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Sample records for fr30se10p financial crimes

  1. Financial Investigations. A Financial Approach to Detecting and Resolving Crimes. [Text], Instructor's Guide, and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This packet contains a textbook, an instructor's guide, and a student workbook for a course on conducting financial investigations to detect and solve crimes. The topics covered in the 11 chapters of the textbook and the ancillaries are the following: (1) why financial investigation?; (2) laws related to financial crimes; (3) evidence; (4) sources…

  2. 76 FR 24410 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 31 CFR Part 1060 RIN 1506-AB12 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... Under Section 104(e) AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN''), Treasury. ACTION: Notice..., or by the Internet to oira_submission@omb.eop.gov with a copy to the Financial Crimes...

  3. 77 FR 27381 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Chapter X RIN 1506-AB15 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: Customer Due... Enforcement Network (FinCEN), Treasury. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking; extension of comment...: FinCEN: Regulatory Policy and Programs Division, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, (800) 949-2732...

  4. 31 CFR Appendix N to Subpart C of... - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network...—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). It sets forth specific notification and access procedures with respect to...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix N to Subpart C of... - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network...—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). It sets forth specific notification and access procedures with respect to...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix M to Subpart A of... - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... of Part 1—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). 2. Public Reading Room. FinCEN will provide a room on an ad hoc...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix M to Subpart A of... - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... of Part 1—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). 2. Public Reading Room. FinCEN will provide a room on an ad hoc...

  8. 31 CFR Appendix N to Subpart C of... - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network...—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). It sets forth specific notification and access procedures with respect to...

  9. 31 CFR Appendix N to Subpart C of... - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network...—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). It sets forth specific notification and access procedures with respect to...

  10. 76 FR 9268 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Imposition of Special Measure Against the Lebanese Canadian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AB11 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Imposition of Special Measure... AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Treasury (``FinCEN''), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed...-XXX in the subject line of the message. Mail: The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, P.O. Box...

  11. 75 FR 76677 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: Anti-Money Laundering Program and Suspicious Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AB02 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: Anti-Money Laundering Program and...: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN''), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY...-related financial crimes. In these and other respects, residential mortgage lenders and originators...

  12. 75 FR 6560 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Expansion of Special Information Sharing Procedures To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AB04 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Expansion of Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement...-related financial crimes are not limited by jurisdiction or geography. Detection and deterrence of...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix M to Subpart A - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). 2. Public Reading Room. FinCEN will provide a room on an ad hoc basis when necessary...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix M to Subpart A - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). 2. Public Reading Room. FinCEN will provide a room on an ad hoc basis when necessary...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix M to Subpart A - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... Crimes Enforcement Network 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). 2. Public Reading Room. FinCEN will provide a room on an ad hoc basis when necessary...

  16. 75 FR 79440 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of Application for Membership AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... Enforcement Network, P.O. BOX 39, Vienna, VA 22183 or e-mailed to: BSAAG@fincen.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... 31 CFR Chapter X RIN 1506-AB16 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy... of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Treasury (``FinCEN...-AB16 in the submission. Refer to Docket Number FINCEN-2011-0008. Mail: The Financial Crimes...

  18. 75 FR 8844 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AB08 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN...

  19. 77 FR 70547 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Renewal Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Renewal Without Change of the... OMB Control numbers: 1506-0004 (Financial Institutions other than Casinos), and 1506-0005 (Casinos and...

  20. 75 FR 13343 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Proposed Renewal Without Change; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001, Public Law 107-56. The notice of final rulemaking implementing section... laundering concern. This request for comments is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995... Director of the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network is the delegated administrator of the Bank Secrecy Act...

  1. 78 FR 43000 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Proposed Renewal Without Change; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001, Public Law 107-56... being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (``PRA''), Public Law 104-13, 44 U.S.C. 3506... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN'') is the delegated administrator of the Bank Secrecy Act...

  2. 78 FR 42999 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Comment Request; Renewal Without Change-Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001, Public Law 107-56. Current action: This is a... Change--Administrative Rulings in Accordance With the Paperwork Reduction Act AGENCY: Financial Crimes... Reduction Act (``PRA'') of 1995, Public Law 104-13, 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A). DATES: Written comments are...

  3. 31 CFR Appendix N to Subpart C of... - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network N Appendix N to Subpart C of Part 1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act Pt. 1, Subpt. C, App. N Appendix N to Subpart C of Part 1...

  4. A Report on a Study to Explore the Characteristics of Offenders Committing Financially Motivated Crimes Related to the Acquisition, Use and Disposal of Illegal Funds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    financially motivated crimes . Data was collected through structured interviews with 136 male offenders convicted of such crimes who were incarcerated in four...as "nonviolent crimes committed for financial gain." Data Collection To obtain information about these characteristics, a survey of individuals...regarding its impact on crime , did not appear as prevalent in our sample as other reports have shown. For example a Bureau of Justice Statistics survey of

  5. A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  6. 76 FR 45689 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Repeal of the Final Rule and Withdrawal of the Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Terrorism Act of 2001, Public Law 107-56 (``USA PATRIOT Act''). Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act amends the... of the Secretary under section 311 of the USA PATRIOT Act apply equally to the Director of the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. Section 311 of the USA PATRIOT Act (``section 311'') added Section...

  7. 75 FR 63382 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Regulations; Defining Mutual Funds as Financial Institutions; Extension of Compliance Date AGENCY: Financial... funds within the general definition of ``financial institution'' in regulations implementing the Bank...) (transfer agents). \\9\\ Amendment to Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining Mutual Funds as Financial...

  8. 75 FR 60377 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Cross-Border Electronic Transmittals of Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Financial Transactions Reports and Analysis Centre (FINTRAC), FinCEN's counterpart financial intelligence... investigations or proceedings, or in intelligence or counterintelligence matters to protect against international... Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Pub. L. 108-458) amended the BSA to require the...

  9. 77 FR 16319 - Proposed Renewal; Comment Request; Anti-Money Laundering Programs for Various Financial Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network Proposed Renewal; Comment Request; Anti-Money Laundering Programs for Various Financial Institutions AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of the Treasury... May 21, 2012. ADDRESSES: Written comments should be submitted to: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network...

  10. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  11. [Economic crime].

    PubMed

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  12. Crime Witness

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Damaging BPA Transmission lines and property is a crime – and it can also be extremely dangerous. BPA’s toll-free, crime informant hotline allows you to report any illegal or suspicious activity you witness against BPA’s transmission system, property or personnel.

  13. Black Women, Crime and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elsie L.

    Several factors indicate that there is a relationship between economic conditions and crime among black women. Crime statistics show that outside of the misdemeanors of drunkenness and disorderly conduct, black women tend to be arrested for larceny and prostitution, both economic crimes. The fact that black women are at the bottom of the economic…

  14. White-Collar Crime and the Law: An Annotated Bibliography. Teaching Resource Bulletin No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Robert

    This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…

  15. White-Collar Crime and the Law: An Annotated Bibliography. Teaching Resource Bulletin No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Robert

    This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…

  16. Cyber crimes.

    PubMed

    Nuzback, Kara

    2014-07-01

    Since it began offering cyber liability coverage in December 2011, the Texas Medical Liability Trust has received more than 150 cyber liability claims, most of which involved breaches of electronic protected health information. TMLT's cyber liability insurance will protect practices financially should a breach occur. The insurance covers a breach notification to customers and business partners, expenses for legal counsel, information security and forensic data services, public relations support, call center and website support, credit monitoring, and identity theft restoration services.

  17. 31 CFR 1010.350 - Reports of foreign financial accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports..., partnership, trust, or limited liability company created, organized, or formed under the laws of the United...

  18. Crime and Economic Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Meghir, Costas

    2004-01-01

    The role that economic incentives play in determining crime rates is explored. A number of experiments were carried out with different wage measures and the result that incentives were the most important factor was reinforced by the strong impact of crime of deterrence measures and of a measure of the returns to crime.

  19. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  20. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  1. Treating Juvenile Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Seymour

    1983-01-01

    Although juvenile crime rates have not changed significantly in the last five years, the juvenile courts' ability to handle crime has deteriorated. To treat the problem of juvenile crime effectively requires intervention at the earliest sign of delinquency and an assessment of the juvenile courts and school system. (AM)

  2. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

  3. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

  4. Patterns and Costs of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Alan Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of the Library Crime Research Project, a three-year study of crime and disruption patterns in public libraries in all 50 states. Patterns of crime, costs of crime (direct, indirect), losses due to crime, patterns of security use, and effects of victimization are covered. Three references are listed. (EJS)

  5. Science against Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)

  6. Hazing: Hidden Campus Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollmann, Barbara B.

    2002-01-01

    Initiation traditions and rites of passage are important for group and team membership, but the violent behavior and alcohol abuse involved in hazing constitute serious campus crime. This article helps campus administrators to develop new strategies for attacking the hidden crime of hazing. (Contains 32 references.) (Author)

  7. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  8. Science against Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)

  9. Crime and Corruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  10. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  11. Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Brooks, Willie, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the Hate Crime Statistics Act, signed into law in 1990 to make hate crimes a federal offense, these types of crimes appear to be continuing in the new millennium. Provides hate crime statistics for 1996-98, presents theories on the cause and spread of hate, asserts that a general profile of those with a propensity to act on hate can be…

  12. Reporting Crime and Fearing Crime in Three Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaehnig, Walter B.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate whether readers of newspapers that carry large amounts of crime news have a greater fear of being victims of crime than do readers of newspapers that place less emphasis on crime coverage. Data were gathered through a content analysis of crime news in three newspapers of widely differing circulation, interviews…

  13. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  14. Adapting a tourism crime typology: classifying outdoor recreation crime

    Treesearch

    Joanne F. Tynon; Deborah J. Chavez

    2006-01-01

    Using a qualitative aproach, the authors tested a crime typology developed for tourism destinations in a U.S. National Forest recreation setting. Specific objectives were to classify the attributes of crime and violence, examine the effects of crime and violence on visitor demand, and suggest methods of prevention and recovery. A key modification to the crime typology...

  15. Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Brooks, Willie, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the Hate Crime Statistics Act, signed into law in 1990 to make hate crimes a federal offense, these types of crimes appear to be continuing in the new millennium. Provides hate crime statistics for 1996-98, presents theories on the cause and spread of hate, asserts that a general profile of those with a propensity to act on hate can be…

  16. Hate Crime: The Rise of Hate Crime on School Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodinger-deUriarte, Cristina

    1991-01-01

    The varying definitions, the primary characteristics, and the causes of hate crimes are reviewed. In addition, misconceptions about what constitutes a hate crime are discussed, as are the increasing upward trends in various form of hate crime. The important role schools can play in alleviating the hate crime phenomenon is the focus of the…

  17. Database crime to crime match rate calculation.

    PubMed

    Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J

    2009-06-01

    Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.

  18. Should Hate Be a Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Explores issues surrounding hate crime legislation and prosecution, with emphasis on motivation and first amendment issues. Hate crime legislation attempts to import the civil rights model into criminal law, but the very existence of the hate crime label raises social and political stakes in intergroup crimes. (SLD)

  19. Should Hate Be a Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Explores issues surrounding hate crime legislation and prosecution, with emphasis on motivation and first amendment issues. Hate crime legislation attempts to import the civil rights model into criminal law, but the very existence of the hate crime label raises social and political stakes in intergroup crimes. (SLD)

  20. The Crime Victim Advocate Program: A New Service for Crisis Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Joe D.; Jones, Elizabeth

    This paper presents an overview of problems confronting crime victims, identifies service approaches to assist crime victims, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of providing victim advocate services as part of comprehensive crisis intervention centers. Victims not only may bear the suffering of financial loss and emotional trauma as a…

  1. 31 CFR 1030.540 - Voluntary information sharing among financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR HOUSING GOVERNMENT SPONSORED ENTERPRISES Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money...

  2. 31 CFR 1023.540 - Voluntary information sharing among financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR BROKERS OR DEALERS IN SECURITIES Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering...

  3. Corporate Crime Database Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Conyers, John, Jr. [D-MI-13

    2014-04-10

    06/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Crime Gun Tracing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kelly, Robin L. [D-IL-2

    2014-06-24

    07/21/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Crime Gun Tracing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kelly, Robin L. [D-IL-2

    2014-06-24

    07/21/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Corporate Crime Database Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Conyers, John, Jr. [D-MI-13

    2014-04-10

    House - 06/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Computer Crime and Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Ralph H.

    1985-01-01

    The susceptibility of colleges and universities to computer crime is great. While insurance coverage is available to cover the risks, an aggressive loss-prevention program is the wisest approach to limiting the exposures presented by computer technology. (MLW)

  8. Corporate Crime Database Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Conyers, John, Jr. [D-MI-13

    2014-04-10

    06/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  10. Crime Gun Tracing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kelly, Robin L. [D-IL-2

    2014-06-24

    House - 07/21/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Crime and the Elderly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    The elderly are differentially affected by crime and the fear of crime due to their increased vulnerability and, as such, warrant a certain degree of...specialized handling and understanding by the police. The information presented in this thesis will enhance police knowledge of the elderly and... elderly and, ideally, result in less elderly victimization and a better living environment and quality of life for the elderly .

  12. Sunday Liquor Laws and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Many jurisdictions have considered relaxing Sunday alcohol sales restrictions, yet such restrictions' effects on public health remain poorly understood. This paper analyzes the effects of legalization of Sunday packaged liquor sales on crime, focusing on the phased introduction of such sales in Virginia beginning in 2004. Differences-in-differences and triple-differences estimates indicate the liberalization increased minor crime by 5% and alcohol-involved serious crime by 10%. The law change did not affect domestic crime or induce significant geographic or inter-temporal crime displacement. The costs of this additional crime are comparable to the state's revenues from increased liquor sales. PMID:22125348

  13. Fear of Crime and Crime Prevention Competence among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Garrett J.; Reid-Nash, Kathaleen

    Although previous research suggests a disparity between crime fear levels among elderly persons and their actual risk of victimization, little specific data are available on the elderly person's cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors regarding crime prevention. To develop a clear perspective on the crime-related orientations of the elderly,…

  14. Buffalo: Public Attitudes About Crime; A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The National Crime Survey found that about three-fourths of the Buffalo residents perceived national crime as on the upswing, and one-third sensed an increase locally. Fewer than 10% believed crime in either place declined. Most felt their own victimization rate had increased. Fear of criminal attack appeared largely dependent upon the time of day…

  15. The American Response to Fear of Crime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    20 Reducing Citizens’ Fear of Crime ................................................................ 23 C onclusions...8217 fear of crime was justified. Finally some suggestions were presented to reduce citizens’ fear of crime. Who Fears Crime Skogan (1987) examined the...residents fear of crime were reduced . Belyea and Zingraff (1988) found rural residents had a significantly lower fear of crime than urban residents

  16. Crime and Selected Measures of Education Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechman, Dennis Jay

    1978-01-01

    Examining education achievement and its relationship to crime, this study develops predictive models for the total crime, violent crime, and property crime indexes. Seven indicies of crime were used: murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Additionally, crime and its relationship to education achievement on a regional…

  17. Crime in American Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Jackson

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the National Institute of Education's 1978 study of school crime. Offers several social trends as possible causes for recent increases in school crime. Suggests methods for reducing violence in the schools. (BE)

  18. Crime prevention and active living.

    PubMed

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Eck, John E

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether crime is a barrier to active living and if it is, what can be done about it? The authors introduce a theoretical model that addresses how crime might influence physical activity behavior. The core components of the model are: situational characteristics, crime and disorder, fear of crime or disorder, and physical activity. These variables are thought to be moderated through psychological, demographic, environmental and other factors. Research questions that derive from the model are featured.

  19. Less crime, more punishment.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  20. Crime prediction modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study of techniques for the prediction of crime in the City of Los Angeles was conducted. Alternative approaches to crime prediction (causal, quasicausal, associative, extrapolative, and pattern-recognition models) are discussed, as is the environment within which predictions were desired for the immediate application. The decision was made to use time series (extrapolative) models to produce the desired predictions. The characteristics of the data and the procedure used to choose equations for the extrapolations are discussed. The usefulness of different functional forms (constant, quadratic, and exponential forms) and of different parameter estimation techniques (multiple regression and multiple exponential smoothing) are compared, and the quality of the resultant predictions is assessed.

  1. Crime and Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Matcheswalla, Yusuf; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein. PMID:25838733

  2. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  3. Reducing Crime by Eliminating Cash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, David R.

    Ending the use of cash in the United States can provide substantial social and economic gain while requiring only modest levels of investment. One primary benefit is the reduction of cash-related crimes. Because most street crime is committed to obtain cash or uses cash as a transaction medium, elimination of cash will dramatically reduce crime.…

  4. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  5. School Crime and Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Richard

    In the face of an unprecedented increase in school crime and violence, this book addresses school crime as a two-dimensional issue consisting of the problem of crime in schools and the role of schools in preventing delinquency and dealing with delinquent students. This book reviews the theories that attempt to explain the relationships among…

  6. School Crime and Belongingness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Scott; Oden, Chester, Jr.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter discusses the results of three studies made of subjects in a residential vocational training center for youth. The first study correlated demographic, medical history, and behavioral variables to center adjustment. The second study examined possible…

  7. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  8. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  9. Digging Up a Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witham, Shelly Anne; Krockover, Gerald H.; Burgess, Wilella; Bayley, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Forensics can serve as the perfect vehicle for science exploration and learning. As part of a professional development workshop, teachers participated in various forensic activities. This article describes an archaeological dig simulation that provides the catalyst for an inquiry-based activity. In this activity, teachers make crime scene…

  10. The Crime Lab Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  11. Cities, Crowding and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This article considers the effects of human crowding in light of recent tests and observations. Factors such as sex, age, culture, socio-economic standing, frustration, and interpersonal physical distance are examined. Results indicate that crowding contributes to social problems and crime. (TK)

  12. Crime, Race, and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1992-01-01

    Fear can produce behavior that is indistinguishable from racism. The best way to reduce real or imagined racism is to reduce the African-American crime rate to equal that of whites. This will require an enormous commitment to the problems of the innercity. (SLD)

  13. The Crime Lab Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  14. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  15. Anatomy of a Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary unit (in which students solve a crime) to begin the school year for seventh graders. Suggests that the unit serves to introduce students to science, math, social studies, and English courses while they get acquainted with the people and places in a large junior high school. (SR)

  16. A cure for crime? Psycho-pharmaceuticals and crime trends.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Dave E; Markowitz, Sara

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new pharmaceutical therapies for the treatment of mental illness that came into wide use during the “great American crime decline.” We examine limited international data, as well as more detailed American data, to assess the relationship between rates of prescriptions of psychotropic drugs and crime rates, while controlling for other factors that may explain trends in crime rates. Using state-level variation in the rates that various drug therapies disperse within populations to identify impacts on crime rates, we find some evidence that the expansion of psychiatric drugs is associated with decreased violent crime rates, but not property crime rates. We find no robust impacts on homicide rates and no effects on arrest rates. Further, the magnitudes of the estimated effects of expanded drug treatment on violent crime are small. Our estimates imply that about 5 percent of the decline in crime during the period of our study was due to expanded mental health treatment.

  17. Modelling the fear of crime

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Steven

    2017-01-01

    How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security. PMID:28804260

  18. Modelling the fear of crime.

    PubMed

    Prieto Curiel, Rafael; Bishop, Steven

    2017-07-01

    How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security.

  19. [Abortion and crime].

    PubMed

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  20. Earthquake technology fights crime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.; Ward, Peter L.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have adapted their methods for quickly finding the exact source of an earthquake to the problem of locating gunshots. On the basis of this work, a private company is now testing an automated gunshot-locating system in a San Francisco Bay area community. This system allows police to rapidly pinpoint and respond to illegal gunfire, helping to reduce crime in our neighborhoods.

  1. Crime and healthcare.

    PubMed

    Shinkman, R; Weissenstein, E

    1997-05-19

    When charges were made last summer against 12 men affiliated with a New Jersey-based third-party administrator firm, headlines trumpeted the arrests as the first major case of organized crime infiltrating the healthcare industry. While law enforcement experts don't believe the mob has established a major role in healthcare, they acknowledge the $1 trillion-a-year industry is a lucrative target for illicit activity.

  2. Sexual disorders and crime.

    PubMed

    Taborda, José G V; Michalski-Jaeger, Camila A

    2012-09-01

    Highlighting the relationship between sexual disorders and crime, reviewing and summarizing the articles published throughout 2011 which add to the current knowledge on this subject. Studies on specific populations confirm the association between sexual disorders and crime, particularly between paraphilias and sexual crimes regarding male offenders. Female offenders are less likely to be diagnosed with a sexual disorder. Some case reports focus on unusual paraphilias and lead us to question the vast possibilities of paraphilic contents and sexual arousal patterns. The variations of paraphilic-associated sexual arousal patterns, unconventional sex behaviors or paraphilic disorders are constantly changing. In this sense, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 current proposals for a sexual dysfunction diagnostic category are under intense discussion because of their important clinical and forensic consequences. Sexual violence is a theme not well understood yet. Because of its nature, researching it can raise many ethical problems. There is no possibility of clinical trials and of case-control studies. Even cohort studies may be problematic in themselves. So, most of the research involves biased samples or case reports, or is merely theoretical. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the subject, so that preventive and rehabilitative measures can be taken.

  3. Hate crimes on the internet.

    PubMed

    Deirmenjian, J M

    2000-09-01

    The Internet serves as a channel for electronic communication on an international level. While communication on the Internet has grown exponentially, the proliferation of crimes in cyberspace has become rampant. Hate crimes, in particular, have become increasingly prevalent on the Internet. In this past decade, the United States government has taken significant measures to combat the proliferation of hate crimes. This paper reports six cases of "cyberhate" crimes and emphasizes pertinent legal issues surrounding them. Current modes of intervention are discussed, ranging from local to national levels. The forensic psychiatrist may undertake a challenging role in the interpretation of the hateful criminal mind at the interface of psychiatry and the law.

  4. A Cure for Crime? Psycho-Pharmaceuticals and Crime Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…

  5. A Cure for Crime? Psycho-Pharmaceuticals and Crime Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…

  6. Solving crimes with hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Wester, William C; Hammond, D Corydon

    2011-04-01

    Following a brief review of the literature on hypnosis and memory, this paper overviews the procedures that are used in conducting forensic hypnosis interviews. Ten forensic hypnosis cases are then described. These real world cases are in stark contrast to research done in an artificial laboratory setting where the information to be recalled lacks personal relevance and was not associated with emotionally arousing situations. These cases illustrate how forensic hypnosis can result in obtaining important additional investigative leads which lead to the solving of crimes.

  7. Crime Prevention Services for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Harold A.

    The purpose of this guide is to identify the various opportunities available in most communities for delivering crime prevention services to youth so that they will be better prepared to reduce their vulnerability to crime, while enhancing their involvement in prevention efforts. It also serves to outline the benefits of programming with youth;…

  8. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  9. Crime and the Hispanic Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Michael P.; And Others

    Although the determinants of experienced and reported crime have been fairly extensively studied, there is relatively little consensus about the predictors of victimization or likelihood of reporting crimes, and research on the elderly Hispanic Americans as victims and reporters is practically nonexistent. In l979-80, a national study used a…

  10. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  11. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  12. Juvenile Crime. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, A. E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explores many aspects of juvenile crime. It is a commonly held view that the number of crimes committed by juveniles is…

  13. Violent Crime in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Il Iashenko, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    The spread of crime has become one of the most acute problems in Russia. There are increasing numbers of crimes, the level of violence is going up, and episodes are becoming more and more brutal and professional. Criminals are moving from encroaching on people's property to contract murders, terrorism, and the seizure of hostages, and they are…

  14. Predatory Crime and Black Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    While it is generally recognized that Blacks and other minorities are overrepresented as both crime victims and as those arrested for the commission of crimes, Blacks are underrepresented in framing the issues that address a solution to this problem. The input of minority researchers and policymakers is essential. (Author/RLV)

  15. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  16. Economic crime: does personality matter?

    PubMed

    Alalehto, Tage

    2003-06-01

    Since the publication of Edwin Sutherland's classical study, White Collar Crime, personality has been treated as completely irrelevant as a cause or as a correlating variable in studies of economic crime. This article questions that thesis. In an ongoing Swedish project studying economic crime in the areas of construction, engineering, and the music industry, 128 informants were interviewed regarding the personal character of the economic criminal compared to that of the law-abiding businessperson. Data were collected from five different regions in Sweden using the Big Five model, the personality model most often used within the field of personality research today. This article compares the results from the interviews with the few international studies that exist regarding economic crimes in these areas and common results are emphasized. It also presents nuanced analyses of the significance of personality in economic crime.

  17. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  18. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  19. Childhood victimization and crime victimization.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away, homelessness, criminal history, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse) increase a person's risk for crime victimization? (c) Do lifestyle characteristics mediate the relationship between child abuse/ neglect and crime victimization? (d) Do these relationships vary by a person's sex or race/ethnicity? Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children (n = 395), followed up, and interviewed in middle adulthood (approximate age 39.5). Logistic and ordinary least square regressions were conducted to assess risk for crime victimization and test for mediation. Child abuse and/ or neglect increased a person's risk for physical (OR = 2.56, p < .001) and sexual (OR = 2.28, p < .001) but not for property crime victimization. For the sample overall, running away served as a partial mediator between child abuse and neglect and physical and sexual crime victimization. In addition, results revealed sex and race/ethnicity differences in patterns of mediation. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Crime Prevention Research at the National Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinzelmann, Fred

    Crime Prevention deals with the effort to control crime and the fear of crime through a variety of community resources. Research efforts of the Department of Justice, first developed in the early 1970's, focused on increasing knowledge and understanding to promote more effective crime prevention. The National Institute of Justice has sponsored…

  1. Teenage Victims: A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Catherine J.

    The information in this report on teenage victims of crime is based on data obtained from the National Crime Survey for the years 1982 through 1984. The introduction summarizes crimes against teenagers, highlighting numbers, rates of victimization, and differences in crimes against teenagers and adults. These topics are discussed in detail: (1)…

  2. Kids, Crime, and Local Television News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanich, Danilo

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of crime reporting occurs on local television news and in newspapers. Although crimes are extraordinary events, they assume an ordinariness that only daily reporting can give them. The obvious question is what does the news tell us about crime. This article compares the coverage of adult crime and the coverage of what the author…

  3. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  4. Violent Crime, Hazing, and Arson on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvers, Suzanne E.

    The extent of violent crimes reported on New Jersey colleges and universities in 1985 is discussed, based on reports from the institutions. Recommendations for crime prevention made by the Chancellor's Special Advisory Committee on Violent Crimes, Hazing, and Arson on Campus are also considered. There were 477 reported incidents of violent crime,…

  5. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  6. Hate Crimes and Disability in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T.; West, Steven L.; Lewis, Allen N.; Armstrong, Amy J.; Conway, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    A hate crime is a criminal offense committed against person or property that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's prejudice. Hate crimes are sometimes termed "bias-motivated crimes." The theoretical bases for bias motivation and their implications for hate crimes against Americans with disabilities are outlined. The history of…

  7. Hate Crimes and Disability in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T.; West, Steven L.; Lewis, Allen N.; Armstrong, Amy J.; Conway, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    A hate crime is a criminal offense committed against person or property that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's prejudice. Hate crimes are sometimes termed "bias-motivated crimes." The theoretical bases for bias motivation and their implications for hate crimes against Americans with disabilities are outlined. The history of…

  8. Kids, Crime, and Local Television News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanich, Danilo

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of crime reporting occurs on local television news and in newspapers. Although crimes are extraordinary events, they assume an ordinariness that only daily reporting can give them. The obvious question is what does the news tell us about crime. This article compares the coverage of adult crime and the coverage of what the author…

  9. Analyzing crime scene videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Cindy C.; Peloquin, Tracy D.

    1999-02-01

    Since late 1996 the Forensic Identification Services Section of the Ontario Provincial Police has been actively involved in state-of-the-art image capture and the processing of video images extracted from crime scene videos. The benefits and problems of this technology for video analysis are discussed. All analysis is being conducted on SUN Microsystems UNIX computers, networked to a digital disk recorder that is used for video capture. The primary advantage of this system over traditional frame grabber technology is reviewed. Examples from actual cases are presented and the successes and limitations of this approach are explored. Suggestions to companies implementing security technology plans for various organizations (banks, stores, restaurants, etc.) will be made. Future directions for this work and new technologies are also discussed.

  10. [Differentiation of impulsive crimes from crimes of passion].

    PubMed

    Marneros, A

    2007-11-01

    In this article we try to differentiate between impulsive crimes and crimes of passion. The former are all impulsively executed and unplanned aggressive acts where we can find no specific preceding events which can be derived from a relevant relationship between offender and victim. Crimes of passion on the other hand are also impulsive and aggressive acts executed in a highly stressful affective state, but they are directed towards another relevant person and characterized by specific preceding events derived from the relationship between offender and victim. Thus they result from a perceived threat to the offender's self-image. We outline features for assessing crimes of passion as well as some indications which could facilitate them. The above mentioned differentiation between impulsive crimes and crimes of passion is relevant in forensic practice. Assessment of the psychological and psychopathological processes and states described in this article allows forensic psychiatric experts to give more reliable and more distinct recommendations to a court regarding the offender's criminal responsibility.

  11. The impact of a natural disaster on altruistic behaviour and crime.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    Institutional altruism in the form of a public-sector intervention and support for victims and social altruism generated by mutual aid and solidarity among citizens constitute a coming together in a crisis. This coming together and mutual support precipitate a decrease in crime rates during such an event. This paper presents an analysis of daily fluctuations in crime during the prolonged ice storms in Quebec, Canada, in January 1998 that provoked an electrical blackout. Of particular interest are the principal crisis-related influences on daily crime patterns. A first series of analyses examines the impact of altruistic public-sector mobilisation on crime. A significant decline in property crime rates was noticed when cheques were distributed to crisis victims in financial need in Montérégie, and hence they were attributable to public intervention (institutional altruism). Moreover, the rate of social altruism (financial donations), which was more substantial in adjoining rather than distant regions, was inversely proportional to crime rates.

  12. Human ecology, crime, and crime control: linking individual behavior and aggregate crime.

    PubMed

    Savage, Joanne; Vila, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    The paper extends previous research published by Cohen, Machalek, Vila, and others on the evolutionary-ecological paradigm for understanding criminal behavior. After reviewing literature related to human ecology and crime, the paper focuses on elements relevant to human ecology-biology, development, and ecological factors--and their role in criminal behavior. Major emphasis is placed on the linkages between individual factors and macro-level crime using chronic offending as a case in point. The principles of evolutionary ecology then are used to discuss counterstrategies to crime, and the prospects for protection/avoidance, deterrent, and nurturant strategies in light of evidence on chronic offending.

  13. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  14. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    PubMed Central

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  15. Hate Is a Campus Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClerc, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Activities at Hunter College of the City University of New York to deal creatively and democratically with hate crimes on campus are reported including establishment of a Diversity Commission and heavy commitment of trustees and college president. (DB)

  16. Hate Is a Campus Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClerc, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Activities at Hunter College of the City University of New York to deal creatively and democratically with hate crimes on campus are reported including establishment of a Diversity Commission and heavy commitment of trustees and college president. (DB)

  17. 31 CFR 1010.410 - Records to be made and retained by financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL... transmittal order; (E) The identity of the recipient's financial institution; (F) As many of the following... acceptance the transmittor's financial institution shall verify the identity of the person placing...

  18. 31 CFR 1010.410 - Records to be made and retained by financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL... transmittal order; (E) The identity of the recipient's financial institution; (F) As many of the following... acceptance the transmittor's financial institution shall verify the identity of the person placing...

  19. 31 CFR 1010.410 - Records to be made and retained by financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL... transmittal order; (E) The identity of the recipient's financial institution; (F) As many of the following... acceptance the transmittor's financial institution shall verify the identity of the person placing...

  20. 31 CFR 1010.410 - Records to be made and retained by financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL... transmittal order; (E) The identity of the recipient's financial institution; (F) As many of the following... acceptance the transmittor's financial institution shall verify the identity of the person placing...

  1. Emergency department security programs, community crime, and employee assaults.

    PubMed

    Blando, James D; McGreevy, Katharine; O'Hagan, Emily; Worthington, Karen; Valiante, David; Nocera, Maryalice; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2012-03-01

    Violence against health care workers is a serious occupational health hazard, especially for emergency department (ED) employees. A significant degree of variability in security programs among hospital EDs is present in part due to the absence of federal legislation requiring baseline security features. Nationally, only voluntary guidelines from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for the protection of health care workers exist. The purpose of this study was to examine ED security programs and employee assault rates among EDs with different financial resources, size, and background community crime rates. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among large and small hospitals located in communities with low or high rates of community crime. Hospital financial data were collected through the state health department, and employee assault data were abstracted from hospital OSHA logs. Comparisons were made using a chi-squared or Wilcoxon test. Small hospitals located in towns with low community crime rates implemented the fewest security program features despite having the second highest rate of assault-related OSHA-recordable injuries among ED employees (0.66 per 100,000 staff hours). Due to the highly stressful workplace characteristics of EDs, the risk of employee assault is universal among all hospital sizes in all types of communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime.

    PubMed

    Brax, David; Munthe, Christian

    2015-06-01

    In this introduction to the special symposium on the philosophy of hate crime, we provide an overview of the main philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation. We point out that there are two overarching philosophical issues that span over the literature: the Conceptual Question--concerning what hate crime is--and the Normative Question--concerning the status of hate crimes and the justification of hate crime legislation. We also provide brief summaries of the articles in the special section and point to their relations to the broader themes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  4. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England

    PubMed Central

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Methods Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009–2015 and categorised as ‘passive’, low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. Results 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more ‘intense’ policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in ‘passive’ areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Conclusions Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4–6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. PMID:27514936

  5. 31 CFR 1010.610 - Due diligence programs for correspondent accounts for foreign financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE... shares that are traded on an exchange or an organized over-the-counter market that is regulated by a...

  6. 31 CFR 1010.610 - Due diligence programs for correspondent accounts for foreign financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE... shares that are traded on an exchange or an organized over-the-counter market that is regulated by a...

  7. 31 CFR 1010.610 - Due diligence programs for correspondent accounts for foreign financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE... shares that are traded on an exchange or an organized over-the-counter market that is regulated by a...

  8. 31 CFR 1010.610 - Due diligence programs for correspondent accounts for foreign financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE... shares that are traded on an exchange or an organized over-the-counter market that is regulated by a...

  9. Victims of fraud: comparing victims of white collar and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Ganzini, L; McFarland, B; Bloom, J

    1990-01-01

    Mental health professionals have focused attention on the psychiatric sequelae of criminal victimization. This article compares the experience of white collar and violent crime victims on several parameters including statistical risk of victimization and psychiatric outcome after victimization. Emphasis is given to data obtained from interviewing 77 victims of a fraudulent financial scheme.

  10. From white-collar crime to red-collar crime

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Richard G.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white-collar criminals. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white-collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white-collar criminals. Findings Findings suggest that white-collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals. Practical implications The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white-collar crime investigators. Raising the mvareness of investigators dealing with white-collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act. Originality/value The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white-collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes. PMID:25414590

  11. From white-collar crime to red-collar crime.

    PubMed

    Brody, Richard G; Kiehl, Kent A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white-collar criminals. The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white-collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white-collar criminals. Findings suggest that white-collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals. The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white-collar crime investigators. Raising the mvareness of investigators dealing with white-collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act. The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white-collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes.

  12. Financial Criteria Used in Case Adjudication by the Directorate for Industrial Security Clearance Review (DISCR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    a crime if you don’t get caught." [Ref. 37:pp. 93-94; z . 26; Iand 39:p. 63] 33 Many models, theories, and generalizations about crime have been...CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS IN SECURITY .................. 15 C. GENERAL WEAKNESSES INTHE CLEARANCE PROCESS ...... 19 D. MAJOR ISSUES IN CLEARANCE...existence of financial difficulties indicative of general immaturity and carelessness on the part of the applicant, the great majority of financial

  13. Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship between Residents' Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates over 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…

  14. Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship between Residents' Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates over 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…

  15. Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Allen D.

    1981-01-01

    Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

  16. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  17. Teaching about Crime in Communist Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on developing a short college level module on crime and societal reaction in communist society. Presented are techniques for gauging student knowledge of crime in communist states, theories by communist criminologists, and comparative criminology suggestions. (Author/DB)

  18. Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Allen D.

    1981-01-01

    Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

  19. A Groundswell Response to Recent Crime Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    The public is "mad as hell" about crime in their communities and many residents are taking positive steps to counter street violence. Several groups around the country have organized to combat the crime problem. (SI)

  20. A Groundswell Response to Recent Crime Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    The public is "mad as hell" about crime in their communities and many residents are taking positive steps to counter street violence. Several groups around the country have organized to combat the crime problem. (SI)

  1. San Diego: Public Attitudes About Crime. A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Adolfo L., Ed.

    The National Crime Survey program has conducted a continuous national survey and separate surveys in 26 central cities to study the impact of crime on American society. Attitudinal information obtained from a 1974 survey of occupants of 4,906 housing units (9,125 residents age 16 and over) in San Diego reflects crime trends, fear of crime,…

  2. Crime in Nigeria: An Exploratory Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    crime and exploratory factor analysis (a statistical technique for data reduction), this paper develops models of crimes against persons and property...country in Africa. Using theories of crime and exploratory factor analysis (a statistical technique for data reduction), this paper develops models of...2011, (transcript), accessed 24 October 2012, http://www.africom.mil/getArticle.asp?art= 7103&lang=0. 3 crime . After conducting statistical tests

  3. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent

  4. [The effects of information about crime on mother's anxiety about crime].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-10-01

    This study examined a causal model that the effect of information about crime on risk perception, anxiety about crime, and crime prevention is mediated by the informational content and source. We measured risk perception and anxiety about crime from a social and an individual perspective. A web-based survey was conducted with mothers (N=1040) who have children aged 3-12 years. The results of structural equation modeling indicated the following. (a) Information about crime given by the mass media, Internet, and hearsay increased the risk perception and anxiety about crime through the impact of informational content (i.e., "feeling that crime is close," "emotional fluctuations," "sympathy for the victims," and "remembering a similar crime"). (b) Hearsay information directly controlled optimistic cognitions. (c) Mass media and hearsay information directly promoted crime prevention. (d) Cognition about the deterioration of security advanced cooperative crime prevention in the neighborhood.

  5. Using crime statistics in nursing.

    PubMed

    Standing Bear, Z G

    1996-10-01

    1. Inferences about crime only may be made when comparing a particular place (state, city) to other similar places. 2. Crime and deviance statistics are unique in that one must have an adequate population base to make inferences that are meaningful. If the population base is not adequate, an inference cannot be made unless this condition is remedied. 3. Use only rates of occurrences per 100,000 people per year as a standard for comparison. If some other rate is used, then this fact must be clearly stated and the reason for deviating adequately explained.

  6. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  7. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  8. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  9. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  10. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  11. Crime and the Decline of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Mark W.

    This paper focuses on crime in American society, with emphasis on the causes of crime and delinquent behavior. A brief overview of numerous theories which have been advanced to explain causes of crime begins the paper. Among the theories discussed are those based on alcoholism, poverty, and perceived social injustice. Maintaining that these…

  12. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  13. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Chapman, Christopher D.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy

    This report provides detailed statistical information on crime in schools. It is a companion document to the "Annual Report on School Safety: 1999," which offers an overview of the nature and scope of school crime. This report is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and…

  14. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  15. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  16. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the observance of human rights throughout the world, a license is required to export and reexport crime...

  17. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  18. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  19. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  20. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  1. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  2. Hate-Crime Hoaxes Unsettle Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    1999-01-01

    In recent months, police on a number of college and university campuses have investigated hate crimes that made headlines, only to discover that the crimes had been made up. While some feel the hoaxes are by individual students during difficult times in their lives, others feel leftists may be faking the crimes to influence the campus movement…

  3. Database Management: A Deterrent to School Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Patricia W.

    The School Crime and Misbehavior Project, conducted under the auspices of the National Alliance for Safe schools and the National Institute of Justice, was aimed at providing school districts with a system to reduce crime and the fear of crime in the schools. The Duval County (Florida) Public Schools implemented the 2-year program as a pilot…

  4. CSI (Crime Scene Induction): Creating False Memories of Committing Crime.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen B; Baker, Alysha T

    2015-12-01

    We describe two merging lines of empirical inquiry: entire false memories for autobiographical events and false confessions. A recent study showed that people can be led to remember, and confess to, perpetrating serious crimes that never occurred when confronted with suggestive interview tactics commonly used in police interrogations.

  5. Houston: Public Attitudes About Crime. A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    These city surveys had a twofold purpose: the assessment of public attitudes about crime and related matters and the development of information on the extent and nature of residents' experiences with selected forms of criminal victimization. Attitudianl information was obtained from interviews with the occupants of 4,866 housing units. Because…

  6. Crime and Child-Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Byron M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the notion that heredity plays a powerful role in criminal behavior, including genetic evidence that can allow for antisocial behavior. Reviews suggestions for reversing rising crime rates in light of the hereditary connection, policy development, family cohesion, and child raising. (GR)

  7. Youth, Crime, and Cultural Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Explores the criminalization of young people's alternative cultural spaces as a strategy of social and cultural control, a defense of mainstream cultural space and its boundaries. Contemporary social control, the emerging political economy of urban life, and the evolving connections of youth, crime, and cultural space are considered. (SLD)

  8. Crime and Child-Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Byron M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the notion that heredity plays a powerful role in criminal behavior, including genetic evidence that can allow for antisocial behavior. Reviews suggestions for reversing rising crime rates in light of the hereditary connection, policy development, family cohesion, and child raising. (GR)

  9. Drugs and Crime Facts, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    This report presents the most current information available relating to drugs and crime published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) in 25 different reports. These topics are discussed: (1) drug use by criminal offenders at the time of offense, noting that a third of state prisoners, a quarter of convicted jail inmates, and two-fifths of…

  10. Crime News Coverage in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Doris A.

    According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…

  11. Crime and Justice: American Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Clarence

    To determine the state of the system of justice, identify its major problems, and asses some of its more promising developments, this comprehensive report presents the results of a literature search on crime and justice in American society. Compiled by a university professor, this monograph is one of a series intended to encourage the exchange of…

  12. Crime Solving Techniques: Training Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Jack M.

    The document is a training bulletin for criminal investigators, explaining the use of probability, logic, lateral thinking, group problem solving, and psychological profiles as methods of solving crimes. One chpater of several pages is devoted to each of the five methods. The use of each method is explained; problems are presented for the user to…

  13. Intrinsic Rewards in School Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Larson, Reed

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter deals with the intrinsic motivation that the systemic structure of a school provides for opportunities for both prosocial and antisocial behavior. On the basis of previous research, the authors propose that the state of enjoyment occurs when a person is…

  14. Hate crimes against gay males: an overview.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G

    2004-03-01

    As the United States has become more multicultural and diverse, there has been an increase in violence motivated by hate. Hate crimes against gay males are the most prevalent of the hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Hate crimes have their roots in normative, individual, and societal attitudes and ideologies that lead to intimidation, bullying, teasing, physical assault, rape, and murder. This paper provides an overview of the issues specific to hate crime assaults against gay males. Mental health nurses may find this knowledge useful in developing further nursing inquiry, education, and clinical practice related to hate crime and violence prevention.

  15. Hate crimes and the forensic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, Joseph A

    2007-12-01

    Hate crimes represent crimes committed against an individual or group on the basis of their race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, or disability. For the forensic pathologist, a death related to a hate crime should be considered a high-profile case, one in which the pathologist should expect abundant public interest and scrutiny. In this article, an overview of hate crimes is presented, stressing the different types of hate crimes and the motives of those who commit such crimes. For death investigators and forensic pathologists, an awareness of these details will help them to recognize and appropriately anticipate issues that may be important in deaths related to hate crimes.

  16. Crime, social capital, and community participation.

    PubMed

    Saegert, Susan; Winke, Gary

    2004-12-01

    Social disorganization at the neighborhood and community levels has been consistently linked to various forms of criminal activity. However,a very much smaller body of literature addresses the effects of crime on community organizations. In some studies, crime appears to energize communities while in others, crime leads to withdrawal from community life. Using department of health crime victimization data and interviews with 2,985 low-income inner city residents living in 487 multi-family dwellings, a multi-level model examined the relationships among crime victimization, social organization, and participation in neighborhood organizations. Social organization at the individual and building levels was measured using recent formulations of social capital theory. Findings regarding crime suggested more signs of a chilling effect on participation than of an energizing effect, especially at the building level. Social capital at the building level was more strongly and consistently related to participation in community organizations than was crime.

  17. 28 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - Age Distinctions in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Financial Assistance Administered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligible crime victim assistance programs that help victims of certain crimes, including child abuse. In... Indian tribes with handling child abuse cases, particularly child sexual abuse (CFDA No. 16.583). The... authorized to extend financial assistance under the Missing Children's Assistance Act, as amended (42...

  18. 28 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - Age Distinctions in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Financial Assistance Administered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligible crime victim assistance programs that help victims of certain crimes, including child abuse. In... Indian tribes with handling child abuse cases, particularly child sexual abuse (CFDA No. 16.583). The... authorized to extend financial assistance under the Missing Children's Assistance Act, as amended (42...

  19. 28 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - Age Distinctions in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Financial Assistance Administered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible crime victim assistance programs that help victims of certain crimes, including child abuse. In... Indian tribes with handling child abuse cases, particularly child sexual abuse (CFDA No. 16.583). The... authorized to extend financial assistance under the Missing Children's Assistance Act, as amended (42...

  20. 28 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - Age Distinctions in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Financial Assistance Administered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... eligible crime victim assistance programs that help victims of certain crimes, including child abuse. In... Indian tribes with handling child abuse cases, particularly child sexual abuse (CFDA No. 16.583). The... authorized to extend financial assistance under the Missing Children's Assistance Act, as amended (42...

  1. 28 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - Age Distinctions in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Financial Assistance Administered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligible crime victim assistance programs that help victims of certain crimes, including child abuse. In... Indian tribes with handling child abuse cases, particularly child sexual abuse (CFDA No. 16.583). The... authorized to extend financial assistance under the Missing Children's Assistance Act, as amended (42...

  2. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  3. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  4. Financial physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, James

    2003-10-01

    In this introduction to the burgeoning field of econophysics, we review the application of self-organized criticality to economics, the Cont-Bouchaud percolation model, multiple-strategy agent-based models of financial markets, the minority game, and log-periodic precursors to financial crashes.

  5. 78 FR 24319 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8959 of April 19, 2013 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2013 By the... crime through no fault of their own. These are people we know: families trying to rebuild after... the aftermath of a crime, and some never report their crime at all. During National Crime...

  6. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  7. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov.

  8. Racial disparities in hate crime reporting.

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the victim's race in reporting hate crimes to the police. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) concentrated incident-level files (1992-2005) were used to (a) analyze how the victim's race influences the likelihood of reporting and (b) explore differences between reporting racial hate crimes and non-racial hate crimes. Controlling for other demographic and incident characteristics, the results indicate that minority victimizations are less likely to be reported for both racial and nonracial hate crimes; however, the magnitude of this effect was greater for racial hate crimes. Failure to report to the police has serious consequences for the victim and the criminal justice system. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  9. Take a Bite Out of Crime: Get Ready To Celebrate 20 Years. Crime Prevention Month Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This Crime Prevention Month kit is designed to help plan crime prevention month activities for 1999 and into 2000, the year the Take a Bite Out of Crime character, McGruff the Crime Dog, celebrates 20 years of existence. This 15-month planning calendar provides long-term strategies for preventing crime in the community, which can be carried out…

  10. Assessing knowledge of elder financial abuse: a first step in enhancing prosecutions.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sheri C; Greene, Edie

    2013-01-01

    Financial exploitation by a family member is the most common form of elder mistreatment; yet, it is a difficult crime to detect and prosecute. Psychologists have traditionally assisted prosecutors by assessing decisional capacity and opining in court whether an alleged victim was able to consent to the contested transactions. This article proposes and evaluates a novel form of psychological expertise in financial abuse trials-social framework testimony to reeducate jurors who are misinformed about aspects of this largely hidden crime. Findings suggest that, as in cases of child and spousal abuse, social framework testimony on the general dispositional and situational factors inherent in elder financial abuse may enhance prosecutions.

  11. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.

  12. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  13. Value of DNA evidence in detecting crime.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2007-01-01

    DNA material is now collected routinely from crime scenes for a wide range of offences and the timely processing of the DNA is seen as key to its success in investigating and detecting crime. An analysis of DNA material recovered from the volume crime offences of residential burglary, commercial burglary, and theft of motor vehicle in Northamptonshire, U.K., in 2004 has enabled the DNA to be categorized into seven sources. Further analysis using a logistical regression has revealed a number of predictors, other than timeliness, that greatly influence whether the DNA material recovered from a crime scene enables the crime to be detected. The results indicate that a number of these predictors are of statistical significance and may be just as relevant in determining whether DNA successfully detects the crime as the timeliness of the processing of the DNA material. The most significant predictor was found to be investigating officer accreditation with location, quantity, and type of DNA material at the crime scene also being relevant. Accreditation of the Crime Scene Examiner recovering the DNA material was found not to be significant. Consideration is given to where further emphasis is needed by the U.K. police service to maximize the opportunities to detect volume crime with DNA.

  14. Review of Current Crime Prediction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Vikas; Adderley, Richard; Bramer, Max

    Police analysts are requiredto unravel the complexities in data to assist operational personnel in arresting offenders and directing crime prevention strategies. However, the volume of crime that is being committed and the awareness of modern criminals make this a daunting task. The ability to analyse this amount of data with its inherent complexities without. using computational support puts a strain on human resources. This paper examines the current techniques that are used to predict crime and criminality. Over time, these techniques have been refined and have achieved limited success. They are concentrated into three categories: statistical methods, these mainly relate to the journey to crime, age of offending and offending behaviour; techniques using geographical information systems that identify crime hot spots, repeat victimisation, crime attractors and crime generators; a miscellaneous group which includes machine learning techniques to identify patterns in criminal behaviour and studies involving reoffending. The majority of current techniques involve the prediction of either a single offender's criminality or a single crimetype's next offence. These results are of only limited use in practical policing. It is our contention that Knowledge Discovery in Databases should be used on all crime types together with offender data, as a whole, to predict crime and criminality within a small geographical area of a police force.

  15. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    PubMed

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization.

  16. Neighborhood crime, deprivation, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Messer, Lynne C; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Savitz, David A; Laraia, Barbara A

    2006-06-01

    Significant racial disparity in preterm birth (PTB; birth at <37 weeks' gestation) exists, poorly explained by Individual-level factors. This research explores whether neighborhood crime contributes to the racial disparity in PTB. Geocoded Wake County, NC, birth records and crime-report data for 1999 to 2001 were merged with US Census data (2000). Race-stratified logistic and multilevel logistic models produced odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for block-group violent, theft, property, and vice crime rates and singleton PTB. A total of 13,960 women resided in a 114-block-group crime area. Non-Hispanic black women were more likely than non-Hispanic white women to deliver preterm (12.8% versus 6.7%), live in economically deprived block groups (42.2% versus 19.3% in the highest deprivation quartile), and experience more crime (32.0% versus 3.8% in the highest violent-crime-rate quartile). Quartiles of violent, theft, property, and vice crimes were associated with PTB in unadjusted models. Living in very high violent-crime-rate block-group quartiles was suggestive of increased odds of PTB for white and black non-Hispanic women (OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.6; and OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1, respectively) in adjusted models. Other crime effects were attenuated after adjustment. Differential neighborhood exposures may contribute to racial disparity in PTB.

  17. Crime and the Elderly. A Report of the Crime Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Aaron; And Others

    The purpose of this document is to perform a comprehensive examination of the controversies and contradictions surrounding the issue of crime and the elderly, based on analysis of National Crime Survey data for 1973-1980. Chapter 1 introduces the study of crime and the elderly, describing the controversy that exists regarding the elderly and their…

  18. Fear of Crime among the Elderly: The Role of Crime Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Lee; Courlander, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effect of police patrol and crime education on the fear of crime and security-conscious behavior of 152 senior citizens. Results indicated that, although those who were highly affected by the crime education component exhibited increased security-conscious behavior, they also showed increased fear. (Author)

  19. Fear of Crime among the Elderly: The Role of Crime Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Lee; Courlander, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effect of police patrol and crime education on the fear of crime and security-conscious behavior of 152 senior citizens. Results indicated that, although those who were highly affected by the crime education component exhibited increased security-conscious behavior, they also showed increased fear. (Author)

  20. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  1. The Prosecution of Hate Crimes: The Limitations of the Hate Crime Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Nickie D.

    2009-01-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement. In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology…

  2. The Prosecution of Hate Crimes: The Limitations of the Hate Crime Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Nickie D.

    2009-01-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement. In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology…

  3. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  4. The Incidence of Crime on the Campuses of U.S. Postsecondary Education Institutions. A Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 require the Department of Education to collect, analyze, and report to Congress on the incidence of crime on campuses and facilities of postsecondary education institutions, and institutions of postsecondary education that participate in federal student financial assistance programs are required to make…

  5. The Incidence of Crime on the Campuses of U.S. Postsecondary Education Institutions. A Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 require the Department of Education to collect, analyze, and report to Congress on the incidence of crime on campuses and facilities of postsecondary education institutions, and institutions of postsecondary education that participate in federal student financial assistance programs are required to make…

  6. Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    The Water Power Program focuses on technological development, and deployment of innovative technologies capable of generating electricity from water. The program funds research and development activities through competitive solicitations. Financial opportunities are avaliable here.

  7. The Case for Spacecrime: The Rise of Crime and Piracy in the Space Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    needed to address this question. One of those theories—Routine Activity Theory—contends that crime occurs when motivated offenders, suitable targets...financial gain. First, I analyze the efforts required for motivated and capable offenders to build and launch a satellite they can use to commit...access to space over the next decade will be easier and less expensive than today. A time will come when the cost/benefit analysis will motivate

  8. Employment and Crime: An Issue of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Samuel L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between employment and crime indicate that the stigma of a criminal record and the lack of preprison employment experience affect Black and White ex-offenders differently. Findings suggest racial discrimination and institutional racism are intervening factors in the failure of crime prevention strategies, particularly…

  9. Covering Campus Crime: A Handbook for Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Press Law Center, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides journalists with the information--both legal and practical--to successfully confront the roadblocks that might arise when covering campus crime. After an introductory section on campus crime reporting, sections of the handbook discusses what journalists' legal right of access to campus police records, campus crime…

  10. Fear of Crime and Residential Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belyea, Michael J.; Zingraff, Matthew T.

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationship between fear of crime and residential location. Studies sample of more than 3,000 North Carolina residents. Results indicate that rural residents have significantly lower fear of crime than urban counterparts when known correlates are controlled. Discusses implications for future research. (Author/TES)

  11. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  12. Nurses wage war on hate crime.

    PubMed

    Snell, Janet

    The number of hate crimes reported to the police is rising sharply, in part because increased awareness has prompted more victims and witnesses to come forward. This article explains how nurses are taking steps to identify such crimes and prevent them happening in the first place. The panel opposite offers some practical advice on how to raise concerns with the police and other authorities.

  13. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  14. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  15. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Peter, Katharin; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Planty, Michael G.; Rand, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the latest indicator data on school crime and student safety, including updates on student and teacher victimization, weapons and fights at school, students' alcohol and marijuana use, and students' reports of drug availability at school. Data present a mixed picture of school safety, with a decline in overall crime rates but continued…

  16. Statistical correlations of crime with arrests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuelling, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Regression analysis shows that the overall crime rate correlates with the overall arrest rate. Violent crime only weakly correlates with the violent arrest rate, but strongly correlates with the property arrest rate. Contrary to common impressions, increasing arrest rates do not significantly increase loading on incarceration facilities.

  17. Crime and Delinquency in California, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    A statistical portrait of crime and deliquency in California in 1985 is presented in this document. These topics are discussed and illustrated by data tables and graphs: crimes (violent, property); arrests (felony, misdemeanor, changes in rates); adult felony arrest dispositions (dispositions, arrestees convicted); adult corrections (supervision,…

  18. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jill F.; Peter, Katharin; Kaufman, Phillip; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Planty, Mike; Snyder, Thomas D.; Duhart, Detis T.; Rand, Michael R.

    This report, the fifth in a series of annual reports on school crime, presents the latest available data on school crime and student safety. The data present a mixed picture of school safety. Rates of criminal victimization in school have declined or remained constant, and students seem to feel more secure at school than they did a few years ago.…

  19. Crime and Delinquency in California, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    A statistical portrait of crime and deliquency in California in 1986 is presented in this document. These topics are discussed and illustrated by data tables and graphs: crimes (violent, property); arrests (felony, misdemeanor, changes in rates); adult felony arrest dispositions (dispositions, arrestees convicted); adult corrections (supervision,…

  20. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  1. School Crime & Violence: Victim's Rights. Revised 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, James A.; And Others

    This comprehensive guide for protecting school crime victims provides a concise, central source for quickly accessing and utilizing new legal authorities pertinent to the inalienable right to safe schools and tort principles relating to the rights of campus crime victims. Intended for school officials and trial lawyers, the book can also be used…

  2. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Chapman, Christopher D.; Rand, Michael R.; Ringel, Cheryl

    The string of tragic, violent incidents that occurred during the 1997-98 school year has refocused the American public's attention on school crime and safety. This statistical compilation supports the "Annual Report on School Safety: 1998" by presenting the latest available data on school crime and student safety. The report presents a…

  3. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael G.

    This report contains the most recent available data on school crime and safety drawn from a number of statistical series supported by the federal government. It is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and safety. There are five sections to the report: Violent Deaths at…

  4. [Organized and professional crime: a comparative approach].

    PubMed

    Kerner, H J; Mack, J A

    1975-01-01

    After a short preliminary statement of a terminological character, the authors review the basic features of professional and organized crime, also in relation to historically well defined aspects of it, of the "crime-syndicate" type. The tracts differentiating in this sector the European criminality from the North-American one are identified, and the most significant examples of criminal organization active in recent times especially in Great Britain are illustrated. The survey is carried out taking into account the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the phenomenon and probing further into the value and function that the various categories of crime operators assume in the most modern forms of organized crime. A special attention is devoted to the activities of particular importance that precede and follow the perpetration of crimes. The problem of the professional and organized crime is also viewed in the light of the difference existing in the various European countries, and of the easy access to international connections which afford to this type of crime quite a comprehensive scope of action and which involve a greater difficulty of the activities carried out by the authorities of the various countries. The authors finally emphasize the gravity of the new forms of crime that are being committed especially in the business field, and urge all those concerned in criminological problems to devote their attention to the phenomenon, delving further into the connection it has with the deviance theory.

  5. Stop Crime by 1984, Here's How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Frank M.

    This booklet discusses the need for a developmental approach to the prevention of juvenile deliquency and crime in general. It presents an overview of the crime problem, mentions some common viewpoints concerning causal factors, and makes a case for the relationship between early life experiences and incidence of adult criminal behavior. The…

  6. Women and Crime: 1960-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblit, George W.; Burcart, Janie M.

    1976-01-01

    Using data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report, this research looks at crimes committed by women in 1960 and 1970. The study documents trends and offers possible explanations for the observed patterns. (For a critique of this article, see SO 504 653). (Author/RM)

  7. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  8. Disability Hate Crime: Persecuted for Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Sue; Capewell, Carmel; Bonnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the long history of violence towards disabled people which sets the context for an analysis of the modern-day form of violence known as disability hate crime (DHC). People who look or behave differently to others often find themselves victims of violent crimes. The language used to describe disabled people…

  9. The Human Ecology of School Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter examines the human ecology of school crime. It explores the relationship between the structure of the school as a social system and the dynamics of student and staff behavior. The central thesis is that schools become "out of control" when they are large and…

  10. Distinctive characteristics of sexual orientation bias crimes.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-10-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question: What are the differences between sexual orientation motivated bias crimes and racial bias crimes? This question is examined using data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and multiple regression techniques. This analysis draws on the strengths of NIBRS to look at the incident characteristics of hate crimes and distinguishing characteristics of sexual orientation crimes. Specifically this analysis looks at the types and seriousness of offenses motivated by sexual orientation bias as opposed to race bias as well as victim and offender characteristics. The findings suggest that there are differences between these two types of bias crimes, suggesting a need for further separation of the bias types in policy and research.

  11. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  12. [The M-cycle of crime].

    PubMed

    Antholz, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Crime development measured by means of the changes in police recorded crime statistics (criminal offences per 100.000 inhabitants) shows periodical cycles, which can be described by the capital letter M. Starting from a low rate of criminality, crime rises over 1-3 years followed by an interim decline lasting for about one year. Then crime increases again for approximately 2 years to a second peak. After that, crime strongly declines to the next low point over a period of about two years. The course of this development is not uniform with equal amplitudes, but resembles an M-curve. Since 1950, seven such M-cycles have been observed with the 3rd M-cycle from 1965-1973, the 4th M-cycle from 1973-1984, the 5th M-cycle from 1984-1994, the 6th M-cycle from 1994-2005 and the 7th M-cycle from 2005-2010 being particularly distinct. The M-curve of crime may be explained by the M-form of the business cycle. Since World War II, the M-cycle of crime and the M-cycle of the economy have run approximately parallel. Up to the first large oil crisis, the M-cycle of crime preceded the economic situation by 1-2 years, whereas since 1976 it has followed the economic development with a time lag of one to two years.

  13. Crime on Campus. Annual Report: 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Michael D.

    This report portrays the nature, volume, and extent of crime occurring on the campuses and housing of approximately 65 institutions of higher education in Tennessee from January to December of 1990. Following an introduction, a sample reporting form is provided, along with information on classification of offenses and calculation of crime rates.…

  14. Evaluation of Teens, Crime & the Community, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Program Evaluators and Consultants, Inc., Bingham Farms, MI.

    Since 1985, the National Crime Prevention Council and the National Institute for Citizen Education in the Law have been supporting the implementation of the Teens, Crime, and the Community (TCC) curriculum for use in a variety of settings. The curriculum is intended for teenagers aged 14 to 18. The 1992 evaluation was an outgrowth of smaller…

  15. Disability Hate Crime: Persecuted for Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Sue; Capewell, Carmel; Bonnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the long history of violence towards disabled people which sets the context for an analysis of the modern-day form of violence known as disability hate crime (DHC). People who look or behave differently to others often find themselves victims of violent crimes. The language used to describe disabled people…

  16. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  17. The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.

  18. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  19. Crime, Commitment and the Responsive Bystander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Thomas

    The paper describes a field experiment conducted at Jones Beach, New York, to determine (1) how responsive are individuals who witness a crime, and (2) under what conditions will bystanders take action to prevent a crime. The major independent variable in this study was the degree of prior commitment to the victim; whether or not the subject had…

  20. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  1. Gambling Harm and Crime Careers.

    PubMed

    May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda

    2017-03-01

    Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.

  2. The Associations of Area-Level Violent Crime Rates and Self-Reported Violent Crime Exposure with Adolescent Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Grinshteyn, Erin G; Xu, Haiyong; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Ettner, Susan L

    2017-08-31

    The effects of witnessing and experiencing crime have seldom been disaggregated. Little research has assessed the effect of multiple exposures to crime. We assess independent contributions of self-reported crime and area-level crime to adolescent behavioral health outcomes. Cross sectional data on 5519 adolescents from the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program was linked to FBI crime rate data to assess associations of mutually exclusive categories of self-reported crime exposure and area-level crime rates with mental health and substance abuse. Self-reported crime exposure was significantly associated with poorer behavioral health. Violent victimization had the largest association with all outcomes except internalizing scores. All self-reported crime variables were significantly associated with three of the outcomes. Area-level crime rates were associated with one mental health outcome. Providers should assess direct and indirect crime exposure rather than only focusing on violent victimization.

  3. FINANCIAL LITERACY, FINANCIAL EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the extent to which a competitive market provides incentives for firms to educate consumers or offer products that facilitate informed choice. We review the literature on alternative policies to improve financial outcomes, and compare the evidence to evidence on the efficacy and cost of financial education. Finally, we discuss directions for future research. PMID:23991248

  4. FINANCIAL LITERACY, FINANCIAL EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Justine S; Madrian, Brigitte C; Skimmyhorn, William L

    2013-05-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the extent to which a competitive market provides incentives for firms to educate consumers or offer products that facilitate informed choice. We review the literature on alternative policies to improve financial outcomes, and compare the evidence to evidence on the efficacy and cost of financial education. Finally, we discuss directions for future research.

  5. The lived experience of victims of crime.

    PubMed

    McBrearty, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this research study was to ascertain the impact of crime on individuals, who presented with an injury to the emergency department. Given the high prevalence of crime in our society today, victims of crime are identified as a growing patient population seeking help in emergency departments. To maximise holistic care for these patients it is important that healthcare professionals gain insight into the experience of being a victim of crime. The study was qualitative in nature and used a phenomenological approach. In-depth, unstructured audio taped interviews were conducted to elicit the essence of the experience of being a victim of crime. The voices of the victims revealed four themes; "Fear, Shock and Disbelief", "Guilt/Self-blame", "Physical and Psychological Scars" and "Lifestyle Changes". The management of victims of crime in the emergency department appears to be concerned exclusively with physical injuries. Unseen is the potential psychological sequelae of the assault. Pivotal to these findings is the absence of psychological follow-up support for these victims of crime. This study affords healthcare professionals working in the emergency department, the opportunity to reflect upon current practice and highlight the value of their role in the provision of optimal care for this patient population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methadone maintenance and drug-related crime.

    PubMed

    Bell, J; Mattick, R; Hay, A; Chan, J; Hall, W

    1997-01-01

    Using data from an evaluation of methadone maintenance treatment, this study investigated factors associated with continued involvement in crime during treatment, and in particular whether there appeared to be differences in effectiveness of treatment between different methadone clinics. The methodology was an observational study, in which 304 patients attending three low-intervention, private methadone clinics in Sydney were interviewed on three occasions over a twelve month period. Outcome measures were self-reported criminal activity and police department records of convictions. By self-report, crime dropped promptly and substantially on entry to treatment, to a level of acquisitive crime about one-eighth that reported during the last addiction period. Analysis of official records indicated that rates of acquisitive convictions were significantly lower in the in-treatment period compared to prior to entry to treatment, corroborating the changes suggested by self-report. Persisting involvement in crime in treatment was predicted by two factors: the cost of persisting use of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis, and ASPD symptom count. Treatment factors also were independently predictive of continued involvement in crime. By both self-report and official records, and adjusting for subject factors, treatment at one clinic was associated with greater involvement in crime. This clinic operated in a chaotic and poorly organized way. It is concluded that crime during methadone treatment is substantially lower than during street addiction, although the extent of reduction depends on the quality of treatment being delivered.

  7. Youth hate crimes: identification, prevention, and intervention.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Annie; Brooks, Jane; Remtulla, Tariq

    2003-05-01

    Youth hate crimes are a societal problem in which young people turn extremist ideas into acts of violence. To develop methods for prevention, early identification, and intervention, mental health professionals must have an awareness and understanding of this issue. To provide a basis for developing such an understanding, the authors review the current research related to youth hate crimes. The authors review the literature primarily from the past 10 years on youth hate crimes. Studies have established that most hate crimes are committed by single or small groups of young males unaffiliated with organized hate groups. Although limited information is available about the causative factors of hatred, a variety of prevention and intervention strategies have been employed. Yet, little has been done to evaluate these various initiatives. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature available to guide mental health professionals in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of offenders, despite increasing concerns and awareness regarding the profound consequences of acts of hatred and extremism. Heightened public awareness and greater understanding of the epidemiology and nature of hate crimes is necessary if perpetrators are to be recognized and effective interventions developed. To achieve this goal, databases of juvenile hate crimes must be developed nationwide, and the success of preventive, educational, and alternative sentencing programs must be assessed. Mental health professionals play a critical role in the detection and treatment of juvenile perpetrators, and it is incumbent upon them to develop interventions for individuals and communities affected by hate crimes.

  8. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstuction (CSIRR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, John F.; Young, Jeffrey M.; Corrigan, Paul

    1997-02-01

    Graphic Data Systems Corporation (GDS Corp.) and Intellignet Graphics Solutions, Inc. (IGS) combined talents in 1995 to design and develop a MicroGDSTM application to support field investiations of crime scenes, such as homoicides, bombings, and arsons. IGS and GDS Corp. prepared design documents under the guidance of federal, state, and local crime scene reconstruction experts and with information from the FBI's evidence response team field book. The application was then developed to encompass the key components of crime scene investigaton: staff assigned to the incident, tasks occuring at the scene, visits to the scene location, photogrpahs taken of the crime scene, related documents, involved persons, catalogued evidence, and two- or three- dimensional crime scene reconstruction. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstruction (CSIRR$CPY) provides investigators with a single applicaiton for both capturing all tabular data about the crime scene and quickly renderng a sketch of the scene. Tabular data is captured through ituitive database forms, while MicroGDSTM has been modified to readily allow non-CAD users to sketch the scene.

  9. 32 CFR 635.33 - Crime rate reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aggregate crime data. Requests for Army-wide crime data reports will be forwarded through HQDA, Office of..., prior to release. Requests for USACIDC, ACOM, ASCC, DRU, or subordinate command specific crime data...) Requests for Army aggregate crime reports are limited to data collected and accessible through the...

  10. 32 CFR 635.33 - Crime rate reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aggregate crime data. Requests for Army-wide crime data reports will be forwarded through HQDA, Office of..., prior to release. Requests for USACIDC, ACOM, ASCC, DRU, or subordinate command specific crime data...) Requests for Army aggregate crime reports are limited to data collected and accessible through the...

  11. 32 CFR 635.33 - Crime rate reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aggregate crime data. Requests for Army-wide crime data reports will be forwarded through HQDA, Office of..., prior to release. Requests for USACIDC, ACOM, ASCC, DRU, or subordinate command specific crime data...) Requests for Army aggregate crime reports are limited to data collected and accessible through the...

  12. Crime and Perceptions after a Decade of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Crime has become central to any discussion about the consolidation of democracy in South Africa. Concerns about crime intensified in the years after 1994, as the country attempted to grapple with the apparent "crime wave" that accompanied the transition. A decade later crime is still a priority for government and a concern among…

  13. Evaluation of the Urban Crime Prevention Program. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehl, Janice A.; Cook, Royer F.

    The Urban Crime Prevention Program (UCPP) was designed to combat urban crime through the establishment of 85 innovative neighborhood-based crime prevention projects across nine cities for 18 months. UCPP's main goals were to increase citizen participation in innovative neighborhood crime prevention efforts, to bolster the capabilities of…

  14. Behavioural case linkage with solved and unsolved crimes.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Matthew; Woodhams, Jessica; Bull, Ray; Bond, John W

    2012-10-10

    Offender behaviour is used to distinguish between crimes committed by the same person (linked crimes) and crimes committed by different people (unlinked crimes) through behavioural case linkage. There is growing evidence to support the use of behavioural case linkage by investigative organisations such as the police, but this research is typically limited to samples of solved crime that do not reflect how this procedure is used in real life. The current paper extends previous research by testing the potential for behavioural case linkage in a sample containing both solved and unsolved crimes. Discrimination accuracy is examined across crime categories (e.g. a crime pair containing a car theft and a residential burglary), across crime types (e.g. a crime pair containing a residential burglary and a commercial burglary), and within crime types (e.g. a crime pair containing two residential burglaries) using the number of kilometres (intercrime distance) and the number of days (temporal proximity) between offences to distinguish between linked and unlinked crimes. The intercrime distance and/or the temporal proximity were able to achieve statistically significant levels of discrimination accuracy across crime categories, across crime types, and within crime types as measured by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. This suggests that behavioural case linkage can be used to assist the investigation, detection and prosecution of prolific and versatile serial offenders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten our... family loses its life savings or home due to cruel deception. During National Crime Victims' Rights Week...

  16. Crime and Perceptions after a Decade of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Crime has become central to any discussion about the consolidation of democracy in South Africa. Concerns about crime intensified in the years after 1994, as the country attempted to grapple with the apparent "crime wave" that accompanied the transition. A decade later crime is still a priority for government and a concern among…

  17. The scaling of crime concentration in cities

    PubMed Central

    Bastos-Filho, Carmelo; Menezes, Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Crime is a major threat to society’s well-being but lacks a statistical characterization that could lead to uncovering some of its underlying mechanisms. Evidence of nonlinear scaling of urban indicators in cities, such as wages and serious crime, has motivated the understanding of cities as complex systems—a perspective that offers insights into resources limits and sustainability, but that usually neglects details of the indicators themselves. Notably, since the nineteenth century, criminal activities have been known to occur unevenly within a city; crime concentrates in such way that most of the offenses take place in few regions of the city. Though confirmed by different studies, this concentration lacks broad analyses on its characteristics, which hinders not only the comprehension of crime dynamics but also the proposal of sounding counter-measures. Here, we developed a framework to characterize crime concentration which divides cities into regions with the same population size. We used disaggregated criminal data from 25 locations in the U.S. and the U.K., spanning from 2 to 15 years of longitudinal data. Our results confirmed that crime concentrates regardless of city and revealed that the level of concentration does not scale with city size. We found that the distribution of crime in a city can be approximated by a power-law distribution with exponent α that depends on the type of crime. In particular, our results showed that thefts tend to concentrate more than robberies, and robberies more than burglaries. Though criminal activities present regularities of concentration, we found that criminal ranks have the tendency to change continuously over time—features that support the perspective of crime as a complex system and demand analyses and evolving urban policies covering the city as a whole. PMID:28800604

  18. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  19. Safe haven laws as crime control theater.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of crime control theater, a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially socially constructed "solutions" to socially constructed crime "problems." The analysis will apply the principles of crime control theater to safe haven laws. Specifically, the term crime control theater applies to laws that are reactionary responses to perceived criminal threats and are often widely supported as a way to address the crime in question. Such laws are attractive because they appeal to mythic narratives (i.e., saving an innocent child from a predator); however they are likely ineffective due to the complexity of the crime. These laws can have deleterious effects when policymakers make false claims of success and stunt public discourse (e.g., drawing attention away from more frequent and preventable crimes). This analysis applies these criteria to safe haven laws to determine whether such laws can be classified as crime control theater. Many qualities inherent to crime control theater are present in safe haven laws. For example, the laws are highly publicized, their intentions lack moral ambiguity, rare cases of success legitimize law enforcement and other agencies, and they appeal to the public sense of responsibility in preventing crime. Yet the goal of saving infant lives may be unattainable. These qualities make the effectiveness of the laws questionable and suggest they may be counterproductive. This analysis determined that safe haven laws are socially constructed solutions to the socially constructed problem of child abandonment. Safe haven laws are appropriately classified as crime control theater. It is imperative that further research be conducted to examine the effectiveness and collateral effects of safe haven laws

  20. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We use variation from the minimum legal drinking age to estimate the causal effect of access to alcohol on crime. Using a census of arrests in California and a regression discontinuity design, we find that individuals just over age 21 are 5.9% more likely to be arrested than individuals just under 21. This increase is mostly due to assaults, alcohol-related offenses, and nuisance crimes. These results suggest that policies that restrict access to alcohol have the potential to substantially reduce crime. PMID:26120205

  1. Crime, criminals, and cures: medical model revisited.

    PubMed

    Sampson, R J

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's target article assesses the causes of crime and advocates a controversial "cure"--parental licensure. Although Lykken gets many of the facts about criminals right, ultimately the disease metaphor breaks down. Crime requires three things--motivated offenders ("criminals"), suitable targets or victims, and the absence of capable guardians to prevent the act. Typical of medical model approaches, failure to consider the convergence in time and space of the three necessary elements for crime results in a misdiagnosis. In this invited commentary, I briefly note three reasons why Lykken's cure, along with the medical model in general, is unlikely to bear fruit.

  2. Effects of victims' characteristics on attitudes toward hate crimes.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Donald A; Brown, Tamara L; Mitchell, Raquel C; Cawman, Audrey J

    2006-07-01

    Hate crimes are motivated by perpetrators' prejudice toward targets' group. To examine individuals' attitudes toward hate crime perpetrators and targets, participants responded to vignettes of court cases in which the victim's group membership was varied. Results showed that participants recommended more severe sentences for perpetrators when the targets of their crimes were not White males or White females and reported those crimes as more closely fitting the definition of "hate crime." These results show that participants consider penalty enhancements appropriate for hate crimes and that they do not consider crimes against women to be hate crimes, consistent with present hate crime legislation. These results have implications for the utility and support of hate crime legislation but may showcase the resistance to expanding the legislation to protect individuals of other groups, especially women.

  3. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  4. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded) and subjective (resident-perceived) measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed among younger participants

  5. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures.

    PubMed

    Shareck, Martine; Ellaway, Anne

    2011-12-14

    Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded) and subjective (resident-perceived) measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed among younger participants. Our findings highlight the

  6. Tackling Violent Crime: Findings from Regional Workshops with 12 Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the lack of collection and sharing of health data • Executives in the health service do not see violent crime as something on which the...it was accident and emergency departments or ambulance trusts who were the gate keepers for data relevant to violent crime . Buy-in and involvement...However, even before the 2006 act, data sharing was authorised under section 115 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Personalised information

  7. Crime Prevention Teaching Kit #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commercial Union Insurance Companies, Boston, MA.

    Three lesson plans for grades seven through nine explore the social, moral, and financial impact of auto and bicycle theft and drinking and driving. Used individually or together as a complete unit, the lesson plans contain dramatic skits derived from real-life experiences of adolescents. Students simulate tough decision making in the face of…

  8. Financial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimovitch, Larry

    1988-09-01

    This is my second annual State-Of-The-Industry, if you will, from the financial standpoint. Swergold, Chefitz & Sinsabaugh, so you understand my position a little bit better, is both an investment banking and institutional research firm. We specialize both in healthcare research and in high technology research. I am one of three healthcare analysts. I am one of the fortunate ones who get to be in the San Francisco office. My speciality includes, in the medical device and technology areas, such subsectors as medical lasers, ophthalmology, critical care medicine, orthopedic devices, and cardiovascular devices. I have followed the medical laser industry for the last few years, and what I wanted to do today was give you kind of an update on the financial state of the industry.

  9. Tax Crimes and Identity Theft Prevention Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Castor, Kathy [D-FL-14

    2013-02-06

    House - 02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Justice for Crime Victims Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-8

    2014-03-06

    House - 04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. National Hate Crimes Hotline Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Israel, Steve [D-NY-3

    2014-07-08

    House - 09/02/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Crime Victims Fund Preservation Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Poe, Ted [R-TX-2

    2013-04-18

    House - 04/30/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. The relationship between lead and crime.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B; Lynch, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    This study investigates the association between air-lead levels and crime rates across 2,772 U.S. counties. Data for the analysis come from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of Census, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results suggest that air-lead levels have a direct effect on property and violent crime rates even after adjusting for general levels of air pollution and several structural covariates of crime. We also find that resource deprivation interacts with air-lead levels. The association between air-lead levels and crime rates-property and violent-is strongest in counties that have high levels of resource deprivation and weakest in counties that have low levels of deprivation. This interaction is consistent with arguments and evidence in the health care literature that populations most at risk of lead poisoning are least likely to get the resources required to prevent, screen, and treat the illness.

  14. National Hate Crimes Hotline Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Israel, Steve [D-NY-3

    2014-07-08

    09/02/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Crime Victims Fund Preservation Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Poe, Ted [R-TX-2

    2013-04-18

    04/30/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Tax Crimes and Identity Theft Prevention Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Castor, Kathy [D-FL-14

    2013-02-06

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Justice for Crime Victims Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-8

    2014-03-06

    04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Help Communities Fight Violent Crime Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kildee, Daniel T [D-MI-5

    2014-02-25

    04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Justice for Crime Victims Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-8

    2014-03-06

    04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Help Communities Fight Violent Crime Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kildee, Daniel T [D-MI-5

    2014-02-25

    04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. National Hate Crimes Hotline Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Israel, Steve [D-NY-3

    2014-07-08

    09/02/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. The Idiographic Evaluation Model in Crime Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Jacob I.

    1984-01-01

    Presents some recent developments in the evaluation of crime prevention and control programs, including the increased use of process evaluation models. Describes the nature, methods, and advantages of the idiographic (or single subject) model as used in social work. (JAC)

  3. Crime Victims Fund Preservation Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Poe, Ted [R-TX-2

    2013-04-18

    04/30/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Tax Crimes and Identity Theft Prevention Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Castor, Kathy [D-FL-14

    2013-02-06

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Help Communities Fight Violent Crime Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kildee, Daniel T. [D-MI-5

    2014-02-25

    House - 04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Security Research Center Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase I Kelly R. Buck Defense Personnel Security Research Center Andrée E. Rose Northrop Grumman...Mission Systems Technical Report 05-1 November 2004 Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase I Kelly R...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing

  7. Crime scene interpretation: back to basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    This presentation is a review of the basics involved in the interpretation of the crime scene based on facts derived from the physical and testimonial evidence obtained from the scene. This presentation will demonstrate the need to thoroughly document the scene to prove the interpretation. Part of this documentation is based on photography and crime scene sketches. While the methodology is simple and well demonstrated in this presentation this aspect is one of the tasks least completed by most law enforcement agencies.

  8. [Linkage analysis of serial sex crimes].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kaeko; Watanabe, Kazumi; Wachi, Taeko; Otsuka, Yusuke; Kuraishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Goro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding "day of the week") significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person.

  9. [Psychopathological and psychosocial aspects of military crimes].

    PubMed

    Woś, Jarosław; Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2013-03-01

    Crimes in the military, as well as criminal behaviors in the civilian community are determined by multiple factors. However, in case of military crimes committed by soldiers on active duty, an important part of forensic psychiatric opinion, is to assess whether occurring mental disorder resulted in inability to perform military duties. was to investigate the psychopathological and psychosocial determinants of criminal behavior in soldiers who committed military crime. The study included 122 soldiers who committed military crime. Material for this study consisted of forensic psychiatric opinions formed on the order of military prosecutor and the military judicial authorities. The results indicate that military crimes are determined by multiple factors. In most cases, the criminal behavior was associated with personality disorder (70%), alcohol problems (43%) and psychoactive substance use (30%). Psychosocial factors analysis revealed more frequent behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence (51%), history of parental alcohol problem (31%) and previous criminal record (29%). Forensic psychiatric examinations revealed that military crimes are more frequent in soldiers on compulsory military service, and in those with personality disorder or/and alcohol problems.

  10. Understanding Financial Statements. Financial Matters. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John H.; Turner, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of higher education institutions offers guidelines to help trustees understand the institution's financial statements. Individual sections describe the three major financial statements and cover topics such as: (1) standards of the Financial Accounting Standards Board; (2) the "statement of financial position,"…

  11. Evaluating the impact of a street barrier on urban crime

    PubMed Central

    Zavoski, R.; Lapidus, G.; Lerer, T.; Burke, G.; Banco, L.

    1999-01-01

    Methods—Hartford Police Department data on violent and drug related crime incidence within the housing project containing the barrier were analyzed by use of a computerized geographic information system. Results—Violent crime decreased 33% on the intervention street during the 15 month period after erection of the barrier, compared with the 15 month period before erection of the barrier, but there was no change in drug related crime. On adjoining streets and surrounding blocks, violent crime decreased 30%–50% but drug related crimes roughly doubled. A non-adjacent area of the housing project and the entire city experienced 26% and 15% decreases in violent crimes, and 414% and 25% increases in drug crimes, respectively. Conclusions—The barrier decreased violent crime but displaced drug crimes to surrounding areas of the housing project. These results have important implications for other cities that have erected or are considering erecting similar barriers. PMID:10323574

  12. Financial audit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Liability Fund, a nonprofit corporate entity created in 1973, pays claims for damages, including cleanup costs, arising from oil discharges from vessel transporting Trans-Alaska Pipeline System oil loaded at Alaskan terminals to ports under U.S. jurisdiction. This paper presents the results of GAO's view of the independent certified public accountants' audit of the Fund's financial statements as of December 31, 1990. GAO also assesses progress toward disposing of the Fund's balances and terminating the Fund.

  13. Using Campus Crime Statistics in Classroom Discussions of Official Measures of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Observes that many undergraduate students find standard lectures on official measures of crime to be rather dry. Discusses a technique to help make police measures more relevant to students through the integration of campus crime statistics into criminology courses. Includes a discussion of potential drawbacks, and provides a sample student…

  14. Generic and crime type specific correlates of youth crime: a Finnish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of various crime types among adolescent males born in Finland in 1981. Data on crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001 were received for 2,866 boys, of whom 81% (n = 2,330) filled in a questionnaire at obligatory military call-up at age 18 in 1999. Crime was divided into five types: drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offences. Of the 2,866 boys, 23% had been registered for offending; 4% for drug, 7% for violent, 11% for property, 11% for traffic, and 5% for drunk driving offences during the 4-year period in late adolescence. All the crime types correlated with each other and shared many of the psychosocial problems. Small community size, parents' divorce, aggressiveness, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness were generic correlates of crime, being independently related to various crime types. The results support general rather than specific accounts of youth crime. In particular, measures moderating the adverse effects of divorce, alleviating parental adversities and supporting parenthood, and tackling substance abuse seem relevant in social and criminal policy because they address psychosocial problems characterizing youth crime in general.

  15. A Crime Analysis Decision Support System for Crime Report Classification and Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…

  16. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  17. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  18. Crimes against Children by Babysitters. Crimes against Children Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    This bulletin, part of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's "Crimes against Children Series," draws on the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System to provide data on the frequency and nature of crimes against children committed by babysitters. According to the bulletin, babysitters account for approximately 4 percent…

  19. Colleges Report Rise in Violent Crime; Fact File: Crime Data from 796 Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Data on 1993 campus crime from 796 higher education institutions with enrollments over 5,000, required by federal law, reflects a rise in robberies, aggravated assaults, arrests for drug and weapons violations though property crimes and murders decreased. Interpretation of data, seen as providing an incomplete picture, is debated. (MSE)

  20. A Crime Analysis Decision Support System for Crime Report Classification and Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…

  1. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  2. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust.

    PubMed

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes.

  3. Zoning out crime and improving community health in Sarasota, Florida: "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design".

    PubMed

    Carter, Sherry Plaster; Carter, Stanley L; Dannenberg, Andrew L

    2003-09-01

    Sarasota, Fla, used Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles to guide revitalization efforts in its crime-ridden North Trail area. A team of city planners, police officers, and architects examined land use and crime data and sought input from local businesses, residents, and community leaders. Beginning in 1990, interventions included increased police patrols to reduce prostitution and the creation of a new zoning district to encourage area redevelopment based on CPTED principles. Compared with the rest of Sarasota, from 1990 to 1998 the North Trail Corridor experienced decreases in calls for police service (P <.005), crimes against persons and property (P = not significant), and prostitution (P <.05). These results suggest that community design may be a useful tool for decreasing crime and improving community health.

  4. Geovisualization Approaches for Spatio-temporal Crime Scene Analysis - Towards 4D Crime Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut

    This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.

  5. Expertise in crime scene examination: comparing search strategies of expert and novice crime scene examiners in simulated crime scenes.

    PubMed

    Baber, Chris; Butler, Mark

    2012-06-01

    The strategies of novice and expert crime scene examiners were compared in searching crime scenes. Previous studies have demonstrated that experts frame a scene through reconstructing the likely actions of a criminal and use contextual cues to develop hypotheses that guide subsequent search for evidence. Novice (first-year undergraduate students of forensic sciences) and expert (experienced crime scene examiners) examined two "simulated" crime scenes. Performance was captured through a combination of concurrent verbal protocol and own-point recording, using head-mounted cameras. Although both groups paid attention to the likely modus operandi of the perpetrator (in terms of possible actions taken), the novices paid more attention to individual objects, whereas the experts paid more attention to objects with "evidential value." Novices explore the scene in terms of the objects that it contains, whereas experts consider the evidence analysis that can be performed as a consequence of the examination. The suggestion is that the novices are putting effort into detailing the scene in terms of its features, whereas the experts are putting effort into the likely actions that can be performed as a consequence of the examination. The findings have helped in developing the expertise of novice crime scene examiners and approaches to training of expertise within this population.

  6. Prosecutorial perspectives on gender-bias hate crimes.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Beverly A; Dinitto, Diana M

    2005-09-01

    Increasingly, state and federal hate crime policies include the status category of gender. This study assesses prosecutors' knowledge of gender-bias hate crimes and their willingness to charge violence against women as a hate crime. A grounded theory method used qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of prosecutors from Texas. The study found prosecutors insufficiently informed about gender-bias hate crimes. Prosecutors attribute violence against women to motivations of power and control rather than hate. Prosecutors find hate crime prosecutions problematic, including the use of the category of gender. The findings have implications for the hate crime and antiviolence against women movements.

  7. GHB-involved crimes among intoxicated patients.

    PubMed

    Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Zacher, Gábor; Posta, János; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the involvement of GHB in drug facilitated sexual assaults has been one of the most frequently studied aspects of GHB in both clinical and non-clinical settings. GHB-involved acquisitory crimes, however, can be mentioned as understudied research topics, as well as the poisoning severity properties of GHB. The medical reports of Péterfy Sándor Street Hospital Clinic and Casualty Centre's 408 GHB-intoxication cases (352 patients) were reviewed and registered. Analyzed data consisted of epicrisis, serum and urine concentration of various substances (including GHB), scores of Glasgow Coma Scale and Poisoning Severity Score. Majority of the patients were males, in their twenties. GHB was detected in 34.1% and it was solely consumed in 27.7% of all the cases. Ethanol was found to be the most frequently co-ingested substance. A higher rate of severe poisonings was observed among males. We found significant difference in the frequency of enduring sexual assaults and acquisitory crimes between intentional and unintentional GHB intake cases. Among unintentional GHB intake cases, 6.5% endured GHB-involved sexual assaults, whereas 21.7% endured an acquisitory crime. Among recurrent GHB intoxication cases generated by the same patients, voluntary and sole GHB consumptions were more frequently observed, however, enduring any crime was less characteristic. Our results regarding demographic and substance use characteristics and the frequency of GHB-facilitated sexual assaults are in line with former findings. Enduring acquisitory crimes due to unintentional GHB intake was found to be more inherent than enduring sexual assaults. Authors emphasise that the victims of these acquisitory crimes were typically males. GHB's role in drug facilitated acquisitory crimes seems to be significant, although the decrease in GHB's popularity is observed among intoxicated patients as well. The need for further research on GHB's impact on cognitive impairment and on sexual

  8. Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: comparison with the National Crime Victimization Survey.

    PubMed

    Teplin, Linda A; McClelland, Gary M; Abram, Karen M; Weiner, Dana A

    2005-08-01

    Since deinstitutionalization, most persons with severe mental illness (SMI) now live in the community, where they are at great risk for crime victimization. To determine the prevalence and incidence of crime victimization among persons with SMI by sex, race/ethnicity, and age, and to compare rates with general population data (the National Crime Victimization Survey), controlling for income and demographic differences between the samples. Epidemiologic study of persons in treatment. Independent master's-level clinical research interviewers administered the National Crime Victimization Survey to randomly selected patients sampled from 16 randomly selected mental health agencies. Sixteen agencies providing outpatient, day, and residential treatment to persons with SMI in Chicago, Ill. Randomly selected, stratified sample of 936 patients aged 18 or older (483 men, 453 women) who were African American (n = 329), non-Hispanic white (n = 321), Hispanic (n = 270), or other race/ethnicity (n = 22). The comparison group comprised 32 449 participants in the National Crime Victimization Survey. National Crime Victimization Survey, developed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. More than one quarter of persons with SMI had been victims of a violent crime in the past year, a rate more than 11 times higher than the general population rates even after controlling for demographic differences between the 2 samples (P<.001). The annual incidence of violent crime in the SMI sample (168.2 incidents per 1000 persons) is more than 4 times higher than the general population rates (39.9 incidents per 1000 persons) (P<.001). Depending on the type of violent crime (rape/sexual assault, robbery, assault, and their subcategories), prevalence was 6 to 23 times greater among persons with SMI than among the general population. Crime victimization is a major public health problem among persons with SMI who are treated in the community. We recommend directions for future research, propose

  9. Reduction of State Victim Compensation Disparities in Disadvantaged Crime Victims Through Active Outreach and Assistance: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alvidrez, Jennifer; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia; Green, Jon Dean; Kelly, Vanessa; Merrill, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether providing active outreach and assistance to crime victims as part of comprehensive psychosocial services reduced disparities in access to state compensation funds. Methods. We analyzed data from a randomized trial of injured crime victims (N = 541) and compared outcomes from comprehensive psychosocial services with usual community care. We examined the impact of outreach and assistance on disparities in applying for victim compensation by testing for interactions between victim characteristics and treatment condition in logistic regression analyses. Results. Victims receiving comprehensive services were much more likely to apply for victim compensation than were victims receiving usual care. Comprehensive services decreased disparities associated with younger age, lower levels of education, and homelessness. Conclusions. State-level victim compensation funds are available to help individuals recover physically, psychologically, and financially from crime victimization. However, few crime victims apply for victim compensation, and there are particularly low application rates among young, male, ethnic minority, and physical assault victims. Active outreach and assistance can address disparities in access to victim compensation funds for disadvantaged populations and should be offered more widely to victims of violent crime. PMID:18382004

  10. Combating computer crimes: A long term strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kizza, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.

  11. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  12. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  13. Crime in the School and in the Community: Offenders, Victims, and Fearful Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Examines research on crime, fear of crime and victimization in the school and community. Suggests that crime and fear of crime should be viewed in a community context since high-crime schools tend to be in high-crime neighborhoods with a higher fear level. (JAC)

  14. 32 CFR 635.33 - Crime rate reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ASCC or DRU crime data, for use in Army-wide database, will be limited to that data collected by the..., will determine the requirements for routine publication of Army aggregate crime statistics. (f...

  15. Witnessing Crime: Toward a Model of Public Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawby, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Witness involvement in crime is examined using official statistics and controlled experimental methods. A model is developed to aid understanding of choices open to witnesses to crime and variables which may intervene. (Author/RC)

  16. [Implements of crime depicted on penitential crosses].

    PubMed

    Stojer, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on presenting the issue of the so-called penitential crosses, i.e. stone crosses with carved images of implements of crime. The author compares medieval homicide implements with contemporary ones. The result of this examination demonstrates that implements used to commit crimes in Middle Ages did not undergo substantial changes over the centuries, with the medieval sword, knife and battleaxe having been replaced by a modern knife and a hatchet. Penitential crosses are also presented from the historical perspective. The report describes legal and criminological aspects of penitential crosses, referring such aspects to contemporary penal regulations. Furthermore, this paper is illustrated with photographs showing penitential crosses with carvings of crime implements.

  17. Contextualizing restorative justice for hate crime.

    PubMed

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-12-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and detrimental to victims and affected communities. The article investigates how RJ is conceptualized within the hate crime context. The findings are based on a 3-year research program, which combined theoretical analysis, literature review, and U.K.-focused field research that was carried out through a combination of qualitative methods. These included semistructured interviews with an expert sample of practitioners and policy makers as well as focus groups with young victims and offenders of hate incidents. Direct observation was also carried out with two RJ practices.

  18. Patterns of Crime in a Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Collins, L M; Cliff, N; Cudeck, R A; McCormik, D J; Zatkin, J L

    1983-07-01

    Most attempts at developing typologies of criminal behavior have not involved empirical research. This paper describes an exploratory empirical approach to identifying patterns in criminal behavior. Two data-reduction techniques, factor analysis and cluster analysis, are applied to the official arrest records of a Danish birth cohort of 28,879 men. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis: GENERAL CRIME, TRAFFIC OFFENSES, WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, and SEX OFFENSES. The cluster analysis revealed GENERAL CRIME and TRAFFIC OFFENSES clusters. A substantial number of offenses are shown by both analyses to be independent of any pattern. The results show good split-sample cross-validation and for the most part are robust across the two analytic approaches.

  19. Segregation, racial structure, and neighborhood violent crime.

    PubMed

    Krivo, Lauren J; Peterson, Ruth D; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2009-05-01

    Drawing on structural racism and urban disadvantage approaches, this article posits a broad influence of citywide racial residential segregation on levels of violent crime across all urban neighborhoods regardless of their racial/ethnic composition. Multilevel models based on data from the National Neighborhood Crime Study for 7,622 neighborhoods in 79 cities throughout the United States reveal that segregation is positively associated with violent crime for white and various types of nonwhite neighborhoods. Nonetheless, there is a lack of parity in violence across these types of communities reflecting the larger racialized social system in which whites are able to use their privileged position to reside in the most advantaged neighborhoods, while African-Americans and Latinos live in the most disadvantaged urban communities and therefore bear the brunt of urban criminal violence.

  20. Costs of alcohol and drug-involved crime.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Cohen, Mark A; Cox, Kenya L C

    2006-12-01

    A large proportion of violent and property crimes involve alcohol or other drugs (AOD). AOD use only causes some of these crimes. This paper estimates the costs of AOD-involved and AOD-attributable crimes. Crime counts are from government statistics adjusted for underreporting. The AOD-involved portion of crime costs is estimated from inmate surveys on alcohol and illicit drug use at the time of the crime. The costs and AOD-attributable portion of AOD-involved crimes come from published studies. They include tangible medical, mental health, property loss, future earnings, public services, adjudication, and sanctioning costs, as well as the value of pain and suffering. An estimated 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved AOD use in 1999. Those AOD-involved crimes cost society over 6.5 billion dollars in medical and mental health care and almost 65 billion dollars in other tangible expenses (in 1999 dollars). If the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life is added, AOD-involved crime costs totaled 205 billion dollars. Violent crimes accounted for more than 85% of the costs. Roughly estimated, crimes attributable to alcohol cost 84 billion dollars, more than 2 times the 38 billion dollars attributable to drugs. Although American media--news and entertainment--dwell on the links between drugs and crime, alcohol-attributable crime costs are double drug-attributable ones. Effective efforts to reduce the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs should reduce costs associated with crime.

  1. Stronger Federal Effort Needed in Fight against Organized Crime.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-07

    Service LCN La Cosa Nostra NOCPC National Organized Crime Planning Council OCRS Organized Crime and Racketeering Section 6 RICO Racketeer Influenced and...extreme organized crime was defined to include only members of La Cosa Nostra (LCN), while at the other extreme organized crime was defined as any group...case involving La Cosa Nostra (LCN). Other than this, there is no consistent approach regarding what cases the strike forces should prosecute and what

  2. Financial Analysts and Personal Financial Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Hall

    2000-01-01

    Offers a job description for financial analysts and personal financial advisors. Includes information on the nature of the work; employment outlook; benefits and drawbacks, qualifications, training, and certification required; and lists related occupations. (JOW)

  3. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    PubMed

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.

  4. Forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cabelus, Nancy B; Sheridan, Gary T

    2007-01-01

    Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogotá, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

  5. Nations Hospitable to Organized Crime and Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Antonio Paulo Namburete, “Organised Crime in Mozambique and Its Impact Within the Regional and International Context,” in M. Hough and A. Du Plessis...LAP20021206000030). 730 “El Caso Lino Oviedo y su conexión con la Argentina” [The Lino Oviedo Case and Its Connection with Argentina], Página1 2...Trafficking,” New Vision [Kampala], 15 July 2001. <http://allafrica.com> Namburete, Antonio Paolo. “Organised Crime in Mozambique and Its Impact Within

  6. Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: mapping review of theories and causal pathways.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Theo; Clayton, Stephen; Neary, David; Whitehead, Margaret; Petticrew, Mark; Thomson, Hilary; Cummins, Steven; Sowden, Amanda; Renton, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the links between crime and fear of crime, the social and built environment, and health and wellbeing. A pragmatic approach was employed, with iterative stages of searching and synthesis. This produced a holistic causal framework of pathways to guide future research. The framework emphasises that crime and fear of crime may have substantial impacts on wellbeing, but the pathways are often highly indirect, mediated by environmental factors, difficult to disentangle and not always in the expected direction. The built environment, for example, may affect health via its impacts on health behaviours; via its effects on crime and fear of crime; or via the social environment. The framework also helps to identify unexpected factors which may affect intervention success, such as the risk of adverse effects from crime prevention interventions as a result of raising awareness of crime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First Things First: Developing a Crime Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlem, Carole B.

    1996-01-01

    A brief history of the concept of scientific crime prevention is outlined, and development of a college crime prevention program is discussed, including criteria for judging proposals that address a security threat; advantages and disadvantages of three prevention approaches (informational, mechanical, human); innovations; crime in the surrounding…

  8. The Role of Perpetrator Motivation in Two Crime Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizemore, O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers (n = 134) were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 design that manipulated type of crime (rape vs. robbery) and perpetrator motivation (anger vs. desire). After reading one of the crime scenarios, participants responded to a series of attitude items regarding responsibility for the crime, assigned blame to agents mentioned in the…

  9. Latina Teenagers: Victimization, Identity, and Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madriz, Esther

    1997-01-01

    Studied the impact of victimization and fear of crime on 56 Latina teenagers in urban and suburban areas. Fear of crime was associated not only with the variables traditionally correlated with fear of crime, but also with feelings of identity. Also examined were coping mechanisms Latina teenagers used to deal with those fears. (SLD)

  10. The Situational Relationship Between Age and the Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffords, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines one's fear of crime while walking in the neighborhood, and in one's home. Results showed age was positively associated with fear of crime in the former situation, but slightly negatively associated in the latter. Suggested that the aged may only be more fearful of crime in particularly dangerous situations. (JAC)

  11. Fear of Crime in the Elderly: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Max E.; And Others

    To investigate correlates of fear of crime and physical mobility among physically vulnerable older adults, 42 community dwelling older adults twice completed a battery of tests, with 1 year intervening. The tests included Functional Health Status, Perceived Health Status, Sense of Mastery, Leave of Residence, and Fear of Crime. Crime statistics…

  12. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  13. Victimization and Fear of Crime in Elderly Public Housing Tenants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, M. Powell; Yaffe, Silvia

    1980-01-01

    Fear of crime was central in determining psychological well-being. Crime-related variables were minimally related to size of social space and activity outside the housing site. Planned housing serves a protective function and tenants are not necessarily made prisoners in their homes by crime or fear. (Author)

  14. Natural Born Killers? Preventing the Coming Explosion of Teenage Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the rise of juvenile crime in the United States, explores the failure of the juvenile justice system to stem the tide of youth crime, and examines the issue of prevention. The author argues the need to always hold youth offenders accountable for the crimes they commit and suggests several means by which restitution may be made. (GR)

  15. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  16. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...

  17. Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Today's Courtroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Samuel M., Ed.

    The application of the principles of chemistry both for committing crimes and for tracking down criminals interests audiences of all ages and walks of life. This interest is the reason for the long-standing popularity of fictional works that describe crimes made possible by the criminal's knowledge of chemistry and crimes solved by the sleuth's…

  18. Disaggregating the Relationship Between Schools and Crime: A Spatial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rebecca K.; Swatt, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Although an extensive literature exists on crime in schools, surprisingly few studies have examined crime within the vicinity of schools. Schools, like other urban facilities, can generate crime by providing youth opportunities to congregate with little supervision, particularly before and after school hours. Some noteworthy studies have…

  19. Natural Born Killers? Preventing the Coming Explosion of Teenage Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the rise of juvenile crime in the United States, explores the failure of the juvenile justice system to stem the tide of youth crime, and examines the issue of prevention. The author argues the need to always hold youth offenders accountable for the crimes they commit and suggests several means by which restitution may be made. (GR)

  20. Spatial Analysis of Crime Incidence and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Alyssa I.; Carnes, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman’s correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1,694 reported crimes and 16,702 minutes of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, p<0.0001). Crime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, p<0.0001) and highest quartile (ρ=0.32, p<0.0001) of crime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. PMID:26820115

  1. Spatial analysis of crime incidence and adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Alyssa I; Carnes, Fei; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman's correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1694 reported crimes and 16,702min of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, p<0.0001). Crime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, p<0.0001) and highest quartile (ρ=0.32, p<0.0001) of crime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  3. The Role of Perpetrator Motivation in Two Crime Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizemore, O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers (n = 134) were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 design that manipulated type of crime (rape vs. robbery) and perpetrator motivation (anger vs. desire). After reading one of the crime scenarios, participants responded to a series of attitude items regarding responsibility for the crime, assigned blame to agents mentioned in the…

  4. Student Reactions to Public Safety Reports of Hate Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jessica E.; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated) × 2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic,…

  5. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  6. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  7. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  8. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control and detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crime control and detection. 742.7...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control and detection. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S... export and reexport crime control and detection equipment, related technology and software as follows:...

  9. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control and detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crime control and detection. 742.7...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control and detection. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S... export and reexport crime control and detection equipment, related technology and software as follows:...

  10. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  11. Disaggregating the Relationship Between Schools and Crime: A Spatial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rebecca K.; Swatt, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Although an extensive literature exists on crime in schools, surprisingly few studies have examined crime within the vicinity of schools. Schools, like other urban facilities, can generate crime by providing youth opportunities to congregate with little supervision, particularly before and after school hours. Some noteworthy studies have…

  12. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control and detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crime control and detection. 742.7...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control and detection. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S... export and reexport crime control and detection equipment, related technology and software as follows:...

  13. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control and detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crime control and detection. 742.7...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control and detection. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S... export and reexport crime control and detection equipment, related technology and software as follows:...

  14. Workplace Violence, Hate Crime and Free Speech: A Proactive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romas, Ted; Parmer, Harry

    For community colleges, crime on campus is a complex and pressing issue since most maintain open campuses with no physical security features, such as entry control points or fencing. Workplace crimes can take the form of robbery or other violent crimes, domestic and misdirected affection cases, employer-directed situations, terrorism, and hate…

  15. Victim-Offender Mediation with Adolescents Who Commit Hate Crimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Stephen C.; Swain, Jennifer E.

    The number of reported hate crimes has steadily increased. Racial prejudice motivates most of these crimes, which typically are committed by a small, loosely associated group of adolescent offenders. In addition to the physical pain and material loss associated with these crimes, they can be psychologically devastating to the victim. New…

  16. Teens, Crime, and the Community in Boys & Girls Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Andrea

    Teens, Crime, and the Community (TCC) curriculum creates an awareness among teens of the crime problems facing our communities and how they affect our nation. It encourages youth to take responsibility for reducing crime and victimization, making schools and neighborhoods safer. Boys and Girls Clubs offer a variety of programs for youth, and TCC…

  17. Student Reactions to Public Safety Reports of Hate Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jessica E.; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated) × 2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic,…

  18. Community Crime Prevention: An Analysis of a Developing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dan A.; Salem, Greta

    1981-01-01

    Explores the theoretical foundations of the new strategies for reducing crime known as community crime prevention. The limitations of these strategies, which are based on changing potential victims' behavior, are described. A second perspective oriented toward social control is discussed as an alternative approach to crime prevention. (RC)

  19. Crime in Urban Areas: New Evidence and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Samuel L., Jr.

    Using data corrected for victim underreporting, crime supply functions are reestimated in this paper. Underreporting is found in both a mean-variance specification and a conventional crime supply function that includes measures of the offender's gains and losses involved in property crimes that certainty and severity of punishment still deter.…

  20. Victimization and Fear of Crime in Elderly Public Housing Tenants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, M. Powell; Yaffe, Silvia

    1980-01-01

    Fear of crime was central in determining psychological well-being. Crime-related variables were minimally related to size of social space and activity outside the housing site. Planned housing serves a protective function and tenants are not necessarily made prisoners in their homes by crime or fear. (Author)

  1. 31 CFR 1023.610 - Due diligence programs for correspondent accounts for foreign financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR BROKERS OR DEALERS IN SECURITIES Special Standards of Diligence; Prohibitions; and Special Measures for Brokers or Dealers in Securities § 1023.610 Due diligence programs for...

  2. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Conference CFPB Researchers Consumer Complaint Database Mortgage Database (HMDA) Consumer Credit Trends Credit Card Surveys & Agreements Financial Well-Being Survey Help advance financial well-being ...

  3. Communities, Students, Schools, and School Crime: A Confirmatory Study of Crime in U.S. High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how community characteristics, student background, school climate, and zero-tolerance policies interact to affect school crime. The study articulates and fits a school crime model to 712 high schools participating in the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety, confirming that school location and student socioeconomic status…

  4. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668 Education... Information for Students Pt. 668, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668—Crime Definitions...

  5. Communities, Students, Schools, and School Crime: A Confirmatory Study of Crime in U.S. High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how community characteristics, student background, school climate, and zero-tolerance policies interact to affect school crime. The study articulates and fits a school crime model to 712 high schools participating in the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety, confirming that school location and student socioeconomic status…

  6. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668 Education... Information for Students Pt. 668, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668—Crime Definitions...

  7. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668 Education... Information for Students Pt. 668, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668—Crime Definitions...

  8. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668 Education... Information for Students Pt. 668, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668—Crime Definitions...

  9. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668 Education... Information for Students Pt. 668, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668—Crime Definitions...

  10. Hate Crimes on Campus: The Problem and Efforts To Confront It. Hate Crimes Series. Bureau of Justice Assistance Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen; Moss, Margaret

    This monograph examines four aspects of the problem of bias, prejudice, and hate crimes on American college and university campuses. First, the monograph examines the prevalence of hate crimes on campuses, considering who is targeted, the kinds of crimes that are committed, and the frequency and impact of bias incidents. The monograph then…

  11. Teens, Crime, and Rural Communities. How Youth in Rural America Can Help Reduce Violent and Property Crimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Erin; O'Neil, Jean F., Ed.

    Featuring the Teens, Crime, and Community (TCC) program, this monograph focuses on youth crime and crime prevention in rural settings. TCC actively involves teens and adults in a partnership designed to reduce teen victimization and to encourage teens to be catalysts of change for community safety. The guide provides teachers, administrators, and…

  12. Crime Prevention Starts at Home! Setting the Stage for Community Action To Prevent Violence and Other Crimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    Crime prevention works. This simple fact is often forgotten in the ongoing debate over crime and its causes. Prevention works when individuals take common-sense actions to protect themselves, their families and property. The theme from Crime Prevention Month 1995 goes back to these basics: good home security, self-protection skills for kids and…

  13. Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part II: Intelligence and crime scene examination.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Lock, Eric; Delémont, Olivier; Roux, Claude; Zingg, Christian; Margot, Pierre

    2010-06-15

    A better integration of the information conveyed by traces within intelligence-led framework would allow forensic science to participate more intensively to security assessments through forensic intelligence (part I). In this view, the collection of data by examining crime scenes is an entire part of intelligence processes. This conception frames our proposal for a model that promotes to better use knowledge available in the organisation for driving and supporting crime scene examination. The suggested model also clarifies the uncomfortable situation of crime scene examiners who must simultaneously comply with justice needs and expectations, and serve organisations that are mostly driven by broader security objectives. It also opens new perspective for forensic science and crime scene investigation, by the proposal to follow other directions than the traditional path suggested by dominant movements in these fields. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The prosecution of hate crimes: the limitations of the hate crime typology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Nickie D

    2009-05-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement.(1) In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology originally developed in 1993. Results show that, in this jurisdiction, the typology is an inadequate tool for classifying cases prosecuted as hate crimes. Approximately one third of the cases are unclassifiable according to the typology. Findings indicate that the typology is useful for understanding cases in which bias is the sole motivation but inadequate for application to the many cases in which bias is a peripheral motivation.

  15. Crime Seasonality: Examining the Temporal Fluctuations of Property Crime in Cities With Varying Climates.

    PubMed

    Linning, Shannon J; Andresen, Martin A; Brantingham, Paul J

    2016-03-17

    This study investigates whether crime patterns fluctuate periodically throughout the year using data containing different property crime types in two Canadian cities with differing climates. Using police report data, a series of ordinary least squares (OLS; Vancouver, British Columbia) and negative binomial (Ottawa, Ontario) regressions were employed to examine the corresponding temporal patterns of property crime in Vancouver (2003-2013) and Ottawa (2006-2008). Moreover, both aggregate and disaggregate models were run to examine whether different weather and temporal variables had a distinctive impact on particular offences. Overall, results suggest that cities that experience greater variations in weather throughout the year have more distinct increases of property offences in the summer months and that different climate variables affect certain crime types, thus advocating for disaggregate analysis in the future.

  16. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  17. Opportunity Theory and Agricultural Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Scott, Michelle L.; Bhati, Avinash S.

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of research lends support to opportunity theory and its variants, but has yet to focus systematically on a number of specific offenses and contexts. Typically, the more crimes and contexts to which a theory applies, the broader its scope and range, respectively, and thus generalizability. In this paper, we focus on agricultural…

  18. Fear of Crime Among the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Frank; Kleiman, Michael B.

    1976-01-01

    Compares the patterns of fear of crime among the aged and the non-aged. Four key specifying variables were used in the analysis--sex, race, socioeconomic status, and size of community. Findings indicated that elderly respondents who were either female, black, or metropolitan residents possessed extremely high fear rates. (Author)

  19. The Handbook for Campus Crime Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Diane; Lee, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Campus security and safety are important issues in postsecondary education today. Providing students nationwide with a safe environment in which to learn and keeping students, parents and employees well informed about campus security are goals that have been voiced by many groups. These goals were advanced by the Crime Awareness and Campus…

  20. Women's Fear of Crime: A Rural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jo; Panelli, Ruth; Kraack, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines women's experience of fear of crime in rural areas. It argues that much existing research on issues of gender, fear and safety have focused on urban areas and that as a result we know relatively little about women's experience of fear in a rural context. As well as arguing that we need to redress the balance and respond to the…

  1. Social Disadvantage and Crime: A Criminological Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Per-Olof H; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features - i.e., their exposure - which leads to their interaction.

  2. [Physicians as crime writers and literary detectives].

    PubMed

    Madsen, S; Hellesvik, M

    1993-03-30

    Doctors have played an important role in the development of the crime story--both internationally and in Norway. This paper reviews the biographies of some well-known writers and their sleuths--from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to contemporary Norwegian authors.

  3. Crime Laboratory Proficiency Testing Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others

    A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…

  4. National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Training Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC. National Crime Information Center.

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Crime Information Center (NCIC) maintains a set of computerized files of documented criminal justice information reported by a network of over 60,000 participating national, regional, state, and local agencies. The files, dealing with wanted persons, missing persons, unidentified persons, and stolen…

  5. Counterfeit Conservatism and the War on Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Ness, Arlin E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the current reversion to a punitive public mentality that is being promoted as a purportedly conservative agenda for fighting crime and delinquency. Suggests that while punitive measures and rehabilitation appear to be opposite solutions, each is reactive and rooted in pessimism and blame. (JPS)

  6. Indicators of School Crime Safety, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael

    Providing the latest data, this report on school safety presents a mixed picture: while overall crime has declined, violence, gangs, and drugs remain at some schools. Victimization at school declined from 1995-99, though rates for fighting and weapon threats remain steady. Students seem more secure, and gang activity decreased; however, in grades…

  7. The geography of citizen crime reporting.

    PubMed

    Wisnieski, Elise; Bologeorges, Stephanie; Johnson, Tina; Henry, David B

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown variable conceptualizations of neighborhood, often inconsistent with administrative boundaries. The present investigation seeks to quantify the geographic area encompassed by citizens' reporting of crime. Two Chicago violence prevention organizations gathered near real-time citizen reports of crime and other precursors of violence in a south side community. Over the course of 6 months, 48 community residents participated in a weekly telephone survey about incidents occurring in their community, including crime, incivilities, and disorder. For each incident reported in the study community, respondents were asked to specify its location, whether it was witnessed or heard about, and if it occurred within one block of their residence. Incident locations were geocoded and used to compute distance from residence. Incident reporting radii were calculated for all types of incidents. Calculated distances of events reported within a block revealed discrepancies between resident perceptions and geographic apportionments. On average, incident reports spanned just over a half-mile geographic radius from respondents' residences. Reporting radii were greater for more violent incidents and shorter for incidents witnessed directly. There was no effect of age, gender, length of residence, or length of participation in the study on reporting radii. Descriptions of reporting radii and implications for crime prevention efforts and research are discussed.

  8. Annual Report and Crime Summary, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Dept. of Safety and Security.

    In accordance with the Student Right-to-Know and Campus Security Act of 1990, the Safety and Security Department of Johnson County Community College (JCCC), in Kansas, prepared this report providing information on crime statistics and departmental policies. Introductory sections of the annual report feature an overview of the department's mission,…

  9. Community Influences on School Crime and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menacker, Julius; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that school and community order and safety are inextricably bound together, and, therefore, an analysis of the epidemic of school crime and violence should include community factors. Presents data from elementary schools in Chicago (Illinois) as an example of this connectedness, and suggests public policy to improve school conditions. (JS)

  10. Poverty and crime in southern California.

    PubMed

    Carney, Amy Y

    2007-01-01

    While poverty and violence are not limited to one geographic region of the United States, unique demographic and geographic factors pose distinct problems in specific areas. In Escondido, CA, the city council linked poverty and crime to illegal immigration and proposed an ordinance forbidding landlords to rent to illegal immigrants. This article explores that case and examines implications for forensic nursing.

  11. Crime Laboratory Proficiency Testing Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others

    A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…

  12. School Crime and Violence: Victims' Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, James A.; And Others

    While schools at one time appeared to be immune from criminal liability and courtroom litigation, cases involving virtually every aspect of education have been, or are currently, in court at some level. This monograph is designed to help school lawyers, trial lawyers who represent victims of campus crimes, and educators and administrators engaged…

  13. Seeking Justice: Crime and Punishment in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMascio, William M.

    Five million people in the United States are under the supervision of the criminal justice system, 1.5 million in prisons or jails, the rest on probation or parole, and the inmate population continues to grow. Taxpayers spend billions of dollars each year on prisons and jails, yet the solution to crime problems remains elusive. To assist in…

  14. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-19

    attacks on civilians during the 2001 conflict. 03/14/05 — Former Bosnian Serb Chief of Police Gojko Jankovic was transferred to The Hague from Banja ... Luka .3 He is charged with war crimes allegedly committed in the 1992 attack on the Bosnian town of Foca. 03/11/05 — Former Bosnian Serb Interior

  15. Community Influences on School Crime and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menacker, Julius; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that school and community order and safety are inextricably bound together, and, therefore, an analysis of the epidemic of school crime and violence should include community factors. Presents data from elementary schools in Chicago (Illinois) as an example of this connectedness, and suggests public policy to improve school conditions. (JS)

  16. Violent Youth Crime May Be Declining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reports the findings of Frank Zimring, director of the University of Chicago's Center for Criminal Justice, that the rate of four types of serious youth crime (homicide, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) began to level off around 1970 and may now be declining. (SJL)

  17. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  18. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.

  19. Opportunity Theory and Agricultural Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Scott, Michelle L.; Bhati, Avinash S.

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of research lends support to opportunity theory and its variants, but has yet to focus systematically on a number of specific offenses and contexts. Typically, the more crimes and contexts to which a theory applies, the broader its scope and range, respectively, and thus generalizability. In this paper, we focus on agricultural…

  20. Hate crime violence and its emergency department management.

    PubMed

    Hutson, H R; Anglin, D; Stratton, G; Moore, J

    1997-06-01

    As the 21st century approaches, the United States is moving, toward a more pluralistic society with regard to race, ethnicity, and national origin. With this increase in diversity has come a resurgence of hate crime violence. Scant information is available in the medical literature about hate crime violence, hate groups, hate crime violence legislation, or the physical and psychologic sequelae of hate crime violence on the individual and its effects on the community. Guidelines for the treatment of victims of hate crime violence in the prehospital care setting, ED, and inpatient setting are proposed.

  1. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982–2000

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle’s downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990’s, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980’s showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990’s showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed. PMID:25505350

  2. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982-2000.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20(th) century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.

  3. Age and the explanation of crime, revisited.

    PubMed

    Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    Age is one of the most robust correlates of criminal behavior. Yet, explanations for this relationship are varied and conflicting. Developmental theories point to a multitude of sociological, psychological, and biological changes that occur during adolescence and adulthood. One prominent criminological perspective outlined by Gottfredson and Hirschi claims that age has a direct effect on crime, inexplicable from sociological and psychological variables. Despite the attention this claim has received, few direct empirical tests of it have been conducted. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of over 1,300 serious youthful offenders (85.8% male, 40.1% African-American, 34.3% Hispanic, 21.0% White), to test this claim. On average, youths were 16.5 years old at the initial interview and were followed for 7 years. We use multilevel longitudinal models to assess the extent to which the direct effects of age are reduced to statistical and substantive non-significance when constructs from a wide range of developmental and criminological theories are controlled. Unlike previous studies, we are able to control for changes across numerous realms emphasized within differing theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., employment and marriage), procedural justice (e.g., perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of the legal system), learning (e.g., gang membership and exposure to antisocial peers), strain (e.g., victimization and relationship breakup), psychosocial maturity (e.g., impulse control, self-regulation and moral disengagement), and rational choice (e.g., costs and rewards of crime). Assessed separately, these perspectives explain anywhere from 3% (procedural justice) to 49% (social learning) of the age-crime relationship. Together, changes in these constructs explain 69% of the drop in crime from ages 15 to 25. We conclude that the relationship between age and crime in adolescence and early adulthood is largely explainable, though

  4. Student reactions to public safety reports of hate crimes.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Jessica E; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated)×2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic, more distressed, and blame the victim less if the victim was African American (designating a hate crime) and if more detail was included in the incident report. The results generally showed greater psychological impact for a hate crime versus nonbiased crime and when more information was presented than with vague information, and these two manipulations did not interact in influencing participants' reactions. These results indicate that amount of detail provided about a crime should be considered when publishing incident reports.

  5. Predictors of fear of crime in older adults.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about factors that predict fear of crime in older adults. Indeed, the topic itself remains a source of controversy, with early studies indicating higher levels of crime fear with age, and new, more methodologically rigorous studies demonstrating the opposite trend. The present exploratory investigation included 106 older adults and assessed the relationship between demographic variables, interpersonal violence, psychopathology, and fear of crime. In addition, this study built on previous research in that specific feared outcomes (e.g., hospitalization) were also considered. Initial findings indicate that being female, non-Caucasian, having depressive symptoms, and reporting social isolation are predictive of general fear of crime ratings. Different predictor sets were noted for fear of crime against person and fear of crime against property. Reported perceptions of negative crime outcomes were associated with being female, non-Caucasian, and having low income.

  6. Exploring the Ecological Association Between Crime and Medical Marijuana Dispensaries

    PubMed Central

    Kepple, Nancy J.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Routine activities theory purports that crime occurs in places with a suitable target, motivated offender, and lack of guardianship. Medical marijuana dispensaries may be places that satisfy these conditions, but this has not yet been studied. The current study examined whether the density of medical marijuana dispensaries is associated with crime. Method: An ecological, cross-sectional design was used to explore the spatial relationship between density of medical marijuana dispensaries and two types of crime rates (violent crime and property crime) in 95 census tracts in Sacramento, CA, during 2009. Spatial error regression methods were used to determine associations between crime rates and density of medical marijuana dispensaries, controlling for neighborhood characteristics associated with routine activities. Results: Violent and property crime rates were positively associated with percentage of commercially zoned areas, percentage of one-person households, and unemployment rate. Higher violent crime rates were associated with concentrated disadvantage. Property crime rates were positively associated with the percentage of population 15–24 years of age. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries was not associated with violent or property crime rates. Conclusions: Consistent with previous work, variables measuring routine activities at the ecological level were related to crime. There were no observed cross-sectional associations between the density of medical marijuana dispensaries and either violent or property crime rates in this study. These results suggest that the density of medical marijuana dispensaries may not be associated with crime rates or that other factors, such as measures dispensaries take to reduce crime (i.e., doormen, video cameras), may increase guardianship such that it deters possible motivated offenders. PMID:22630790

  7. Exploring the ecological association between crime and medical marijuana dispensaries.

    PubMed

    Kepple, Nancy J; Freisthler, Bridget

    2012-07-01

    Routine activities theory purports that crime occurs in places with a suitable target, motivated offender, and lack of guardianship. Medical marijuana dispensaries may be places that satisfy these conditions, but this has not yet been studied. The current study examined whether the density of medical marijuana dispensaries is associated with crime. An ecological, cross-sectional design was used to explore the spatial relationship between density of medical marijuana dispensaries and two types of crime rates (violent crime and property crime) in 95 census tracts in Sacramento, CA, during 2009. Spatial error regression methods were used to determine associations between crime rates and density of medical marijuana dispensaries, controlling for neighborhood characteristics associated with routine activities. Violent and property crime rates were positively associated with percentage of commercially zoned areas, percentage of one-person households, and unemployment rate. Higher violent crime rates were associated with concentrated disadvantage. Property crime rates were positively associated with the percentage of population 15-24 years of age. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries was not associated with violent or property crime rates. Consistent with previous work, variables measuring routine activities at the ecological level were related to crime. There were no observed cross-sectional associations between the density of medical marijuana dispensaries and either violent or property crime rates in this study. These results suggest that the density of medical marijuana dispensaries may not be associated with crime rates or that other factors, such as measures dispensaries take to reduce crime (i.e., doormen, video cameras), may increase guardianship such that it deters possible motivated offenders.

  8. Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, and Violent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Context Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. Objective To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Main Outcome Measure Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). Results In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1

  9. Young adults, alcohol, crime and disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Anna; Budd, Tracey

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol-related crime is increasingly being recognized as a problem in cities and towns with popular entertainment districts. Crime and disorder linked to alcohol has been particularly connected with binge drinking or heavy sessional drinking. Research evidence indicates that it is the young adult age group who are most likely to be involved in crime and disorder and the most likely to binge drink. This paper examines the relationship between binge drinking and criminal and disorderly behaviour among 18- to 24-year-olds. Secondary analysis was undertaken of the 1998/1999 Youth Lifestyles Survey, a large-scale, representative, household survey of 12- to 30-year-olds living in England and Wales. Binge drinking, and especially male binge drinking, among 18- to 24-year-olds is statistically related to offending behaviour. In the 12 months prior to interview 39% of binge drinkers admitted to committing an offence and 60% admitted criminal and/or disorderly behaviour during or after drinking alcohol. Multivariate analysis found that binge drinking remains strongly associated with criminal and disorderly behaviour even after taking other relevant factors into account. Individuals who got drunk at least once a week had more than five times the odds of being involved in fighting or violent crime. For offences or disorderly behaviour that took place during or after drinking alcohol an individual had a seven times greater chance of breaking or damaging something and a five times greater chance of being involved in a fight if he/she got drunk at least once a week. These findings suggest that frequency of drunkenness is a better predictor of offending behaviour than frequency of drinking per se. Using frequency of drunkenness as the basis for defining binge drinking reveals that a large minority of young adults who binge drink also become involved in offending or disorderly behaviour. Binge drinking is particularly associated with crimes of violence. The relationship between

  10. Do community characteristics predict alcohol-related crime?

    PubMed

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Slade, Tim; Love, Stephanie; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-related crime is a substantial community problem. There is evidence to suggest that certain geographic areas experience higher rates of alcohol-related crime and that both individual and community factors are associated with alcohol-related crime. There is limited research at the community level despite communities being the target of interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm. This study aims to determine whether there are differences in alcohol-related crime at the community level and examines whether certain community characteristics are associated with increased alcohol-related crime. Routinely collected police data from 20 rural communities in New South Wales, Australia were analysed. The ratio of alcohol to non-alcohol-related criminal incidents was used as a proxy for alcohol-related crime. Predictor variables were population-adjusted community characteristics, including demographic and resource variables. Regression analyses suggest that there are differences between communities in alcohol-related crime. Less socioeconomic disadvantage and more GPs and licensed premises (pubs and clubs) are associated with greater alcohol-related crime at the community level. Decreasing the socioeconomic well-being of a community is not appropriate; however, introducing additional taxes to increase the cost of alcohol may decrease consumption and therefore alcohol-related crime. Reducing or capping the number of licensed premises, specifically the number of pubs and clubs, may be an appropriate strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime in rural communities.

  11. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  12. The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime.

  13. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  14. Amnesia for violent crime among young offenders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ceri; Mezey, Gillian; Ehlers, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Amnesia for the perpetration of violent offences is an important issue in medico-legal proceedings. Previous studies of amnesia have mainly relied on selected groups of unconvicted offenders, which raises the question of how reliable the findings are. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and phenomenological qualities of amnesia in violent offenders. In semi-structured interviews with 105 young offenders convicted of serious violence, 20 (19%) reported partial amnesia for their offence and only one (1%) reported complete amnesia. Amnesia was associated with high alcohol intake, emotional ties to the victim, and cognitive processing during the assault. Complete amnesia for violent crime appears to be less frequent than suggested by previous reports using unconvicted samples. The findings have implications for the clinical assessment of claimed amnesia for violent crime and are potentially of medico-legal significance. PMID:19668341

  15. Emotional reactions to crime across cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2015-10-01

    Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  17. The Power of Prevention: Invest in It. Crime Prevention Month Action Kit, October 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Judy; Asato, Cathy

    This kit from the Crime Prevention Coalition of America provides information about crime prevention, the history of crime prevention month, and materials for use in creating and hosting crime prevention programs and events. Contents include (1) "The Results of Investing in Crime Prevention"; (2) "Sample Press Release"; (3)…

  18. 22 CFR 40.21 - Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime...

  19. 22 CFR 40.21 - Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime...

  20. 22 CFR 40.21 - Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime...

  1. The Impact of Racial Slurs and Racism on the Perceptions and Punishment of Violent Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Donald A.; Hockett, Jericho M.; Wallenberg, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    When a crime is committed by an individual of one race against an individual of another race, there is the possibility that the crime is a hate crime. Legislation often mandates harsher penalties for perpetrators convicted of crimes determined to be hate crimes, yet this determination is difficult to make. This study used vignettes of violent…

  2. Research Note: Assessing the Perceived Seriousness of White-Collar and Street Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Carmichael, Stephanie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the ranking of crime seriousness of white-collar crimes relative to street crimes, with early research suggesting the general public is indifferent to crimes of the elite, whereas more recent research indicates that the public thinks certain types of white-collar crime are serious. Building on prior research limitations and…

  3. 22 CFR 40.21 - Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime...

  4. 22 CFR 40.21 - Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime...

  5. Research Note: Assessing the Perceived Seriousness of White-Collar and Street Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Carmichael, Stephanie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the ranking of crime seriousness of white-collar crimes relative to street crimes, with early research suggesting the general public is indifferent to crimes of the elite, whereas more recent research indicates that the public thinks certain types of white-collar crime are serious. Building on prior research limitations and…

  6. The Impact of Racial Slurs and Racism on the Perceptions and Punishment of Violent Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Donald A.; Hockett, Jericho M.; Wallenberg, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    When a crime is committed by an individual of one race against an individual of another race, there is the possibility that the crime is a hate crime. Legislation often mandates harsher penalties for perpetrators convicted of crimes determined to be hate crimes, yet this determination is difficult to make. This study used vignettes of violent…

  7. Advancing crime scene computer forensics techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Chet; Feldman, John; Giordano, Joe

    1999-02-01

    Computers and network technology have become inexpensive and powerful tools that can be applied to a wide range of criminal activity. Computers have changed the world's view of evidence because computers are used more and more as tools in committing `traditional crimes' such as embezzlements, thefts, extortion and murder. This paper will focus on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of the data recovery and evidence construction tools used in both the field and laboratory for prosection purposes.

  8. Transnational Crime and Security Threats in Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t TRANSNATIONAL CRIME AND SECURITY THREATS IN INDONESIA BY COLONEL PUJO WAHYONO Indonesia U.S...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other

  9. Information War Crimes: Mitnick Meets Milosevic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    objectives: — Stock exchanges , banking systems, universities, and similar civilian infrastructures may not be attacked simply because a belligerent has the...revolution, however, poses serious problems for the U.S. Some are ethical: Is it a war crime to crash another country’s stock market? �TIME, August 19951...and control infrastructure disrupted with individual military units unable to communicate either with each other or with central command Stock or

  10. Workshop on Wildlife Crime: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    problems are leading to the extinction of species and the destruction of ecosystems . The goal of this workshop was to bring together leading...environmental crime in countries around the world; these international problems are leading to the extinction of species and the destruction of... ecosystems . The goal of this workshop was to bring together leading researchers from computational and social sciences, conservation biology as well as

  11. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    PubMed

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go.

  12. Crime scene units: a look to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    The scientific examination of physical evidence is well recognized as a critical element in conducting successful criminal investigations and prosecutions. The forensic science field is an ever changing discipline. With the arrival of DNA, new processing techniques for latent prints, portable lasers, and electro-static dust print lifters, and training of evidence technicians has become more important than ever. These scientific and technology breakthroughs have increased the possibility of collecting and analyzing physical evidence that was never possible before. The problem arises with the collection of physical evidence from the crime scene not from the analysis of the evidence. The need for specialized units in the processing of all crime scenes is imperative. These specialized units, called crime scene units, should be trained and equipped to handle all forms of crime scenes. The crime scenes units would have the capability to professionally evaluate and collect pertinent physical evidence from the crime scenes.

  13. Hotbeds of crime and the search for spatial accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliffe, J. H.; McCullagh, M. J.

    One of the most important aspects of spatial crime analysis is the identification of hotspots: areas of the highest crime concentration. This paper advances a methodology for hotspot detection based on a global moving window approach combined with the use of local statistics to define the hotspot limit. This technique generates hotspots that both follow the urban morphology of the crime distribution and ensures their spatial segregation. The hypothesis that police officers can construct an accurate perception of crime distribution from exposure to daily policing practices is used to demonstrate an application in the use of hotspot analysis. Significant regions generated from recorded crime data are compared with perceived local hotspots catalogued from surveys with police officers. Results from this study show two discrete types of hotspot, here termed hotpoints and hotbeds. The morphology of these crime hotpoints and hotbeds is discussed and possible causes documented.

  14. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia.

    PubMed

    Cima, M; Van Oorsouw, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims were scored from inmates (N=31) criminal file records. Results demonstrated that claims of crime-related amnesia were more frequently reported by individuals scoring high on impulsive antisocial psychopathy traits. Furthermore, offenders who claimed crime-related amnesia reported lower levels of instrumental/proactive aggression. There was no relationship between fearless-callous psychopathy traits or the use of reactive violence, and claims of crime-related amnesia. Within offenders who claimed amnesia for their crime, the majority demonstrated elevated levels of deception, suggesting that claims of amnesia might serve a strategic purpose. In addition, they more often reported having had a previous experience with memory loss, which may have formed the basis of simulation.

  15. Base rates of hate crime victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Earleywine, Mitchell; Davison, Gerald C

    2003-10-01

    This study uses the unmatched count technique (UCT) to estimate base rates for hate crime victimization in college students and compares the results with estimates found using conventional methods. Hate crimes, criminal acts perpetrated against individuals or members of specific stigmatized groups, intend to express condemnation, hate, disapproval, dislike, or distrust for a group. The UCT is a promising tool in the investigation of hate crime because it does not require participants to directly answer sensitive questions. This may provide more accurate responses than other methods. The UCT revealed higher estimates for a variety of serious hate crimes, including physical and sexual assault. These higher estimates provide a better feel for the level of hate crime victimization and point to the increased need for hate crime victims' assistance programs on college campuses.

  16. A cure for crime: can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth?

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; McReynolds, Larkin S; Wasserman, Gail A

    2006-01-01

    Youth crime is a serious social problem, as is the high proportion of young offenders in the juvenile justice system who have mental disorders. A recent policy innovation applies the theory of therapeutic jurisprudence and diverts youth with mental disorders to treatment in lieu of further court processing. The expansion of mental health diversion programs reflects an increasingly popular view that there is a causal relationship between youth mental disorders and crime. Policymakers who share this view place greater emphasis on rehabilitation and treatment as a way to reduce crime, rather than on stricter punishment. This paper considers the policy issues around youth mental health diversion programs. In addition, it evaluates the effect of a mental health diversion program for youth that was implemented in Texas. The paper finds that mental health diversion can be used effectively to delay or prevent youth recidivism.

  17. Testing a General Model on the Fear of Crime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    1991b) which was later reduced to three categories: 18 to 25, 26 to 35, and over 35. Cow unity Incivility Community incivility was measured by having... work of LaGrange, et al. (1992), who informed the necessary link between perceived incivilities , perceived crime seriousness, and fear. The test of the...the differential effects of victimization, perceived community incivilities , and perceived crime seriousness in the neighborhood on fear of crime at two

  18. Toward Understanding the Biology of Crime in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, D

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serious crime is a scourge within Trinidad and Tobago's borders and seems to be escalating yearly with no resolution in sight. It is commonplace for governments to view/implement policies targeting crime based on sociological and psychological paradigms. What is most often overlooked, however, is that crime has unique biological underpinnings, which, if characterized, could lead toward clinical interventions that could mitigate its incidence within the population. PMID:25803384

  19. Financial Assistance Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov] Hill-Burton facilities provide care to uninsured Americans. To locate a Hill-Burton facility in your area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  20. The nature of crime : Is cheating necessary for cooperation?

    PubMed

    Machalek, R; Cohen, L E

    1991-09-01

    The classical social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the counterintuitive thesis that crime is beneficial for society because it provokes punishment, which enhances social solidarity. His logic, however, is blemished by a reified view of society that leads to group-selectionist thinking and a teleological account of the causes of crime. Reconceptualization of the relationship between crime and punishment in terms of evolutionary game theory, however, suggests that crime (cheating) may confer benefits on cooperating individuals by promoting stability in their patterns of cooperation.

  1. Examination of crime and similar concepts in the medical law

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Crime is a human behavior that has captivated the thoughts of scholars of various disciplines throughout history. Philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and others have investigated and analyzed the concept of crime from different aspects. Crime is the main topic of criminal law, and in its legal meaning is a well-known term with a certain conceptual load that should not be confused with similar concepts such as guilt, civil crime (quasi tort), and particularly, the disciplinary transgression. Although crime has common points with all the above, it is an independent concept with unique effects, features, and descriptions that distinguish it from similar acts. This article aims to determine the difference between the concepts of crime, guilt, civil crime and disciplinary transgression through enumeration of the related issues as well as examples of medical disciplinary crimes and transgressions. Identifying and distinguishing these concepts can improve the procedure of prosecuting crimes and disciplinary transgression, bring punishment to criminals and transgressors, and facilitate compensation of pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses due to committers’ fault or failure. Thus we may avoid taking a wrong route that can lead to infringement of individuals’ rights. PMID:27471587

  2. The Impact of Crime Victimization on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Begle, Angela M.; Hubel, Grace S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the extant literature examining the functional impact of crime victimization on indices of quality of life. They present findings within a conceptual framework comprised of role functioning, life satisfaction, and well-being, and social–material conditions, including crime-related medical, mental health, and employer costs, and health care utilization. The review indicates that crime victimization impacts multiple domains, including parenting skills, impaired occupational functioning, higher rates of unemployment, and problematic intimate relationships. However, data on relationships between crime victimization and overall life satisfaction were mixed, suggesting the need for further investigation. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of directions for future research. PMID:20419728

  3. How Crime in the United States is Measured

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-03

    for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to report annual crime statistics using NIBRS data . The FBI still publishes annual crime data using the... statistics to IACP, which published the data in Uniform Crime Reports for the United States and Its CRS-4 17 Ibid. 18 28 U.S.C. § 534. 19 UCR Handbook...arsons. ! In 1990, following the passage of the Hate Crime Statistics Act (P.L. 101-275),29 the FBI started to collect data on bias motivation in criminal

  4. Crime prevention through social and physical environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Nietzel, Michael T.; Himelein, Melissa J.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to crime prevention where behavior analysts can make important contributions is the modification of environmental opportunities and victim vulnerabilities that are related to higher rates of offending. Examples of environmental crime prevention are discussed in the following areas: (1) modifying physical environments in order to “harden” targets of crime, (2) training victims to be less vulnerable to victimization, (3) eliminating portrayals of certain groups of people that legitimize their victimization, and (4) organizing neighborhoods and communities to strengthen their means of social control. Two implications of environmental crime prevention—the role of individual differences and the scope of prevention—are discussed. PMID:22477962

  5. Examination of crime and similar concepts in the medical law.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Crime is a human behavior that has captivated the thoughts of scholars of various disciplines throughout history. Philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and others have investigated and analyzed the concept of crime from different aspects. Crime is the main topic of criminal law, and in its legal meaning is a well-known term with a certain conceptual load that should not be confused with similar concepts such as guilt, civil crime (quasi tort), and particularly, the disciplinary transgression. Although crime has common points with all the above, it is an independent concept with unique effects, features, and descriptions that distinguish it from similar acts. This article aims to determine the difference between the concepts of crime, guilt, civil crime and disciplinary transgression through enumeration of the related issues as well as examples of medical disciplinary crimes and transgressions. Identifying and distinguishing these concepts can improve the procedure of prosecuting crimes and disciplinary transgression, bring punishment to criminals and transgressors, and facilitate compensation of pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses due to committers' fault or failure. Thus we may avoid taking a wrong route that can lead to infringement of individuals' rights.

  6. Farm Financial Standards.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M

    1995-07-01

    The Farm Financial Standards were developed by a national effort to encourage standardization. Standardization includes financial statement formats, terminology, and calculations for measuring financial position and format. Comparative analysis and education efforts are enhanced greatly by standardization. The Standardization Performance Analysis (SPA) system was developed on the basis of the performance standards for beef cattle and sheep enterprises. This article summarizes the Farm Financial Standards and illustrates the calculations with a worksheet.

  7. Marketing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  8. Invest in Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…

  9. Invest in Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…

  10. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  11. 77 FR 14490 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor Personnel (DFARS Case 2012-D006) AGENCY... coverage on contractor requirements and responsibilities relating to alleged crimes by or against... contractor requirements and responsibilities regarding alleged crimes by or against contractor personnel....

  12. Bystanders' perceptions of perpetrators and victims of hate crime: an investigation using the person perception paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Mendoza, Margaret; Davison, Gerald C

    2003-09-01

    This study used the person perception vignette method to examine whether people perceive hate crime victims as more culpable than non-hate crime victims. In a between-participants design, participants were randomly assigned to read a vignette depicting a nonhate crime or a comparable hate crime motivated by the perpetrator's hatred for either the victim's race, sexual orientation, or religion. Results showed that participants assigned more blame to the victim in the non-hate crime condition compared to the victims in each of the three hate crime conditions. In addition, they perceived the perpetrators as more guilty in each of the three hate crime conditions compared to the non-hate crime condition. In addition, people with prejudiced attitudes perceived both hate crime and non-hate crime victims as more culpable and both hate crime and non-hate crime perpetrators as less culpable than did unprejudiced people.

  13. The relationship between youth tobacco control enforcement and crime rates in a midwestern county.

    PubMed

    Jason, L A; Katz, R; Pokorny, S B; Engstrom, M; Tegart, G; Curie, C

    2000-01-01

    The crime rate in 29 counties was compared with the level of enforcement of laws restricting youth purchases. There was a linear relationship between crime rate and enforcement. Communities with the highest enforcement policies had the lowest crime rates.

  14. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2005 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. NCES 2009-306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lynn; Guerino, Paul; Nolle, Kacey Lee; Tang, Sze-Wei

    2008-01-01

    This report provides estimates of student victimization as defined by the 2005 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the 2005 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). the nation's primary source of information on crime victimization and the victims of crime in the United States. SCS is a supplement to NCVS that was created to collect information…

  15. Crime and health: a preliminary study into the effects of crime on the mental health of UK university students.

    PubMed

    Morrall, P; Marshall, P; Pattison, S; Macdonald, G

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the findings from a preliminary study in the UK into the effects of crime on health. The aim of the study was to investigate what victims of crime report to be the effects of both actual crime and the fear of crime on their physical and psychological health (as well as social well-being) and what actions they take (if any) to deal with these effects. A survey method was adopted using a modified version of the 'Health, Quality of Life and Crime Questionnaire' with 866 undergraduate student respondents from three UK universities. University students were selected as the sample population because, as a group, they form a specific 'victim community'. Conclusions extrapolated from the respondents' replies were first, there are serious negative health effects (particularly on psychological health) of a considerable minority of those students who are victims of crime. Second, the vast majority of the victims did not initiate any health intervention. Third, a large minority of the victims did not report the crime to the police. Fourth, a majority of both victims and non-victims suffered psychological negative effects from the fear of crime. Fifth, there is a huge gender imbalance among those affected by crime with female students much more fearful of crime than men. Moreover, female students were much more likely to use specific strategies to lower the risk of crime. These conclusions suggest that there may be important policy implications for universities, the police, victim support organizations and mental health services, regarding the effects of crime on students. This study is intended as a preliminary stage for subsequent in-depth and larger projects. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  16. Alcohol‐related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol‐related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime

    PubMed Central

    Groombridge, Daniel; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Palmer, Darren; Clinton‐McHarg, Tara; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Miller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Bars, pubs and taverns in cities are often concentrated in entertainment precincts that are associated with higher rates of alcohol‐related crime. This study assessed public perception and experiences of such crime in two city entertainment precincts, and support for alcohol‐related crime reduction strategies. Design and Methods A cross‐sectional household telephone survey in two Australian regions assessed: perception and experiences of crime; support for crime reduction strategies; and differences in such perceptions and support. Results Six hundred ninety‐four people completed the survey (32%). Most agreed that alcohol was a problem in their entertainment precinct (90%) with violence the most common alcohol‐related problem reported (97%). Almost all crime reduction strategies were supported by more than 50% of participants, including visitors to the entertainment precincts, with the latter being slightly less likely to support earlier closing and restrictions on premises density. Participants in one region were more likely to support earlier closing and lock‐out times. Those at‐risk of acute alcohol harm were less likely to support more restrictive policies. Discussion and Conclusions High levels of community concern and support for alcohol harm‐reduction strategies, including restrictive strategies, provide policy makers with a basis for implementing evidence‐based strategies to reduce such harms in city entertainment precincts. [Tindall J, Groombridge D, Wiggers J, Gillham K, Palmer D, Clinton‐McHarg T, Lecathelinais C, Miller P. Alcohol‐related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol‐related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:263–272] PMID:26331784

  17. Characteristics of Crimes against Juveniles. Crimes against Children Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    This Bulletin reviews data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's 1997 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data file that pertain to juvenile victims, revealing that while juveniles made up 26% of the population of the 12 states participating in NIBRS in 1997, they accounted for only 12% of the reported crime victims. At the same…

  18. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  19. Nonresidential Crime Attractors and Generators Elevate Perceived Neighborhood Crime and Incivilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Eric S.; Ratcliffe, Jerry H.; Garcia, R. Marie; Taylor, Ralph B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have produced conflicting findings about the impacts of local nonresidential land uses on perceived incivilities. This study advances work in this area by developing a land-use perspective theoretically grounded in Brantingham and Brantingham's geometry of crime model in environmental criminology. That focus directs attention to…

  20. A Cure for Crime: Can Mental Health Treatment Diversion Reduce Crime among Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2006-01-01

    Youth crime is a serious social problem, as is the high proportion of young offenders in the juvenile justice system who have mental disorders. A recent policy innovation applies the theory of therapeutic jurisprudence and diverts youth with mental disorders to treatment in lieu of further court processing. The expansion of mental health diversion…

  1. Nonresidential Crime Attractors and Generators Elevate Perceived Neighborhood Crime and Incivilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Eric S.; Ratcliffe, Jerry H.; Garcia, R. Marie; Taylor, Ralph B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have produced conflicting findings about the impacts of local nonresidential land uses on perceived incivilities. This study advances work in this area by developing a land-use perspective theoretically grounded in Brantingham and Brantingham's geometry of crime model in environmental criminology. That focus directs attention to…

  2. A Cure for Crime: Can Mental Health Treatment Diversion Reduce Crime among Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2006-01-01

    Youth crime is a serious social problem, as is the high proportion of young offenders in the juvenile justice system who have mental disorders. A recent policy innovation applies the theory of therapeutic jurisprudence and diverts youth with mental disorders to treatment in lieu of further court processing. The expansion of mental health diversion…

  3. Washington, D.C.: Public Attitudes About Crime. A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    These city surveys had a twofold purpose: the assessment of public attitudes about crime and related matters and the development of information on the extent and nature of residents' experiences with selected forms of criminal victimization. Attitudinal information was obtained from interviews with the occupants of 4,676 housing units. Even though…

  4. Reducing Residential Crime and Fear: The Hartford Neighborhood Crime Prevention Program [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Floyd J., Jr.; And Others

    The Hartford project, an experimental effort to reduce residential burglary, street robberies, and fear of those crimes in an urban residential neighborhood, is described. Its most distinctive feature is its integrative approach in which police, community organization, and physical design changes were used to increase the willingness and ability…

  5. Presenting practice financial information.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lee Ann H

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance.

  6. Clauberg's eponym and crimes against humanity.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Frederick; Csapó-Sweet, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Scientific journals are ethically bound to cite Professor Dr. Carl Clauberg's Nazi medical crimes against humanity whenever the eponym Clauberg is used. Modern articles still publish the eponym citing only the rabbit bioassy used in developing progesterone agonists or antagonists for birth control. Clauberg's Nazi career is traced to his having subjected thousands of Jewish women at the Ravensbruck and Auschwitz-Birkenau death camps to cruel, murderous sterilization experiments that are enthusiastically described by incriminating letters (reproduced here) between him and the notorious Nazi Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. The experiments were carried out in women's block 10 in Auschwitz-Birkenau where Clauberg's colleague Dr. Josef Mengele worked alongside. After Germany lost World War II in 1945 Mengele fled to South America, where he lived to an old age. Clauberg was caught by Russian soldiers, put on trial in the Soviet Union for his crimes against humanity, and imprisoned in 1948. In 1955 he was repatriated to Germany, once again imprisoned for his crimes, and belatedly expelled from the German Medical Association. To estimate the contemporary usage of the names Mengele and Clauberg, Internet hits were recorded for Clauberg C or Mengele J (with and without adding the term Auschwitz) with the Google and Scirus search engines. The ratios of hits for combinations of these terms reveal that relative to Mengele, Clauberg's name is barely known. We propose that journals and books printing the eponym Clauberg cite its derivation and reference to the convicted Nazi criminal. The present article can serve for such citations.

  7. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  8. Computer Crime: Criminal Justice Resource Manual (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donn B.

    This advanced training and reference manual is designed to aid investigators and prosecutors in dealing with white collar computer crime. The first five sections follow the typical order of events for prosecutors handling a criminal case: classifying the crime, computer abuse methods and detection, experts and suspects using information systems,…

  9. 76 FR 20827 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... April 13, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8650--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011 Proclamation 8651--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011 Proclamation 8652--National Former Prisoner of... ] Proclamation 8650 of April 8, 2011 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011 By the President of the United...

  10. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For... they need, we know we must do more. This week, we rededicate ourselves to securing the full measure of...

  11. Testing a Fear of Crime Model on Air Force Installation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    later reduced to three categories: 18 to 25, 26 to 35, and over 35. Perceived Community Incivility A common research finding is that community...TRAPP This research explores the differential effects of victimization, perceived community incivilities , and perceived crime seriousness in the...population, the absence of unemployment and low income earners, higher education, and lower perceived incivilities and perceived crime than are

  12. Teens, Crime, and the Community and Adjudicated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This report describes how a comprehensive youth crime prevention program minimized risk factors and fostered resilience among youth involved with the juvenile justice system. It draws lessons from the implementation of the Teens, Crime, and the Community (TCC) curriculum in several juvenile justice sites that conducted the program in connection…

  13. Schizophrenia and Crime: How Predictable Are Charges, Convictions and Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.

    2012-01-01

    The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…

  14. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  15. Psychological Reactions to Crime in Italy: 2002-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerio, Piero; Roccato, Michele

    2007-01-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Observatory of the North-West (a mail panel representative of the Italian population over 18), describing the trends in the distribution of fear of crime (FC) and of concern about crime as a social problem (CC) in Italy between the end of 2002 and the beginning of 2004. After analyzing…

  16. Significant Others and Fear of Crime among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Leslie W.; Silverman, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined demographic, environmental, behavioral, and social psychological factors that affect fear of crime among the elderly (N=1,439). Results showed elderly women were more fearful than other groups. Social isolation, type of housing, length of residence, and area of the city were all related to fear of crime. (JAC)

  17. Urban Youth, Fear of Crime, and Resulting Defensive Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Sherwood; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used data from 1,775 urban youth collected in 1986 to examine fear of crime and defensive actions taken by youth. Results revealed that only 11% reported having taken no defensive actions as result of fear of crime. Nearly three-fifths took precaution of having escort at night. Learning self-defense techniques was reported by 19%; 10% indicated…

  18. High Anxiety: Fear of Crime in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Joan

    1980-01-01

    Fear of crime in schools has become a special concern since the mid-1960s. Important research into the effects of "fear of crime" on the student population includes data gathered as part of the National Institute of Education's Violent Schools--Safe Schools Study. (JN)

  19. Psychological Reactions to Crime in Italy: 2002-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerio, Piero; Roccato, Michele

    2007-01-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Observatory of the North-West (a mail panel representative of the Italian population over 18), describing the trends in the distribution of fear of crime (FC) and of concern about crime as a social problem (CC) in Italy between the end of 2002 and the beginning of 2004. After analyzing…

  20. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…