Science.gov

Sample records for fragmentation products including

  1. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  2. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-06

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping At{sub otal} fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of {sup 197}Au+{sup 27}Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  3. Comparison of calculations of fragment production

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    This note compares estimates of fragment production rates in debris collisions through calculations performed with consistent debris distribution functions implicit in integrated collision frequencies provided by Attachment A. Differences between estimates of fragment production rates in space debris collisions are shown to be due primarily to different choices of the exponent in the fragment production function and the distinction between catastrophic and all collisions. Sensitivity to the fragment production parameter over the range of values consistent with experimental data is discussed.

  4. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    shall receive metallurgical evaluation by the contractor. As a minimum, these evaluations shall include chemistry, cleanliness (as per ASTM -E-45...all six ingots, previously mentioned from each heat, shall have a minimum of three Jominy End Quench specimens machined and tested as per ASTM -A-255...evaluated in accordance with ASTM -E-381. For this heat, the macro etch was taken from the top, middle, and bottom of each first, middle and last ingot

  5. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products.

    PubMed

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  7. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  8. Construction of a 3D-shaped, natural product like fragment library by fragmentation and diversification of natural products.

    PubMed

    Prescher, Horst; Koch, Guido; Schuhmann, Tim; Ertl, Peter; Bussenault, Alex; Glick, Meir; Dix, Ina; Petersen, Frank; Lizos, Dimitrios E

    2017-02-01

    A fragment library consisting of 3D-shaped, natural product-like fragments was assembled. Library construction was mainly performed by natural product degradation and natural product diversification reactions and was complemented by the identification of 3D-shaped, natural product like fragments available from commercial sources. In addition, during the course of these studies, novel rearrangements were discovered for Massarigenin C and Cytochalasin E. The obtained fragment library has an excellent 3D-shape and natural product likeness, covering a novel, unexplored and underrepresented chemical space in fragment based drug discovery (FBDD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial platform technology for recombinant antibody fragment production: A review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant antibody fragments are being used for the last few years as an important therapeutic protein to cure various critical and life threatening human diseases. Several expression platforms now days employed for the production of these recombinant fragments, out of which bacterial system has emerged a promising host for higher expression. Since, a small antibody fragment unlike full antibody does not require human-like post-translational modification therefore it is potentially expressed in prokaryotic production system. Recently, small antibody fragments such as scFvs (single-chain variable fragments) and Fabs (antibody fragments) which does not require glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have commercially launched for therapeutic use as these fragments shows better tissue penetration and less immunogenic to human body compared to full-size antibody. Recently developed Wacker's ESETEC secretion technology is an efficient technology for the expression and secretion of the antibody fragment (Fab) exceeded up to 4.0 g/L while scFv up to 3.5 g/L into the fermentation broth. The Pfenex system and pOP prokaryotic expression vector are another platform used for the considerably good amount of antibody fragment production successfully. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on various expression platforms and cloning approaches for the production of different forms of antibody fragments in E. coli.

  10. {J}/{ψ} production via fragmentation at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, R. M.; Roy, D. P.; Sridhar, K.

    1996-02-01

    We compute the contributions to large- p T{J}/{ψ} production at DHEA coming from fragmentation of gluons and charm quarks. We find that the charm quark fragmentation contribution dominates over the direct production of {J}/{ψ} via photongluon fusion at large- p T, while the gluon fragmentation is negligibly small over the whole range of pT. An experimental study of pT distributions of {J}/{ψ} at HERA will providea direct probe of the charm quark fragmentation functions.

  11. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. PMID:24183828

  12. Late-stage planetary accretion including hit-and-run collisions and fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2013-05-01

    To date, most simulations of the final accretion of the terrestrial planets have assumed that all collisions lead to mergers. Recent hydrodynamic simulations of impacts between planetary mass bodies (Leinhardt, Z.M., Stewart, S.T. [2012]. Astrophys. J. 745, 79; Genda, H., Kokubo, E., Ida, S. [2012]. Astrophys J. 744, 137) have parameterized the outcome of planetary collisions in terms of the masses and velocities of the colliding bodies. Using these results, it is now possible to simulate late-stage planetary growth using a more realistic model for collisions. Here, we describe results of eight N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation that incorporate collisional fragmentation and hit-and-run collisions. The results are compared to simulations using identical initial collisions in which all collisions were assumed to result in mergers (Chambers, J.E. [2001]. Icarus 152, 205-224). The new simulations form 3 to 5 terrestrial planets moving on widely spaced orbits with growth complete by 400 My. The mean time for Earth-like planets to reach half their final mass is 17 My, comparable to the time in simulations without fragmentation. However, the prolonged sweep up of collision fragments lengthens the mean time required for Earth analogues to become fully formed to 159 My. The final planets have somewhat smaller masses m and eccentricities e when fragmentation is included. Masses are particularly reduced in the region now occupied by Mars. The final distributions of m, e and semi-major axis are similar to the terrestrial planets of the Solar System, but the strong concentration of mass in the narrow zone occupied by Earth and Venus is not reproduced. Collisional fragmentation is likely to preferentially eject silicate-rich mantle material leaving a target enriched in iron-rich core material. However, large bodies often reaccrete silicate-rich mantle fragments at a later time, leaving their final composition largely unchanged. The final core mass fractions of

  13. Natural-product-derived fragments for fragment-based ligand discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Over, Björn; Wetzel, Stefan; Grütter, Christian; Nakai, Yasushi; Renner, Steffen; Rauh, Daniel; Waldmann, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Fragment-based ligand and drug discovery predominantly employs sp2-rich compounds covering well-explored regions of chemical space. Despite the ease with which such fragments can be coupled, this focus on flat compounds is widely cited as contributing to the attrition rate of the drug discovery process. In contrast, biologically validated natural products are rich in stereogenic centres and populate areas of chemical space not occupied by average synthetic molecules. Here, we have analysed more than 180,000 natural product structures to arrive at 2,000 clusters of natural-product-derived fragments with high structural diversity, which resemble natural scaffolds and are rich in sp3-configured centres. The structures of the cluster centres differ from previously explored fragment libraries, but for nearly half of the clusters representative members are commercially available. We validate their usefulness for the discovery of novel ligand and inhibitor types by means of protein X-ray crystallography and the identification of novel stabilizers of inactive conformations of p38α MAP kinase and of inhibitors of several phosphatases.

  14. Fragmentation production of charmed hadrons in electron-positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Novoselov, A. A.

    2010-10-15

    Processes involving the production of D* mesons and {Lambda}{sub c} baryons in electron-positron annihilation at the energies of 10.58 and 91.18 GeV are considered. At the energy of 10.58 GeV, the production of pairs of B mesons that is followed by their decay to charmed particles is analyzed along with direct charm production. The violation of scaling in the respective fragmentation functions is taken into account in the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. The required nonperturbative fragmentation functions are extracted numerically from experimental data obtained at B factories and are approximated by simple analytic expressions. It is shown that the difference in the nonperturbative fragmentation functions for transitions to mesons and baryons can readily be explained on the basis of the quark-counting rules.

  15. Production of recombinant antibody fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Eva; Hust, Michael; Roth, Andreas; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Schirrmann, Thomas; Jahn, Dieter; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background Recombinant antibodies are essential reagents for research, diagnostics and therapy. The well established production host Escherichia coli relies on the secretion into the periplasmic space for antibody synthesis. Due to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, only a fraction of this material reaches the medium. Recently, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was shown to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins into the growth medium. Here we evaluated B. megaterium for the recombinant production of antibody fragments. Results The lysozyme specific single chain Fv (scFv) fragment D1.3 was succesfully produced using B. megaterium. The impact of culture medium composition, gene expression time and culture temperatures on the production of functional scFv protein was systematically analyzed. A production and secretion at 41°C for 24 h using TB medium was optimal for this individual scFv. Interestingly, these parameters were very different to the optimal conditions for the expression of other proteins in B. megaterium. Per L culture supernatant, more than 400 μg of recombinant His6-tagged antibody fragment were purified by one step affinity chromatography. The material produced by B. megaterium showed an increased specific activity compared to material produced in E. coli. Conclusion High yields of functional scFv antibody fragments can be produced and secreted into the culture medium by B. megaterium, making this production system a reasonable alternative to E. coli. PMID:17224052

  16. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody–drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. PMID:26833854

  17. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  18. Nonsinglet kaon fragmentation function from e{sup +}e{sup -} kaon production

    SciTech Connect

    Albino, Simon; Christova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    We perform fits to the available charged and neutral kaon-production data in e{sup +}+e{sup -{yields}}K+X, K=K{sup {+-},} and K{sub S}{sup 0}, and determine the nonsinglet combination of kaon fragmentation functions D{sub u}{sup K{+-}-}D{sub d}{sup K{+-}}in a model independent way and without any correlations to the other fragmentation functions. Only nuclear isospin invariance is assumed. Working with nonsinglets allows us to include the data at very low momentum fractions, which have so far been excluded in global fits, and to perform a first next-next-to leading order fit to fragmentation functions. We find that the kaon nonsinglet fragmentation function at large z is larger than that obtained by the other collaborations from global fit analysis and differs significantly at low z.

  19. Should sperm DNA fragmentation testing be included in the male infertility work-up?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheena E M

    2015-08-01

    A response to the editorial 'Are we ready to incorporate sperm DNA fragmentation testing into our male infertility work-up? A plea for more robust studies' by Erma Drobnis and Martin Johnson. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale production of palindrome DNA fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.L.; Gewiess, A.; Harp, J.M.

    1995-10-10

    Our structural studies of nucleosomes necessitated the production of over 100 mg of a 146-bp perfect palindrome DNA for use in the reconstitution of perfectly symmetrical nucleosome core particles for detailed X-ray crystallographic analysis. The propagation of palindromic DNA sequences by bacterial culture is hindered by the instability of these sequences during bacterial replication and recombination. While the loss of some palindrome sequences can be elminated by the use of sbcB or sbcC mutants of Escherichia coli, not all palindrome-containing plasmids are faithfully maintained by these strains. The production of large quantities of palindrome DNA can therefore be extremely difficult. After trying several approaches, we were able to develop a reliable procedure for production of large quantities of palindrome DNA that involves production of plasmid containing multiple copies of the repeating unit of the palindrome which are isolated by restriction digestion and ligated in vitro to form the palindrome DNA. The procedure has resulted in the production of over 20 mg of a 146-bp DNA fragment in 2 weeks.

  1. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  2. Growth and productivity impacts of periplasmic nuclease expression in an Escherichia coli Fab' fragment production strain.

    PubMed

    Nesbeth, Darren N; Perez-Pardo, Miguel-Angel; Ali, Shaukat; Ward, John; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2012-02-01

    Host cell engineering is becoming a realistic option in whole bioprocess strategies to maximize product manufacturability. High molecular weight (MW) genomic DNA currently hinders bioprocessing of Escherichia coli by causing viscosity in homogenate feedstocks. We previously showed that co-expressing Staphylococcal nuclease and human Fab' fragment in the periplasm of E. coli enables auto-hydrolysis of genomic DNA upon cell disruption, with a consequent reduction in feedstock viscosity and improvement in clarification performance. Here we report the impact of periplasmic nuclease expression on stability of DNA and Fab' fragment in homogenates, host-strain growth kinetics, cell integrity at harvest and Fab' fragment productivity. Nuclease and Fab' plasmids were shown to exert comparable levels of growth burden on the host W3110 E. coli strain. Nuclease co-expression did not compromise either the growth performance or volumetric yield of the production strain. 0.5 g/L Fab' fragment (75 L scale) and 0.7 g/L (20 L scale) was achieved for both unmodified and cell-engineered production strains. Unexpectedly, nuclease-modified cells achieved maximum Fab' levels 8-10 h earlier than the original, unmodified production strain. Scale-down studies of homogenates showed that nuclease-mediated hydrolysis of high MW DNA progressed to completion within minutes of homogenization, even when homogenates were chilled on ice, with no loss of Fab' product and no need for additional co-factors or buffering.

  3. Optical model methods of predicting nuclide production cross sections from heavy ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Ramsey, C. R.; Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Quantum mechanical optical potential methods for calculating inclusive isotope and element production cross sections from the fragmenting of heavy nuclei by intermediate- and high-energy protons and heavy ions are presented based upon a modified abrasion-ablation-FSI (frictional spectator interaction) collision model. The abrasion stage is treated as a quantum mechanical knockout process that leaves the residual prefragment in an excited state. Prefragment excitation energies are estimated using a combined liquid drop and FSI method. In ablation the prefragment deexcites by particle and photon emission to produce the final fragment. Contributions from electromagnetic dissociation to single nucleon removal cross sections are incorporated using a Weiszacker-Williams theory that includes electric dipole and electric quadrupole interactions. Estimates of elemental and isotopic production cross sections are in good agreement with published cross section measurements for a variety of projectile-target-beam energy combinations.

  4. Production of single chain Fab (scFab) fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Eva; Al-Halabi, Laila; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background The demand on antigen binding reagents in research, diagnostics and therapy raises questions for novel antibody formats as well as appropriate production systems. Recently, the novel single chain Fab (scFab) antibody format combining properties of single chain Fv (scFv) and Fab fragments was produced in the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. In this study we evaluated the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the recombinant production of scFab and scFvs in comparison to E. coli. Results The lysozyme specific D1.3 scFab was produced in B. megaterium and E. coli. The total yield of the scFab after purification obtained from the periplasmic fraction and culture supernatant of E. coli was slightly higher than that obtained from culture supernatant of B. megaterium. However, the yield of functional scFab determined by analyzing the antigen binding activity was equally in both production systems. Furthermore, a scFv fragment with specificity for the human C reactive protein was produced in B. megaterium. The total yield of the anti-CRP scFv produced in B. megaterium was slightly lower compared to E. coli, whereas the specific activity of the purified scFvs produced in B. megaterium was higher compared to E. coli. Conclusion B. megaterium allows the secretory production of antibody fragments including the novel scFab antibody format. The yield and quality of functional antibody fragment is comparable to the periplasmic production in E. coli. PMID:18042285

  5. Consistent simulation of direct-photon production in hadron collisions including associated two-jet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2016-05-01

    We have developed an event generator for direct-photon production in hadron collisions, including associated 2-jet production in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The event generator consistently combines γ + 2-jet production processes with the lowest-order γ + jet and photon-radiation (fragmentation) processes from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 2-jet production using a subtraction method. The generated events can be fed to general-purpose event generators to facilitate the addition of hadronization and decay simulations. Using the obtained event information, we can simulate photon isolation and hadron-jet reconstruction at the particle (hadron) level. The simulation reasonably reproduces measurement data obtained at the large hadron collider (LHC) concerning not only the inclusive photon spectrum, but also the correlation between the photon and jet. The simulation implies that the contribution of the γ + 2-jet is very large, especially in low photon-pT ( ≲ 50 GeV) regions. Discrepancies observed at low pT, although marginal, may indicate the necessity for the consideration of further higher-order processes. Unambiguous particle-level definition of the photon-isolation condition for the signal events is desired to be given explicitly in future measurements.

  6. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  7. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  8. More Biological Entities from the Stratosphere Including a Diatom Fragment-Further Evidence for a Space Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Details of stratosphere-isolated biomorphs are given, including a fragment of a diatom frustule and an inorganic particle-rich mass containing biological filaments. We argue that this mass which is around 300 micron in size is, like the other biological entities shown, too large to have been carried from Earth to the stratosphere. As a result, we conclude that the biological entities arrived from space, probably from comets, and their existence in the stratosphere provides prima facie evidence in support of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia.

  9. Production of rare isotope beams with the NSCL fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, A.; Baumann, T.; Ginter, T. N.; Morrissey, D. J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Steiner, M.; Stetson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Rare isotope beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory are produced by projectile fragmentation of medium energy primary beams on beryllium targets. The fragments of interest are selected by the A1900 high-acceptance fragment separator. The A1900 consists of superconducting magnets: four 45° dipoles and eight quadrupole triplets with a maximum magnetic rigidity of 6 Tm. A momentum acceptance of Δp/p = 5% with a solid angle acceptance of ΔΩ = 8 msr makes the A1900 one of the highest-acceptance separators in the world. Detector systems installed within the device allow tracking and unambiguous identification of individual isotopes. During the first three years of operation of the A1900, more than 200 different rare isotope beams approaching both the neutron and proton driplines have been delivered to experiments.

  10. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  11. Access to photon fragmentation functions in hadronic jet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Tom; Mukherjee, Asmita; Vogelsang, Werner

    2016-06-01

    We argue that the process p p →(jet γ )X , for which a photon is observed inside a fully reconstructed jet and is treated as part of the jet, offers new probes of the so far little-known fragmentation functions for photons. We present a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation of the cross section for this process in the limit that the jet is relatively narrow. We also investigate the background resulting from the two-photon decay of neutral pions. We present numerical results relevant for possible measurements at the LHC and at RHIC. These suggest that p p →(jet γ )X should provide clean access to the photon fragmentation functions, provided an efficient suppression of the background is available in experiment.

  12. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  13. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  14. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and...

  15. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and Residue...

  16. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.23 Section 165.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Nonrefillable Container Standards: Container Design and Residue...

  17. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  18. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Vivi; Lokman, Christien; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Punt, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components will be discussed. As an example of the fusion protein strategy, the 'magic bullet' approach for industrial applications, will be highlighted. PMID:12605725

  19. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Vivi; Lokman, Christien; Van Den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Punt, Peter J

    2003-01-30

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components will be discussed. As an example of the fusion protein strategy, the 'magic bullet' approach for industrial applications, will be highlighted.

  20. Rac1 is Required for Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Production by Chondrocytes in Response to Fibronectin Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Long, David L.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Loeser, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective Matrix fragments, including fibronectin fragments (Fnf), accumulate during the development of osteoarthritis (OA) stimulating chondrocyte matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the small GTPase Rac1 in chondrocyte signaling stimulated by Fnf that results in MMP-13 production. Methods Normal human cartilage was from tissue donors and OA cartilage from knee arthroplasty specimens. Rac1 activity was modulated with a chemical inhibitor, siRNA knock-down, constitutively active (CA)-Rac or dominant negative (DN)-Rac adenovirus. Cells were treated with Fnf or without known Rac activators, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transforming growth factorα (TGFα). Rac1 activity was measured with a colorometric activity ELISA, pulldown assay, and immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody against active Rac. Results Chemical inhibition of Rac1, as well as knockdown by siRNA and expression of DN-Rac blocked Fnf stimulated MMP-13 production while expression of CA-Rac increased MMP-13. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase had no effect. EGF and TGFα, but not Fnf, increased Rac1 activity and promoted the increase in MMP-13 above that stimulated by Fnf alone. Active Rac was detected by immunostaining in OA cartilage. Conclusion Rac1 is required for Fnf induced signaling that results in increased MMP-13 production. EGF receptor ligands, which activate Rac, can promote this effect. The presence of active Rac in OA cartilage and the ability of Rac to stimulate MMP-13 production suggests that it could play a role in the cartilage matrix destruction seen in OA. PMID:23460186

  1. How are particle production, nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation processes interrelated in hadron-nucleus collisions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between particle production, nucleon emission, and fragment evaporation processes were searched for in hadron-nucleus collisions. It was stated that: (1) the nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation proceed independently of the particle production process; and (2) relation between multiplicities of the emitted protons and of the evaporated charged fragments is expressed by simple formula.

  2. Enhanced multiparametric hyaluronan degradation for production of molar-mass-defined fragments.

    PubMed

    Holubova, Lucie; Korecka, Lucie; Podzimek, Stepan; Moravcova, Veronika; Rotkova, Jana; Ehlova, Tereza; Velebny, Vladimir; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-11-04

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is known to serve as a dynamic mediator intervening in many physiological functions. Its specific effect has been repeatedly confirmed to be strongly influenced by the molecular size of hyaluronan fragments. However common technological approaches of HA fragments production have their limitations. In many cases, the final products do not meet the strict pharmaceutical requirements, specifically due to size polydispersity and reaction contaminants. We present novel methodology based on combination of unique incidental ability of the plant-derived protease papain to split the glycosidic bonds and an indispensable advantages of biocompatible macroporous material with incorporated ferrous ions serving as carrier for covalent papain fixation. This atypical and yet unpublished highly efficient multiparametric approach allows enhanced HA fragmentation for easily and safely producing molar-mass-defined HA fragments with narrow size distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography/multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS) confirmed the effectiveness of our multiparametric approach.

  3. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  4. Recognition of a Nocardia transvalensis complex by resistance to aminoglycosides, including amikacin, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R W; Steingrube, V A; Brown, B A; Blacklock, Z; Jost, K C; McNabb, A; Colby, W D; Biehle, J R; Gibson, J L; Wallace, R J

    1997-09-01

    Amikacin resistance, rare among nocardiae, was observed in 58 clinical isolates of nocardiae. All of these isolates hydrolyzed hypoxanthine, and 75 to 100% utilized citrate, D-galactose, and D-trehalose as sole carbon sources. Based on utilization of I-erythritol, D-glucitol, i-myo-inositol, D-mannitol, and ribitol and susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, the 58 isolates were separable into four groups. One group was negative for I-erythritol and ribitol and included all the isolates belonging to Nocardia asteroides complex antibiogram type IV. The remaining three groups were positive for I-erythritol and ribitol and were grouped within Nocardia transvalensis. The group that included the type strain was designated N. transvalensis sensu stricto, and the other two groups were designated new taxons 1 and 2. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a 439-bp segment of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene with XhoI and HinfI produced identical patterns for 53 (91%) and 58 (100%) isolates, respectively, and differentiated them from all other Nocardia taxa. NarI- and HaeIII-derived RFLP patterns clearly differentiated each of the four biochemically defined taxa. These four groups were also distinguishable by using the chromogenic substrates in Dade MicroScan test panels. By high-performance liquid chromatography, these isolates exhibited the same unique mycolic acid-ester elution patterns that differed from those of all other clinically significant nocardiae. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acids also produced similar patterns for all isolates that distinguished them from all other Nocardia taxa, but did not differentiate the four taxa within the complex. We propose the designation N. transvalensis complex for these four groups of nocardiae, pending further genetic evaluation.

  5. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; ...

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission productsmore » from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  6. Theory of cooperative fluorescence from products of reactions or collisions: Identical neutral atomic fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Ben-Reuven, Abraham

    1987-07-01

    The time-resolved cooperative emission from a system of correlated neutral dissociation fragments, or molecular collision products in beams, is investigated. The investigation is focused on emission at large fragment separations (between 1 nm and a few emission wavelengths), exceeding the domain of short-range interactions within the reactive or collisional molecular complex. A master-equation approach is used to obtain a general expression for the cooperative emission rate, which consists of nonexponential decay factors multiplied by temporal ringing patterns. These features result from the time-dependent radiative coupling between the receding fragments; they depend in an essential manner on the initial electronic state of the parent molecular complex and its symmetry which determine the correlations between the fragments. In the model system of a pair of identical two-level fragments two cases are considered separately. (a) A single photon shared by the fragments, where the emission is initially superradiant or subradiant (radiation trapping), depending on the spin and inversion symmetry of the parent molecular system and of the nascent fragments. The ringing pattern depends on the electronic angular momentum state of the parent molecule and on the polarization of the emitted light. (Such a ringing has been observed recently by Grangier, Aspect, and Vigué [Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 418 (1985)] in the emission of photodissociated Ca2.) (b) Two initially excited fragments, where the ringing pattern is of smaller amplitude, and is weakly dependent on the electronic angular momentum of the parent molecule. All the aforementioned cooperative features generally last until the fragments recede several radiation wavelengths away from each other. The application of this time-resolved analysis to various diagnostic problems is discussed, especially with regard to the identification of excited electronic states of the parent molecular complex, and the stereospecificity of the

  7. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production.

    PubMed

    Poksay, Karen S; Sheffler, Douglas J; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E; Cosford, Nicholas D P; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds - identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP - in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  8. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production

    PubMed Central

    Poksay, Karen S.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds – identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP – in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. PMID:28261092

  9. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  10. The Effect of Erosion Rate on Hillslope Rock Fragment Production: Implications for Supply of Bedload Material to Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Attal, M.; Sklar, L. S.; Riebe, C. S.; Hurst, M. D.; Mudd, S. M.; Yoo, K.

    2009-12-01

    The size distribution, abundance and durability of coarse sediment supplied by hillslopes to channels fundamentally influences channel morphodynamics, including the rate of river incision into bedrock. However, little is known about how hillslope boundary conditions such as erosion rate, climate and lithology, affect the production of bedload-sized rock fragments (> 2mm) on soil-mantled hillslopes. We hypothesize that more rapidly eroding hillslopes should produce larger, more abundant and more durable rock fragments, all else equal, because soils should be thinner, residence times shorter, and soil-producing disturbances such as tree throw more likely to transport unweathered bedrock to the surface. Here we present measurements of soil grain size distributions from three climatically distinct sites in northern California, where erosion rates vary widely within each site. Two of our sites are in granitic terrain in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Fort Sage and Feather River), where rates of erosion and chemical weathering are constrained from previous measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides exposure ages and insoluble element enrichment. At the third site (Butano Ridge), an asymmetrical ridge underlain by massive sandstone in the Santa Cruz Mountains, we infer variable erosion rates from analysis of topographic curvature and hillslope gradient using a high-resolution LiDAR-derived DEM. We focus on the creep-dominated portion of the landscape to avoid sampling in landscape scars where the size distribution may not reflect long-term average production patterns. Bulk soil samples are taken from pits excavated to below the soil saprolite-bedrock boundary. We then sieve to obtain the full grain-size distribution in the soil column above the saprolite. We are also using laboratory tumbling mills to characterize rock fragment durability and assess the potential for fragment survival as bedload, once delivered to the channel. We find that rock fragment abundance generally

  11. MINERALOGY OF THE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF THE SPUTNIK 4 FRAGMENT AND OF IRON METEORITES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The melted and oxidized products on the Sputnik 4 fragment make up 10 to 15% of the total mass and consist of droplets of alpha iron, coated with the...oxidized to hematite . Wustite and akaganeite are metastable at surface temperatures and are therefore virtually unknown in terrestrial rocks and in

  12. Influence of the hydromechanical stress and temperature on growth and antibody fragment production with Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Lüders, Svenja; David, Florian; Steinwand, Miriam; Jordan, Eva; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus megaterium was used for production of the lysozyme-specific recombinant scFv D1.3 antibody fragment. Key process parameters like the temperature and the hydromechanical stress play a very important role for significant product formation during process development or scale-up. In this study, the influence of these two variables on growth and recombinant antibody fragment production in a 2-L lab-scale bioreactor system was investigated using a central composite design. Especially a significant influence of the hydromechanical stress on antibody fragment production was detected in batch cultivations. While volumetric power inputs of about 0.5 kW/m(3) (agitation rates around 500 min(-1)) are usually employed in batch cultivations, in this work maximal product concentration was found at a volumetric power input of about 0.06 kW/m(3) (agitation rate around 250 min(-1)) and at a high cultivation temperature of 41 °C. The influence of the two process variables at single-cell level was estimated using flow cytometry too. The characterization was done by estimating the membrane potential giving a hint on bioprocess productivity and secretion capability: the best production was obtained through big cells with low specific membrane potential, which grew at low volumetric power inputs and high cultivation temperatures.

  13. Mitochondrial permeability transition increases reactive oxygen species production and induces DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Treulen, Favián; Uribe, Pamela; Boguen, Rodrigo; Villegas, Juana V

    2015-04-01

    Does mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induced by calcium overload cause reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa? Studies conducted in vitro suggest that in human spermatozoa, MPT occurs in response to intracellular calcium increase and is associated with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) dissipation, increased ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Oxidative stress is a major cause of defective sperm function in male infertility. By opening calcium-dependent pores in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), MPT causes, among other things, increased ROS production and ΔΨm dissipation in somatic cells. MPT as a mechanism for generating oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa has not been studied. Human sperm were exposed to ionomycin for 1.5 h (n = 8) followed by analysis of sperm IMM permeability, ΔΨm, ROS production and DNA fragmentation. To evaluate the MPT in sperm cells, the calcein-AM and cobalt chloride method was used. The ΔΨm was evaluated by JC-1 staining, intracellular ROS production was evaluated with dihydroethidium and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by a modified TUNEL assay. Measurements were performed by fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometry. Decreased calcein fluorescence after treatment with ionomycin (P < 0.05) suggests the opening of pores in the sperm IMM and this was accompanied by ΔΨm dissipation, increased ROS production and DNA fragmentation. ROS production occurred prior to the decrease in ΔΨm. The study was carried out in vitro using motile sperm from healthy donors; tests on sperm from infertile patients were not carried out. We propose that the MPT, due to pores opening in sperm IMM, is an important mechanism of increased ROS and DNA fragmentation. Therefore, agents that modulate the opening of these pores might contribute to the prevention of damage by oxidative stress in human spermatozoa. This study was funded by

  14. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  15. Plasmodium gametocyte inhibition identified from a natural-product-based fragment library.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoan; Roullier, Catherine; Campitelli, Marc; Trenholme, Katharine R; Gardiner, Donald L; Andrews, Katherine T; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Crowther, Gregory J; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Quinn, Ronald J

    2013-12-20

    Fragment-based screening is commonly used to identify compounds with relatively weak but efficient localized binding to protein surfaces. We used mass spectrometry to study fragment-sized three-dimensional natural products. We identified seven securinine-related compounds binding to Plasmodium falciparum 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (PfdUTPase). Securinine bound allosterically to PfdUTPase, enhancing enzyme activity and inhibiting viability of both P. falciparum gametocyte (sexual) and blood (asexual) stage parasites. Our results provide a new insight into mechanisms that may be applicable to transmission-blocking agents.

  16. Production and Characterization of Recombinant Light Chain and Carboxyterminal Heavy Chain Fragments of Tetanus Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mehdi; Khosravi-Eghbal, Roya; Hemmati, Azam; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Background Light chain (LC) and heavy chain carboxyterminal subdomain (HCC) fragments are the most important parts of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) which play key roles in toxicity and binding of TeNT, respectively. In the present study, these two fragments were cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system and their identity was confirmed using anti-TeNT specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Methods LC and HCC gene segments were amplified from Clostridium tetani genomic DNA by PCR, cloned into pET28b(+) cloning vector and transformed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) expression host. Recombinant proteins were then purified through His-tag using Nickel-based chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and ELISA techniques. Results Recombinant light chain and HCC fragments were successfully cloned and expressed in (E. coli) BL21 (DE3). Optimization of the induction protocol resulted in production of high levels of HCC (~35% of total bacterial protein) and to lesser extends of LC (~5%). Reactivity of the His-tag purified proteins with specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies confirmed their renatured structure and identity. Conclusion Our results indicate successful cloning and production of recombinant LC and HCC fragments of TeNT. These two recombinant proteins are potentially useful tools for screening and monitoring of anti-TeNT antibody response and vaccine production. PMID:24285996

  17. Extending a Tandem Mass Spectral Library to Include MS2 Spectra of Fragment Ions Produced In-Source and MSn Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Neta, Pedatsur; Stein, Stephen E.

    2017-07-01

    Tandem mass spectral library searching is finding increased use as an effective means of determining chemical identity in mass spectrometry-based omics studies. We previously reported on constructing a tandem mass spectral library that includes spectra for multiple precursor ions for each analyte. Here we report our method for expanding this library to include MS2 spectra of fragment ions generated during the ionization process (in-source fragment ions) as well as MS3 and MS4 spectra. These can assist the chemical identification process. A simple density-based clustering algorithm was used to cluster all significant precursor ions from MS1 scans for an analyte acquired during an infusion experiment. The MS2 spectra associated with these precursor ions were grouped into the same precursor clusters. Subsequently, a new top-down hierarchical divisive clustering algorithm was developed for clustering the spectra from fragmentation of ions in each precursor cluster, including the MS2 spectra of the original precursors and of the in-source fragments as well as the MSn spectra. This algorithm starts with all the spectra of one precursor in one cluster and then separates them into sub-clusters of similar spectra based on the fragment patterns. Herein, we describe the algorithms and spectral evaluation methods for extending the library. The new library features were demonstrated by searching the high resolution spectra of E. coli extracts against the extended library, allowing identification of compounds and their in-source fragment ions in a manner that was not possible before.

  18. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  19. Promoter engineering to optimize recombinant periplasmic Fab' fragment production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Desmond M; Templar, Alex; Newton, Joseph; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-07-08

    Fab' fragments have become an established class of biotherapeutic over the last two decades. Likewise, developments in synthetic biology are providing ever more powerful techniques for designing bacterial genes, gene networks and entire genomes that can be used to improve industrial performance of cells used for production of biotherapeutics. We have previously observed significant leakage of an exogenous therapeutic Fab' fragment into the growth medium during high cell density cultivation of an Escherichia coli production strain. In this study we sought to apply a promoter engineering strategy to address the issue of Fab' fragment leakage and its consequent bioprocess challenges. We used site directed mutagenesis to convert the Ptac promoter, present in the plasmid, pTTOD-A33 Fab', to a Ptic promoter which has been shown by others to direct expression at a 35% reduced rate compared to Ptac . We characterized the resultant production trains in which either Ptic or Ptac promoters direct Fab' fragment expression. The Ptic promoter strain showed a 25-30% reduction in Fab' expression relative to the original Ptac strain. Reduced Fab' leakage and increased viability over the course of a fed-batch fermentation were also observed for the Ptic promoter strain. We conclude that cell design steps such as the Ptac to Ptic promoter conversion reported here, can yield significant process benefit and understanding with respect to periplasmic Fab' fragment production. It remains an open question as to whether the influence of transgene expression on periplasmic retention is mediated by global metabolic burden effects or periplasm overcapacity. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:840-847, 2016.

  20. Habitat fragmentation leads to reduced pollinator visitation, fruit production and recruitment in urban mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Tyge D; Minchinton, Todd E; Ayre, David J

    2017-09-08

    Mangrove forests worldwide undergo anthropogenic fragmentation that may threaten their existence, and yet there have been few tests of the effects of fragmentation on demographic processes critical for mangrove regeneration. Predicting the effects of habitat fragmentation on mangroves is problematic as pollinators may move more freely across water than terrestrial habitat, and propagules can be widely dispersed by water. Here, within each of two estuaries, we compared pollinator diversity and activity, reproductive effort and output, and rates of recruitment for sets of three large (>1500 trees), medium (300-500) and small (<50) stands. As predicted, most measures of reproductive activity and success were inversely related to stand size with large stands typically producing significantly more and larger fruit, and significantly more seedlings. Most strikingly, we found the effect of fragmentation on the abundance of pollinators (honeybees), the production and quality of fruit and the survival rate of seedlings to be similar, showing significant reduction of recruitment in small stands. This study provides the first rigorous evidence that recruitment of mangroves, like for many terrestrial plants, is negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation. From a management perspective, we argue that in the short term our data imply the importance of conserving the largest possible stands. However, additional work is needed to determine (1) the proportion of recruits within small stands that originate within large stands, (2) how seedling performance varies with fruit size and genotype, and (3) how seedling size and performance vary with the abundance and diversity of pollen.

  1. Improved microtitre plate production of single chain Fv fragments in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hust, Michael; Steinwand, Miriam; Al-Halabi, Laila; Helmsing, Saskia; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    The new era of functional genomics demands several antibodies as specific detection reagents for proteins, their complexes and post-translational modifications. Only in vitro antibody selection technologies are able to provide the required throughput to generate these large numbers. Phage display is the most widely used technology for in vitro selection of antibodies. The major bottleneck of a phage display selection pipeline is the production of monoclonal antibody fragments for screening and further analysis. In this study, we describe the development of improved protocols for the production of single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments in 96-well microtitre plates (MTPs) in Escherichia coli. Four scFvs were expressed using the antibody expression vector pOPE101-XP to analyse the influence of a set of different parameters on their production. Further, six scFvs were expressed using the phage display vector pHAL14 to investigate the effect on the production of functional scFvs using those parameters that improved production from pOPE101-XP. Yield in MTPs was influenced by a variety of conditions and was also strongly dependent on the individual scFv clone. Although it was not possible to deduce a single set of optimal parameters applicable to all the tested scFvs, a combined protocol was developed which improved the expression of scFv fragments over standard methods.

  2. Consistent simulation of nonresonant diphoton production in hadron collisions including associated jet production up to two jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2016-12-01

    An event generator for diphoton (γ γ ) production in hadron collisions that includes associated jet production up to two jets has been developed using a subtraction method based on the limited leading-log subtraction. The parton shower (PS) simulation to restore the subtracted divergent components involves both quantum electrodynamic (QED) and quantum chromodynamic radiation, and QED radiation at very small Q2 is simulated by referring to a fragmentation function (FF). The PS/FF simulation has the ability to enforce the radiation of a given number of energetic photons. The generated events can be fed to PYTHIA to obtain particle (hadron) level event information, which enables us to perform realistic simulations of photon isolation and hadron-jet reconstruction. The simulated events, in which the loop-mediated g g →γ γ process is involved, reasonably reproduce the diphoton kinematics measured at the LHC. Using the developed simulation, we found that the two-jet processes significantly contribute to diphoton production. A large two-jet contribution can be considered as a common feature in electroweak-boson production in hadron collisions although the reason is yet to be understood. Discussion concerning the treatment of the underlying events in photon isolation is necessary for future higher precision measurements.

  3. Fragmented oxidation products define barrier disruptive endothelial cell response to OxPAPC

    PubMed Central

    Birukova, Anna A.; Starosta, Vitaliy; Tian, Xinyong; Higginbotham, Katherine; Koroniak, Lukas; Berliner, Judith A.; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive concentrations of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), the products of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC) oxidation have been detected in atherosclerosis, septic inflammation, and ALI; and have been shown to induce vascular barrier dysfunction. In contrast, oxidized PAPC (OxPAPC) at low concentrations exhibit potent barrier protective effects. The nature of such biphasic effects remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that barrier-disruptive effects of high OxPAPC doses on endothelial cell (EC) monolayer are defined by fragmented products of PAPC oxidation (lyso-PC, POVPC, PGPC), while barrier enhancing effects are mediated by full length oxidated PAPC products and may be reproduced by single compounds contained in the OxPAPC such as PEIPC. All three fragmented OxPAPC products increased EC permeability in a dose-dependent manner, while PEIPC decreased it and reversed barrier disruptive effects of lyso-PC, POVPC and PGPC monitored by measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis showed that PGPC mimicked the cytoskeletal remodeling and tyrosine phosphorylation of adherens junction (AJ) protein VE-cadherin leading to EC barrier dysfunction induced by high OxPAPC concentrations. Barrier-disruptive effects of PGPC were abrogated by ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl cysteine, or Src kinase inhibitor, PP-2. The results of this study show that barrier disruptive effects of fragmented OxPAPC constituents (lyso-PC, POVPC, PGPC) are balanced by barrier enhancing effects of full length oxygenated products (PEIPC). These data strongly suggest that barrier disruptive effects of OxPAPC at higher concentrations are dictated by predominant effects of fragmented phospholipids such as PGPC, which promote ROS-dependent activation of Src kinase and VE-cadherin phosphorylation at Tyr658 and Tyr731 leading to disruption of endothelial cell AJs. PMID:23305708

  4. Production of single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies in Escherichia coli using the LEX™ bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Miethe, Sebastian; Meyer, Torsten; Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2013-01-20

    For proteome research, antibodies against a growing number of antigens must be generated and characterized. The high throughput generation of antibody fragments, using in vitro selection, requires bacterial expression of antibody fragments. This created a need to establish an expression method to improve the parallel production of many antibody fragments. In this study, we describe the development of a high throughput bacterial production method for single chain fragment variables (scFvs) using shaking flasks or the LEX™ bioreactor. We compared the influence of a set of production parameters on Escherichia coli production of four different scFv. The results led to an optimized protocol for the parallel production of multiple antibody fragments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  6. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  7. Production of exotic nuclei in projectile fragmentation at relativistic and Fermi energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogul, R.; Ergun, A.; Buyukcizmeci, N.

    2017-02-01

    Isotopic distributions of projectile fragmentation in peripheral heavy ion collisions of 86Kr on 112Sn are calculated within the statistical multifragmentation model. Obtained data are compared to the experimental cross section measurements. We show the enhancement in the production of neutron-rich isotopes close to the projectile, observed in the experiments. Our results show the universality of the limitation of the excitation energy induced in the projectile residues.

  8. Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation on primary productivity and soil carbon storage in temperate mountain grasslands.

    PubMed

    Cojoc, Emilia Ionela; Postolache, Carmen; Olariu, Bogdan; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the most severe anthropogenic pressures exerted on ecosystem's biodiversity. Empirical studies to date focused with an overriding interest on the effects of habitat loss or habitat fragmentation per se on species richness patterns detrimental to biogeochemical processes. To account for changes in ecosystem fluxes, we investigated how anthropogenic fragmentation affects primary productivity and carbon storage in temperate mountain grasslands. A field study was conducted to assess the influence of grassland isolation on soil carbon stocks, N availability, species biomass, and plant functional groups distribution. We tested the hypothesis that increased isolation of grassland, within the land cover, decreases soil carbon stocks, and available N nutrient as well as aboveground biomass. Soil carbon concentration decreased with isolation but increased near the forest edge. We found significant differences in aboveground biomass distribution and relative contribution of plant functional groups between isolation conditions. The magnitude of edge effect on carbon stocks, N availability, and primary productivity intensified with increasing isolation as a consequence of the additive influence of edges. Our study reveals that the potential creation of artificially isolated patches diminished primary productivity, N availability, and C stocks. However, in highly managed landscapes, grazing pressure is an additional factor that changes biomass and nutrients patterns. We emphasize that spatial configuration of the landscape has a major role in modulating ecological flows and ecosystem service supply, in addition to changes in species richness.

  9. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  10. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  11. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions by reason of infringement... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions that infringe one or...

  12. Influence of growth temperature on the production of antibody Fab fragments in different microbes: a host comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragosits, Martin; Frascotti, Gianni; Bernard-Granger, Lise; Vázquez, Felícitas; Giuliani, Maria; Baumann, Kristin; Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata; Tokkanen, Jaana; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Kunert, Renate; Maurer, Michael; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Branduardi, Paola; Pakula, Tiina; Saloheimo, Markku; Penttilä, Merja; Ferrer, Pau; Luisa Tutino, Maria; Villaverde, Antonio; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms encounter diverse stress conditions in their native habitats but also during fermentation processes, which have an impact on industrial process performance. These environmental stresses and the physiological reactions they trigger, including changes in the protein folding/secretion machinery, are highly interrelated. Thus, the investigation of environmental factors, which influence protein expression and secretion is still of great importance. Among all the possible stresses, temperature appears particularly important for bioreactor cultivation of recombinant hosts, as reductions of growth temperature have been reported to increase recombinant protein production in various host organisms. Therefore, the impact of temperature on the secretion of proteins with therapeutic interest, exemplified by a model antibody Fab fragment, was analyzed in five different microbial protein production hosts growing under steady-state conditions in carbon-limited chemostat cultivations. Secretory expression of the heterodimeric antibody Fab fragment was successful in all five microbial host systems, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Trichoderma reesei, Escherichia coli and Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. In this comparative analysis we show that a reduction of cultivation temperature during growth at constant growth rate had a positive effect on Fab 3H6 production in three of four analyzed microorganisms, indicating common physiological responses, which favor recombinant protein production in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic microbes.

  13. Transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet functions with applications to quarkonium production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Reggie; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We introduce the transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet function (TMDFJF), which appears in factorization theorems for cross sections for jets with an identified hadron. These are functions of z, the hadron's longitudinal momentum fraction, and transverse momentum, p ⊥, relative to the jet axis. In the framework of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive the TMDFJF from both a factorized SCET cross section and the TMD fragmentation function defined in the literature. The TMDFJFs are factorized into distinct collinear and soft-collinear modes by matching onto SCET+. As TMD calculations contain rapidity divergences, both the renormalization group (RG) and rapidity renormalization group (RRG) must be used to provide resummed calculations with next-to-leading-logarithm prime (NLL') accuracy. We apply our formalism to the production of J/ψ within jets initiated by gluons. In this case the TMDFJF can be calculated in terms of NRQCD (Non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics) fragmentation functions. We find that when the J/ψ carries a significant fraction of the jet energy, the p T and z distributions differ for different NRQCD production mechanisms. Another observable with discriminating power is the average angle that the J/ψ makes with the jet axis.

  14. Stereochemical assignment of the C1-C6 fragment of psymberin by synthesis and natural product degradation.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael E; Rech, Jason C; Floreancig, Paul E

    2005-09-15

    [reaction: see text] Psymberin is a sponge-derived natural product that shows striking selectivity as a cytotoxic agent. Conformational mobility has precluded stereochemical assignment for the acyl fragment of this molecule (psymberic acid) by NMR. Herein we report stereoselective syntheses of all four stereoisomers of psymberic acid. A comparison of the acid-mediated cyclization products of these compounds to the product of psymberin's acidic methanolysis showed the stereochemical configuration of this fragment to be 4S,5S.

  15. Earth's 2006 Encounter with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann: Products of Nucleus Fragmentation Seen in Closeup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    The large numbers of nucleus fragments observed are a spectacular illustration of the process of cascading fragmentation in progress, a concept introduced to interpret the properties of the Kreutz system of sungrazers and comet D/1993 F2. The objective is to describe the fragmentation sequence and hierarchy of comet 73P, the nature of the fragmentation process and observed events, and the expected future evolution of this comet. The orbital arc populated by the fragments refers to an interval of 3.74 days in the perihelion time. This result suggests that they all could be products (but not necessarily first-generation fragments) of two 1995 events, in early September (involving an enormous outburst) and at the beginning of November. The interval of perihelion times is equivalent to a range of about 2.5 m/s in separation velocity or 0.00012 the Sun's attraction in nongravitational deceleration. Their combined effect suggests minor orbital momentum changes acquired during fragmentation and decelerations compatible with survival over two revolutions about the Sun. Fragment B is a likely first-generation product of one of the 1995 events. From the behavior of the primary fragment C, 73P is not a dying comet, even though fragment B and others were episodically breaking up into many pieces. Each episode began with the sudden appearance of a starlike nucleus condensation and a rapidly expanding outburst, followed by a development of jets, and a gradual tailward extension of the fading condensation, until the discrete masses embedded in it could be resolved. In April-May, this debris traveled first to the southwest, but models show their eventual motion toward the projected orbit. Fainter fragments were imaged over limited time, apparently because of their erratic activity (interspersed with periods of dormancy) rather than improptu disintegration. A dust trail joining the fragments and reminiscent of comet 141P/Machholz suggests that cascading fragmentation exerts itself

  16. Earth's 2006 Encounter with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann: Products of Nucleus Fragmentation Seen in Closeup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    The large numbers of nucleus fragments observed are a spectacular illustration of the process of cascading fragmentation in progress, a concept introduced to interpret the properties of the Kreutz system of sungrazers and comet D/1993 F2. The objective is to describe the fragmentation sequence and hierarchy of comet 73P, the nature of the fragmentation process and observed events, and the expected future evolution of this comet. The orbital arc populated by the fragments refers to an interval of 3.74 days in the perihelion time. This result suggests that they all could be products (but not necessarily first-generation fragments) of two 1995 events, in early September (involving an enormous outburst) and at the beginning of November. The interval of perihelion times is equivalent to a range of about 2.5 m/s in separation velocity or 0.00012 the Sun's attraction in nongravitational deceleration. Their combined effect suggests minor orbital momentum changes acquired during fragmentation and decelerations compatible with survival over two revolutions about the Sun. Fragment B is a likely first-generation product of one of the 1995 events. From the behavior of the primary fragment C, 73P is not a dying comet, even though fragment B and others were episodically breaking up into many pieces. Each episode began with the sudden appearance of a starlike nucleus condensation and a rapidly expanding outburst, followed by a development of jets, and a gradual tailward extension of the fading condensation, until the discrete masses embedded in it could be resolved. In April-May, this debris traveled first to the southwest, but models show their eventual motion toward the projected orbit. Fainter fragments were imaged over limited time, apparently because of their erratic activity (interspersed with periods of dormancy) rather than improptu disintegration. A dust trail joining the fragments and reminiscent of comet 141P/Machholz suggests that cascading fragmentation exerts itself

  17. Meson production and nuclear fragmentation of the nuclei in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Navia, C.E.; Pinto, H.V.; Pinto, F.A. ); Maldonado, R.H.; Portella, H.M. Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil )

    1989-11-01

    Propagation of primary and secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere is calculated analytically. Two different cases of primary-cosmic-ray composition are used: the first case assumes a mixed composition of very heavy, heavy, middle, and {alpha} nuclei and nucleons; the second case considers only nucleons in the primary-cosmic-ray flux. The mechanism of multiple meson production is formulated according to the wounded-nucleon model for a nucleus-nucleus interaction and the scaling model for a nucleon-nucleon interaction. The mechanism of nuclear fragmentation is formulated according to experimental values of the fragmentation parameters at low energy. The calculated results of the electromagnetic flux are compared with the results of mountain experiments with a large-scale emulsion chamber and experimental data at airplane altitudes. From these comparisons the model with heavy nuclei gives the best fit.

  18. Purification to homogeneity and partial amino acid sequence of a fragment which includes the methyl acceptor site of the human DNA repair protein for O6-methylguanine.

    PubMed

    Major, G N; Gardner, E J; Carne, A F; Lawley, P D

    1990-03-25

    DNA repair by O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (O6-MT) is accomplished by removal by the enzyme of the methyl group from premutagenic O6-methylguanine-DNA, thereby restoring native guanine in DNA. The methyl group is transferred to an acceptor site cysteine thiol group in the enzyme, which causes the irreversible inactivation of O6-MT. We detected a variety of different forms of the methylated, inactivated enzyme in crude extracts of human spleen of molecular weights higher and lower than the usually observed 21-24kDa for the human O6-MT. Several apparent fragments of the methylated form of the protein were purified to homogeneity following reaction of partially-purified extract enzyme with O6-[3H-CH3]methylguanine-DNA substrate. One of these fragments yielded amino acid sequence information spanning fifteen residues, which was identified as probably belonging to human methyltransferase by virtue of both its significant sequence homology to three procaryote forms of O6-MT encoded by the ada, ogt (both from E. coli) and dat (B. subtilis) genes, and sequence position of the radiolabelled methyl group which matched the position of the conserved procaryote methyl acceptor site cysteine residue. Statistical prediction of secondary structure indicated good homologies between the human fragment and corresponding regions of the constitutive form of O6-MT in procaryotes (ogt and dat gene products), but not with the inducible ada protein, indicating the possibility that we had obtained partial amino acid sequence for a non-inducible form of the human enzyme. The identity of the fragment sequence as belonging to human methyltransferase was more recently confirmed by comparison with cDNA-derived amino acid sequence from the cloned human O6-MT gene from HeLa cells (1). The two sequences compared well, with only three out of fifteen amino acids being different (and two of them by only one nucleotide in each codon).

  19. 76 FR 76434 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, And Products... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions....

  20. Escherichia coli-based production of a tumor idiotype antibody fragment--tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein vaccine for B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kedar G; Ng, Patrick P; Levy, Shoshana; Levy, Ronald; Swartz, James R

    2011-01-01

    The unique immunoglobulin idiotype expressed on the surface of B lymphoma cells can be used as an effective antigen in tumor-specific vaccines when fused to immunostimulatory proteins and cytokines. A DNA vaccine encoding for an idiotype antibody single chain Fv (scFv) fragment fused to the Tetanus Toxin Fragment C (TTFrC) has been shown to induce protective anti-tumor responses. Protein-based strategies may be more desirable since they provide greater control over dosage, duration of exposure, and in vivo distribution of the vaccine. However, production of fusion protein vaccines containing complex disulfide bonded idiotype antibodies and antibody-derived fragments is challenging. We use an Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis platform as well as high-level expression of E. coli inclusion bodies followed by refolding for the rapid generation of an antibody fragment - TTFrC fusion protein vaccine. Vaccine proteins produced using both methods were shown to elicit anti-tumor humoral responses as well as protect from tumor challenge in an established B cell lymphoma mouse model. The development of technologies for the rapid production of effective patient-specific tumor idiotype-based fusion protein vaccines provides opportunities for clinical application. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. On the relationship between microbubble fragmentation, deflation, and broadband superharmonic signal production

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Rojas, Juan D.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic angiography imaging of microbubble contrast agents utilizes the superharmonic energy produced from excited microbubbles, and enables high-contrast, high-resolution imaging. However, the exact mechanism by which broadband harmonic energy is produced is not fully understood. In order to elucidate the role of microbubble shell fragmentation in superharmonic signal production, simultaneous optical and acoustic measurements were performed on individual microbubbles at transmit frequencies from 1.75 to 3.75 MHz and pressures near the shell fragmentation threshold for microbubbles of varying diameter. High-amplitude, broadband superharmonic signals were produced with shell fragmentation, while weaker signals (approximately 25% of peak amplitude) were observed in the presence of shrinking bubbles. Furthermore, when imaging populations of stationary microbubbles with a dual-frequency ultrasound imaging system, a sharper decline in image intensity with respect to frame number was observed for 1 μm bubbles than for 4 μm bubbles. Finally, in a study of two rodents, increasing frame rate from 4 to 7 Hz resulted in a decrease in mean steady-state image intensity of 27% at 1000 kPa and 29% at 1300 kPa. While the existence of superharmonic signals when bubbles shrink has the potential to prolong the imaging efficacy of microbubbles, parameters such as frame rate and peak pressure must be balanced with expected re-perfusion rate in order to maintain adequate contrast during in vivo imaging. PMID:25766572

  2. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; ...

    2015-11-11

    Here, we compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., View the MathML sourcep↑p→→hX, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑p→→hX. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑p→hX is dominatedmore » not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. As a result, given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.« less

  3. A study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Huong; Morel, Frederic; Bujan, Louis; May-Panloup, Pascale; De Braekeleer, Marc; Perrin, Aurore

    2015-06-01

    Meiotic segregation of mosaic males with a 45,X cell line has been little examined. In this study, we evaluated the risk of aneuploid gametes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line. Triple- and dual-color FISH were performed. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected using the TUNEL assay. A significantly increased frequency of XY disomic spermatozoa was observed for patients (P)1 and P2. A significant increase in diploidy and autosomal aneuploidy was found in P2 and P3, respectively. The rate of DNA fragmentation was not different from that observed in a control group. Data from the literature are scarce (only 3 cases reported), making comparison of the present data difficult, especially as the frequencies of the cell lines comprising the mosaicism differed between patients. Furthermore, the proportion of the different cell lines can differ from one tissue to another in the same patient. Whether the relative levels of the several cell lines present in the mosaicism can influence the rate of aneuploid spermatozoa remains unknown.

  4. Fragmentation contributions to J/ψ production at the Tevatron and the LHC.

    PubMed

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T; Chung, Hee Sok; Kim, U-Rae; Lee, Jungil

    2014-07-11

    We compute leading-power fragmentation corrections to J/ψ production at the Tevatron and the LHC. We find that, when these corrections are combined with perturbative corrections through next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant α(s), we obtain a good fit to high-p(T) cross section data from the CDF and CMS Collaborations. The fitted long-distance matrix elements lead to predictions of near-zero J/ψ polarization in the helicity frame at large p(T).

  5. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (V(HH)s) by Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Vivi; Gouka, Robin J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Verrips, C Theo; Lokman, B Christien

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (V(HH)s) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding V(HH)s were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting V(HH) fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA levels and protein production. Functional V(HH)s were detected in the culture medium, indicating the feasibility of producing this type of protein in a fungal expression system. Secreted V(HH)s were subjected to (extracellular) degradation, which could be partially prevented by the addition of BSA to the culture medium.

  6. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  7. Increased production of evoked and spontaneous K-complexes following a night of fragmented sleep.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M

    2002-12-01

    To determine whether K-complex production is better interpreted as being an arousal response or reflective of a sleep protective micro-state. A 3-night study--night 1 as a baseline night, night 2 as a sleep fragmentation night, followed immediately by night 3 as a recovery night. On nights 1 and 3, approximately 400 auditory stimuli were presented during nonREM sleep in the first two sleep cycles, using stimulus parameters previously found to be optimal for K-complex production. The sleep research laboratory at the University of Melbourne. Six young healthy subjects (3 female). One night of sleep fragmentation. Ten-second auditory tones of up to 110 dB were presented throughout the entire night at approximately 1-minute intervals. Sleep drive was increased on the recovery night, as indicated by increased amounts of slow wave sleep, increased sleep efficiency, and a reduction in stimulus-related alpha activity. The incidence of both evoked and spontaneous K-complexes increased significantly on the recovery night. When K-complex trials were averaged, neither N550 (Fz) amplitude nor latency differed between the 2 nights. When vertex sharp waves were averaged, N350 (Cz) amplitude was increased significantly on the recovery night. The increase in K-complex frequency together with the decrease seen in stimulus-related alpha activity supports the view that they reflect a sleep maintenance, rather than an arousal, response.

  8. Natural Product-Derived Spirooxindole Fragments Serve as Privileged Substructures for Discovery of New Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Zheng, Yi-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Ping-Ping; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The utility of natural products for identifying anticancer agents has been highly pursued in the last decades and over 100 drug molecules in clinic are natural products or natural product-derived compounds. Natural products are believed to be able to cover unexplored chemical space that is normally not occupied by commercially available molecule libraries. However, the low abundance and synthetic intractability of natural products have limited their applications in drug discovery. Recently, the identification of biologically relevant fragments derived from biologically validated natural products has been recognized as a powerful strategy in searching new biological probes and drugs. The spirocyclic oxindoles, as privileged structural scaffolds, have shown their potential in designing new drugs. Several anticancer drug candidates such as SAR405838, RO8994, CFI-400945 and their bioisosteres are undergoing clinical trials or preclinical studies. To highlight the significant progress, we focus on illustrating the discovery of SAR405838, RO8994, CFI-400945 and their bioisosteres for cancer therapy using substructure-based strategies and discussing modes of action, binding models and preclinical data.

  9. Increased receptor for advanced glycation end products in spermatozoa of diabetic men and its association with sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Karimi, J; Goodarzi, M T; Tavilani, H; Khodadadi, I; Amiri, I

    2012-05-01

    Although the majority of patients with diabetes have disorders in sexual function, associations between diabetes mellitus and sperm function at the molecular level are largely unknown. As receptor for advanced glycation end products plays a key role in many diabetic complications, we hypothesised that it may be involved in sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation. RAGE levels were determined using ELISA and western blot analysis in sperm samples from 32 diabetic and 35 nondiabetic men. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using TUNEL assay. Diabetic men had significantly higher mean levels of RAGE protein (P < 0.001) and DNA fragmentation (P < 0.001) in spermatozoa. Sperm RAGE was directly correlated to sperm DNA fragmentation in diabetic men (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). The high positive correlation between RAGE levels and nuclear DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of diabetic men suggests a central role of RAGE in disturbances in sexual function of diabetic men. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  11. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and... certain integrated circuits, chipsets, or products containing same including televisions, media...

  12. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and...

  13. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  14. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  15. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  16. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  17. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  18. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies.

  19. Isomer production ratios and the angular momentum distribution of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Jandel, M.

    2013-10-01

    Latest generation fission experiments provide an excellent testing ground for theoretical models. In this contribution we compare the measurements for 235U(nth,f), obtained with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) calorimeter at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), with our full-scale simulation of the primary fragment de-excitation, using the recently developed cgmf code, based on a Monte Carlo implementation of the Hauser-Feshbach theoretical model. We compute the isomer ratios as a function of the initial angular momentum of the fission fragments, for which no direct information exists. Comparison with the available experimental data allows us to determine the initial spin distribution. We also study the dependence of the isomer ratio on the knowledge of the low-lying discrete spectrum input for nuclear fission reactions, finding a high degree of sensitivity. Finally, in the same Hauser-Feshbach approach, we calculate the isomer production ratio for thermal neutron capture on stable isotopes, where the initial conditions (spin, excitation energy, etc.) are well understood. We find that with the current parameters involved in Hauser-Feshbach calculations, we obtain up to a factor of 2 deviation from the measured isomer ratios.

  20. Bag-breakup fragmentation as the dominant mechanism of sea-spray production in high winds.

    PubMed

    Troitskaya, Yu; Kandaurov, A; Ermakova, O; Kozlov, D; Sergeev, D; Zilitinkevich, S

    2017-05-09

    Showing the record strengths and growth-rates, recent hurricanes have highlighted needs for improving forecasts of tropical cyclone intensities most sensitive to models of the air-sea interaction. Especially challenging is the nature of sea-spray supposed to strongly affecting the momentum- and energy- air-sea fluxes at strong winds. Even the spray-generation mechanisms in extreme winds remained undetermined. Basing on high-speed video here we identify it as the bag-breakup mode of fragmentation of liquid in gaseous flows known in a different context. This regime is characterized by inflating and consequent bursting of the short-lived objects, bags, comprising sail-like water films surrounded by massive liquid rims then fragmented to giant droplets with sizes exceeding 500 micrometers. From first principles of statistical physics we develop statistical description of these phenomena and show that at extreme winds the bag-breakup is the dominant spray-production mechanism. These findings provide a new basis for understanding and modeling of the air-sea exchange processes at extreme winds.

  1. Fragment Production and Survival in Irradiated Disks: A Comprehensive Cooling Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2011-10-01

    Accretion disks that become gravitationally unstable can fragment into stellar or substellar companions. The formation and survival of these fragments depends on the precarious balance between self-gravity, internal pressure, tidal shearing, and rotation. Disk fragmentation depends on two key factors: (1) whether the disk can get to the fragmentation boundary of Q = 1 and (2) whether fragments can survive for many orbital periods. Previous work suggests that to reach Q = 1, and have fragments survive, a disk must cool on an orbital timescale. Here we show that disks heated primarily by external irradiation always satisfy the standard cooling time criterion. Thus, even though irradiation heats disks and makes them more stable in general, once they reach the fragmentation boundary, they fragment more easily. We derive a new cooling criterion that determines fragment survival and calculate a pressure-modified Hill radius, which sets the maximum size of pressure-supported objects in a Keplerian disk. We conclude that fragmentation in protostellar disks might occur at slightly smaller radii than previously thought and recommend tests for future simulations that will better predict the outcome of fragmentation in real disks.

  2. Fragmentation of cosmic-string loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The fragmentation of cosmic string loops is discussed, and the results of a simulation of this process are presented. The simulation can evolve any of a large class of loops essentially exactly, including allowing fragments that collide to join together. Such reconnection enhances the production of small fragments, but not drastically. With or without reconnections, the fragmentation process produces a collection of nonself-intersecting loops whose typical length is on the order of the persistence length of the initial loop.

  3. Collision-induced dissociation products of the protonated dipeptide carnosine: structural elucidation, fragmentation pathways and potential energy surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Eslam M; Ritacco, Ida; Sicilia, Emilia; Russo, Nino; Shoeib, Tamer

    2015-05-21

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on protonated carnosine, [carnosine + H](+), with several collision energies were shown to yield eleven different fragment ions with the generation of product ions [carnosine-H2O + H](+) and [carnosine-NH3 + H](+) being the lowest energy processes. Energy-resolved CID showed that at slightly higher collision energies the ions [histidine + H](+) and [histidine-H2O-CO + H](+) are formed. At even higher energies four other product ions were observed, however, attained relatively lower abundances. Quantum chemistry calculations, carried out at different levels of theory, were employed to probe fragmentation mechanisms that account for all the experimental data. All the adopted computational protocols give similar energetic trends, and the range of the calculated free energy barrier values for the generation of all the observed product ions is in agreement with the fragmentation mechanisms offered here.

  4. 77 FR 48550 - Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering... Feature Mastering Division, Hollywood, California (subject firm). The worker group also included on-site... related to post-production services for films. The initial investigation resulted in a...

  5. 77 FR 42764 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice of... limited exclusion order against certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing the...

  6. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  7. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  8. Production of the kringle fragments of human apolipoprotein(a) by continuous lactose induction strategy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyung-Kwon; Kim, Sung-Geun; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2004-03-18

    A novel lactose induction strategy for the production of rhLK68, the kringle fragments of human apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) as a novel anti-angiogenic protein, was investigated. A scale-up of the production was accompanied by a decrease in expression level, and severe aggregation occurred during the solubilization of rhLK68 from the inclusion body during a conventional single introduction of lactose. To overcome this problem, a continuous induction strategy was applied where lactose was mixed with glycerol and fed continuously in a dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat manner. With the sub-optimal feed medium consisted of 1:50 of lactose/glycerol (w/w), the expression level reached 16% of the total cellular protein, which was 1.6-fold higher than that obtained from the conventional lactose induction. Moreover, the solubilization yield of rhLK68 from the inclusion body increased from 30 +/- 5 to 85 +/- 3% compared to the conventional single introduction of lactose. This result suggests that the continuous lactose induction strategy beneficially influenced the expression level of rhLK68 and the quality of its inclusion body.

  9. Role of different parts of the nucleon-nucleon potential on fragment production in asymmetric collisions and their rapidity dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2017-08-01

    The role of different parts of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction potential on the production of light- and intermediate-mass fragments in different mass asymmetric reactions 120Sn+120Sn (η =0 ), 82Kr+158Gd (η =0.3 ), 56Fe+184W (η =0.5 ), and 35Cl+205Tl (η =0.7 ) (with Atotal=240 units) within different rapidity domains has been investigated using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular-dynamics model. The results indicate that the multiplicity of different fragments changes with the gradual addition of different parts of the NN interaction potential. The comparison between calculations and experimental data for the 120Sn+120Sn reaction reveals that both momentum dependent interactions (MDIs) and symmetry potential are indispensable to explain the charge distribution. The MDI plays a dominant role while the symmetry potential has minor influence on the fragment production, but both together lead to an increase in the multiplicity of light- and intermediate-mass fragments and hence show their significance in the fragment production at intermediate energies.

  10. 76 FR 68785 - Certain Communications Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ..., Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including Power Over Ethernet Telephones, Switches... Same, Including Power Over Ethernet Telephones, Switches, Wireless Access Points, Routers and Other... over Ethernet telephones, switches, wireless access points, routers and other devices used in WLANs...

  11. Extraction and recovery of pectic fragments from citrus processing waste for co-production with ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Steam treatment of citrus processing waste (CPW) at 160°C followed by a rapid decompression (steam explosion) at either pH 2.8 or 4.5 provides an efficient and rapid fragmentation of protopectin in CPW and renders a large fraction of fragmented pectins, arabinans, galactans and arabinogalactans solu...

  12. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  13. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  14. 75 FR 43557 - Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Globe Pipe Hanger Products, Inc. Based on these findings..., Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Globe Pipe Hanger...

  15. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S.; Harlow, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5′ ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission. PMID:26446566

  16. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-10-08

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.

  17. Mining soil survey databases to explore lithologic, climatic and topographic controls on hillslope production of bedload-size rock fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Sklar, L. S.

    2007-12-01

    The grain size distribution of sediments supplied by hillslopes to channel networks may strongly influence landscape dynamics at both the long time scale of landscape evolution and the short time scale of channel response to changes in land use. Little is known, however, about how lithology, climate, and the processes and rates of sediment production and transport on hillslopes, control the grain size distribution supplied to channels. A wealth of soil size distribution measurements have been collected and archived by state and local agencies, which to our knowledge have not been systematically examined to uncover patterns in the mass fraction and size distribution of rock fragments large enough to move as bedload in rivers. Here we report results obtained from data mining soil survey archives in the western United States. To focus on hillslopes with active sediment production, we exclude data from soil pits dug in valley bottoms, terraces and other topographic settings where long-term net accumulation is likely. Among the many questions that can be explored with these data, we are interested in how the mass fraction of rock fragments (>2mm) and their size distribution, averaged over the soil column, varies with factors such as depth-to-bedrock, hillslope gradient, lithology, and mean annual temperature and precipitation. We are also looking for variations with depth within the soil column, that might provide insight into soil disturbance, transport, and weathering regimes. Several general patterns emerge from our work to-date. A large fraction of hillslope soil pedons do not contain any rock fragments, with lithology possibly the dominant control. Where the rock fragment mass fraction is greater than about 0.3, there is commonly an increase in rock fragment concentration with depth within the soil column. Pedons with lower depth-averaged rock fragment concentrations more commonly show no gradient in concentration with depth, suggesting that the disturbance

  18. Confronting fragmentation function universality with single hadron inclusive production at HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B. A.; Kramer, G.; Sandoval, C.

    2007-02-01

    Predictions for light charged hadron production data in the current fragmentation region of deeply inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS experiments are calculated using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, and using fragmentation functions obtained by fitting to similar data from e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. General good agreement is found when the magnitude Q{sup 2} of the hard photon's virtuality is sufficiently large. The discrepancy at low Q and small scaled momentum x{sub p} is reduced by incorporating mass effects of the detected hadron. By performing quark tagging, the contributions to the overall fragmentation from the various quark flavours in the ep reactions are studied and compared to the contributions in e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. The yields of the various hadron species are also calculated.

  19. Mitochondrial fragmentation and superoxide anion production in coronary endothelial cells from a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Makino, A.; Scott, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Mitochondria frequently change their shapes by fusion and fission and these morphological dynamics play important roles in mitochondrial function and development as well as programmed cell death. The goal of this study is to investigate whether: (1) mitochondria in mouse coronary endothelial cells (MCECs) isolated from diabetic mice exhibit increased fragmentation; and (2) chronic treatment with a superoxide anion (O2−) scavenger has a beneficial effect on mitochondrial fragmentation in MCECs. Methods MCECs were freshly isolated and lysed for protein measurement, or cultured to determine mitochondrial morphology and O2− production. For the ex vivo hyperglycaemia experiments, human coronary endothelial cells were used. Results Elongated mitochondrial tubules were observed in MCECs isolated from control mice, whereas mitochondria in MCECs from diabetic mice exhibited augmented fragmentation. The level of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) protein, which leads to mitochondrial fusion, was significantly decreased, while dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), which leads to mitochondrial fission, was significantly increased in MCECs from diabetic mice. Diabetic MCECs exhibited significantly higher O2− concentrations in cytosol and mitochondria than control MCECs. Administration of the O2− scavenger TEMPOL to diabetic mice for 4 weeks led to a significant decrease in mitochondrial fragmentation without altering the levels of OPA1 and DRP1 proteins in MCECs. High-glucose treatment for 24 h significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which was restored by TEMPOL treatment. In addition, excess O2− production, either in cytosol or in mitochondria, significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Conclusions/interpretation These data suggest that lowering the O2− concentration can restore the morphological change in mitochondria and may help improve mitochondrial function in diabetic MCECs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Malate Synthase Structures with Fragments Reveal a Portal for Substrate/Product Exchange*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Krieger, Inna V.; Parai, Maloy K.; Gawandi, Vijay B.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Fragment screening and high throughput screening are complementary approaches that combine with structural biology to explore the binding capabilities of an active site. We have used a fragment-based approach on malate synthase (GlcB) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and discovered several novel binding chemotypes. In addition, the crystal structures of GlcB in complex with these fragments indicated conformational changes in the active site that represent the enzyme conformations during catalysis. Additional structures of the complex with malate and of the apo form of GlcB supported that hypothesis. Comparative analysis of GlcB structures in complex with 18 fragments allowed us to characterize the preferred chemotypes and their binding modes. The fragment structures showed a hydrogen bond to the backbone carbonyl of Met-631. We successfully incorporated an indole group from a fragment into an existing phenyl-diketo acid series. The resulting indole-containing inhibitor was 100-fold more potent than the parent phenyl-diketo acid with an IC50 value of 20 nm. PMID:27738104

  1. 77 FR 33492 - Cequent Performance Products, Inc. a Subsidiary of Trimas Corporation Including Workers Whose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... December 9, 2011, applicable to workers of Cequent Performance Product, a subsidiary of TriMas Corporation... subsidiary of TriMas Corporation, including workers whose wages were reported under Tekonsha Towing Systems...

  2. 76 FR 14101 - Meadwestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 22, 2010, applicable to workers of MeadWestvaco... assistance was issued for all workers of MeadWestvaco, Consumer and Office Products Division, Sidney, New... workers of MeadWestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, including on-site...

  3. 77 FR 57589 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions... found that those Zoran products that were adjudicated in Integrated Circuits I are precluded under the... recommended a limited exclusion order barring entry of Zoran's and MediaTek's infringing integrated...

  4. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... issued by the Department on November 8, 2010 for all workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply...

  5. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS teleworkers...

  6. 75 FR 43565 - Johns Manville; Engineered Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Johns Manville; Engineered Products Division, Including On-Site Leased... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Johns Manville, Engineered Products Division, Spartanburg, South... with Section 223 of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2273, I make the following certification: All workers of...

  7. Are cosmetic products which include an SPF appropriate for daily use?

    PubMed

    Séhédic, Delphine; Hardy-Boismartel, Armelle; Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate commercially available cosmetics (foundations, skin care creams) which also claim to include a sun protection factor (SPF). Are these products, which are not considered sunscreen products, helpful or could they be harmful? Using an in vitro method, we tested the effectiveness of 35 commercially available products against UVB and UVA radiation. For each product, our testing focused on determining the following four values in terms of current legal recommendations: SPF, UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), UVB/UVA ratio and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). We also tested each product's level of photostability. Effectively, when considering instructions for use (skincare products are applied once, in the morning) any product displaying an SPF must be particularly photostable, since its labeling does not indicate reapplication. In contrast, the packaging on sunscreen products clearly indicates the necessity of frequent reapplication. Out of the 35 products we tested, seven do not comply with legislation regarding sunscreen products. This non-compliance translates into insufficient protection against UVA radiation. The products sold in pharmacies did comply. In terms of photostability, only eight products out of the original 35 proved to be sufficiently photostable. It would seem inappropriate to use filters in the formulas of non-sunscreen cosmetics.

  8. A minimalist fragment approach for the design of natural-product-like synthetic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Genis, Dmitry; Kirpichenok, Mikhail; Kombarov, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Chemistry groups involved in drug discovery continue to devote their efforts to improving compound design with the aim of identifying new drug candidates. Many crucial factors must be considered, including: chemical stability, synthetic difficulty, chemical complexity and diversity, ADMET properties, cost, chemical novelty and intellectual property issues, and 'biological appropriateness'. With regard to the latter point, natural products offer an outstanding source of biologically active molecules that provide many useful features that enable us to design innovative, biologically biased, synthetic compounds. This article outlines the recent approaches in this area and suggests a simple metric to assess synthetic compounds for natural product likeness.

  9. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths.

    PubMed

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales.

  10. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths

    PubMed Central

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  11. Production of Neutron-Unbound States in Intermediate - Fragments from Nitrogen + Silver Reactions at E/a = 35 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence Harvey

    The populations of neutron-unbound states and of bound states in intermediate-mass fragments have been measured at 15^circ, 31 ^circ, and 64^circ from the ^{14}N + Ag reaction at E/A = 35 MeV. The data are identified in terms of the reaction mechanism producing them, which is either a deep-inelastic mechanism or a quasielastic mechanism. In order to test the assumption that the deep -inelastic data are produced from a thermal source, the unbound-state/bound-state population ratios of deep-inelastic fragments are compared to the predictions of a thermal sequential decay model. Most, but not all, of the deep -inelastic population ratios are fitted with model calculations that assume a source temperature between 2.5 and 3.4 MeV. Three or more populations from the same isotope were measured for ^{13}C, ^ {12}B, and ^{10} Be. The deep-inelastic populations from ^{13}C and ^{10 }Be were fitted with a single temperature, while the deep-inelastic populations from ^ {12}B were not fitted. There is enough of the deep-inelastic data that is not fitted with the predictions of a thermal model that the assumption of a thermal source for the production of deep-inelastic fragments may be incorrect, or there may be other effects present which alter the thermal properties of the data. The dependence of the unbound-state/bound-state population ratio on the fragment kinetic energy shows a difference between the quasielastic and deep-inelastic data. For quasielastic fragments whose mass is near the mass of the beam, the ratio decreases towards zero as the fragment velocity approaches the beam velocity. In contrast, the ratio for half-beam mass quasielastic fragments is constant or only slightly decreasing as the kinetic energy increases. The ratio for deep-inelastic fragments is approximately constant as a function of kinetic energy, independent of fragment mass. The amount of feeding from several neutron-unbound channels into bound states is measured and compared to the sequential

  12. 76 FR 76436 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Power Over Ethernet Telephones, Switches, Wireless Access Points, Routers and Other Devices Used in LANs..., components thereof, and products containing the same, including power over ethernet telephones, switches..., including power over ethernet telephones, switches, wireless access points, routers and other devices...

  13. Intermediate mass fragment production in central collisions of intermediate energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Bauer, W.; Craig, D.; Cronqvist, M.; Gualtieri, E.; Hannuschke, S.; Lacey, R.; Llope, W.J.; Reposeur, T.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Winfield, J.S.; Yee, J.; Yennello, S.J. ); Nadasen, A. ); Tickle, R.S. ); Norbeck, E. )

    1993-03-29

    We present [ital Z] distributions for fragments with 1[le][ital Z][le]12 from central collisions of [sup 40] Ar+[sup 45]Sc at incident energies ranging from 35 to 115 MeV/nucleon. We find that the [ital Z] distributions can be described by a power law or an exponential and steepen with increasing incident energy. Over the range of incident energies studied, the average number of intermediate mass fragments decreases while the average number of particles increases. When combined with previous results for the charge distributions, a minimum is observed in the extracted power-law parameter.

  14. SRP and Sec pathway leader peptides for antibody phage display and antibody fragment production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Thie, Holger; Schirrmann, Thomas; Paschke, Matthias; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Antibody phage display is a key technology for the generation of recombinant (human) antibodies for research, diagnostics and therapy. Most antibody fragments can only be folded correctly in the oxidizing environment of the periplasm of Escherichia coli. A multitude of leader peptides has been used for secretion of antibody::pIII fusion proteins into the periplasm, but a systematic study of their impact on the performance of antibody phage display systems has not been reported so far. In this work we have analysed the influence of various leader peptides on antibody phage display efficiency and production yields of soluble antibody fragments. Four leader peptides using the Sec pathway (PelB, OmpA, PhoA and pIII) and three using the SRP pathway (DsbA, TorT and TolB) were compared. Both pathways are compatible with antibody phage display and the production of soluble antibody fragments. The applicability of the SRP pathway to antibody phage display and the production of functional scFvs is shown here for the first time.

  15. Production and characterization of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deoxynivalenol (DON)is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi that infest cereal grains worldwide. A hybridoma cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (Mab) recognizing DON was used as the starting point in the development of a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody. The scFv wa...

  16. Mechanism of production of troponin T fragments during postmortem aging of porcine muscle.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Shin-ichi; Muroya, Susumu; Tanabe, Soichi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Chikuni, Koichi; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2005-05-18

    Troponin T (TnT) is one of the myofibrillar proteins that is easily degraded during postmortem aging of pork. In this study, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT degradation fragments produced during postmortem aging and by m-calpain hydrolysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT fragments produced during postmortem aging were EVHEPEEKPRPKLTAP, EKPRPKLTAPKIPEG, and APKIPEGEKVDF. On the other hand, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT fragments produced by the action of m-calpain were APPPPAEV, EVHEPEEK, and APK. These sequences of degradation fragments could be mapped on fast type TnT isoform 2. The peptide bonds of His37-Glu38 and Thr51-Ala52 in fTnT2 were cleaved during postmortem aging as well as by the calpain hydrolysis; therefore, calpain was concluded to have an important role in TnT degradation during postmortem aging. It was also found that the sourness-suppressing peptide APPPPAEVHEVHEEVH (Okumura et al. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2004, 68, 1657-1662) derived from TnT degradation could be produced by the action of calpains on Glu21-Ala22 and His37-Glu38 sites.

  17. Aβ-induced Golgi fragmentation in Alzheimer’s disease enhances Aβ production

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gunjan; Chi, Youjian; Huang, Zheping; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2014-01-01

    Golgi fragmentation occurs in neurons of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the underlying molecular mechanism causing the defects and the subsequent effects on disease development remain unknown. In this study, we examined the Golgi structure in APPswe/PS1∆E9 transgenic mouse and tissue culture models. Our results show that accumulation of amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) leads to Golgi fragmentation. Further biochemistry and cell biology studies revealed that Golgi fragmentation in AD is caused by phosphorylation of Golgi structural proteins, such as GRASP65, which is induced by Aβ-triggered cyclin-dependent kinase-5 activation. Significantly, both inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and expression of nonphosphorylatable GRASP65 mutants rescued the Golgi structure and reduced Aβ secretion by elevating α-cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Our study demonstrates a molecular mechanism for Golgi fragmentation and its effects on amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing in AD, suggesting Golgi as a potential drug target for AD treatment. PMID:24639524

  18. Graph-Based Design Languages: A Lingua Franca for Product Design Including Abstract Geometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Product engineering involves designing and dimensioning a product, including geometric modeling and scientific simulation and analysis to fulfill predetermined requirements. Therefore, the engineering design effort requires a multidisciplinary analysis that is based on a multitude of different models, each of which require a different kind of representation of the same product geometry. The proposed approach uses a design language and a design compiler to translate an abstract source geometry in an abstract representation scheme into an arbitrary target format. With this approach, all models are generated automatically and are consistent with each other.

  19. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  20. Recombinant production of the antibody fragment D1.3 scFv with different Bacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Lakowitz, Antonia; Krull, Rainer; Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2017-01-23

    Different strains of the genus Bacillus are versatile candidates for the industrial production and secretion of heterologous proteins. They can be cultivated quite easily, show high growth rates and are usually non-pathogenic and free of endo- and exotoxins. They have the ability to secrete proteins with high efficiency into the growth medium, which allows cost-effective downstream purification processing. Some of the most interesting and challenging heterologous proteins are recombinant antibodies and antibody fragments. They are important and suitable tools in medical research for analytics, diagnostics and therapy. The smallest conventional antibody fragment with high-affinity binding to an antigen is the single-chain fragment variable (scFv). Here, different strains of the genus Bacillus were investigated using diverse cultivation systems for their suitability to produce and secret a recombinant scFv. Extracellular production of lysozyme-specific scFv D1.3 was realized by constructing a plasmid with a xylose-inducible promoter optimized for Bacillus megaterium and the D1.3scFv gene fused to the coding sequence of the LipA signal peptide from B. megaterium. Functional scFv was successfully secreted with B. megaterium MS941, Bacillus licheniformis MW3 and the three Bacillus subtilis strains 168, DB431 and WB800N differing in the number of produced proteases. Starting with shake flasks (150 mL), the bioprocess was scaled down to microtiter plates (1250 µL) as well as scaled up to laboratory-scale bioreactors (2 L). The highest extracellular concentration of D1.3 scFv (130 mg L(-1)) and highest space-time-yield (8 mg L(-1) h(-1)) were accomplished with B. subtilis WB800N, a strain deficient in eight proteases. These results were reproduced by the production and secretion of a recombinant penicillin G acylase (Pac). The genus Bacillus provides high potential microbial host systems for the secretion of challenging heterologous proteins like antibody

  1. Consistent retrieval of land surface radiation products from EO, including traceable uncertainty estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Thomas; Pinty, Bernard; Voßbeck, Michael; Lopatka, Maciej; Gobron, Nadine; Robustelli, Monica

    2017-05-01

    Earth observation (EO) land surface products have been demonstrated to provide a constraint on the terrestrial carbon cycle that is complementary to the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide. We present the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) for retrieval of variables characterising the state of the vegetation-soil system. The system provides a set of land surface variables that satisfy all requirements for assimilation into the land component of climate and numerical weather prediction models. Being based on a 1-D representation of the radiative transfer within the canopy-soil system, such as those used in the land surface components of advanced global models, the JRC-TIP products are not only physically consistent internally, but they also achieve a high degree of consistency with these global models. Furthermore, the products are provided with full uncertainty information. We describe how these uncertainties are derived in a fully traceable manner without any hidden assumptions from the input observations, which are typically broadband white sky albedo products. Our discussion of the product uncertainty ranges, including the uncertainty reduction, highlights the central role of the leaf area index, which describes the density of the canopy. We explain the generation of products aggregated to coarser spatial resolution than that of the native albedo input and describe various approaches to the validation of JRC-TIP products, including the comparison against in situ observations. We present a JRC-TIP processing system that satisfies all operational requirements and explain how it delivers stable climate data records. Since many aspects of JRC-TIP are generic, the package can serve as an example of a state-of-the-art system for retrieval of EO products, and this contribution can help the user to understand advantages and limitations of such products.

  2. Characterisation of "caramel-type" thermal decomposition products of selected monosaccharides including fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose and ribose by advanced electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Golon, Agnieszka; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2013-07-01

    The chemical analysis of caramel, formed upon heating of carbohydrates, remains a significant challenge due to the complexity of the resulting product mixture. Identification of the products formed upon heating of monosaccharides including fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose and ribose is essential to understand the composition and properties of carbohydrate-rich processed foods. In this work, we report on the use of combined mass spectrometry techniques, including high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). The composition of the obtained caramel was examined by high resolution mass spectrometry along with van Krevelen and Kendrick analysis. We found that caramel is composed of oligomers with up to six carbohydrate units formed through unselective glycosidic bond formation, their dehydrated products by losing up to eight water molecules, hydrated products and disproportionation products. An accurate mass measurement and subsequent fragment ion studies of all caramel samples (around 40 compounds) can thus be identified. Glycosidic bond and ring cleavages of sugar moieties were the major observable fragmentation pathways during this experiment. The innovative analytical strategies for the complex mixture analysis used provide a comprehensive account of the chemical composition of caramel, one of the most popular dietary materials over the world.

  3. Kinetic modeling of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including cell density-dependent regulation.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Factors affecting the production of a single-chain antibody fragment by Aspergillus awamori in a stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadis, A; Keshavarz, T; Keshavarz-Moore, E

    2001-01-01

    A recombinant strain of Aspergillus awamori expressing anti-lysozyme single chain antibody fragments (scFv), under the control of a xylanase promoter, was studied in order to investigate the impact of medium, induction regime and protease production on the expression of the product. Experiments with the time of induction showed that the optimum results are achieved when induction is started in the late exponential phase (21 h after inoculation) improving the titer of the product from 14.5 mg L(-1), obtained in the early exponential phase (7 h after inoculation), to 16.2 mg L(-1). A 100% increase of the carbon (fructose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulfate) sources in the growth medium resulted in an increase in product concentration from 16.2 to 108.9 mg L(-1) and an increase in maximum dry cell weight from 7.5 to 11.5 g L(-1). A 50% reduction in the concentration of the inducer resulted in an increase in the product yield from 10 mg g(-1) dry cell weight to 12 mg g(-1). Proteolytic enzymes were produced during the fermentation up to concentrations equivalent to 1.4 g L(-1) trypsin, but they had no detrimental effect on the concentration of the antibody fragment.

  5. 77 FR 1505 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits,...

  6. 78 FR 68861 - Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., Navigational Aids, Mapping Systems and Related Software; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids, mapping systems and related software by reason... products, including GPS devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids,...

  7. In-source fragmentation technique for the production of thermalized ions.

    PubMed

    Carl, Damon R; Moision, Robert M; Armentrout, P B

    2009-12-01

    Our electrospray ionization-ion funnel-rf hexapole (ESI-IF-6P) source is designed to produce ions for threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) studies in a guided ion beam mass spectrometer. This ion source forms an initial distribution of Ca2+(H2O)x ions where x is 6-9. A new in-source fragmentation technique within the hexapole ion guide of the source is described, which is easy to implement and of modest machining and electrical costs, and is able to generate smaller Ca2+(H2O)x complexes, where x = 2-5. Fragmentation is achieved by biasing an assembly of six 0.25 in. long electrodes that are inserted between the hexapole rods. The assembly is positioned in the high-pressure region of the source such that newly formed Ca2+(H2O)x ions undergo enough collisions to become thermalized, as verified by TCID studies. From the initial distribution of ions, fragmentation proceeds along the lowest energy pathway, which corresponds to sequential water loss for most complexes. However, the Ca2+(H2O) complex cannot be formed using this method because charge separation into CaOH+ and H3O+ becomes the lowest energy pathway from the Ca2+(H2O)2 complex. Therefore, this fragmentation technique can be used to identify the critical size complex for M2+(H2O)x systems, which we define as the complex size (x) at which charge separation becomes a lower energy pathway compared with simple ligand loss.

  8. Optimal conditions for the papain digestion of polyclonal ovine IgG for the production of bio-therapeutic Fab fragments.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Chrissie; Newcombe, Anthony R; Davies, Susannah; Macpherson, Ian; Nelson, Paul; O'Donovan, Kieran; Francis, Richard

    2005-10-01

    In the present paper, we describe a rapid method for the determination of optimum conditions for papain digestion of polyclonal ovine IgG (purified by Na(2)SO(4) precipitation) for the production of bio-therapeutic Fabs (antigen-binding fragments). To determine the optimum conditions for digestion, a factorial approach to the design of experiments was undertaken. The resulting experimental data were used to construct the mathematical models using Design Expert 6.06(R) (Stat-Ease, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A.) to predict the optimum conditions for a robust IgG digestion step. Optimum conditions were evaluated experimentally, and the applicability of the conditions for large-scale manufacture of bio-therapeutic Fab fragments was assessed. The results and methods described in the present paper suggest that, provided the time and temperature are maintained at the high settings evaluated (24 h, 40 degrees C), the modelled data predict IgG digestion close to 100% for all the papain concentrations used. Provided papain is used at >2.5% (w/w), either time and/or temperature may be reduced. The results and methods described in the present paper may also be applicable to the generation of therapeutic Fab fragments from other immunoglobulins, including monoclonal antibodies purified from mammalian cell culture.

  9. Two routes for production and purification of Fab fragments in biopharmaceutical discovery research: Papain digestion of mAb and transient expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghong; Gutshall, Lester; Jiang, Haiyan; Baker, Audrey; Beil, Eric; Obmolova, Galina; Carton, Jill; Taudte, Susann; Amegadzie, Bernard

    2009-10-01

    Fab (fragment that having the antigen binding site) of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) is widely required in biopharmaceutical research and development. At Centocor, two routes of Fab production and purification were used to enable a variety of research and development efforts, particularly, crystallographic studies of antibody-antigen interactions. One route utilizes papain digestion of an intact monoclonal antibody for Fab fragment production. After digestion, separation of the Fab fragment from the Fc (fragment that crystallizes) and residual intact antibody was achieved using protein A affinity chromatography. In another route, His-tagged Fab fragments were obtained by transient expression of an appropriate construct in mammalian cells, and typical yields are 1-20mg of Fab fragment per liter of cell culture. The His-tagged Fab fragments were first captured using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). To provide high quality protein sample for crystallization, Fabs from either proteolytic digestion or from direct expression were further purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and/or ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). The purified Fab fragments were characterized by mass spectrometry, SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism. Crystallization experiments demonstrated that the Fab fragments are of high quality to produce diffraction quality crystals suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  10. Design and construction of immune phage antibody library against Tetanus neurotoxin: Production of single chain antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Sadreddini, Sanam; Seifi-Najmi, Mehrnosh; Ghasemi, Babollah; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Alinejad, Vahideh; Sadreddini, Sevil; Younesi, Vahid; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-12-23

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is composed of a light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) polypeptides, released by anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani and can cause fatal life-threatening infectious disease. Toxin HC and LC modules represents receptor binding and zinc metalloprotease activity, respectively. The passive administration of animal-derived antibodies against tetanus toxin has been considered as the mainstay therapy for years. However, this treatment is associated with several adverse effects due to the presence of anti-isotype antibodies. In the present study, we have produced the fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) from two human antibody phage display libraries. Twenty-four different HuscFvs were isolated from two anti TeNT immune libraries. Our produced human ScFv (HuScFv) were converted to IgG platform and analyzed regarding their specific reactivity to TeNT. All of the selected scFvs have the same VL but different VH. Three HuscFvs from the first library (TTX15, 51, 75) and two HuscFvs from the second library (TTX16, 20) were chosen to convert to IgG1 using pOptiVEC and pcDNA3.3 systems. Production of IgG1 from transfected DG44 and binding capacity of them to tetanus toxin and toxoid were measured by ELISA. ELISA results showed no detectable production of TTX16 and TTX20 IgG1. Although, TTX51 and TTX75 were converted and produced as IgG1, no reactivity to tetanus toxin and toxoid was observed. However, TTX15 was successfully produced as whole IgG1 platform with reactivity to both tetanus toxin and toxoid. The latter would be an appropriate replacement for conventional polyclonal antibodies if would meet the further characterization including specificity determination, affinity measurement and toxin neutralizing assays. Our results demonstrated production of functional IgG1 derived from TTX15 scFv and might be an appropriate replacement for polyclonal Tetabulin but it needs further characterization.

  11. Parton fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, A.; Vossen, A.

    2016-11-01

    The field of fragmentation functions of light quarks and gluons is reviewed. In addition to integrated fragmentation functions, attention is paid to the dependence of fragmentation functions on transverse momenta and on polarization degrees of freedom. Higher-twist and di-hadron fragmentation functions are considered as well. Moreover, the review covers both theoretical and experimental developments in hadron production in electron-positron annihilation, deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, and proton-proton collisions.

  12. cc¯ pair production in proton-proton collisions including subdominant terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczak, M.; Szczurek, A.

    2011-10-01

    For the cc¯ production at high-energies the gluon-gluon fusion is the dominant mechanism. This process was calculated in the NLO collinear as well as in the k-factorisation approaches in the past. We show that the present knowledge of gluon distributions does not allow to make precise predictions for cc¯ production at LHC. Next, we study production of cc¯ pairs including following subprocesses: gg→QQ¯, γg→QQ¯, gγ→QQ¯, γγ→QQ¯. In this context we use MRST-QED (Martin, Roberts, Stirling, Thorne) parton distributions which include photon as a parton in the proton. We include also elastic contributions (single proton in the final state) within the equivalent photon approximation. We present distributions in c ( c¯) rapidity and transverse momenta and compare them with the dominant gluon-gluon fusion contribution. We discuss also single and central diffractive processes using diffractive parton distribution found from the analysis of HERA data. As in the previous case we present distribution in c ( c¯) rapidity and transverse momentum.

  13. Analyzing fragment production in mass-asymmetric reactions as a function of density dependent part of symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Amandeep; Deepshikha; Vinayak, Karan Singh; Kumar, Suneel

    2016-07-15

    We performed a theoretical investigation of different mass-asymmetric reactions to access the direct impact of the density-dependent part of symmetry energy on multifragmentation. The simulations are performed for a specific set of reactions having same system mass and N/Z content, using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model to estimate the quantitative dependence of fragment production on themass-asymmetry factor (τ) for various symmetry energy forms. The dynamics associated with different mass-asymmetric reactions is explored and the direct role of symmetry energy is checked. Also a comparison with the experimental data (asymmetric reaction) is presented for a different equation of states (symmetry energy forms).

  14. Conditions for collection of serum samples for the measurement of fibrin(ogen) degradation products by radioimmunoassay of fragment E.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M J; Gordon, Y B; Ratky, S M; Baker, L R; Chard, T

    1976-01-01

    A number of conditions have been assessed for the collection of serum samples for the measurement of fibrin(ogen) degradation products using a radioimmunoassay for degradation fragment E, which permits precise quantitation of differences. Blood should be collected using minimal venous occlusion into glass tubes containing 10 mg/ml of epsilon amino caproic acid and allowed to clot at 4 to 20 degrees C for at least 4 hours before centrifugation. The serum may be stored at 4 or -20 degrees C. Samples from patients receiving anticoagulant therapy should be treated with 10 IU of thrombin per ml. PMID:932225

  15. The Corrosion Study in the Tubing for Gas Production on the CBM Reservoir including CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, I. O.; Han, J. M.; Lee, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    In the CBM reservoir, although the gas mainly contains more than 85% CH4, it actually consists of multi-component such as CH4, CO2 and N2. Both the multi-component gas including CO2 and water are produced together from Coalbed into tubing. Because the reaction between CO2 and water always acts as the heart of the corrosion mechanisms, the presence of CO2 can produce several aspects of corrosion problem in the coalbed. In this study, we analyzed the experimental report of the sorption and gas content about the specific CBM field. By the using reservoir simulator, we have calculated about the changing the composition of desorption gas for production period. Applied on the simulation results, we identified corrosion rate of the tubing for applied dewaad corrosion model. Firstly, we conducted sensitivity analysis on the variable ranges of the properties. Secondly, we checked the maximum corrosion rate into the production well. Finally, we measured the cumulative corrosion rate for production duration. Although the CO2 mole fraction existed in coal reaches 20 percents, the amount of CO2 is left into the coal matrix without desorption because CO2 is preferentially adsorbed onto the coal matrix. Thus, the CO2 mole fraction into production well is lowly calculated from 5 to 6 percents. Since the water rate is especially changing for production period in CBM, the water gas ratio which is mainly affected by corrosion rate dramatically varies with the production period. Applied on these results from CBM, the CO2 corrosion rate becomes higher at the higher pressure of a deeper place in general, because the CO2 partial pressure increases. However, as it generated FeCO3 protection above the specific temperature, the corrosion rate is inversely decreased at the deeper tubing section above critical depth. From the sensitivity studies on CBM reservoir including CO2, it was identified that corrosion rate relatively shows the low value as compared with CO2 composition due to the

  16. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization increases reactive oxygen species production and decreases mean sperm velocity but is not associated with DNA fragmentation in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Treulen, F; Uribe, P; Boguen, R; Villegas, J V

    2016-02-01

    Does induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in vitro affect specific functional parameters of human spermatozoa? Our findings show that MOMP induction increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases mean sperm velocity but does not alter DNA integrity. MOMP in somatic cells is related to a variety of apoptotic traits, such as alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and increase in ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Although the presence of these apoptotic features has been reported in spermatozoa, to date the effects of MOMP on sperm function and DNA integrity have not been analysed. The study included spermatozoa from fertile donors. Motile sperm were obtained using the swim-up method. The highly motile sperm were collected and diluted with human tubal fluid to a final cell concentration of 5 × 10(6) ml(-1). To induce MOMP, selected sperm were treated at 37°C for 4 h with a mimetic of a Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic protein, ABT-737. MOMP was evaluated by relocating of cytochrome c. In addition, the effect of ABT-737 on mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization was assessed using the calcein-AM/cobalt chloride method. In turn, ΔΨm was evaluated with JC-1 staining, intracellular ROS production with dihydroethidium, sperm motility was analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Measurements were performed by flow cytometry. MOMP was associated with ΔΨm dissipation (P < 0.05), increased ROS production (P < 0.05) and decreased mean sperm velocity (P < 0.05), but it was not associated with DNA fragmentation. MOMP did not induce a large increase in ROS, which could explain the negligible effect of MOMP on sperm DNA fragmentation under our experimental conditions. The study was carried out in vitro using highly motile sperm, selected by swim-up, from healthy donors. The results obtained in this

  17. Experiences integrating productivity, pollution prevention, and energy conservation including case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten, D.J.; Muller, M.R.; Barnish, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    , or even space to expand operations. An intimate knowledge of a corporations' burden, market share, and financial stability is necessary in order for the assessment team to gain the confidence of management; failure to do so can be disastrous. Excessive movement, redundant inspections, scheduling issues, and floor layout are critical issues, and ones that are sometimes impossible to evaluate during a short visit to a plant. Before an energy audit is made, much information must be gathered, such as tax rates and purchasing policies (including acceptable defect rates of the raw materials from suppliers). These issues are forcing the one-dimensional energy expert to expand into previously unchartered territories. This paper will attempt to illustrate some generic necessities, but also use actual experiences of the Office of Industrial Productivity and Energy Assessment team at Rutgers University in three facilities to highlight the industrial triage method of presenting the client with an integrated package of analysis of the efficiency of their production facility and methods.

  18. Phase analysis in single-chain variable fragment production by recombinant Pichia pastoris based on proteomics combined with multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yuya; Kumada, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2015-08-01

    The proteomics technique, which consists of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF), gel image analysis, and multivariate statistics, was applied to the phase analysis of a fed-batch culture for the production of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of an anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody by Pichia pastoris. The time courses of the fed-batch culture were separated into three distinct phases: the growth phase of the batch process, the growth phase of the fed-batch process, and the production phase of the fed-batch process. Multivariate statistical analysis using 2-DE gel image analysis data clearly showed the change in the culture phase and provided information concerning the protein expression, which suggested a metabolic change related to cell growth and production during the fed-batch culture. Furthermore, specific proteins, such as alcohol oxidase, which is strongly related to scFv expression, and proteinase A, which could biodegrade scFv in the latter phases of production, were identified via the PMF method. The proteomics technique provided valuable information about the effect of the methanol concentration on scFv production.

  19. Development of a high yielding E. coli periplasmic expression system for the production of humanized Fab' fragments.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark; Patel, Pareshkumar; Edon, Marjory; Ramage, Walter; Dickinson, Robert; Humphreys, David P

    2017-01-01

    Humanized Fab' fragments may be produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli but can be subject to degradation by host cell proteases. In order to increase Fab' yield and reduce proteolysis we developed periplasmic protease deficient strains of E. coli. These strains lacked the protease activity of Tsp, protease III and DegP. High cell density fermentations indicated Tsp deficient strains increased productivity two fold but this increase was accompanied by premature cell lysis soon after the induction of Fab' expression. To overcome the reduction in cell viability we introduced suppressor mutations into the spr gene. The mutations partially restored the wild type phenotype of the cells. Furthermore, we coexpressed a range of periplasmic chaperone proteins with the Fab', DsbC had the most significant impact, increasing humanized Fab' production during high cell density fermentation. When DsbC coexpression was combined with a Tsp deficient spr strain we observed an increase in yield and essentially restored "wild type" cell viability. We achieved a final periplasmic yield of over 2.4g/L (final cell density OD600 105), 40 h post Fab' induction with minimal cell lysis.The data suggests that proteolysis, periplasm integrity, protein folding and disulphide bond formation are all potential limiting steps in the production of Fab' fragments in the periplasm of E. coli. In this body of work, we have addressed these limiting steps by utilizing stabilized protease deficient strains and chaperone coexpression. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:212-220, 2017.

  20. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  1. Production of energetic light fragments in extensions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6 [Production of energetic light fragments in CEM, LAQGSM, and MCNP6

    DOE PAGES

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie; Gudima, Konstantin K.; ...

    2017-03-23

    We extend the cascade-exciton model (CEM), and the Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM), event generators of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code version 6 (MCNP6), to describe production of energetic light fragments (LF) heavier than 4He from various nuclear reactions induced by particles and nuclei at energies up to about 1 TeV/nucleon. In these models, energetic LF can be produced via Fermi breakup, preequilibrium emission, and coalescence of cascade particles. Initially, we study several variations of the Fermi breakup model and choose the best option for these models. Then, we extend the modified exciton model (MEM)more » used by these codes to account for a possibility of multiple emission of up to 66 types of particles and LF (up to 28Mg) at the preequilibrium stage of reactions. Then, we expand the coalescence model to allow coalescence of LF from nucleons emitted at the intranuclear cascade stage of reactions and from lighter clusters, up to fragments with mass numbers A ≤ 7, in the case of CEM, and A ≤ 12, in the case of LAQGSM. Next, we modify MCNP6 to allow calculating and outputting spectra of LF and heavier products with arbitrary mass and charge numbers. The improved version of CEM is implemented into MCNP6. Lastly, we test the improved versions of CEM, LAQGSM, and MCNP6 on a variety of measured nuclear reactions. The modified codes give an improved description of energetic LF from particle- and nucleus-induced reactions; showing a good agreement with a variety of available experimental data. They have an improved predictive power compared to the previous versions and can be used as reliable tools in simulating applications involving such types of reactions.« less

  2. Intracellular fragmentation of bone resorption products by reactive oxygen species generated by osteoclastic tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Halleen, J M; Räisänen, S; Salo, J J; Reddy, S V; Roodman, G D; Hentunen, T A; Lehenkari, P P; Kaija, H; Vihko, P; Väänänen, H K

    1999-08-13

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is highly expressed in bone-resorbing osteoclasts and activated macrophages. It has been suggested that a redox-active iron in the binuclear iron center of TRAP could have the capacity to react with hydrogen peroxide to produce highly destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that TRAP can generate ROS in vitro and that cells over-expressing TRAP produce higher amounts of intracellular ROS than their parent cells. We further demonstrate that these ROS can be targeted to destroy collagen and other proteins. In resorbing osteoclasts, TRAP was found in transcytotic vesicles transporting matrix degradation products through the cell, suggesting that TRAP-facilitated fragmentation of endocytosed material takes place in a specific cellular compartment. These results suggest that bone matrix degradation occurs not only extracellularly in the resorption lacunae but also intracellularly in the transcytotic vesicles. We propose that proteins containing redox-active iron could represent a novel mechanism of physiological fragmentation of organic molecules. This mechanism could be important in tissue remodeling and as a defense mechanism of phagocytosing cells.

  3. Productivity of the spruce grouse in fragmented habitat at the edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, S.D.; O'Connell, A.F.; Servello, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    We measured productivity of the Spruce Grouse (Dendragapusc anadensicsa nadensis) in patchy black spruce (Picea mariana) habitat along the southeastern limit of its range in mid-coastal Maine. We captured grouse and attached necklace-mounted radio transmitters to hens prior to nesting. Of 19 females monitored, only 26% raised chicks to the late brood-rearing period. Predation was high on hens (37%) and five were killed before hatching eggs. Six (55%) entire broods were lost and only 30% of chicks survived to late summer. Production ( No. of chicks/female), an index of productivity, was < 1 and lower in Maine and Minnesota study areas in black spruce than areas dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana) or a mixture of jack pine and spruce with dense undergrowth. Where Spruce Grouse breed in patchy black spruce communities, immigration from neighboring populations or inter-patch movement by local individuals may be required to maintain viable populations.

  4. Process for treating spent catalyst including antimony halides from chlorofluorocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Kalcevic, V.; McGahan, J.F.

    1988-06-14

    A process for treating spent catalyst from chlorofluorocarbon production is described wherein the catalyst includes antimony halides and undergoes hydrolysis in an aqueous medium to produce insoluble antimony compounds and fluoride ions. The process comprises hydrolyzing the catalyst in an aqueous solution of ferric chloride having a sufficient concentration of ferric ions to complex substantially all of the fluoride ions produced upon hydrolysis of the catalyst, neutralizing the reaction mass present following hydrolysis of the catalyst and complexing of the fluoride ions by contacting the reaction mass with an aqueous suspension of a compound selected from the class consisting of calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, and separating the insoluble antimony compounds from the neutralized reaction mass.

  5. Coherent π0-photoproduction on the deuteron near the η-production threshold including polarization observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Eed M.; Al-Thoyaib, Suleiman S.

    2014-12-01

    Coherent π0-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization observables is studied in the energy region near the η-production threshold at backward center-of-mass angles of the outgoing pion. This work is motivated by the measurements of the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, where a cusp-like structure in the energy dependence of the differential cross section has been observed at extremely backward pion angles. The present approach is based on the impulse approximation and first-order rescattering diagrams with intermediate production of both π- and η-mesons. Numerical results for unpolarized cross sections, the linear photon asymmetry (Σ), the vector (T11) and tensor (T2M, M = 0, 1, 2) deuteron target asymmetries, and the double polarization E-asymmetry are predicted and compared with available experimental data and other theoretical models. The effect of first-order rescattering is found to be much larger in spin asymmetries than in the unpolarized cross sections. It reaches on average about 40% in the tensor target and E asymmetries. Compared to the experimental data from CLAS Collaboration, sizable discrepancies are found. This is not the case for the linear photon asymmetry, for which a better comparison with the data from YerPhI Collaboration is obtained.

  6. Precision study of ZZγ production including Z-boson leptonic decays at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Peng-Fei; Ma, Wen-Gan; Zhang, Ren-You; Chen, Chong

    2016-02-01

    We report on the precision predictions for the e^+e^- → Z Zγ ~process including Z-boson leptonic decays at the ILC in the standard model (SM). The calculation includes the full next-to-leading (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections and high order initial state radiation (h.o. ISR) contributions. We find that the NLO EW corrections heavily suppress the LO cross section, and the h.o. ISR effects are notable near the threshold while become small in high energy region. We present the LO and the NLO EW+h.o. ISR corrected distributions of the transverse momenta of final Z-boson and photon as well as the Z-pair invariant mass, and we investigate the corresponding NLO EW and h.o. ISR relative corrections. We also study the leptonic decays of the final Z-boson pair by adopting the MadSpin method where the spin correlation effect is involved. We conclude that both the h.o. ISR effects and the NLO EW corrections are important in exploring the ZZγ production at the ILC.

  7. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material.

  8. Identification of pesticide transformation products in food by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry via "fragmentation-degradation" relationships.

    PubMed

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R

    2007-01-01

    The identification of transformation products of pesticides in foodstuffs is a crucial task difficult to tackle, due to the lack of standards and scarce information available. In this work, we describe a methodology for the identification and structural elucidation of pesticide transformation products in food. The proposed strategy is based on the use of liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS): accurate mass measurements of (molecule and fragment) ions of interest are used in order to establish relationships between fragmentation of the parent pesticides in the instrument (in-source CID fragmentation) and possible degradation products of these pesticides in food. Examples of this strategy showing the potential of LC/TOFMS to determine unknown pesticides in food are described in two different real samples, suggesting that pesticides often are transformed into degradation products in the same fashion that they are fragmented in the instrument. Using the proposed approach and without using standards a priori, based solely on accurate mass measurements of ions and "fragmentation-degradation" relationships, we have identified two parent pesticides (amitraz and malathion) along with six degradation products, m/z 253 (N,N'-bisdimethylphenylformamidine), 163 (N-2,4-dimethylphenyl-N-methyl formamidine), 150 (2,4-dimethylformamidine), and 122 (2,4-dimethylaniline) from amitraz, and m/z 317 and 303, due to ether hydrolysis of methyl and ethyl groups from malathion. Structures for these species were proposed, and the potential of the proposed approach was critically discussed.

  9. Productive life including all lactations and longer lactations with diminishing credits.

    PubMed

    VanRaden, P M; Dematawewa, C M B; Pearson, R E; Tooker, M E

    2006-08-01

    Alternative measures of productive life (PL) were compared, and life expectancy factors were updated to replace estimates from 1993. Alternatives were proposed with extra credits for lactations longer than 10 mo and beyond 84 mo of age and for each calving so that an extremely long lactation would not receive more credits than multiple shorter lactations with dry periods between. Maximum credits per lactation of 10 mo (original PL), 12 mo, and unlimited were compared. The unlimited credits option either included or excluded a calf value equal to 2 mo of production and had credits given for all days either uniformly or based on lactation curves (diminishing credits). Standard lactation curves (first, second, and greater lactations) were estimated based on the test-day yields of Holstein cows remaining in lactation from a set of 903,579 lactation records. For the diminishing credits alternative, credit for a given day of a parity was derived using the predicted yield of the day proportional to the average daily yield of the first 305 d of second parity. Daily yields were deviations from a baseline of 13.62 kg. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated by multitrait REML for alternative measures of PL, for longevity censored at various ages, and for yield traits and SCS in first parity. Data for REML analysis included records from 1,098,329 Holsteins born from 1994 through 1997 from 5,109 sires, and a relationship matrix among sires was included in the model. Lactations beyond 84 mo added little information. Heritability of PL was 0.073 with 10 mo, 0.069 with 12 mo, 0.068 and 0.067 with unlimited (uniform) lactation credits (with and without calf credits, respectively), and 0.070 with unlimited diminishing credits. Corresponding correlations among predicted transmitting abilities for PL and protein yield were 0.07, 0.06, 0.12, 0.23, and 0.09, all much lower than the 0.46 estimated in 1993. Heritability of PL with diminishing credits improved from 0.017 to

  10. 75 FR 20390 - Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., Including the On-Site Leased Workers of Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., Including the On- Site... December 10, 2009, applicable to workers of Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., including the on... Cincinnati, Ohio location of Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc. The Department has determined that...

  11. Unusual Water Production Activity of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): Outbursts and Continuous Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 1028 s-1, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 1030 s-1 from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  12. UNUSUAL WATER PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON): OUTBURSTS AND CONTINUOUS FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.

    2014-06-10

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 10{sup 30} s{sup –1} from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  13. Synthesis and Photooxidation of the Trisubstituted Oxazole Fragment of the Marine Natural Product Salarin C.

    PubMed

    Schäckermann, Jan-Niklas; Lindel, Thomas

    2017-05-05

    The eastern section of the macrocyclic marine natural product salarin C from the sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. was synthesized employing a halogen dance reaction to assemble the trisubstituted oxazole moiety. The synthesis was inspired by Kashman's hypothesis on the biomimetic oxidation of salarin C to salarin A. Clean conversion to the triacylamine partial structure of salarin A occurred on treatment with photochemically generated singlet oxygen. Thus, a Wasserman-type oxidative rearrangement is chemically possible in this case.

  14. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  15. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated Logistics and Including On-Site Workers From Span... Systems, LLC, North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group, including on-site leased workers from...

  16. Neutron production in coincidence with fragments from the 4Ca+H reactions at Elab=357 and 565 A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuvà, C.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C. N.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tricomi, A.; Tull, C. E.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    2000-04-01

    In the frame of the Transport Collaboration neutrons in coincidence with charged fragments produced in the 40Ca+H reaction at Elab=357 and 565 A MeV have been measured at the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, using the multifunctional neutron spectrometer MUFFINS. The detector covered a narrow angular range about the beam in the forward direction (0°-3.2°). In this contribution we report absolute neutron production cross sections in coincidence with charged fragments (10⩽Z⩽20). The neutron multiplicities have been estimated from the comparison between the neutron cross sections, in coincidence with the fragments, and the elemental cross sections. We have found evidence for a pre-equilibrium emission of prompt neutrons in superposition to a `slower' deexcitation of the equilibrated remnant by emission of nucleons and fragments, as already seen in the inclusive rapidity distributions.

  17. Neutron Production in Coincidence with Fragments from the {sup 40}Ca + H Reactions at E{sub lab} = 357 and 565 A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tuve, C.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T.G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C.N.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G.V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tricomi, A.; Tull, C.E.; Waddington, C.J.; Webber, W.R.; Wefel, J.P.

    2000-12-31

    In the frame of the Transport Collaboration neutrons in coincidence with charged fragments produced in the {sup 40}Ca + H reaction at E{sub lab} = 357 and 565 AMeV have been measured at the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, using the multifunctional neutron spectrometer MUFFINS. The detector covered a narrow angular range about the beam in the forward direction (0? - 3.2?). In this contribution we report absolute neutron production cross sections in coincidence with charged fragments (10 {<=} Z {<=} 20). The neutron multiplicities have been estimated from the comparison between the neutron cross sections, in coincidence with the fragments, and the elemental cross sections. We have found evidence for a pre-equilibrium emission of prompt neutrons in superposition to a 'slower' deexcitation of the equilibrated remnant by emission of nucleons and fragments, as already seen in the inclusive rapidity distributions.

  18. Role of angular momentum in the production of complex fragments in fusion and quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2011-05-15

    The influence of angular momentum on the competition between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels is treated within the dinuclear system model. The charge distributions of the products in the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 96}Zr, {sup 4}He+{sup 130}Te, and {sup 40}Ca+{sup 82}Kr are predicted at bombarding energies above the Coulomb barrier. The results of calculations for the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 9}Be,{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; {sup 84}Kr+{sup 27}Al; {sup 86}Kr+{sup 63}Cu; {sup 139}La+{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; and {sup 45}Sc+{sup 65}Cu are compared with the available experimental data.

  19. Assembly of highly standardized gene fragments for high-level production of porphyrins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten T; Madsen, Karina M; Seppälä, Susanna; Christensen, Ulla; Riisberg, Lone; Harrison, Scott J; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2015-03-20

    Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering.

  20. Time Series Analysis of Energy Production and Associated Landscape Fragmentation in the Eagle Ford Shale Play.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Jon Paul; Young, Michael H; Wolaver, Brad D; Andrews, John R; Breton, Caroline L

    2017-08-30

    Spatio-temporal trends in infrastructure footprints, energy production, and landscape alteration were assessed for the Eagle Ford Shale of Texas. The period of analysis was over four 2-year periods (2006-2014). Analyses used high-resolution imagery, as well as pipeline data to map EF infrastructure. Landscape conditions from 2006 were used as baseline. Results indicate that infrastructure footprints varied from 94.5 km(2) in 2008 to 225.0 km(2) in 2014. By 2014, decreased land-use intensities (ratio of land alteration to energy production) were noted play-wide. Core-area alteration by period was highest (3331.6 km(2)) in 2008 at the onset of play development, and increased from 582.3 to 3913.9 km(2) by 2014, though substantial revegetation of localized core areas was observed throughout the study (i.e., alteration improved in some areas and worsened in others). Land-use intensity in the eastern portion of the play was consistently lower than that in the western portion, while core alteration remained relatively constant east to west. Land alteration from pipeline construction was ~65 km(2) for all time periods, except in 2010 when alteration was recorded at 47 km(2). Percent of total alteration from well-pad construction increased from 27.3% in 2008 to 71.5% in 2014. The average number of wells per pad across all 27 counties increased from 1.15 to 1.7. This study presents a framework for mapping landscape alteration from oil and gas infrastructure development. However, the framework could be applied to other energy development programs, such as wind or solar fields, or any other regional infrastructure development program. Landscape alteration caused by hydrocarbon pipeline installation in Val Verde County, Texas.

  1. Combining Higher-Energy Collision Dissociation and Electron-Transfer/Higher-Energy Collision Dissociation Fragmentation in a Product-Dependent Manner Confidently Assigns Proteomewide ADP-Ribose Acceptor Sites.

    PubMed

    Bilan, Vera; Leutert, Mario; Nanni, Paolo; Panse, Christian; Hottiger, Michael O

    2017-02-07

    Protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a physiologically and pathologically important post-translational modification. Recent technological advances have improved analysis of this complex modification and have led to the discovery of hundreds of ADP-ribosylated proteins in both cultured cells and mouse tissues. Nevertheless, accurate assignment of the ADP-ribose acceptor site(s) within the modified proteins identified has remained a challenging task. This is mainly due to poor fragmentation of modified peptides. Here, using an Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer, we present an optimized methodology that not only drastically improves the overall localization scores for ADP-ribosylation acceptor sites but also boosts ADP-ribosylated peptide identifications. First, we systematically compared the efficacy of higher-energy collision dissociation (HCD), electron-transfer dissociation with supplemental collisional activation (ETcaD), and electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD) fragmentation methods when determining ADP-ribose acceptor sites within complex cellular samples. We then tested the combination of HCD and EThcD fragmentation, which were employed in a product-dependent manner, and the unique fragmentation properties of the ADP-ribose moiety were used to trigger targeted fragmentation of only the modified peptides. The best results were obtained with a workflow that included initial fast, high-energy HCD (Orbitrap, FT) scans, which produced intense ADP-ribose fragmentation ions. These potentially ADP-ribosylated precursors were then selected and analyzed via subsequent high-resolution HCD and EThcD fragmentation. Using these resulting high-quality spectra, we identified a xxxxxxKSxxxxx modification motif where lysine can serve as an ADP-ribose acceptor site. Due to the appearance of serine within this motif and its close presence to the lysine, further analysis revealed that serine serves as a new ADP-ribose acceptor site

  2. Entropy Production of Entirely Diffusional Laplacian Transfer and the Possible Role of Fragmentation of the Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanos, K.; Mistakidis, S. I.; Massart, T. J.; Mistakidis, I. S.

    2015-06-01

    The entropy production and the variational functional of a Laplacian diffusional field around the first four fractal iterations of a linear self-similar tree (von Koch curve) is studied analytically and detailed predictions are stated. In a next stage, these predictions are confronted with results from numerical resolution of the Laplace equation by means of Finite Elements computations. After a brief review of the existing results, the range of distances near the geometric irregularity, the so-called "Near Field", a situation never studied in the past, is treated exhaustively. We notice here that in the Near Field, the usual notion of the active zone approximation introduced by Sapoval et al. [M. Filoche and B. Sapoval, Transfer across random versus deterministic fractal interfaces, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(25) (2000) 5776;1 B. Sapoval, M. Filoche, K. Karamanos and R. Brizzi, Can one hear the shape of an electrode? I. Numerical study of the active zone in Laplacian transfer, Eur. Phys. J. B. Condens. Matter Complex Syst. 9(4) (1999) 739-753.]2 is strictly inapplicable. The basic new result is that the validity of the active-zone approximation based on irreversible thermodynamics is confirmed in this limit, and this implies a new interpretation of this notion for Laplacian diffusional fields.

  3. Highly efficient production of VHH antibody fragments in Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Makoto; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Onishi, Hiromasa; Ueno, Yohei; Hanagata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Ito, Yuji; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Akira; Tokunaga, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Anti-IZUMO1PFF VHH (variable domain of camelid heavy chain antibody) clones, N6 and N15, from immunized alpaca (Lama pacos) phage library were efficiently expressed and their VHH products were secreted into the culture medium of Brevibacillus choshinensis HPD31-SP3, e.g., at a level of 26-95mg in 100ml conventional flask culture. With a 3-L scale fed-batch culture for 65h, the N15 VHH protein with C-terminal His-tag was produced at ∼3g/l culture medium. The N6 and N15 proteins were easily purified to apparent homogeneity by cation exchange and Ni-affinity chromatographies. Both proteins showed specific antigen-binding activity by ELISA and high antigen binding affinity, KD=6.0-8.6nM, by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering analysis revealed that N6 and N15 proteins purified were exclusively monomeric form in phosphate buffered saline. CD spectrum showed beta-sheet rich structure, consistent with a typical antibody structure and also suggested aromatic-aromatic interactions, as indicated by a positive peak at 232nm. Thermal melting analysis of the N15 protein with C-terminal His-tag demonstrated a clear thermal transition with a Tm at 67°C. The heat-denatured sample recovered antigen binding activity upon cooling, indicating a reversible denaturation.

  4. Estimate of fine root production including the impact of decomposed roots in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Khoon Koh, Lip; Kume, Tomonori; Makita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Considerable carbon is allocated belowground and used for respiration and production of roots. It is reported that approximately 40 % of GPP is allocated belowground in a Bornean tropical rainforest, which is much higher than those in Neotropical rainforests. This may be caused by high root production in this forest. Ingrowth core is a popular method for estimating fine root production, but recent study by Osawa et al. (2012) showed potential underestimates of this method because of the lack of consideration of the impact of decomposed roots. It is important to estimate fine root production with consideration for the decomposed roots, especially in tropics where decomposition rate is higher than other regions. Therefore, objective of this study is to estimate fine root production with consideration of decomposed roots using ingrowth cores and root litter-bag in the tropical rainforest. The study was conducted in Lambir Hills National Park in Borneo. Ingrowth cores and litter bags for fine roots were buried in March 2013. Eighteen ingrowth cores and 27 litter bags were collected in May, September 2013, March 2014 and March 2015, respectively. Fine root production was comparable to aboveground biomass increment and litterfall amount, and accounted only 10% of GPP in this study site, suggesting most of the carbon allocated to belowground might be used for other purposes. Fine root production was comparable to those in Neotropics. Decomposed roots accounted for 18% of fine root production. This result suggests that no consideration of decomposed fine roots may cause underestimate of fine root production.

  5. Criterion 6, indicator 25 : value and volume of wood and wood products production, including primary and secondary processing

    Treesearch

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Trend data through 2006 are provided on the value and volume of wood and wood products production for the United States to aid in assessing sustainability of socioeconomic benefits of forests. The volume of roundwood used to make products, the weight produced, and the value of U.S. shipments have been stable to declining in recent years. But there have been increases...

  6. Criterion 6, indicator 25: Value and volume of wood and wood products production, including primary and secondary processing

    Treesearch

    James L. Howard; David B. McKeever; Ted Bilek

    2016-01-01

    Trend data through 2011 are provided on the value and volume of wood and wood products production for the United States to aid in assessing sustainability of socioeconomic benefits of forests. The volume of roundwood used to make products, the weight produced, and the value of U.S. shipments have fluctuated in recent years. But there have been decreases in the weight...

  7. Overexpression of ryanodine receptor type 1 enhances mitochondrial fragmentation and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    O-Uchi, Jin; Jhun, Bong Sook; Hurst, Stephen; Bisetto, Sara; Gross, Polina; Chen, Ming; Kettlewell, Sarah; Park, Jongsun; Oyamada, Hideto; Smith, Godfrey L; Murayama, Takashi; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2013-12-01

    Ca(+) influx to mitochondria is an important trigger for both mitochondrial dynamics and ATP generation in various cell types, including cardiac cells. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Growing evidence also indicates that mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanisms are regulated not solely by MCU but also by multiple channels/transporters. We have previously reported that skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) type 1 (RyR1), which expressed at the mitochondrial inner membrane, serves as an additional Ca(2+) uptake pathway in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear which mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanism is the dominant regulator of mitochondrial morphology/dynamics and energetics in cardiomyocytes. To investigate the role of mitochondrial RyR1 in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology/function in cardiac cells, RyR1 was transiently or stably overexpressed in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. We found that overexpressed RyR1 was partially localized in mitochondria as observed using both immunoblots of mitochondrial fractionation and confocal microscopy, whereas RyR2, the main RyR isoform in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, did not show any expression at mitochondria. Interestingly, overexpression of RyR1 but not MCU or RyR2 resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. These fragmented mitochondria showed bigger and sustained mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients compared with basal tubular mitochondria. In addition, RyR1-overexpressing cells had a higher mitochondrial ATP concentration under basal conditions and showed more ATP production in response to cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation compared with nontransfected cells as observed by a matrix-targeted ATP biosensor. These results indicate that RyR1 possesses a mitochondrial targeting/retention signal and modulates mitochondrial morphology and Ca(2+)-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

  8. Design and construction of a photobioreactor for hydrogen production, including status in the field.

    PubMed

    Skjånes, Kari; Andersen, Uno; Heidorn, Thorsten; Borgvang, Stig A

    Several species of microalgae and phototrophic bacteria are able to produce hydrogen under certain conditions. A range of different photobioreactor systems have been used by different research groups for lab-scale hydrogen production experiments, and some few attempts have been made to upscale the hydrogen production process. Even though a photobioreactor system for hydrogen production does require special construction properties (e.g., hydrogen tight, mixing by other means than bubbling with air), only very few attempts have been made to design photobioreactors specifically for the purpose of hydrogen production. We have constructed a flat panel photobioreactor system that can be used in two modes: either for the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms (upright and bubbling) or for the production of hydrogen or other anaerobic products (mixing by "rocking motion"). Special emphasis has been taken to avoid any hydrogen leakages, both by means of constructional and material choices. The flat plate photobioreactor system is controlled by a custom-built control system that can log and control temperature, pH, and optical density and additionally log the amount of produced gas and dissolved oxygen concentration. This paper summarizes the status in the field of photobioreactors for hydrogen production and describes in detail the design and construction of a purpose-built flat panel photobioreactor system, optimized for hydrogen production in terms of structural functionality, durability, performance, and selection of materials. The motivations for the choices made during the design process and advantages/disadvantages of previous designs are discussed.

  9. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  10. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  11. Including indoor offgassed emissions in the life cycle inventories of wood products.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-16

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that negatively affect human health are emitted from wood products used indoors. However, the existing life cycle inventories of these products only document the emissions occurring during production and disposal phases. Consequently, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of indoor wooden products conducted using these inventories neglect the use-phase impacts from exposure to offgassed VOCs and therefore underestimate the product's total environmental impact. This study demonstrates a methodology to calculate the use phase inventory and the corresponding human health impacts resulting from indoor use of any VOC emitting product. For the five most commonly used types of boards used in indoor wood products, the mass of each VOC emitted into the indoor compartment over their service life was calculated by statistically analyzing data from 50 published chamber testing studies. Uncertainty was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated inventory data were used in a case study to calculate and compare the health impacts of five different wooden floorings made of above materials. The results show that the use-phase human-toxicity impacts are an order of magnitude higher than those occurring during the rest of the flooring's life cycle. The factors influencing the offgassing of VOCs from wood products and measures to reduce exposure are discussed.

  12. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  13. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  14. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  15. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  16. Neutron production in coincidence with fragments from the 40Ca + H reaction at Elab=357A and 565A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuve, C.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Knott, C. N.; Insolia, A.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tricomi, A.; Tull, C. E.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron production, in coincidence with fragments emitted in the 40Ca+H reaction at Elab=357A and 565A MeV, has been measured using a 3-module version of the multifunctional neutron spectrometer MUFFINS. The mean neutron multiplicities for neutrons detected in the angular range covered by MUFFINS (0°-3.2°) have been estimated from the comparison between the neutron cross sections, in coincidence with the fragments, and the elemental cross sections. We have found evidence for a preequilibrium emission of prompt neutrons in superposition to a ``slower'' deexcitation of the equilibrated remnant by emission of nucleons and fragments, as already seen in inclusive rapidity distributions. The energy dependence of the inclusive neutron production cross sections, measured in a previous work, is here interpreted as due to the stronger neutron focusing in the forward direction at the higher energy. Comparison with a BNV+phase space coalescence model is discussed.

  17. 75 FR 453 - FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek Contract Engineering..., applicable to workers of FLSmidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, including on-site leased...-site leased workers from Clarke Consulting, Inc. were also employed on-site at FLSmidth, Inc.,...

  18. 76 FR 62451 - Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... to TA-W-73,095 is hereby issued as follows: ``All workers of Avon Products, Inc., including on-site... Employment and Training Administration Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  19. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bartech Workforce Management, Kokomo, Indiana; Amended... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original Equipment... of ] Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, including on-site leased...

  20. Diffractive heavy flavor production-including W/sup +-/ and Z/sup 0/

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that when the Pomeron has the semiperturbative origin in QCD, diffractive heavy quark production is independent from, and not suppressed relative to, the perturbative gluon fusion process. It is emphasized that anomalously large diffractive heavy flavor cross-sections could anticipate correspondingly large cross-sections for the diffractive production of W/sup +-/ and Z/sup 0/-providing distinctive evidence for the dynamical nature of the electroweak Higgs sector.

  1. Substrate dependent talitrid amphipods from fragmented beaches on the north coast of Crete (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), including a redefinition of the genus Orchestia and descriptions of Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Cryptorchestia gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Fanini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Four species of talitrid amphipods (Orchestia montagui Audouin, 1826, Orchestia stephenseni Cecchini, 1928, Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808)) are reported from a set of fragmented pocket beaches to the east of Heraklion on the north coast of Crete. Aside from a previous record of O. stephenseni these are the first records of talitrid amphipods from the island of Crete. 2) Along a coastal segment of only 4.36 km, characterised by habitat fragmentation and substrate patchiness, a clear correlation between talitrid species and beach type is indicated. Talitrus saltator occurs only on sandy beaches. Orchestia montagui and O. xylino occur on banquette beaches and O. montagui, O. stephenseni and O. xylino occur on mixed sand/gravel and cobble beaches. 3) The genus Orchestia is redefined and confined to 15 marine supralittoral species from eastern North America, islands in the North-eastern Atlantic, and western-Europe, including the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas plus a perplexing group in New Zealand. 4) The new genus Cryptorchestia is described, based on nine terrestrial species previously included in the genus Orchestia and occurring in western Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and the Azores and Canary islands in the North-eastern Atlantic. 5) The new species Orchestia xylino sp. nov. is described. 6) An extensive bibliography for the species in this study is provided.

  2. Nanoaerosols Including Radon Decay Products in Outdoor and Indoor Air at a Suburban Site

    PubMed Central

    Smerajec, Mateja; Vaupotič, Janja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoaerosols have been monitored inside a kitchen and in the courtyard of a suburban farmhouse. Total number concentration and number size distribution (5–1000 nm) of general aerosol particles, as measured with a Grimm Aerosol SMPS+C 5.400 instrument outdoors, were mainly influenced by solar radiation and use of farming equipment, while, indoors, they were drastically changed by human activity in the kitchen. In contrast, activity concentrations of the short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi, both those attached to aerosol particles and those not attached, measured with a Sarad EQF3020-2 device, did not appear to be dependent on these activities, except on opening and closing of the kitchen window. Neither did a large increase in concentration of aerosol particles smaller than 10 or 20 nm, with which the unattached radon products are associated, augment the fraction of the unattached decay products significantly. PMID:22523488

  3. Improving simulated Amazon forest biomass and productivity by including spatial variation in biophysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D. A.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Malhi, Y.; Galbraith, D.; Quesada, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models forced with spatially homogeneous biophysical parameters are capable of producing average productivity and biomass values for the Amazon basin forest biome that are close to the observed estimates, but these models are unable to reproduce observed spatial variability. Recent observational studies have shown substantial regional spatial variability of above-ground productivity and biomass across the Amazon basin, which is believed to be primarily driven by a combination of soil physical and chemical properties. In this study, spatial heterogeneity of vegetation properties is added to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) land surface model, and the simulated productivity and biomass of the Amazon basin are compared to observations from undisturbed forest. The maximum RuBiCo carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and the woody biomass residence time (τw) were found to be the most important properties determining the modeled spatial variation of above-ground woody net primary productivity and biomass, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of these properties may lead to simulated spatial variability of 1.8 times in the woody net primary productivity (NPPw) and 2.8 times in the woody above-ground biomass (AGBw). The coefficient of correlation between the modeled and observed woody productivity improved from 0.10 with homogeneous parameters to 0.73 with spatially heterogeneous parameters, while the coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed woody above-ground biomass improved from 0.33 to 0.88. The results from our analyses with the IBIS dynamic vegetation model demonstrated that using single values for key ecological parameters in the tropical forest biome severely limits simulation accuracy. Clearer understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that drive the spatial variability of carbon allocation, τw and Vcmax is necessary to achieve further improvements to simulation accuracy.

  4. Production of human antibody fragments binding to melittin and phospholipase A2 in Africanised bee venom: minimising venom toxicity.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Jaqueline C; Pucca, Manuela B; Roncolato, Eduardo C; Bertolini, Thaís B; Campos, Lucas B; Barbosa, José E

    2012-03-01

    The hybrid created from the crossbreeding of European and African bees, known as the Africanised bee, has provided numerous advantages for current beekeeping. However, this new species exhibits undesirable behaviours, such as colony defence instinct and a propensity to attack en masse, which can result in serious accidents. To date, there is no effective treatment for cases of Africanised bee envenomation. One promising technique for developing an efficient antivenom is the use of phage display technology, which enables the production of human antibodies, thus avoiding the complications of serum therapy, such as anaphylaxis and serum sickness. The aim of this study was to produce human monoclonal single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments capable of inhibiting the toxic effects of Africanised bee venom. We conducted four rounds of selection of antibodies against the venom and three rounds of selection of antibodies against purified melittin. Three clones were selected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to verify their specificity for melittin and phospholipase A2. Two clones (C5 and C12) were specific for melittin, and one (A7) was specific for phospholipase A2. In a kinetic haemolytic assay, these clones were evaluated individually and in pairs. The A7-C12 combination had the best synergistic effect and was chosen to be used in the assays of myotoxicity inhibition and lethality. The A7-C12 combination inhibited the in vivo myotoxic effect of the venom and increased the survival of treated animals.

  5. High production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to various reader proteins by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to four different reader proteins was produced and secreted in culture medium by Aspergillus oryzae. These fusion proteins consisted of N-terminal reader proteins, VHH, and a C-terminal his-tag sequence which facilitated purification using one-step his-tag affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis of the deglycosylated purified fusion proteins confirmed that the molecular weight of each corresponded to the expected sum of VHH and the respective reader proteins. The apparent high molecular weight reader protein glucoamylase (GlaB) was found to be suitable for efficient VHH production. The GlaB-VHH-His protein bound its antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and was detectable by a new ELISA-based method using a coupled assay with glucoamylase, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, maltose, and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrates. Addition of potassium phosphate to the culture medium induced secretion of 0.61 mg GlaB-VHH-His protein/ml culture medium in 5 days.

  6. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-01-01

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent. PMID:28772367

  7. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203... compliance for bicycle helmets manufactured after March 11, 1999, in the form of a durable, legible, and readily visible label meeting the requirements of this section. This label is the helmet's certificate of...

  8. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203... compliance for bicycle helmets manufactured after March 11, 1999, in the form of a durable, legible, and readily visible label meeting the requirements of this section. This label is the helmet's certificate of...

  9. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203... compliance for bicycle helmets manufactured after March 11, 1999, in the form of a durable, legible, and readily visible label meeting the requirements of this section. This label is the helmet's certificate of...

  10. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203... compliance for bicycle helmets manufactured after March 11, 1999, in the form of a durable, legible, and readily visible label meeting the requirements of this section. This label is the helmet's certificate of...

  11. Rhamnolipid production by pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM 32 using different substrates including molasses distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, An-hua; Xu, Mei-ying; Sun, Wei; Sun, Guo-ping

    2011-03-01

    A rhamnolipid production strain newly isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM32 by its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The effect of carbon source and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on rhamnolipids production was investigated. Palm oil was favorable as a carbon source for rhamnolipid production. The maximum biomass and rhamnolipid concentration were 8.24 g/L and 30.4 g/L, respectively, with an optimization medium containing 50 g/L palm oil and 5 g/L sodium nitrate. Molasses distillery wastewater as an unconventional substrate for rhamnolipid production was investigated. It was found that 2.6 g/L of rhamnolipids was produced; this amount was higher than that of past reports using wastewater as a substrate. In addition, 44% of the chemical oxygen demand of wastewater was removed at the same time under the optimization condition. Eleven kinds of different molecular weight rhamnolipid homologues were identified in the rhamnolipids obtained from molasses distillery wastewater by P. aeruginosa GIM32 by LC-MS analysis.

  12. Concentrations and composition profiles of parabens in currency bills and paper products including sanitary wipes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-03-15

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Although parabens have been reported to be used as antimicrobials in certain types of papers (e.g., wet sanitary or hygiene wipes), little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in paper products. In this study, we determined the concentrations of six paraben analogs, methyl (MeP), ethyl (EtP), propyl (PrP), butyl (BuP), benzyl (BzP), and heptyl parabens (HepP), in 253 paper products divided into 18 categories, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At least one of the six parabens was detected in almost all (detection rate: 98%) paper samples, and the total concentrations (∑PBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.85 to 3,220,000 ng/g (geometric mean (GM): 103; median: 55.1 ng/g). Sanitary wipes contained very high concentrations of ∑PBs (GM: 8300 ng/g). Paper currencies, tickets, business cards, food cartons, flyers, and newspapers contained notable concentrations of ∑PBs, and the GM concentrations in these paper categories were on the order of a few tens to thousands of nanograms per gram. One source of parabens in paper products is the use of these chemicals as antifungal agents. MeP and PrP were the predominant analogs, accounting for approximately 62% and 16% of the total concentrations of parabens, respectively. On the basis of measured concentrations and frequency of handling of paper products, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) of parabens through dermal absorption. The GM and 95th percentile EDI values were 6.31 and 2050 ng/day, respectively, for the general population. Among the paper categories analyzed, sanitary wipes contributed to the majority (>90%) of the exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 5832 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Per Mar Security, Webster City, IA; Amended Certification Regarding... company reports that workers leased from Per Mar Security were employed ] on-site at the Webster City... is amending this certification to include workers leased from Per Mar Security working on-site at the...

  14. Fragmentation Pathways in the Uracil Radical Cation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Congyi; Matsika, Spiridoula; Kotur, Marija; Weinacht, Thomas C.

    2012-08-24

    We investigate pathways for fragmentation in the uracil radical cation using ab initio electronic structure calculations. We focus on the main fragments produced in pump–probe dissociative ionization experiments. These are fragments with mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 69, 28, 41, and 42. Barriers to dissociation along the ground ionic surface are reported, which provide an estimate of the energetic requirements for the production of the main fragments. Finally, direct and sequential fragmentation mechanisms have been analyzed, and it is concluded that sequential fragmentation after production of fragment with m/z 69 is the dominant mechanism for the production of the smaller fragments.

  15. Double differential cross section for light mass fragment production on tens of MeV proton, deuteron, helium and carbon induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Uozumi, Yusuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Koba, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    Double differential cross sections (DDXs) of light mass fragment (LMFs - Li,Be,B,C,N and O) productions were measured for tens of MeV proton, deuteron helium and carbon induced reactions on Be, C, Al, Ti and Cu targets. The incident energies for the measurements were chosen to allow us to compare DDXs with same incident energy but different projectiles on various targets. Systematic data were obtained to see the differences between projectile energies, particles, targets and emitted particles. From the comparison, reaction processes of not only evaporation from complete fusion nucleus, but also scattering, pickup, stripping and projectile fragmentation were observed.

  16. Feasibility of Including Green Tea Products for an Analytically Verified Dietary Supplement Database

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila; Dwyer, Johanna; Andrews, Karen; Betz, Joseph; Harnely, James; Pehrsson, Pamela; Rimmer, Catherine; Savarala, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally funded, publicly accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically-derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in dietary supplement products such as botanicals are also of interest and thus are being considered for inclusion in the DSID. Thirty-eight constituents, mainly botanicals were identified and prioritized by a federal interagency committee. Green tea was selected from this list as the botanical for expansion of the DSID. This paper describes the process for prioritizing dietary ingredients in the DSID. It also discusses the criteria for inclusion of these ingredients, and the approach for selecting and testing products for the green tea pilot study. PMID:25817236

  17. Irreversibility and entropy production in transport phenomena, III—Principle of minimum integrated entropy production including nonlinear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    A new variational principle of steady states is found by introducing an integrated type of energy dissipation (or entropy production) instead of instantaneous energy dissipation. This new principle is valid both in linear and nonlinear transport phenomena. Prigogine’s dream has now been realized by this new general principle of minimum “integrated” entropy production (or energy dissipation). This new principle does not contradict with the Onsager-Prigogine principle of minimum instantaneous entropy production in the linear regime, but it is conceptually different from the latter which does not hold in the nonlinear regime. Applications of this theory to electric conduction, heat conduction, particle diffusion and chemical reactions are presented. The irreversibility (or positive entropy production) and long time tail problem in Kubo’s formula are also discussed in the Introduction and last section. This constitutes the complementary explanation of our theory of entropy production given in the previous papers (M. Suzuki, Physica A 390 (2011) 1904 and M. Suzuki, Physica A 391 (2012) 1074) and has given the motivation of the present investigation of variational principle.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Many of the scientific needs of the ARM Program are met through the analysis and processing of existing data products into "value-added" products or VAPs. Despite extensive instrumentation deployed at the ARM sites, there will always be quantities of interest that are either impractical or impossible to measure directly or routinely. Physical models using ARM instrument data as inputs are implemented as VAPs and can help fill some of the unmet measurement needs of the Program. Conversely, ARM produces some VAPs not in order to fill unmet measurement needs, but instead to improve the quality of existing measurements. In addition, when more than one measurement is available, ARM also produces "best estimate" VAPs. A special class of VAP called a Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) adds value to the input data streams by providing for continuous assessment of the quality of the input data. [taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/vaps_all.php] One of the ARM data centers, the External Data Center or XDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory, also adds value to ARM information by identifying sources and acquiring external data to augment the data being generated within the program. These external data sets are converted, processed, and carefully evaluated for their value to the overall ARM program. /. Data Plots are also value-added products from ARM.

  19. Export of aquatic productivity, including highly unsaturated fatty acids, to terrestrial ecosystems via Odonata.

    PubMed

    Popova, Olga N; Haritonov, Anatoly Y; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Anzhelika A; Gladyshev, Michail I

    2017-03-01

    Based on 31-year field study of the abundance and biomass of 18 species of odonates in the Barabinsk Forest-Steppe (Western Siberia, Russia), we quantified the contribution of odonates to the export of aquatic productivity to surrounding terrestrial landscape. Emergence varied from 0.8 to 4.9g of wet biomass per m(2) of land area per year. Average export of organic carbon was estimated to be 0.30g·m(-2)·year(-1), which is comparable with the average production of herbivorous terrestrial insects in temperate grasslands. Moreover, in contrast to terrestrial insects, emerging odonates contained high quantities of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), which are known to be essential for many terrestrial animals, especially for birds. The export of EPA+DHA by odonates was found to be 1.92-11.76mg·m(-2)·year(-1), which is equal to an average general estimation of the export of HUFA by emerging aquatic insects. Therefore, odonates appeared to be a quantitatively and qualitatively important conduit of aquatic productivity to forest-steppe ecosystem.

  20. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of diphenylmethane derivative bromophenols including a natural product.

    PubMed

    Balaydin, Halis Türker; Gülçin, Ílhami; Menzek, Abdullah; Göksu, Süleyman; Şahin, Ertan

    2010-10-01

    Bromination of bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methanone (5) gave four products (6-9) with mono, di, tri, and tetra Br under different conditions. Reduction and demethylation reactions of product 9 with tetra Br were performed, consecutively and a natural product, 5,5'-methylene bis(3,4-dibrombenzene-1,2-diol) (1), was obtained with a 53% yield. Five derivatives, (13-17) (bromophenols), of 1 were also synthesised. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of bromophenols 1 and 13-17 were determined by employing various in vitro assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH(*)), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS(*+)), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride radical cation (DMPD(*+)), and superoxide anion radical (O(2)(*-)) scavenging, reducing ability determination by the Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)-Cu(+) cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) transformation methods, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Moreover, these activities were compared to those of synthetic standard antioxidant compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), alpha-tocopherol, and trolox. The results showed that the synthesised bromophenols had effective antioxidant power.

  1. Development of production and purification processes of recombinant fragment of pneumococcal surface protein A in Escherichia coli using different carbon sources and chromatography sequences.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rimenys Junior; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin; Tanizaki, Martha Massako; Gonçalves, Viviane Maimoni

    2012-05-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence and its use either as a novel pneumococcal vaccine or as carrier in a conjugate vaccine would improve the protection and the coverage of the vaccine. Within this context, the development of scalable production and purification processes of His-tagged recombinant fragment of PspA from clade 3 (rfPspA3) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was proposed. Fed-batch production was performed using chemically defined medium with glucose or glycerol as carbon source. Although the use of glycerol led to lower acetate production, the concentration of cells were similar at the end of both fed-batches, reaching high cell density of E. coli (62 g dry cell weight/L), and the rfPspA3 production was higher with glucose (3.48 g/L) than with glycerol (2.97 g/L). A study of downstream process was also carried out, including cell disruption and clarification steps. Normally, the first chromatography step for purification of His-tagged proteins is metal affinity. However, the purification design using anion exchange followed by metal affinity gave better results for rfPspA3 than the opposite sequence. Performing this new design of chromatography steps, rfPspA3 was obtained with 95.5% and 75.9% purity, respectively, from glucose and glycerol culture. Finally, after cation exchange chromatography, rfPspA3 purity reached 96.5% and 90.6%, respectively, from glucose and glycerol culture, and the protein was shown to have the expected alpha-helix secondary structure.

  2. Heavy fragment production cross sections from 1.05 GeV/nucleon{sup 56}Fe in C, Al, Cu, Pb and CH{sub 2} targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Rademacher, S.; Borak,T.; Carter, T.; Frankel, K.; Schimmerling, W.; Stronach, C.

    1997-04-14

    We have obtained charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for fragmentation of 1.05 GeV/nucleon Fe projectiles incident on H, C, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei. The energy region covered by this experiment is critical for an understanding of galactic cosmic ray propagation and space radiation biophysics. Surviving primary beam particles and fragments with charges from 12 to 25 produced within a forward cone of half-angle 61 milliradians were detected using a silicon detector telescope to identify their charge, and the cross sections were calculated after correction of the measured yields for finite target thickness effects. The cross sections are compared to model calculations and to previous measurements. Cross sections for the production of fragments with even-numbered nuclear charges are seen to be enhanced in almost all cases.

  3. Heavy fragment production cross sections from 1.05 GeV/nucleon 56Fe in C, Al, Cu, Pb, and CH2 targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Rademacher, S. E.; Borak, T.; Carter, T. R.; Frankel, K. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Stronach, C. E.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for fragmentation of 1.05 GeV/nucleon Fe projectiles incident on H, C, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei. The energy region covered by this experiment is critical for an understanding of galactic cosmic ray propagation and space radiation biophysics. Surviving primary beam particles and fragments with charges from 12 to 25 produced within a forward cone of half-angle 61 mrad were detected using a silicon detector telescope to identify their charge and the cross sections were calculated after correction of the measured yields for finite target thickness effects. The cross sections are compared to model calculations and to previous measurements. Cross sections for the production of fragments with even-numbered nuclear charges are seen to be enhanced in almost all cases.

  4. Heavy fragment production cross sections from 1.05 GeV/nucleon 56Fe in C, Al, Cu, Pb, and CH2 targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Rademacher, S. E.; Borak, T.; Carter, T. R.; Frankel, K. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Stronach, C. E.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for fragmentation of 1.05 GeV/nucleon Fe projectiles incident on H, C, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei. The energy region covered by this experiment is critical for an understanding of galactic cosmic ray propagation and space radiation biophysics. Surviving primary beam particles and fragments with charges from 12 to 25 produced within a forward cone of half-angle 61 mrad were detected using a silicon detector telescope to identify their charge and the cross sections were calculated after correction of the measured yields for finite target thickness effects. The cross sections are compared to model calculations and to previous measurements. Cross sections for the production of fragments with even-numbered nuclear charges are seen to be enhanced in almost all cases.

  5. NLO QCD+EW predictions for HV and HV +jet production including parton-shower effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granata, F.; Lindert, J. M.; Oleari, C.; Pozzorini, S.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first NLO QCD+EW predictions for Higgs boson production in association with a ℓν ℓ or ℓ + ℓ - pair plus zero or one jets at the LHC. Fixed-order NLO QCD+EW calculations are combined with a QCD+QED parton shower using the recently developed resonance-aware method in the POWHEG framework. Moreover, applying the improved MiNLO technique to Hℓν ℓ +jet and Hℓ + ℓ - +jet production at NLO QCD+EW, we obtain predictions that are NLO accurate for observables with both zero or one resolved jet. This approach permits also to capture higher-order effects associated with the interplay of EW corrections and QCD radiation. The behavior of EW corrections is studied for various kinematic distributions, relevant for experimental analyses of Higgsstrahlung processes at the 13 TeV LHC. Exact NLO EW corrections are complemented with approximate analytic formulae that account for the leading and next-to-leading Sudakov logarithms in the high-energy regime. In the tails of transverse-momentum distributions, relevant for analyses in the boosted Higgs regime, the Sudakov approximation works well, and NLO EW effects can largely exceed the ten percent level. Our predictions are based on the POWHEG BOX RES+OpenLoops framework in combination with the Pythia 8.1 parton shower.

  6. 75 FR 28297 - Ovonic Energy Products Including On-Site Leased Workers From PDSI Springboro, OH; Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... related energy storage systems. New information shows that workers leased from PDSI were employed on-site... Employment and Training Administration Ovonic Energy Products Including On-Site Leased Workers From PDSI..., applicable to workers of Ovonic Energy Products, Springboro, Ohio. The notice was published in the...

  7. 76 FR 62452 - Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...-site at the Springdale, Ohio location of Avon Products. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,095 is... Employment and Training Administration Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  8. Intranuclear cascade-percolation approach for protons and light fragments production in neon-niobium reactions at 400 and 800 MeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Montarou, G.; Marroncle, J.; Alard, J.P.; Augerat, J.; Bastid, N.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Parizet, M.J.; Rahmani, A. ); Babinet, R.; Cavata, C.; Demoulins, M.; Fanet, H.; Gosset, J.; L'Hote, D.; Lemaire, M.C.; Lucas, B.; Poitou, J.; Valette, O. ); Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Racca, C. ); Cugnon, J. )

    1993-06-01

    The results of intranuclear cascade calculations (ideal gas with two-body collisions and no mean field), complemented by a simple percolation procedure, are compared with experimental data on protons and light nuclear fragments ([ital d], [ital t], [sup 3]He, and [sup 4]He) measured in 400 and 800 MeV/nucleon Ne+Nb collisions using a large solid angle detector. The model reproduces quite well global experimental observables like nuclear fragment multiplicity distributions or production cross sections, and nuclear fragment to proton ratios. For rapidity distributions the best agreement occurs for peripheral reactions. Transverse momentum analysis confirms once again that the cascade, although being a microscopic approach, gives too small a collective flow, the best agreement being reached for [ital Z]=2 nuclear fragments. Nevertheless these comparisons are encouraging for further improvements of the model. Moreover, such an approach is easy to extend to any other models that could calculate the nucleon phase space distribution after the compression stage of the reaction, when light nuclear fragments emitted at large angles are constructed from percolation.

  9. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for feed products and four amplification methods for the 5'-junction fragment of Roundup Ready soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

    2012-05-09

    Three methods of DNA extraction from feed products and four detection methods for the 5'-junction fragment of genetically modified (GM) Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) were compared and evaluated. The DNA extraction methods, including cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and guanidine hydrochloride (Kit), were assessed for their yields and purity of DNA, extraction time, and reagent cost. The DNA yields of CTAB, SDS, and Kit were 52-694, 164-1750 and 23-105 ng/mg sample, and their extraction time was 2.5-3, 2-2.5, and 1.5-2 h with reagent cost about US dollar 0.24, 0.13, and 1.9 per extraction, respectively. The SDS method was generally well suited to all kinds of feed matrices tested. The limits of detection for the four amplification protocols, including loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR, were 48.5, 4.85, 485, and 9 copies of the pTLH10 plasmid, respectively. The ranked results of the four detection methods were based on multiattribute utility theory as follows (from best to worse): HRCA, LAMP, PCR, and real-time PCR. This comparative evaluation was specifically useful for selection of a highly efficient DNA extraction or amplification method for detecting different GM ingredients.

  10. 76 FR 14100 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Per Mar Security and Nussbaum Transportation; Webster City, IA... from Per Mar Security. The notice was published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5832...-site leased workers from Per Mar Security and Nussbaum Transportation, Webster City, Iowa, who...

  11. Factory trials to determine how sugarcane trash impacts downstream processing including affinated sugar production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many countries including the United States and South Africa, certain areas are changing to green from burnt cane harvesting, due to public and environmental pressures against burning and the current interest in using sugarcane trash as biomass. Since the 1940s there have been world-wide factory ...

  12. Production of new neutron-rich isotopes of heavy elements in fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at 1A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Pereira, J.; Audouin, L.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Junghans, A. R.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2010-10-15

    The production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei has been investigated using cold-fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at relativistic energies. The experiment performed at the high-resolving-power magnetic spectrometer Fragment Separator at GSI made it possible to identify 40 new heavy neutron-rich nuclei: {sup 205}Pt, {sup 207-210}Au, {sup 211-216}Hg, {sup 214-217}Tl, {sup 215-220}Pb, {sup 219-224}Bi, {sup 223-227}Po, {sup 225-229}At, {sup 230,231}Rn, and {sup 233}Fr. The production cross sections of these nuclei were also determined and used to benchmark reaction codes that predict the production of nuclei far from stability.

  13. Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ezgi; Atila, Buse; Mumme, Jan; Reza, M Toufiq; Toptas, Asli; Elibol, Murat; Yanik, Jale

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of the temperature and reaction time on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of orange pomace was investigated. In addition, a set of anaerobic batch tests were performed to determine the resulting biogas and methane potential of the spent liquor. Hydrochar yields followed a decreasing trend with the increasing temperature, whereas reaction time had no considerably effect on the yield. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios from the raw material to the hydrochars suggested that dehydration reactions prevail during HTC. The hydrochars tended to become enriched in Ca, Mg and P minerals by increasing HTC temperature. The heavy metal contents in hydrochars were found below limits and no PAH compound was detected. Anaerobic digestion tests showed that the aqueous phase from HTC can be used as feedstocks for biogas production.

  14. Salmonella enterica in Swine Production: Assessing the Association between Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Epidemiological Units of Concern▿†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Wang, Chong; McKean, James D.; Logue, Catherine M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Tivendale, Kelly A.; O'Connor, Annette M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the ability of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to differentiate Salmonella isolates from different units of swine production and to demonstrate the relatedness of Salmonella between farms and abattoirs by AFLP. Twenty-four farms in the midwestern United States were visited four times from 2006 to 2009. At each farm or abattoir visit, 30 fecal samples or 30 mesenteric lymph nodes were collected, respectively. A total of 220 Salmonella isolates were obtained, serotyped, and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and AFLP. These 220 isolates clustered into 21 serotypes, 18 MLST types, and 14 predominant AFLP clusters based on a genetic similarity threshold level of 60%. To assess genetic differentiation between farms, harvest cohorts, and pigs, analysis of molecular variance was conducted using AFLP data. The results showed 65.62% of overall genetic variation was attributed to variance among pigs, 27.21% to farms, and 7.17% to harvest cohorts. Variance components at the farm (P = 0.003) and pig (P = 0.001) levels were significant, but not at the harvest cohort level (P = 0.079). A second analysis, a permutation test using AFLP data, indicated that on-farm and at-abattoir Salmonella from pigs of the same farms were more related than from different farms. Therefore, among the three subtyping methods, serotyping, MLST, and AFLP, AFLP was the method that was able to differentiate among Salmonella isolates from different farms and link contamination at the abattoir to the farm of origin. PMID:21948822

  15. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  16. Extensive dry ball milling of wheat and rye bran leads to in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides through nanoscale fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Holopainen, Ulla; Selinheimo, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2009-09-23

    This study investigated the potential of ball milling as a dry process for in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) in arabinoxylan (AX)-rich wheat and rye bran. An extensive lab-scale ball mill treatment (120 h, 50% jar volume capacity) increased the wheat bran water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) level from 4% (untreated bran) to 61% of the wheat bran AX. Extractable AX fragments had an arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio) of 0.72 and a molecular mass (MM) of 15 kDa. Ball milling of rye bran gave rise to similar results, with the A/X ratio of the extractable AX being considerably lower (0.51). Optimization of the ball mill treatment by varying the degree of filling of the milling jar permitted us to obtain equally high WE-AX levels (>70%) in wheat and rye bran within a 24 h ball-milling period. Ball milling at optimal conditions (24 h, 16% jar volume capacity) yielded wheat bran AXOS, with an A/X ratio of 0.65 and a MM of 6 kDa. Ball milling (24 h, 50% jar volume capacity) of pericarp-enriched wheat bran increased the WE-AX level from 1% (untreated pericarp) to 63%. The extractable material had a high A/X ratio (0.97) and a low MM (5 kDa). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the extensive ball mill treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of discernible tissue structures in the ball-milled material, indicating bran particle size reductions down to the nanoscale level. It further visualized the aggregation of the treated material. These results show that AXOS can be produced in situ from wheat or rye bran in a single-stage dry milling process, rendering a wet extraction step redundant. The higher A/X ratio of the obtained AXOS than of enzymically produced wheat bran-derived AXOS offers perspectives for the production of a wide range of AXOS structures. Moreover, ball milling makes upgrading of the low-value pericarp layer feasible.

  17. 75 FR 28657 - Dell Products LP-Parmer North Location, a Subsidiary of Dell, Inc., Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital, MagRabbit, Manpower and Spherion Corporation; Round Rock, TX; Dell Products LP--Parmer North One...., including on-site leased workers from Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates Inc., Integrated...

  18. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and... participate in one or more financial education programs that involve receiving deposits, paying withdrawals...

  19. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products...

  20. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products...

  1. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products...

  2. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products...

  3. The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U

  4. [Production of recombinant fragments of the Clostridium tetani neurotoxin for the development of new immune-prophylaxis preparations against tetanus].

    PubMed

    Varfolomeeva, N A; Makhotina, O A; Sergeeva, T I; Belyĭ, Iu F

    2003-01-01

    Tetanus belongs to dangerous infection diseases, whose effective prevention can be ensured by vaccines. The acting substance of tetanus vaccines, presently in use, is a partially purified and deprived-of-lethal-action Clostridium tetani neurotoxin. The construction of a subunit preparation on the basis of toxin fragments obtained through gene engineering could be a method aimed at promoting the quality of the used tetanus vaccines. With this goal in mind, we built, within the present case study, the expressing genetic constructions and obtained, in the pure form, an extensive tetanus-vaccine chain with its C-terminal (Hc) fragment, hydride peptides, containing the Hc-fragment and C-terminal fragment of toxin B C. difficile, as well as Hc-fragment and S3 collagen-binding domain of collagenase C. histolyticum. The thus obtained proteins can be used in testing their immunogenic and protective properties, while the conducted study could be a basis for further research of a new-generation vaccine against tetanus and other human infection diseases.

  5. Production of a single-chain fragment of the murine anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125 as phage-displayed and soluble antibody by recombinant phage antibody technique.

    PubMed

    Schlebusch, H; Reinartz, S; Kaiser, R; Grünn, U; Wagner, U

    1997-02-01

    The F(ab')2 fragment of the murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125 mimicking the tumor-associated antigen CA125 is used as a vaccine for the induction of an anti-tumoral immunity in patients with ovarian carcinoma. We tried to generate a single-chain fragment (ScFv) composed of ACA125 heavy- and light-chain variable domains connected by a polypeptide linker as an alternative to the corresponding F(ab')2 fragment. Heavy- and light-chain genes of antibody-producing mouse hybridoma cell line were amplified separately and assembled into a ScFv gene with linker DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv gene was ligated into the phagemid vector pCANTAB5E, which allows the production of both phage-displayed and soluble ScFv. Transformed Escherichia coli TG1 cells were infected with M13K07 helper phage to yield recombinant phage, which display ScFv fragments as a g3p fusion protein on the surface of the filamentous phage M13. Recombinant phages could be selected by binding to the idiotypic antibody OC125 after one round of panning and directly used to reinfect E. coli TG1 cells. The E. coli nonsuppressor strain HB2151 was infected with an antigen-positive phage clone, previously screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to express soluble ScFv fragments. Functional soluble ScFv binding to the idiotypic antibody OC125 F(ab')2 could be detected in the bacterial periplasm by Western blot and ELISA. The variable heavy- and light-chain genes of the ACA125 ScFv fragment were further sequenced and compared with known antibody sequences.

  6. An extended gene protein/products Boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Politano, Gianfranco; Savino, Alessandro; Vasciaveo, Alessandro

    2014-05-07

    Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms.

  7. An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304

  8. Fragmentation of Fractal Random Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elçi, Eren Metin; Weigel, Martin; Fytas, Nikolaos G.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the fragmentation behavior of random clusters on the lattice under a process where bonds between neighboring sites are successively broken. Modeling such structures by configurations of a generalized Potts or random-cluster model allows us to discuss a wide range of systems with fractal properties including trees as well as dense clusters. We present exact results for the densities of fragmenting edges and the distribution of fragment sizes for critical clusters in two dimensions. Dynamical fragmentation with a size cutoff leads to broad distributions of fragment sizes. The resulting power laws are shown to encode characteristic fingerprints of the fragmented objects.

  9. Production in yeast of pseudotype virus-like particles harboring functionally active antibody fragments neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin.

    PubMed

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Sezaite, Indre; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2011-12-15

    Recombinant antibodies can be produced in different formats and different expression systems. Single chain variable fragments (scFvs) represent an attractive alternative to full-length antibodies and they can be easily produced in bacteria or yeast. However, the scFvs exhibit monovalent antigen-binding properties and short serum half-lives. The stability and avidity of the scFvs can be improved by their multimerization or fusion with IgG Fc domain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibilities to produce in yeast high-affinity scFv-Fc proteins neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin (VLY), the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis. The scFv protein derived from hybridoma cell line producing high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against VLY was fused with human IgG1 Fc domain. Four different variants of anti-VLY scFv-Fc fusion proteins were constructed and produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-tagged scFv-Fc and hexahistidine-tagged scFv-Fc proteins were found predominantly as insoluble aggregates and therefore were not suitable for further purification and activity testing. The addition of yeast α-factor signal sequence did not support secretion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc but increased the amount of its intracellular soluble form. However, the purified protein showed a weak VLY-neutralizing capability. In contrast, the fusion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc molecules with hamster polyomavirus-derived VP2 protein and its co-expression with VP1 protein resulted in an effective production of pseudotype virus-like particles (VLPs) that exhibited strong VLY-binding activity. Recombinant scFv-Fc molecules displayed on the surface of VLPs neutralized VLY-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and HeLa cells with high potency comparable to that of full-length antibody. Recombinant scFv-Fc proteins were expressed in yeast with low efficiency. New approach to display the scFv-Fc molecules on the surface of pseudotype VLPs was successful and

  10. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5′-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441

  11. Preventing phage lysis of Lactococcus lactis in cheese production using a neutralizing heavy-chain antibody fragment from llama.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, A M; Bezemer, S; de Hiaard, J J W; Schaffers, I M; Verrips, C T; van Vliet, C; Düsterhöft, E M; Zoon, P; Moineau, S; Frenken, L G J

    2002-06-01

    Bacteriophage infection is still a persistent problem in large dairy processes despite extensive studies over the last decades. Consequently, new methods are constantly sought to prevent phage infection. In this paper, we show that phage neutralizing heavy-chain antibody fragments, obtained from Camelidae and produced at a large scale in the generally regarded as safe microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can effectively be used to impede phage induced lysis during a cheese process. The growth inhibition of the cheese starter culture by 10(5) pfu/ml cheese-milk of the small isometric-headed 936-type phage p2 was prevented by the addition of only 0.1 microg/ml (7 nM) of the neutralizing antibody fragment. The use of such antibody fragments in cheese manufacturing are a realistic and interesting option because of the small amount of antibody fragments that are needed. Moreover the antibodies are produced in a food grade microorganism and can easily be isolated from the fermentation liquid in a pure and DNA free form.

  12. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling.

  13. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling. PMID:25821419

  14. Chameleon fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  15. Gender and cleaner production: toward a framework for including gender analysis when developing strategies and designing solutions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sally; Quinn, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies that do not consider global gender dimensions often create benefits for some people and ecosystems but result in costs for others, in particular women, at some point along the global chain of production and consumption. This article is intended to begin a dialogue about the importance of including gender analysis in the design of cleaner production strategies. We review global development policy and its critiques that have identified a need for gender awareness and analysis. This examination provides a backdrop for a discussion of how to include gender analysis in cleaner production planning and implementation. We invite researchers and practitioners to enter this dialogue to further the field and develop effective tools and policies to analyze gender dynamics, support gender equity, and find environmentally sound solutions that are sustainable for the long-term.

  16. 43 CFR 3137.100 - How must I allocate production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must I allocate production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased Federal lands? 3137.100 Section 3137.100 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

  17. 78 FR 1252 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Select Staffing, Oxnard, CA; CalAmp Wireless Networks... Select Staffing, Oxnard, California (TA-W-80,399). The workers are engaged in the production of converter... Select Staffing, Oxnard, California (TA-W-80,399) and CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation...

  18. Investigation of the electrochemical oxidation products of zotepine and their fragmentation using on-line electrochemistry/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Kazuyoshi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kimura, Sumihisa; Kagayama, Akira; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2006-05-01

    When zotepine, an antipsychotic drug, was electrochemically oxidized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled with a microflow electrolytic cell, [M + 16 + H]+ (m/z 348), [M-H]+ (m/z 330) and [M-14 + H]+ (m/z 318) were observed as electrochemical oxidation product ions (M represents the zotepine molecule). Although a major fragment ion that was derived from the dimethyl aminoethyl moiety was observed only at m/z 72 in the collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of zotepine, new fragments such as m/z 315 and 286 ions could be generated in the CID spectrum by combining electrochemical oxidation and CID. Since these fragments were relatively specific with high ion strength, it was thought that they would be useful for developing a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay. The S-oxide and N-demethylated products were detected by electrolysis assuring that a portion of P450 metabolites of zotepine could be mimicked by the electrochemistry/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EC/ESI-MS) system.

  19. Bacterial production and structure-functional validation of a recombinant antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of an anti-cancer therapeutic antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hun; Sim, Dae-Won; Park, Dongsun; Jung, Tai-Geun; Lee, Seonghwan; Oh, Taeheun; Ha, Jong-Ryul; Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Seo, Min-Duk; Kang, Ho Chul; Kim, Young Pil; Won, Hyung-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Fragment engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as an excellent paradigm to develop highly efficient therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. Engineered mAb fragments can be economically produced in bacterial systems using recombinant DNA technologies. In this work, we established recombinant production in Escherichia coli for monovalent antigen-binding fragment (Fab) adopted from a clinically used anticancer mAB drug cetuximab targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Recombinant DNA constructs were designed to express both polypeptide chains comprising Fab in a single vector and to secrete them to bacterial periplasmic space for efficient folding. Particularly, a C-terminal engineering to confer an interchain disulfide bond appeared to be able to enhance its heterodimeric integrity and EGFR-binding activity. Conformational relevance of the purified final product was validated by mass spectrometry and crystal structure at 1.9 Å resolution. Finally, our recombinant cetuximab-Fab was found to have strong binding affinity to EGFR overexpressed in human squamous carcinoma model (A431) cells. Its binding ability was comparable to that of cetuximab. Its EGFR-binding affinity was estimated at approximately 0.7 nM of Kd in vitro, which was quite stronger than the binding affinity of natural ligand EGF. Hence, the results validate that our construction could serve as an efficient platform to produce a recombinant cetuximab-Fab with a retained antigen-binding functionality.

  20. Anticancer effects of fullerene [C60] included in polyethylene glycol combined with visible light irradiation through ROS generation and DNA fragmentation on fibrosarcoma cells with scarce cytotoxicity to normal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liao, Feng; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Fullerene [C60] included in polyethylene glycol (PEG) at a composing ratio of 1:350 w/w was examined for anticancer effects upon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Human connective tissue-derived fibrosarcoma cells HT1080 were decreased for a viability of 50% or 30%, by 3-h administration with PEG-fullerene [C60] at 50 or 100 ppm fullerene [C60] equivalent, respectively, subsequent rinsing out and irradiation with visible light (400-600 nm, 140 J/cm2: 450-fold as intense as in average outdoor), whereas the same tissue type-derived normal fibroblastic cells DUMS16 retained a viability of 93% or 85% under the same conditions. Anticancer effects were dependent on PEG-fullerene [C60] concentrations and irradiation doses, and scarcely exerted by PEG-fullerene [C60] alone, irradiation alone, or by fullerene [C60]-free PEG combined with irradiation, suggesting that the active principle may be fullerene [C60] as small as 0.0028 wt% versus the whole compound. Irradiation with PEG-fullerene [C60] occurred in intracellular DNA fragmentation according to TUNEL assay, and produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroperoxides and peroxyl radicals or superoxide anion radicals in HT1080 cells as demonstrated by CDCFH-DA assay or nitroblue tetrazolium assay, respectively. Thus, PEG-fullerene [C60] is expected to be applied to anticancer PDT with scarce side effects on normal cells.

  1. Avoiding Misannotation of In-Source Fragmentation Products as Cellular Metabolites in Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Lu, Wenyun; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2015-01-15

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology allows for rapid quantitation of cellular metabolites, with metabolites identified by mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. Recently, with the development of rapid scanning high-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometers and the desire for high throughput screening, minimal or no chromatographic separation has become increasingly popular. Furthermore, when analyzing complex cellular extracts, however, the lack of chromatographic separation could potentially result in misannotation of structurally related metabolites. Here, we show that, even using electrospray ionization, a soft ionization method, in-source fragmentation generates unwanted byproducts of identical mass to common metabolites. For example, nucleotide-triphosphates generate nucleotide-diphosphates, and hexose-phosphates generate triose-phosphates. We also evaluated yeast intracellular metabolite extracts and found more than 20 cases of in-source fragments that mimic common metabolites. Finally and accordingly, chromatographic separation is required for accurate quantitation of many common cellular metabolites.

  2. Avoiding Misannotation of In-Source Fragmentation Products as Cellular Metabolites in Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Lu, Wenyun; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2015-01-15

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology allows for rapid quantitation of cellular metabolites, with metabolites identified by mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. Recently, with the development of rapid scanning high-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometers and the desire for high throughput screening, minimal or no chromatographic separation has become increasingly popular. Furthermore, when analyzing complex cellular extracts, however, the lack of chromatographic separation could potentially result in misannotation of structurally related metabolites. Here, we show that, even using electrospray ionization, a soft ionization method, in-source fragmentation generates unwanted byproducts of identical mass to common metabolites. For example, nucleotide-triphosphates generate nucleotide-diphosphates, andmore » hexose-phosphates generate triose-phosphates. We also evaluated yeast intracellular metabolite extracts and found more than 20 cases of in-source fragments that mimic common metabolites. Finally and accordingly, chromatographic separation is required for accurate quantitation of many common cellular metabolites.« less

  3. Avoiding Misannotation of In-Source Fragmentation Products as Cellular Metabolites in Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Lu, Wenyun; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology allows for rapid quantitation of cellular metabolites, with metabolites identified by mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. Recently, with the development of rapid scanning high-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometers and the desire for high throughput screening, minimal or no chromatographic separation has become increasingly popular. When analyzing complex cellular extracts, however, the lack of chromatographic separation could potentially result in misannotation of structurally related metabolites. Here, we show that, even using electrospray ionization, a soft ionization method, in-source fragmentation generates unwanted byproducts of identical mass to common metabolites. For example, nucleotide-triphosphates generate nucleotide-diphosphates, and hexose-phosphates generate triose-phosphates. We evaluated yeast intracellular metabolite extracts and found more than 20 cases of in-source fragments that mimic common metabolites. Accordingly, chromatographic separation is required for accurate quantitation of many common cellular metabolites. PMID:25591916

  4. Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Kojouharova, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented.

  5. Fragmentation in Biaxial Tension

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G H; Archbold, G C; Hurricane, O A; Miller, P L

    2006-06-13

    We have carried out an experiment that places a ductile stainless steel in a state of biaxial tension at a high rate of strain. The loading of the ductile metal spherical cap is performed by the detonation of a high explosive layer with a conforming geometry to expand the metal radially outwards. Simulations of the loading and expansion of the metal predict strain rates that compare well with experimental observations. A high percentage of the HE loaded material was recovered through a soft capture process and characterization of the recovered fragments provided high quality data, including uniform strain prior to failure and fragment size. These data were used with a modified fragmentation model to determine a fragmentation energy.

  6. Competition between functionalization and fragmentation pathways in the OH-initiated oxidation of aqueous tartaric acid droplets: Reaction products and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. T.; Chow, C. Y.; Chan, M. N.; Zuend, A.; Berkemeier, T.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    To gain better insights into the competition between functionalization and fragmentation pathways for oxygenated organic compounds, we investigate the OH-radical initiated oxidation of aqueous tartaric acid (C4H6O6) droplets using an aerosol flow tube reactor. The molecular composition of reaction products is characterized by an atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART) coupled with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The reaction produces four major products: a functionalization product (C4H4O6) and three fragmentation products (C3H4O4, C3H2O4 and C3H2O5), with a predominance of the functionalization product which supports the literature result that only less than 10% of carbon loss was observed for the OH oxidation of tartaric acid. The formation of the functionalization product (2-hydroxy-3-oxosuccinic acid, C4H4O6) can be attributed to that the tertiary alkyl radical, formed after hydrogen abstraction, reacts with an O2 molecule to form a hydroxyperoxyl radical which tends to quickly undergo intramolecular HO2 elimination without fragmentation. The molecular transformation of aqueous tartaric acid droplets is stimulated using the kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP) and the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model in order to take into account the change in particle-phase water and activities of reaction products during the oxidation. Results suggest that aqueous tartaric acid droplets become slightly less hygroscopic after oxidation due to the formation of less polar products. The formation of products with different hygroscopicities and volatilities largely determine the amount of particle-phase water, which in turn governs the size of the aqueous droplets and the concentration of the reactants. Consideration of the variation in water content in response to the chemical evolution in the aerosol is needed to better understand

  7. Separation of fission products based on ionic liquids: Task-specific ionic liquids containing an aza-crown ether fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bonnesen, Peter V; Buchanan III, A C

    2005-01-01

    A new class of task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) based on the covalent attachment of imidazolium cations to a monoaza-crown ether fragment has been synthesized and characterized. The efficacy of these TSILs for the biphasic extraction of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) from aqueous solutions has been evaluated. The extraction properties of these TSILs can be influenced by the structures of the covalently attached imidazolium cations, which highlight the possibilities to enhance or tune the selectivities of crown ethers toward target ionic species through the covalent coupling with the imidazolium cations. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of including growth, carcass and feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal for combined milk and beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Juga, J

    2017-04-01

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the

  9. Sex Determination from Fragmented and Degenerated DNA by Amplified Product-Length Polymorphism Bidirectional SNP Analysis of Amelogenin and SRY Genes.

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Kotoka; Shojo, Hideki; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Inokuchi, Shota; Adachi, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination. Amplicon size was designed to be less than 60 bp to make the method more useful for analyzing degraded DNA samples. All DNA samples collected from eight Japanese individuals (four male, four female) were evaluated correctly using our method. The detection limit for accurate sex determination was determined to be 20 pg of DNA. We compared our new method with commercial short tandem repeat analysis kits using DNA samples artificially fragmented by ultraviolet irradiation. Our novel method was the most robust for highly fragmented DNA samples. To deal with allelic dropout resulting from deamination, we adopted "bidirectional analysis," which analyzed samples from both sense and antisense strands. This new method was applied to 14 Jomon individuals (3500-year-old bone samples) whose sex had been identified morphologically. We could correctly identify the sex of 11 out of 14 individuals. These results show that our method is reliable for the sex determination of highly degenerated samples.

  10. Sex Determination from Fragmented and Degenerated DNA by Amplified Product-Length Polymorphism Bidirectional SNP Analysis of Amelogenin and SRY Genes

    PubMed Central

    Masuyama, Kotoka; Shojo, Hideki; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Inokuchi, Shota; Adachi, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination. Amplicon size was designed to be less than 60 bp to make the method more useful for analyzing degraded DNA samples. All DNA samples collected from eight Japanese individuals (four male, four female) were evaluated correctly using our method. The detection limit for accurate sex determination was determined to be 20 pg of DNA. We compared our new method with commercial short tandem repeat analysis kits using DNA samples artificially fragmented by ultraviolet irradiation. Our novel method was the most robust for highly fragmented DNA samples. To deal with allelic dropout resulting from deamination, we adopted “bidirectional analysis,” which analyzed samples from both sense and antisense strands. This new method was applied to 14 Jomon individuals (3500-year-old bone samples) whose sex had been identified morphologically. We could correctly identify the sex of 11 out of 14 individuals. These results show that our method is reliable for the sex determination of highly degenerated samples. PMID:28052096

  11. Fragmentation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Colm T.

    2012-12-01

    Preface; 1. Direct and resonant double-photoionization: from atoms to solids L. Avaldi and G. Stefani; 2. The application of propagation exterior complex scaling to atomic collisions P. L. Bartlett and A. T. Stelbovics; 3. Fragmentation of molecular-ion beams in intense ultra-short laser pulses I. Ben-Itzhak; 4. Atoms with one and two active electrons in strong laser fields I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets; 5. Experimental aspects of ionization studies by positron and positronium impact G. Laricchia, D. A. Cooke, Á. Kövér and S. J. Brawley; 6. (e,2e) spectroscopy using fragmentation processes J. Lower, M. Yamazaki and M. Takahashi; 7. A coupled pseudostate approach to the calculation of ion-atom fragmentation processes M. McGovern, H. R. J. Walters and C. T. Whelan; 8. Electron Impact Ionization using (e,2e) coincidence techniques from threshold to intermediate energies A. J. Murray; 9. (e,2e) processes on atomic inner shells C. T. Whelan; 10. Spin resolved atomic (e,2e) processes J. Lower and C. T. Whelan; Index.

  12. Data of rational process optimization for the production of a full IgG and its Fab fragment from hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Röhm, Martina; Handl, Alina; König, Maria; Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Handrick, René; Schindowski, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This data article focuses on the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and their fragments Fab and F(ab')2. Here, we present the data of an optimization protocol to improve the product yield of a hybridoma cell process using a Design of Experiment (DoE) strategy. Furthermore, the data of the evaluated conditions were used to test feeding strategies in shake flasks. They were verified in controlled 2 L fed-batch bioreactor processes. Supplementing the culture medium with human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and Pluronic F-68, as well as a nutrient rich additive for fed-batch, resulted in improved cell growth correlating with a 7 day elongated process time and a 4.5 fold higher product titer. Finally, a rapid Fab generation protocol and the respective data are presented using different papain digestion and a camelid anti-kappa light chain VHH affinity ligand.

  13. Parasitic production of slow RI-beam from a projectile fragment separator by ion guide Laser Ion Source (PALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Tetsu

    2009-10-01

    The projectile fragment separator BigRIPS of RIBF at RIKEN provides a wide variety of short-lived radioactive isotope (RI) ions without restrictions on their lifetime or chemical properties. A universal slow RI-beam facility (SLOWRI) to decelerate the beams from BigRIPS using an RF-carpet ion guide has been proposed as a principal facility of RIBF. However, beam time at such a modern accelerator facility is always limited and operational costs are high. We therefore propose an additional scheme as a complementary option to SLOWRI to drastically enhance the usability of such an expensive facility. In BigRIPS, a single primary beam produces thousands of isotopes but only one isotope is used for an experiment while the other >99.99% of isotopes are simply dumped in the slits or elsewhere in the fragment separator. We plan to locate a compact gas cell with 1 bar Ar at the slits. The thermalized ions in the cell will be quickly neutralized and transported to the exit by gas flow and resonantly re-ionized by lasers. Such low energy RI-beams will always be provided without any restriction to the main experiment. It will allow us to run parasitic experiments for precision atomic or decay spectroscopy, mass measurements. Furthermore, the resonance ionization in the cell itself can be used for high-sensitive laser spectroscopy, which will expand our knowledge of the ground state property of unstable nuclei.

  14. Propagation of the threatened staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: methods to minimize the impacts of fragment collection and maximize production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirman, D.; Thyberg, T.; Herlan, J.; Hill, C.; Young-Lahiff, C.; Schopmeyer, S.; Huntington, B.; Santos, R.; Drury, C.

    2010-09-01

    Coral reef restoration methods such as coral gardening are becoming increasingly considered as viable options to mitigate reef degradation and enhance recovery of depleted coral populations. In this study, we describe several aspects of the coral gardening approach that demonstrate this methodology is an effective way of propagating the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: (1) the growth of colonies within the nursery exceeded the growth rates of wild staghorn colonies in the same region; (2) the collection of branch tips did not result in any further mortality to the donor colonies beyond the coral removed for transplantation; (3) decreases in linear extension of the donor branches were only temporary and donor branches grew faster than control branches after an initial recovery period of approximately 3-6 weeks; (4) fragmentation did not affect the growth rates of non-donor branches within the same colony; (5) small branch tips experienced initial mortality due to handling and transportation but surviving tips grew well over time; and (6) when the growth of the branch tips is added to the regrowth of the fragmented donor branches, the new coral produced was 1.4-1.8 times more than new growth in undisturbed colonies. Based on these results, the collection of small (2.5-3.5 cm) branch tips was an effective propagation method for this branching coral species resulting in increased biomass accumulation and limited damage to parental stocks.

  15. The Poincar group in a demisemidirect product with a non-associative algebra with representations that Include particles and quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2008-11-18

    The quarks have always been a puzzle, as have the particles' mass and mass/spin relations as they seemed to have no coordinates in configuration space and/or momentum space. The solution to this seems to lie in the marriage of ordinary Poincare group representations with a non-associative algebra made through a demisemidirect product. Then, the work of G. Dixon applies; so, we may obtain all the relations between masses, mass and spin, and the attribution of position and momentum to quarks--this in spite of the old restriction that the Poincare group cannot be extended to a larger group by any means (including the (semi)direct product) to get even the mass relations. Finally, we will briefly discuss a possible connection between the phase space representations of the Poincare group and the phase space representations of the object we will obtain. This will take us into Leibniz (co)homology.

  16. [Productivity of doctoral programs in Psychology with Quality Mention in journal articles included in Journal Citation Reports].

    PubMed

    Musi-Lechuga, Bertha; Olivas-Ávila, José; Castro, Angel

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to classify doctoral programs with Quality Mention in Psychology based on their scientific productivity. For this purpose, articles in the Web of Science published by professors teaching in these doctoral programs were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed scientific journals in which these professors tend to publish more papers and the evolution in the number of papers published until 2009. Results showed that the most productive doctoral program was the Neurosciences program at the University of Oviedo. This program showed a ratio of 40 articles--published in journals included in Journal Citation Reports--by each professor. In contrast, other programs did not reach a ratio of 10 articles per professor. Regarding journals, results showed that 9 out of the 20 most popular journals are Hispanic and a gradual increase in the number of published papers was also observed. Lastly, results and implications for quality assessment are discussed.

  17. Chemical potential and symmetry energy for intermediate-mass fragment production in heavy ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lin, W.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Wang, J.; Bonasera, A.; Zheng, H.; Chen, Z.; Kowalski, S.; Keutgen, T.; Hagel, K.; Qin, L.; Natowitz, J. B.; Materna, T.; Sahu, P. K.; Barbui, M.; Bottosso, C.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.

    2017-04-01

    Ratios of differential chemical potential values relative to the temperature, (μn-μp)/T , extracted from isotope yields of 13 reaction systems at 40 MeV/nucleon are compared to those of a quantum statistical model to determine the temperature and symmetry energy values of the fragmenting system. The experimental (μn-μp)/T values are extracted based on the modified Fisher model. Using the density value of ρ /ρ0=0.56 from the previous analysis, the temperature and symmetry energy values of T =4.6 ±0.4 MeV and asym=23.6 ±2.1 MeV are extracted in a framework of a quantum statistical model. These values agree well with those of the previous work, in which a self-consistent method was utilized with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics simulations. The extracted temperature and symmetry energies are discussed together with other experimental values published in literature.

  18. Low-energy mass-selected ion beam production of fragments produced from hexamethyldisilane for SiC film formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Satoru Sugimoto, Satoshi; Kiuchi, Masato

    2016-03-14

    We have proposed an experimental methodology which makes it possible to deposit silicon carbide (SiC) films on Si substrates with a low-energy mass-selected ion beam system using hexamethyldisilane (HMD) as a gas source. In this study, one of the fragment ions produced from HMD, SiCH{sub 4}{sup +}, was mass-selected. The ion energy was approximately 100 eV. Then, the SiCH{sub 4}{sup +} ions were irradiated to a Si(100) substrate. When the temperature of the Si substrate was set at 800 °C during the ion irradiation, the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of the substrate following the completion of ion irradiation experiment demonstrated the occurrence of 3C-SiC deposition.

  19. Production and characterization of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment antibody for detection of parathion-methyl.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huimin; Zhao, Fengchun; Han, Xiao; Yang, Zhengyou

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we reported the development of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) for parathion-methyl (PM) detection. Firstly, a phage display library was generated using a pre-immunized BALB/C mouse against a specific hapten of PM. After four rounds of panning, the scFv gene fragments were transferred into a secreted expression vector. Then, the scFv antibodies were secreted expressed and screened by IC-ELISA against PM. The selected scFv antibody was fused with a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) and inserted into pET-28a(+) vector for high-level expression in Escherichia coli BL2 (DE3). After optimizing expression conditions, the scFv-BAD antibody was expressed as a soluble protein and biotinylated in vitro by the E. coli biotin ligase (BirA). Subsequently, the biotinylated scFv-BAD antibody was purified with a high yield of 59.2 ± 3.7 mg/L of culture, and was characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Finally, based on the biotinylated scFv-BAD, a sensitive IC-ELISA for detection of PM was developed, and the 50% inhibition value (IC50) of PM was determined as 14.5 ng/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD, IC10) of 0.9 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity (CR) studies revealed that the scFv antibody showed desirable specificity for PM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross sections for the production of fragments with Z greater than or equal to 8 by fragmentation of Z greater than or equal to 9 and less than or equal to 26 nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, W.; Drechsel, H.; Brechtmann, C.; Beer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Charge changing nuclear collisions in plastic nuclear track detectors were studied using a new experimental technique of automatic track measurement for etched tracks in plastic detectors. Partial cross sections for the production of fragments of charge Z approximately 8 were measured for projectile nuclei of charge 9 approximately Z approximately 26 in the detector material CR39 and in silver. for this purpose three independent experiments were performed using Bevalac beams. The first one was an exposure of a stack of CR39 plastic plates to 1.8 GeV/nucl. Ar-40 nuclei. The second one was an exposure of another CR39 stack of 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 projectiles. In the third experiment a mixed stack of CR39 plates and silver foils was irradiated with 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 nuclei. Thus the measurement of nuclear cross sections in a light target (CR39 = C12H18O7) and as well in a heavy target (silver) was possible.

  1. Patulin and patulin producing Penicillium spp. occurrence in apples and apple-based products including baby food.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Walid; Al-Thani, Roda; Fiori, Stefano; Al-Meer, Saeed; Atia, Fathy Atia; Rabah, Duha; Migheli, Quirico; Jaoua, Samir

    2017-04-30

    Patulin has raised the international attention because of its health risk. In fact, it has mutagenic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, genotoxic and gastrointestinal effects in animals. In the present work, patulin and patulin-producing Penicillium spp. in apple and apple-based products marketed in Qatar were analysed. Sampling was carried out using apple fruits and apple-based products. Fungi were isolated from undamaged apples, apple juice and baby apple food. DNA extraction was carried out with DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, USA). The molecular identification of fungal isolates was carried out using ITS1-ITS4 PCR. PCR products were sequenced and blasted. Patulin was extracted and analyzed by LC/MS/MS, then quantified using Agilent 1290UHPLC coupled to 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer. Forty-five samples of undamaged fresh apple fruits, apple juice and apple-based baby food products sold in different markets in Qatar were surveyed for both fungal and patulin contamination using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometery (LC/MS/MS). Twenty-five Penicillium spp. isolates were selected, including 23 P. expansum and one isolate each of P. brevicompactum and P. commune. All the tested Penicillium spp. isolates produced patulin in vitro (from 40 to 100 μg/g on Malt Yeast Extract agar medium). Patulin was detected in 100% of apple juice samples at levels ranging from 5.27 to 82.21 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained patulin levels higher than European Union recommended limit (50 µg/kg). The average patulin contamination was 30.67 µg/kg and 10.92 µg/kg in baby apple juice and in baby apple compote, respectively.

  2. Allergens and food additives, including potentially harmful ones, present in food products that are preferred by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Budrewicz, Sandra; Banaszczak, Marcin; Piotrowski, Jakub; Czerwińska, Maja; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The proper development of a child is linked with proper nutrition, including nutritional habits which are formed from childhood. The aim of the study was to establish a list of the most popular food products among children and to develop a register of potentially dangerous substances on a Facebook website. A website was created on Facebook. The participants provided lists of favorite dishes or products. The study involved 264 participants. An inverse correlation was observed with reference to the age of the subjects and the occurrence of sugar syrup in their diet (R=-0.20; p<0.001), glucose-fructose (R= -0.18; p< 0.004), and glucose (R=-0.13; p< 0.039) syrups. The most common potential food allergens are: gluten (R=0.28; p<0.001), eggs (R=0.28; p<0.001), and wheat (R=0.25; p<0.001). The main substances added to food that are present in a child's diet that increase proportionally with reference to the child's age are: salicylates (R=0.37; p<0.001), iron and ammonium sulfates (R=0.21; p<0.001). The choices of favorite products are related to age and sex. Products containing gluten, the consumption of which increases with age, carry a risk of undiagnosed celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity in people with a genetic predisposition. Facebook has fulfilled its role as an effective tool for gathering information about the food preferences of children and adolescents.

  3. LC-MS/MS structural characterization of stress degradation products including the development of a stability indicating assay of Darunavir: An anti-HIV drug.

    PubMed

    Rao, R Nageswara; Ramachandra, B; Sravan, B; Khalid, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Darunavir, an anti-HIV drug was subjected to forced degradation under acid, base, thermal and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation and photolysis as prescribed by ICH guidelines. Four major degradation products were formed under acid and base hydrolysis, while stable under neutral and thermal hydrolysis, oxidative and photolysis. The drug and its degradation products were separated on Hiber, LiChrospher® 60, RP-select B, C8 column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm) using 10mM ammonium acetate: acetonitrile (52:48, v/v) as mobile phase in an isocratic elution mode by LC. The degradation products were characterized by LC-MS/MS and fragmentation pathways were proposed. The proposed structures of degradation products were confirmed by HRMS and the LC method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, recovery, LOD and LOQ.

  4. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  5. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. METHODS We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321–580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG321–580His) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG321–580His as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. RESULTS In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG321–580His-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. CONCLUSION The study indicates that gG321–580His has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans. PMID:25532518

  6. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321-580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG(321-580His)) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG(321-580His) as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG(321-580His)-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. The study indicates that gG(321-580His) has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans.

  7. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results.

  8. Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron near the η-production threshold including polarization observables

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, Eed M.; Al-Thoyaib, Suleiman S.

    2014-12-15

    Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization observables is studied in the energy region near the η-production threshold at backward center-of-mass angles of the outgoing pion. This work is motivated by the measurements of the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, where a cusp-like structure in the energy dependence of the differential cross section has been observed at extremely backward pion angles. The present approach is based on the impulse approximation and first-order rescattering diagrams with intermediate production of both π- and η-mesons. Numerical results for unpolarized cross sections, the linear photon asymmetry (Σ), the vector (T{sub 11}) and tensor (T{sub 2M}, M=0, 1, 2) deuteron target asymmetries, and the double polarization E-asymmetry are predicted and compared with available experimental data and other theoretical models. The effect of first-order rescattering is found to be much larger in spin asymmetries than in the unpolarized cross sections. It reaches on average about 40% in the tensor target and E asymmetries. Compared to the experimental data from CLAS Collaboration, sizable discrepancies are found. This is not the case for the linear photon asymmetry, for which a better comparison with the data from YerPhI Collaboration is obtained.

  9. Fourier transform infrared matrix-isolation analysis of acetaldehyde fragmentation products after charge exchange with Ar•+ under varied ionization density conditions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew G K; White, Matthew R; Linford, Bryan D; King, Kaitlynn A; Robinson, Mark M; Parnis, J Mark

    2011-10-01

    The products of the Ar(•+) charge exchange ionization of acetaldehyde have been isolated and compared with related photoionization results and computational work. Acetaldehyde has been used to assess the effect of varied ion density in the ionization region of the electron bombardment matrix isolation apparatus. The amount of acetaldehyde destruction has been measured for constant gas-sample composition and constant ionization current for two anode geometries: a pin anode and a plate anode. For the same ionization current, a pin-shaped anode demonstrates higher precursor molecule destruction efficiency (85%) than the plate-shaped anode (30%), resulting in substantial effect on the yield and quantity of isolated products. When the plate anode is used, the observed infrared products correspond to matrix-isolated carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH(4)), ketene (CH(2)CO), ethynyloxy radical (HCCO), formyl radical (HCO(•)), acetyl radical (CH(3)CO(•)), vinyl alcohol (H(2)C = CH-OH), and cationic proton-bound dimer, Ar(2)H(+). When the pin anode is used, the same products are observed with different relative proportions and new absorption features corresponding to dicarbon monoxide (CCO) and methyl radical (CH(3)(•)) are observed. The surprising observation of infrared absorptions corresponding to vinyl alcohol along with low yield of products anticipated through the analysis of photoelectron-photoionization coincidence measurements suggests that the initially formed fragmentation products are able to further react within the matrix-isolation environment to influence observed product yields. Related experiments, using the isotopomer CD(3)CHO, suggest that the observed products are formed via radical-radical reactions that occur under the high pressure conditions of the matrix isolation environment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Production of a soluble single-chain variable fragment antibody against okadaic acid and exploration of its specific binding.

    PubMed

    He, Kuo; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Lixia; Du, Xinjun; Wei, Dong

    2016-06-15

    Okadaic acid is a lipophilic marine algal toxin commonly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Outbreaks of DSP have been increasing and are of worldwide public health concern; therefore, there is a growing demand for more rapid, reliable, and economical analytical methods for the detection of this toxin. In this study, anti-okadaic acid single-chain variable fragment (scFv) genes were prepared by cloning heavy and light chain genes from hybridoma cells, followed by fusion of the chains via a linker peptide. An scFv-pLIP6/GN recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli for expression, and the target scFv was identified with IC-CLEIA (chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay). The IC15 was 0.012 ± 0.02 μg/L, and the IC50 was 0.25 ± 0.03 μg/L. The three-dimensional structure of the scFv was simulated with computer modeling, and okadaic acid was docked to the scFv model to obtain a putative structure of the binding complex. Two predicted critical amino acids, Ser32 and Thr187, were then mutated to verify this theoretical model. Both mutants exhibited significant loss of binding activity. These results help us to understand this specific scFv-antigen binding mechanism and provide guidance for affinity maturation of the antibody in vitro. The high-affinity scFv developed here also has potential for okadaic acid toxin detection.

  11. Enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A: two approaches to the macrolactone fragment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.; Burch, Jason D.; Hu, Essa; Jaeschke, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A is described. Two syntheses of the macrolactone subunit are included: the first relies upon an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to generate the trisubstituted olefin geometry and the second utilizes an enantioselective vinylogous aldol reaction for this purpose. Enantioselective syntheses of the sugar and chlorocyclopropane side chain fragments are also disclosed. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of this natural product was determined by fragment coupling with the two enantiomers of the side chain fragment. PMID:22859865

  12. Identification of Salmonella serotypes isolated from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems in Mexico by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Robles, Miguel A; Morales-Loredo, Alberto; Alvarez-Ojeda, Genoveva; Vega-P, Adrián; Chew-M, Yazmín; Velarde, Sixto; Fratamico, Pina

    2008-11-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on three cantaloupe farms in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico, and on one farm that cultivates chile peppers var. Bell in Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Samples from cantaloupe farms consisted of cantaloupe rinses, irrigation water, water from furrows in the field, and workers' hands. Samples from the chile pepper farm consisted of rinses of chile peppers obtained at the field, pepper rinses obtained at the packing house, and irrigation water from the field. A total of 55 samples were obtained from both production systems. Twelve and 10 samples from the cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella according to a traditional culture method. The difference between the proportion of Salmonella-positive samples from the cantaloupe production system (12 of 28 = 0.43) and the chile pepper production system (10 of 27 = 0.37) was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method based on the fliC gene was used to determine the serotype of the isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium was the only serotype found associated with the cantaloupe production system, whereas both Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis serotypes were found associated with the chile pepper production system. Results showed that 91% (20 of 22) and 9% (2 of 22) of the isolates from both agricultural systems matched with the Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis reference strain restriction profiles, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of the PCR-RFLP technique for determining the serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems.

  13. In silico prediction of cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 inhibition using Gaussian kernel weighted k-nearest neighbor and extended connectivity fingerprints, including structural fragment analysis of inhibitors versus noninhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Berith F; Vind, Christian; Padkjaer, Søren B; Brockhoff, Per B; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2007-02-08

    Inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is unwanted because of the risk of severe side effects due to drug-drug interactions. We present two in silico Gaussian kernel weighted k-nearest neighbor models based on extended connectivity fingerprints that classify CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition. Data used for modeling consisted of diverse sets of 1153 and 1382 drug candidates tested for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition in human liver microsomes. For CYP2D6, 82% of the classified test set compounds were predicted to the correct class. For CYP3A4, 88% of the classified compounds were correctly classified. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition were additionally classified for an external test set on 14 drugs, and multidimensional scaling plots showed that the drugs in the external test set were in the periphery of the training sets. Furthermore, fragment analyses were performed and structural fragments frequent in CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors and noninhibitors are presented.

  14. Reduction of DNA fragmentation and hydroxyl radical production by hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate in iron plus ascorbate-induced oxidative stress in fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Campo, Salvatore; D'Ascola, Angela; Ferlazzo, Alida M; Calatroni, Alberto

    2004-06-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), components of extracellular matrix, are thought to play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in the repair process of injured tissue. Oxidative stress is one of the most frequent causes of tissue and cell injury and the consequent lipid peroxidation is the main manifestation of free radical damage. It has been found to play an important role in the evolution of cell death. Since several reports have shown that hyaluronic acid (HYA) and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) are able to inhibit lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, We investigated the antioxidant capacity of these GAGs in reducing oxidative damage in fibroblast cultures. Free radicals production was induced by the oxidizing system employing iron (Fe2+) plus ascorbate. We evaluated cell death, membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, protein oxidation, hydroxyl radical (OH*) generation and endogenous antioxidant depletion in human skin fibroblast cultures. The exposition of fibroblasts to FeSO4 and ascorbate caused inhibition of cell growth and cell death, increased OH* production determined by the aromatic trap method; furthermore it caused DNA strand breaks and protein oxidation as shown by the DNA fragments analysis and protein carbonyl content, respectively. Moreover, it enhanced lipid peroxidation evaluated by the analysis of conjugated dienes (CD) and decreased antioxidant defenses assayed by means of measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. When fibroblasts were treated with two different doses of HYA or C4S a protective effect, following oxidative stress induction, was shown. In fact these GAGs were able to limit cell death, reduced DNA fragmentation and protein oxidation, decreased OH* generation, inhibited lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant defenses. Our results confirm the antioxidant activity of HYA and C4S and this could represent a useful step in the understanding of the exact role played by GAGs in

  15. Production of energetic light fragments in extensions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashnik, Stepan G.; Kerby, Leslie M.; Gudima, Konstantin K.; Sierk, Arnold J.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; James, Michael R.

    2017-03-01

    We extend the cascade-exciton model (CEM), and the Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM), event generators of the Monte Carlo N -particle transport code version 6 (MCNP6), to describe production of energetic light fragments (LF) heavier than 4He from various nuclear reactions induced by particles and nuclei at energies up to about 1 TeV/nucleon. In these models, energetic LF can be produced via Fermi breakup, preequilibrium emission, and coalescence of cascade particles. Initially, we study several variations of the Fermi breakup model and choose the best option for these models. Then, we extend the modified exciton model (MEM) used by these codes to account for a possibility of multiple emission of up to 66 types of particles and LF (up to 28Mg) at the preequilibrium stage of reactions. Then, we expand the coalescence model to allow coalescence of LF from nucleons emitted at the intranuclear cascade stage of reactions and from lighter clusters, up to fragments with mass numbers A ≤7 , in the case of CEM, and A ≤12 , in the case of LAQGSM. Next, we modify MCNP6 to allow calculating and outputting spectra of LF and heavier products with arbitrary mass and charge numbers. The improved version of CEM is implemented into MCNP6. Finally, we test the improved versions of CEM, LAQGSM, and MCNP6 on a variety of measured nuclear reactions. The modified codes give an improved description of energetic LF from particle- and nucleus-induced reactions; showing a good agreement with a variety of available experimental data. They have an improved predictive power compared to the previous versions and can be used as reliable tools in simulating applications involving such types of reactions.

  16. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  17. Fragmentation functions in nuclear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassot, Rodolfo; Stratmann, Marco; Zurita, Pia

    2010-03-01

    We perform a detailed phenomenological analysis of how well hadronization in nuclear environments can be described in terms of effective fragmentation functions. The medium modified fragmentation functions are assumed to factorize from the partonic scattering cross sections and evolve in the hard scale in the same way as the standard or vacuum fragmentation functions. Based on precise data on semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering off nuclei and hadron production in deuteron-gold collisions, we extract sets of effective fragmentation functions for pions and kaons at next-to-leading order accuracy. The obtained sets provide a rather accurate description of the kinematical dependence of the analyzed cross sections and are found to differ significantly from standard fragmentation functions both in shape and magnitude. Our results support the notion of factorization and universality in the studied nuclear environments, at least in an effective way and within the precision of the available data.

  18. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  19. Structural elucidation of monoterpene oxidation products by ion trap fragmentation using on-line atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode.

    PubMed

    Warscheid, B; Hoffmann, T

    2001-01-01

    Based on ion trap mass spectrometry, an on-line method is described which provides valuable information on the molecular composition of structurally complex organic aerosols. The investigated aerosols were generated from the gas-phase ozonolysis of various C(10)H(16)-terpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, sabinene, limonene), and directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. Negative ion chemical ionisation at atmospheric pressure (APCI(-)) enabled the detection of multifunctional carboxylic acid products by combining inherent sensitivity and molecular weight information. Sequential low-energy collision-induced product ion fragmentation experiments (MS(n)) were performed in order to elucidate characteristic decomposition pathways of the compounds. Dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and hydroxyketocarboxylic acid products could be clearly distinguished by multistage on-line MS. Furthermore, sabinonic acid and two C(9)-ether compounds were tentatively identified for the first time by applying on-line APCI(-)-MS(n). Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neutron productions in the fragmentation of relativistic heavy nuclei and formation of a beam of high-energy neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yurevich, V. I.

    2016-03-15

    The production of quasimonoenergetic high-energy neutrons at zero angle (0°) in the spallation of relativistic heavy nuclei is discussed by considering the example of the interaction of lead nuclei with light target nuclei. It is shown that this process can be used to generate a beam of high-energy neutrons at existing heavy ion accelerators. At the same time, itmay lead to the appearance of a parasitic neutron beam because of the interaction of the heavy-ion beam used with beam line and experimental setup materials.

  1. Beta-nodavirus B2 protein induces hydrogen peroxide production, leading to Drp1-recruited mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death via mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu C; Chiu, Hsuan W; Hung, Jo C; Hong, Jiann R

    2014-10-01

    Because the role of the viral B2 protein in the pathogenesis of nervous necrosis virus infection remains unknown, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of B2 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated cell death via mitochondrial targeting. Using a B2 deletion mutant, the B2 mitochondrial targeting signal sequence ((41)RTFVISAHAA(50)) correlated with mitochondrial free radical production and cell death in fish cells, embryonic zebrafish, and human cancer cells. After treatment of grouper fin cells (GF-1) overexpressing B2 protein with the anti-oxidant drug, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and overexpression of the antioxidant enzymes, zfCu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and zfCatalase, decreased H2O2 production and cell death were observed. To investigate the correlation between B2 cytotoxicity and H2O2 production in vivo, B2 was injected into zebrafish embryos. Cell damage, as assessed by the acridine orange assay, gradually increased over 24 h post-fertilization, and was accompanied by marked increases in H2O2 production and embryonic death. Increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by the up-regulation of Mn SOD, catalase, and Nrf2, was also observed during this period. Finally, B2-induced dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death could be reversed by NAC and inhibitors of Drp1 and Mdivi in GF-1 cells. Taken together, betanodavirus B2 induces H2O2 production via targeting the mitochondria, where it inhibits complex II function. H2O2 activates Drp1, resulting in its association with the mitochondria, mitochondrial fission and cell death in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Biofilm production and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility amongst clinical Candida spp. isolates, including strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    PubMed

    Melo, Analy S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Freymüller, Edna; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-04-01

    Candida cells can form biofilms that frequently are sources of infections and are less susceptible to antifungal drugs. Some authors have reported that Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates are not able to produce biofilms in vitro and there are no studies available on biofilm susceptibility for these species to antifungals. The aims of this study were to (i) quantify Candida spp. biofilms in vitro, and (ii) test the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. biofilms to fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates studied included four Candida albicans, six C. tropicalis, seven C. parapsilosis, eight C. orthopsilosis, and five C. metapsilosis. We compared two different methods to evaluate biofilm production, i.e., crystal violet (CV) staining and XTT-reduction assays (XTT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe high, medium and low biofilm producing isolates screened by these two methods. To determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for FLC and AMB, XTT-reduction assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity. Biofilm quantification by CV and XTT showed that C. tropicalis isolates were the highest biofilm producer, followed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Examination of SEM images revealed that the extent of biofilms formed by high, medium, and low producers was highly correlated to the results generated by CV assay. Biofilm of all the isolates evaluated were resistant to FLC (MBEC(80) ≥ 256 ug/ml) but, in general, susceptible to AMB, except for six C. parapsilosis strains (MBEC(80) ≥ 8 ug/ml).

  3. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar processing including cold plasma processing of local planetary ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, D.; Lynch, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite has been studied by a number of investigators as a potential means for recovery of oxygen from lunar soil. Interest in this process has always rested with the simplicity of the flow diagram and the utilization of established technology. Effective utilization of hydrogen in the reduction process at temperatures of 1200 C and below has always been disappointing and, as such, has led other investigators to focus attention on other systems. Effective utilization of hydrogen in the reduction of ilmenite can be significantly enhanced in the presence of a non-equilibrium hydrogen plasma. Ilmenite at solid specimen temperatures of 600 C to 970 C were reacted in a hydrogen plasma. Those experiments revealed that hydrogen utilization can be significantly enhanced. At a specimen temperature of 850 C the fraction of H2 reacted was 24 percent compared to the 7 percent theoretical limit calculated with thermodynamic theory for the same temperature. An added advantage for a hydrogen plasma involves further reduction of TiO2. Reduction of the iron oxide in ilmenite yields TiO2 and metallic iron as by products. Titanium forms a number of oxides including TiO, Ti2O3, Ti3O5 and the Magneli oxides (Ti4O7 to Ti50O99). In conventional processing of ilmenite with hydrogen it is possible to reduce TiO2 to Ti7O13 within approximately an hour, but with poor utilization of hydrogen on the order of one mole of H2 per thousand. In the cold or non-equilibrium plasma TiO2 can be rapidly reduced to Ti2O3 with hydrogen utilization exceeding 10 percent. Based on design considerations of the plasma reactor greater utilization of the hydrogen in the reduction of TiO2 is possible.

  4. The Evolution of Grain Size Distribution in Explosive Rock Fragmentation - Sequential Fragmentation Theory Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheu, B.; Fowler, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    including in the description of the fracturing events in which the rock fragments, with a recipe for the production of fines, as observed in the experiments. To our knowledge, this implementation of a deterministic fracturing process into a stochastic (sequential) model is unique, further it provides the model with some forecasting power.

  5. 75 FR 45160 - Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., Formerly Known as Locknetics Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., Formerly Known as Locknetics..., applicable to workers of Ingersoll-Rand, formerly known as Locknetics, Security Technologies Division... employed at the Bristol, Connecticut location of Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., formerly known as...

  6. LC–MS/MS quantification of a neuropeptide fragment kisspeptin-10 (NSC 741805) and characterization of its decomposition product and pharmacokinetics in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongfa; Ren, Chen; Jones, William; Chen, Ping; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Chan, Yee-Ming; Smith, Nicola F.; Covey, Joseph M.; Wang, Jeffrey; Chan, Kenneth K.

    2014-01-01

    The kisspeptins are critical regulators of mammalian reproduction. Kisspeptin-10 (45YNWNSFGLRF-NH254, kisspeptin-112–121 or metastin 45–54, NSC 741805), an active fragment of kisspeptin, has been shown to be a potent stimulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and secretion of luteinizing hormone in both rodents and primates. This shorter peptide fragment may have clinical utility potential and it is important to characterize its pharmacokinetic property. Recently, the pharmacokinetics of both kisspeptin-54 and kisspeptin-10 were characterized in humans using a radioimmunoassay (RIA), which measures only the immunoreactive kisspeptin (kisspeptin-IR). In this study, a highly sensitive and specific LC–MS/MS assay was developed to quantify kisspeptin-10 levels in rat plasma. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL, the within-day and between-day coefficient of variations (CVs) ranged from 5.2 to 15.4% and 1.3 to 14.2%, and the accuracy values ranged from 98 to 114% and 99 to 105%, respectively. With this method, stability studies demonstrated that kisspeptin-10 degraded rapidly with decomposition half-lives of 6.8 min, 2.9 min and 1.7 min at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 37 °C, respectively. The principal decomposition product was characterized as the N-terminal tyrosine deleted kisspeptin-10 46NWDSFGLRF-NH254. Pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that low ng/mL kisspeptin-10 was detected in the first few minutes, and eliminated rapidly and became undetectable 30 min after intravenous (i.v.) bolus administration of 1.0 mg/kg kisspeptin-10. PMID:23524040

  7. Enhanced production of functional extracellular single chain variable fragment against HIV-1 matrix protein from Escherichia coli by sequential simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Intachai, Kannaporn; Singboottra, Panthong; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2015-01-01

    The optimal culture condition for extracellular recombinant single chain variable fragment anti HIV-1 p17 protein (scFv anti-p17) production in Escherichia coli HB2151 was investigated by the sequential simplex optimization (SS) method. Five variable parameters were submitted in the fermentation process. The most favorable condition obtained from 19 independent experiments was as followed: 58 µM of IPTG induction to 1.7 OD600 nm at 25.5°C for 16 h with 202 rpm agitation rate. The amount of secreted scFv anti-p17 at the optimal condition was 38% higher than under the control condition. The binding activity of soluble extracellular scFv anti-p17 protein increased 95.5% and 73.2% in comparison with the control condition and non-optimized condition respectively. The soluble scFv anti-p17 from crude HB2151 lysated was subsequently purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with His-tag. The purified scFv anti-p17 was intact and retained its antigen-binding affinity against HIV-1 p17. We demonstrated that the sequential simplex optimization method was a key for exertion of high yield with fewer experimental requirements for acquiring of large scale secretory protein production.

  8. Double Gene Targeting Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay Discriminates Beef, Buffalo, and Pork Substitution in Frankfurter Products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Asing; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-08-17

    Beef, buffalo, and pork adulteration in the food chain is an emerging and sensitive issue. Current molecular techniques to authenticate these species depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays involving long and single targets which break down under natural decomposition and/or processing treatments. This novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeted two different gene sites for each of the bovine, buffalo, and porcine materials. This authentication ensured better security, first through a complementation approach because it is highly unlikely that both sites will be missing under compromised states, and second through molecular fingerprints. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND5 genes were targeted, and all targets (73, 90, 106, 120, 138, and 146 bp) were stable under extreme boiling and autoclaving treatments. Target specificity and authenticity were ensured through cross-amplification reaction and restriction digestion of PCR products with AluI, EciI, FatI, and CviKI-1 enzymes. A survey of Malaysian frankfurter products revealed rampant substitution of beef with buffalo but purity in porcine materials.

  9. Fragment-based de novo design of a cystathionine γ-lyase selective inhibitor blocking hydrogen sulfide production

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Angela; Severino, Beatrice; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Perissutti, Elisa; Santagada, Vincenzo; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cirino, Giuseppe; Kelly, Geoff; Servillo, Luigi; Popowicz, Grzegorz; Pastore, Annalisa; Caliendo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an essential catabolite that intervenes in the pathophysiology of several diseases from hypertension to stroke, diabetes and pancreatitis. It is endogenously synthesized mainly by two pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes involved in L-cysteine metabolism: cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Research in this field is currently impaired by the lack of pharmacological tools such as selective enzymatic inhibitors that could target specifically only one of these pathways. We used a novel approach based on a hybrid method that includes drug design, synthetic biology, metabolomics and pharmacological assays to rationally design a new inhibitor selective for the CSE enzyme. The identification of this compound opens new frontiers towards a better understanding of the role of CSE over CBS in the pathophysiology of diseases where a role for the H2S pathway has been proposed and the development of new lead compounds that could target the CSE enzyme. PMID:27708394

  10. Fragment screening and HIV therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Joseph D; Patel, Disha; Arnold, Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Fragment screening has proven to be a powerful alternative to traditional methods for drug discovery. Biophysical methods, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and surface plasmon resonance, are used to screen a diverse library of small molecule compounds. Although compounds identified via this approach have relatively weak affinity, they provide a good platform for lead development and are highly efficient binders with respect to their size. Fragment screening has been utilized for a wide range of targets, including HIV-1 proteins. Here, we review the fragment screening studies targeting HIV-1 proteins using X-ray crystallography or surface plasmon resonance. These studies have successfully detected binding of novel fragments to either previously established or new sites on HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. In addition, fragment screening against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase has been used as a tool to better understand the complex nature of ligand binding to a flexible target.

  11. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Where such aerosol products are used in the confines of a small room, as is often the case, the level of... inhaled at high concentrations. Studies also demonstrate carcinogenic effects in animals as a result of...

  12. Survey of undeclared egg allergen levels in the most frequently recalled food types (including products bearing precautionary labelling).

    PubMed

    Khuda, Sefat E; Sharma, Girdhari M; Gaines, Dennis; Do, Andrew B; Pereira, Marion; Chang, Michael; Ferguson, Martine; Williams, Kristina M

    2016-08-01

    Since the number of recalls involving undeclared allergens is commonly associated with bakery and snack foods, we aimed to determine the frequency of egg allergens in a large number of these products using two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Samples were chosen that either had no egg identified on the product label or which had an egg precautionary statement. Among all samples, egg protein was detected in 5% of products using a Morinaga (MO) kit and 1% of products using a R-Biopharm (RB) kit. For bakery samples, egg protein was detected in 6% of 363 samples with no precautionary labelling (6% by MO and 1% by RB kit) and 12% of 80 samples which had precautionary labelling. For snack samples, egg protein was detected in 2% of 371 samples with no precautionary labelling (2% by MO and < 1% by RB kit) and 5% of 21 samples which had precautionary labelling. The disagreement rates between two methods were 5.2% for bakery products and 2.6% for snack products. The sample repeatability was at an acceptable level for bakery (< 12.5%) and snack foods (< 7.5%) for each method. The relative standard deviation between test kits was high (103.1%) for bakery foods. Four bakery products without precautionary labelling had a higher level of egg protein per serving compared with the eliciting dose (ED10 of 3.7 mg protein) for egg allergic patients. These results highlight the fact that detection methodology plays a vital role for accurate labelling control and mitigation of risk for egg allergic consumers.

  13. A novel pathway of direct methane production and emission by eukaryotes including plants, animals and fungi: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangong; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiuan; Shen, Yan; Wang, Xue; Wang, Meng; Peng, Changhui

    2015-08-01

    Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 28 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). CH4 is responsible for approximately 20% of the Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Knowledge of the sources of CH4 is crucial due to the recent substantial interannual variability of growth rates and uncertainties regarding individual sources. The prevailing paradigm is that methanogenesis carried out by methanogenic archaea occurs primarily under strictly anaerobic conditions. However, in the past decade, studies have confirmed direct CH4 release from three important kingdoms of eukaryotes-Plantae, Animalia and Fungi-even in the presence of oxygen. This novel CH4 production pathway has been aptly termed "aerobic CH4 production" to distinguish it from the well-known anaerobic CH4 production pathway, which involves catalytic activity by methanogenic archaeal enzymes. In this review, we collated recent experimental evidence from the published literature and documented this novel pathway of direct CH4 production and emission by eukaryotes. The mechanisms involved in this pathway may be related to protective strategies of eukaryotes in response to changing environmental stresses, with CH4 a by-product or end-product during or at the end of the process(es) that originates from organic methyl-type compounds. Based on the existing, albeit uncertain estimates, plants seem to contribute less to the global CH4 budget (3-24%) compared to previous estimates (10-37%). We still lack estimates of CH4 emissions by animals and fungi. Overall, there is an urgent need to identify the precursors for this novel CH4 source and improve our understanding of the mechanisms of direct CH4 production and the impacts of environmental stresses. An estimate of this new CH4 source, which was not considered as a CH4 source by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013), could be useful for better quantitation of the global CH4 budget.

  14. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  15. An NLO QCD effective field theory analysis of W+W- production at the LHC including fermionic operators

    DOE PAGES

    Baglio, Julien; Dawson, Sally; Lewis, Ian M.

    2017-10-01

    We study the impact of anomalous gauge boson and fermion couplings on the production of W+W- pairs at the LHC. Helicity amplitudes are presented separately to demonstrate the sources of new physics contributions and the impact of QCD and electroweak corrections. The QCD corrections have important effects on the fits to anomalous couplings, in particular when one W boson is longitudinally polarized and the other is transversely polarized. In effective field theory language, we demonstrate that the dimension-6 approximation to constraining new physics effects in W+W- pair production fails at pT ~ 500 - 1000 GeV.

  16. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms.

  17. Utility of the Clostridial Site-Specific Recombinase TnpX To Clone Toxic-Product-Encoding Genes and Selectively Remove Genomic DNA Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vicki; Bantwal, Radhika; Stevenson, Lauren; Cheung, Jackie K.; Awad, Milena M.; Nicholson, Joel; Carter, Glen P.; Mackin, Kate E.; Rood, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    TnpX is a site-specific recombinase responsible for the excision and insertion of the transposons Tn4451 and Tn4453 in Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile, respectively. Here, we exploit phenotypic features of TnpX to facilitate genetic mutagenesis and complementation studies. Genetic manipulation of bacteria often relies on the use of antibiotic resistance genes; however, a limited number are available for use in the clostridia. The ability of TnpX to recognize and excise specific DNA fragments was exploited here as the basis of an antibiotic resistance marker recycling system, specifically to remove antibiotic resistance genes from plasmids in Escherichia coli and from marked chromosomal C. perfringens mutants. This methodology enabled the construction of a C. perfringens plc virR double mutant by allowing the removal and subsequent reuse of the same resistance gene to construct a second mutation. Genetic complementation can be challenging when the gene of interest encodes a product toxic to E. coli. We show that TnpX represses expression from its own promoter, PattCI, which can be exploited to facilitate the cloning of recalcitrant genes in E. coli for subsequent expression in the heterologous host C. perfringens. Importantly, this technology expands the repertoire of tools available for the genetic manipulation of the clostridia. PMID:24682304

  18. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    rotary hearth furnace . 15 Photo...Operation Equipment All mults processed during this project were heated to temperature in a Surface Combustion direct-fired rotary hearth furnace (figures...bottom) of rotary hearth furnace . 28 :■ ■.:-:.:._ o 4-) IH O •H u a. u o >, Q) > c o o 4-1 •H X OJ (U o 03 C u 3

  19. A semiempirical nuclear fragmentation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Badavi, F. F.

    1987-01-01

    An abrasion/ablation model of heavy ion fragmentation is derived which includes a second order correction for the surface energy term and provides a reasonable representation of the present elemental fragmentation cross sections. The full development of the model must await the resolution of disagreement among different experiments and an expansion of the experimental data base to a broader set of projectile-target combinations.

  20. Characterization of murine anti-human Fab antibodies for use in an immunoassay for generic quantification of human Fab fragments in non-human serum samples including cynomolgus monkey samples.

    PubMed

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Wessels, Uwe; Essig, Ulrich; Kowalewsky, Frank; Vogel, Rudolf; Heinrich, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Generic immunoassay formats in animal serum have been described for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of human full-length antibodies, but not of human antigen binding fragment (Fab) proteins. Here we characterize two murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) raised against human immunoglobulin G (IgG) which bind to unique epitopes in the Fab region of human IgG. mAb M-1.7.10 is directed against the constant domain of the kappa light chain and mAb M-1.19.31 binds to the constant domain 1 (CH1) of the heavy chain. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that mAb M-1.7.10 does not cross-react with sera from mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, marmoset, rhesus macaque, baboon and cynomolgus monkey, but binds to human and chimpanzee serum (dissociation constant K(D) of 6.8 × 10(-12) and 3.1 × 10(-11)M, respectively). mAb M-1.19.31 shows a higher K(D) for human and chimpanzee IgG (2.0 × 10(-9)M and 5.8 × 10(-10)M, respectively), but also does not bind to serum of the other species. Therefore, mAb M-1.7.10 was used as capture and mAb M-1.19.31 as detection reagent in a generic enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the human anti-IGF-1R Fab in mouse serum. The generic human Fab assay showed a limit of detection of 31.5 ng/mL anti-IGF-1R Fab. Intra- and inter-assay precision was less than 12% and the accuracy range for all controls was within ±20% of the target concentration. The generic human Fab ELISA was applied to determine serum levels of human anti-IGF-1R Fab after intravenous (iv) administration of 10mg/kg to mice. The resulting concentration-time profile was nearly identical to that obtained by analysis with a validated specific ELISA for anti-IGF-1R Fab. The mean relative concentration of anti-IGF-1R Fab analyzed by the generic assay was 82-118% of that of the specific assay. This equivalence was confirmed in a cynomolgus monkey study with the full length human mAb anti-TROP-2 IgG. Both specific ELISAs used mAb M-1.7.10 as detection reagent and their targets for

  1. Cephamycins, a New Family of β-Lactam Antibiotics I. Production by Actinomycetes, Including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n1

    PubMed Central

    Stapley, E. O.; Jackson, M.; Hernandez, S.; Zimmerman, S. B.; Currie, S. A.; Mochales, S.; Mata, J. M.; Woodruff, H. B.; Hendlin, D.

    1972-01-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  2. 76 FR 24534 - Columbia Forest Products, Inc., Presque Isle Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...-Site Leased Workers From Tempo, Presque Isle, Maine; Amended Revised Determination on Reconsideration... subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from TEMPO were employed on-site at the Presque Isle... certification to include workers leased from TEMPO working on-site at the Presque Isle, Maine location...

  3. 24 CFR 180.525 - Requests for production of documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including physical and mental examinations. 180.525... physical and mental examinations. (a) Any party may serve on any other party a request to: (1) Produce and... for the objection shall be stated. (d) Upon motion of any party, when the mental or physical condition...

  4. 24 CFR 180.525 - Requests for production of documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including physical and mental examinations. 180.525... physical and mental examinations. (a) Any party may serve on any other party a request to: (1) Produce and... for the objection shall be stated. (d) Upon motion of any party, when the mental or physical condition...

  5. 24 CFR 180.525 - Requests for production of documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including physical and mental examinations. 180.525... physical and mental examinations. (a) Any party may serve on any other party a request to: (1) Produce and... for the objection shall be stated. (d) Upon motion of any party, when the mental or physical condition...

  6. 24 CFR 180.525 - Requests for production of documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including physical and mental examinations. 180.525... physical and mental examinations. (a) Any party may serve on any other party a request to: (1) Produce and... for the objection shall be stated. (d) Upon motion of any party, when the mental or physical condition...

  7. 24 CFR 180.525 - Requests for production of documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including physical and mental examinations. 180.525... physical and mental examinations. (a) Any party may serve on any other party a request to: (1) Produce and... for the objection shall be stated. (d) Upon motion of any party, when the mental or physical condition...

  8. Single chain Fab (scFab) fragment.

    PubMed

    Hust, Michael; Jostock, Thomas; Menzel, Christian; Voedisch, Bernd; Mohr, Anja; Brenneis, Mariam; Kirsch, Martina I; Meier, Doris; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-03-08

    The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH) and and the variable part of the light chain (VL) by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv) was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv) fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab) with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd) and the light chain (LC), resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab), can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabDeltaC) connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1) and the constant part of the light chain (CL) were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies) as well as multimers were characterised. A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of common standard sera for detection.

  9. Single chain Fab (scFab) fragment

    PubMed Central

    Hust, Michael; Jostock, Thomas; Menzel, Christian; Voedisch, Bernd; Mohr, Anja; Brenneis, Mariam; Kirsch, Martina I; Meier, Doris; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH) and and the variable part of the light chain (VL) by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv) was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv) fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab) with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd) and the light chain (LC), resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab), can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC) connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1) and the constant part of the light chain (CL) were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies) as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of common standard sera

  10. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fazzolari, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) is investigating the use of monatomic chlorine produced in a cold plasma to recover oxygen and metallurgically significant metals from lunar materials. Development of techniques for the production of the chlorine radical (and other energetic radicals for these processes) using local planetary resources is a key step for a successful approach. It was demonstrated terrestrially that the use of UV light to energize the photogeneration of OH radicals from ozone or hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solutions can lead to rapid reaction rates for the breakdown of toxic organic compounds in water. A key question is how to use the expanded solar resource at the lunar surface to generate process-useful radicals. This project is aimed at investigating that question.

  11. A model of biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus including symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphatase production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Houlton, B.; Field, C. B.

    2006-12-01

    Global climate models have not yet considered the effects of nutrient cycles and limitation when forecasting carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere into the future. Using the principle of resource optimization, we here develop a new theory by which C, N and P cycles interact. Our model is able to replicate the observed responses of net primary production to nutrient additions in N-limited, N and P co-limited, and P-limited environments. Our framework identifies a new pathway by which N2 fixers can alter P availability: by investing in N-rich phosphorus liberation enzymes (phosphatases), fixers can greatly accelerate soil P availability and its cycling rates. This is critical for the successive invasion and establishment of N2 fixers into an N limited environment. We conclude that our model can be used to examine nutrient limitation broadly, and thus offers promise for coupling the biogeochemical system of C, N, and P to broader climate-system models.

  12. Simultaneous determination of four anti-dandruff agents including octopirox in shampoo products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chao, L

    2001-06-01

    A method based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitative determination of four anti-dandruff agents such as salicylic acid, ketoconazole, climbazole, octopirox in commercial anti-dandruff shampoo products. A symmetry C18 column (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) was used at temperature of 35 degrees C, mobile phase with flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) was acetonitrile: water (containing 10 mm potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 4.0, adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) = 60 : 40 (V/V) and UV detection at 224 nm and 305 nm. Samples were extracted with mobile phase by stirring and ultrasonic method. The average recoveries of four anti-dandruff agents were 98.0-104.1%. The relative standard deviations for samples were 0.11-0.90%. The method is simple, rapid and reproducible.

  13. Comparing the cancer potencies of emissions from vapourised nicotine products including e-cigarettes with those of tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Stephens, William E

    2017-08-04

    Quantifying relative harm caused by inhaling the aerosol emissions of vapourised nicotine products compared with smoking combustible tobacco is an important issue for public health. The cancer potencies of various nicotine-delivering aerosols are modelled using published chemical analyses of emissions and their associated inhalation unit risks. Potencies are compared using a conversion procedure for expressing smoke and e-cigarette vapours in common units. Lifetime cancer risks are calculated from potencies using daily consumption estimates. The aerosols form a spectrum of cancer potencies spanning five orders of magnitude from uncontaminated air to tobacco smoke. E-cigarette emissions span most of this range with the preponderance of products having potencies<1% of tobacco smoke and falling within two orders of magnitude of a medicinal nicotine inhaler; however, a small minority have much higher potencies. These high-risk results tend to be associated with high levels of carbonyls generated when excessive power is delivered to the atomiser coil. Samples of a prototype heat-not-burn device have lower cancer potencies than tobacco smoke by at least one order of magnitude, but higher potencies than most e-cigarettes. Mean lifetime risks decline in the sequence: combustible cigarettes > heat-not-burn > e-cigarettes (normal power)≥nicotine inhaler. Optimal combinations of device settings, liquid formulation and vaping behaviour normally result in e-cigarette emissions with much less carcinogenic potency than tobacco smoke, notwithstanding there are circumstances in which the cancer risks of e-cigarette emissions can escalate, sometimes substantially. These circumstances are usually avoidable when the causes are known. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The effect on climate change impacts for building products when including the timing of greenhouse gas emissions

    Treesearch

    Richard D Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap infrared radiation emitting from the Earth’s surface to generate the “greenhouse effect” thus keeping the planet warm. Many natural activities including rotting vegetation emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide to produce this natural affect. However, in the last 200 years or so, human activity has increased the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs...

  15. A model of biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus including symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphatase production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-P.; Houlton, B. Z.; Field, C. B.

    2007-03-01

    Global climate models have not yet considered the effects of nutrient cycles and limitation when forecasting carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere into the future. Using the principle of resource optimization, we here develop a new theory by which C, N, and P cycles interact. Our model is able to replicate the observed responses of net primary production to nutrient additions in N-limited, N- and P-colimited, and P-limited terrestrial environments. Our framework identifies a new pathway by which N2 fixers can alter P availability: By investing in N-rich, phosphorus liberation enzymes (phosphatases), fixers can greatly accelerate soil P availability and P cycling rates. This interaction is critical for the successful invasion and establishment of N2 fixers in an N-limited environment. We conclude that our model can be used to examine nutrient limitation broadly, and thus offers promise for coupling the biogeochemical system of C, N, and P to broader climate-system models.

  16. Multiparameter optimization method and enhanced production of secreted recombinant single-chain variable fragment against the HIV-1 P17 protein from Escherichia coli by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Paopang, Porntip; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2016-01-01

    The single-chain fragment variable (scFv) was used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advancements in antibody engineering have simplified the method of producing Fv fragments and made it more efficient and generally relevant. In a previous study, the scFv anti HIV-1 P17 protein was produced by a batch production system, optimized by the sequential simplex optimization method. This study continued that work in order to enhance secreted scFv production by fed-batch cultivation, which supported high volumetric productivity and provided a large amount of scFvs for diagnostic and therapeutic research. The developments in cell culture media and process parameter settings were required to realize the maximum production of cells. This study investigated the combined optimization methods, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and sequential simplex optimization, with the aim of optimize feed medium. Fed-batch cultivation with an optimal feeding rate was determined. The result demonstrated that a 20-mL/hr feeding rate of the optimized medium can increase cell growth, total protein production, and scFv anti-p17 activity by 4.43, 1.48, and 6.5 times more than batch cultivation, respectively. The combined optimization method demonstrated novel power tools for the optimization strategy of multiparameter experiments.

  17. Microbial gardening in the ocean's twilight zone: detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus: fragmentation of refractory detritus by zooplankton beneath the euphotic zone stimulates the harvestable production of labile and nutritious microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard; Giering, Sarah L C; Anderson, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Sinking organic particles transfer ∼10 gigatonnes of carbon into the deep ocean each year, keeping the atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly lower than would otherwise be the case. The exact size of this effect is strongly influenced by biological activity in the ocean's twilight zone (∼50-1,000 m beneath the surface). Recent work suggests that the resident zooplankton fragment, rather than ingest, the majority of encountered organic particles, thereby stimulating bacterial proliferation and the deep-ocean microbial food web. Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of 'microbial gardening', a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the 'gardener's' access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life. We demonstrate the potential gains that zooplankton stand to make from microbial gardening using a simple steady state model, and we suggest avenues for future research.

  18. What is included with your online e-cigarette order? An analysis of e-cigarette shipping, product and packaging features.

    PubMed

    Kong, Amanda Y; Derrick, Jason C; Abrantes, Anthony S; Williams, Rebecca S

    2016-06-29

    The electronic cigarette industry is growing, with youth using e-cigarettes at higher rates than they are using cigarettes, and retail and online sales projected to reach $10 billion in 2017. Minimal regulation of the production and marketing of e-cigarettes exists to date, which has allowed companies to promote unsupported claims. We assessed the shipping, product features and packaging of a wide variety of e-cigarettes purchased online by adults and youth. The most popular internet e-cigarette vendors were identified from a larger study of internet tobacco vendors. Between August 2013 and June 2014, adults made 56 purchase attempts from online vendors, and youth made 98 attempts. Packages received were assessed for exterior and internal packaging features, including product information, health warnings and additional materials. We analysed a total of 125 orders featuring 86 unique brands of e-cigarettes. The contents were rarely indicated on package exteriors. Product information came with just 60% of orders and just 38.4% included an instruction manual. Only 44.6% of products included a health warning, and some had unsupported claims, such as lack of secondhand smoke exposure. Additionally, some products were leaking e-liquid and battery fluid on arrival. A large variety of e-cigarette products are manufactured and marketed to consumers. Many products do not include instructions for use, and unsupported claims are being presented to consumers. Effective federal regulation of the manufacturing, packaging, product information and health claims surrounding e-cigarettes is necessary to ensure consumers are presented with accurate e-cigarette use information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Host cell interactome of HIV-1 Rev includes RNA helicases involved in multiple facets of virus production.

    PubMed

    Naji, Souad; Ambrus, Géza; Cimermančič, Peter; Reyes, Jason R; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Filbrandt, Rebecca; Huber, Michael D; Vesely, Paul; Krogan, Nevan J; Yates, John R; Saphire, Andrew C; Gerace, Larry

    2012-04-01

    The HIV-1 Rev protein plays a key role in the late phase of virus replication. It binds to the Rev Response Element found in underspliced HIV mRNAs, and drives their nuclear export by the CRM1 receptor pathway. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that Rev has additional functions in viral replication. Here we employed proteomics and statistical analysis to identify candidate host cell factors that interact with Rev. For this we studied Rev complexes assembled in vitro with nuclear or cytosolic extracts under conditions emulating various intracellular environments of Rev. We ranked the protein-protein interactions by combining several statistical features derived from pairwise comparison of conditions in which the abundance of the binding partners changed. As a validation set, we selected the eight DEAD/H box proteins of the RNA helicase family from the top-ranking 5% of the proteins. These proteins all associate with ectopically expressed Rev in immunoprecipitates of cultured cells. From gene knockdown approaches, our work in combination with previous studies indicates that six of the eight DEAD/H proteins are linked to HIV production in our cell model. In a more detailed analysis of infected cells where either DDX3X, DDX5, DDX17, or DDX21 was silenced, we observed distinctive phenotypes for multiple replication features, variously involving virus particle release, the levels of unspliced and spliced HIV mRNAs, and the nuclear and cytoplasmic concentrations of these transcripts. Altogether the work indicates that our top-scoring data set is enriched in Rev-interacting proteins relevant to HIV replication. Our more detailed analysis of several Rev-interacting DEAD proteins suggests a complex set of functions for the helicases in regulation of HIV mRNAs. The strategy used here for identifying Rev interaction partners should prove effective for analyzing other viral and cellular proteins.

  20. Host Cell Interactome of HIV-1 Rev Includes RNA Helicases Involved in Multiple Facets of Virus Production*

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Souad; Ambrus, Géza; Cimermančič, Peter; Reyes, Jason R.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Filbrandt, Rebecca; Huber, Michael D.; Vesely, Paul; Krogan, Nevan J.; Yates, John R.; Saphire, Andrew C.; Gerace, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The HIV-1 Rev protein plays a key role in the late phase of virus replication. It binds to the Rev Response Element found in underspliced HIV mRNAs, and drives their nuclear export by the CRM1 receptor pathway. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that Rev has additional functions in viral replication. Here we employed proteomics and statistical analysis to identify candidate host cell factors that interact with Rev. For this we studied Rev complexes assembled in vitro with nuclear or cytosolic extracts under conditions emulating various intracellular environments of Rev. We ranked the protein-protein interactions by combining several statistical features derived from pairwise comparison of conditions in which the abundance of the binding partners changed. As a validation set, we selected the eight DEAD/H box proteins of the RNA helicase family from the top-ranking 5% of the proteins. These proteins all associate with ectopically expressed Rev in immunoprecipitates of cultured cells. From gene knockdown approaches, our work in combination with previous studies indicates that six of the eight DEAD/H proteins are linked to HIV production in our cell model. In a more detailed analysis of infected cells where either DDX3X, DDX5, DDX17, or DDX21 was silenced, we observed distinctive phenotypes for multiple replication features, variously involving virus particle release, the levels of unspliced and spliced HIV mRNAs, and the nuclear and cytoplasmic concentrations of these transcripts. Altogether the work indicates that our top-scoring data set is enriched in Rev-interacting proteins relevant to HIV replication. Our more detailed analysis of several Rev-interacting DEAD proteins suggests a complex set of functions for the helicases in regulation of HIV mRNAs. The strategy used here for identifying Rev interaction partners should prove effective for analyzing other viral and cellular proteins. PMID:22174317

  1. Investigation of the performance of fermentation processes using a mathematical model including effects of metabolic bottleneck and toxic product on cells.

    PubMed

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Shiraishi, Fumihide

    2010-11-01

    A number of recent research studies have focused on theoretical and experimental investigation of a bottleneck in a metabolic reaction network. However, there is no study on how the bottleneck affects the performance of a fermentation process when a product is highly toxic and remarkably influences the growth and death of cells. The present work therefore studies the effect of bottleneck on product concentrations under different product toxicity conditions. A generalized bottleneck model in a fed-batch fermentation is constructed including both the bottleneck and the product influences on cell growth and death. The simulation result reveals that when the toxic product strongly influences the cell growth and death, the final product concentration is hardly changed even if the bottleneck is removed, whereas it is markedly changed by the degree of product toxicity. The performance of an ethanol fermentation process is also discussed as a case example to validate this result. In conclusion, when the product is highly toxic, one cannot expect a significant increase in the final product concentration even if removing the bottleneck; rather, it may be more effective to somehow protect the cells so that they can continuously produce the product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anthocyanin and flavonoid production from Perilla frutescens: pilot plant scale processing including cross-flow microfiltration and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Linghua; Lozano, Yves; Bombarda, Isabelle; Gaydou, Emile; Li, Bin

    2006-06-14

    Extraction and concentration at a pilot plant scale of anthocyanins and flavonoids from Perilla frutescens var. frutescens harvested in the Guangzhou area of China were investigated. The study of extraction efficiency using mineral acids and organic acids showed that 0.01 mol/L nitric acid was the most suitable to extract flavonoids from this slightly red leaf cultivar. The red extract contained 12 mg/L (as cyanidin equivalent) anthocyanins and other flavones. The multistep process included cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) with a ceramic type membrane, reverse osmosis (RO), and rotating evaporation (RE). The filtration fluxes were high and constant for CFM (150 L/h/m2 at 0.6 b) and for RO (22 L/h/m2 at 40 b). The red extract was concentrated 9.4 times by RO and then 5.4 times by RE. It contained 422 mg/L anthocyanins, representing 77% of the total extracted anthocyanin. The proportion of flavonoids was found unchanged during processing. The concentrated extract showed a pH of 2.7, and its free acidity was found to be 46% of the acidity added for extraction, because of the buffering capacity of the extract. At the concentration level reached, a crystallized deposit occurred and was identified as tartrate.

  3. Fragmentation contributions to J/ψ photoproduction at HERA

    DOE PAGES

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T.; Chung, Hee Sok; Kim, U-Rae; ...

    2015-10-28

    Here, we compute leading-power fragmentation corrections to J/ψ photoproduction at DESY HERA, making use of the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach. Our calculations include parton production cross sections through order α3s, fragmentation functions though order α2s, and leading logarithms of the transverse momentum divided by the charm-quark mass to all orders in αs. We find that the leading-power fragmentation corrections, beyond those that are included through next-to-leading order in αs, are small relative to the fixed-order contributions through next-to-leading order in αs. Consequently, an important discrepancy remains between the experimental measurements of the J/ψ photoproduction cross section and predictions that makemore » use of nonrelativistic-QCD long-distance matrix elements that are extracted from the J/ψ hadroproduction cross-section and polarization data.« less

  4. Fragmentation contributions to J/psi photoproduction at HERA

    DOE PAGES

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T.; Chung, Hee Sok; Kim, U-Rae; ...

    2015-10-28

    We compute leading-power fragmentation corrections to J/psi photoproduction at DESY HERA, making use of the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach. Our calculations include parton production cross sections through order alpha(2)(s), fragmentation functions though order alpha(2)(s), and leading logarithms of the transverse momentum divided by the charm-quark mass to all orders in as. We find that the leading-power fragmentation corrections, beyond those that are included through next-to-leading order in as, are small relative to the fixed-order contributions through next-to-leading order in as. Consequently, an important discrepancy remains between the experimental measurements of the J/psi photoproduction cross section and predictions that make usemore » of nonrelativistic-QCD long-distance matrix elements that are extracted from the J/psi hadroproduction cross-section and polarization data.« less

  5. Energetics of glass fragmentation: Experiments on synthetic and natural glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Natural silicate glasses are an essential component of many volcanic rock types including coherent and pyroclastic rocks; they span a wide range of compositions, occur in diverse environments, and form under a variety of pressure-temperature conditions. In subsurface volcanic environments (e.g., conduits and feeders), melts intersect the thermodynamically defined glass transition temperature to form glasses at elevated confining pressures and under differential stresses. We present a series of room temperature experiments designed to explore the fundamental mechanical and fragmentation behavior of natural (obsidian) and synthetic glasses (Pyrex™) under confining pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. In each experiment, glass cores are driven to brittle failure under compressive triaxial stress. Analysis of the load-displacement response curves is used to quantify the storage of energy in samples prior to failure, the (brittle) release of elastic energy at failure, and the residual energy stored in the post-failure material. We then establish a relationship between the energy density within the sample at failure and the grain-size distributions (D-values) of the experimental products. The relationship between D-values and energy density for compressive fragmentation is significantly different from relationships established by previous workers for decompressive fragmentation. Compressive fragmentation is found to have lower fragmentation efficiency than fragmentation through decompression (i.e., a smaller change in D-value with increasing energy density). We further show that the stress storage capacity of natural glasses can be enhanced (approaching synthetic glasses) through heat treatment.

  6. Coordination of copper(II) ions by the fragments of neuropeptide gamma containing D1, H9, H12 residues and products of copper-catalyzed oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Elżbieta; Pietruszka, Marta; Kowalik-Jankowska, Teresa

    2012-02-14

    A potentiometric, spectroscopic (UV-Vis, CD and EPR) and mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study of Cu(II) binding to the (1-2,7-21)NPG, Asp(1)-Ala-Ile(7)-Ser-His(9)-Lys-Arg-His(12)-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met(21)-NH(2), and Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG, Ac-Asp(1)-Ala-Ile(7)-Ser-His(9)-Lys-Arg-His(12)-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met(21)-NH(2), fragments of neuropeptide gamma were carried out. The results clearly indicate the stabilization of the 1 N {NH(2), β-COO(-)}, 2 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), N(Im)} and 3 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), 2N(Im)} complexes by the coordination of the β-carboxylate group of the D(1) residue. For the (1-2,7-21)NPG the CuH(2)L complex with 3 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), 2N(Im)}, the binding mode dominates in a wide pH range of 4-8.5. With the sequential increase of pH, deprotonated amide nitrogens are involved in copper coordination. For the Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG peptide the imidazole nitrogen atoms are the primary metal binding sites forming macrochelates in the pH range 4 to 7. The CuHL complex with 4 N {N(Im), N(-), N(-), N(Im)} coordination mode is formed in pH range 6-9. Deprotonation and co-ordination of the third amide nitrogen were detected at pH ∼8.6. Metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) of proteins is mainly a site-specific process in which one or a few amino acids at metal-binding sites on the protein are preferentially oxidized. To elucidate the products of the copper(II)-catalyzed oxidation of the (1-2,7-21)NPG and Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG, the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method and Cu(II)/hydrogen peroxide as a model oxidizing system were employed. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide with 1 : 4 peptide-H(2)O(2) molar ratio for the Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG peptide the oxidation of the methionine residue to methionine sulfoxide and for (1-2,7-21)NPG to sulfone was observed. For the Cu(II)-peptide-hydrogen peroxide in 1 : 1 : 4 molar ratio systems, oxidation of the histidine residues to 2-oxohistidines was detected. Under experimental

  7. Augmented generation of protein fragments during wakefulness as the molecular cause of sleep: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Varshavsky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive understanding of sleep regulation, the molecular-level cause and function of sleep are unknown. I suggest that they originate in individual neurons and stem from increased production of protein fragments during wakefulness. These fragments are transient parts of protein complexes in which the fragments were generated. Neuronal Ca2+ fluxes are higher during wakefulness than during sleep. Subunits of transmembrane channels and other proteins are cleaved by Ca2+-activated calpains and by other nonprocessive proteases, including caspases and secretases. In the proposed concept, termed the fragment generation (FG) hypothesis, sleep is a state during which the production of fragments is decreased (owing to lower Ca2+ transients) while fragment-destroying pathways are upregulated. These changes facilitate the elimination of fragments and the remodeling of protein complexes in which the fragments resided. The FG hypothesis posits that a proteolytic cleavage, which produces two fragments, can have both deleterious effects and fitness-increasing functions. This (previously not considered) dichotomy can explain both the conservation of cleavage sites in proteins and the evolutionary persistence of sleep, because sleep would counteract deleterious aspects of protein fragments. The FG hypothesis leads to new explanations of sleep phenomena, including a longer sleep after sleep deprivation. Studies in the 1970s showed that ethanol-induced sleep in mice can be strikingly prolonged by intracerebroventricular injections of either Ca2+ alone or Ca2+ and its ionophore (Erickson et al., Science 1978;199:1219–1221; Harris, Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1979;10:527–534; Erickson et al., Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1980;12:651–656). These results, which were never interpreted in connection to protein fragments or the function of sleep, may be accounted for by the FG hypothesis about molecular causation of sleep. PMID:22930402

  8. Fragmentation Analysis - Fundamental Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Wausau quartzite and anorthosite of 3.0 to 3.5 inch size were fragmented in this device. An analysis of the fragment distribution results of the drop...disc-shaped specimens of Wausau quartzite, anorthosite , and Felch marble were then fragmented with the impact pendulum device. Computer programs were

  9. The Zero-Degree Detector System for Fragmentation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Howell, L. W.; Kuznetsov, E.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross sections requires the detection and identification of individual projectile fragments. If light and heavy fragments are recorded in 'ne same detector, it may be impossible distinguish the signal from the light fragment. To overcome this problem, we have developed the Zero-Degree Detector System. The ZDDS enables the measurement of cross sections for light fragment production by using pixelated detectors to separately measure the signals of each fragment. The system has been used to measure the fragmentation of beams as heavy as Fe at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan.

  10. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  11. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Courtney S.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Montoya, Nelson I.; Stahl, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A selectable fragmentation warhead capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  12. Nuclear fragmentation database for GCR transport code development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Guetersloh, S.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Fukumura, A.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.; Sihver, L.

    2010-09-01

    A critical need for NASA is the ability to accurately model the transport of heavy ions in the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) through matter, including spacecraft walls, equipment racks, etc. Nuclear interactions are of great importance in the GCR transport problem, as they can cause fragmentation of the incoming ion into lighter ions. Since the radiation dose delivered by a particle is proportional to the square of (charge/velocity), fragmentation reduces the dose delivered by incident ions. The other mechanism by which dose can be reduced is ionization energy loss, which can lead to some particles stopping in the shielding. This is the conventional notion of shielding, but it is not applicable to human spaceflight since the particles in the GCR tend to be too energetic to be stopped in the relatively thin shielding that is possible within payload mass constraints. Our group has measured a large number of fragmentation cross sections, intended to be used as input to, or for validation of, NASA's radiation transport models. A database containing over 200 charge-changing cross sections and over 2000 fragment production cross sections has been compiled. In this report, we examine in detail the contrast between fragment measurements at large acceptance and small acceptance. We use output from the PHITS Monte Carlo code to test our assumptions using as an example 40Ar data (and simulated data) at a beam energy of 650 MeV/nucleon. We also present preliminary analysis in which isotopic resolution was attained for beryllium fragments produced by beams of 10B and 11B. Future work on the experimental data set will focus on extracting and interpreting production cross sections for light fragments.

  13. Selective Production of Electrostatically-Bound Adducts of Alkyl Cations/Polyoxoanions by the Collision-Induced Fragmentations of Their Quaternary Ammonium Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Xu, Chong; Fan, YanXuan; Fan, LinYuan; Zhang, XiuHui; Hu, ChangWen

    2013-06-01

    Solutions of the quaternary ammonium salts of a set of classic polyoxometalates (POMs) (Keggin [XM12O40]n-, Dawson [P2W18O62]6-, and Lindqvist [M6O19]2- (X = P, Si; M = W, Mo) were characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry. The gas-phase fragmentations of a series of quaternary ammonium-associated clusters were investigated by their collision-induced dissociations to elucidate their fragmentation mechanisms. It was found that the quaternary ammonium-associated clusters had distinctive dissociation characteristics. Moreover, the mono-quaternary ammonium-associated clusters, {NR4[POMs]}(n-1)-, shared a common fragmentation feature, that is, they decomposed exclusively into their respective alkyl cation-bound clusters irrespective of the different cation sizes and the different natures of the polyoxoanions. The optimized geometries and the binding energies of the mono cation-bound Lindqvist POM-based clusters were obtained by calculations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation of the gas-phase fragmentations of these noncovalent complexes between organic amines and inorganic POM anions by a combination of theory and mass spectrometry.

  14. Permeable Gas Flow Influences Magma Fragmentation Speed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, D.; Scheu, B.; Spieler, O.; Dingwell, D.

    2008-12-01

    Highly viscous magmas undergo fragmentation in order to produce the pyroclastic deposits that we observe, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The overpressure required to initiate fragmentation depends on a number of physical parameters, such as the magma's vesicularity, permeability, tensile strength and textural properties. It is clear that these same parameters control also the speed at which a fragmentation front travels through magma when fragmentation occurs. Recent mathematical models of fragmentation processes consider most of these factors, but permeable gas flow has not yet been included in these models. However, it has been shown that permeable gas flow through a porous rock during a sudden decompression event increases the fragmentation threshold. Fragmentation experiments on natural samples from Bezymianny (Russia), Colima (Mexico), Krakatau (Indonesia) and Augustine (USA) volcanoes confirm these results and suggest in addition that high permeable flow rates may increase the speed of fragmentation. Permeability from the investigated samples ranges from as low as 5 x 10-14 to higher than 9 x 10- 12 m2 and open porosity ranges from 16 % to 48 %. Experiments were performed for each sample series at applied pressures up to 35 MPa. Our results indicate that the rate of increase of fragmentation speed is higher when the permeability is above 10-12 m2. We confirm that it is necessary to include the influence of permeable flow on fragmentation dynamics.

  15. Merging, spinning and bouncing in catastrophic collisions: Consequences for final fragment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Benz, W.; Tanga, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2001-11-01

    We present new simulations of collisions between asteroids which take into account the production of gravitationally reaccumulated spinning bodies, using a procedure which divides the process into two phases. Using a 3D SPH hydrocode, the fragmentation of the solid target through crack propagation is first computed. Then the simulation of the gravitational evolution and possible reaccumulation of the resulting new fragments is performed using the parallel N-body code pkdgrav. Our first simulations succeeded in reproducing fundamental properties of some well-identified asteroid families. We have now included the possibility of fragments bouncing (instead of strictly merging) when collisions occur at high speed during the gravitational phase. We present comparisons of simulations in three different impact regimes, from highly catastrophic to barely disruptive, using different values of the coefficient of restitution. The largest fragment mass resulting from the reaccumulation of smaller fragments and the ejection velocities of these fragments remain statistically similar for each regime despite the different values of the coefficient of restitution. The final fragment size distribution is also unchanged in the barely disruptive regime, whereas fewer fragments at intermediate sizes seem to be produced at higher impact energy, due to high-speed collisions between fragments during the gravitational phase which prevent merging. Distributions of fragment spins have been analyzed and results are consistent with observations, which supports the idea that disruptive impacts destroy the memory of initial spin. We also observe the natural production of satellite systems around some fragments. We plan to continue our investigations using this procedure and to improve upon the modelling of fundamental physical effects during collisions.

  16. Fission-fragment excitation of metal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, Yu.V.; Yavlinskii, Yu.N.

    1987-08-01

    The authors mathematically formulate the formation and relaxation of excited-electron regions along the paths of fission fragments under conditions of first wall sputtering and ionization and fission fragment transport into the wall. Their model incorporates all collisional and absorptional aspects of energy transfer between fragments and electrons and includes thermal diffusion and heat transfer between electrons and the metal lattice. Interactions with quasi particles in the solid-state regime are also given consideration.

  17. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  18. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  19. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections for High LET Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear interaction cross sections are used in space radiation transport codes to calculate the probability of fragment emission in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Strong interactions usually dominate in these collisions, but electromagnetic (EM) interactions can also sometimes be important. Strong interactions typically occur when the projectile nucleus hits a target nucleus, with a small impact parameter. For impact parameters larger than the sum of the nuclear radii, EM reactions dominate and the process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) if one of the nuclei undergo fragmentation. Previous models of EMD have been used to calculate single proton (p) production, single neutron (n) production or light ion production, where a light ion is defined as an isotope of hydrogen (H) or helium (He), such as a deuteron (2H), a triton (3H), a helion (3He) or an alpha particle (4He). A new model is described which can also account for multiple nucleon production, such as 2p, 2n, 1p1n, 2p1n, 2p2n, etc. in addition to light ion production. Such processes are important to include for the following reasons. Consider, for example, the EMD reaction 56Fe + Al --> 52Cr + X + Al, for a 56Fe projectile impacting Al, which produces the high linear energy transfer (LET) fragment 52Cr. In this reaction, the most probable particles representing X are either 2p2n or 4He. Therefore, production of the high LET fragment 52Cr, must include the multiple nucleon production of 2p2n in addition to the light ion production of 4He. Previous models, such as the NUCFRG3 model, could only account for the 4He production process in this reaction and could not account for 2p2n. The new EMD model presented in this work accounts for both the light ion and multiple nucleon processes, and is therefore able to correctly account for the production of high LET products such as 52Cr. The model will be described and calculations will be presented that show the importance of light ion and multiple

  20. Structural characterization of intact proteins is enhanced by prevalent fragmentation pathways rarely observed for peptides

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Jennifer S.; Easterling, Michael L.; Agar, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    While collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) pathways for peptides are well characterized, those of intact proteins are not. We systematically assigned CAD product ions of ubiquitin, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin generated using high-yield, in-source fragmentation. Assignment of >98% of hundreds of product ions implies fragmentation pathways described are representative of major pathways. Protein dissociation mechanisms were found to be modulated by both source declustering potential and precursor ion charge state. Like peptides, higher charge states of proteins fragmented at lower energies next to Pro, via mobile protons, while lower charge states fragmented at higher energies after Asp and Glu, via localized protons. Unlike peptides, however, predominant fragmentation channels of proteins occurred at intermediate charge states via non-canonical mechanisms and produced extensive internal fragmentation. The non-canonical mechanisms include prominent cleavages C-terminal to Pro and Asn and N-terminal to Ile, Leu and Ser; these cleavages along with internal fragments led to a 45% increase in sequence coverage, improving the specificity of top-down protein identification. Three applications take advantage of the different mechanisms of protein fragmentation. First, modulation of declustering potential selectively fragments different charge states, allowing the source region to be used as the first stage of a low-resolution tandem mass spectrometer facilitating pseudo-MS3 of product ions with known parent charge states. Second, development and integration of automated modulation of ion funnel declustering potential allows users access to a particular fragmentation mechanism and yielding facile cleavage on a liquid chromatography timescale. Third, augmentation of a top-down search engine can improve protein characterization. PMID:20303285

  1. The Poincaré Group in a Demisemidirect Product with a Non-associative Algebra with Representations that Include Particles and Quarks—II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2009-12-01

    The quarks and particles’ mass and mass/spin relations are provided with coordinates in configuration space and/or momentum space by means of the marriage of ordinary Poincaré group representations with a non-associative algebra made through a demisemidirect product, in the notation of Leibniz algebras. Thus, we circumvent the restriction that the Poincaré group cannot be extended to a larger group by any means (including the (semi)direct product) to get even the mass relations. Finally, we will discuss a connection between the phase space representations of the Poincaré group and the phase space representations of the associated Leibniz algebra.

  2. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  4. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  5. HZEFRG1 - SEMIEMPIRICAL NUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    The high charge and energy (HZE), Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model, HZEFRG1, was developed to provide a computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program package for generating nuclear fragmentation databases. These databases can then be used in radiation transport applications such as space radiation shielding and dosimetry, cancer therapy with laboratory heavy ion beams, and simulation studies of detector design in nuclear physics experiments. The program provides individual element and isotope production cross sections for the breakup of high energy heavy ions by the combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei. The nuclear breakup contributions are estimated using an energy-dependent abrasion-ablation model of heavy ion fragmentation. The abrasion step involves removal of nucleons by direct knockout in the overlap region of the colliding nuclei. The abrasions are treated on a geometric basis and uniform spherical nuclear density distributions are assumed. Actual experimental nuclear radii obtained from tabulations of electron scattering data are incorporated. Nuclear transparency effects are included by using an energy-dependent, impact-parameter-dependent average transmission factor for the projectile and target nuclei, which accounts for the finite mean free path of nucleons in nuclear matter. The ablation step, as implemented by Bowman, Swiatecki, and Tsang (LBL report no. LBL-2908, July 1973), was treated as a single-nucleon emission for every 10 MeV of excitation energy. Fragmentation contributions from electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) processes, arising from the interacting Coulomb fields, are estimated by using the Weiszacker-Williams theory, extended to include electric dipole and electric quadrupole contributions to one-nucleon removal cross sections. HZEFRG1 consists of a main program, seven function subprograms, and thirteen subroutines. Each is fully commented and begins with a brief description of its

  6. HZEFRG1 - SEMIEMPIRICAL NUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    The high charge and energy (HZE), Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model, HZEFRG1, was developed to provide a computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program package for generating nuclear fragmentation databases. These databases can then be used in radiation transport applications such as space radiation shielding and dosimetry, cancer therapy with laboratory heavy ion beams, and simulation studies of detector design in nuclear physics experiments. The program provides individual element and isotope production cross sections for the breakup of high energy heavy ions by the combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei. The nuclear breakup contributions are estimated using an energy-dependent abrasion-ablation model of heavy ion fragmentation. The abrasion step involves removal of nucleons by direct knockout in the overlap region of the colliding nuclei. The abrasions are treated on a geometric basis and uniform spherical nuclear density distributions are assumed. Actual experimental nuclear radii obtained from tabulations of electron scattering data are incorporated. Nuclear transparency effects are included by using an energy-dependent, impact-parameter-dependent average transmission factor for the projectile and target nuclei, which accounts for the finite mean free path of nucleons in nuclear matter. The ablation step, as implemented by Bowman, Swiatecki, and Tsang (LBL report no. LBL-2908, July 1973), was treated as a single-nucleon emission for every 10 MeV of excitation energy. Fragmentation contributions from electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) processes, arising from the interacting Coulomb fields, are estimated by using the Weiszacker-Williams theory, extended to include electric dipole and electric quadrupole contributions to one-nucleon removal cross sections. HZEFRG1 consists of a main program, seven function subprograms, and thirteen subroutines. Each is fully commented and begins with a brief description of its

  7. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  8. Generalized fragmentation functions for fractal jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phenomenological implications. As an application, we present examples of fractal jet observables that are useful in discriminating quark jets from gluon jets.

  9. Simultaneous determination of multiclass preservatives including isothiazolinones and benzophenone-type UV filters in household and personal care products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ≥ 0.992, repeatability RSD values ˂9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products.

  10. The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Lynn W; Lawrence, Kendra L; Coleman, Russell E

    2009-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep loss; therefore, monitoring of vector impact and integrated use of personal protective measures (PPM) and methods to reduce the vector populations are needed to protect service members. The U.S. military has played a vital role in vector identification tools and the development and testing of many of the most effective PPM and vector control products available today, including the topical repellent DEET and the repellent/insecticide permethrin, which is applied to clothing and bed nets. Efforts to develop superior products are ongoing. Although the U.S. military often needs vector control products with rather specific properties (e.g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control.

  11. Role of heavy quarks in light hadron fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epele, Manuel; García Canal, Carlos; Sassot, R.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the role of heavy quarks in the production of light flavored hadrons and in the determination of the corresponding nonperturbative hadronization probabilities. We define a general mass variable flavor number scheme for fragmentation functions that accounts for heavy quark mass effects, and perform a global QCD analysis to an up-to-date data set including very precise Belle and BABAR results. We show that the mass dependent picture provides a much more accurate and consistent description of the data.

  12. Fragment Hazard Investigation Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    53 Ballistic Density (k) ............................................. 53 Ejection A ngle (a...54 Ejection Velocity (V) ................................................. 54 DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRICAL RELATION...5S 54 Fragment Weight Versus Gamma for Test QD-155-08 ......................... 56 55 Fragment Range Versus Ejection Angle as a Function of

  13. Fragments and Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Can teachers contact the inner coherence of mathematics while working in a context fragmented by always-new objectives, criteria, and initiatives? How, more importantly, can learners experience the inner coherence of mathematics while working in a context fragmented by testing, modular curricular, short-term learning objectives, and lessons that…

  14. Fragmentation of fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancey, Ryan T.; Oddershede, Lene; Harris, Frank E.; Sabin, John R.

    2003-04-01

    We have performed classical molecular-dynamics simulations of the fragmentation collisions of neutral fullerenes (C24, C60, C100, and C240) with a hard wall. The interactions between the carbon atoms are modeled by a Tersoff potential and the position of each carbon atom at each time step is calculated using a sixth-order predictor-corrector method. The statistical distribution of the fragments depends on impact energy. At low energies, the fragment distribution appears symmetric, with both the large and small fragment distributions well fitted by an exponential function of the same exponent, the value of which decreases with impact energy. At intermediate energies, the distribution of the smallest fragments can be fitted equally well by a power law or an exponential function. At high impact energies, the entire fragmentation pattern is well described by a single exponential function, the exponent increasing with energy. The observed tendencies in fragment distributions as well as the obtained exponents are in agreement with experimental observations. The fragmentation behavior of the four investigated fullerenes is very similar, and it is noted that C60 appears to be the most stable.

  15. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:7650207

  16. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-06-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.

  18. Fragmentation of Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittel, F.; Kun, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Kröplin, B. H.

    2004-07-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the fragmentation of closed thin shells made of a disordered brittle material. Experiments were performed on brown and white hen egg shells under two different loading conditions: impact with a hard wall and explosion by a combustible mixture. Both give rise to power law fragment size distributions. A three-dimensional discrete element model of shells is worked out. Based on simulations of the model, we give evidence that power law fragment mass distributions arise due to an underlying phase transition which proved to be abrupt for explosion and continuous for impact. We demonstrate that the fragmentation of closed shells defines a new universality class of fragmentation phenomena.

  19. CDP-choline reduces pro-caspase and cleaved caspase-3 expression, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and specific PARP-cleaved products of caspase activation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, J; Ferrer, I; Barrachina, M; Secades, J J; Mercadal, J; Lozano, R

    2002-05-01

    Citicoline has been demonstrated to be beneficial in several models of cerebral ischaemia. We tested the hypothesis that citicoline may provide apoptotic pathways following focal cerebral ischaemia. Focal cerebral ischaemia was produced by distal, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomised into four groups: (B+A) Citicoline 500 mg/kg IP 24 and 1 h before MCAO, and 23 h after MCAO; (A) citicoline 500 mg/kg IP, within 30 min after MCAO, and 23 h after MCAO; (C) vehicle IP; and (D) sham-operated. The animals were sacrificed at 12 h (n=8 per group) and 24 h (n=8 per group) after MCAO. Immunohistochemistry was performed on free-floating tissue sections with goat polyclonal antibodies to procaspase-1, -2, -3, -6 and -8, and in paraffin-embedded sections processed for cleaved caspase-3 (17 kDa) immunohistochemistry. Finally, some sections were stained with the method of in situ end-labelling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. For gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, antibodies to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) products of 89 kDa were used to reveal specific cleavage substrates of caspases. MCAO induced the expression of all procaspases and the expression of PARP products of 89 kDa, as well as cells with nuclear DNA fragmentation, at 12 and 24 h, in the infarcted core and penumbra. Citicoline reduced the expression of all procaspases at 12 and 24 h after MCAO, as well as the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in cells in the penumbra area. This was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells bearing nuclear DNA fragments. The expression of caspase-cleaved products of PARP (PARP 89 kDa) was reduced in citicoline-treated ischaemic rats. These results show that citicoline inhibits the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis following MCAO.

  20. Production of A=16, 20 and 24 in alpha-induced fragmentation of ^28Si at 102.7 (cm) MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Mohammad S.; Bary Malik, F.

    2004-10-01

    The emission probabilities of particles of mass numbers 16, 20 and 24 in 102.7 (cm) MeV alpha-induced fragmentation of ^28Si have been calculated using the statistical model of [1]. This model is distinct from the usual evaporation model in the sense that it takes into account the final state interaction between two emerging fragments. Calculated emission probabilities indicate that particles are emitted in all possible excited states commensurate with energy conservation law. The emission spectra as a function of excitation energy and the most probable kinetic energy associated with it will be presented. Calculated differential cross sections at 30^o for these masses are in agreement with the data of [2]. The final state interaction is obtained by a scaling procedure. The emission probabilities of different isotopes of these masses will also be presented. 1. B. Compani-Tabrizi and F. B. Malik, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 8, 1447 (1982). 2. L. W. Woo et al. Phys. Rev. C 47, 267 (1993).

  1. Isotopic Effects in Nuclear Fragmentation and GCR Transport Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    Improving the accuracy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment and transport models is an important goal in preparing for studies of the projected risks and the efficiency of potential mitigations methods for space exploration. In this paper we consider the effects of the isotopic composition of the primary cosmic rays and the isotopic dependence of nuclear fragmentation cross sections on GCR transport models. Measurements are used to describe the isotopic composition of the GCR including their modulation throughout the solar cycle. The quantum multiple-scattering approach to nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used as the data base generator in order to accurately describe the odd-even effect in fragment production. Using the Badhwar and O'Neill GCR model, the QMSFRG model and the HZETRN transport code, the effects of the isotopic dependence of the primary GCR composition and on fragment production for transport problems is described for a complete GCR isotopic-grid. The principle finding of this study is that large errors ( 100%) will occur in the mass-flux spectra when comparing the complete isotopic-grid (141 ions) to a reduced isotopic-grid (59 ions), however less significant errors 30%) occur in the elemental-flux spectra. Because the full isotopic-grid is readily handled on small computer work-stations, it is recommended that they be used for future GCR studies.

  2. Soft-x-ray fragmentation studies of molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Andreas; Pedersen, Henrik B.; Lammich, Lutz; Jordon-Thaden, Brandon; Altevogt, Simon; Domesle, Christian; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Förstel, Marko; Heber, Oded

    2010-10-01

    Imaging of photofragments from molecular ions after irradiation by soft x-ray photons has been realized at the ion beam infrastructure TIFF set up at the FLASH facility. Photodissociation of the two-electron system HeH+ at 38.7 eV revealed the electronic excitations and the charge-state ratios for the products of this process, reflecting the non-adiabatic dissociation dynamics through multiple avoided crossings among the HeH+ Rydberg potential curves. Dissociative ionization of the protonated water molecules H3O+ and H5O+2 at 90 eV revealed the main fragmentation pathways after the production of valence vacancies in these ionic species, which include a strong three-body channel with a neutral fragment (OH + H+ + H+) in H3O+ photolysis and a significant two-body fragmentation channel (H3O++ H2O+) in H5O+2 photolysis. The measurements yield absolute cross sections and fragment angular distributions. Increased precision and sensitivity of the technique were realized in recent developments, creating a tool for exploring x-ray excited molecular states under highly controlled target conditions challenging detailed theoretical understanding.

  3. The Poincaŕ group in a demisemidirect product with a non-associative algebra with representations that Include particles and quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2008-11-01

    The quarks have always been a puzzle, as have the particles' mass and mass/spin relations as they seemed to have no coordinates in configuration space and/or momentum space. The solution to this seems to lie in the marriage of ordinary Poincaré group representations with a non-associative algebra made through a demisemidirect product. Then, the work of G. Dixon applies; so, we may obtain all the relations between masses, mass and spin, and the attribution of position and momentum to quarks—this in spite of the old restriction that the Poincaré group cannot be extended to a larger group by any means (including the (semi)direct product) to get even the mass relations. Finally, we will briefly discuss a possible connection between the phase space representations of the Poincaré group and the phase space representations of the object we will obtain. This will take us into Leibniz (co)homology.

  4. QRS fragmentation is superior to QRS duration in predicting mortality in adults with tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Bokma, Jouke P; Winter, Michiel M; Vehmeijer, Jim T; Vliegen, Hubert W; van Dijk, Arie P; van Melle, Joost P; Meijboom, Folkert J; Post, Martijn C; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Mulder, Barbara J M; Bouma, Berto J

    2017-05-01

    Although QRS duration >180 ms has prognostic value in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), its sensitivity to predict mortality is low. Fragmented QRS complexes, a simple measurement on ECG, are related to myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in patients with TOF. Our objective was to determine whether QRS fragmentation predicts major outcomes in TOF. This multicentre study included adult patients with TOF from a prospective registry. Notches in the QRS complex in ≥2 contiguous leads on a 12-lead ECG, not related to bundle branch block, were defined as QRS fragmentation, which was classified as none, moderate (≤4 leads) or severe (≥5 leads). The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and clinical ventricular arrhythmia, respectively. A total of 794 adult patients with TOF (median age 27 years, 55% male; 52% no QRS fragmentation, 32% moderate, 16% severe) were included. During long-term (median 10.4 years) follow-up, 46 (6%) patients died and 35 (4%) patients had ventricular arrhythmias. Overall, 10-year survival was 98% in patients without fragmented QRS complexes, 93% in patients with moderate QRS fragmentation and 81% in patients with severe QRS fragmentation. In multivariable Cox hazards regression analysis, extent of QRS fragmentation (HR: 2.24/class, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.40, p<0.001) remained independently predictive for mortality, whereas QRS duration was not predictive (p=0.85). The extent of QRS fragmentation was also independently predictive for ventricular arrhythmia (HR: 2.00/class, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.16, p=0.003). The extent of QRS fragmentation is superior to QRS duration in predicting mortality in adult patients with TOF and may be used in risk stratification. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Nisin production in a chitin-including continuous fermentation system with Lactococcus lactis displaying a cell wall chitin-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ömer

    2014-03-01

    The limiting factors in the continuous production of nisin are high amount of biomass loss and low dilution rate application. In this study, a chitin-including continuous nisin fermentation system (CICON-FER) was constructed for high volumetric nisin production using nisin producer L. lactis displaying cell wall chitin-binding domain (ChBD) together with chitin in the reactor. In this respect, the highest binding conditions of relevant L. lactis cells to chitin were determined. Then the chitin flakes carrying nisin-producing L. lactis cells were used within the CICON-FER system at different dilution rates (0.1-0.9 h⁻¹) and initial glucose concentrations (20-60 g l⁻¹). The results revealed that the pH 7 conditions and the use of 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 % Tween 20 and Triton X-100 significantly increased the binding capacity of ChBD displaying L. lactis cells to chitin. The constructed CICON-FER system maintained the presence of the ChBD surface displaying L. lactis cells in the reactor system until 0.9 h⁻¹ dilution rate that resulted in a considerably high level of volumetric nisin production and productivity (10,500 IU ml⁻¹ and 9,450 IU ml⁻¹ h⁻¹, respectively) with the combination of a 0.9-h⁻¹ dilution rate and a 40-g l⁻¹ initial glucose concentration. In conclusion, an innovative nisin fermentation system that yielded the highest nisin production thus far and that was feasible for industrial application was created.

  6. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  7. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    PubMed

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  8. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  9. Golgi fragmentation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gunjan; Bekier, Michael E.; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an essential cellular organelle for post-translational modifications, sorting, and trafficking of membrane and secretory proteins. Proper functionality of the Golgi requires the formation of its unique cisternal-stacking morphology. The Golgi structure is disrupted in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a common mechanism and contribution of Golgi defects in neurodegenerative disorders. A recent study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) revealed that phosphorylation of the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 disrupts its function in Golgi structure formation, resulting in Golgi fragmentation. Inhibiting GRASP65 phosphorylation restores the Golgi morphology from Aβ-induced fragmentation and reduces Aβ production. Perturbing Golgi structure and function in neurons may directly impact trafficking, processing, and sorting of a variety of proteins essential for synaptic and dendritic integrity. Therefore, Golgi defects may ultimately promote the development of AD. In the current review, we focus on the cellular impact of impaired Golgi morphology and its potential relationship to AD disease development. PMID:26441511

  10. Universality in Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Holian, B. L.; Timonen, J.

    2000-04-01

    Fragmentation of a two-dimensional brittle solid by impact and ``explosion,'' and a fluid by ``explosion'' are all shown to become critical. The critical points appear at a nonzero impact velocity, and at infinite explosion duration, respectively. Within the critical regimes, the fragment-size distributions satisfy a scaling form qualitatively similar to that of the cluster-size distribution of percolation, but they belong to another universality class. Energy balance arguments give a correlation length exponent that is exactly one-half of its percolation value. A single crack dominates fragmentation in the slow-fracture limit, as expected.

  11. Recovery of Uranium Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. R.; McElrue, D. H.; Winter, R. E.

    2002-07-01

    We describe a theory for calculating the penetration of fragments into foam. Comparisons with regular projectiles show that the drag term is similar in value to the analogous term in aerodynamics. This, plus the simple model used to describe porosity, enables the theory to be used in predicting the levels of stress present when uranium fragments are arrested in foam catchers. Consequently the theory can be used to assist in the design of catchers which will not distort uranium fragments travelling at 1-3 km/s. The theory is tested against experiments using some current designs.

  12. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  13. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  14. Fragment Penetration Tests of Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-15

    Identify by block numbhr) Provides techniques for evaluating armor resistance to attack by HE projectile fragments. Includes static detonations of shell...DISTRIBUTION D. REFERENCES * . . . ........ . ........... D-1 1. SCOPE. This TOP describes the available techniques for testing armor for resistance to attack by...Projectiles Against Armor Plates ("Yankee Stadium" Test-). 4.1.1 hCjective. The objective is to determine the resistance to penetration of various armor

  15. Understanding Fragmentation of Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, Ted A.; Zhang, Yun; Hollenbeck, Brent K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancer survivors are particularly prone to the effects of a fragmented health care delivery system. The implications of fragmented cancer care across providers likely include greater spending and worse quality of care. For this reason, the authors measured relations between increasing fragmentation of cancer care, expenditures, and quality of care among prostate cancer survivors. METHODS A total of 67,736 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1992 and 2005 were identified using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data. Using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and a measure of the average number of prostate cancer providers over time, patients were sorted into 3 fragmentation groups (low, intermediate, and high). The authors then examined annual per capita survivorship expenditures and a measure of quality (ie, repetitive prostate-specific antigen [PSA] testing within 30 days) according to their fragmentation exposure using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS Patients with highly fragmented cancer care tended to be younger, white, and of higher socioeconomic status (all P < .001). Prostate cancer survivorship interventions were most common among patients with the highest fragmentation of care across providers (P < .001). After adjustment for clinical characteristics and prostate cancer survivorship interventions, higher degrees of fragmentation continued to be associated with repetitive PSA testing (13.6% for high vs 7.0% for low fragmentation; P < .001) and greater spending, particularly among patients not treated with androgen deprivation therapy. CONCLUSIONS Fragmented prostate cancer survivorship care is expensive and associated with potentially unnecessary services. Efforts to improve care coordination via current policy initiatives, electronic medical records, and the implementation of cancer survivorship tools may help to decrease fragmentation of care and mitigate downstream consequences for prostate cancer

  16. Fungal Fragments as Indoor Air Biocontaminants

    PubMed Central

    Górny, Rafał L.; Reponen, Tiina; Willeke, Klaus; Schmechel, Detlef; Robine, Enric; Boissier, Marjorie; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2002-01-01

    The aerosolization process of fungal propagules of three species (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Cladosporium cladosporioides) was studied by using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. We discovered that fungal fragments are aerosolized simultaneously with spores from contaminated agar and ceiling tile surfaces. Concentration measurements with an optical particle counter showed that the fragments are released in higher numbers (up to 320 times) than the spores. The release of fungal propagules varied depending on the fungal species, the air velocity above the contaminated surface, and the texture and vibration of the contaminated material. In contrast to spores, the release of fragments from smooth surfaces was not affected by air velocity, indicating a different release mechanism. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments cannot be predicted on the basis of the number of spores. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with monoclonal antibodies produced against Aspergillus and Penicillium fungal species showed that fragments and spores share common antigens, which not only confirmed the fungal origin of the fragments but also established their potential biological relevance. The considerable immunological reactivity, the high number, and the small particle size of the fungal fragments may contribute to human health effects that have been detected in buildings with mold problems but had no scientific explanation until now. This study suggests that future fungal spore investigations in buildings with mold problems should include the quantitation of fungal fragments. PMID:12089037

  17. CO{sub 2} corrosion model for carbon steel including a wall shear stress model for multiphase flow and limits for production rate to avoid mesa attack

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, A.M.K.; Santvedt, T.

    1999-11-01

    A corrosion rate model is developed for carbon steel in water containing CO{sub 2} at different temperatures, pH`s, CO{sub 2} fugacities and wall shear stresses. The model is based on loop experiments at temperatures from 20--160 C. The data are taken from a database containing more than 2,400 data points at various temperatures, CO{sub 2} fugacities, pH`s and wall shear stresses. To find the best fit of the data, data for each temperature present in the data base was evaluated separately to find typical trends for the change in corrosion rate versus CO{sub 2} fugacity, wall shear stress and pH. To facilitate use of the corrosion model a simplified method for calculating wall shear stress in multiphase flow is included. This model includes a viscosity model for dispersions and is developed for oil wet and water wet flow. Criteria for the maximum production rate to avoid mesa attach in straight sections and behind welds is also included.

  18. Acute dengue virus 2 infection in Gabonese patients is associated with an early innate immune response, including strong interferon alpha production.

    PubMed

    Becquart, Pierre; Wauquier, Nadia; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Padilla, Cindy; Souris, Marc; Leroy, Eric M

    2010-12-17

    Dengue is now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the tropics. We conducted the first ex vivo study of dengue fever (DF) in African patients infected during the first Gabonese dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) outbreak in 2007, in order to investigate cytokine production, including the antiviral cytokine IFN-α, reported to be a potent inhibitor of DENV replication in vitro. Levels of 50 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were measured in plasma from 36 patients with DENV-2 infection, and in uninfected controls, using Luminex multiplex technology. The results were interpreted according to the day of sampling after symptom onset. PBMC from six patients were also studied for T lymphocyte cell surface marker expression by flow cytometry. Acute DENV-2 infection elicited high levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-17), chemokines (MIF, RANTES, IP-10 and MCP-1) and growth factors (G-CSF, GM-CSF and VEGF-A). We also observed high levels of IFN-α for the first time in adult DF patients, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation at symptom onset. Acute DENV-2 infection in African patients elicits a strong innate response involving IFN-α production, as well as an adaptive immune response.

  19. Acute dengue virus 2 infection in Gabonese patients is associated with an early innate immune response, including strong interferon alpha production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue is now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the tropics. We conducted the first ex vivo study of dengue fever (DF) in African patients infected during the first Gabonese dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) outbreak in 2007, in order to investigate cytokine production, including the antiviral cytokine IFN-α, reported to be a potent inhibitor of DENV replication in vitro. Methods Levels of 50 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were measured in plasma from 36 patients with DENV-2 infection, and in uninfected controls, using Luminex multiplex technology. The results were interpreted according to the day of sampling after symptom onset. PBMC from six patients were also studied for T lymphocyte cell surface marker expression by flow cytometry. Results Acute DENV-2 infection elicited high levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-17), chemokines (MIF, RANTES, IP-10 and MCP-1) and growth factors (G-CSF, GM-CSF and VEGF-A). We also observed high levels of IFN-α for the first time in adult DF patients, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation at symptom onset. Conclusion Acute DENV-2 infection in African patients elicits a strong innate response involving IFN-α production, as well as an adaptive immune response. PMID:21167041

  20. Production, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray analysis of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin complex consisting of troponin C and fragment (1-47) of troponin I.

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Y.; Takeda, S.; Scherer, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Maéda, Y.; Taniguchi, H.; Yao, M.; Wakatsuki, S.

    1997-01-01

    Troponin is a ternary protein complex consisting of subunits TnC. TnI, and TnT, and plays a key role in calcium regulation of the skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. In the present study, a partial complex (CI47) was prepared from Escherichia coli-expressed rabbit skeletal muscle TnC and fragment 1-47 of TnI, which is obtained by chemical cleavage of an E. coli-expressed mutant of rabbit skeletal muscle TnI. Within the ternary troponin complex, CI47 is thought to form a core that is resistant to proteolytic digestion, and the interaction within CI47 likely maintains the integrity of the troponin complex. Complex CI47 was crystallized in the presence of sodium citrate. The addition of trehalose improved the diffraction pattern of the crystals substantially. The crystal lattice belongs to the space group P3(1)(2)21, with unit cell dimensions a = b = 48.2 A, c = 162 A. The asymmetric unit presumably contains one CI47 complex. Soaking with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (PCMBS) resulted in loss of isomorphism, but enhanced the quality of the crystals. The crystals diffracted up to 2.3 A resolution, with completeness of 91% and R(merge) = 6.4%. The crystals of PCMBS-derivative should be suitable for X-ray studies using the multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction technique. This is the first step for elucidating the structure of the full troponin complex. PMID:9098903

  1. Production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a complex between a fragment of the TssM T6SS protein and a camelid nanobody

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van Son; Spinelli, Silvia; Desmyter, Aline; Le, Thi Thu Hang; Kellenberger, Christine; Cascales, Eric; Cambillau, Christian; Roussel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a machine evolved by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxin effectors into target bacterial or eukaryotic cells. The T6SS is functionally and structurally similar to the contractile tail of the Myoviridae family of bacteriophages and can be viewed as a syringe anchored to the bacterial membrane by a transenvelope complex. The membrane complex is composed of three proteins: the TssM and TssL inner membrane components and the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. The TssM protein is central as it interacts with both TssL and TssJ, therefore linking the membranes. Using controlled trypsinolysis, a 32.4 kDa C-terminal fragment of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli TssM (TssM32Ct) was purified. A nanobody obtained from llama immunization, nb25, exhibited subnanomolar affinity for TssM32Ct. Crystals of the TssM32Ct–nb25 complex were obtained and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P64, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.23, c = 172.95 Å. Molecular replacement with a model nanobody indicated the presence of a dimer of TssM32Ct–nb25 in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25760699

  2. Workflow Design Using Fragment Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, Sébastien; Blay-Fornarino, Mireille; France, Robert

    The Service-Oriented Architecture (Soa) paradigm supports the assembly of atomic services to create applications that implement complex business processes. Assembly can be accomplished by service orchestrations defined by Soa architects. The Adore method allows Soa architects to model complex orchestrations of services by composing models of smaller orchestrations called orchestration fragments. The Adore method can also be used to weave fragments that address new concerns into existing application models. In this paper we illustrate how the Adore method can be used to separate and compose process aspects in a Soa design of the Car Crash Crisis Management System. The paper also includes a discussion of the benefits and limitations of the Adore method.

  3. Filamentary fragmentation in a turbulent medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hubber, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations investigating the evolution and fragmentation of filaments that are accreting from a turbulent medium. We show that the presence of turbulence and the resulting inhomogeneities in the accretion flow play a significant role in the fragmentation process. Filaments that experience a weakly turbulent accretion flow fragment in a two-tier hierarchical fashion, similar to the fragmentation pattern seen in the Orion Integral Shaped Filament. Increasing the energy in the turbulent velocity field results in more sub-structure within the filaments, and one sees a shift from gravity-dominated fragmentation to turbulence-dominated fragmentation. The sub-structure formed in the filaments is elongated and roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the filament, similar to the fibres seen in observations of Taurus, and suggests that the fray and fragment scenario is a possible mechanism for the production of fibres. We show that the formation of these fibre-like structures is linked to the vorticity of the velocity field inside the filament and the filament's accretion from an inhomogeneous medium. Moreover, we find that accretion is able to drive and sustain roughly sonic levels of turbulence inside the filaments, but is not able to prevent radial collapse once the filaments become supercritical. However, the supercritical filaments that contain fibre-like structures do not collapse radially, suggesting that fibrous filaments may not necessarily become radially unstable once they reach the critical line-density.

  4. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone: a perspective for managers

    Treesearch

    John Faaborg; Margaret Brittingham; Therese Donovan; John Blake

    1993-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation occurs when a large, fairly continuous tract of vegetation is converted to other vegetation types such that only scattered fragments of the original type remain. Problems associated with habitat fragmentation include overall habitat loss, increase in edge habitat and edge effects (particularly higher parasitism and nest predation rates), and...

  5. The effect of coupling on bubble fragmentation acoustics.

    PubMed

    Czerski, Helen; Deane, Grant B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of bubble populations is important in a wide range of situations, including industrial processes, medical applications, and ocean science. Passive acoustical techniques can be used to track changes in the population, since each bubble formation or fragmentation event is likely to produce sound. This sound potentially contains a wealth of information about the fragmentation process and the products, but to fully exploit these data it is necessary to understand the physical processes that determine its characteristics. The focus of this paper is binary fragmentation, when turbulence causes one bubble to split into two. Specifically, the effect that bubble-bubble coupling has on the sound produced is examined. A numerical simulation of the acoustical excitation of fragmenting bubbles is used to generate model acoustic signals, which are compared with experimental data. A frequency range with a suppressed acoustic output which is observed in the experimental data can be explained when coupling is taken into account. In addition, although the driving mechanism of neck collapse is always consistent with the data for the larger bubble of the newly formed pair, a different mechanism must be driving the smaller bubble in some situations.

  6. DNA sequence from Cretaceous period bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Woodward, S R; Weyand, N J; Bunnell, M

    1994-11-18

    DNA was extracted from 80-million-year-old bone fragments found in strata of the Upper Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation in the roof of an underground coal mine in eastern Utah. This DNA was used as the template in a polymerase chain reaction that amplified and sequenced a portion of the gene encoding mitochondrial cytochrome b. These sequences differ from all other cytochrome b sequences investigated, including those in the GenBank and European Molecular Biology Laboratory databases. DNA isolated from these bone fragments and the resulting gene sequences demonstrate that small fragments of DNA may survive in bone for millions of years.

  7. Syntaxin 5 interacts with presenilin holoproteins, but not with their N- or C-terminal fragments, and affects β-amyloid peptide production

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in presenilins 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) account for the majority of cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. However, the trafficking and interaction of PSs with other proteins in the early secretory pathways are poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that PS bound to Syx5 (syntaxin 5), which is a target-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi vesicular transport in vivo. Syx5 interacted only with the full-length PS holoproteins and not with the naturally occurring N- or C-terminal fragments. The PS holoproteins co-immunoprecipitated with the mutant Syx5, which localized to the ER and Golgi compartments, despite the substitution of the transmembrane region with that of syntaxin 1A. In contrast, the transmembrane deletion mutant that localized to the cytosol, but not to the ER or Golgi compartments, did not co-immunoprecipitate the PS holoproteins. The PS1 variant linked to familial Alzheimer's disease (PS1ΔE9), lacking the region that contains the endoproteolytic cleavage site in the cytoplasmic loop, showed markedly decreased binding to Syx5. Immunofluorescence and sucrose-density-gradient fractionation analyses showed that the full-length PS holoproteins co-localized with Syx5 to the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Furthermore, Syx5 overexpression resulted in the accumulation of PS holoproteins and the β-amyloid precursor protein, and reduced the secretion of the Aβ (amyloid β) peptide in COS-7 cells. In summary, these results indicate that Syx5 binds to full-length PSs and affects the processing and trafficking of β-amyloid precursor protein in the early secretory compartments. PMID:15109302

  8. Autism genes are selectively targeted by environmental pollutants including pesticides, heavy metals, bisphenol A, phthalates and many others in food, cosmetics or household products.

    PubMed

    Carter, C J; Blizard, R A

    2016-10-27

    The increasing incidence of autism suggests a major environmental influence. Epidemiology has implicated many candidates and genetics many susceptibility genes. Gene/environment interactions in autism were analysed using 206 autism susceptibility genes (ASG's) from the Autworks database to interrogate ∼1 million chemical/gene interactions in the comparative toxicogenomics database. Any bias towards ASG's was statistically determined for each chemical. Many suspect compounds identified in epidemiology, including tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, pesticides, particulate matter, benzo(a)pyrene, heavy metals, valproate, acetaminophen, SSRI's, cocaine, bisphenol A, phthalates, polyhalogenated biphenyls, flame retardants, diesel constituents, terbutaline and oxytocin, inter alia showed a significant degree of bias towards ASG's, as did relevant endogenous agents (retinoids, sex steroids, thyroxine, melatonin, folate, dopamine, serotonin). Numerous other suspected endocrine disruptors (over 100) selectively targeted ASG's including paraquat, atrazine and other pesticides not yet studied in autism and many compounds used in food, cosmetics or household products, including tretinoin, soy phytoestrogens, aspartame, titanium dioxide and sodium fluoride. Autism polymorphisms influence the sensitivity to some of these chemicals and these same genes play an important role in barrier function and control of respiratory cilia sweeping particulate matter from the airways. Pesticides, heavy metals and pollutants also disrupt barrier and/or ciliary function, which is regulated by sex steroids and by bitter/sweet taste receptors. Further epidemiological studies and neurodevelopmental and behavioural research is warranted to determine the relevance of large number of suspect candidates whose addition to the environment, household, food and cosmetics might be fuelling the autism epidemic in a gene-dependent manner.

  9. Delivery of gene-expressing fragments using quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Hanada, Sanshiro; Fujioka, Kouki; Yasuhara, Masato; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive approach to supplement a deficient gene function. Although there has been some success with specific gene delivery using various methods including viral vectors and liposomes, most of these methods have a limited efficiency or also carry a risk for oncogenesis. Fluorescent nanoparticles, such as nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs), have potential to be applied to molecular biology and bioimaging, since some nanocrystals emit higher and longer lasting fluorescence than conventional organic probes do. We herein report that quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with nuclear localizing signal peptides (NLSP) successfully introduced the gene-fragments with promoter elements, which promoted the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene in mammalian cells. The expression of eGFP protein was observed when the QD/geneconstruct was added to the culture media. The gene-expression efficiency varied depending on multiple factors around QDs, such as 1) the reading direction of gene fragments, 2) the quantity of gene fragments attached on the surface of QD-constructs, 3) the surface electronic charges varied according to the structure of QD/gene-constructs, and 4) the particle size of QD/gene complex varied according to the structure and amounts of gene fragments. Using this QD/geneconstruct system, eGFP protein could be detected 28 days after the gene-introduction whereas the fluorescence of QDs was disappeared. This system therefore provides another method for the intracellular delivery of gene-fragments without using either viral vectors or specific liposomes. These results suggest that inappropriate treatment and disposal of QDs may still have risks to the environmental pollution including human health under certain conditions. Here we propose the further research for the immune and physiological responses in not only immune cells but also other cells, in order to clear the effect of all other nanoscale products as well as nanocrystal

  10. FT-midIR determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, in bakery products after focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jiménez, J; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2006-08-01

    A study of the feasibility of Fourier transform medium infrared spectroscopy (FT-midIR) for analytical determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, is presented. The training and validation sets-75% (102 samples) and 25% (36 samples) of the samples once the spectral outliers have been removed-to develop FT-midIR general equations, were built with samples from 140 commercial and home-made bakery products. The concentration of the analytes in the samples used for this study is within the typical range found in these kinds of products. Both sets were independent; thus, the validation set was only used for testing the equations. The criterion used for the selection of the validation set was samples with the highest number of neighbours and the most separation between them (H<0.6). Partial least squares regression and cross validation were used for multivariate calibration. The FT-midIR method does not require post-extraction manipulation and gives information about the fatty acid profile in two min. The 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:2 fatty acids can be determined with excellent precision and other fatty acids with good precision according to the Shenk criteria, R (2)>/=0.90, SEP=1-1.5 SEL and R (2)=0.70-0.89, SEP=2-3 SEL, respectively. The results obtained with the proposed method were compared with those provided by the conventional method based on GC-MS. At 95% significance level, the differences between the values obtained for the different fatty acids were within the experimental error.

  11. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  12. The acoustic excitation of air bubbles fragmenting in sheared flow.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale

    2008-12-01

    An analysis of the acoustic emissions of air bubbles fragmenting in sheared fluid flow is presented. The fragmentation of bubbles into two products only is considered. While the measured pressure amplitude is highly variable, the partition of energy between fragmentation products is highly correlated. The partition of energy between products is, on average, approximately equal irrespective of the relative sizes of the bubble products. This observation suggests that the acoustic excitation mechanism is common to both bubbles immediately prior to fragmentation. A model for the excitation mechanism based on symmetric collapse of the neck of air joining fragmentation products is proposed and found to be sufficient to explain the range of observed bubble pulse amplitudes and the equal partition of energy.

  13. String Fragmentation Model in Space Radiation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Alfred; Johnson, Eloise (Editor); Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    String fragmentation models such as the Lund Model fit experimental particle production cross sections very well in the high-energy limit. This paper gives an introduction of the massless relativistic string in the Lund Model and shows how it can be modified with a simple assumption to produce formulas for meson production cross sections for space radiation research. The results of the string model are compared with inclusive pion production data from proton-proton collision experiments.

  14. The transcriptional response of Listeria monocytogenes during adaptation to growth on lactate and diacetate includes synergistic changes that increase fermentative acetoin production.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Wiedmann, Martin; Bergholz, Teresa M

    2011-08-01

    The organic acids lactate and diacetate are commonly used in combination in ready-to-eat foods because they show synergistic ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Full-genome microarrays were used to investigate the synergistic transcriptomic responses of two L. monocytogenes strains, H7858 (serotype 4b) and F6854 (serotype 1/2a), to these two organic acids under conditions representing osmotic and cold stress encountered in foods. Strains were exposed to brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 7°C with 4.65% water-phase (w.p.) NaCl at pH 6.1 with (i) 2% w.p. potassium lactate, (ii) 0.14% w.p. sodium diacetate, (iii) the combination of both at the same levels, or (iv) no organic acids as a control. RNA was extracted 8 h after exposure, during lag phase, to capture gene transcription changes during adaptation to the organic acid stress. Significant differential transcription of 1,041 genes in H7858 and 640 genes in F6854 was observed in at least one pair of the 4 different treatments. The effects of combined treatment with lactate and diacetate included (i) synergistic transcription differences for 474 and 209 genes in H7858 and F6854, respectively, (ii) differential transcription of genes encoding cation transporters and ABC transporters of metals, and (iii) altered metabolism, including induction of a nutrient-limiting stress response, reduction of menaquinone biosynthesis, and a shift from fermentative production of acetate and lactate to energetically less favorable, neutral acetoin. These data suggest that additional treatments that interfere with cellular energy generation processes could more efficiently inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  15. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Treesearch

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  16. Enhanced Fragmentation Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Hardware Front Hardware Top Figure 8 Front View Top View The figure 8 shows a Lagrangian mesh from Ls- Dyna3D of this...predictions. Ls- Dyna3D has been shown to be extremely useful in predicting the trajectories of each fragment. Figure 11 shows this control and predictive

  17. Comment on diquark fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fredriksson, S.; Larsson, T.

    1983-07-01

    We discuss diquark fragmentation and suggest that a spectator uu system in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering has a larger breakup probability than a ud system. The reason for this is argued to be that half of the leftover ud systems are in bound (ud)/sub 0/ diquark configurations, while no such bound uu diquarks exist.

  18. Target fragmentation in radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Shinn, J.L.; Townsend, L.W.

    1993-02-01

    Nuclear reactions in biological systems produce low-energy fragments of the target nuclei seen as local high events of linear energy transfer (LET). A nuclear-reaction formalism is used to evaluate the nuclear-induced fields within biosystems and their effects within several biological models. On the basis of direct ionization interaction, one anticipates high-energy protons to have a quality factor and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of unity. Target fragmentation contributions raise the effective quality factor of 10 GeV protons to 3.3 in reasonable agreement with RBE values for induced micronuclei in bean sprouts. Application of the Katz model indicates that the relative increase in RBE with decreasing exposure observed in cell survival experiments with 160 MeV protons is related solely to target fragmentation events. Target fragment contributions to lens opacity given an RBE of 1.4 for 2 GeV protons in agreement with the work of Lett and Cox. Predictions are made for the effective RBE for Harderian gland tumors induced by high-energy protons. An exposure model for lifetime cancer risk is derived from NCRP 98 risk tables, and protraction effects are examined for proton and helium ion exposures. The implications of dose rate enhancement effects on space radiation protection are considered.

  19. Target fragmentation in radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear reactions in biological systems produce low-energy fragments of the target nuclei seen as local high events of linear energy transfer (LET). A nuclear-reaction formalism is used to evaluate the nuclear-induced fields within biosystems and their effects within several biological models. On the basis of direct ionization interaction, one anticipates high-energy protons to have a quality factor and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of unity. Target fragmentation contributions raise the effective quality factor of 10 GeV protons to 3.3 in reasonable agreement with RBE values for induced micronuclei in bean sprouts. Application of the Katz model indicates that the relative increase in RBE with decreasing exposure observed in cell survival experiments with 160 MeV protons is related solely to target fragmentation events. Target fragment contributions to lens opacity given an RBE of 1.4 for 2 GeV protons in agreement with the work of Lett and Cox. Predictions are made for the effective RBE for Harderian gland tumors induced by high-energy protons. An exposure model for lifetime cancer risk is derived from NCRP 98 risk tables, and protraction effects are examined for proton and helium ion exposures. The implications of dose rate enhancement effects on space radiation protection are considered.

  20. The Fragmentation of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have vastly increased access to information and educational opportunities. Steadily increasing consumer demand is driving the development of online educational materials. The end result may be a "fragmentation" of learning involving multiple learning providers and delivery modes,…

  1. Effects of polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene on lymphocyte pro-inflammatory cytokine production of senior horses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Siard, Melissa H; McMurry, Kellie E; Adams, Amanda A

    2016-05-01

    Senior horses (aged ≥ 20 years) exhibit increased chronic, low-grade inflammation systemically, termed inflamm-aging. Inflammation is associated with many afflictions common to the horse, including laminitis and osteoarthritis, which are commonly treated with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. Although these NSAIDs are effective in treating acute inflammatory problems, long-term treatment with NSAIDs can result in negative side effects. Thus, bioactive polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene were investigated to determine their effectiveness as anti-inflammatory agents in vitro. Heparinized blood was collected via jugular venipuncture from senior horses (n = 6; mean age = 26 ± 2 years), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated using a Ficoll density gradient. PBMC were then incubated 22 h at 37°C, 5% CO2 with multiple concentrations (320, 160, 80, 40, 20, 10 μM) of all five polyphenols (curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene), dissolved in DMSO to achieve the aforementioned concentrations. PBMC were stimulated the last 4h of the incubation period with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin and Brefeldin A (BFA). A Vicell-XR counter evaluated cell viability following incubation. PBMC were stained intracellularly for interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and analyzed via flow cytometry. Data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Viability of PBMC incubated with various compound concentrations were compared with PBMC incubated with DMSO alone (positive control) to determine at what concentration each compound caused cytotoxicity. The highest concentration at which cell viability did not significantly differ from the positive control was: 20 μM for curcuminoids, 40 μM for hydroxypterostilbene, 80 μM for pterostilbene, and 160 μM for

  2. In skeletal muscle advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibit insulin action and induce the formation of multimolecular complexes including the receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Cassese, Angela; Esposito, Iolanda; Fiory, Francesca; Barbagallo, Alessia P M; Paturzo, Flora; Mirra, Paola; Ulianich, Luca; Giacco, Ferdinando; Iadicicco, Claudia; Lombardi, Angela; Oriente, Francesco; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Miele, Claudia

    2008-12-26

    Chronic hyperglycemia promotes insulin resistance at least in part by increasing the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have previously shown that in L6 myotubes human glycated albumin (HGA) induces insulin resistance by activating protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha). Here we show that HGA-induced PKCalpha activation is mediated by Src. Coprecipitation experiments showed that Src interacts with both the receptor for AGE (RAGE) and PKCalpha in HGA-treated L6 cells. A direct interaction of PKCalpha with Src and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has also been detected. In addition, silencing of IRS-1 expression abolished HGA-induced RAGE-PKCalpha co-precipitation. AGEs were able to induce insulin resistance also in vivo, as insulin tolerance tests revealed a significant impairment of insulin sensitivity in C57/BL6 mice fed a high AGEs diet (HAD). In tibialis muscle of HAD-fed mice, insulin-induced glucose uptake and protein kinase B phosphorylation were reduced. This was paralleled by a 2.5-fold increase in PKCalpha activity. Similarly to in vitro observations, Src phosphorylation was increased in tibialis muscle of HAD-fed mice, and co-precipitation experiments showed that Src interacts with both RAGE and PKCalpha. These results indicate that AGEs impairment of insulin action in the muscle might be mediated by the formation of a multimolecular complex including RAGE/IRS-1/Src and PKCalpha.

  3. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  4. Dissociation of CH4 and CD4 by electron impact - Production of metastable and high-Rydberg hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Wells, W. C.; Zipf, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and carbon atoms in metastable and high-lying Rydberg states by electron-impact dissociation of methane and deuterated methane is investigated for incident electron energies ranging from threshold values to 300 eV. Threshold energies for five different processes resulting in metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms are determined in the energy range from 20 to 70 eV, and it is shown that metastable hydrogen atoms are produced in four of these collisional processes while metastable carbon atoms are produced in the other. The nature of each collisional process is described, differential cross sections are derived for the dissociative excitation of both types of atoms to metastable and high-Rydberg states at 100 eV, and the onset energy for UV photon production is measured. Much of the data is interpreted in terms of the ion core model suggested by Kupriyanov (1968) and developed by Freund (1971).

  5. Fragmentation of the Chelyabinsk Fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The most intense bolide since the 1908 Tunguska event occurred in the early morning hours of 15 February 2013 near the Russian town of Chelyabinsk. The impacting asteroid ranged between 17 and 20 m diameter with a mass of about 10,000 tons. Its estimated pre-atmospheric velocity was about 18.6 km/sec at a low angle of 20° from the horizontal. The resulting airburst occurred at an altitude of about 23 km and released an estimated total energy of about 440 kT (1.7 x 1015 J). The blast wave shattered windows on the ground over a wide area and collapsed the roof of a zinc factory. In spite of the size of the initital asteroid, only small fragments (a few kg, so far) have been recovered. The entry of an asteroid into Earth's atmosphere and its aerodynamic fragmentation and deceleration has been modeled by a number of authors over the past few decades. Full-featured numerical simulations are presently limited in their ability to simultaneously incorporate fragmentation, energy coupling between solid fragments and the atmosphere, and thermal radiation, but an approximate treatment of the fragmentation and dispersion of a large entering meteoroid called the 'pancake model' has achieved good fits to other observed events, including the Tunguska explosion, the 1947 Shikote-Alin fall and strewn fields from larger iron meteorite falls, such as the Henbury craters. Simulations using the pancake model can fit the overall observations of the Chelyabinsk event using an 18 m diameter asteroid of density 3000 kg/m3 following the observed trajectory and possessing an initial strength of about 7 MPa, which is relatively high for a stony meteoroid. This suggests that the asteroid was not a strengthless rubble pile, but in fact possessed considerable strength, compared to other stony meteorites of similar type. Aerodynamic breakup begins at an altitude of 31 km and the final airburst occurs at 22 km, releasing about 250 kT at this time. Subsequent to this airburst, large fragments

  6. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation.

  7. Particle Size Reduction in Geophysical Granular Flows: The Role of Rock Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, G.; Sklar, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Particle size reduction in geophysical granular flows is caused by abrasion and fragmentation, and can affect transport dynamics by altering the particle size distribution. While the Sternberg equation is commonly used to predict the mean abrasion rate in the fluvial environment, and can also be applied to geophysical granular flows, predicting the evolution of the particle size distribution requires a better understanding the controls on the rate of fragmentation and the size distribution of resulting particle fragments. To address this knowledge gap we are using single-particle free-fall experiments to test for the influence of particle size, impact velocity, and rock properties on fragmentation and abrasion rates. Rock types tested include granodiorite, basalt, and serpentinite. Initial particle masses and drop heights range from 20 to 1000 grams and 0.1 to 3.0 meters respectively. Preliminary results of free-fall experiments suggest that the probability of fragmentation varies as a power function of kinetic energy on impact. The resulting size distributions of rock fragments can be collapsed by normalizing by initial particle mass, and can be fit with a generalized Pareto distribution. We apply the free-fall results to understand the evolution of granodiorite particle-size distributions in granular flow experiments using rotating drums ranging in diameter from 0.2 to 4.0 meters. In the drums, we find that the rates of silt production by abrasion and gravel production by fragmentation scale with drum size. To compare these rates with free-fall results we estimate the particle impact frequency and velocity. We then use population balance equations to model the evolution of particle size distributions due to the combined effects of abrasion and fragmentation. Finally, we use the free-fall and drum experimental results to model particle size evolution in Inyo Creek, a steep, debris-flow dominated catchment, and compare model results to field measurements.

  8. Quantum-mechanical description of in-medium fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Pirner, H.-J.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Tarasov, A. V.; Voskresenskaya, O. O.

    2008-11-01

    We present a quantum-mechanical description of quark-hadron fragmentation in a nuclear environment. It employs the path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics, which takes care of all phases and interferences and contains all relevant time scales, such as production, coherence, and formation. The cross section includes the probability of prehadron (colorless dipole) production both inside and outside the medium. Moreover, it also includes inside-outside production, which is a typical quantum-mechanical interference effect (like twin-slit electron propagation). We observe a substantial suppression caused by the medium, even if the prehadron is produced outside the medium and no energy loss is involved. This important source of suppression is missed in the usual energy-loss scenario interpreting the effect of jet quenching observed in heavy ion collisions. This may be one reason for the too large gluon density reported by such analyses.

  9. Low-energy SiC2H6+ and SiC3H9+ ion beam productions by the mass-selection of fragments produced from hexamethyldisilane for SiC film formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Murai, Kensuke; Kiuchi, Masato

    2016-12-01

    We have been attempting to produce low-energy ion beams from fragments produced through the decomposition of hexamethyldisilane (HMD) for silicon carbide (SiC) film formations. We mass-selected SiC2H6+ and SiC3H9+ ions from fragments produced from HMD, and finally produced low-energy SiC2H6+ and SiC3H9+ ion beams. The ion energy was approximately 100 eV. Then, the ion beams were irradiated to Si(100) substrates. The temperature of the Si substrate was 800°C during the ion irradiation. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of the substrates obtained following SiC2H6+ ion irradiation demonstrated the occurrence of 3C-SiC deposition. On the other hand, the film deposited by the irradiation of SiC3H9+ ions included diamond-like carbon in addition to 3C-SiC.

  10. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  11. N-Terminal Fragments of Huntingtin Longer than Residue 170 form Visible Aggregates Independently to Polyglutamine Expansion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Moore Z; Mok, Sue-Ann; Ormsby, Angelique R; Muchowski, Paul J; Hatters, Danny M

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of Huntington's disease is the progressive aggregation of full length and N-terminal fragments of polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded Huntingtin (Htt) into intracellular inclusions. The production of N-terminal fragments appears important for enabling pathology and aggregation; and hence the direct expression of a variety of N-terminal fragments are commonly used to model HD in animal and cellular models. It remains unclear how the length of the N-terminal fragments relates to polyQ - mediated aggregation. We investigated the fundamental intracellular aggregation process of eight different-length N-terminal fragments of Htt in both short (25Q) and long polyQ (97Q). N-terminal fragments were fused to fluorescent proteins and transiently expressed in mammalian cell culture models. These included the classic exon 1 fragment (90 amino acids) and longer forms of 105, 117, 171, 513, 536, 552, and 586 amino acids based on wild-type Htt (of 23Q) sequence length nomenclature. N-terminal fragments of less than 171 amino acids only formed inclusions in polyQ-expanded form. By contrast the longer fragments formed inclusions irrespective of Q-length, with Q-length playing a negligible role in extent of aggregation. The inclusions could be classified into 3 distinct morphological categories. One type (Type A) was universally associated with polyQ expansions whereas the other two types (Types B and C) formed independently of polyQ length expansion. PolyQ-expansion was only required for fragments of less than 171 amino acids to aggregate. Longer fragments aggregated predominately through a non-polyQ mechanism, involving at least one, and probably more distinct clustering mechanisms.

  12. Assessment of Fragmentation Performance of Blast-enhanced Explosive Fragmentation Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    aluminized blast-enhanced PAX-Al composition. The experimental assessment of the fragmentation performance of tested charges was accomplished using...charges, rapid expansion of high pressure detonation products results in high-strain high-strain-rate dilation of the hardened steel shell, which...eventually ruptures generating a “spray” of high-velocity steel fragments. Defining the longitudinal axis of the munition as the polar axis z, the

  13. Statistical models of brittle fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    Recent developments in statistical models for fragmentation of brittle material are reviewed. The generic objective of these models is understanding the origin of the fragment size distributions (FSDs) that result from fracturing brittle material. Brittle fragmentation can be divided into two categories: (1) Instantaneous fragmentation for which breakup generations are not distinguishable and (2) continuous fragmentation for which generations of chronological fragment breakups can be identified. This categorization becomes obvious in mining industry applications where instantaneous fragmentation refers to blasting of rock and continuous fragmentation to the consequent crushing and grinding of the blasted rock fragments. A model of unstable cracks and crack-branch merging contains both of the FSDs usually related to instantaneous fragmentation: the scale invariant FSD with the power exponent (2-1/D) and the double exponential FSD which relates to Poisson process fragmentation. The FSDs commonly related to continuous fragmentation are: the lognormal FSD originating from uncorrelated breakup and the power-law FSD which can be modeled as a cascade of breakups. Various solutions to the generic rate equation of continuous fragmentation are briefly listed. Simulations of crushing experiments reveal that both cascade and uncorrelated fragmentations are possible, but that also a mechanism of maximizing packing density related to Apollonian packing may be relevant for slow compressive crushing.

  14. Two-dimensional capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the characterization of intact monoclonal antibody charge variants, including deamidation products.

    PubMed

    Jooß, Kevin; Hühner, Jens; Kiessig, Steffen; Moritz, Bernd; Neusüß, Christian

    2017-08-12

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful tool that is progressively being applied for the separation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variants. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the desired detection method concerning identification of mAb variants. In biopharmaceutical applications, there exist optimized and validated electrolyte systems for mAb variant quantification. However, these electrolytes interfere greatly with the electrospray ionization (ESI) process. Here, a heart-cut CZE-CZE-MS setup with an implemented mechanical four-port valve interface was developed that used a generic ε-aminocaproic acid based background electrolyte in the first dimension and acetic acid in the second dimension. Interference-free, highly precise mass data (deviation less than 1 Da) of charge variants of trastuzumab, acting as model mAb system, were achieved. The mass accuracy obtained (low parts per million range) is discussed regarding both measured and calculated masses. Deamidation was detected for the intact model antibody, and related mass differences were significantly confirmed on the deglycosylated level. The CZE-CZE-MS setup is expected to be applicable to a variety of antibodies and electrolyte systems. Thus, it has the potential to become a compelling tool for MS characterization of antibody variants separated in ESI-interfering electrolytes. Graphical Abstract Two-dimensional capillary zone electrophoresis mass spectrometry for the characterization of intact monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variants. A generic, but highly electrospray-interfering electrolyte system was used as first dimension for mAb charge variant separation and coupled to a volatile electrolyte system as second dimension via a four-port nanoliter valve. In this way, interference-free and precise mass spectrometric data of separated mAb charge variants, including deamidation products, were obtained.

  15. Plumes, orogenesis, and supercontinental fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.; Lawver, L. A.; Murphy, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    A time-space relationship between large igneous provinces (LIPS), present day hot spots, and the fragmentation of Pangea has been documented over several decades, but the cause of fragmentation has remained elusive. LIPS are regarded either as the result of impingement of a mantle plume on the base of the lithosphere, or as the initial products of adiabatic decompression melting of anomalously hot mantle. Do LIPS therefore constitute evidence of an active role for plumes from the deep mantle in supercontinental fragmentation, or are they merely the first indications of a large-scale but near-surface tectonic process? Two long recognized and enigmatic orogenic events may offer a solution to this geologically important 'chicken or egg' conundrum. The reconstructed early Mesozoic Gondwanide fold belt of South America, southern Africa, and Antarctica, could have resulted from 'plume-modified orogeny', flattening of a downgoing lithospheric slab due to the buoyancy of a plume rising beneath a continental margin subduction zone. If so, the ˜180 Ma Karroo and Ferrar LIPS associated with the opening of the ocean basin between East and West Gondwanaland at ˜165 Ma resulted from impingement of this plume and are unrelated to the thermal insulation of the shallow mantle beneath Gondwanaland. It would then follow that the plume itself played an active, possibly critical, role in the initial breakup of the supercontinent. The Late Paleozoic 'Ancestral Rockies' deformation in the southwestern United States could be yet another example of orogeny driven by a plume that initiated the break-up of Pangea approximately 15 Myr earlier in the Central Atlantic region.

  16. Creation of a Machine File and Subsequent Computer-Assisted Production of Publishing Outputs, Including a Translation Journal and an Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Lawrence F.; Weaver, Vance

    Reported are the findings of the Uspekhi experiment in creating a labeled machine file, as well as sample products of this system - an article from a scientific journal and an index page. Production cost tables are presented for the machine file, primary journals, and journal indexes. Comparisons were made between the 1965 predicted costs and the…

  17. Shear-Induced Fragmentation in Silicic Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, H. M.; Manga, M.

    2003-12-01

    Fragmentation of magma, containing abundant gas bubbles, is considered as the defining characteristic of explosive eruptions. When viscous stresses associated with the growth of bubbles and the flow of the ascending magma exceed the strength of the melt, it breaks into disconnected fragments suspended within an expanding gas phase. While repeated effusive and explosive eruptions for individual volcanoes are common, the dynamics governing the transition between explosive and effusive eruptions remain unclear. Magmas for both types of eruptions originate from sources with similar volatile content, yet effusive lavas erupt considerably more degassed than their explosive counterparts. Recent observations suggest that magma fragmentation may not be restricted to explosive eruptions and we find corroborating evidence of magma fragmentation, reannealing and elongation of fragments into flow banding from obsidians from Big Glass Mountain rhyolite dome, California. One mechanism for degassing during magma ascent is the generation of intermittent permeable fracture networks through non-explosive fragmentation near the conduit walls. To gain insight into the mechanics governing fragmentation in silicic volcanoes, we have developed a numerical model for magma ascent in the volcanic conduit. The ascending magma (melt + bubbles) is modelled as steady, isothermal flow of a single-phase liquid at constant mass flux in a cylindrical conduit of constant radius. We specify a pressure, number density of bubbles, and relaxed Newtonian melt viscosity at the base of the conduit and solve the joint problem of bubble growth and magma ascent. Rather than include the transition to fragmentation and flow of fragmented magma, we determine the ascent distance above the conduit entry at which magma fragmentation by viscous shear should first occur. The model is quasi-one-dimensional and for a given depth computes the radially varying vertical component of magma velocity. We show that shear

  18. Active immunization with a synthetic fragment of pig inhibin alpha-subunit increases ovulation rate and embryo production in superovulated ewes but season affects its efficiency.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Martemucci, G; Iaffaldano, N

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the effects of active immunization against one of two synthetic peptides from humans (inhibin-like peptide) or pigs (inhibin alpha-subunit) on antibody titres, ovulation rate and embryo production in ewes superovulated with 16 U ovine FSH. In Expt 1, during the breeding season, 30 ewes were subdivided into three groups: group I served as the non-immunized control; group II was immunized against inhibin-like peptide (100 micrograms inhibin-like peptide equivalent, followed by three booster injections); group III was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit conjugated to human serum albumin (96 micrograms for the primary administration and 46 micrograms for the booster). In Expt 2, the efficiency of immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit on ovarian response and embryo production was evaluated during the non-breeding season in two groups of ewes (n = 12): group IV was a non-immunized control; Group V was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit. During the breeding season, the ewes immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit showed higher antibody titres compared with the group immunized against inhibin-like peptide (P < 0.01) and a significant increase in ovulation rate (12.1) compared with both the control (5.0; P < 0.05) and the inhibin-like peptide-immunized group (3.1; P < 0.01). Immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit increased transferable embryo yield 4.5-fold (6.7 versus 1.5; P < 0.01) and improved embryo quality (94.6 versus 40.6%; P < 0.01). During the non-breeding season, immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit enhanced ovulation rate from 2.6 in the controls to 9.4 (P < 0.01) but did not affect transferable embryo production (3.9 versus 2.1; P > 0.05) and significantly lowered their quality (54.1 versus 100%; P < 0.01). In conclusion, active immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit can improve superovulatory response during the breeding season, while it appears to be unable to

  19. Production of an anti-Aβ antibody fragment in Pichia pastoris and in vitro and in vivo validation of its therapeutic effect.

    PubMed

    Montoliu-Gaya, Laia; Esquerda-Canals, Gisela; Bronsoms, Silvia; Villegas, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    ScFv-h3D6 has been shown as an efficient therapy in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease. Because one of the major bottlenecks for the therapeutic uses of proteins produced in Escherichia coli is their potential contamination with endotoxins, LPS were extensively removed by a rather low-efficient, expensive, and time-consuming purification step. In addition, disulfide scrambling is favored in the reducing bacterial cytoplasm albeit the use of reductase deficient strains. To overcome these hurdles, as well as to improve the yield, the yeast Pichia pastoris, an endotoxin-free host system for recombinant protein production, has been used to produce scFv-h3D6, both in flask and in a fed-batch bioreactor. Comparison of the thermal stability of the obtained protein with that from E. coli showed no differences. Opposite to the case of the protein obtained from E. coli, no disulfide scrambled conformations or LPS traces were detected in that produced in P. pastoris. Cytotoxicity assays in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell-cultures demonstrated that proteins from both expression systems were similarly efficient in precluding Aβ-induced toxicity. Finally, the 3xTg-AD mouse model was used to test the therapeutic effect of both proteins. Quantification of Aβ levels from cortex and hippocampus protein extracts by ELISA, and Aβ-immunohistochemistry, showed that both proteins reduced Aβ burden. This work demonstrates that scFv-h3D6 obtained from P. pastoris shows the same benefits as those already known for that obtained from E. coli, with multiple advantages in terms of recombinant production and safety.

  20. Production of an anti-Aβ antibody fragment in Pichia pastoris and in vitro and in vivo validation of its therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Montoliu-Gaya, Laia; Esquerda-Canals, Gisela; Bronsoms, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    ScFv-h3D6 has been shown as an efficient therapy in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Because one of the major bottlenecks for the therapeutic uses of proteins produced in Escherichia coli is their potential contamination with endotoxins, LPS were extensively removed by a rather low-efficient, expensive, and time-consuming purification step. In addition, disulfide scrambling is favored in the reducing bacterial cytoplasm albeit the use of reductase deficient strains. To overcome these hurdles, as well as to improve the yield, the yeast Pichia pastoris, an endotoxin-free host system for recombinant protein production, has been used to produce scFv-h3D6, both in flask and in a fed-batch bioreactor. Comparison of the thermal stability of the obtained protein with that from E. coli showed no differences. Opposite to the case of the protein obtained from E. coli, no disulfide scrambled conformations or LPS traces were detected in that produced in P. pastoris. Cytotoxicity assays in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell-cultures demonstrated that proteins from both expression systems were similarly efficient in precluding Aβ-induced toxicity. Finally, the 3xTg-AD mouse model was used to test the therapeutic effect of both proteins. Quantification of Aβ levels from cortex and hippocampus protein extracts by ELISA, and Aβ-immunohistochemistry, showed that both proteins reduced Aβ burden. This work demonstrates that scFv-h3D6 obtained from P. pastoris shows the same benefits as those already known for that obtained from E. coli, with multiple advantages in terms of recombinant production and safety. PMID:28771492

  1. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (P<0.05, ANOVA). A seasonal response to chilling was observed in the coral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (P<0.05, ANOVA). However, in the late spring, coral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P<0.05, ANOVA). When a cryoprotectant (1M dimethyl sulfoxide) was used in concert with chilling it protected the coral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (P<0.05, ANOVA). The zooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electroeluting DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Zarzosa-Alvarez, Ana L; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Torres-Huerta, Ana L; Bermudez-Cruz, Rosa M

    2010-09-05

    Purified DNA fragments are used for different purposes in Molecular Biology and they can be prepared by several procedures. Most of them require a previous electrophoresis of the DNA fragments in order to separate the band of interest. Then, this band is excised out from an agarose or acrylamide gel and purified by using either: binding and elution from glass or silica particles, DEAE-cellulose membranes, "crush and soak method", electroelution or very often expensive commercial purification kits. Thus, selecting a method will depend mostly of what is available in the laboratory. The electroelution procedure allows one to purify very clean DNA to be used in a large number of applications (sequencing, radiolabeling, enzymatic restriction, enzymatic modification, cloning etc). This procedure consists in placing DNA band-containing agarose or acrylamide slices into sample wells of the electroeluter, then applying current will make the DNA fragment to leave the agarose and thus be trapped in a cushion salt to be recovered later by ethanol precipitation.

  3. Using hadron-in-jet data in a global analysis of D* fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderle, Daniele P.; Kaufmann, Tom; Stratmann, Marco; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    We present a novel global QCD analysis of charged D*-meson fragmentation functions at next-to-leading order accuracy. This is achieved by making use of the available data for single-inclusive D*-meson production in electron-positron annihilation, hadron-hadron collisions, and, for the first time, in-jet fragmentation in proton-proton scattering. It is shown how to include all relevant processes efficiently and without approximations within the Mellin moment technique, specifically for the in-jet fragmentation cross section. The presented technical framework is generic and can be straightforwardly applied to future analyses of fragmentation functions for other hadron species, as soon as more in-jet fragmentation data become available. We choose to work within the zero mass variable flavor number scheme which is applicable for sufficiently high energies and transverse momenta. The obtained optimum set of parton-to-D* fragmentation functions is accompanied by Hessian uncertainty sets which allow one to propagate hadronization uncertainties to other processes of interest.

  4. Electroweak fragmentation functions for dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Cavasonza, Leila Ali; Krämer, Michael; Pellen, Mathieu

    2015-02-18

    Electroweak corrections can play a crucial role in dark matter annihilation. The emission of gauge bosons, in particular, leads to a secondary flux consisting of all Standard Model particles, and may be described by electroweak fragmentation functions. To assess the quality of the fragmentation function approximation to electroweak radiation in dark matter annihilation, we have calculated the flux of secondary particles from gauge-boson emission in models with Majorana fermion and vector dark matter, respectively. For both models, we have compared cross sections and energy spectra of positrons and antiprotons after propagation through the galactic halo in the fragmentation function approximation and in the full calculation. Fragmentation functions fail to describe the particle fluxes in the case of Majorana fermion annihilation into light fermions: the helicity suppression of the lowest-order cross section in such models cannot be lifted by the leading logarithmic contributions included in the fragmentation function approach. However, for other classes of models like vector dark matter, where the lowest-order cross section is not suppressed, electroweak fragmentation functions provide a simple, model-independent and accurate description of secondary particle fluxes.

  5. Fragmentation of metal particles during heterogeneous explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, R. C.; Donahue, L.; Zhang, F.

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous explosives contain a mixture of standard explosive material and reactive metal particles. The inclusion of metal particles alters the energy density and energy release timescales involved in the blast event. Available experimental evidence indicates that metal particles may be damaged or fragmented during heterogeneous blast, altering the distribution of particle sizes from their initial state. This paper discusses adaptation and application of fragmentation theory and physical models for particle damage during condensed matter detonation, aerodynamic breakup of molten particles, and particle impact fragmentation with nearby structures. The shock compression and impact fragmentation models are based on the energy methods for dynamic fragmentation by Grady and Kipp, while aerodynamic breakup is treated according to Weber number stability criteria for droplets. These particle fragmentation models are validated against fundamental test cases from the literature. The models are then applied to heterogeneous blast scenarios including free field and wall reflection in a semi-confined urban street. Comparison with experimental records of pressure shows good agreement despite challenges inherent in the complexity of heterogeneous blast measurement and multiphase simulation.

  6. Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D'Enterria, Valeria Muccifora

    2009-12-01

    We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.

  7. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  8. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  9. Transgenic mice expressing caspase-6-derived N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin develop neurologic abnormalities with predominant cytoplasmic inclusion pathology composed largely of a smaller proteolytic derivative

    PubMed Central

    Tebbenkamp, Andrew T.N.; Green, Cameron; Xu, Guilian; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M.; Rising, Aaron C.; Fromholt, Susan E.; Brown, Hilda H.; Swing, Debbie; Mandel, Ronald J.; Tessarollo, Lino; Borchelt, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated an N-terminal caspase-6 cleavage product of mutant huntingtin (htt) as an important mediator of toxicity in Huntington's disease (HD). To directly assess the consequences of such fragments on neurologic function, we produced transgenic mice that express a caspase-6 length N-terminal fragment of mutant htt (N586) with both normal (23Q) and disease (82Q) length glutamine repeats. In contrast to mice expressing N586-23Q, mice expressing N586-82Q accumulate large cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can be visualized with antibodies to epitopes throughout the N586 protein. However, biochemical analyses of aggregated mutant huntingtin in these mice demonstrated that the inclusion bodies are composed largely of a much smaller htt fragment (terminating before residue 115), with lesser amounts of full-length N586-82Q fragments. Mice expressing the N586-82Q fragment show symptoms typical of previously generated mice expressing mutant huntingtin fragments, including failure to maintain weight, small brain weight and reductions in specific mRNAs in the striatum. Uniquely, these N586-82Q mice develop a progressive movement disorder that includes dramatic deficits in motor performance on the rotarod and ataxia. Our findings suggest that caspase-6-derived fragments of mutant htt are capable of inducing novel HD-related phenotypes, but these fragments are not terminal cleavage products as they are subject to further proteolysis. In this scenario, mutant htt fragments derived from caspase 6, or possibly other proteases, could mediate HD pathogenesis via a ‘hit and run' type of mechanism in which caspase-6, or other larger N-terminal fragments, mediate a neurotoxic process before being cleaved to a smaller fragment that accumulates pathologically. PMID:21515588

  10. Fragmentation Cross Sections of Medium-Energy 35Cl, 40Ar, and 48TiBeams on Elemental Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, C.; Guetersloh, S.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Fukumura,A.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.; Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.

    2007-12-08

    Charge-changing and fragment production cross sections at 0degrees have been obtained for interactions of 290, 400, and 650MeV/nucleon 40Ar beams, 650 and 1000 MeV/nucleon 35Cl beams, and a 1000MeV/nucleon 48Ti beam. Targets of C, CH2, Al, Cu, Sn, and Pb were used.Using standard analysis methods, we obtain fragment cross sections forcharges as low as 8 for Cl and Ar beams, and as low as 10 for the Tibeam. Using data obtained with small-acceptance detectors, we reportfragment production cross sections for charges as low as 5, corrected foracceptance using a simple model of fragment angular distributions. Withthe lower-charged fragment cross sections, we cancompare the data topredictions from several models (including NUCFRG2, EPAX2, and PHITS) ina region largely unexplored in earlier work. As found in earlier workwith other beams, NUCFRG2 and PHITS predictions agree reasonably wellwith the data for charge-changing cross sections, but do not accuratelypredict the fragment production cross sections. The cross sections forthe lightest fragments demonstrate the inadequacy of several models inwhich the cross sections fall monotonically with the charge of thefragment. PHITS, despite not agreeing particularly well with the fragmentproduction cross sections on average, nonetheless qualitativelyreproduces somesignificant features of the data that are missing from theother models.

  11. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products in the crucifer Barbarea vulgaris include a thiazolidine-2-one from a specific phenolic isomer as well as oxazolidine-2-thiones.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2015-07-01

    Two isomeric phenolic glucosinolates, m- and p-hydroxyl derivatives of epiglucobarbarin [(R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate], co-occur in an eastern chemotype (P-type) of the crucifer Barbarea vulgaris along with epiglucobarbarin itself. Levels of the phenolic derivatives in B. vulgaris were low in summer but higher during fall and winter, allowing isolation of all three glucosinolates. Hydrolysis in vitro, catalyzed by Sinapis alba myrosinase at near neutral pH, resulted in expectable oxazolidine-2-thione type hydrolysis products of epiglucobarbarin and its m-hydroxyl derivative. In contrast, a thiazolidine-2-one type product was formed in vitro from p-hydroxy epiglucobarbarin and characterized by UV, IR, MS/MS and 2D NMR. Maceration of leaf material resulted in disappearance of the glucosinolates and formation of the same oxazolidine-2-thione and thiazolidine-2-one products as found in vitro. The detected amounts were comparable to initial amounts of precursor glucosinolates. The corresponding oxazolidine-2-thione type product was also detected quantitatively from glucobarbarin in foliage of a western genotype (G-type). We suggest that p-hydroxy epiglucobarbarin is initially converted into the conventional oxazolidine-2-thione, which would further rearrange to a thiazolidine-2-one due to the activating effect of the p-hydroxyl group. We conclude that a subtle difference between isomeric phenolic glucosinolates results in significantly different natural hydrolysis products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Procaryotic Expression of Single-Chain Variable-Fragment (scFv) Antibodies: Secretion in L-Form Cells of Proteus mirabilis Leads to Active Product and Overcomes the Limitations of Periplasmic Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rippmann, Jörg F.; Klein, Michaela; Hoischen, Christian; Brocks, Bodo; Rettig, Wolfgang J.; Gumpert, Johannes; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Mattes, Ralf; Moosmayer, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that L-form cells of Proteus mirabilis (L VI), which lack a periplasmic compartment, can be efficiently used in the production and secretion of heterologous proteins. In search of novel expression systems for recombinant antibodies, we compared levels of single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) production in Escherichia coli JM109 and P. mirabilis L VI, which express four distinct scFvs of potential clinical interest that show differences in levels of expression and in their tendencies to form aggregates upon periplasmic expression. Production of all analyzed scFvs in E. coli was limited by the severe toxic effect of the heterologous product as indicated by inhibition of culture growth and the formation of insoluble aggregates in the periplasmic space, limiting the yield of active product. In contrast, the L-form cells exhibited nearly unlimited growth under the tested production conditions for all scFvs examined. Moreover, expression experiments with P. mirabilis L VI led to scFv concentrations in the range of 40 to 200 mg per liter of culture medium (corresponding to volume yields 33- to 160-fold higher than those with E. coli JM109), depending on the expressed antibody. In a translocation inhibition experiment the secretion of the scFv constructs was shown to be an active transport coupled to the signal cleavage. We suppose that this direct release of the newly synthesized product into a large volume of the growth medium favors folding into the native active structure. The limited aggregation of scFv observed in the P. mirabilis L VI supernatant (occurring in a first-order-kinetics manner) was found to be due to intrinsic features of the scFv and not related to the expression process of the host cells. The P. mirabilis L VI supernatant was found to be advantageous for scFv purification. A two-step chromatography procedure led to homogeneous scFv with high antigen binding activity as revealed from binding experiments with eukaryotic

  13. Statistical Theories of Fragmentation and Nuclear Disassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Kevin Charles

    A general statistical study of fragmentation and aggregation processes is presented and applied to the fragmentation and thermodynamics of heated nuclear matter. Emphasis is placed on distinguishing combinatorial aspects from the statistical and thermodynamic ones. Combinatorial objects pertinent to fragmentation include integer, vector and set partitions as well as permutations. Algorithms for enumerating and randomly selecting these objects, important for statistical models invoking these objects, are presented. Statistical concepts introduced include approximate methods such as Monte Carlo sampling and Markov processes, and exact methods such as recursion relations and generating function identities. Statistical models introduced and solved exactly include the equipartition weight and the Gibbs weight. The canonical Gibbs model is studied extensively, and is shown to be related to symmetric functions and Polyade Bruijn enumeration theory. These exactly solvable models have been applied to Bose-Einstein condensation, the lambda transition in liquid ^4He, polymer gelation, Ewens' sampling formula in population genetics, group social dynamics, statistical shattering, and the enumeration of involutions, graphs and digraphs, indicating their flexibility and power. The application of these models to nuclear fragmentation results in a computationally simplified model which contains most of the essential physics. This model is shown to maintain its structure under coarse graining with suitable conditions on its parameters. The thermodynamics of nuclei allowed to fragment is studied in this context, and predictions are compared with experimental data. A critical comparison of this model to the competing percolation model indicates certain advantages to this approach.

  14. Flexible fragmentation rules for next-generation OPC: tag prior to fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Lynn, Eric C.

    2002-07-01

    Fragmentation, cutting polygon edge into piecewise of small segments that are later allowed to move individually, has been widely accepted as the work-around methodology in modern model-based optical proximity correction (OPC) tools. As tuning a model-based OPC recipe, most engineers spend much time on the model fitting to make simulated curves a better fit to empirical data (CD measurements). Most failure cases, however, do not result from a model with bad fitting. Instead it has been frequently found that undesired OPC outcomes were derived from fragmentation process. Tuning fragmentation parameters may not be sufficient to resolve some failure cases since it could be intrinsic issues of the current fragmentation mechanism. An illustrative example is the poor correction of a hammerhead line end, in which current fragmentation mechanisms fail to identify it as a line end and later improper compensation (correction) is installed. Other examples include asymmetric OPC results are frequently found. In the present study, several examples were used to assist the analysis of current fragmentation mechanisms in the aspects of effectiveness and limitations. For the coming 0.1 micron or even more advanced generations of technologies, the role of fragmentation mechanism renders its importance more profoundly. Therefore, more powerful fragmentation mechanism will be one of major factors for the success of OPC process. It is the main goal of this study to propose a new fragmentation mechanism. Edges are tagged specifically according to their environment prior to the process of cutting edge into smaller segments. The pseudo code of the new fragmentation mechanism will be given with detailed descriptions.

  15. Metal ion-catalyzed nucleic acid alkylation and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kenneth A

    2002-07-10

    Nucleic acid microarrays are a growing technology in which high densities of known sequences are attached to a substrate in known locations (addressed). Hybridization of complementary sequences leads to a detectable signal such as an electrical impulse or fluorescence. This combination of sequence addressing, hybridization, and detection increases the efficiency of a variety of genomic disciplines including those that profile genetic expression, search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or diagnose infectious diseases by sequencing portions of microbial or viral genomes. Incorporation of reporter molecules into nucleic acids is essential for the sensitive detection of minute amounts of nucleic acids on most types of microarrays. Furthermore, polynucleic acid size reduction increases hybridization because of increased diffusion rates and decreased competing secondary structure of the target nucleic acids. Typically, these reactions would be performed as two separate processes. An improvement to past techniques, termed labeling-during-cleavage (LDC), is presented in which DNA or RNA is alkylated with fluorescent tags and fragmented in the same reaction mixture. In model studies with 26 nucleotide-long RNA and DNA oligomers using ultraviolet/visible and fluorescence spectroscopies as well as high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, addition of both alkylating agents (5-(bromomethyl)fluorescein, 5- or 6-iodoacetamidofluorescein) and select metal ions (of 21 tested) to nucleic acids in aqueous solutions was critical for significant increases in both labeling and fragmentation, with >or=100-fold increases in alkylation possible relative to metal ion-free reactions. Lanthanide series metal ions, Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) were the most reactive ions in terms of catalyzing alkylation and fragmentation. While oligonucleotides were particularly susceptible to fragmentation at sites containing phosphorothioate moieties, labeling and cleavage reactions

  16. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  17. Thermochemistry and photochemistry of spiroketals derived from indan-2-one: Stepwise processes versus coarctate fragmentations.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Götz; Heitmann, Gernot; Herges, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Coarctate reactions are defined as reactions that include atoms at which two bonds are made and two bonds are broken simultaneously. In the pursuit of the discovery of new coarctate reactions we investigate the fragmentation reactions of cyclic ketals. Three ketals with different ring sizes derived from indan-2-one were decomposed by photolysis and pyrolysis. Particularly clean is the photolysis of the indan-2-one ketal 1, which gives o-quinodimethane, carbon dioxide and ethylene. The mechanism formally corresponds to a photochemically allowed coarctate fragmentation. Pyrolysis of the five-ring ketal yields a number of products. This is in agreement with the fact that coarctate fragmentation observed upon irradiation would be thermochemically forbidden, although this exclusion principle does not hold for chelotropic reactions. In contrast, fragmentation of the seven-ring ketal 3 is thermochemically allowed and photochemically forbidden. Upon pyrolysis of 3 several products were isolated that could be explained by a coarctate fragmentation. However, the reaction is less clean and stepwise mechanisms may compete.

  18. Analysis of proteolytic processes and enzymatic activities in the generation of huntingtin n-terminal fragments in an HEK293 cell model.

    PubMed

    Tebbenkamp, Andrew T N; Crosby, Keith W; Siemienski, Zoe B; Brown, Hilda H; Golde, Todd E; Borchelt, David R

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin (htt) that terminate between residues 90-115, termed cleavage product A or 1 (cp-A/1), form intracellular and intranuclear inclusion bodies in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD). These fragments appear to be proteolytic products of the full-length protein. Here, we use an HEK293 cell culture model to investigate huntingtin proteolytic processing; previous studies of these cells have demonstrated cleavage of htt to cp-A/1 like htt fragments. Recombinant N-terminal htt fragments, terminating at residue 171 (also referred to as cp-B/2 like), were efficiently cleaved to produce cp-A/1 whereas fragments representing endogenous caspase, calpain, and metalloproteinase cleavage products, terminating between residues 400-600, were inefficiently cleaved. Using cysteine-labeling techniques and antibody binding mapping, we localized the C-terminus of the cp-A/1 fragments produced by HEK293 cells to sequences minimally limited by cysteine 105 and an antibody epitope composed of residues 115-124. A combination of genetic and pharmacologic approaches to inhibit potential proteases, including γ-secretase and calpain, proved ineffective in preventing production of cp-A/1. Our findings indicate that HEK293 cells express a protease that is capable of efficiently cleaving cp-B/2 like fragments of htt with normal or expanded glutamine repeats. For reasons that remain unclear, this protease cleaves longer htt fragments, with normal or expanded glutamine expansions, much less efficiently. The protease in HEK293 cells that is capable of generating a cp-A/1 like htt fragment may be a novel protease with a high preference for a cp-B/2-like htt fragment as substrate.

  19. Gas-Phase Fragmentation Analysis of Nitro-Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Bonacci, Gustavo; Asciutto, Eliana K.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in increased amounts during inflammation by nitric oxide and nitrite-dependent redox reactions. A more rigorous characterization of endogenously-generated species requires additional understanding of their gas-phase induced fragmentation. Thus, collision induced dissociation (CID) of nitroalkane and nitroalkene groups in fatty acids were studied in the negative ion mode to provide mass spectrometric tools for their structural characterization. Fragmentation of nitroalkanes occurred mainly through loss of the NO2− anion or neutral loss of HNO2. The CID of nitroalkenes proceeds via a more complex cyclization, followed by fragmentation to nitrile and aldehyde products. Gas-phase fragmentation of nitroalkene functional groups with additional γ or δ unsaturation occurred through a multiple step cyclization reaction process, leading to 5 and 6 member ring heterocyclic products and carbon chain fragmentation. Cyclization products were not obtained during nitroalkane fragmentation, highlighting the role of double bond π electrons during NO2− rearrangements, stabilization and heterocycle formation. The proposed structures, mechanisms and products of fragmentation are supported by analysis of 13C and 15N labeled parent molecules, 6 different nitroalkene positional isomers, 6 nitroalkane positional isomers, accurate mass determinations at high resolution and quantum mechanics calculations. Multiple key diagnostic ion fragments were obtained through this analysis, allowing for the precise placement of double bonds and sites of fatty acid nitration, thus supporting an ability to predict nitro positions in biological samples. PMID:21953257

  20. Transversity from two pion interference fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    She Jun; Huang Yang; Barone, Vincenzo; Ma Boqiang

    2008-01-01

    We present calculation on the azimuthal spin asymmetries for pion pair production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) process at both HERMES and COMPASS kinematics, with transversely polarized proton, deuteron, and neutron targets. We calculate the asymmetry by adopting a set of parametrization of the interference fragmentation functions and two different models for the transversity. We find that the result for the proton target is insensitive to the approaches of the transversity but more helpful to understand the interference fragmentation functions. However, for the neutron target, which can be obtained through using deuteron and {sup 3}He targets, we find different predictions for different approaches to the transversity. Thus probing the two pion interference fragmentation from the neutron can provide us more interesting information on the transversity.

  1. Fragmentation of methane molecules by antiproton impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh, Arash; Kirchner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Extending previous work for proton impact, we have investigated the fragmentation of methane molecules due to collisions with antiprotons in the 25 keV to 5 MeV impact energy range. The multi-center nature of the problem is addressed by using a spectral representation of the molecular Hartree-Fock-level Hamiltonian and a single-center expansion of the initially populated molecular orbitals. The two-center basis generator method (TC-BGM) is used for orbital propagation. Electron-removal cross sections obtained from the TC-BGM solutions are complemented with a dynamical decay-route fragmentation model to calculate cross sections for the production of fragment ions. Good agreement with the available experimental data is observed for CH4+,CH3+,CH2+and CH+. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.

  2. Process design considerations for optimal production of ethanol from lignocellulose using available yeasts, including natural pentose-fermenting yeasts, and their derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To expand the biomass to fuel ethanol industry, process strategies are needed to foster the production and utilization of microorganisms which can survive and ferment both hexose (C6) and pentose (C5) sugars while exposed to inhibitors (such as ethanol, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural, or HMF). ...

  3. Research on the photoelectric measuring method of warhead fragment velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji; Yu, Lixia; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-09-01

    The velocity of warhead fragment is the key criteria to determine its mutilation efficiency. But owing to the small size, larger quantity, irregular shape, high speed, arbitrary direction, large dispersion of warhead fragment and adverse environment, the test of fragment velocity parameter is very difficult. The paper designed an optoelectronic system to measure the average velocity of warhead fragments accurately. The apparatus included two parallel laser screens spaced apart at a known fixed distance for providing time measurement between start and stop signals. The large effective screen area was composed of laser source, retro-reflector and large area photo-diode. Whenever a moving fragment interrupted two optical screens, the system would generate a target signal. Due to partial obscuration of the incident energy and the poor test condition of the explosion, fragment target signal is easily disturbed. Therefore, fragments signal processing technology has become a key technology of the system. The noise of signal was reduced by employing wavelet decomposition and reconstruction. The time of fragment passing though the target was obtained by adopting peak detection algorithm. Based on the method of search peak in different width scale and waveform trend by using optima wavelet, the problem of rolling waveform was solved. Lots of fragments experiments of the different types of the warheads were conducted. Experimental results show that: warhead fragments capture rate of system is better than 98%, which can give velocity of each fragment in the density of less than 20 pieces per m2.

  4. Tube Fragmentation of Multiple Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, T. F.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Vogler, T. J.

    2006-07-01

    In the current study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. This test method allows the study of fracture fragmentation in a reproducible laboratory environment under well-controlled loading conditions. Motion and fragmentation of the specimen are diagnosed using framing camera, VISAR and soft recovery methods. Fragmentation properties of several steels, nitinol, tungsten alloy, copper, aluminum, and titanium have been obtained to date. The values for fragmentation toughness, and failure threshold will be reported, as well as effects in these values as the material strain-rate is varied through changes in wall thickness and impact conditions.

  5. New Scalings in Nuclear Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, E.; Bougault, R.; Galichet, E.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Marini, P.; Parlog, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4-10 MeV per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed.

  6. Ultrafast ionization and fragmentation of molecular silane

    SciTech Connect

    Sayres, Scott G.; Ross, Matt W.; Castleman, A. W. Jr.

    2010-09-15

    The ionization and fragmentation of molecular silane is examined here with laser intensities ranging between 7x10{sup 12} and 1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} at 624 nm. The ionization potential of silane determined using both multiphoton ionization (MPI) and tunneling ionization (TI) models agrees with the vertical ionization potential of the molecule. In addition, the application of the tunneling ionization model is extended here to the fragments of silane to determine their appearance potentials. MPI values for SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, SiH{sub 2}{sup +}, SiH{sup +}, Si{sup +}, as well as H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sup +} are consistent with vertical potentials, whereas the TI measurements are found to be in accord with adiabatic potentials. The tunneling appearance potentials observed for the fragments H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sup +} are lower than reported for other techniques. In fact, the appearance potential measurements for these species resulting from silane are lower than their ionization potentials. The fragmentation rate of silane is determined to be nearly 20 times larger than the ionization rate. The main precursor for producing amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films, SiH{sub 3}{sup +} is the dominant fragmentation product making up roughly a third of the total ion yield, a substantial increase from other techniques.

  7. Evolution of fragment-species production in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from 1.6 au to 0.4 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, A.; Cochran, A.; Dello Russo, N.; Weaver, H.; Vervack, R.; Harris, W.; Kawakita, H.; DiSanti, M.; Chanover, N.; Tsvetanov, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of cometary ices is among the most primitive in the Solar System. For this reason, studies of cometary composition are important for constraining planetary formation models. Because the best way to characterize the chemical composition of the cometary population as a whole is through remote-sensing spectroscopy of volatiles in the gas phase, it is paramount that the coma physics and chemistry responsible for the observed emissions are understood. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided an unprecedented opportunity to study coma physics and chemistry for a sun-grazing comet. Owing to its early discovery, observations of ISON could be planned well in advance of its close perihelion passage at only 2.7 solar radii. Although it did not survive perihelion (and therefore observations of how the comet's composition changed after exposure to the harsh near-Sun environment were not possible), observations of the coma composition evolution with decreasing heliocentric distance were possible throughout the pre-perihelion observing window. We present high-spectral-resolution optical spectroscopy of ISON obtained pre-perihelion in October and November 2013, spanning a heliocentric distance range of 1.6--0.4 au. We obtained high-resolution optical spectroscopy throughout ISON's pre-perihelion leg using three instruments: HIRESb on the Keck I telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, ARCES on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope in Sunspot, NM, and the 2DCoude on the 2.7-meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. All these spectrographs provide high spectral resolution (R=30,000--60,000). This enables several avenues of analysis not possible at lower spectral resolution, such as analysis of the forbidden oxygen lines at 5577, 6300, and 6364 Angstroms, and ortho-para ratios in NH_2. We report detections of many species in our spectral data set, including CN, C_2, C_3, CH, NH_2, [OI], NH, and OH (OH and NH are only detected with HIRES because

  8. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  9. Fragmentation of Chitosan by Acids

    PubMed Central

    Arul, Joseph; Charlet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of chitosan in aqueous solution by hydrochloric acid was investigated. The kinetics of fragmentation, the number of chain scissions, and polydispersity of the fragments were followed by viscometry and size exclusion chromatography. The chemical structure and the degree of N-acetylation (DA) of the original chitosan and its fragments were examined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The kinetic data indicates that the reaction was of first order. The results of polydispersity and the DA suggest that the selected experimental conditions (temperature and concentration of acid) were appropriate to obtain the fragments having the polydispersity and the DA similar to or slightly different from those of the original one. A procedure to estimate molecular weight of fragments as well as the number of chain scissions of the fragments under the experimental conditions was also proposed. PMID:24302858

  10. Scaling behavior of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Kun, F; Wittel, F K; Herrmann, H J; Kröplin, B H; Måløy, K J

    2006-01-20

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the shape of fragments generated by explosive and impact loading of closed shells. Based on high speed imaging, we have determined the fragmentation mechanism of shells. Experiments have shown that the fragments vary from completely isotropic to highly anisotropic elongated shapes, depending on the microscopic cracking mechanism of the shell. Anisotropic fragments proved to have a self-affine character described by a scaling exponent. The distribution of fragment shapes exhibits a power-law decay. The robustness of the scaling laws is illustrated by a stochastic hierarchical model of fragmentation. Our results provide a possible improvement of the representation of fragment shapes in models of space debris.

  11. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Z.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N\\to ∞ . We obtain analytically the size density {{φ }s} of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail {{φ }s}˜ {{s}-α } with exponent α =1+\\frac{1}{m}. Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees.

  12. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya; Ben-Naim, Eli

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the fragmentation of a random recursive tree by repeated removal of nodes, resulting in a forest of disjoint trees. The initial tree is generated by sequentially attaching new nodes to randomly chosen existing nodes until the tree contains N nodes. As nodes are removed, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely a forest. We study the statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest. In the limit N --> ∞ , we find that the system is characterized by a single parameter: the fraction of remaining nodes m. We obtain analytically the size density ϕs of trees of size s, which has a power-law tail ϕs ~s-α , with exponent α = 1 + 1 / m . Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, producing an unusual scaling exponent that increases continuously with time. Furthermore, we investigate the fragment size distribution in a growing tree, where nodes are added as well as removed, and find that the distribution for this case is much narrower.

  13. Fracture, failure, and fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dienes, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    A general approach is required for describing matter of behavior when the failure is likely to involve growth and coalescence of a large number of fractures. Failures of this kind appear frequently in rapid dynamic processes, particularly in the formation of spall fragments. An approach to formulating constitutive relations that accounts for the opening, shear and growth of an ensemble of cracks is discussed. The approach accounts for plastic flow accompanying fragmentation. The resulting constitutive relations were incorporated into a Lagrangian computer program. A theoretical approach to coalescence is described. The simplest formulation uses a linear Liouville equation, with crack growth limited by the mean free path of cracks, assumed constant. This approach allows for an anisotropic distribution of cracks. An alternative approach in which the decrease of the mean free path with increasing crack size is accounted for, but the crack distribution is assumed isotropic is described. A reduction of the governing Liouville equation to an ordinary differential equation of third order is possible, and the result can be used to determine how mean free path decreases with increasing crack size.

  14. CATABOLIC ORIGIN OF A BENCE JONES PROTEIN FRAGMENT

    PubMed Central

    Cioli, D.; Baglioni, C.

    1968-01-01

    Gel filtration analysis of the urinary proteins of some patients with myeloma has shown the presence of "fragments" of Bence Jones proteins which correspond to the variable half of these proteins. Experiments have been carried out to establish the origin of a "fragment" observed in a patient who excreted a large amount of this protein. Labeled homologous Bence Jones protein has been injected into this and other control patients. Excretion of labeled "fragment" has been observed in all. Analysis by peptide mapping and radio-autography of this labeled "fragment" isolated from the urine showed that the invariable half of the Bence Jones protein was not excreted; it seemed thus likely that the invariable half was metabolized to small peptides and free amino acids. A labeled Bence Jones protein which was excreted without any accompanying "fragment" was injected into the patient who excreted large amounts of "fragment." No excretion of labeled "fragment" was observed. It was thus concluded that the property of being degraded to "fragment" is characteristic of some "fragile" Bence Jones proteins and is not determined by the patient. Incubation with serum or urine of the "fragile" Bence Jones protein failed to produce any "fragment." "Fragments" of Bence Jones proteins are thus most likely formed during excretion of these proteins through the kidney and are products of the catabolism of Bence Jones proteins. PMID:5666962

  15. Simvastatin inhibits CD44 fragmentation in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Terabe, Kenya; Takahashi, Nobunori; Takemoto, Toki; Knudson, Warren; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    In human osteoarthritic chondrocytes, the hyaluronan receptor CD44 undergoes proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface. CD44 cleavage is thought to require transit of CD44 into cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statins exert a protective effect on articular chondrocytes due to diminution of cholesterol. Three model systems of chondrocytes were examined including human HCS-2/8 chondrosarcoma cells, human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and normal bovine articular chondrocytes. Treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M resulted in a substantial increase in CD44 fragmentation in each of the three chondrocyte models. Pre-incubation with simvastatin prior to treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M decreased the level of CD44 fragmentation, decreased the proportion of CD44 that transits into the lipid raft fractions, decreased ADAM10 activity and diminished the interaction between CD44 and ADAM10. In HCS-2/8 cells and bovine articular chondrocytes, fragmentation of CD44 was blocked by the knockdown of ADAM10. Inhibition of CD44 fragmentation by simvastatin also resulted in improved retention of pericellular matrix. Addition of cholesterol and farnesyl-pyrophosphate reversed the protective effects of simvastatin. Thus, the addition of simvastatin exerts positive effects on chondrocytes including reduced CD44 fragmentation and enhanced the retention of pericellular matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Eight Synthetic Cannabinoids, Including 5F-AKB48 in Seized Herbal Products Using DART-TOF-MS and LC-QTOF-MS as Nontargeted Screening Methods.

    PubMed

    Moore, Katherine N; Garvin, Demetra; Thomas, Brian F; Grabenauer, Megan

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are sprayed onto plant material and smoked for their marijuana-like effects. Clandestine manufacturers modify synthetic cannabinoid structures by creating closely related analogs. Forensic laboratories are tasked with detection of these analog compounds, but targeted analytical methods are often thwarted by the structural modifications. Here, direct analysis in real time coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-TOF-MS) in combination with liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) are presented as a screening and nontargeted confirmation method, respectively. Methanol extracts of herbal material were run using both methods. Spectral data from four different herbal products were evaluated by comparing fragmentation pattern, accurate mass and retention time to available reference standards. JWH-018, JWH-019, AM2201, JWH-122, 5F-AKB48, AKB48-N-(4-pentenyl) analog, UR144, and XLR11 were identified in the products. Results demonstrate that DART-TOF-MS affords a useful approach for rapid screening of herbal products for the presence and identification of synthetic cannabinoids. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  18. A description of the global land-surface precipitation data products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre with sample applications including centennial (trend) analysis from 1901-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Rudolf, B.; Schamm, K.; Schneider, U.; Ziese, M.

    2013-02-01

    The availability of highly accessible and reliable monthly gridded data sets of global land-surface precipitation is a need that was already identified in the mid-1980s when there was a complete lack of globally homogeneous gauge-based precipitation analyses. Since 1989, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) has built up its unique capacity to assemble, quality assure, and analyse rain gauge data gathered from all over the world. The resulting database has exceeded 200 yr in temporal coverage and has acquired data from more than 85 000 stations worldwide. Based on this database, this paper provides the reference publication for the four globally gridded monthly precipitation products of the GPCC, covering a 111-yr analysis period from 1901-present. As required for a reference publication, the content of the product portfolio, as well as the underlying methodologies to process and interpolate are detailed. Moreover, we provide information on the systematic and statistical errors associated with the data products. Finally, sample applications provide potential users of GPCC data products with suitable advice on capabilities and constraints of the gridded data sets. In doing so, the capabilities to access El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) sensitive precipitation regions and to perform trend analyses across the past 110 yr are demonstrated. The four gridded products, i.e. the Climatology (CLIM) V2011, the Full Data Reanalysis (FD) V6, the Monitoring Product (MP) V4, and the First Guess Product (FG), are publicly available on easily accessible latitude/longitude grids encoded in zipped clear text ASCII files for subsequent visualization and download through the GPCC download gate hosted on ftp://ftp.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Offenbach, Germany. Depending on the product, four (0

  19. A description of the global land-surface precipitation data products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre with sample applications including centennial (trend) analysis from 1901-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Rudolf, B.; Schamm, K.; Schneider, U.; Ziese, M.

    2012-09-01

    The availability of highly accessible and reliable monthly gridded data sets of the global land-surface precipitation is a need that has already been identified in the mid-80s when there was a complete lack of a globally homogeneous gauge based precipitation analysis. Since 1989 the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) has built up a unique capacity to assemble, quality assure, and analyse rain gauge data gathered from all over the world. The resulting data base has exceeded 200 yr in temporal coverage and has acquired data from more than 85 000 stations world-wide. This paper provides the reference publication for the four globally gridded monthly precipitation products of the GPCC covering a 111-yr analysis period from 1901-present, processed from this data base. As required for a reference publication, the content of the product portfolio, as well as the underlying methodologies to process and interpolate are detailed. Moreover, we provide information on the systematic and statistical errors associated with the data products. Finally, sample applications provide potential users of GPCC data products with suitable advice on capabilities and constraints of the gridded data sets. In doing so, the capabilities to access ENSO and NAO sensitive precipitation regions and to perform trend analysis across the past 110 yr are demonstrated. The four gridded products, i.e. the Climatology V2011 (CLIM), the Full Data Reanalysis (FD) V6, the Monitoring Product (MP) V4, and the First Guess Product (FG) are public available on easy accessible latitude longitude grids encoded in zipped clear text ASCII files for subsequent visualization and download through the GPCC download gate hosted on ftp://ftp.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Offenbach, Germany. Depending on the product four (0.25°, 0.5°, 1.0°, 2.5° for CLIM), three (0.5°, 1.0

  20. Fragment size distribution statistics in dynamic fragmentation of laser shock-loaded tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Weihua; Xin, Jianting; Zhao, Yongqiang; Chu, Genbai; Xi, Tao; Shui, Min; Lu, Feng; Gu, Yuqiu

    2017-06-01

    This work investigates the geometric statistics method to characterize the size distribution of tin fragments produced in the laser shock-loaded dynamic fragmentation process. In the shock experiments, the ejection of the tin sample with etched V-shape groove in the free surface are collected by the soft recovery technique. Subsequently, the produced fragments are automatically detected with the fine post-shot analysis techniques including the X-ray micro-tomography and the improved watershed method. To characterize the size distributions of the fragments, a theoretical random geometric statistics model based on Poisson mixtures is derived for dynamic heterogeneous fragmentation problem, which reveals linear combinational exponential distribution. The experimental data related to fragment size distributions of the laser shock-loaded tin sample are examined with the proposed theoretical model, and its fitting performance is compared with that of other state-of-the-art fragment size distribution models. The comparison results prove that our proposed model can provide far more reasonable fitting result for the laser shock-loaded tin.

  1. Numerical solution of Q evolution equations for fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.

    2012-04-01

    Semi-inclusive hadron-production processes are becoming important in high-energy hadron reactions. They are used for investigating properties of quark-hadron matters in heavy-ion collisions, for finding the origin of nucleon spin in polarized lepton-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon reactions, and possibly for finding exotic hadrons. In describing the hadron-production cross sections in high-energy reactions, fragmentation functions are essential quantities. A fragmentation function indicates the probability of producing a hadron from a parton in the leading order of the running coupling constant αs. Its Q dependence is described by the standard DGLAP (Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi) evolution equations, which are often used in theoretical and experimental analyses of the fragmentation functions and in calculating semi-inclusive cross sections. The DGLAP equations are complicated integro-differential equations, which cannot be solved in an analytical method. In this work, a simple method is employed for solving the evolution equations by using Gauss-Legendre quadrature for evaluating integrals, and a useful code is provided for calculating the Q evolution of the fragmentation functions in the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) of αs. The renormalization scheme is MSbar in the NLO evolution. Our evolution code is explained for using it in one's studies on the fragmentation functions. Catalogue identifier: AELJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 191 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran77 Computer: Tested on an HP DL360G5-DC-X5160 Operating system: Linux 2.6.9-42.ELsmp RAM: 130 M

  2. Transverse polarization of the Λ hyperon from unpolarized quark fragmentation in the diquark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongliang; Lu, Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the spin-dependent (naive) T-odd fragmentation function D1T ⊥, which can provide an explanation on the transverse polarization of the Λ0 hyperon produced in an unpolarized process. We calculate D1T ⊥ for light flavors in the spectator diquark model, with a Gaussian form factor at the hyperon-quark-diquark vertex. We include in the calculation both the scalar diquark and axial-vector diquark spectators. We determine the values of the model parameters by fitting the unpolarized fragmentation function D1Λ to the parametrization for D1Λ by de Florian, Stratmann and Vogelsang. In addition, we compute the longitudinal polarization fragmentation function G1Λ and compare it with the known parametrization of G1Λ. We also estimate the transverse polarizations of Λ production, in both semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and single inclusive e+e- annihilation.

  3. Dissertation: Precompound Emission of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-04

    Emission of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions is an open question. Different reaction mechanisms contribute to their production; the relative roles of each, and how they change with incident energy, mass number of the target, and the type and emission energy of the fragments is not completely understood. None of the available models are able to accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the ability to describe production of LF (especially at energies ≳ 30 MeV) from many reactions is important for different applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) version 03.03 and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) version 03.03 event generators in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 6 (MCNP6) describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to ⁴He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies (up to ~ 5 GeV for CEM and up to ~ 1 TeV/A for LAQGSM). However, they do not predict the high energy tails of LF spectra heavier than ⁴He well. Most LF with energies above several tens of MeV are emitted during the precompound stage of a reaction. The current versions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators do not account for precompound emission of LF larger than ⁴He. The aim of our work is to extend the precompound model in them to include such processes, leading to an increase of predictive power of LF-production in MCNP6. This entails upgrading the Modified Exciton Model currently used at the preequilibrium stage in CEM and LAQGSM. It also includes expansion and examination of the coalescence and Fermi break-up models used in the precompound stages of spallation reactions within CEM and LAQGSM. Extending our models to include emission of fragments heavier than ⁴He at the precompound stage has indeed provided results that have much

  4. Precompound emission of energetic light fragments in spallation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerby, Leslie Marie

    Emission of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions is an open question. Different reaction mechanisms contribute to their production; the relative roles of each, and how they change with incident energy, mass number of the target, and the type and emission energy of the fragments is not completely understood. None of the available models are able to accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the ability to describe production of LF (especially at energies ~ 30 MeV) from many reactions is important for different applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) version 03.03 and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) version 03.03 event generators in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 6 (MCNP6) describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to 4He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies (up to ~ 5 GeV for CEM and up to ~1 TeV/A for LAQGSM). However, they do not predict the high-energy tails of LF spectra heavier than 4He well. Most LF with energies above several tens of MeV are emitted during the precompound stage of a reaction. The current versions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators do not account for precompound emission of LF larger than 4He. The aim of our work is to extend the precompound model in them to include such processes, leading to an increase of predictive power of LF-production in MCNP6. This entails upgrading the Modified Exciton Model currently used at the preequilibrium stage in CEM and LAQGSM. It also includes expansion and examination of the coalescence and Fermi break-up models used in the precompound stages of spallation reactions within CEM and LAQGSM. Extending our models to include emission of fragments heavier than 4He at the precompound stage has indeed provided results that have much better

  5. PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay for Detection of gyrA Mutations Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Campylobacter coli

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Mateo, Estibaliz; Girbau, Cecilia; Churruca, Estibaliz; Martinez, Irati; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    A fragment of the gyrA gene was sequenced from 34 isolates of Campylobacter coli, including 23 isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates examined by DNA sequencing carried a point mutation at position Thr-86 on the gyrA gene product, involving the replacement of Thr-86 by Ile. A combined PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using RsaI was developed to detect this mutation. PMID:15561873

  6. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for detection of gyrA mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Mateo, Estibaliz; Girbau, Cecilia; Churruca, Estibaliz; Martinez, Irati; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2004-12-01

    A fragment of the gyrA gene was sequenced from 34 isolates of Campylobacter coli, including 23 isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates examined by DNA sequencing carried a point mutation at position Thr-86 on the gyrA gene product, involving the replacement of Thr-86 by Ile. A combined PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using RsaI was developed to detect this mutation.

  7. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

  8. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  9. Relativistic correction to gluon fragmentation function into pseudoscalar quarkonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiangrui; Jia, Yu; Li, Liuji; Xiong, Xiaonu

    2017-02-01

    Inspired by the recent measurements of the ηc meson production at LHC experiments, we investigate the relativistic correction effect for the fragmentation functions of gluon/charm quark fragmenting into ηc, which constitute the crucial nonperturbative element for the ηc production at high p T. Employing three distinct methods, we calculate the next-to-leading-order (NLO) relativistic correction to g → ηc fragmentation function in the NRQCD factorization framework, as well as verifying the existing NLO result for the c → ηc fragmentation function. We also study the evolution behavior of these fragmentation functions with the aid of the DGLAP equation. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475188, 11261130311, 11575202, 11222549), IHEP Innovation (Y4545170Y2), State Key Lab for Electronics and Particle Detectors

  10. Methods for rearing Mesostoma ehrenbergii in the laboratory for cell biology experiments, including identification of factors that influence production of different egg types.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Carina; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Gauthier, Kimberley; Forer, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes are uniquely useful to study various aspects of cell division. Their chromosomes are large in size and few in number, with only three bivalent and four univalent chromosomes. During prometaphase, bipolar bivalents oscillate regularly to and from the poles for 1-2 hours. The univalents remain at the poles but occasionally move from one pole to the other. In addition, a precocious cleavage furrow forms during prometaphase and remains partially constricted until anaphase. Attempts to rear these animals indefinitely in laboratory conditions, however, have been mostly unsuccessful because of their reproductive strategy. M. ehrenbergii are hermaphroditic flatworms that can produce viviparous offspring (termed S eggs) and/or diapausing eggs (termed D eggs) and they follow either one of two reproductive patterns: (1) they first form S eggs and following the delivery of these eggs produce D eggs, or (2) they only produce D eggs. When only D eggs are formed, which is common under laboratory conditions, the stocks die out until the D eggs hatch, which is irregular and creates unpredictable wait times. Consequently, in order to maintain M. ehrenbergii stocks to study their spermatocytes, we examined various factors that might influence egg-type production. Feeding them daily and keeping them at 25°C favours S egg production. Currently, our cultures have reached the 53rd generation. We herein describe our rearing and dissection methods, and some experiments which led to our present rearing methods. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Characterization of process-related impurities including forced degradation products of alogliptin benzoate and the development of the corresponding reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, YuXia; Zhou, WenTao; Sun, LiLi; Zou, QiaoGen; Wei, Ping; OuYang, PingKai

    2014-06-01

    The characterization of process-related impurities and forced degradants of alogliptin benzoate (Alb) in bulk drugs and a stability-indicating HPLC method for the separation and quantification of all the impurities were investigated. Alb was found to be unstable under acid and alkali stress conditions and two major degradation products (Imp-F and Imp-G) were observed. The optimum separation was achieved on Kromasil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using 0.1% perchloric acid (pH adjusted to 3.0 with triethylamine) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in gradient mode. The proposed method was found to be stability indicating, precise, linear (0.10-75.0 μg/mL), accurate, sensitive, and robust for the quantitation of Alb and its process-related substances and degradation products. The structures of 11 impurities were characterized and confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, MS, and IR spectroscopy, and the most probable formation mechanisms of all impurities were proposed according to the synthesis route. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate.

  13. Development and validation of a stability-indicating assay including the isolation and characterization of degradation products of metaxalone by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Rao, R Nageswara; Farah, Hassan; Sahu, Prafulla Kumar; Janarthan, Muthumani; Naidu, Ch Gangu

    2013-12-01

    A stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the assay of metaxalone through forced degradation under acidic, alkaline, photo, oxidative and peroxide stress conditions. Separation of degradation products was accomplished on a reverse-phase Phenomenex C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column thermostated at 25 °C using 10 mM aqueous ammonium acetate: methanol (35:65 v/v) as mobile phase in an isocratic mode of elution. The eluents were detected at 275 nm by photo diode array detector and mass detectors connected in series. Two unknown base hydrolysis products of metaxalone were identified and characterized as (a) methyl 3-(3,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylcarbamate and (b) 1-(3,5-dimethylphenoxy)-3-aminopropan-2-ol by MS, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and metaxalone was selectively determined in presence of its degradation impurities, demonstrating its stability-indicating nature.

  14. The spread of pathogens through trade in honey bees and their products (including queen bees and semen): overview and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Mutinelli, F

    2011-04-01

    International trade in bees and bee products is a complex issue, affected bytheir different origins and uses. The trade in bees, which poses the main risk for disease dissemination, is very active and not all transactions may be officially registered by the competent authorities. Globally, bee health continues to deteriorate as pathogens, pests, parasites and diseases are spread internationally through legitimate trade, smuggling and well-intentioned but ill-advised bee introductions by professionals. International trade rules strengthen the ability of many countries to protect bee health while trading but also carry obligations. Countries that are Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) should only restrict imports to protect against identifiable health risks. If imports are safe, trade should be permitted. The trading rules of the WTO have given greater importance to the international standards applicable to bee health, developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health, which aims to prevent the spread of animal diseases while facilitating international trade in animals and animal products.

  15. Nonequilibrium effects in fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomoretz, A.; Ison, M.; Ortiz, S.; Dorso, C. O.

    2001-08-01

    We study, using molecular dynamics techniques, how boundary conditions affect the process of fragmentation of finite, highly excited, Lennard-Jones systems. We analyze the behavior of the caloric curves (CC), the associated thermal response functions (TRF), and cluster mass distributions for constrained and unconstrained hot drops. It is shown that the resulting CC for the constrained case differ from the one in the unconstrained case, mainly in the presence of a ``vapor branch.'' This branch is absent in the free expanding case even at high energies. This effect is traced to the role played by the collective expansion motion. On the other hand, we found that the recently proposed characteristic features of a first order phase transition taking place in a finite isolated system, i.e., abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations and a negative branch in the TRF, are present for the constrained (dilute) as well as the unconstrained case. The microscopic origin of this behavior is also analyzed.

  16. The Largest Fragment of a Homogeneous Fragmentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyprianou, Andreas; Lane, Francis; Mörters, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We show that in homogeneous fragmentation processes the largest fragment at time t has size e^{-t Φ '(overline{p})}t^{-3/2 (log Φ )'(overline{p})+o(1)}, where Φ is the Lévy exponent of the fragmentation process, and overline{p} is the unique solution of the equation (log Φ )'(bar{p})=1/1+bar{p}. We argue that this result is in line with predictions arising from the classification of homogeneous fragmentation processes as logarithmically correlated random fields.

  17. Recovery of Small DNA Fragments from Serum Using Compaction Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Binh V.; Anthony, Kim L.; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Background While most nucleic acids are intracellular, trace amounts of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), including micro RNAs, can also be found in peripheral blood. Many studies have suggested the potential utility of these circulating nucleic acids in prenatal diagnosis, early cancer detection, and the diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, DNA circulating in blood is usually present at very low concentrations (ng/ml), and is in the form of relatively small fragments (<1,000 bp), making its isolation challenging. Methods Here we report an improved method for the isolation of small DNA fragments from serum using selective precipitation by quaternary ammonium compaction agents. A 151 bp fragment of double-stranded DNA from the Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda served as the model DNA in our experiments. DNA was serially diluted in serum until undetectable by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), before being enriched by compaction precipitation. Results Starting with concentrations two to three orders of magnitude lower than the PCR-detectable level (0.01 ng/ml), we were able to enrich the DNA to a detectable level using a novel compaction precipitation protocol. The isolated DNA product after compaction precipitation was largely free of serum contaminants and was suitable for downstream applications. Conclusions Using compaction precipitation, we were able to isolate and concentrate small DNA from serum, and increase the sensitivity of detection by more than four orders of magnitude. We were able to recover and detect very low levels (0.01 ng/ml) of a small DNA fragment in serum. In addition to being very sensitive, the method is fast, simple, inexpensive, and avoids the use of toxic chemicals. PMID:23284792

  18. Recovery of small DNA fragments from serum using compaction precipitation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Binh V; Anthony, Kim L; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    While most nucleic acids are intracellular, trace amounts of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), including micro RNAs, can also be found in peripheral blood. Many studies have suggested the potential utility of these circulating nucleic acids in prenatal diagnosis, early cancer detection, and the diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, DNA circulating in blood is usually present at very low concentrations (ng/ml), and is in the form of relatively small fragments (<1,000 bp), making its isolation challenging. Here we report an improved method for the isolation of small DNA fragments from serum using selective precipitation by quaternary ammonium compaction agents. A 151 bp fragment of double-stranded DNA from the Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda served as the model DNA in our experiments. DNA was serially diluted in serum until undetectable by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), before being enriched by compaction precipitation. Starting with concentrations two to three orders of magnitude lower than the PCR-detectable level (0.01 ng/ml), we were able to enrich the DNA to a detectable level using a novel compaction precipitation protocol. The isolated DNA product after compaction precipitation was largely free of serum contaminants and was suitable for downstream applications. Using compaction precipitation, we were able to isolate and concentrate small DNA from serum, and increase the sensitivity of detection by more than four orders of magnitude. We were able to recover and detect very low levels (0.01 ng/ml) of a small DNA fragment in serum. In addition to being very sensitive, the method is fast, simple, inexpensive, and avoids the use of toxic chemicals.

  19. Vocabularies Clashing: "The Fragmented Generation" Describes Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    After reading Scott Seider and Howard Gardner's essay "The Fragmented Generation" (2009) in a college freshman writing class, students responded by providing their own labels for their generation. This article includes excerpts from their essays. Following these excerpts is the instructor's theoretical justification for this kind of classroom…

  20. Vocabularies Clashing: "The Fragmented Generation" Describes Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    After reading Scott Seider and Howard Gardner's essay "The Fragmented Generation" (2009) in a college freshman writing class, students responded by providing their own labels for their generation. This article includes excerpts from their essays. Following these excerpts is the instructor's theoretical justification for this kind of classroom…