-08-01

    We report the first observation of diffractively produced open charm in 800-GeV/c pp collisions of the type pp-->pD*X. We measure cross sections of σdiff(D*+) = (0.185+/-0.044+/-0.054) μb and σdiff(D*-) = (0.174+/-0.034+/-0.029) μb. Our measurements are based on 4.3×109 events recorded by FNAL E690 in the fixed-target run of 1991. We compare our results with previous fixed-target charm experiments.

  15. Diffractively Produced Charm Final States in 800-GeV / c pp Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. H. L. S.; Berisso, M. C.; Christian, D. C.; Felix, J.; Gara, A.; Gottschalk, E.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knapp, B. C.; Kreisler, M. N.

    2001-08-20

    We report the first observation of diffractively produced open charm in 800-GeV/c pp collisions of the type pp{yields}pD{sup *}X. We measure cross sections of {sigma}{sub diff}(D{sup *+})= (0.185{+-}0.044{+-}0.054) {mu}b and {sigma}{sub diff}(D{sup *-})= (0.174{+-}0.034{+-}0.029) {mu}b. Our measurements are based on 4.3 x 10{sup 9} events recorded by FNAL E690 in the fixed-target run of 1991. We compare our results with previous fixed-target charm experiments.

  16. PP2A Controls Genome Integrity by Integrating Nutrient-Sensing and Metabolic Pathways with the DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Elisa; Bruhn, Christopher; Peretti, Marta; Cassani, Corinne; Carotenuto, Walter Vincenzo; Elgendy, Mohamed; Shubassi, Ghadeer; Lucca, Chiara; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Varasi, Mario; Minucci, Saverio; Longhese, Maria Pia; Foiani, Marco

    2017-07-20

    Mec1(ATR) mediates the DNA damage response (DDR), integrating chromosomal signals and mechanical stimuli. We show that the PP2A phosphatases, ceramide-activated enzymes, couple cell metabolism with the DDR. Using genomic screens, metabolic analysis, and genetic and pharmacological studies, we found that PP2A attenuates the DDR and that three metabolic circuits influence the DDR by modulating PP2A activity. Irc21, a putative cytochrome b5 reductase that promotes the condensation reaction generating dihydroceramides (DHCs), and Ppm1, a PP2A methyltransferase, counteract the DDR by activating PP2A; conversely, the nutrient-sensing TORC1-Tap42 axis sustains DDR activation by inhibiting PP2A. Loss-of-function mutations in IRC21, PPM1, and PP2A and hyperactive tap42 alleles rescue mec1 mutants. Ceramides synergize with rapamycin, a TORC1 inhibitor, in counteracting the DDR. Hence, PP2A integrates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways to attenuate the Mec1(ATR) response. Our observations imply that metabolic changes affect genome integrity and may help with exploiting therapeutic options and repositioning known drugs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The magic spot: identification of the binding site for ppGpp on E. coli RNA polymerase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite more than 40 years of study of the global regulatory nucleotide ppGpp ("magic spot") in Escherichia coli, its target site on RNA polymerase (RNAP), and therefore its mechanism of action, is unknown. We report here a binding site for ppGpp on E. coli RNAP, identified by crosslinking, protease...

  18. Preparation and characterization of ZnO-deposited DBD plasma-treated PP packaging film with antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisoonsin, Sutida; Pornsunthorntawee, Orathai; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2013-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-deposited polypropylene (PP) packaging film was prepared with the aid of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment. The surface hydrophilicity of PP film was found to increase after the DBD plasma treatment due to the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the DBD plasma-treated PP surface. Although the surface roughness of the DBD plasma-treated PP film gradually increased with increasing plasma treatment time, the DBD plasma treatment insignificantly affected the mechanical properties of the PP film. The DBD plasma treatment time was found to be optimized at 10 s. The DBD plasma-treated PP film was further immersed in an aqueous zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) solution at different concentrations before being converted to ZnO particles with the use of a 2.5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, followed by sonication. The highest amount of ZnO deposited on the DBD plasma-treated PP surface was about 0.26 wt.% at the optimum Zn(NO3)2 concentration of 0.5 M. The ZnO-deposited DBD plasma-treated PP film showed good antibacterial activities against gram-positive Staphylococcus auerus and gram-negative Escherichia coli.

  19. Greatwall-phosphorylated Endosulfine is both an inhibitor and a substrate of PP2A-B55 heterotrimers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Byron C; Filter, Joshua J; Blake-Hodek, Kristina A; Wadzinski, Brian E; Fuda, Nicholas J; Shalloway, David; Goldberg, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    During M phase, Endosulfine (Endos) family proteins are phosphorylated by Greatwall kinase (Gwl), and the resultant pEndos inhibits the phosphatase PP2A-B55, which would otherwise prematurely reverse many CDK-driven phosphorylations. We show here that PP2A-B55 is the enzyme responsible for dephosphorylating pEndos during M phase exit. The kinetic parameters for PP2A-B55’s action on pEndos are orders of magnitude lower than those for CDK-phosphorylated substrates, suggesting a simple model for PP2A-B55 regulation that we call inhibition by unfair competition. As the name suggests, during M phase PP2A-B55’s attention is diverted to pEndos, which binds much more avidly and is dephosphorylated more slowly than other substrates. When Gwl is inactivated during the M phase-to-interphase transition, the dynamic balance changes: pEndos dephosphorylated by PP2A-B55 cannot be replaced, so the phosphatase can refocus its attention on CDK-phosphorylated substrates. This mechanism explains simultaneously how PP2A-B55 and Gwl together regulate pEndos, and how pEndos controls PP2A-B55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01695.001 PMID:24618897

  20. Importance of the ammonia assimilation by Penicillium purpurogenum in amino derivative Monascus pigment, PP-V, production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A fungal strain, Penicillium purpurogenum IAM 15392, produced the azaphilone Monascus pigment homolog when cultured in a medium composed of soluble starch, ammonium nitrate, yeast extract, and citrate buffer, pH 5.0. One of the typical features of violet pigment PP-V [(10Z)-12- carboxyl-monascorubramine] is that pyranoid oxygen is replaced with nitrogen. In this study, we found that glutamine synthetase (glnB) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1) genes were expressed in the culture conditions conducive to PP-V production. Gln and Glu both support PP-V biosynthesis, but PP-V biosynthesis was much more efficient with Gln. We determined that synthesis of Gln by glutamine synthetase from ammonium is important for PP-V production. PMID:23537394

  1. Importance of the ammonia assimilation by Penicillium purpurogenum in amino derivative Monascus pigment, PP-V, production.

    PubMed

    Arai, Teppei; Koganei, Kasumi; Umemura, Sara; Kojima, Ryo; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2013-03-28

    A fungal strain, Penicillium purpurogenum IAM 15392, produced the azaphilone Monascus pigment homolog when cultured in a medium composed of soluble starch, ammonium nitrate, yeast extract, and citrate buffer, pH 5.0. One of the typical features of violet pigment PP-V [(10Z)-12- carboxyl-monascorubramine] is that pyranoid oxygen is replaced with nitrogen. In this study, we found that glutamine synthetase (glnB) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1) genes were expressed in the culture conditions conducive to PP-V production. Gln and Glu both support PP-V biosynthesis, but PP-V biosynthesis was much more efficient with Gln. We determined that synthesis of Gln by glutamine synthetase from ammonium is important for PP-V production.

  2. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Delva, Laurens Ragaert, Kim Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  3. PP2A targeting by viral proteins: a widespread biological strategy from DNA/RNA tumor viruses to HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Guergnon, Julien; Godet, Angélique N; Galioot, Amandine; Falanga, Pierre Barthélémy; Colle, Jean-Hervé; Cayla, Xavier; Garcia, Alphonse

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a large family of holoenzymes that comprises 1% of total cellular proteins and accounts for the majority of Ser/Thr phosphatase activity in eukaryotic cells. Although initially viewed as constitutive housekeeping enzymes, it is now well established that PP2A proteins represent a family of highly and sophistically regulated phosphatases. The past decade, multiple complementary studies have improved our knowledge about structural and functional regulation of PP2A holoenzymes. In this regard, after summarizing major cellular regulation, this review will mainly focus on discussing a particulate biological strategy, used by various viruses, which is based on the targeting of PP2A enzymes by viral proteins in order to specifically deregulate, for their own benefit, cellular pathways of their hosts. The impact of such PP2A targeting for research in human diseases, and in further therapeutic developments, is also discussed.

  4. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delva, Laurens; Ragaert, Kim; Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  5. Subsurface PpIX imaging in vivo with ultrasound-guided tomographic spectroscopy: reconstruction vs. born-normalized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; D'Souza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Topically applied ALA promotes PpIX production preferentially in tumors, and many strategies have been developed to increase PpIX distribution and PDT treatment efficacy at depths > 1mm is not fully understood. While surface imaging techniques provide useful diagnosis, dosimetry, and efficacy information for superficial tumors, these methods cannot interrogate deeper tumors to provide in situ insight into spatial PpIX distributions. We have developed an ultrasound-guided, white-light-informed, tomographics spectroscopy system for the spatial measurement of subsurface PpIX. Detailed imaging system specifications, methodology, and optical-phantom-based characterization will be presented separately. Here we evaluate preliminary in vivo results using both full tomographic reconstruction and by plotting individual tomographic source-detector pair data against US images.

  6. Protein phosphatase complex PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylates P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and down-regulates the expression and function.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Miho; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 is a key molecule of multidrug resistance in cancer. Protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, regulatory subunit B, gamma (PPP2R3C), which is a regulatory subunit of PP2A and PP5, was identified as a binding candidate to P-gp. Immunoprecipitation-western blotting revealed that PP5 and PPP2R3C were coprecipitated with P-gp, while PP2A was not. PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylated protein kinase A/protein kinase C-phosphorylation of P-gp. Knockdown of PP5 and/or PPP2R3C increased P-gp expression and lowered the sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. Consequently, our results indicate that PP5/PPP2R3C negatively regulates P-gp expression and function.

  7. Diversity in guanosine 3',5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp) sensitivity among guanylate kinases of bacteria and plants.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuhta; Izumi, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Yoshinori; Kusumi, Kensuke; Iba, Koh; Watanabe, Seiya; Nakahira, Yoichi; Weber, Andreas P M; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2014-05-30

    The guanosine 3',5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp) signaling system is shared by bacteria and plant chloroplasts, but its role in plants has remained unclear. Here we show that guanylate kinase (GK), a key enzyme in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis that catalyzes the conversion of GMP to GDP, is a target of regulation by ppGpp in chloroplasts of rice, pea, and Arabidopsis. Plants have two distinct types of GK that are localized to organelles (GKpm) or to the cytosol (GKc), with both enzymes being essential for growth and development. We found that the activity of rice GKpm in vitro was inhibited by ppGpp with a Ki of 2.8 μM relative to the substrate GMP, whereas the Km of this enzyme for GMP was 73 μM. The IC50 of ppGpp for GKpm was ∼10 μM. In contrast, the activity of rice GKc was insensitive to ppGpp, as was that of GK from bakers' yeast, which is also a cytosolic enzyme. These observations suggest that ppGpp plays a pivotal role in the regulation of GTP biosynthesis in chloroplasts through specific inhibition of GKpm activity, with the regulation of GTP biosynthesis in chloroplasts thus being independent of that in the cytosol. We also found that GKs of Escherichia coli and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 are insensitive to ppGpp, in contrast to the ppGpp sensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis enzyme. Our biochemical characterization of GK enzymes has thus revealed a novel target of ppGpp in chloroplasts and has uncovered diversity among bacterial GKs with regard to regulation by ppGpp.

  8. Activation of the pp60c-src kinase by middle T antigen binding or by dephosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Courtneidge, S A

    1985-01-01

    The transforming protein of polyoma virus, middle T antigen, associates with the protein tyrosine kinase pp60c-src, and analysis of mutants of middle T suggests that this complex plays an important role in transformation by polyoma. It has recently been reported that pp60c-src from polyoma virus-transformed cells has enhanced tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. The data presented here confirm these findings and show that the enhanced kinase activity of pp60c-src is due to an increase in the Vmax of the enzyme. Sucrose density gradient analysis demonstrates that only the form of pp60c-src which is bound to middle T antigen is activated. The difference in enzyme activity between pp60c-src from normal and middle T-transformed cells is more marked when the enzyme is prepared from lysates containing the phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate. pp60c-src from middle T transformed cells is unaffected, but pp60c-src from normal cells has reduced kinase activity if dephosphorylation is prevented. The kinase activity of pp60c-src thus appears to be regulated by its degree of phosphorylation at tyrosine, and data are presented which support this hypothesis. pp60c-src is the first example of a protein tyrosine kinase whose activity is inhibited by phosphorylation at tyrosine. Middle T antigen may increase the kinase activity of pp60c-src by preventing phosphorylation at this regulatory site. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2411538

  9. MS_RHII-RSD, a Dual-Function RNase HII-(p)ppGpp Synthetase from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Murdeshwar, Maya S.

    2012-01-01

    In the noninfectious soil saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis, intracellular levels of the stress alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate, together termed (p)ppGpp, are regulated by the enzyme RelMsm. This enzyme consists of a single, bifunctional polypeptide chain that is capable of both synthesizing and hydrolyzing (p)ppGpp. The relMsm knockout strain of M. smegmatis (ΔrelMsm) is expected to show a (p)ppGpp null [(p)ppGpp0] phenotype. Contrary to this expectation, the strain is capable of synthesizing (p)ppGpp in vivo. In this study, we identify and functionally characterize the open reading frame (ORF), MSMEG_5849, that encodes a second functional (p)ppGpp synthetase in M. smegmatis. In addition to (p)ppGpp synthesis, the 567-amino-acid-long protein encoded by this gene is capable of hydrolyzing RNA·DNA hybrids and bears similarity to the conventional RNase HII enzymes. We have classified this protein as actRelMsm in accordance with the recent nomenclature proposed and have named it MS_RHII-RSD, indicating the two enzymatic activities present [RHII, RNase HII domain, originally identified as domain of unknown function 429 (DUF429), and RSD, RelA_SpoT nucleotidyl transferase domain, the SYNTH domain responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis activity]. MS_RHII-RSD is expressed and is constitutively active in vivo and behaves like a monofunctional (p)ppGpp synthetase in vitro. The occurrence of the RNase HII and (p)ppGpp synthetase domains together on the same polypeptide chain is suggestive of an in vivo role for this novel protein as a link connecting the essential life processes of DNA replication, repair, and transcription to the highly conserved stress survival pathway, the stringent response. PMID:22636779

  10. A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    González, Jorge; Cornejo, Alberto; Santos, Marcia R M; Cordero, Esteban M; Gutiérrez, Bessy; Porcile, Patricio; Mortara, Renato A; Sagua, Hernán; Da Silveira, José Franco; Araya, Jorge E

    2003-01-01

    Here we provide evidence for a critical role of PP2As (protein phosphatase 2As) in the transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi. In axenic medium at pH 5.0, trypomastigotes rapidly transform into amastigotes, a process blocked by okadaic acid, a potent PP2A inhibitor, at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM. 1-Norokadaone, an inactive okadaic acid analogue, did not affect the transformation. Electron microscopy studies indicated that okadaic acid-treated trypomastigotes had not undergone ultrastructural modifications, reinforcing the idea that PP2A inhibits transformation. Using a microcystin-Sepharose affinity column we purified the native T. cruzi PP2A. The enzyme displayed activity against 32P-labelled phosphorylase a that was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by okadaic acid. The protein was also submitted to MS and, from the peptides obtained, degenerate primers were used to clone a novel T. cruzi PP2A enzyme by PCR. The isolated gene encodes a protein of 303 amino acids, termed TcPP2A, which displayed a high degree of homology (86%) with the catalytic subunit of Trypanosoma brucei PP2A. Northern-blot analysis revealed the presence of a major 2.1-kb mRNA hybridizing in all T. cruzi developmental stages. Southern-blot analysis suggested that the TcPP2A gene is present in low copy number in the T. cruzi genome. These results are consistent with the mapping of PP2A genes in two chromosomal bands by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and chromoblot hybridization. Our studies suggest that in T. cruzi PP2A is important for the complete transformation of trypomastigotes into amastigotes during the life cycle of this protozoan parasite. PMID:12737627

  11. Influence of PP-g-MA compatibilizer characteristics on mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhuo

    Glass fiber (GF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) has become a common composite material used for various applications. Previous reports indicated that grafting ratio and molecular weight (MW) of znaleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) are the two most significant factors affecting the mechanical properties of PP/PP-g-MA/GF composites, but the combined effect of these two factors remains controversial. The study of the importance of MA grafting ratio and MW is continued in this work using PPIPP-g MA/GF composites containing various grades and concentrations of PP-g MA compatibilizer. First, MFR and FT1R analyses were performed to characterize the physical and chemical properties- of each PP-g-MA resin. Then, premixed PP and PP-g-MA blend were compounded with GF via twin screw extrusion, with the compounds injection molded into tensile, flexural and Izod impact specimens (all ASTM standard) for mechanical properties testing. Generally speaking, at a given GF content, higher compatibilizer concentrations led to higher tensile, flexural and notched Izod impact strength up to an optimum MA concentrations above which these properties tended to level off PP-g-MA resins with higher grafting ratio were more efficient compatibilizers as indicated by improved tensile, flexural and impact properties at lower PP-g-MA contents. In addition, MW was expected to affect properties as well, with too high and too 16w MW values leading to reduced reinforcement. While the optimum MW values for tensile and impact strength were still not clear based on present results, the estimated optimum weight average MW for maximum flexural strength was 90,000 +/- 1,400 g/mol.

  12. A role for protein phosphatase PP1γ in SMN complex formation and subnuclear localization to Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Renvoisé, Benoît; Quérol, Gwendoline; Verrier, Eloi Rémi; Burlet, Philippe; Lefebvre, Suzie

    2012-06-15

    The spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene product SMN forms with gem-associated protein 2-8 (Gemin2-8) and unrip (also known as STRAP) the ubiquitous survival motor neuron (SMN) complex, which is required for the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), their nuclear import and their localization to subnuclear domain Cajal bodies (CBs). The concentration of the SMN complex and snRNPs in CBs is reduced upon SMN deficiency in SMA cells. Subcellular localization of the SMN complex is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation in HeLa cell extracts and in vitro protein binding assays, we show here that the SMN complex and its component Gemin8 interact directly with protein phosphatase PP1γ. Overexpression of Gemin8 in cells increases the number of CBs and results in targeting of PP1γ to CBs. Moreover, depletion of PP1γ by RNA interference enhances the localization of the SMN complex and snRNPs to CBs. Consequently, the interaction between SMN and Gemin8 increases in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells. Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis revealed that SMN is hyperphosphorylated in nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells and expression of PP1γ restores these isoforms. Notably, SMN deficiency in SMA leads to the aberrant subcellular localization of Gemin8 and PP1γ in the atrophic skeletal muscles, suggesting that the function of PP1γ is likely to be affected in disease. Our findings reveal a role of PP1γ in the formation of the SMN complex and the maintenance of CB integrity. Finally, we propose Gemin8 interaction with PP1γ as a target for therapeutic intervention in SMA.

  13. Measurement of the. pi. d. -->. pp reaction at T/sub. pi. / = 65 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ottermann, C.R.; Boschitz, E.T.; Gyles, W.; List, W.; Tacik, R.; Mango, S.; Konter, J.A.; van den Brandt, B.; Smith, G.R.

    1986-05-01

    The vector analyzing power iT/sub 11/ has been measured for the ..pi..d..-->..pp reaction at an incident pion energy of 65 MeV, using a vector polarized deuteron target. The data are compared with predictions from coupled channels, Faddeev, and perturbation theory calculations.

  14. CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION AT HIGH RAPIDITY IN p+p COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DEBBE,R.

    2006-05-30

    This report describes the recent analysis of identified charged particle production at high rapidity performed on data collected from p+p collisions at RHIC ({radical}s = 200 GeV). The extracted invariant cross-sections compare well to NLO pQCD calculations. However, a puzzling high yield of protons at high rapidity and p{sub T} has been found.

  15. DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP37L (VIEWING PORTAL), AND A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP37L (VIEWING PORTAL), AND A FLUORESCENT LIGHT, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale in high multiplicity p+p collisions

    DOE PAGES

    McLerran, Larry; Tribedy, Prithwish

    2015-11-02

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. Here, we show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. It is presumed that the origin of such intrinsic fluctuations is non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. Furthermore, we find that fluctuations as large as O(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to raremore » high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.« less

  17. Anti-biofilm activity of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra SktPp1 against Serratia marcescens SMJ-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Faiq; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the anti-biofilm activity of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra SktPp1 crude extract against the biofilm producer, Serratia marcescens. The crude extract of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 was extracted with ethyl acetate. The sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 0.1 mg/ml, has been used in this study. The anti-biofilm activity of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 crude extract was assessed against the biofilm of S. marcescens using the crystal violet assay. The growth curve has been used as the indicator of the effect of crude extracts to bacterial growth. The sub-MIC crude extract was tested against two of S. marcescens virulence factors, including the swarming ability and production of prodigiosin using the swarming assay and prodigiosin assay. The growth curves of S. marcescens indicated that the sub-MIC concentration of crude extract did not affect the growth of S. marcescens. The production of prodigiosin was reduced by 44%. The diameter of the swarming area was reduced from 8.7 cm to 0.8 cm. The sub-MIC crude extract inhibits 26.9% of the biofilm production in S. marcescens. This crude extract lost its activity at 50°C and above. In conclusion, crude extract of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens SMJ-11 biofilm formation.

  18. Detecting W/Z pairs and Higgs at high energy pp colliders: Main experimental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Alverson, G.; Bengtsson, H.U.; Hauptman, J.; Hedin, D.; Herrero, M.J.; Wang, E.; Linn, S.; Young, C.; Milliken, B.; Paige, F.

    1987-03-01

    The main detection issues implied by the search for W and Z/sup 0/ pairs and Higgs in a high energy pp collider context are discussed here. It includes: precise electron identification, missing energy measurement, multilepton recognition, sophisticated jet pattern recognition, and pile-up. The study uses, as much as possible, a ''realistic simulation of life.''

  19. A functional genomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana PP2C clade D

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the reference dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the PP2C family of P-protein phosphatases includes the products of 80 genes that have been separated into 10 multi-protein clades plus six singletons. Clade D includes the products of nine genes distributed among 3 chromosomes (PPD1, At3g12620; PPD2...

  20. Designed abscisic acid analogs as antagonists of PYL-PP2C receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Akiyama, Tomonori; Muto, Takuya; Yajima, Shunsuke; Sue, Masayuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Kamo, Tsunashi; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Cutler, Sean R; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2014-06-01

    The plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical for several abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is normally repressed by group-A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), but stress-induced ABA binds Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) receptors, which then bind and inhibit PP2Cs. X-ray structures of several receptor-ABA complexes revealed a tunnel above ABA's 3' ring CH that opens at the PP2C binding interface. Here, ABA analogs with sufficiently long 3' alkyl chains were predicted to traverse this tunnel and block PYL-PP2C interactions. To test this, a series of 3'-alkylsulfanyl ABAs were synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths. Physiological, biochemical and structural analyses revealed that a six-carbon alkyl substitution produced a potent ABA antagonist that was sufficiently active to block multiple stress-induced ABA responses in vivo. This study provides a new approach for the design of ABA analogs, and the results validated structure-based design for this target class.

  1. Structure and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) gels formed at different cooling temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Ryusuke; Hotta, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the cooling temperature on the crystalline network formation and the mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) gels were evaluated. iPP/decahydronaphthalene gels were prepared at different cooling temperatures varying from 25 degrees C to -196 degrees C. Tensile test was carried out to measure the mechanical properties of the gels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were conducted to observe the density and the homogeneity of the network structures. It was found that the iPP gel quenched at -196 degrees C was highly elastic, exhibiting the highest fracture strain and stress of 2500% and 230 kPa. The SEM analysis revealed that nano-crystals were formed, which acted as crosslinkers that were distributed throughout the gels by quenching below -40 degrees C. By contrast, spherulites were observed to have grown inhomogeneously by cooling above -20 degrees C. It was found by DSC that the amount of crystals was increased by decreasing the cooling temperatures, indicating an increase in the density of the network structures. From these results, it was therefore concluded that iPP gel quenched at -196 degrees C possessed the highest mechanical property due to its dense and homogeneous network structures.

  2. Comparative genetic analysis of PP2A-Cdc55 regulators in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Rossio, Valentina; Kazatskaya, Anna; Hirabayashi, Mayo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cdc55, a regulatory B subunit of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex, plays various functions during mitosis. Sequestration of Cdc55 from the nucleus by Zds1 and Zds2 is important for robust activation of mitotic Cdk1 and mitotic progression in budding yeast. However, Zds1-family proteins are found only in fungi but not in higher eukaryotes. In animal cells, highly conserved ENSA/ARPP-19 family proteins bind and inhibit PP2A-B55 activity for mitotic entry.   In this study, we compared the relative contribution of Zds1/Zds2 and ENSA-family proteins Igo1/Igo2 on Cdc55 functions in budding yeast mitosis. We confirmed that Igo1/Igo2 can inhibit Cdc55 in early mitosis, but their contribution to Cdc55 regulation is relatively minor compared with the role of Zds1/Zds2. In contrast to Zds1, which primarily localized to the sites of cell polarity and in the cytoplasm, Igo1 is localized in the nucleus, suggesting that Igo1/Igo2 inhibit Cdc55 in a manner distinct from Zds1/Zds2. Our analysis confirmed an evolutionarily conserved function of ENSA-family proteins in inhibiting PP2A-Cdc55, and we propose that Zds1-dependent sequestration of PP2A-Cdc55 from the nucleus is uniquely evolved to facilitate closed mitosis in fungal species.

  3. Study on structure and hydrophobicity of PP/EVA co-blending membrane: Quenching rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Na; Li, Zhao; Hua, Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) co-blending hydrophobic microporous membranes for vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). In the process of preparation, quenching rate has a great influence on the membrane morphology.

  4. The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniel; Niebergall, Roda; Liang, Xiangxiu; Bücherl, Christoph A; Sklenar, Jan; Macho, Alberto P; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Derbyshire, Paul; Altenbach, Denise; Maclean, Dan; Robatzek, Silke; Uhrig, Joachim; Menke, Frank; Zhou, Jian-Min; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component.

  5. The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Bücherl, Christoph A.; Sklenar, Jan; Macho, Alberto P.; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Derbyshire, Paul; Altenbach, Denise; Robatzek, Silke; Uhrig, Joachim; Menke, Frank; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component. PMID:27494702

  6. Kaon pair production in pp, pd and dd collisions at COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, M.; Dzyuba, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; Maeda, Y.; Polyanskiy, A.; Wilkin, C.; Yuan, X.

    2010-08-05

    The near-threshold production of kaon-pairs has been investigated in proton-proton, proton-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron collisions at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The excitation function for the pp{yields}ppK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction and the invariant K{sup -}p, K{sup -}pp, and K{sup +}K{sup -} mass distributions indicate the presence of both K{sup -}p and K{sup +}K{sup -} final state interactions. Analogous final-state interactions of antikaons with deuterons has been found in the pp{yields}dK{sup +}K{sup 0}-bar reaction as well as in the pn{yields}dK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction, measured in the quasi-free pd{yields}p{sub sp}dK{sup +}K{sup -} process with a 'spectator' proton (p{sub sp}). The existing COSY data on the pd{yields}{sup 3}HeK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction are not yet sufficient to study the K{sup -3}He and K{sup +}K{sup -} final state interactions. A very small total cross section was found for the dd{yields}{sup 4}HeK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction.

  7. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development.

    PubMed

    Viquez, Natasha M; Füger, Petra; Valakh, Vera; Daniels, Richard W; Rasse, Tobias M; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-09-16

    The synapse is composed of an active zone apposed to a postsynaptic cluster of neurotransmitter receptors. Each Drosophila neuromuscular junction comprises hundreds of such individual release sites apposed to clusters of glutamate receptors. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required for the development of structurally normal active zones opposite glutamate receptors. When PP2A is inhibited presynaptically, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot (Brp), an active zone protein required for normal transmitter release. These unapposed receptors are not due to presynaptic retraction of synaptic boutons, since other presynaptic components are still apposed to the entire postsynaptic specialization. Instead, these data suggest that Brp localization is regulated at the level of individual release sites. Live imaging of glutamate receptors demonstrates that this disruption to active zone development is accompanied by abnormal postsynaptic development, with decreased formation of glutamate receptor clusters. Remarkably, inhibition of the serine-threonine kinase GSK-3beta completely suppresses the active zone defect, as well as other synaptic morphology phenotypes associated with inhibition of PP2A. These data suggest that PP2A and GSK-3beta function antagonistically to control active zone development, providing a potential mechanism for regulating synaptic efficacy at a single release site.

  8. Using the Ras Recruitment System to identify PP2A-B55-interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Barr, Haim M; Sharf, Rakefet; Kleinberger, Tamar

    2003-01-01

    The RRS system facilitated the discovery of hitherto unknown interactions with the PP2A-B55 subunit. The advantages of the system lie in its ability to identify interactions that may not be detected by traditional yeast two-hybrid systems. The RRS can thus provide a complementary genetic approach to the identification of protein-protein interactions.

  9. Degradation of trichloroethylene by methanol-growth cultures of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b PP358

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, M.W.; Georgiou, G.; Speitel, G.E. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b is a methanotrophic bacteria which rapidly degrades chlorinated solvents including trichloroethylene. This report focuses on continuous growth of Methylosinus trichosporium PP358 and the influence of growth conditions on TCE degradation and transformation capacity. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Collectivity of (non-)strange hadrons in high-multiplicity pp with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephans, George S. F.; CMS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Observation of an enhanced long-range, near-side, two-particle correlation (known as the “Ridge”) in high-multiplicity pp and pPb collisions opened up new opportunities of exploring QCD dynamics in small collision systems. The CMS detector at the LHC has excellent capabilities of reconstructing weakly decaying strange hadrons such as , Λ and Ξ. Studies of strange hadron production and correlations in small colliding systems provide additional insights into the physical origin of the observed collective phenomena. New results for pT spectra and long-range two-particle correlations for charged particles and identified strange hadrons in high-multiplicity pp and pPb collisions are presented. The data at various collision energies for pp and pPb collisions are compared to those obtained for PbPb at similar multiplicities. Multi-particle cumulants for pp and pPb events are studied in order to more fully explore the collective nature of the long-range correlations.

  11. PP1-mediated moesin dephosphorylation couples polar relaxation to mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Kunda, Patricia; Rodrigues, Nelio T L; Moeendarbary, Emadaldin; Liu, Tao; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2012-02-07

    Animal cells undergo dramatic actin-dependent changes in shape as they progress through mitosis; they round up upon mitotic entry and elongate during chromosome segregation before dividing into two [1-3]. Moesin, the sole Drosophila ERM-family protein [4], plays a critical role in this process, through the construction of a stiff, rounded metaphase cortex [5-7]. At mitotic exit, this rigid cortex must be dismantled to allow for anaphase elongation and cytokinesis through the loss of the active pool of phospho-Thr559moesin from cell poles. Here, in an RNA interference (RNAi) screen for phosphatases involved in the temporal and spatial control of moesin, we identify PP1-87B RNAi as having elevated p-moesin levels and reduced cortical compliance. In mitosis, RNAi-induced depletion of PP1-87B or depletion of a conserved noncatalytic PP1 phosphatase subunit Sds22 leads to defects in p-moesin clearance from cell poles at anaphase, a delay in anaphase elongation, together with defects in bipolar anaphase relaxation and cytokinesis. Importantly, similar cortical defects are seen at anaphase following the expression of a constitutively active, phosphomimetic version of moesin. These data reveal a new role for the PP1-87B/Sds22 phosphatase, an important regulator of the metaphase-anaphase transition, in coupling moesin-dependent cell shape changes to mitotic exit.

  12. First Trimester Maternal Serum PP13 in the Risk Assessment for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term. PMID:18539259

  13. Search for the kaonic bound state ppK- in pp→ pK +Λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzer, Robert; Epple, Eliane; Fabbietti, Laura

    2015-08-01

    The investigation of the kaon-nucleon interaction has been intensified in the last years due to new measurements of the Λ(1405) resonance and indications on the existence of the ppK- bound state. Such results are heavily discussed, since they can lead to new knowledge about the -Nucleon interaction. In the last years, the reaction p+p →p+ K+ + Λ has been measured at the GSI Helmholtzcentre in Darmstadt with the FOPI and the HADES spectrometers at beam energies of 3.1 GeV and 3.5 GeV, respectively. New analyses methods have been developed to understand quantitatively all the processes contributing to the pK+Λ final state. At the FOPI experiment a set of around 1.000 events and in the HADES experiment around 22.000 events of the exclusive reaction p+p →p+ K+ + Λ could be extracted. These reconstructed exclusive events were analyzed within the Bonn Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis (BG-PWA) framework, which provides a coherent description of the data including several resonant and non-resonant production channels. The results have shown that the inclusion of interferences between different channels has to be considered in the analysis. Based on the description of the data with the Partial Wave Analysis an upper limit on the cross-section for the production of the ppK- could be determined.

  14. PPAR-α targeting in kidney fibrosis: is BAY PP1 just another renoprotector?

    PubMed

    Elbjeirami, Wafa M

    2011-12-01

    Interstitial fibrosis plays a major role in the progression of renal diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) ligands are increasingly explored for their potential to reverse or halt tubulointerstitial fibrosis. This Commentary discusses new findings by Boor et al., who show that BAY PP1, a novel PPAR-α agonist, ameliorates renal fibrosis and dysfunction.

  15. On the angular and energy distribution of solar neutrons generated in P-P reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efimov, Y. E.; Kocharov, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of high energy neutron generation in P-P reactions in the solar atmosphere is reconsidered. It is shown that the angular distribution of emitted neutrons is anisotropic and the energy spectrum of neutrons depends on the angle of neutron emission.

  16. PP2A: The Achilles Heal in MDS with 5q Deletion.

    PubMed

    Sallman, David A; Wei, Sheng; List, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a hematologically diverse group of myeloid neoplasms, however, one subtype characterized by an isolated deletion of chromosome 5q [del(5q)] is pathologically and clinically distinct. Patients with del(5q) MDS share biological features that account for the profound hypoplastic anemia and unique sensitivity to treatment with lenalidomide. Ineffective erythropoiesis in del(5q) MDS arises from allelic deletion of the ribosomal processing S-14 (RPS14) gene, which leads to MDM2 sequestration with consequent p53 activation and erythroid cell death. Since its approval in 2005, lenalidomide has changed the natural course of the disease. Patients who achieve transfusion independence and/or a cytogenetic response with lenalidomide have a decreased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia and an improved overall survival compared to non-responders. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS has advanced therapeutic strategies for this disease. The selective cytotoxicity of lenalidomide in del(5q) clones derives from inhibition of a haplodeficient phosphatase whose catalytic domain is encoded within the common deleted region on chromosome 5q, i.e., protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Acα). PP2A is a highly conserved, dual specificity phosphatase that plays an essential role in regulation of the G2/M checkpoint. Inhibition of PP2Acα results in cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in del(5q) cells. Targeted knockdown of PP2Acα using siRNA is sufficient to sensitize non-del(5q) clones to lenalidomide. Through its inhibitory effect on PP2A, lenalidomide stabilizes MDM2 to restore p53 degradation in erythroid precursors, with subsequent arrest in G2/M. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with del(5q) MDS develop resistance to lenalidomide over time associated with PP2Acα over-expression. Targeted inhibition of PP2A with a more potent inhibitor has emerged as an attractive therapeutic approach for patients with del

  17. PP2A: The Achilles Heal in MDS with 5q Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Sallman, David A.; Wei, Sheng; List, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a hematologically diverse group of myeloid neoplasms, however, one subtype characterized by an isolated deletion of chromosome 5q [del(5q)] is pathologically and clinically distinct. Patients with del(5q) MDS share biological features that account for the profound hypoplastic anemia and unique sensitivity to treatment with lenalidomide. Ineffective erythropoiesis in del(5q) MDS arises from allelic deletion of the ribosomal processing S-14 (RPS14) gene, which leads to MDM2 sequestration with consequent p53 activation and erythroid cell death. Since its approval in 2005, lenalidomide has changed the natural course of the disease. Patients who achieve transfusion independence and/or a cytogenetic response with lenalidomide have a decreased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia and an improved overall survival compared to non-responders. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS has advanced therapeutic strategies for this disease. The selective cytotoxicity of lenalidomide in del(5q) clones derives from inhibition of a haplodeficient phosphatase whose catalytic domain is encoded within the common deleted region on chromosome 5q, i.e., protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Acα). PP2A is a highly conserved, dual specificity phosphatase that plays an essential role in regulation of the G2/M checkpoint. Inhibition of PP2Acα results in cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in del(5q) cells. Targeted knockdown of PP2Acα using siRNA is sufficient to sensitize non-del(5q) clones to lenalidomide. Through its inhibitory effect on PP2A, lenalidomide stabilizes MDM2 to restore p53 degradation in erythroid precursors, with subsequent arrest in G2/M. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with del(5q) MDS develop resistance to lenalidomide over time associated with PP2Acα over-expression. Targeted inhibition of PP2A with a more potent inhibitor has emerged as an attractive therapeutic approach for patients with del

  18. Measurement of associated W + charm production in pp collisions at = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Saxena, P.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Singh, A. P.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bendavid, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y.-J.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rojo, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Stoye, M.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. 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M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Ratnikova, N.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Lacroix, F.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. 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Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2014-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the associated production of a W boson and a charm-quark jet (W + c) in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The analysis is conducted with a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1, collected by the CMS detector at the LHC. W boson candidates are identified by their decay into a charged lepton (muon or electron) and a neutrino. The W + c measurements are performed for charm-quark jets in the kinematic region > 25 GeV, |ηjet| < 2 .5, for two different thresholds for the transverse momentum of the lepton from the W-boson decay, and in the pseudorapidity range |ηℓ| < 2 .1. Hadronic and inclusive semileptonic decays of charm hadrons are used to measure the following total cross sections: σ(pp → W + c + X) × (W → ℓν) = 107 .7 ± 3 .3 (stat .) ± 6 .9 (syst .) pb ( > 25 GeV) and σ(pp → W + c + X)×(W → ℓν) = 84 .1 ± 2 .0 (stat .) ± 4 .9 (syst .) pb ( > 35 GeV), and the cross section ratios σ(pp → W+ + + X) /σ(pp → W- + c + X) = 0 .954 ± 0 .025 (stat .) ± 0 .004 (syst .) ( > 25 GeV) and σ(pp → W+ + + X) /σ(pp → W- + c + X) = 0 .938 ± 0 .019 (stat .) ± 0 .006 (syst .) ( > 35 GeV). Cross sections and cross section ratios are also measured differentially with respect to the absolute value of the pseudorapidity of the lepton from the W-boson decay. These are the first measurements from the LHC directly sensitive to the strange quark and antiquark content of the proton. Results are compared with theoretical predictions and are consistent with the predictions based on global fits of parton distribution functions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L.; Mackey, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  20. Crystal structures and mutagenesis of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases elucidate the selectivity of cantharidin and novel norcantharidin-based inhibitors of PP5C.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debasish; Swingle, Mark R; Salter, Edward A; Wood, Eric; D'Arcy, Brandon; Zivanov, Catherine; Abney, Kevin; Musiyenko, Alla; Rusin, Scott F; Kettenbach, Arminja; Yet, Larry; Schroeder, Chad E; Golden, Jennifer E; Dunham, Wade H; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Banerjee, Surajit; Forbes, David; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Honkanen, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Cantharidin is a natural toxin and an active constituent in a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat tumors. Cantharidin acts as a semi-selective inhibitor of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases. Despite sharing a common catalytic mechanism and marked structural similarity with PP1C, PP2AC and PP5C, human PP4C was found to be insensitive to the inhibitory activity of cantharidin. To explore the molecular basis for this selectivity, we synthesized and tested novel C5/C6-derivatives designed from quantum-based modeling of the interactions revealed in the co-crystal structures of PP5C in complex with cantharidin. Structure-activity relationship studies and analysis of high-resolution (1.25Å) PP5C-inhibitor co-crystal structures reveal close contacts between the inhibitor bridgehead oxygen and both a catalytic metal ion and a non-catalytic phenylalanine residue, the latter of which is substituted by tryptophan in PP4C. Quantum chemistry calculations predicted that steric clashes with the bulkier tryptophan side chain in PP4C would force all cantharidin-based inhibitors into an unfavorable binding mode, disrupting the strong coordination of active site metal ions observed in the PP5C co-crystal structures, thereby rendering PP4C insensitive to the inhibitors. This prediction was confirmed by inhibition studies employing native human PP4C. Mutation of PP5C (F446W) and PP1C (F257W), to mimic the PP4C active site, resulted in markedly suppressed sensitivity to cantharidin. These observations provide insight into the structural basis for the natural selectivity of cantharidin and provide an avenue for PP4C deselection. The novel crystal structures also provide insight into interactions that provide increased selectivity of the C5/C6 modifications for PP5C versus other PPP-family phosphatases.

  1. Cytoplasmic retention of protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor 2 (I2PP2A) induces Alzheimer-like abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau.

    PubMed

    Arif, Mohammad; Wei, Jianshe; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fei; Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2014-10-03

    Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau leads to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), and related tauopathies. The phosphorylation of Tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which in turn is modulated by endogenous inhibitor 2 (I2 (PP2A)). In AD brain, I2 (PP2A) is translocated from neuronal nucleus to cytoplasm, where it inhibits PP2A activity and promotes abnormal phosphorylation of Tau. Here we describe the identification of a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminal region of I2 (PP2A) containing a conserved basic motif, (179)RKR(181), which is sufficient for directing its nuclear localization. The current study further presents an inducible cell model (Tet-Off system) of AD-type abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau by expressing I2 (PP2A) in which the NLS was inactivated by (179)RKR(181) → AAA along with (168)KR(169) → AA mutations. In this model, the mutant NLS (mNLS)-I2 (PP2A) (I2 (PP2A)AA-AAA) was retained in the cell cytoplasm, where it physically interacted with PP2A and inhibited its activity. Inhibition of PP2A was associated with the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau, which resulted in microtubule network instability and neurite outgrowth impairment. Expression of mNLS-I2 (PP2A) activated CAMKII and GSK-3β, which are Tau kinases regulated by PP2A. The immunoprecipitation experiments showed the direct interaction of I2 (PP2A) with PP2A and GSK-3β but not with CAMKII. Thus, the cell model provides insights into the nature of the potential NLS and the mechanistic relationship between I2 (PP2A)-induced inhibition of PP2A and hyperphosphorylation of Tau that can be utilized to develop drugs preventing Tau pathology. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Cytoplasmic Retention of Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibitor 2 (I2PP2A) Induces Alzheimer-like Abnormal Hyperphosphorylation of Tau*

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Mohammad; Wei, Jianshe; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fei; Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau leads to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), and related tauopathies. The phosphorylation of Tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which in turn is modulated by endogenous inhibitor 2 (I2PP2A). In AD brain, I2PP2A is translocated from neuronal nucleus to cytoplasm, where it inhibits PP2A activity and promotes abnormal phosphorylation of Tau. Here we describe the identification of a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminal region of I2PP2A containing a conserved basic motif, 179RKR181, which is sufficient for directing its nuclear localization. The current study further presents an inducible cell model (Tet-Off system) of AD-type abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau by expressing I2PP2A in which the NLS was inactivated by 179RKR181 → AAA along with 168KR169 → AA mutations. In this model, the mutant NLS (mNLS)-I2PP2A (I2PP2AAA-AAA) was retained in the cell cytoplasm, where it physically interacted with PP2A and inhibited its activity. Inhibition of PP2A was associated with the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau, which resulted in microtubule network instability and neurite outgrowth impairment. Expression of mNLS-I2PP2A activated CAMKII and GSK-3β, which are Tau kinases regulated by PP2A. The immunoprecipitation experiments showed the direct interaction of I2PP2A with PP2A and GSK-3β but not with CAMKII. Thus, the cell model provides insights into the nature of the potential NLS and the mechanistic relationship between I2PP2A-induced inhibition of PP2A and hyperphosphorylation of Tau that can be utilized to develop drugs preventing Tau pathology. PMID:25128526

  3. ALA-induced PpIX spectroscopy for brain tumor image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Pablo A.; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Harris, Brent T.; Wilson, Brian C.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Maximizing the extent of brain tumor resection correlates with improved survival and quality of life outcomes in patients. Optimal surgical resection requires accurate discrimination between normal and abnormal, cancerous tissue. We present our recent experience using quantitative optical spectroscopy in 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence-guided resection. Exogenous administration of ALA leads to preferential accumulation in tumor tissue of the fluorescent compound, PpIX, which can be used for in vivo surgical guidance. Using the state of the art approach with a fluorescence surgical microscope, we have been able to visualize a subset of brain tumors, but the sensitivity and accuracy of fluorescence detection for tumor tissue with this system are low. To take full advantage of the biological selectivity of PpIX accumulation in brain tumors, we used a quantitative optical spectroscopy system for in vivo measurements of PpIX tissue concentrations. We have shown that, using our quantitative approach for determination of biomarker concentrations, ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence-guidance can achieve accuracies of greater than 90% for most tumor histologies. Here we show multivariate analysis of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance signals in brain tumors with comparable diagnostic performance to our previously reported quantitative approach. These results are promising, since they show that technological improvements in current fluorescence-guided surgical technologies and more biologically relevant approaches are required to take full advantage of fluorescent biomarkers, achieve better tumor identification, increase extent of resection, and subsequently, lead to improve survival and quality of life in patients.

  4. PP2A-B′ holoenzyme substrate recognition, regulation and role in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Guo; Chen, Hui; Guo, Feng; Yadav, Vikash K; Mcilwain, Sean J; Rowse, Michael; Choudhary, Alka; Lin, Ziqing; Li, Yitong; Gu, Tingjia; Zheng, Aiping; Xu, Qingge; Lee, Woojong; Resch, Eduard; Johnson, Benjamin; Day, Jenny; Ge, Ying; Ong, Irene M; Burkard, Mark E; Ivarsson, Ylva; Xing, Yongna

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major Ser/Thr phosphatase; it forms diverse heterotrimeric holoenzymes that counteract kinase actions. Using a peptidome that tiles the disordered regions of the human proteome, we identified proteins containing [LMFI]xx[ILV]xEx motifs that serve as interaction sites for B′-family PP2A regulatory subunits and holoenzymes. The B′-binding motifs have important roles in substrate recognition and in competitive inhibition of substrate binding. With more than 100 novel ligands identified, we confirmed that the recently identified LxxIxEx B′α-binding motifs serve as common binding sites for B′ subunits with minor variations, and that S/T phosphorylation or D/E residues at positions 2, 7, 8 and 9 of the motifs reinforce interactions. Hundreds of proteins in the human proteome harbor intrinsic or phosphorylation-responsive B′-interaction motifs, and localize at distinct cellular organelles, such as midbody, predicting kinase-facilitated recruitment of PP2A-B′ holoenzymes for tight spatiotemporal control of phosphorylation at mitosis and cytokinesis. Moroever, Polo-like kinase 1-mediated phosphorylation of Cyk4/RACGAP1, a centralspindlin component at the midbody, facilitates binding of both RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor (epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (Ect2)) and PP2A-B′ that in turn dephosphorylates Cyk4 and disrupts Ect2 binding. This feedback signaling loop precisely controls RhoA activation and specifies a restricted region for cleavage furrow ingression. Our results provide a framework for further investigation of diverse signaling circuits formed by PP2A-B′ holoenzymes in various cellular processes. PMID:28884018

  5. Specific Targeting of Caspase-9/PP2A Interaction as Potential New Anti-Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Arrouss, Issam; Nemati, Fariba; Roncal, Fernando; Wislez, Marie; Dorgham, Karim; Vallerand, David; Rabbe, Nathalie; Karboul, Narjesse; Carlotti, Françoise; Bravo, Jeronimo; Mazier, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Purpose PP2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase critical to physiological processes, including apoptosis. Cell penetrating peptides are molecules that can translocate into cells without causing membrane damage. Our goal was to develop cell-penetrating fusion peptides specifically designed to disrupt the caspase-9/PP2A interaction and evaluate their therapeutic potential in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design We generated a peptide containing a penetrating sequence associated to the interaction motif between human caspase-9 and PP2A (DPT-C9h), in order to target their association. Using tumour cell lines, primary human cells and primary human breast cancer (BC) xenografts, we investigated the capacity of DPT-C9h to provoke apoptosis in vitro and inhibition of tumour growth (TGI) in vivo. DPT-C9h was intraperitonealy administered at doses from 1 to 25 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks. Relative Tumour Volume (RTV) was calculated. Results We demonstrated that DPT-C9h specifically target caspase-9/PP2A interaction in vitro and in vivo and induced caspase-9-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell lines. DPT-C9h also induced significant TGI in BC xenografts models. The mouse-specific peptide DPT-C9 also induced TGI in lung (K-Ras model) and breast cancer (PyMT) models. DPT-C9h has a specific effect on transformed B cells isolated from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients without any effect on primary healthy cells. Finally, neither toxicity nor immunogenic responses were observed. Conclusion Using the cell-penetrating peptides blocking caspase-9/PP2A interactions, we have demonstrated that DPT-C9h had a strong therapeutic effect in vitro and in vivo in mouse models of tumour progression. PMID:23637769

  6. Measurements of the decays B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}pp, B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup 0}pp, B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup -}pp{pi}{sup +}, and B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}pp{pi}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.

    2006-09-01

    We present measurements of branching fractions of B{sup 0} decays to multibody final states containing protons, based on 232x10{sup 6} {upsilon}(4S){yields}BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory. We measure the branching fractions B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}pp)=(1.13{+-}0.06{+-}0.08)x10{sup -4}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup 0}pp)=(1.01{+-}0.10{+-}0.09)x10{sup -4}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup -}pp{pi}{sup +})=(3.38{+-}0.14{+-}0.29)x10{sup -4}, and B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}pp{pi}{sup +})=(4.81{+-}0.22{+-}0.44)x10{sup -4} where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. We present a search for the charmed pentaquark state, {theta}{sub c}(3100) observed by H1 and put limits on the branching fraction B(B{sup 0}{yields}{theta}{sub c}p{pi}{sup +})xB({theta}{sub c}{yields}D*{sup -}p)<14x10{sup -6} and B(B{sup 0}{yields}{theta}{sub c}p{pi}{sup +})xB({theta}{sub c}{yields}D{sup -}p)<9x10{sup -6}. Upon investigation of the decay structure of the above four B{sup 0} decay modes, we see an enhancement at low pp mass and deviations from phase-space in the Dp and Dp invariant mass spectra.

  7. PP2C phosphatase activity is coupled to cAMP-mediated pathway in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, N; Kobayashi, T; Tamura, S; Sugiya, H

    1995-07-01

    A 26 kDa particulate protein is phosphorylated during stimulation of amylase secretion by a beta-adrenergic agonist in the rat parotid gland. Previous study has shown that PP2C phosphatase is involved in dephosphorylation of this 26 kDa protein [Yokoyama, N. et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 200, 497-503]. In this study, immunotransblot analysis using anti-PP2C phosphatase antibody showed that PP2C phosphatase was found prominently in the cystolic fractions and less in secretory granule membranes. When cells were stimulated by isoproterenol, cytosolic PP2C phosphatase activity increased to 145% at 5 min and returned to basal level at 30 min. Forskolin increased PP2C phosphatase activity. H89 inhibited increase of PP2C phosphatase activity following beta-adrenergic stimulation. These results suggest that PP2C phosphatase activity is regulated by cAMP-mediated signaling following beta-adrenergic stimulation and participates in dephosphorylation of this 26 kDa protein.

  8. PP2A methylation controls sensitivity and resistance to β-amyloid–induced cognitive and electrophysiological impairments

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Russell E.; Sontag, Jean-Marie; Zhang, Hong; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Yan, Shijun; Kim, Carla Y.; Yim, Michael; Woodruff, Caitlin M.; Arning, Erland; Wasek, Brandi; Yin, Deqi; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sontag, Estelle; Kandel, Eric R.; Arancio, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) are thought to contribute to cognitive and behavioral impairments observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) participates in multiple molecular pathways implicated in AD, and its expression and activity are reduced in postmortem brains of AD patients. PP2A is regulated by protein methylation, and impaired PP2A methylation is thought to contribute to increased AD risk in hyperhomocysteinemic individuals. To examine further the link between PP2A and AD, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress the PP2A methylesterase, protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), or the PP2A methyltransferase, leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT-1), and examined the sensitivity of these animals to behavioral and electrophysiological impairments caused by exogenous Aβ exposure. We found that PME-1 overexpression enhanced these impairments, whereas LCMT-1 overexpression protected against Aβ-induced impairments. Neither transgene affected Aβ production or the electrophysiological response to low concentrations of Aβ, suggesting that these manipulations selectively affect the pathological response to elevated Aβ levels. Together these data identify a molecular mechanism linking PP2A to the development of AD-related cognitive impairments that might be therapeutically exploited to target selectively the pathological effects caused by elevated Aβ levels in AD patients. PMID:26951658

  9. A pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex modulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription and associates with components of the splicing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Adegbola, Onikepe; Pasternack, Gary R. . E-mail: gpastern@jhmi.edu

    2005-08-26

    We have previously shown pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein interact. pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein are nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulators: the retinoblastoma protein is a coactivator for androgen receptor, the major regulator of prostate cancer growth, while pp32, which is highly expressed in prostate cancer, is a corepressor of the estrogen receptor. We now show pp32 increases androgen receptor-mediated transcription and the retinoblastoma protein modulates this activity. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify members of the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex as PSF and nonO/p54nrb, proteins implicated in coordinate regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and splicing. We show that the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex is modulated during TPA-induced K562 differentiation. Present evidence suggests that nuclear receptors assemble multiprotein complexes to coordinately regulate transcription and mRNA processing. Our results suggest that pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein may be part of a multiprotein complex that coordinately regulates nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and mRNA processing.

  10. 6S RNA regulation of relA alters ppGpp levels in early stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Amy T; Chandrangsu, Pete; Wassarman, Karen M

    2010-12-01

    6S RNA is a small, non-coding RNA that interacts directly with σ(70)-RNA polymerase and regulates transcription at many σ(70)-dependent promoters. Here, we demonstrate that 6S RNA regulates transcription of relA, which encodes a ppGpp synthase. The 6S RNA-dependent regulation of relA expression results in increased ppGpp levels during early stationary phase in cells lacking 6S RNA. These changes in ppGpp levels, although modest, are sufficient to result in altered regulation of transcription from σ(70)-dependent promoters sensitive to ppGpp, including those promoting expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and rRNA. These data place 6S RNA as another player in maintaining appropriate gene expression as cells transition into stationary phase. Independent of this ppGpp-mediated 6S RNA-dependent regulation, we also demonstrate that in later stationary phase, 6S RNA continues to downregulate transcription in general, and specifically at a subset of the amino acid promoters, but through a mechanism that is independent of ppGpp and which we hypothesize is through direct regulation. In addition, 6S RNA-dependent regulation of σ(S) activity is not mediated through observed changes in ppGpp levels. We suggest a role for 6S RNA in modulating transcription of several global regulators directly, including relA, to downregulate expression of key pathways in response to changing environmental conditions.

  11. 6S RNA regulation of relA alters ppGpp levels in early stationary phase

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Amy T.; Chandrangsu, Pete; Wassarman, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    6S RNA is a small, non-coding RNA that interacts directly with σ70-RNA polymerase and regulates transcription at many σ70-dependent promoters. Here, we demonstrate that 6S RNA regulates transcription of relA, which encodes a ppGpp synthase. The 6S RNA-dependent regulation of relA expression results in increased ppGpp levels during early stationary phase in cells lacking 6S RNA. These changes in ppGpp levels, although modest, are sufficient to result in altered regulation of transcription from σ70-dependent promoters sensitive to ppGpp, including those promoting expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and rRNA. These data place 6S RNA as another player in maintaining appropriate gene expression as cells transition into stationary phase. Independent of this ppGpp-mediated 6S RNA-dependent regulation, we also demonstrate that in later stationary phase, 6S RNA continues to downregulate transcription in general, and specifically at a subset of the amino acid promoters, but through a mechanism that is independent of ppGpp and which we hypothesize is through direct regulation. In addition, 6S RNA-dependent regulation of σS activity is not mediated through observed changes in ppGpp levels. We suggest a role for 6S RNA in modulating transcription of several global regulators directly, including relA, to downregulate expression of key pathways in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:20829285

  12. SCF E3 ligase PP2-B11 plays a positive role in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fengjuan; Wang, Chunyan; Huang, Jinguang; Yang, Guodong; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao

    2015-01-01

    Skp1–Cullin–F-box (SCF) E3 ligases are essential to the post-translational regulation of many important factors involved in cellular signal transduction. In this study, we identified an F-box protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPP2-B11, which was remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment in terms of both transcript and protein levels. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2-B11 exhibited obvious tolerance to high salinity, whereas the RNA interference line was more sensitive to salt stress than wild-type plants. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification analysis revealed that 4311 differentially expressed proteins were regulated by AtPP2-B11 under salt stress. AtPP2-B11 could upregulate the expression of annexin1 (AnnAt1) and function as a molecular link between salt stress and reactive oxygen species accumulation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, AtPP2-B11 influenced the expression of Na+ homeostasis genes under salt stress, and the AtPP2-B11 overexpressing lines exhibited lower Na+ accumulation. These results suggest that AtPP2-B11 functions as a positive regulator in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis. PMID:26041321

  13. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, BAY PP1, attenuates renal fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Boor, Peter; Celec, Peter; Martin, Ina V; Villa, Luigi; Hodosy, Július; Klenovicsová, Kristína; Esposito, Ciro; Schäfer, Stefan; Albrecht-Küpper, Barbara; Ostendorf, Tammo; Heidland, August; Šebeková, Katarína

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown renoprotective effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), but its role in kidney fibrosis is unknown. In order to gain insight into this, we examined the effect of a novel PPAR-α agonist, BAY PP1, in two rat models of renal fibrosis: unilateral ureteral obstruction and the 5/6 nephrectomy. In healthy animals, PPAR-α was expressed in tubular but not in interstitial cells. Upon induction of fibrosis, PPAR-α was significantly downregulated, and treatment with BAY PP1 significantly restored its expression. During ureteral obstruction, treatment with BAY PP1 significantly reduced tubulointerstitial fibrosis, proliferation of interstitial fibroblasts, and TGF-β(1) expression. Treatment with a less potent PPAR-α agonist, fenofibrate, had no effects. Treatment with BAY PP1, initiated in established disease in the 5/6 nephrectomy, halted the decline of renal function and significantly ameliorated renal fibrosis. In vitro, BAY PP1 had no direct effect on renal fibroblasts but reduced collagen, fibronectin, and TGF-β(1) expression in tubular cells. Conditioned media of BAY PP1-treated tubular cells reduced fibroblast proliferation. Thus, renal fibrosis is characterized by a reduction of PPAR-α expression, and treatment with BAY PP1 restores PPAR-α expression and ameliorates renal fibrosis by modulating the cross-talk between tubular cells and fibroblasts. Hence, potent PPAR-α agonists might be useful in the treatment of renal fibrosis.

  14. Overexpression of HDAC1 induces cellular senescence by Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jian-Ying; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 induces Sp1 deacetylation and raises Sp1/p300 complex formation to bind to PP2Ac promoter. {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 strongly inhibits the phosphorylation of pRb through up-regulation of PP2A. {yields} Overexpressed HDAC1 restrains cell proliferaction and induces cell senescence though a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway. -- Abstract: Senescence is associated with decreased activities of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cellular division, which can result in deterioration of cellular functions. Herein, we report that the growth and division of tumor cells were significantly repressed by overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 with the Tet-off induced system or transient transfection. In addition, HDAC1 overexpression led to senescence through both an accumulation of hypophosphorylated active retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and an increase in the protein level of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). HDAC1 overexpression also increased the level of Sp1 deacetylation and elevated the interaction between Sp1 and p300, and subsequently that Sp1/p300 complex bound to the promoter of PP2Ac, thus leading to induction of PP2Ac expression. Similar results were obtained in the HDAC1-Tet-off stable clone. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC1 overexpression restrained cell proliferation and induced premature senescence in cervical cancer cells through a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway.

  15. Shugoshin-1 balances Aurora B kinase activity via PP2A to promote chromosome bi-orientation.

    PubMed

    Meppelink, Amanda; Kabeche, Lilian; Vromans, Martijn J M; Compton, Duane A; Lens, Susanne M A

    2015-04-28

    Correction of faulty kinetochore-microtubule attachments is essential for faithful chromosome segregation and dictated by the opposing activities of Aurora B kinase and PP1 and PP2A phosphatases. How kinase and phosphatase activities are appropriately balanced is less clear. Here, we show that a centromeric pool of PP2A-B56 counteracts Aurora B T-loop phosphorylation and is recruited to centromeres through Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1). In non-transformed RPE-1 cells, Aurora B, Sgo1, and PP2A-B56 are enriched on centromeres and levels diminish as chromosomes establish bi-oriented attachments. Elevating Sgo1 levels at centromeres recruits excess PP2A-B56, and this counteracts Aurora B kinase activity, undermining efficient correction of kinetochore-microtubule attachment errors. Conversely, Sgo1-depleted cells display reduced centromeric localization of Aurora B, whereas the remaining kinase is hyperactive due to concomitant reduction of centromeric PP2A-B56. Our data suggest that Sgo1 can tune the stability of kinetochore-microtubule attachments through recruitment of PP2A-B56 that balances Aurora B activity at the centromere. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in Carboxy Methylation and Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Protein Phosphatase PP2A Are Associated with Epididymal Sperm Maturation and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Dudiki, Tejasvi; Kadunganattil, Suraj; Ferrara, John K.; Kline, Douglas W.; Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian sperm contain the serine/threonine phosphatases PP1γ2 and PP2A. The role of sperm PP1γ2 is relatively well studied. Here we confirm the presence of PP2A in sperm and show that it undergoes marked changes in methylation (leucine 309), tyrosine phosphorylation (tyrosine 307) and catalytic activity during epididymal sperm maturation. Spermatozoa isolated from proximal caput, distal caput and caudal regions of the epididymis contain equal immuno-reactive amounts of PP2A. Using demethyl sensitive antibodies we show that PP2A is methylated at its carboxy terminus in sperm from the distal caput and caudal regions but not in sperm from the proximal caput region of the epididymis. The methylation status of PP2A was confirmed by isolation of PP2A with microcystin agarose followed by alkali treatment, which causes hydrolysis of protein carboxy methyl esters. Tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm PP2A varied inversely with methylation. That is, PP2A was tyrosine phosphorylated when it was demethylated but not when methylated. PP2A demethylation and its reciprocal tyrosine phosphorylation were also affected by treatment of sperm with L-homocysteine and adenosine, which are known to elevate intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine, a feedback inhibitor of methyltransferases. Catalytic activity of PP2A declined during epididymal sperm maturation. Inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid or by incubation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa with L-homocysteine and adenosine resulted in increase of sperm motility parameters including percent motility, velocity, and lateral head amplitude. Demethylation or pharmacological inhibition of PP2A also leads to an increase in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). Our results show for the first time that changes in PP2A activity due to methylation and tyrosine phosphorylation occur in sperm and that these changes may play an important role in the regulation of sperm function. PMID:26569399

  17. Inflammatory stimuli promote growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through NF-κB pathway dependent repression of PP2Ac

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Min; Liu, Lu; Shen, Meng; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gong, Fei-Ran; Zhou, Binhua P.; Wu, Yadi; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Kai; Shen, Bairong; Wu, Meng-Yao; Shou, Liu-Mei; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have indicated that inflammatory stimulation represses protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well-known tumor suppressor. However, whether PP2A repression participates in pancreatic cancer progression has not been verified. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and macrophage-conditioned medium (MCM) to establish in vitro inflammation models, and investigated whether inflammatory stimuli affect pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac)-dependently. Via nude mouse models of orthotopic tumor xenografts and dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC)-induced chronic pancreatitis, we evaluated the effect of an inflammatory microenvironment on PP2Ac expression in vivo. We cloned the PP2Acα and PP2Acβ isoform promoters to investigate the PP2Ac transcriptional regulation mechanisms. MCM accelerated pancreatic cancer cell growth; MCM and LPS promoted cell invasion. DBTC promoted xenograft growth and metastasis, induced tumor-associated macrophage infiltration, promoted angiogenesis, activated the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and repressed PP2Ac expression. In vitro, LPS and MCM downregulated PP2Ac mRNA and protein. PP2Acα overexpression attenuated JNK, ERK, PKC, and IKK phosphorylation, and impaired LPS/MCM-stimulated cell invasion and MCM-promoted cell growth. LPS and MCM activated the NF-κB pathway in vitro. LPS and MCM induced IKK and IκB phosphorylation, leading to p65/RelA nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation. Overexpression of the dominant negative forms of IKKα attenuated LPS and MCM downregulation of PP2Ac, suggesting inflammatory stimuli repress PP2Ac expression NF-κB pathway–dependently. Luciferase reporter gene assay verified that LPS and MCM downregulated PP2Ac transcription through an NF-κB–dependent pathway. Our study presents a new mechanism in inflammation-driven cancer progression through NF-κB pathway–dependent PP2Ac repression. PMID:26761431

  18. The protein phosphatase 2C clade A protein OsPP2C51 positively regulates seed germination by directly inactivating OsbZIP10.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Nikita; Min, Myung-Ki; Choi, Eun-Hye; Kim, Namhyo; Moon, Seok-Jun; Yoon, Insun; Kwon, Taekryoun; Jung, Ki-Hong; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphatase 2C clade A members are major signaling components in the ABA-dependent signaling cascade that regulates seed germination. To elucidate the role of PP2CA genes in germination of rice seed, we selected OsPP2C51, which shows highly specific expression in the embryo compared with other protein phosphatases based on microarray data. GUS histochemical assay confirmed that OsPP2C51 is expressed in the seed embryo and that this expression pattern is unique compared with those of other OsPP2CA genes. Data obtained from germination assays and alpha-amylase assays of OsPP2C51 knockout and overexpression lines suggest that OsPP2C51 positively regulates seed germination in rice. The expression of alpha-amylase synthesizing genes was high in OsPP2C51 overexpressing plants, suggesting that elevated levels of OsPP2C51 might enhance gene expression related to higher rates of seed germination. Analysis of protein interactions between ABA signaling components showed that OsPP2C51 interacts with OsPYL/RCAR5 in an ABA-dependent manner. Furthermore, interactions were observed between OsPP2C51 and SAPK2, and between OsPP2C51 and OsbZIP10 and we found out that OsPP2C51 can dephosphorylates OsbZIP10. These findings suggest the existence of a new branch in ABA signaling pathway consisting of OsPYL/RCAR-OsPP2C-bZIP apart from the previously reported OsPYL/RCAR-OsPP2C-SAPK-bZIP. Overall, our result suggests that OsPP2C51 is a positive regulator of seed germination by directly suppressing active phosphorylated OsbZIP10.

  19. Mir-338-3p Mediates Tnf-A-Induced Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Targeting PP4r1 to Regulate PP4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lin; Wang, Shuyue; Sun, Libo; Huang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Yang; Shen, Tao; Guo, Jun; Man, Yong; Tang, Weiqing; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a critical factor contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Recent studies have indicated that miR-338-3p plays an important role in cancer. Here, we investigated whether miR-338-3p mediates tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. The activation of the insulin signalling pathway and the level of glycogenesis were examined in the livers of the db/db and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in HEP1-6 cells transfected with miR-338-3p mimic or inhibitor. Computational prediction of microRNA target, luciferase assay and Western blot were used to assess the miR-338-3p target. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to determine the transcriptional regulator of miR-338-3p. miR-338-3p was down-regulated in the livers of the db/db, HFD-fed and TNF-α-treated C57BL/6J mice, as well as in mouse HEP1-6 hepatocytes treated with TNF-α. Importantly the down-regulation of miR-338-3p induced insulin resistance, as indicated by impaired glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Further research showed that the down-regulated miR-338-3p resulted in the impaired AKT/ glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSl·Gβ) signalling pathway and glycogen synthesis. In contrast, hepatic over-expression of miR-338-3p rescued the TNF-α-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, protein phosphatase 4 regulator subunit 1 (PP4R1) was identified as a direct target of miR-338-3p that mediated hepatic insulin signalling by regulating protein phosphatase 4 (PP4). Finally we identified hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4α) as the transcriptional regulator of miRNA-338-3p. Our studies provide novel insight into the critical role and molecular mechanism by which miR-338-3p is involved in TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance. miR-338-3p might mediate TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance by targeting PP4R1 to regulate PP4 expression. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Measurement of the slope parameter for the {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} decay in the pp{yields}pp{eta} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Meier, R.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Ivanov, G.; Jiganov, E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Morosov, B.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Tikhomirov, V.; Calen, H.; Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Ruber, R. J. M. Y.; Capellaro, F.

    2007-10-15

    The CELSIUS-WASA setup is used to measure the 3{pi}{sup 0} decay of {eta} mesons produced in pp interactions with beam kinetic energies of 1.36 and 1.45 GeV. The efficiency-corrected Dalitz plot and density distributions for this decay are shown, together with a fit of the quadratic slope parameter {alpha} yielding {alpha}=-0.026{+-}0.010(stat){+-}0.010(syst). This value is compared to recent experimental results and theoretical predictions.

  1. (p)ppGpp, a Small Nucleotide Regulator, Directs the Metabolic Fate of Glucose in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Raskin, David M.; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2015-01-01

    When V. cholerae encounters nutritional stress, it activates (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response. The genes relA and relV are involved in the production of (p)ppGpp, whereas the spoT gene encodes an enzyme that hydrolyzes it. Herein, we show that the bacterial capability to produce (p)ppGpp plays an essential role in glucose metabolism. The V. cholerae mutants defective in (p)ppGpp production (i.e. ΔrelAΔrelV and ΔrelAΔrelVΔspoT mutants) lost their viability because of uncontrolled production of organic acids, when grown with extra glucose. In contrast, the ΔrelAΔspoT mutant, a (p)ppGpp overproducer strain, exhibited better growth in the presence of the same glucose concentration. An RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that transcriptions of genes consisting of an operon for acetoin biosynthesis were markedly elevated in N16961, a seventh pandemic O1 strain, but not in its (p)ppGpp0 mutant during glucose-stimulated growth. Transposon insertion in acetoin biosynthesis gene cluster resulted in glucose-induced loss of viability of the ΔrelAΔspoT mutant, further suggesting the crucial role of acetoin production in balanced growth under glucose-rich environments. Additional deletion of the aphA gene, encoding a negative regulator for acetoin production, failed to rescue the (p)ppGpp0 mutant from the defective glucose-mediated growth, suggesting that (p)ppGpp-mediated acetoin production occurs independent of the presence of AphA. Overall, our results reveal that (p)ppGpp, in addition to its well known role as a stringent response mediator, positively regulates acetoin production that contributes to the successful glucose metabolism and consequently the proliferation of V. cholerae cells under a glucose-rich environment, a condition that may mimic the human intestine. PMID:25882848

  2. Iontophoretic delivery of ALA provides a quantitative model for ALA pharmacokinetics and PpIX phototoxicity in human skin.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, L E; Tsoukas, M M; Anderson, R R; Kollias, N

    1997-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is increasingly employed for skin cancer, yet ALA dosing is crude. Using iontophoresis, we developed a rapid and quantifiable system for topical ALA delivery, with measurement of subsequent PpIX fluorescence and phototoxicity. ALA was iontophoresed from a 2% solution into upper inner arm skin of 13 healthy volunteers. Six doses of ALA were delivered with a series of charges varying from 3-120 milliCoulombs (mC); four additional doses were given with a charge of 60 mC. Five hours post-iontophoresis, sites were irradiated with broad-band yellow-red light, the series of six ALA doses receiving 100 J/cm2, while the four identical doses received 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 J/cm2, respectively. Resultant erythema was measured by reflectance spectroscopy. The time course of PpIX fluorescence was ALA-dose-dependent. With charge < or = 24 mC, PpIX fluorescence peaked at 3 h and returned to zero at 9-10 h, whereas charges > 24 mC had a sustained peak at 5-10 h, falling to zero by 24 h. Pre-irradiation, PpIX fluorescence correlated with ALA dose (r = 1.0). PpIX fluorescence fell immediately post-irradiation (p < 0.0001); recovery levels at 3 h correlated with ALA dose (p < 0.0001). Delayed erythema correlated with ALA dose and irradiation dose (p < 0.0001, p < 0.01, respectively). Both PpIX fluorescence intensity pre-irradiation and fall in PpIX fluorescence post-irradiation correlated with erythema (r = 0.98). Hence, PpIX synthesis is ALA-dose-dependent, and phototoxicity can be predicted from ALA dose, irradiation dose, and photobleaching of PpIX. This reproducible system allows accurate dosimetry in topical PDT and facilitates study of ALA metabolism.

  3. Identification of mutations in TgMAPK1 of Toxoplasma gondii conferring resistance to 1NM-PP1☆

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takemae, Hitoshi; Gong, Haiyan; Ishiwa, Akiko; Murakoshi, Fumi; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important food and waterborne pathogen that causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) have an antiparasitic effect on T. gondii tachyzoite growth by targeting T. gondii calmodulin-domain protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1). To identify mutations that confer resistance to BKIs, chemical mutagenesis was performed, followed by selection in media containing either 250 or 1000 nM 1NM-PP1. Whole-genome sequence analysis of resistant clones revealed single nucleotide mutations in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (TgMAPK1) at amino acids 162 (L162Q) and 171 (I171N). Plasmid constructs having the TgMAPK1 L162Q mutant sequence successfully replaced native TgMAPK1 genome locus in the presence of 1000 nM 1NM-PP1. The inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 on cell division observed in the parent clone was decreased in 1NM-PP1-resistant clones; however, effects on parasite invasion and calcium-induced egress were similar in both parent and resistant clones. A plasmid construct expressing the full length TgMAPK1 splicing isoform with L162Q mutation successfully complemented TgMAPK1 function in the pressure of 250 nM 1NM-PP1 in plaque assay. 1NM-PP1-resistant clones showed resistance to other BKIs (3MB-PP1 and 3BrB-PP1) with different levels. Here we identify TgMAPK1 as a novel target for 1NM-PP1 activity. This inhibitory effect is mediated through inhibition of tachyzoite cell division, and can be overcome through mutations at multiple residues in TgMAPK1. PMID:24533298

  4. Dissociation of SHP-1 from spinophilin during platelet activation exposes an inhibitory binding site for protein phosphatase-1 (PP1).

    PubMed

    Ma, Peisong; Foote, Darci C; Sinnamon, Andrew J; Brass, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that a critical regulatory node in the platelet signaling network lies immediately downstream of platelet receptors for thrombin and TxA2. This node is comprised of a scaffold protein (spinophilin, SPL), a protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and either of the two members of the Regulators of G protein Signaling family predominantly expressed in platelets (RGS10 or RGS18). The SPL/RGS/SHP-1 complex is present in resting platelets, dissociating when thrombin or TxA2, but not ADP or collagen, activate SHP-1 and release RGS10 and RGS18 to dampen signaling. Here we demonstrate an additional regulatory role for spinophilin, showing that dissociation of SHP-1 from spinophilin is followed by an increase in the binding of spinophilin to PP1, a serine/threonine phosphatase whose binding site maps to a region close to the SHP-1 binding site. The increase in PP1 binding to spinophilin is limited to platelet agonists that cause dissociation of the complex and is selective for the α and γ isoforms of PP1. Studies in cell culture show that SHP-1 and PP1 can compete for binding to spinophilin and that binding inhibits PP1 activity since over-expression of wild type spinophilin, but not spinophilin with a disabled PP1 binding site, causes an increase in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, a well-characterized PP1 substrate. Collectively, these results indicate that in addition to regulating RGS protein availability in resting platelets, spinophilin can serve as a time-dependent, agonist- and isoform-selective regulator of PP1, inhibiting its activity when decay of the SPL/RGS/SHP-1 complex releases SHP-1 from spinophilin, exposing a binding site for PP1.

  5. AIP1 recruits phosphatase PP2A to ASK1 in tumor necrosis factor-induced ASK1-JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Min, Wang; Lin, Yan; Tang, Shibo; Yu, Luyang; Zhang, Haifeng; Wan, Ting; Luhn, Tricia; Fu, Haian; Chen, Hong

    2008-04-11

    Previously we have shown that AIP1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase [ASK]1-interacting protein 1), a novel member of the Ras-GAP protein family, facilitates dephosphorylation of ASK1 at pSer967 and subsequently 14-3-3 release from ASK1, leading to enhanced ASK1-JNK signaling. However, the phosphatase(s) responsible for ASK1 dephosphorylation at pSer967 has not been identified. In the present study, we identified protein phosphatase (PP)2A as a potential phosphatase in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced dephosphorylation of ASK1 pSer967 in ECs was blocked by PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid. Overexpression of PP2A catalytic subunit induced dephosphorylation of ASK1 pSer967 and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In contrast, a catalytic inactive form of PP2A or PP2A small interfering RNA blunted TNF-induced dephosphorylation of ASK1 pSer967 and activation of JNK without effects on NF-kappaB activation. Whereas AIP1, via its C2 domain, binds to ASK1, PP2A binds to the GAP domain of AIP1. Endogenous AIP1-PP2A complex can be detected in the resting state, and TNF induces a complex formation of AIP1-PP2A with ASK1. Furthermore, TNF-induced association of PP2A with ASK1 was diminished in AIP1-knockdown ECs, suggesting a critical role of AIP1 in recruiting PP2A to ASK1. TNF-signaling molecules TRAF2 and RIP1, known to be in complex with AIP1 and activate AIP1 by phosphorylating AIP1 at Ser604, are critical for TNF-induced ASK1 dephosphorylation. Finally, PP2A and AIP1 cooperatively induce activation of ASK1-JNK signaling and EC apoptosis, as demonstrated by both overexpression and small interfering RNA knockdown approaches. Taken together, our data support a critical role of PP2A-AIP1 complex in TNF-induced activation of ASK1-JNK apoptotic signaling.

  6. Dijet imbalance measurements in Au+Au and pp collisions at sNN=200GeV at STAR

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; ...

    2017-08-10

    In this paper, we report the first dijet transverse momentum asymmetry measurements from Au + Au and pp collisions at RHIC. The two highest-energy back-to-back jets reconstructed from fragments with transverse momenta above 2 GeV/c display a significantly higher momentum imbalance in heavy-ion collisions than in the pp reference. Finally, when reexamined with correlated soft particles included, we observe that these dijets then exhibit a unique new feature—momentum balance is restored to that observed in pp for a jet resolution parameter of R = 0.4, while rebalancing is not attained with a smaller value of R = 0.2.

  7. Placental protein 13 (PP13/galectin-13) undergoes lipid raft-associated subcellular redistribution in the syncytiotrophoblast in preterm preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Andrea; Pozsgay, Judit; Matkó, János; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Chong Jai; Várkonyi, Tibor; Sammar, Marei; Rigó, Jánow; Meiri, Hamutal; Romero, Roberto; Papp, Zoltán; Than, Nandor Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate placental protein 13 (PP13) localization in relation to cytoskeleton and lipid rafts in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Study Design Placental cryosections from patients with preeclampsia and HELLP, and controls were stained for PP13, actin, PLAP (lipid raft marker), and CD71 (nonraft marker). BeWo cells exposed to stress conditions were stained for PP13 and actin. Protein localization were investigated by confocal microscopy, PP13 concentrations by ELISA. Results PP13-actin colocalization was increased in syncytiotrophoblast juxtamembrane regions in term/preterm preeclampsia and HELLP. PP13-CD71 colocalization was decreased and PP13-PLAP proximity was increased in preterm but not term preeclampsia and HELLP. PP13-release from BeWo cells was inhibited by cytoskeleton disruption, and augmented by Ca2+-influx and ischemic stress. Conclusion The actin cytoskeleton, probably in connection with lipid rafts, controls trophoblastic “nonclassical” PP13 export. PP13 is released from the syncytiotrophoblast in preterm preeclampsia and HELLP, mimicked in BeWo cells by ischemic stress, suggesting PP13 is a placental alarmin. PMID:21596368

  8. Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) functions as a critical regulator in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongye; Huang, Xiuqing; Jiao, Juan; Zhang, Hangxiang; Liu, Jin; Qin, Weiwei; Meng, Xiangyu; Shen, Tao; Lin, Yajun; Chu, Jiaojiao; Li, Jian

    2015-12-15

    Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) was shown to participate in multiple cellular processes, including DNA damage response, cell cycle and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated a looming role of PP4 in glucose metabolism. However, whether PP4 is involved in hepatic insulin resistance remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of PP4 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance. db/db mice and TNF-α-treated C57BL/6J mice were used as hepatic insulin resistance animal models. In vitro models were established in both HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes by TNF-α treatment. We found that increased expression and activity of PP4 occurred in the livers of db/db mice and TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Actually, PP4 silencing and suppression of PP4 activity ameliorated TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance, whereas over-expression of PP4 caused insulin resistance. We then further investigated the prodiabetic mechanism of PP4 in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance. We found that PP4 formed a complex with IRS-1 to promote phosphorylation of IRS-1 on serine 307 via JNK activation and reduce the expression of IRS-1. Thus, PP4 is an important regulator in inflammatory related insulin resistance.

  9. The bacterial alarmone (p)ppGpp is required for virulence and controls cell size and survival of Pseudomonas syringae on plants

    PubMed Central

    Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Li, Zhong; Korban, Schuyler S.; Zhao, Youfu

    2016-01-01

    Summary The stringent response, mediated by second messenger (p)ppGpp, results in swift and massive transcriptional reprogramming under nutrient limited conditions. In this study, the role of (p)ppGpp on virulence of P. syringae pv. syringae B728a (PssB728a) was investigated. The virulence of the relA/spoT (ppGpp0) double mutant was completely impaired on bean, and bacterial growth was significantly reduced, suggesting that (p)ppGpp is required for full virulence of P. syringae. Expression of T3SS and other virulence genes was reduced in ppGpp0 mutants. In addition, ppGpp deficiency resulted in loss of swarming motility, reduction of pyoverdine production, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and antibiotic tolerance, as well as reduced ability to utilize γ-amino butyric acid. Increased levels of ppGpp resulted in reduced cell size of PssB728a when grown in a minimal medium and on plant surfaces, while most ppGpp0 mutant cells were not viable on plant surfaces 24 h after spray inoculation, suggesting that ppGpp-mediated stringent response temporarily limits cell growth, and might control cell survival on plants by limiting their growth. These results demonstrated that ppGpp-mediated stringent response plays a central role in P. syringae virulence and survival, and indicated that ppGpp serves as a global signal for regulating various virulence traits in PssB728a. PMID:25626964

  10. PP2A impaired activity is a common event in acute myeloid leukemia and its activation by forskolin has a potent anti-leukemic effect.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal, I; Garcia-Orti, L; Cirauqui, C; Alonso, M M; Calasanz, M J; Odero, M D

    2011-04-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a human tumor suppressor that inhibits cellular transformation by regulating the activity of several signaling proteins critical for malignant cell behavior. PP2A has been described as a potential therapeutic target in chronic myeloid leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here, we show that PP2A inactivation is a recurrent event in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and that restoration of PP2A phosphatase activity by treatment with forskolin in AML cells blocks proliferation, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and affects AKT and ERK1/2 activity. Moreover, treatment with forskolin had an additive effect with Idarubicin and Ara-c, drugs used in standard induction therapy in AML patients. Analysis at protein level of the PP2A activation status in a series of patients with AML at diagnosis showed PP2A hyperphosphorylation in 78% of cases (29/37). In addition, we found that either deregulated expression of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors SET or CIP2A, overexpression of SETBP1, or downregulation of some PP2A subunits, might be contributing to PP2A inhibition in AML. In conclusion, our results show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in AML cells and that PP2A activators, such as forskolin or FTY720, could represent potential novel therapeutic targets in AML.

  11. Expression of I2PP2A, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, induces c-Jun and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Murrani, S W; Woodgett, J R; Damuni, Z

    1999-01-01

    Transient expression of I2PP2A, a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), in HEK-293 cells increased the concentration and DNA binding of the proto-oncogene c-Jun. In contrast, expression of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2AC) markedly decreased the concentration and DNA binding of c-Jun. Expression of I2PP2A also increased the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1, and this effect was diminished in a dose-dependent manner by expression of PP2AC. Densitometric analysis following Western blotting of extracts with antibodies specific for phospho-Ser63 and Ser73 suggests that the effects of I2PP2A and PP2AC expression might be mediated, in part, by changes in the phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63. The results indicate that I2PP2A elicits effects that are consistent with it acting as an inhibitor of PP2A in intact cells, and suggest that PP2A might exhibit site selectivity with respect to c-Jun phosphorylation. PMID:10393085

  12. Expression of I2PP2A, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, induces c-Jun and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Murrani, S W; Woodgett, J R; Damuni, Z

    1999-07-15

    Transient expression of I2PP2A, a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), in HEK-293 cells increased the concentration and DNA binding of the proto-oncogene c-Jun. In contrast, expression of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2AC) markedly decreased the concentration and DNA binding of c-Jun. Expression of I2PP2A also increased the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1, and this effect was diminished in a dose-dependent manner by expression of PP2AC. Densitometric analysis following Western blotting of extracts with antibodies specific for phospho-Ser63 and Ser73 suggests that the effects of I2PP2A and PP2AC expression might be mediated, in part, by changes in the phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63. The results indicate that I2PP2A elicits effects that are consistent with it acting as an inhibitor of PP2A in intact cells, and suggest that PP2A might exhibit site selectivity with respect to c-Jun phosphorylation.

  13. PP2A inhibition determines poor outcome and doxorubicin resistance in early breast cancer and its activation shows promising therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Raúl; Cristóbal, Ion; Zazo, Sandra; Arpí, Oriol; Menéndez, Silvia; Manso, Rebeca; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2015-02-28

    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease.

  14. PP2A inhibition determines poor outcome and doxorubicin resistance in early breast cancer and its activation shows promising therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Sandra; Arpí, Oriol; Menéndez, Silvia; Manso, Rebeca; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease. PMID:25726524

  15. Tensor hypercontracted ppRPA: Reducing the cost of the particle-particle random phase approximation from O(r 6) to O(r 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenvi, Neil; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, interest in the random-phase approximation (RPA) has grown rapidly. At the same time, tensor hypercontraction has emerged as an intriguing method to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure algorithms. In this paper, we combine the particle-particle random phase approximation with tensor hypercontraction to produce the tensor-hypercontracted particle-particle RPA (THC-ppRPA) algorithm. Unlike previous implementations of ppRPA which scale as O(r6), the THC-ppRPA algorithm scales asymptotically as only O(r4), albeit with a much larger prefactor than the traditional algorithm. We apply THC-ppRPA to several model systems and show that it yields the same results as traditional ppRPA to within mH accuracy. Our method opens the door to the development of post-Kohn Sham functionals based on ppRPA without the excessive asymptotic cost of traditional ppRPA implementations.

  16. The microsortation of post-consumer HDPE/PP mixtures using near-critical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Karmana, E.; Eiler, B.; Mainiero, D.

    1996-12-31

    The microsortation of mixed polyolefins was accomplished using near-critical carbon dioxide as a float-sink medium. A slowly turning U-shaped, helical or large-diameter pitched blade impeller was required to agitate the mixed plastics, however. This slight agitation allowed these irregular, jagged chips to either float or sink without being hindered by the neighboring chips. A post-consumer flake mixture of 85%HDPE/15%PP was sorted into HDPE and PP streams of 99+% purity. A discounted cash flow economic analysis of a 900 kg/hr polyolefin microsortation plant indicated that the value of sorted plastics must be $0.03-$0.04/lb greater than the clean, dry, mixed feed to achieve a reasonable rate of return. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Correlations, multiplicity distributions, and the ridge in pp and p-Pb collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlson, Alice

    2017-04-01

    Measurements made by the ALICE Collaboration of single- and two-particle distributions in high-energy pp and p-Pb collisions are used to characterize the interactions in small collision systems, tune models of particle production in QCD, and serve as a baseline for heavy-ion observables. The measurements of charged-particle multiplicity density, , and multiplicity distributions are shown in pp and p-Pb collisions, including data from the top center-of-mass energy achieved at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), √S = 13 TeV. Two-particle angular correlations in p-Pb collisions are studied in detail to investigate long-range correlations in pseudorapidity which are reminiscent of structures previously thought unique to heavy-ion collisions.

  18. Extraction of {gamma} from charmless hadronic B {yields} PP decays using SU(3) flavor symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Suprun, Denis A.

    2006-07-11

    The decays of B mesons to a pair of charmless pseudoscalar mesons (PP decays) have been analyzed within the framework of flavor SU(3) symmetry and quark-diagrammatic topological approach. Flavor symmetry breaking is taken into account in tree (T) amplitudes through ratios of decay constants fK and f{pi}; exact SU(3) is assumed elsewhere. Acceptable fits to B {yields} PP branching ratios and CP asymmetries are obtained with tree, color-suppressed and QCD penguin amplitudes. Singlet penguin amplitude was introduced to describe decay amplitudes of the modes with {eta} and {eta}' mesons in the final state. Electroweak penguin amplitudes were expressed in terms of the corresponding tree-level diagrams. Values of the weak phase {gamma} were found to be consistent with the current indirect bounds from other analyses of CKM parameters.

  19. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: GridPP: development of the UK computing Grid for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grid PP Collaboration; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Lowe, L. S.; Tan, C. L. A.; Watkins, P. M.; Bailey, D. S.; Barrass, T. A.; Brook, N. H.; Croft, R. J. H.; Kelly, M. P.; Mackay, C. K.; Metson, S.; Maroney, O. J. E.; Newbold, D. M.; Wilson, F. F.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Burke, S.; Byrom, R.; Coles, J.; Cornwall, L. A.; Djaoui, A.; Field, L.; Fisher, S. M.; Folkes, G. T.; Geddes, N. I.; Gordon, J. C.; Hicks, S. J. C.; Jensen, J. G.; Johnson, G.; Kant, D.; Kelsey, D. P.; Kuznetsov, G.; Leake, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Prassas, G.; Saunders, B. J.; Ross, D.; Sansum, R. A.; Shah, T.; Strong, B.; Synge, O.; Tam, R.; Thorpe, M.; Traylen, S.; Wheeler, J. F.; White, N. G. H.; Wilson, A. J.; Antcheva, I.; Artiaga, E.; Beringer, J.; Bird, I. G.; Casey, J.; Cass, A. J.; Chytracek, R.; Gallas Torreira, M. V.; Generowicz, J.; Girone, M.; Govi, G.; Harris, F.; Heikkurinen, M.; Horvath, A.; Knezo, E.; Litmaath, M.; Lubeck, M.; Moscicki, J.; Neilson, I.; Poinsignon, E.; Pokorski, W.; Ribon, A.; Sekera, Z.; Smith, D. H.; Tomlin, W. L.; van Eldik, J. E.; Wojcieszuk, J.; Brochu, F. M.; Das, S.; Harrison, K.; Hayes, M.; Hill, J. C.; Lester, C. G.; Palmer, M. J.; Parker, M. A.; Nelson, M.; Whalley, M. R.; Glover, E. W. N.; Anderson, P.; Clark, P. J.; Earl, A. D.; Holt, A.; Jackson, A.; Joo, B.; Kenway, R. D.; Maynard, C. M.; Perry, J.; Smith, L.; Thorn, S.; Trew, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; Cameron, D. G.; Doyle, A. T.; Flavell, A.; Hanlon, S. J.; Martin, D. J.; McCance, G.; Millar, A. P.; Nicholson, C.; Paterson, S. K.; Pickford, A.; Soler, P.; Speirs, F.; St. Denis, R.; Thompson, A. S.; Britton, D.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.; Egede, U.; Georgiou, K.; Lewis, P.; MacEvoy, B.; Marr, S.; Martyniak, J.; Tallini, H.; Wakefield, S.; Walker, R.; Bertram, I. A.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Evans, D.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Jones, R. W. L.; Love, P.; Downing, S.; George, M. P.; Irving, A. C.; McNeile, C.; Sroczynski, Z.; Tobin, M.; Washbrook, A. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Dallison, S.; Fairey, G.; Forti, A.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Jones, M. A. S.; Kaushal, S.; Marshall, R.; McNab, A.; Salih, S.; Werner, J. C.; Bartsch, V.; Cioffi, C.; Gronbech, P.; Harnew, N.; Harris, J. F.; Huffman, B. T.; Leslie, M.; McArthur, I.; Newman, R.; Soroko, A.; Stokes-Rees, I.; Stonjek, S.; Tseng, J.; Waters, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Arter, T. R.; Cordenonsi, R. A.; Datta, A. S.; Hartin, T.; Lloyd, S. L.; Martin, A. J.; Pearce, S. E.; Williams, C. J.; Gardner, M.; George, S.; Green, B. J.; Johal, S.; Rybkine, G.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Hodgson, P.; Robinson, M.; Tovey, D. R.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Allton, C. R.; Armour, W.; Clarke, P.; Mealor, P.; Waters, D.; Waugh, B.; West, B.

    2006-01-01

    The GridPP Collaboration is building a UK computing Grid for particle physics, as part of the international effort towards computing for the Large Hadron Collider. The project, funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), began in September 2001 and completed its first phase 3 years later. GridPP is a collaboration of approximately 100 researchers in 19 UK university particle physics groups, the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils and CERN, reflecting the strategic importance of the project. In collaboration with other European and US efforts, the first phase of the project demonstrated the feasibility of developing, deploying and operating a Grid-based computing system to meet the UK needs of the Large Hadron Collider experiments. This note describes the work undertaken to achieve this goal.

  20. Energy dependence of the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S A; Ahn, S U; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bornschein, J; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Das, K; Das, D; Das, I; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; D Erasmo, G; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goerlich, L; Gomez, R; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoras, A; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Khan, K H; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hippolyte, B; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanov, M; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Ketzer, B; Khan, S A; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, S; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, B; Kim, T; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, J S; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A B; Kurepin, A; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Jacobs, P M; Ma, R; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martin Blanco, J; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mazer, J; Mazumder, R; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; 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Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Planinic, M; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Rauch, W; Rauf, A W; Razazi, V; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Reidt, F; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohni, S; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, P; Roy, C; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Santoro, R; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schulc, M; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, S; Sharma, N; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; 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Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, S; Voloshin, K; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wagner, J; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Xiang, C; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yang, S; Yano, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, F; Zhu, X; Zhu, J; Zhu, J; Zhu, H; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    Differential cross sections of charged particles in inelastic pp collisions as a function of pT have been measured at [Formula: see text] at the LHC. The pT spectra are compared to NLO-pQCD calculations. Though the differential cross section for an individual [Formula: see text] cannot be described by NLO-pQCD, the relative increase of cross section with [Formula: see text] is in agreement with NLO-pQCD. Based on these measurements and observations, procedures are discussed to construct pp reference spectra at [Formula: see text] up to pT=50 GeV/c as required for the calculation of the nuclear modification factor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions.

  1. Charged kaon femtoscopic correlations in pp collisions at s=7TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed