Science.gov

Sample records for fragmentation products including

  1. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  2. Inner valence-shell vacancy production and molecular fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, E. C.; Tavares, A. C.; Luna, H.; Wolff, W.

    2015-09-01

    Fragmentation of complex molecules is studied linking the fragment-ions to the primary vacancies produced in their molecular orbitals. It is observed that a model based in such association describes well rather complex molecules. Deviations from this model are clear indications that inner valence-shells and double ionization plays a key role in the production of some fragments.

  3. Double Parton Fragmentation Function and its Evolution in Quarkonium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    We summarize the results of a recent study on a new perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum pT at collider energies. Such a new factorization formalism includes both the leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the mQ2/p_T^2 expansion for heavy quark mass mQ. For the NLP contribution, the so-called double parton fragmentation functions are involved, whose evolution equations have been derived. We estimate fragmentation functions in the non-relativistic QCD formalism, and found that their contribution reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit NLO calculations in the color singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization, in contrast to the single parton fragmentation function. This might shed some light on the heavy quarkonium polarization puzzle.

  4. Fragmentation production of charmed hadrons in electron-positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Novoselov, A. A.

    2010-10-15

    Processes involving the production of D* mesons and {Lambda}{sub c} baryons in electron-positron annihilation at the energies of 10.58 and 91.18 GeV are considered. At the energy of 10.58 GeV, the production of pairs of B mesons that is followed by their decay to charmed particles is analyzed along with direct charm production. The violation of scaling in the respective fragmentation functions is taken into account in the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. The required nonperturbative fragmentation functions are extracted numerically from experimental data obtained at B factories and are approximated by simple analytic expressions. It is shown that the difference in the nonperturbative fragmentation functions for transitions to mesons and baryons can readily be explained on the basis of the quark-counting rules.

  5. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody–drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. PMID:26833854

  6. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  7. Nonsinglet kaon fragmentation function from e{sup +}e{sup -} kaon production

    SciTech Connect

    Albino, Simon; Christova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    We perform fits to the available charged and neutral kaon-production data in e{sup +}+e{sup -{yields}}K+X, K=K{sup {+-},} and K{sub S}{sup 0}, and determine the nonsinglet combination of kaon fragmentation functions D{sub u}{sup K{+-}-}D{sub d}{sup K{+-}}in a model independent way and without any correlations to the other fragmentation functions. Only nuclear isospin invariance is assumed. Working with nonsinglets allows us to include the data at very low momentum fractions, which have so far been excluded in global fits, and to perform a first next-next-to leading order fit to fragmentation functions. We find that the kaon nonsinglet fragmentation function at large z is larger than that obtained by the other collaborations from global fit analysis and differs significantly at low z.

  8. Large-scale production of palindrome DNA fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.L.; Gewiess, A.; Harp, J.M.

    1995-10-10

    Our structural studies of nucleosomes necessitated the production of over 100 mg of a 146-bp perfect palindrome DNA for use in the reconstitution of perfectly symmetrical nucleosome core particles for detailed X-ray crystallographic analysis. The propagation of palindromic DNA sequences by bacterial culture is hindered by the instability of these sequences during bacterial replication and recombination. While the loss of some palindrome sequences can be elminated by the use of sbcB or sbcC mutants of Escherichia coli, not all palindrome-containing plasmids are faithfully maintained by these strains. The production of large quantities of palindrome DNA can therefore be extremely difficult. After trying several approaches, we were able to develop a reliable procedure for production of large quantities of palindrome DNA that involves production of plasmid containing multiple copies of the repeating unit of the palindrome which are isolated by restriction digestion and ligated in vitro to form the palindrome DNA. The procedure has resulted in the production of over 20 mg of a 146-bp DNA fragment in 2 weeks.

  9. Ultraforward particle production from color glass condensate and Lund fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Guerrero Rodríguez, Pablo; Nara, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    We present an analysis of data on single inclusive pion production measured by the LHCf Collaboration in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus at ultraforward rapidities, 8.8 ≤y ≤10.8 . We also analyze forward RHIC data for calibration purposes. Our analysis relies on the use of a Monte Carlo event generator that combines a perturbative description of the elementary scattering process at partonic level based on the hybrid formalism of the color glass condensate with an implementation of hadronization in the framework of the Lund string fragmentation model. This procedure allows us to reach values of the momenta of the produced particles as low as detected experimentally, pt˜0.1 GeV . We achieve a good description of single inclusive spectra of charged particles and neutral pions at the RHIC and the LHC, respectively, and nuclear modification factors for proton-lead collisions at the LHC. Our results add evidence to the idea that particle production in the domain of a very small Bjorken x is dominated by the saturation effects encoded in the unintegrated gluon distribution of the target. With forward particle production being of key importance in the development of air showers, we stress that this approach allows for a theoretically controlled extrapolation of our results to the scale of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, thus serving as the starting point for future works on this topic.

  10. Alternative downstream processes for production of antibodies and antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ejima, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Protein-A or Protein-L affinity chromatography and virus inactivation are key processes for the manufacturing of therapeutic antibodies and antibody fragments. These two processes often involve exposure of therapeutic proteins to denaturing low pH conditions. Antibodies have been shown to undergo conformational changes at low pH, which can lead to irreversible damages on the final product. Here, we review alternative downstream approaches that can reduce the degree of low pH exposure and consequently damaged product. We and others have been developing technologies that minimize or eliminate such low pH processes. We here cover facilitated elution of antibodies using arginine in Protein-A and Protein-G affinity chromatography, a more positively charged amidated Protein-A, two Protein-A mimetics (MEP and Mabsorbent), mixed-mode and steric exclusion chromatography, and finally enhanced virus inactivation by solvents containing arginine. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent advances in molecular engineering of antibody. PMID:24859179

  11. DRAGON: Monte Carlo generator of particle production from a fragmented fireball in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomášik, Boris

    2009-09-01

    within the statistical approach. Momentum spectra integrated over many events can be interpreted as produced from an expanding and locally thermalised fireball. The present Monte Carlo model unifies these approaches: fireball decays into fragments of some characteristic size. The fragments recede from each other as given by the pre-existing expansion of the fireball. They subsequently emit stable and unstable hadrons with momenta generated according to thermal distribution. Resonances then decay and their daughters acquire momenta as dictated by decay kinematics. Solution method: The Monte Carlo generator repeats a loop in which it generates individual events. First, sizes of fragments are generated. Then the fragments are placed within the decaying fireball and their velocities are determined from the one-to-one correspondence between the position and the expansion velocity in the blast wave model. Since hadrons may be emitted from fragments as well as from the remaining bulk fireball, first those from the bulk are generated according to the blast wave model. Then, hadron production from the fragments is treated. Each hadron is generated in the rest frame of the fragment and then boosted to the global frame. Finally, after all directly produced hadrons are generated, resonance decay channels are chosen and the momenta and positions of final state hadrons are determined. Running time: Generation of 100 events can take anything between 2 hours to a couple of days. This depends mainly on the size and density of fragments. Simulations with small fragments may be very slow. At the beginning of a run there is a period of up to 1 hour in which the program calculates thermal weights due to statistical model. This period is long if many species are included in the simulation.

  12. Recombinant Kinase Production and Fragment Screening by NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Byeonggu; Ahn, Hee-Chul

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has rapidly evolved and several drugs or drug candidates developed by FBDD approach are clinically in use or in clinical trials. For example, vemurafenib, a V600E mutated BRAF inhibitor, was developed by utilizing FBDD approach and approved by FDA in 2011. In FBDD, screening of fragments is the starting step for identification of hits and lead generation. Fragment screening usually relies on biophysical techniques by which the protein-bound small molecules can be detected. NMR spectroscopy has been extensively used to study the molecular interaction between the protein and the ligand, and has many advantages in fragment screening over other biophysical techniques. This chapter describes the practical aspects of fragment screening by saturation transfer difference NMR. PMID:26501900

  13. More Biological Entities from the Stratosphere Including a Diatom Fragment-Further Evidence for a Space Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Details of stratosphere-isolated biomorphs are given, including a fragment of a diatom frustule and an inorganic particle-rich mass containing biological filaments. We argue that this mass which is around 300 micron in size is, like the other biological entities shown, too large to have been carried from Earth to the stratosphere. As a result, we conclude that the biological entities arrived from space, probably from comets, and their existence in the stratosphere provides prima facie evidence in support of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia.

  14. Consistent simulation of direct-photon production in hadron collisions including associated two-jet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2016-05-01

    We have developed an event generator for direct-photon production in hadron collisions, including associated 2-jet production in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The event generator consistently combines γ + 2-jet production processes with the lowest-order γ + jet and photon-radiation (fragmentation) processes from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 2-jet production using a subtraction method. The generated events can be fed to general-purpose event generators to facilitate the addition of hadronization and decay simulations. Using the obtained event information, we can simulate photon isolation and hadron-jet reconstruction at the particle (hadron) level. The simulation reasonably reproduces measurement data obtained at the large hadron collider (LHC) concerning not only the inclusive photon spectrum, but also the correlation between the photon and jet. The simulation implies that the contribution of the γ + 2-jet is very large, especially in low photon-pT ( ≲ 50 GeV) regions. Discrepancies observed at low pT, although marginal, may indicate the necessity for the consideration of further higher-order processes. Unambiguous particle-level definition of the photon-isolation condition for the signal events is desired to be given explicitly in future measurements.

  15. Pyrimidine ring fragmentation products. Effects of lesion structure and sequence context on mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Maccabee, M; Evans, J S; Glackin, M P; Hatahet, Z; Wallace, S S

    1994-02-18

    Free radicals produce a broad spectrum of damages to DNA, a major proportion of which includes ring fragmentation and contraction products of DNA bases as well as abasic sites. In this study, the mutagenic potential fo two pyrimidine ring fragmentation products, urea and beta-ureidoisobutyric acid (UBA), was analyzed using the i-d region of the Escherichia coli lacI gene contained in a single-stranded f1-K12 phage hybrid vector. Single-stranded DNA was used so that the in vivo interactions between the damage and the DNA polymerase could be assessed in the absence of excision repair. The i-d region contains 20 mutable thymine sites so that 20 separate sequence contexts containing a unique lesion at a position of thymine can be analyzed simultaneously. Urea and UBA residues were uniquely introduced into f1-K12 DNA by chemical and enzymatic methods and primer extension and piperidine analysis of the damage-containing template molecules demonstrated that the potential mutable thymine sites contained randomly distributed lesions. Both fragmentation products were poorly bypassed by DNA polymerases in vitro and in the cell; although in the presence of SOS-induction, UBA was bypassed more efficiently than urea. UBA was a potent premutagenic lesion with a rate of mutation induction more than sixfold above that observed with abasic sites derived from purines. Urea residues were about as mutagenic as abasic sites derived from purines, which in turn were more mutagenic than abasic sites derived from thymine. Mutations derived from urea, UBA and abasic sites were all dependent on SOS-induction of the host cells. Since both urea and UBA were derived from DNA thymine, these data demonstrate that adenine is not routinely inserted opposite products that no longer retain the structural integrity of the pyrimidine ring. Sequence analysis showed that the mutations were targeted at thymine with 62% of the urea-derived mutations being T to C transitions and 62% of the UBA derived

  16. Well production apparatus including pump means and thermal absorption means

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, K.M.; Moeller, R.C.; Williamson, S.E.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a well production apparatus which includes a tubular production conduit which extends from the top of the well to a production zone interior of casing. An electric submersible pump has a production fluid flow passageway which communicates between the exterior of the conduit and the interior of the casing. A packer is in communication with the production conduit below the pump and is movable into sealing engagement with the casing to isolate the production zone. A thermal absorber is carried on the production conduit between upper and lower production conduit members whereby subsequent to positioning of the packer assembly into set position, thermal expansion or contraction of the conduit above the set packer is absorbed by the thermal absorber without transmission of thermal expansion or contraction of the conduit to the pump.

  17. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  18. Influence of different liquid-drop-based bindings on lighter mass fragments and entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohit; Shivani; Gautam, Sakshi

    2016-04-01

    We study the production of lighter fragments and associated phenomena within the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model. The Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method is used to identify the pre-clusters. The final stable fragments were identified by imposing binding energy criteria on the fragments formed using the MST method. The effect of different binding energy criteria was investigated by employing various liquid-drop-based binding energy formulae. Though light clusters show significant effect of different binding energies, their associated phenomenon, i.e. entropy production is insensitive towards different binding energy criteria.

  19. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  20. How are particle production, nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation processes interrelated in hadron-nucleus collisions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between particle production, nucleon emission, and fragment evaporation processes were searched for in hadron-nucleus collisions. It was stated that: (1) the nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation proceed independently of the particle production process; and (2) relation between multiplicities of the emitted protons and of the evaporated charged fragments is expressed by simple formula.

  1. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally, individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  2. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally,more » individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  3. Cloning and Analysis of a DNA Fragment Stimulating Avermectin Production in Various Streptomyces avermitilis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yong-Soon; Kim, Eung-Soo; Biró, Sándor; Choi, Cha-Yong

    2003-01-01

    To isolate a gene for stimulating avermectin production, a genomic library of Streptomyces avermitilis ATCC 31267 was constructed in Streptomyces lividans TK21 as the host strain. An 8.0-kb DNA fragment that significantly stimulated actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin production was isolated. When wild-type S. avermitilis was transformed with the cloned fragment, avermectin production increased approximately 3.5-fold. The introduction of this fragment into high-producer (ATCC 31780) and semi-industrial (L-9) strains also resulted in an increase of avermectin production by more than 2.0- and 1.4-fold, respectively. Subclones were studied to locate the minimal region involved in stimulation of pigmented-antibiotic and avermectin production. An analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the entire DNA fragment identified eight complete and one incomplete open reading frame. All but one of the deduced proteins exhibited strong homology (68 to 84% identity) to the hypothetical proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The orfX gene product showed no significant similarity to any other protein in the databases, and an analysis of its sequence suggested that it was a putative membrane protein. Although the nature of the stimulatory effect is still unclear, the disruption of orfX revealed that this gene was intrinsically involved in the stimulation of avermectin production in S. avermitilis. PMID:12571055

  4. Cloning and analysis of a DNA fragment stimulating avermectin production in various Streptomyces avermitilis strains.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong-Soon; Kim, Eung-Soo; Biró, Sándor; Choi, Cha-Yong

    2003-02-01

    To isolate a gene for stimulating avermectin production, a genomic library of Streptomyces avermitilis ATCC 31267 was constructed in Streptomyces lividans TK21 as the host strain. An 8.0-kb DNA fragment that significantly stimulated actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin production was isolated. When wild-type S. avermitilis was transformed with the cloned fragment, avermectin production increased approximately 3.5-fold. The introduction of this fragment into high-producer (ATCC 31780) and semi-industrial (L-9) strains also resulted in an increase of avermectin production by more than 2.0- and 1.4-fold, respectively. Subclones were studied to locate the minimal region involved in stimulation of pigmented-antibiotic and avermectin production. An analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the entire DNA fragment identified eight complete and one incomplete open reading frame. All but one of the deduced proteins exhibited strong homology (68 to 84% identity) to the hypothetical proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The orfX gene product showed no significant similarity to any other protein in the databases, and an analysis of its sequence suggested that it was a putative membrane protein. Although the nature of the stimulatory effect is still unclear, the disruption of orfX revealed that this gene was intrinsically involved in the stimulation of avermectin production in S. avermitilis. PMID:12571055

  5. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  6. DRAGON: Monte Carlo Generator of Particle Production from a Fragmented Fireball in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasik, Boris

    2010-11-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. DRAGON's purpose is to produce artificial data sets which resemble those coming from real nuclear collisions provided fragmentation occurs at hadronisation and hadrons are emitted from fragments without any further scattering. Its name, DRAGON, stands for DRoplet and hAdron GeneratOr for Nuclear collisions. In a way, the model is similar to THERMINATOR, with the crucial difference that emission from fragments is included.

  7. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  8. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  9. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  10. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  11. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  12. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  13. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  14. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  15. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  16. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  17. Promoter engineering to optimize recombinant periplasmic Fab' fragment production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Desmond M; Templar, Alex; Newton, Joseph; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-07-01

    Fab' fragments have become an established class of biotherapeutic over the last two decades. Likewise, developments in synthetic biology are providing ever more powerful techniques for designing bacterial genes, gene networks and entire genomes that can be used to improve industrial performance of cells used for production of biotherapeutics. We have previously observed significant leakage of an exogenous therapeutic Fab' fragment into the growth medium during high cell density cultivation of an Escherichia coli production strain. In this study we sought to apply a promoter engineering strategy to address the issue of Fab' fragment leakage and its consequent bioprocess challenges. We used site directed mutagenesis to convert the Ptac promoter, present in the plasmid, pTTOD-A33 Fab', to a Ptic promoter which has been shown by others to direct expression at a 35% reduced rate compared to Ptac . We characterized the resultant production trains in which either Ptic or Ptac promoters direct Fab' fragment expression. The Ptic promoter strain showed a 25-30% reduction in Fab' expression relative to the original Ptac strain. Reduced Fab' leakage and increased viability over the course of a fed-batch fermentation were also observed for the Ptic promoter strain. We conclude that cell design steps such as the Ptac to Ptic promoter conversion reported here, can yield significant process benefit and understanding with respect to periplasmic Fab' fragment production. It remains an open question as to whether the influence of transgene expression on periplasmic retention is mediated by global metabolic burden effects or periplasm overcapacity. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:840-847, 2016.

  18. The HLA class I gene family includes at least six genes and twelve pseudogenes and gene fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Geraghty, D.E. ); Koller, B.H.; Orr, H.T. ); Hansen, J.A. )

    1992-09-15

    The authors report the characterization of eight HLA class I homologous sequences isolated from cosmid and lambda libraries made from lymphoblastoid cell line 721 DNA. Four of these sequences, each contained within HindIII fragments of 1.7, 2.1, 3.0, and 8.0 kb, have class I homology extending over short intron-exon regions. The remaining four are found within 7.5-, 8.0-, 9.0-, and 16.0-kb HindIII fragments, the first having homology to the 5[prime] half of a class I gene whereas the latter three are homologous to the 3[prime] portion of a class I gene. When combined with the characterization of other class I clones, this work brings the total number of HLA class I homologous sequences cloned and characterized to 18. Restriction mapping of cosmid clones showed that some of these sequences are linked to one another and to other class I pseudogenes and genes within 50-kb regions. Reconstruction experiments using the 18 class I genes and pseudogenes were performed that indicated that all of the members of the HLA class I gene family detectable using HLA-A2 genomic DNA as probe had been cloned. An additional 19th member of the class I gene family was identified using an HLA-E cDNA probe. Further Southern analysis with other class I probes indicated the 19 sequences comprise the entire class I gene family in LCL 721. Locus-specific probes were isolated from five of the eight clones and were used in Southern analysis of diverse genomic DNA to examine the polymorphism of the pseudogene sequences, demonstrating that some of them were highly polymorphic and some were missing entirely in certain haplotypes. An additional class I sequence, not contained within the 721 genome, was identified and may be found in association with the HLA-A11-Bw60 haplotype. Sequence comparisons were carried out to examine the evolutionary relationships among the pseudogenes. Hypothetical events in the evolution of the class I region are discussed. 59 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  20. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above. PMID:23092848

  1. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  2. Direct production of Fv-fragments from a family of monoclonal IgGs papain digestion.

    PubMed

    Ornatowska, M; Glasel, J A

    1991-01-01

    Fv fragments of four monoclonal antibodies specific for morphine binding have been produced from their divalent IgG forms by papain digestion using the classic procedure for Fab formation. The binding characteristics of one of the Fv fragments have been determined relative to the intact antibody by equilibrium dialysis. Its dissociation constant is a factor of five lower than the IgG. Previous work had resulted in the sequences of each the chains for the four Fv fragments. The light chains are all from the highly homologous lambda subclass while the gamma heavy chains are closely related except for their CDR regions. In this work optical molar extinction coefficients are predicted from amino acid sequences for each of the fragments. It is found that they differ significantly from each other and from the commonly used value for intact IgG. Detailed comparisons between our results and those reported previously on the molecular masses of Fv-derived light and heavy chains and hapten-Fv dissociation constants are given based on analytical gel electrophoresis and electroblotting experiments using dye and immunovisualization techniques. Isoelectric focusing experiments have been performed and the pIs obtained are compared to those predicted theoretically from the chain sequences. Gel filtration column chromatography, acrylamide gel electrophoresis and equilibrium dialysis experiments are consistent with significant aggregation of the Fv fragments in neutral solution with accompanying inactivation of the binding site. Comparison of sequences for the Fv light and heavy chains are made with those which have been proposed to be important for chain dimer association and for canonical hypervariable regions. This methods of Fv production is not regarded as a general one. However, it may be an approach which is general to lambda chain containing antibodies.

  3. Earth's 2006 Encounter with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann: Products of Nucleus Fragmentation Seen in Closeup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    The large numbers of nucleus fragments observed are a spectacular illustration of the process of cascading fragmentation in progress, a concept introduced to interpret the properties of the Kreutz system of sungrazers and comet D/1993 F2. The objective is to describe the fragmentation sequence and hierarchy of comet 73P, the nature of the fragmentation process and observed events, and the expected future evolution of this comet. The orbital arc populated by the fragments refers to an interval of 3.74 days in the perihelion time. This result suggests that they all could be products (but not necessarily first-generation fragments) of two 1995 events, in early September (involving an enormous outburst) and at the beginning of November. The interval of perihelion times is equivalent to a range of about 2.5 m/s in separation velocity or 0.00012 the Sun's attraction in nongravitational deceleration. Their combined effect suggests minor orbital momentum changes acquired during fragmentation and decelerations compatible with survival over two revolutions about the Sun. Fragment B is a likely first-generation product of one of the 1995 events. From the behavior of the primary fragment C, 73P is not a dying comet, even though fragment B and others were episodically breaking up into many pieces. Each episode began with the sudden appearance of a starlike nucleus condensation and a rapidly expanding outburst, followed by a development of jets, and a gradual tailward extension of the fading condensation, until the discrete masses embedded in it could be resolved. In April-May, this debris traveled first to the southwest, but models show their eventual motion toward the projected orbit. Fainter fragments were imaged over limited time, apparently because of their erratic activity (interspersed with periods of dormancy) rather than improptu disintegration. A dust trail joining the fragments and reminiscent of comet 141P/Machholz suggests that cascading fragmentation exerts itself

  4. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  5. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  6. A study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Huong; Morel, Frederic; Bujan, Louis; May-Panloup, Pascale; De Braekeleer, Marc; Perrin, Aurore

    2015-06-01

    Meiotic segregation of mosaic males with a 45,X cell line has been little examined. In this study, we evaluated the risk of aneuploid gametes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line. Triple- and dual-color FISH were performed. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected using the TUNEL assay. A significantly increased frequency of XY disomic spermatozoa was observed for patients (P)1 and P2. A significant increase in diploidy and autosomal aneuploidy was found in P2 and P3, respectively. The rate of DNA fragmentation was not different from that observed in a control group. Data from the literature are scarce (only 3 cases reported), making comparison of the present data difficult, especially as the frequencies of the cell lines comprising the mosaicism differed between patients. Furthermore, the proportion of the different cell lines can differ from one tissue to another in the same patient. Whether the relative levels of the several cell lines present in the mosaicism can influence the rate of aneuploid spermatozoa remains unknown.

  7. Thymine ring saturation and fragmentation products: lesion bypass, misinsertion and implications for mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Maccabee, M; Hatahet, Z; Courcelle, J; Bockrath, R; Ide, H; Wallace, S

    1993-05-01

    We have used thymine glycol and dihydrothymine as representative ring saturation products resulting from free-radical interaction with DNA pyrimidines, and urea glycosides and beta-ureidoisobutyric acid (UBA) as models for pyrimidine-ring fragmentation products. We have shown that thymine glycol and the ring-fragmentation products urea and beta-ureidoisobutyric acid, as well as abasic sites, are strong blocks to DNA polymerases in vitro. In contrast, dihydrothymine is not a block to any of the polymerases tested. For thymine glycol, termination sites were observed opposite the putative lesions, whereas for the ring-fragmentation products, the termination sites were primarily one base prior to the lesion. These and other data have suggested that thymine glycol codes for an A, and that a base is stably inserted opposite the damage, whereas when a base is inserted opposite the non-coding lesions, it is removed by the 3-->5 exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I. Despite their efficiency as blocking lesions, thymine glycol, urea and UBA can be bypassed at low frequency in certain specific sequence contexts. When the model lesions were introduced individually into single-stranded biologically active DNA, we found that thymine glycol, urea, beta-ureidoisobutyric acid, and abasic sites were all lethal lesions having an activation efficiency of 1, whereas dihydrothymine was not. Thus the in vitro studies predicted the in vivo results. When the survival of biologically active single-stranded DNA was examined in UV-induced Escherichia coli cells where the block to replication was released, no increase in survival was observed for DNA containing urea or abasic sites, suggesting inefficient bypass of these lesions. In contrast, beta-ureidoisobutyric acid survival was slightly enhanced, and transfecting DNA containing thymine glycols was significantly reactivated. When mutation induction by unique lesions was measured using f1-K12 hybrid DNA containing an E. coli target gene

  8. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p↑ p → → h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑ p → → h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑ p → h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  9. Fragmentation contributions to J/ψ production at the Tevatron and the LHC.

    PubMed

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T; Chung, Hee Sok; Kim, U-Rae; Lee, Jungil

    2014-07-11

    We compute leading-power fragmentation corrections to J/ψ production at the Tevatron and the LHC. We find that, when these corrections are combined with perturbative corrections through next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant α(s), we obtain a good fit to high-p(T) cross section data from the CDF and CMS Collaborations. The fitted long-distance matrix elements lead to predictions of near-zero J/ψ polarization in the helicity frame at large p(T).

  10. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting...

  11. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  12. Isomer production ratios and the angular momentum distribution of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Jandel, M.

    2013-10-01

    Latest generation fission experiments provide an excellent testing ground for theoretical models. In this contribution we compare the measurements for 235U(nth,f), obtained with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) calorimeter at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), with our full-scale simulation of the primary fragment de-excitation, using the recently developed cgmf code, based on a Monte Carlo implementation of the Hauser-Feshbach theoretical model. We compute the isomer ratios as a function of the initial angular momentum of the fission fragments, for which no direct information exists. Comparison with the available experimental data allows us to determine the initial spin distribution. We also study the dependence of the isomer ratio on the knowledge of the low-lying discrete spectrum input for nuclear fission reactions, finding a high degree of sensitivity. Finally, in the same Hauser-Feshbach approach, we calculate the isomer production ratio for thermal neutron capture on stable isotopes, where the initial conditions (spin, excitation energy, etc.) are well understood. We find that with the current parameters involved in Hauser-Feshbach calculations, we obtain up to a factor of 2 deviation from the measured isomer ratios.

  13. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies. PMID:23850622

  14. Fragmentation of cosmic-string loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The fragmentation of cosmic string loops is discussed, and the results of a simulation of this process are presented. The simulation can evolve any of a large class of loops essentially exactly, including allowing fragments that collide to join together. Such reconnection enhances the production of small fragments, but not drastically. With or without reconnections, the fragmentation process produces a collection of nonself-intersecting loops whose typical length is on the order of the persistence length of the initial loop.

  15. Hadronic production of S-wave and P-wave charmed beauty mesons via heavy quark fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, K.; Yuan, Tzu Chiang

    1995-02-01

    At hadron colliders the dominant production mechanism of ({bar b}c) mesons with large transverse momentum is due to parton fragmentation. The authors compute in a model-independent way the production rates and transverse momentum spectra for S-wave and P-wave ({bar b}c) mesons at the Tevatron via the direct fragmentation of the bottom antiquark as well as the Altarelli-Parisi induced gluon fragmentation. Since all the radially and orbitally excited ({bar b}c) mesons below the BD flavor threshold will cascade into the pseudoscalar ground state B{sub c} through electromagnetic and/or hadronic transitions, they all contribute to the inclusive production of B{sub c}. The contributions of the excited S-wave and P-wave states to the inclusive production of B{sub c} are 58 and 23%, respectively, and hence significant.

  16. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  17. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  18. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  19. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  20. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  1. A 9359 bp fragment from the right arm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII includes the FOL2 and YTA7 genes and three unknown open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Agostoni Carbone, M L; Lucchini, G; Melchioretto, P; Nardese, V; Vanoni, M; Panzeri, L

    1998-04-30

    In the framework of the EU programme for systematic sequencing of the Saccharomyces cervisiae genome we determined the sequence of a 9359 bp fragment of the right arm of chromosome VII. Five open reading frames (ORFs) of at least 300 nucleotides were found in this region. YGR267c encodes a protein with significant similarity to the enzyme GTP-cyclohydrolase I, that controls the first step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to various pterins and shows a high degree of sequence conservation from bacteria to mammals. We have recently demonstrated (Nardese et al., 1996) that YGR267c corresponds to the FOL2 gene, previously localized in the same chromosomal region by genetic mapping. The protein deduced from YGR270w belongs to the superfamily of putative ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities. It corresponds to the YTA7 gene, a member of a set of yeast genes coding for putative ATPases with high similarity to constituents of the 26S protease. The three ORFs YGR266w, YGR268c and YGR269w encode putative products of unknown function, with neither significant similarity to proteins in databases nor recognizable domains. YGR268c and YGR269w are partially overlapping ORFs: YGR268c seems to correspond to a real gene. whereas YGR269w is probably a fortuitous ORF. PMID:9605509

  2. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  3. Gas phase fragmentation of eta2 coordinated aldehydes in [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]-: aldehyde structure dictates the nature of the products.

    PubMed

    Waters, Tom; Khairallah, George N; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2009-09-28

    The gas phase fragmentation reactions of eta2 coordinated aldehydes in [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]-, which have previously been shown to play a role in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, were examined using a combination of isotope labelling experiments and collision induced dissociation in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The experimental data were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations (DFT). The types of fragmentation reactions observed depend on the nature of the R group. When R = H, the dominant fragmentation channel involves formation of [VO2H2]-via loss of CO. Minor losses of H2 and CH2O are also observed. When R = Me, loss of H2 is observed to give rise to an ion at m/z 125 corresponding to the formula [V, O3, C2, H2]-. DFT calculations on the [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]- and their CID reaction products have identified minimum energy structures for all reactants and products involved. DFT calculations also provided insights into key intermediates on the potential energy surface associated with these fragmentation reactions, including: [(H2)VO2(CO)]- in the case of R = H; and [HVO2(eta1-OCHCH2)]- in the case of R = Me. The results presented provide insights into potential side reactions occurring during catalysis of alcohols over vanadium oxides, for instance, the over-oxidation of methanol to carbon monoxide. PMID:19727457

  4. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S.; Harlow, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5′ ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission. PMID:26446566

  5. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.

  6. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission. PMID:26446566

  7. Extraction and recovery of pectic fragments from citrus processing waste for co-production with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steam treatment of citrus processing waste (CPW) at 160°C followed by a rapid decompression (steam explosion) at either pH 2.8 or 4.5 provides an efficient and rapid fragmentation of protopectin in CPW and renders a large fraction of fragmented pectins, arabinans, galactans and arabinogalactans solu...

  8. Production of CO /a 3Pi/ and other metastable fragments by electron impact dissociation of CO2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. C.; Borst, W. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    The dissociative excitation of CO (a 3Pi) and other metastable fragments produced by electron impact on CO2 has been investigated from threshold to 50 eV. The observed threshold for CO (a 3Pi) production at 11.9 (plus or minus 0.5) eV was near the minimum required energy of 11.5 eV.

  9. Amplified-fragment length polymorphism analysis of Propionibacterium isolates implicated in contamination of blood products.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, T; Reesink, H W; Pietersz, R N I; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Savelkoul, P H M

    2005-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in most cases of bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs). To determine the source of contamination, amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied. This DNA fingerprinting technique was used to study the molecular relationship of 44 isolates derived from 22 PCs and 22 corresponding red blood cells concentrates (RBCs) from the same whole blood donations. The AFLP results together with sequencing analysis of the 1,200 bp of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed the existence of three main groups: two groups (groups 2 and 3) (55%) consisted of isolates that did not originate from skin flora and another group (group 1) (45%) comprised bacteria belonging to the skin flora. This latter group showed complete homology with reference strains of P. acnes. Therefore these isolates can be considered as P. acnes strains. In contrast, contaminants from groups 2 and 3 were shown to be molecularly unrelated to the P. acnes found on the skin surface. The AFLP is reproducible and gave invaluable information about the nature of Propionibacteria contaminating PCs. To gain more insights into the source of contamination, this technique could be exploited in further studies to determine the molecular relationship of different bacteria commonly found in blood products.

  10. Synthesis of an A'B' Precursor to Angelmicin B: Product Diversification in the Suárez Lactol Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialiang; Todaro, Louis; Mootoo, David R

    2011-11-01

    We describe a synthetic strategy for the angelimicin family of anthraquinoid natural products that involves converting a central highly oxygenated decalin intermediate to the AB and A'B' subunits. Herein, we report the synthesis of the bicyclic A'B' subunit that complements our earlier route to the tricyclic AB framework. The differentiating tact in the two syntheses focused on controlling the Suárez radical fragmentation of lactol precursors by modulating the substrate's structural rigidity. A more flexible lactol gave the tricyclic AB framework, whereas a more rigid substrate led to the bicyclic A'B' precursor, presumably through divergent pathways from the radical produced in the initial fragmentation step. These results establish a versatile advanced synthetic precursor for the angelimicins, and on a more general note, illustrate strategies for applying the Suárez fragmentation to diverse and complex molecular frameworks.

  11. Confronting fragmentation function universality with single hadron inclusive production at HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B. A.; Kramer, G.; Sandoval, C.

    2007-02-01

    Predictions for light charged hadron production data in the current fragmentation region of deeply inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS experiments are calculated using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, and using fragmentation functions obtained by fitting to similar data from e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. General good agreement is found when the magnitude Q{sup 2} of the hard photon's virtuality is sufficiently large. The discrepancy at low Q and small scaled momentum x{sub p} is reduced by incorporating mass effects of the detected hadron. By performing quark tagging, the contributions to the overall fragmentation from the various quark flavours in the ep reactions are studied and compared to the contributions in e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. The yields of the various hadron species are also calculated.

  12. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths.

    PubMed

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  13. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths

    PubMed Central

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  14. 75 FR 43565 - Johns Manville; Engineered Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Johns Manville; Engineered Products Division, Including On-Site Leased... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Johns Manville, Engineered Products Division, Spartanburg, South... with Section 223 of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2273, I make the following certification: All workers of...

  15. 75 FR 43557 - Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30067). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Globe Pipe Hanger Products, Inc. Based on these...

  16. Intermediate mass fragment production in central collisions of intermediate energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Bauer, W.; Craig, D.; Cronqvist, M.; Gualtieri, E.; Hannuschke, S.; Lacey, R.; Llope, W.J.; Reposeur, T.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Winfield, J.S.; Yee, J.; Yennello, S.J. ); Nadasen, A. ); Tickle, R.S. ); Norbeck, E. )

    1993-03-29

    We present [ital Z] distributions for fragments with 1[le][ital Z][le]12 from central collisions of [sup 40] Ar+[sup 45]Sc at incident energies ranging from 35 to 115 MeV/nucleon. We find that the [ital Z] distributions can be described by a power law or an exponential and steepen with increasing incident energy. Over the range of incident energies studied, the average number of intermediate mass fragments decreases while the average number of particles increases. When combined with previous results for the charge distributions, a minimum is observed in the extracted power-law parameter.

  17. Production cross sections for heavy-ion fragmentation reactions on a liquid deuterium target at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, B. T.; Kemper, K. W.; Aoi, N.; Motobayashi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Bazin, D.; Mueller, W. F.; Yoneda, K.; Bowen, M.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Terry, J. R.; Zwahlen, H.; Iwasaki, H.; Sakurai, H.; Suzuki, H.; Kanno, S.

    2006-09-15

    The inclusive cross sections for 38 different reaction products produced in the interaction of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 40}S, and {sup 42}S beams around 100 MeV/nucleon with a liquid deuterium target are reported. The cross sections for the {sup 48}Ca +{sup 2}H products are compared to those with {sup 48}Ca incident on the commonly used fragmentation targets {sup 9}Be and {sup 181}Ta and also to global calculations for fragmentation reaction cross sections based on the EPAX parameterization. The sizes of the measured reaction cross sections for the deuterium target were comparable to those of the cross sections measured on the heavier targets, indicating that nucleon removal from a deuterium target can be carried out for single- and multiple-nucleon knockout reaction studies. It was also found that the charge exchange cross sections were large enough that it should be possible to obtain nuclear structure information from these reactions.

  18. Chemically modified N-acylated hyaluronan fragments modulate proinflammatory cytokine production by stimulated human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30-214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on (1)H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule.

  19. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  20. Multi-Fragment Production in the 32S+58,64Ni Reactions at 11 A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramegna, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Bonasera, A.; Bruno, M.; Casini, G.; Cavallaro, S.; Chiari, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Lanchais, A.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Mastinu, P. F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moroni, A.; Nannini, A.; Ordine, A.; Ricci, R. A.; Tonetto, F.; Travaglini, L.; Vannini, G.; Vannucci, L.

    The characteristic features of the 32S+58,64Ni reaction at 11AMeV have been investigated to evidence the possible rise of multi-fragmentation processes at low excitation energies. The importance of such phenomena consists in the fact that they could represent the signature of a nuclear phase transition from a liquid to a gas region. Evidence of multi-fragment production is displayed by the present data; even if the yield of such events is compatible with the predictions of statistical models, the partition of the mass of the decaying system cannot be easily reproduced. Some preliminary indications of isospin effects are suggested by looking at the differences between the two reacting systems.

  1. Characterisation of "caramel-type" thermal decomposition products of selected monosaccharides including fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose and ribose by advanced electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Golon, Agnieszka; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2013-07-01

    The chemical analysis of caramel, formed upon heating of carbohydrates, remains a significant challenge due to the complexity of the resulting product mixture. Identification of the products formed upon heating of monosaccharides including fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose and ribose is essential to understand the composition and properties of carbohydrate-rich processed foods. In this work, we report on the use of combined mass spectrometry techniques, including high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). The composition of the obtained caramel was examined by high resolution mass spectrometry along with van Krevelen and Kendrick analysis. We found that caramel is composed of oligomers with up to six carbohydrate units formed through unselective glycosidic bond formation, their dehydrated products by losing up to eight water molecules, hydrated products and disproportionation products. An accurate mass measurement and subsequent fragment ion studies of all caramel samples (around 40 compounds) can thus be identified. Glycosidic bond and ring cleavages of sugar moieties were the major observable fragmentation pathways during this experiment. The innovative analytical strategies for the complex mixture analysis used provide a comprehensive account of the chemical composition of caramel, one of the most popular dietary materials over the world.

  2. Fragmentation study of iridoid glycosides including epimers by liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and its application in metabolic fingerprint analysis of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Liu, Hua; Wen, Jun; Fan, Guorong; Chai, Yifeng; Wu, Yutian

    2010-09-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was applied to the characterization of ten iridoid glycosides in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a traditional Chinese medicine. During the process of structural elucidation, two groups of isomers including two epimers were structurally characterized and differentiated according to their distinctive fragmentation patterns which were closely related to their isomeric differentiations. Subsequently, the major compounds were purified by multi-dimensional chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC and the structure identification was confirmed with NMR techniques. The major fragmentation pathways of iridoid glycosides in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis obtained through the MS data were schemed systematically, which provided the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization of the iridoid glycosides especially the isomers so far. Based on the fragmentation patterns of iridoid glycosides concluded, seven major iridoid glycosides were characterized in rat plasma after intravenous administration of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. PMID:20740525

  3. Simplex and duplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of Herculex RW (59122) maize based on one reference molecule including separated fragments of 5' integration site and endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Shu; Shen, Kailin; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-01-01

    Reference molecules, as positive controls and calibrators, have been recently developed in genetically modified organism analysis as a potential substitute for reference materials derived from plant raw materials. In this study, a novel reference molecule p59122, including the revealed 5' integration sequence of maize Herculex RW (59122), was constructed that was suitable for simplex and duplex event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detections. The LOD values were 10 copies both for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR when p59122 was used as the calibrator. These values were comparable to those of using genomic DNA samples with 0.01 and 0.05%, approximately 5 and 25 hyploid genomic DNA copies, respectively. The absolute LOD and LOQ values were confirmed to be as low as 10 and 25 copies of p59122 DNA both in simplex and duplex quantitative systems. Furthermore, ideal quantification data with low bias, SD and RSD values were obtained from the practical samples analyses in simplex and duplex real-time PCR systems using the reference molecule p59122 as a calibrator. All these results suggested that the developed reference molecule p59122 and the qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods are suitable for identification and quantification of GM maize 59122 and its derived products. PMID:19916386

  4. Simplex and duplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of Herculex RW (59122) maize based on one reference molecule including separated fragments of 5' integration site and endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Shu; Shen, Kailin; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-01-01

    Reference molecules, as positive controls and calibrators, have been recently developed in genetically modified organism analysis as a potential substitute for reference materials derived from plant raw materials. In this study, a novel reference molecule p59122, including the revealed 5' integration sequence of maize Herculex RW (59122), was constructed that was suitable for simplex and duplex event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detections. The LOD values were 10 copies both for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR when p59122 was used as the calibrator. These values were comparable to those of using genomic DNA samples with 0.01 and 0.05%, approximately 5 and 25 hyploid genomic DNA copies, respectively. The absolute LOD and LOQ values were confirmed to be as low as 10 and 25 copies of p59122 DNA both in simplex and duplex quantitative systems. Furthermore, ideal quantification data with low bias, SD and RSD values were obtained from the practical samples analyses in simplex and duplex real-time PCR systems using the reference molecule p59122 as a calibrator. All these results suggested that the developed reference molecule p59122 and the qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods are suitable for identification and quantification of GM maize 59122 and its derived products.

  5. 43 CFR 3106.4-2 - Transfers of other interests, including royalty interests and production payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfers of other interests, including royalty interests and production payments. 3106.4-2 Section 3106.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING...

  6. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Semiconductor of Austin, Texas (``Freescale''). 75 FR 16837-38. The complaint alleges violations of section 337... Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  7. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Semiconductor of Austin, Texas (``Freescale''). 75 FR 16837-38. The complaint alleges violations of section 337... Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  8. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. of Austin Texas. 75 FR 16837 (Mar. 29, 2010). The complaint alleged violations... Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review a Final... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and...

  9. 77 FR 42764 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice of... Determination and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically...

  10. 78 FR 68861 - Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., Navigational Aids, Mapping Systems and Related Software; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids, mapping systems and related software by reason... products, including GPS devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids,...

  11. 76 FR 76434 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, And Products Containing Same including Televisions, DN 2860; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the...

  12. Functional Production and Characterization of a Fibrin-Specific Single-Chain Antibody Fragment from Bacillus subtilis: Effects of Molecular Chaperones and a Wall-Bound Protease on Antibody Fragment Production

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sau-Ching; Yeung, Jonathan C.; Duan, Yanjun; Ye, Ruiqiong; Szarka, Steven J.; Habibi, Hamid R.; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2002-01-01

    To develop an ideal blood clot imaging and targeting agent, a single-chain antibody (SCA) fragment based on a fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody, MH-1, was constructed and produced via secretion from Bacillus subtilis. Through a systematic study involving a series of B. subtilis strains, insufficient intracellular and extracytoplasmic molecular chaperones and high sensitivity to wall-bound protease (WprA) were believed to be the major factors that lead to poor production of MH-1 SCA. Intracellular and extracytoplasmic molecular chaperones apparently act in a sequential manner. The combination of enhanced coproduction of both molecular chaperones and wprA inactivation leads to the development of an engineered B. subtilis strain, WB800HM[pEPP]. This strain allows secretory production of MH-1 SCA at a level of 10 to 15 mg/liter. In contrast, with WB700N (a seven-extracellular-protease-deficient strain) as the host, no MH-1 SCA could be detected in both secreted and cellular fractions. Secreted MH-1 SCA from WB800HM[pMH1, pEPP] could be affinity purified using a protein L matrix. It retains comparable affinity and specificity as the parental MH-1 monoclonal antibody. This expression system can potentially be applied to produce other single-chain antibody fragments, especially those with folding and protease sensitivity problems. PMID:12089002

  13. cc¯ pair production in proton-proton collisions including subdominant terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczak, M.; Szczurek, A.

    2011-10-01

    For the cc¯ production at high-energies the gluon-gluon fusion is the dominant mechanism. This process was calculated in the NLO collinear as well as in the k-factorisation approaches in the past. We show that the present knowledge of gluon distributions does not allow to make precise predictions for cc¯ production at LHC. Next, we study production of cc¯ pairs including following subprocesses: gg→QQ¯, γg→QQ¯, gγ→QQ¯, γγ→QQ¯. In this context we use MRST-QED (Martin, Roberts, Stirling, Thorne) parton distributions which include photon as a parton in the proton. We include also elastic contributions (single proton in the final state) within the equivalent photon approximation. We present distributions in c ( c¯) rapidity and transverse momenta and compare them with the dominant gluon-gluon fusion contribution. We discuss also single and central diffractive processes using diffractive parton distribution found from the analysis of HERA data. As in the previous case we present distribution in c ( c¯) rapidity and transverse momentum.

  14. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  15. Influence of coalescence parameters on the production of protons and Helium-3 fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, QingFeng; Wang, YongJia; Wang, XiaoBao; Shen, CaiWan

    2016-07-01

    The time evolution of protons and 3He fragments from Au+Au/Pb+Pb reactions at 0.25, 2, and 20 GeV/nucleon is investigated with the potential version of the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model combined with the traditional coalescence afterburner. In the coalescence process, the relative distance R 0 and relative momentum P 0 are surveyed in the range of 3-4 fm and 0.25-0.35 GeV/c, respectively. For both clusters, a strong reversed correlation between R 0 and P 0 is seen and it is time-dependent as well. For protons, the accepted ( R 0, P 0) bands lie in the time interval 30-60 fm/c, while for 3He, a longer time evolution (at about 60-90 fm/c) is needed. Otherwise, much smaller R 0 and P 0 values should be chosen. If we further look at the rapidity distributions from both central and semi-central collisions, it is found that the accepted [ t cut, ( R 0, P 0)] assemble can provide consistent results for proton yield and collective flows especially at mid-rapdities, while for 3He, the consistency is destroyed at both middle and projectile-target rapidities.

  16. Production of an anti-idiotypic antibody single chain variable fragment vaccine against Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Jin, Xiaohang; Huang, Weiquan; Liu, Yulin

    2010-02-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is the pathogen responsible for edwardsiellosis, a serious infectious disease of freshwater and marine fish species, and currently recognized to be the species pathogenic for human. An anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (mAb), 1E11, has been developed. It mimics the protective epitope of E. tarda and can prevent fish from infection of E. tarda. In this study, the correct variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) genes were obtained from 1E11 by using bioinformatics methods, and a 15 amino acid (Gly4Ser)3 linker was used to hold the two V domains together for the construction of VL-linker-VH form of single chain variable fragment (scFv) gene. Then, the scFv was subcloned into the vector pET-28a, expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 cells, and identified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus L.) weighing about 50 g was subjected to challenge with different E. tarda strains after 4 weeks followed by vaccination, the mortality rates and relative percentage survival were recorded and calculated, and the survival rate of fish in the scFv subgroups was obviously higher than that of control subgroups (P<0.01). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results show that after 4 weeks of post-vaccination, the level of specific antibody in fish sera of scFv groups was significantly higher than control groups. This study indicates that the recombinant antibody scFv was successfully developed, and it may serve as an effective vaccine candidate against E. tarda. PMID:20119624

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A PRODUCT MODEL FOR CUT-AND-COVER TUNNELS INCLUDING DEGRADATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruga, Takashi; Yabuki, Nobuyoshi; Arai, Yasushi

    Cut-and-Cover tunnels are constructed on site. The various conditions of environments and techniques of construction make a significant influence on the quality of the tunnel. It is extremely difficult to rebuild the tunnel even if a structural trouble is found once the construction is completed. Thus, suitable maintenance is needed to ensure the tunnel is in a healthy condition. To execute better maintenance, the information on design and construction of the tunnel is vital for inspection of degradation, estimation of occurrence factors and planning of repair or refurbishing works. In this paper, we developed a product model for representing cut-and-cover tunnels including degradations for effective information use in maintenance work. As its first step, we investigated the characteristics of cut-and-cover tunnels and degradations about reinforced concrete members and developed a conceptual model. Then, we implemented the conceptual product model by expanding Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Finally, we verified the product model by applying it to a simple tunnel.

  18. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  19. Experiences integrating productivity, pollution prevention, and energy conservation including case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten, D.J.; Muller, M.R.; Barnish, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    , or even space to expand operations. An intimate knowledge of a corporations' burden, market share, and financial stability is necessary in order for the assessment team to gain the confidence of management; failure to do so can be disastrous. Excessive movement, redundant inspections, scheduling issues, and floor layout are critical issues, and ones that are sometimes impossible to evaluate during a short visit to a plant. Before an energy audit is made, much information must be gathered, such as tax rates and purchasing policies (including acceptable defect rates of the raw materials from suppliers). These issues are forcing the one-dimensional energy expert to expand into previously unchartered territories. This paper will attempt to illustrate some generic necessities, but also use actual experiences of the Office of Industrial Productivity and Energy Assessment team at Rutgers University in three facilities to highlight the industrial triage method of presenting the client with an integrated package of analysis of the efficiency of their production facility and methods.

  20. Productivity of the spruce grouse in fragmented habitat at the edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, S.D.; O'Connell, A.F.; Servello, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    We measured productivity of the Spruce Grouse (Dendragapusc anadensicsa nadensis) in patchy black spruce (Picea mariana) habitat along the southeastern limit of its range in mid-coastal Maine. We captured grouse and attached necklace-mounted radio transmitters to hens prior to nesting. Of 19 females monitored, only 26% raised chicks to the late brood-rearing period. Predation was high on hens (37%) and five were killed before hatching eggs. Six (55%) entire broods were lost and only 30% of chicks survived to late summer. Production ( No. of chicks/female), an index of productivity, was < 1 and lower in Maine and Minnesota study areas in black spruce than areas dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana) or a mixture of jack pine and spruce with dense undergrowth. Where Spruce Grouse breed in patchy black spruce communities, immigration from neighboring populations or inter-patch movement by local individuals may be required to maintain viable populations.

  1. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  2. Production cross sections from 82Se fragmentation as indications of shell effects close to the neutron drip-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Portillo, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Amthor, A. M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Brown, B. A.; Chubarian, G.; Fukuda, N.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Pereira, J.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stolz, A.; Sumithrarachichi, C.; Thoennessen, M.; Weisshaar, D.

    2013-10-01

    Production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei from the fragmentation of a 82Se beam at 139 MeV/u with beryllium and tungsten targets have been measured for a large number of nuclei. The nuclides 64Ti,67V,69Cr,72Mn, the most neutron-rich isotopes of the elements 22 <= Z <= 25 , have been observed for the first time. The measured cross sections were used to search for trends in the structure of nuclei around 54Ca and were compared with Abrasion-Ablation calculations under the assumption of various mass models. The results confirm our previous investigations from a similar measurement using a 76Ge beam and can be explained with a modified GXPF1B Hamiltonian where the energy of the f5 / 2 orbit is lowered by 0.5 MeV for neutron-rich isotopes around Z = 20. The subshell gap at N = 34 is reduced compared to the unmodified Hamiltonian.

  3. Process for treating spent catalyst including antimony halides from chlorofluorocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Kalcevic, V.; McGahan, J.F.

    1988-06-14

    A process for treating spent catalyst from chlorofluorocarbon production is described wherein the catalyst includes antimony halides and undergoes hydrolysis in an aqueous medium to produce insoluble antimony compounds and fluoride ions. The process comprises hydrolyzing the catalyst in an aqueous solution of ferric chloride having a sufficient concentration of ferric ions to complex substantially all of the fluoride ions produced upon hydrolysis of the catalyst, neutralizing the reaction mass present following hydrolysis of the catalyst and complexing of the fluoride ions by contacting the reaction mass with an aqueous suspension of a compound selected from the class consisting of calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, and separating the insoluble antimony compounds from the neutralized reaction mass.

  4. UNUSUAL WATER PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON): OUTBURSTS AND CONTINUOUS FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.

    2014-06-10

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 10{sup 30} s{sup –1} from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  5. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  6. Production of cumulative particles and light nuclear fragments at high p T values beyond the fragmentation region of nuclei in pA collisions at a proton energy of 50 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, N. N.; Viktorov, V. A.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gapienko, G. S.; Gres', V. N.; Ilyushin, M. A.; Korotkov, V. A.; Mysnik, A. I.; Prudkoglyad, A. F.; Semak, A. A.; Terekhov, V. I.; Uglekov, V. Ya.; Ukhanov, M. N.; Chuiko, B. V.; Shimanskii, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The first data on the production of cumulative π+, p, and light nuclear fragments d and t emitted from a nucleus with a high transverse momentum at an angle of 35° in the laboratory system have been reported. The data have been obtained at the SPIN setup at the interaction of a 50-GeV proton beam extracted from the U-70 accelerator (IHEP, Protvino) with C, Al, Cu, and W nuclei.

  7. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. PMID:24661700

  8. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material.

  9. Production and structure characterisation of recombinant chromogranin A N-terminal fragments (vasostatins) -- evidence of dimer-monomer equilibria.

    PubMed

    Corti, A; Sanchez, L P; Gasparri, A; Curnis, F; Longhi, R; Brandazza, A; Siccardi, A G; Sidoli, A

    1997-09-15

    Vasostatins (VS) are vasoinhibitory peptides derived from the N-terminal domain of chromogranin A, a secretory protein present in the electron-dense granules of many neuroendocrine cells. In this work we describe a method for the production in Escherichia coli of large amounts of recombinant vasostatins, corresponding to chromogranin A residues 1-78 (VS-1), and 1-115 (VS-2), and the use of these materials for structure characterisation. The masses of both products were close to the expected values, by SDS/PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis. However, their hydrodynamic behaviours in size-exclusion chromatography corresponded to that of proteins with a larger size. SDS/PAGE analysis of VS-1 and VS-2 after cross-linking with disuccinimidyl suberate indicated that both polypeptides form dimers. VS-2 was almost entirely dimeric at > 4 microM, but rapidly converted to monomer after dilution to 70 nM. The rapid dimer-monomer transition of VS-2 after dilution could be part of a mechanism for regulating its activity and localising its action. Immunological studies of VS-1 have shown that residues 37-70 constitute a highly antigenic region characterised by an abundance of linear epitopes efficiently mimicked by synthetic peptides. The recombinant products and the immunological reagents developed in this work could be valuable tools for further investigating the structure and the function of chromogranin A and its fragments.

  10. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) A serial number may be used in place of a production lot identification on the helmet if it can serve as a code to identify the production lot. If a bicycle helmet is manufactured for sale by a...; (6) An identification of the production lot; and (7) The uncoded month and year the product...

  11. Neutron Production in Coincidence with Fragments from the {sup 40}Ca + H Reactions at E{sub lab} = 357 and 565 A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tuve, C.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T.G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C.N.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G.V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tricomi, A.; Tull, C.E.; Waddington, C.J.; Webber, W.R.; Wefel, J.P.

    2000-12-31

    In the frame of the Transport Collaboration neutrons in coincidence with charged fragments produced in the {sup 40}Ca + H reaction at E{sub lab} = 357 and 565 AMeV have been measured at the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, using the multifunctional neutron spectrometer MUFFINS. The detector covered a narrow angular range about the beam in the forward direction (0? - 3.2?). In this contribution we report absolute neutron production cross sections in coincidence with charged fragments (10 {<=} Z {<=} 20). The neutron multiplicities have been estimated from the comparison between the neutron cross sections, in coincidence with the fragments, and the elemental cross sections. We have found evidence for a pre-equilibrium emission of prompt neutrons in superposition to a 'slower' deexcitation of the equilibrated remnant by emission of nucleons and fragments, as already seen in the inclusive rapidity distributions.

  12. Role of angular momentum in the production of complex fragments in fusion and quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2011-05-15

    The influence of angular momentum on the competition between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels is treated within the dinuclear system model. The charge distributions of the products in the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 96}Zr, {sup 4}He+{sup 130}Te, and {sup 40}Ca+{sup 82}Kr are predicted at bombarding energies above the Coulomb barrier. The results of calculations for the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 9}Be,{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; {sup 84}Kr+{sup 27}Al; {sup 86}Kr+{sup 63}Cu; {sup 139}La+{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; and {sup 45}Sc+{sup 65}Cu are compared with the available experimental data.

  13. 77 FR 48550 - Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... related to post-production services for films. The initial investigation resulted in a negative... Employment and Training Administration Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering... 23, 2012, a state workforce agent requested administrative reconsideration of the...

  14. Improved ethanol production from biomass by a rumen metagenomic DNA fragment expressed in Escherichia coli MS04 during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Loaces, Inés; Amarelle, Vanesa; Muñoz-Gutierrez, Iván; Fabiano, Elena; Martinez, Alfredo; Noya, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    With the aim of improving current ethanologenic Escherichia coli strains, we screened a metagenomic library from bovine ruminal fluid for cellulolytic enzymes. We isolated one fosmid, termed Csd4, which was able to confer to E. coli the ability to grow on complex cellulosic material as the sole carbon source such as avicel, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, pretreated sugarcane bagasse, and xylan. Glucanolytic activity obtained from E. coli transformed with Csd4 was maximal at 24 h of incubation and was inhibited when glucose or xylose were present in the media. The 34,406-bp DNA fragment of Csd4 was completely sequenced, and a putative endoglucanase, a xylosidase/arabinosidase, and a laccase gene were identified. Comparison analysis revealed that Csd4 derived from an organism closely related to Prevotella ruminicola, but no homologies were found with any of the genomes already sequenced. Csd4 was introduced into the ethanologenic E. coli MS04 strain and ethanol production from CMC, avicel, sugarcane bagasse, or filter paper was observed. Exogenously expressed β-glucosidase had a positie effect on cell growth in agreement with the fact that no putative β-glucosidase was found in Csd4. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse was improved threefold by Csd4 after saccharification by commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulases underlining the ability of Csd4 to act as a saccharification enhancer to reduce the enzymatic load and time required for cellulose deconstruction.

  15. Substrate dependent talitrid amphipods from fragmented beaches on the north coast of Crete (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), including a redefinition of the genus Orchestia and descriptions of Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Cryptorchestia gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Fanini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Four species of talitrid amphipods (Orchestia montagui Audouin, 1826, Orchestia stephenseni Cecchini, 1928, Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808)) are reported from a set of fragmented pocket beaches to the east of Heraklion on the north coast of Crete. Aside from a previous record of O. stephenseni these are the first records of talitrid amphipods from the island of Crete. 2) Along a coastal segment of only 4.36 km, characterised by habitat fragmentation and substrate patchiness, a clear correlation between talitrid species and beach type is indicated. Talitrus saltator occurs only on sandy beaches. Orchestia montagui and O. xylino occur on banquette beaches and O. montagui, O. stephenseni and O. xylino occur on mixed sand/gravel and cobble beaches. 3) The genus Orchestia is redefined and confined to 15 marine supralittoral species from eastern North America, islands in the North-eastern Atlantic, and western-Europe, including the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas plus a perplexing group in New Zealand. 4) The new genus Cryptorchestia is described, based on nine terrestrial species previously included in the genus Orchestia and occurring in western Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and the Azores and Canary islands in the North-eastern Atlantic. 5) The new species Orchestia xylino sp. nov. is described. 6) An extensive bibliography for the species in this study is provided.

  16. Production cross sections from 82Se fragmentation as indications of shell effects in neutron-rich isotopes close to the drip-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Portillo, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Amthor, A. M.; Bandura, L.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Brown, B. A.; Chubarian, G.; Fukuda, N.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Pereira, J.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stolz, A.; Sumithrarachichi, C.; Thoennessen, M.; Weisshaar, D.

    2013-05-01

    Production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei from the fragmentation of a 82Se beam at 139 MeV/u were measured. The longitudinal momentum distributions of 126 neutron-rich isotopes of elements 11≤Z≤32 were scanned using an experimental approach of varying the target thickness. Production cross sections with beryllium and tungsten targets were determined for a large number of nuclei including several isotopes first observed in this work. These are the most neutron-rich nuclides of the elements 22≤Z≤25 (64Ti, 67V, 69Cr, and 72Mn). One event was registered consistent with 70Cr and another one with 75Fe. The production cross sections are correlated with Qg systematics to reveal trends in the data. The results presented here confirm our previous results from a similar measurement using a 76Ge beam and can be explained with a shell model that predicts a subshell closure at N=34 around Z=20. This is demonstrated by systematic trends and calculations with the abrasion-ablation model that are sensitive to separation energies.

  17. Estimate of fine root production including the impact of decomposed roots in a Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Khoon Koh, Lip; Kume, Tomonori; Makita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Considerable carbon is allocated belowground and used for respiration and production of roots. It is reported that approximately 40 % of GPP is allocated belowground in a Bornean tropical rainforest, which is much higher than those in Neotropical rainforests. This may be caused by high root production in this forest. Ingrowth core is a popular method for estimating fine root production, but recent study by Osawa et al. (2012) showed potential underestimates of this method because of the lack of consideration of the impact of decomposed roots. It is important to estimate fine root production with consideration for the decomposed roots, especially in tropics where decomposition rate is higher than other regions. Therefore, objective of this study is to estimate fine root production with consideration of decomposed roots using ingrowth cores and root litter-bag in the tropical rainforest. The study was conducted in Lambir Hills National Park in Borneo. Ingrowth cores and litter bags for fine roots were buried in March 2013. Eighteen ingrowth cores and 27 litter bags were collected in May, September 2013, March 2014 and March 2015, respectively. Fine root production was comparable to aboveground biomass increment and litterfall amount, and accounted only 10% of GPP in this study site, suggesting most of the carbon allocated to belowground might be used for other purposes. Fine root production was comparable to those in Neotropics. Decomposed roots accounted for 18% of fine root production. This result suggests that no consideration of decomposed fine roots may cause underestimate of fine root production.

  18. Including indoor offgassed emissions in the life cycle inventories of wood products.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-16

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that negatively affect human health are emitted from wood products used indoors. However, the existing life cycle inventories of these products only document the emissions occurring during production and disposal phases. Consequently, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of indoor wooden products conducted using these inventories neglect the use-phase impacts from exposure to offgassed VOCs and therefore underestimate the product's total environmental impact. This study demonstrates a methodology to calculate the use phase inventory and the corresponding human health impacts resulting from indoor use of any VOC emitting product. For the five most commonly used types of boards used in indoor wood products, the mass of each VOC emitted into the indoor compartment over their service life was calculated by statistically analyzing data from 50 published chamber testing studies. Uncertainty was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated inventory data were used in a case study to calculate and compare the health impacts of five different wooden floorings made of above materials. The results show that the use-phase human-toxicity impacts are an order of magnitude higher than those occurring during the rest of the flooring's life cycle. The factors influencing the offgassing of VOCs from wood products and measures to reduce exposure are discussed.

  19. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  20. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  1. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... was published in the Federal Register on November 23, 2010 (75 FR 71460). At the request of the...

  2. Including indoor offgassed emissions in the life cycle inventories of wood products.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-16

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that negatively affect human health are emitted from wood products used indoors. However, the existing life cycle inventories of these products only document the emissions occurring during production and disposal phases. Consequently, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of indoor wooden products conducted using these inventories neglect the use-phase impacts from exposure to offgassed VOCs and therefore underestimate the product's total environmental impact. This study demonstrates a methodology to calculate the use phase inventory and the corresponding human health impacts resulting from indoor use of any VOC emitting product. For the five most commonly used types of boards used in indoor wood products, the mass of each VOC emitted into the indoor compartment over their service life was calculated by statistically analyzing data from 50 published chamber testing studies. Uncertainty was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated inventory data were used in a case study to calculate and compare the health impacts of five different wooden floorings made of above materials. The results show that the use-phase human-toxicity impacts are an order of magnitude higher than those occurring during the rest of the flooring's life cycle. The factors influencing the offgassing of VOCs from wood products and measures to reduce exposure are discussed. PMID:25405704

  3. Progress towards the production of the 236gNp standard sources and competing fission fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larijani, C.; Pickford, O. L.; Collins, S. M.; Ivanov, P.; Jerome, S. M.; Keightley, J. D.; Pearce, A. K.; Regan, P. H.

    2015-11-01

    The isobaric distribution of fission residues produced following the bombardment of a natural uranium target with a beam of 25 MeV protons has been evaluated. Decay analysis of thirteen isobarically distinct fission residues were carried out using high-resolution γ-spectrometry at the UK National Physical Laboratory. Stoichiometric abundances were calculated via the determination of absolute activity concentrations associated with the longest-lived members of each isobaric chain. This technique was validated by computational modelling of likely sequential decay processes through an isobaric decay chain. The results were largely in agreement with previously published values for neutron bombardments on 238U at energies of 14 MeV. Higher yields of products with mass numbers A~110-130 were found, consistent with the increasing yield of these radionuclides as the bombarding energy is increased.

  4. 78 FR 1252 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... December 13, 2011 (76 FR 77556). At the request of the State of Minnesota, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products... workers of CalAmp Products, Inc., Satellite Products Division, including on-site leased workers...

  5. Fragmentation Pathways in the Uracil Radical Cation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Congyi; Matsika, Spiridoula; Kotur, Marija; Weinacht, Thomas C.

    2012-08-24

    We investigate pathways for fragmentation in the uracil radical cation using ab initio electronic structure calculations. We focus on the main fragments produced in pump–probe dissociative ionization experiments. These are fragments with mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 69, 28, 41, and 42. Barriers to dissociation along the ground ionic surface are reported, which provide an estimate of the energetic requirements for the production of the main fragments. Finally, direct and sequential fragmentation mechanisms have been analyzed, and it is concluded that sequential fragmentation after production of fragment with m/z 69 is the dominant mechanism for the production of the smaller fragments.

  6. 43 CFR 3137.100 - How must I allocate production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased Federal lands? (a) When a... United States when a participating area includes unleased Federal lands? 3137.100 Section 3137.100 Public... be determined under the Minerals Management Service's oil and gas product value regulations at 30...

  7. Peptidoglycan fragment release from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Katelynn L; Chan, Jia Mun; Lenz, Jonathan D; Hackett, Kathleen T; Dillard, Joseph P

    2013-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is a symbiont of the human nasopharynx. On occasion, meningococci disseminate from the nasopharynx to cause invasive disease. Previous work showed that purified meningococcal peptidoglycan (PG) stimulates human Nod1, which leads to activation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines. No studies have determined if meningococci release PG or activate Nod1 during infection. The closely related pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae releases PG fragments during normal growth. These fragments induce inflammatory cytokine production and ciliated cell death in human fallopian tubes. We determined that meningococci also release PG fragments during growth, including fragments known to induce inflammation. We found that N. meningitidis recycles PG fragments via the selective permease AmpG and that meningococcal PG recycling is more efficient than gonococcal PG recycling. Comparison of PG fragment release from N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae showed that meningococci release less of the proinflammatory PG monomers than gonococci and degrade PG to smaller fragments. The decreased release of PG monomers by N. meningitidis relative to N. gonorrhoeae is partly due to ampG, since replacement of gonococcal ampG with the meningococcal allele reduced PG monomer release. Released PG fragments in meningococcal supernatants induced significantly less Nod1-dependent NF-κB activity than released fragments in gonococcal supernatants and tended to induce less interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion in primary human fallopian tube explants. These results support a model in which efficient PG recycling and extensive degradation of PG fragments lessen inflammatory responses and may be advantageous for maintaining meningococcal carriage in the nasopharynx.

  8. Nanoaerosols Including Radon Decay Products in Outdoor and Indoor Air at a Suburban Site

    PubMed Central

    Smerajec, Mateja; Vaupotič, Janja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoaerosols have been monitored inside a kitchen and in the courtyard of a suburban farmhouse. Total number concentration and number size distribution (5–1000 nm) of general aerosol particles, as measured with a Grimm Aerosol SMPS+C 5.400 instrument outdoors, were mainly influenced by solar radiation and use of farming equipment, while, indoors, they were drastically changed by human activity in the kitchen. In contrast, activity concentrations of the short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi, both those attached to aerosol particles and those not attached, measured with a Sarad EQF3020-2 device, did not appear to be dependent on these activities, except on opening and closing of the kitchen window. Neither did a large increase in concentration of aerosol particles smaller than 10 or 20 nm, with which the unattached radon products are associated, augment the fraction of the unattached decay products significantly. PMID:22523488

  9. 43 CFR 3106.4-2 - Transfers of other interests, including royalty interests and production payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... royalty interests and production payments. 3106.4-2 Section 3106.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Transfers by Assignment, Sublease or Otherwise § 3106.4-2 Transfers...

  10. 43 CFR 3106.4-2 - Transfers of other interests, including royalty interests and production payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... royalty interests and production payments. 3106.4-2 Section 3106.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Transfers by Assignment, Sublease or Otherwise § 3106.4-2 Transfers...

  11. 43 CFR 3106.4-2 - Transfers of other interests, including royalty interests and production payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... royalty interests and production payments. 3106.4-2 Section 3106.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Transfers by Assignment, Sublease or Otherwise § 3106.4-2 Transfers...

  12. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203... compliance for bicycle helmets manufactured after March 11, 1999, in the form of a durable, legible, and... “Complies with U.S. CPSC Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets for Persons Age 5 and Older” or “Complies...

  13. 76 FR 14101 - Meadwestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... published in the Federal Register on September 3, 2008 (73 FR 51529). In order to avoid an overlap in worker... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 22, 2010, applicable to workers of MeadWestvaco... assistance was issued for all workers of MeadWestvaco, Consumer and Office Products Division, Sidney,...

  14. Concentrations and composition profiles of parabens in currency bills and paper products including sanitary wipes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-03-15

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Although parabens have been reported to be used as antimicrobials in certain types of papers (e.g., wet sanitary or hygiene wipes), little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in paper products. In this study, we determined the concentrations of six paraben analogs, methyl (MeP), ethyl (EtP), propyl (PrP), butyl (BuP), benzyl (BzP), and heptyl parabens (HepP), in 253 paper products divided into 18 categories, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At least one of the six parabens was detected in almost all (detection rate: 98%) paper samples, and the total concentrations (∑PBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.85 to 3,220,000 ng/g (geometric mean (GM): 103; median: 55.1 ng/g). Sanitary wipes contained very high concentrations of ∑PBs (GM: 8300 ng/g). Paper currencies, tickets, business cards, food cartons, flyers, and newspapers contained notable concentrations of ∑PBs, and the GM concentrations in these paper categories were on the order of a few tens to thousands of nanograms per gram. One source of parabens in paper products is the use of these chemicals as antifungal agents. MeP and PrP were the predominant analogs, accounting for approximately 62% and 16% of the total concentrations of parabens, respectively. On the basis of measured concentrations and frequency of handling of paper products, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) of parabens through dermal absorption. The GM and 95th percentile EDI values were 6.31 and 2050 ng/day, respectively, for the general population. Among the paper categories analyzed, sanitary wipes contributed to the majority (>90%) of the exposures.

  15. Feasibility of Including Green Tea Products for an Analytically Verified Dietary Supplement Database

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila; Dwyer, Johanna; Andrews, Karen; Betz, Joseph; Harnely, James; Pehrsson, Pamela; Rimmer, Catherine; Savarala, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally funded, publicly accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically-derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in dietary supplement products such as botanicals are also of interest and thus are being considered for inclusion in the DSID. Thirty-eight constituents, mainly botanicals were identified and prioritized by a federal interagency committee. Green tea was selected from this list as the botanical for expansion of the DSID. This paper describes the process for prioritizing dietary ingredients in the DSID. It also discusses the criteria for inclusion of these ingredients, and the approach for selecting and testing products for the green tea pilot study. PMID:25817236

  16. Bioremediation treatability studies for soils containing herbicides, chemicals, and petroleum products. (Includes technical summary). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nies, L.; Mesarch, M.

    1996-09-16

    Leaking underground storage tanks (LUST`s) are widespread throughout the United States. Soil contamination by hazardous pollutants may exist at some Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) facilities. Potential pollutants are petroleum products, herbicides and solvents. The primary hazard posed by LUST`s is the possible contamination of ground water, which comprises most of our drinking water supply. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether bioremediation is a feasible treatment option for contaminated INDOT soils.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Many of the scientific needs of the ARM Program are met through the analysis and processing of existing data products into "value-added" products or VAPs. Despite extensive instrumentation deployed at the ARM sites, there will always be quantities of interest that are either impractical or impossible to measure directly or routinely. Physical models using ARM instrument data as inputs are implemented as VAPs and can help fill some of the unmet measurement needs of the Program. Conversely, ARM produces some VAPs not in order to fill unmet measurement needs, but instead to improve the quality of existing measurements. In addition, when more than one measurement is available, ARM also produces "best estimate" VAPs. A special class of VAP called a Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) adds value to the input data streams by providing for continuous assessment of the quality of the input data. [taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/vaps_all.php] One of the ARM data centers, the External Data Center or XDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory, also adds value to ARM information by identifying sources and acquiring external data to augment the data being generated within the program. These external data sets are converted, processed, and carefully evaluated for their value to the overall ARM program. /. Data Plots are also value-added products from ARM.

  18. Production of new neutron-rich isotopes of heavy elements in fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at 1A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Pereira, J.; Audouin, L.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Junghans, A. R.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2010-10-15

    The production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei has been investigated using cold-fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at relativistic energies. The experiment performed at the high-resolving-power magnetic spectrometer Fragment Separator at GSI made it possible to identify 40 new heavy neutron-rich nuclei: {sup 205}Pt, {sup 207-210}Au, {sup 211-216}Hg, {sup 214-217}Tl, {sup 215-220}Pb, {sup 219-224}Bi, {sup 223-227}Po, {sup 225-229}At, {sup 230,231}Rn, and {sup 233}Fr. The production cross sections of these nuclei were also determined and used to benchmark reaction codes that predict the production of nuclei far from stability.

  19. Comparison of the serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products with cytokeratin 19 fragment as biomarkers in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    So, Hee Jin; Hong, Seok-Il; Lee, Jin Kyung; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Kang, Sun Jung; Hong, Young Jun

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality. The identification of early diagnostic biomarkers improved outcomes for lung cancer patients. Serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) levels are elevated in numerous malignancies due to hemostatic alterations. The serum FDP levels were compared to the levels of cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen (CYFRA 21-1), another well-established biomarker. The serum samples from 193 lung cancer patients, 84 healthy controls and 106 patients with benign respiratory diseases were obtained. The serum FDP level was measured using the DR-70 immunoassay and the CYFRA 21-1 level was measured by electrochemiluminescence using the Roche Analytics E170. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to assess the predictive sensitivity and specificity. The mean serum FDP level in lung cancer patients (35.01±229.02 μg/ml) was significantly higher compared to the 190 non-cancerous subjects (0.60±0.75 μg/ml; P=0.039). The mean serum CYFRA 21-1 level in lung cancer patients (4.50±6.67 ng/ml) was also significantly higher compared to the non-cancerous subjects (1.40±0.83 ng/ml; P<0.05). FDP exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 86 and 75%, respectively, at an optimal cut-off at 0.67 μg/ml. CYFRA 21-1 exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively, at a cut-off of 1.65 ng/ml. The serum FDP area under the curve (0.87) was slightly higher compared to CYFRA 21-1 (0.83). Therefore, it is apparent that serum FDP is comparable to CYFRA 21-1 as a lung cancer biomarker and can be used for clinical practice. PMID:25054020

  20. Irreversibility and entropy production in transport phenomena, III—Principle of minimum integrated entropy production including nonlinear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    A new variational principle of steady states is found by introducing an integrated type of energy dissipation (or entropy production) instead of instantaneous energy dissipation. This new principle is valid both in linear and nonlinear transport phenomena. Prigogine’s dream has now been realized by this new general principle of minimum “integrated” entropy production (or energy dissipation). This new principle does not contradict with the Onsager-Prigogine principle of minimum instantaneous entropy production in the linear regime, but it is conceptually different from the latter which does not hold in the nonlinear regime. Applications of this theory to electric conduction, heat conduction, particle diffusion and chemical reactions are presented. The irreversibility (or positive entropy production) and long time tail problem in Kubo’s formula are also discussed in the Introduction and last section. This constitutes the complementary explanation of our theory of entropy production given in the previous papers (M. Suzuki, Physica A 390 (2011) 1904 and M. Suzuki, Physica A 391 (2012) 1074) and has given the motivation of the present investigation of variational principle.

  1. 75 FR 453 - FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek Contract Engineering, Allied Personnel Services, Eastern Engineering... Engineering, and Clarke Consulting, Inc., Bethlehem, PA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

  2. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate.

  3. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate. PMID:24105794

  4. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  5. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  6. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  7. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  8. Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ezgi; Atila, Buse; Mumme, Jan; Reza, M Toufiq; Toptas, Asli; Elibol, Murat; Yanik, Jale

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of the temperature and reaction time on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of orange pomace was investigated. In addition, a set of anaerobic batch tests were performed to determine the resulting biogas and methane potential of the spent liquor. Hydrochar yields followed a decreasing trend with the increasing temperature, whereas reaction time had no considerably effect on the yield. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios from the raw material to the hydrochars suggested that dehydration reactions prevail during HTC. The hydrochars tended to become enriched in Ca, Mg and P minerals by increasing HTC temperature. The heavy metal contents in hydrochars were found below limits and no PAH compound was detected. Anaerobic digestion tests showed that the aqueous phase from HTC can be used as feedstocks for biogas production. PMID:26226579

  9. Estimated economic benefits during the 'decade of vaccines' include treatment savings, gains in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Stack, Meghan L; Ozawa, Sachiko; Bishai, David M; Mirelman, Andrew; Tam, Yvonne; Niessen, Louis; Walker, Damian G; Levine, Orin S

    2011-06-01

    In 2010 the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced a $10 billion commitment over the next ten years to increase access to childhood vaccines in the world's poorest countries. The effort was labeled the "Decade of Vaccines." This study estimates both the short- and long-term economic benefits from the introduction and increased use of six vaccines in seventy-two of the world's poorest countries from 2011 to 2020. Increased rates of vaccination against pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia and meningitis, rotavirus, pertussis, measles, and malaria over the next ten years would save 6.4 million lives and avert 426 million cases of illness, $6.2 billion in treatment costs, and $145 billion in productivity losses. Monetary estimates based on this type of analysis can be used to determine the return on investment in immunization from both the international community and local governments, and they should be considered in policy making. PMID:21653952

  10. Magma Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  11. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  12. The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, Including Climatology Configurable Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN; Shi, Y

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the QCRad methodology, which uses climatological analyses of the surface radiation measurements to define reasonable limits for testing the data for unusual data values. The main assumption is that the majority of the climatological data are “good” data, which for field sites operated with care such as those of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a reasonable assumption. Data that fall outside the normal range of occurrences are labeled either “indeterminate” (meaning that the measurements are possible, but rarely occurring, and thus the values cannot be identified as good) or “bad” depending on how far outside the normal range the particular data reside. The methodology not only sets fairly standard maximum and minimum value limits, but also compares what we have learned about the behavior of these instruments in the field to other value-added products (VAPs), such as the Diffuse infrared (IR) Loss Correction VAP (Younkin and Long 2004) and the Best Estimate Flux VAP (Shi and Long 2002).

  13. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products...

  14. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products...

  15. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... principles of personal financial management, banking operations, or the benefits of saving for the future... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products...

  16. The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U

  17. Fossil energy environmental research including innovative concepts for wastewater, sludge, and product treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the components of the waste stream, including hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and phenol, may be present in sufficiently high concentrations to be recoverable by stripping processes or solvent extraction. However, the dephenolated liquors may require further treatment before the aqueous stream can be released or recycled. Biooxidation processes are under development for this application. At first, activated sludge systems with large, stirred-tank reactors were used. However, this method required many hours of residence time, and thus large tanks, to achieve the very low phenol levels that were required. More efficient fluidized-bed bioreactor systems, using microorganisms immobilized as a fixed film on suspended particles, seem to be much more appropriate for this application. Typically, microorganisms such as the commercial preparation PHENOBAC (Polybac Corporation, Berlin, NJ), are used to initiate the active bioreactor system. This immobilized biocatalyst is effectively retained in the bioreactor at high microbial concentration, and when oxygen or air is also introduced in sufficient quantities, the bioreactor system is much more efficient than the conventional stirred tank. For example, phenol degradation in the fluidized bed generally ranged from 10 to 50 kg/(m/sup 3/ . d) with inlet phenol concentrations of 20 to 200 g/m/sup 3/. This rate is 10 to 50 times higher than conventional activated sludge systems in stirred-tank bioreactors. Effluent phenol levels as low as 25 mg/m/sup 3/ were observed and other hazardous organic chemicals were also oxidized, including thiocyanates which were removed at a rate about 0.1 that of phenol. This type of bioreactor has exhibited stable biological activity for periods of several months with few operating problems. 9 refs.

  18. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5′-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441

  19. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling. PMID:25821419

  20. Fragmentation in Biaxial Tension

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G H; Archbold, G C; Hurricane, O A; Miller, P L

    2006-06-13

    We have carried out an experiment that places a ductile stainless steel in a state of biaxial tension at a high rate of strain. The loading of the ductile metal spherical cap is performed by the detonation of a high explosive layer with a conforming geometry to expand the metal radially outwards. Simulations of the loading and expansion of the metal predict strain rates that compare well with experimental observations. A high percentage of the HE loaded material was recovered through a soft capture process and characterization of the recovered fragments provided high quality data, including uniform strain prior to failure and fragment size. These data were used with a modified fragmentation model to determine a fragmentation energy.

  1. 75 FR 28657 - Dell Products LP-Parmer North Location, a Subsidiary of Dell, Inc., Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital, MagRabbit, Manpower and Spherion Corporation; Round Rock, TX; Dell Products LP--Parmer North One... in the Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10321). The workers are engaged in employment...

  2. Competition between functionalization and fragmentation pathways in the OH-initiated oxidation of aqueous tartaric acid droplets: Reaction products and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. T.; Chow, C. Y.; Chan, M. N.; Zuend, A.; Berkemeier, T.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    To gain better insights into the competition between functionalization and fragmentation pathways for oxygenated organic compounds, we investigate the OH-radical initiated oxidation of aqueous tartaric acid (C4H6O6) droplets using an aerosol flow tube reactor. The molecular composition of reaction products is characterized by an atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART) coupled with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The reaction produces four major products: a functionalization product (C4H4O6) and three fragmentation products (C3H4O4, C3H2O4 and C3H2O5), with a predominance of the functionalization product which supports the literature result that only less than 10% of carbon loss was observed for the OH oxidation of tartaric acid. The formation of the functionalization product (2-hydroxy-3-oxosuccinic acid, C4H4O6) can be attributed to that the tertiary alkyl radical, formed after hydrogen abstraction, reacts with an O2 molecule to form a hydroxyperoxyl radical which tends to quickly undergo intramolecular HO2 elimination without fragmentation. The molecular transformation of aqueous tartaric acid droplets is stimulated using the kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP) and the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model in order to take into account the change in particle-phase water and activities of reaction products during the oxidation. Results suggest that aqueous tartaric acid droplets become slightly less hygroscopic after oxidation due to the formation of less polar products. The formation of products with different hygroscopicities and volatilities largely determine the amount of particle-phase water, which in turn governs the size of the aqueous droplets and the concentration of the reactants. Consideration of the variation in water content in response to the chemical evolution in the aerosol is needed to better understand

  3. Propagation of the threatened staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: methods to minimize the impacts of fragment collection and maximize production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirman, D.; Thyberg, T.; Herlan, J.; Hill, C.; Young-Lahiff, C.; Schopmeyer, S.; Huntington, B.; Santos, R.; Drury, C.

    2010-09-01

    Coral reef restoration methods such as coral gardening are becoming increasingly considered as viable options to mitigate reef degradation and enhance recovery of depleted coral populations. In this study, we describe several aspects of the coral gardening approach that demonstrate this methodology is an effective way of propagating the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: (1) the growth of colonies within the nursery exceeded the growth rates of wild staghorn colonies in the same region; (2) the collection of branch tips did not result in any further mortality to the donor colonies beyond the coral removed for transplantation; (3) decreases in linear extension of the donor branches were only temporary and donor branches grew faster than control branches after an initial recovery period of approximately 3-6 weeks; (4) fragmentation did not affect the growth rates of non-donor branches within the same colony; (5) small branch tips experienced initial mortality due to handling and transportation but surviving tips grew well over time; and (6) when the growth of the branch tips is added to the regrowth of the fragmented donor branches, the new coral produced was 1.4-1.8 times more than new growth in undisturbed colonies. Based on these results, the collection of small (2.5-3.5 cm) branch tips was an effective propagation method for this branching coral species resulting in increased biomass accumulation and limited damage to parental stocks.

  4. Data of rational process optimization for the production of a full IgG and its Fab fragment from hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Röhm, Martina; Handl, Alina; König, Maria; Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Handrick, René; Schindowski, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This data article focuses on the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and their fragments Fab and F(ab')2. Here, we present the data of an optimization protocol to improve the product yield of a hybridoma cell process using a Design of Experiment (DoE) strategy. Furthermore, the data of the evaluated conditions were used to test feeding strategies in shake flasks. They were verified in controlled 2 L fed-batch bioreactor processes. Supplementing the culture medium with human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and Pluronic F-68, as well as a nutrient rich additive for fed-batch, resulted in improved cell growth correlating with a 7 day elongated process time and a 4.5 fold higher product titer. Finally, a rapid Fab generation protocol and the respective data are presented using different papain digestion and a camelid anti-kappa light chain VHH affinity ligand. PMID:27366780

  5. Data of rational process optimization for the production of a full IgG and its Fab fragment from hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Röhm, Martina; Handl, Alina; König, Maria; Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Handrick, René; Schindowski, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This data article focuses on the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and their fragments Fab and F(ab')2. Here, we present the data of an optimization protocol to improve the product yield of a hybridoma cell process using a Design of Experiment (DoE) strategy. Furthermore, the data of the evaluated conditions were used to test feeding strategies in shake flasks. They were verified in controlled 2 L fed-batch bioreactor processes. Supplementing the culture medium with human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and Pluronic F-68, as well as a nutrient rich additive for fed-batch, resulted in improved cell growth correlating with a 7 day elongated process time and a 4.5 fold higher product titer. Finally, a rapid Fab generation protocol and the respective data are presented using different papain digestion and a camelid anti-kappa light chain VHH affinity ligand.

  6. A generic strategy for subcloning antibody variable regions from the scFv phage display vector pCANTAB 5 E into pASK85 permits the economical production of F(ab) fragments and leads to improved recombinant immunoglobulin stability.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karl; Fiedler, Markus; Skerra, Arne; Hock, Bertold

    2002-04-01

    Apart from the decisive sensitivity and specificity of immunosensors, the employed antibodies essentially contribute to additional key factors like fabrication costs for sensor chips and sensor stability. A production scheme for recombinant antibody fragments has been optimised with respect to these particular issues of biosensor development. The phagemid vector pCANTAB 5 E is widely used for the selection of antibody fragments from corresponding libraries. However, large-scale production of the selected single-chain F(v) (scFv) fragments is substantially restricted by the high cost for the inducer IPTG and the anti-E-tag antibody. The latter is needed in significant amounts for the purification of the recombinant protein. A generic strategy was established for subcloning scFv variable regions from pCANTAB 5 E into the plasmid pASK85 for the expression of F(ab) fragments. pASK85 bears coding sequences for murine constant domains including a His(6) tag at the carboxyl-terminal end of the constant heavy chain domain. The anti-s-triazine antibody K47H served as a model system in this study. Biosynthesis of the F(ab) fragment in a high cell density fermenter was induced by addition of anhydrotetracycline. The F(ab) fragment was subsequently purified from the periplasmic extract in a single step by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). A yield of 100 microg/lxOD(550) purified F(ab) fragment was obtained employing a standard fermentation scheme. The sensitivity and cross-reactivity of the F(ab) was comparable to the parent scFv when assayed by enzyme immunoassay. However, the F(ab) fragment exhibited significantly improved long-term stability.

  7. Kinetics and products of the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with selected volatile organic compounds, including oxygenated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethel, Heidi Lynn

    Kinetics, products and reaction mechanisms of the OH radical-initiated reactions of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated compounds were examined. These compounds are important smog forming chemicals that are found in gasoline and many consumer products. Smog is created by the interaction of these VOCs with oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is a daytime species and a key initiator of the VOC reactions which lead to photochemical smog formation. Chapter II investigates the OH radical-initiated reactions of p-xylene, 1,2,3-, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene which are components of gasoline fuels, vehicle exhaust and ambient air in urban areas. Experiments were conducted at varying NO2 concentrations in indoor environmental chambers in order to determine the dependence of the product yields as a function of NO2 concentrations. From these experiments and previous literature yields, a majority of the products from these reactions under atmospheric conditions have now been elucidated. Chapter III examines the OH radical-initiated reaction of 3-hexene-2,5-dione which is formed from the reactions of p-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (Chapter II). Due to its polar nature, 3-hexene-2,5-dione and its reaction products are difficult to handle experimentally. Products identified from this reaction through the use of in situ atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry were CH3C(O)CH(OH)CHO and CH 3C(O)CH(OH)CH(ONO2)C(O)CH3. Chapters IV, V, and VI examine the OH radical-initiated reactions of 6 different alcohols, including diols. The products examined in Chapters IV and V are those from 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol and 1,2-, 1,3-, and 2,3-butanediol, which are found in various solvents. Reaction rates were determined using a relative rate method. Hydroxyaldehyde and hydroxyketone products from these reactions were also quantified. Chapter VI examined the reaction rates and products formed from the OH radical

  8. Cross sections for the production of fragments with Z greater than or equal to 8 by fragmentation of Z greater than or equal to 9 and less than or equal to 26 nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, W.; Drechsel, H.; Brechtmann, C.; Beer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Charge changing nuclear collisions in plastic nuclear track detectors were studied using a new experimental technique of automatic track measurement for etched tracks in plastic detectors. Partial cross sections for the production of fragments of charge Z approximately 8 were measured for projectile nuclei of charge 9 approximately Z approximately 26 in the detector material CR39 and in silver. for this purpose three independent experiments were performed using Bevalac beams. The first one was an exposure of a stack of CR39 plastic plates to 1.8 GeV/nucl. Ar-40 nuclei. The second one was an exposure of another CR39 stack of 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 projectiles. In the third experiment a mixed stack of CR39 plates and silver foils was irradiated with 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 nuclei. Thus the measurement of nuclear cross sections in a light target (CR39 = C12H18O7) and as well in a heavy target (silver) was possible.

  9. The Poincar group in a demisemidirect product with a non-associative algebra with representations that Include particles and quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2008-11-18

    The quarks have always been a puzzle, as have the particles' mass and mass/spin relations as they seemed to have no coordinates in configuration space and/or momentum space. The solution to this seems to lie in the marriage of ordinary Poincare group representations with a non-associative algebra made through a demisemidirect product. Then, the work of G. Dixon applies; so, we may obtain all the relations between masses, mass and spin, and the attribution of position and momentum to quarks--this in spite of the old restriction that the Poincare group cannot be extended to a larger group by any means (including the (semi)direct product) to get even the mass relations. Finally, we will briefly discuss a possible connection between the phase space representations of the Poincare group and the phase space representations of the object we will obtain. This will take us into Leibniz (co)homology.

  10. [Productivity of doctoral programs in Psychology with Quality Mention in journal articles included in Journal Citation Reports].

    PubMed

    Musi-Lechuga, Bertha; Olivas-Ávila, José; Castro, Angel

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to classify doctoral programs with Quality Mention in Psychology based on their scientific productivity. For this purpose, articles in the Web of Science published by professors teaching in these doctoral programs were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed scientific journals in which these professors tend to publish more papers and the evolution in the number of papers published until 2009. Results showed that the most productive doctoral program was the Neurosciences program at the University of Oviedo. This program showed a ratio of 40 articles--published in journals included in Journal Citation Reports--by each professor. In contrast, other programs did not reach a ratio of 10 articles per professor. Regarding journals, results showed that 9 out of the 20 most popular journals are Hispanic and a gradual increase in the number of published papers was also observed. Lastly, results and implications for quality assessment are discussed.

  11. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. METHODS We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321–580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG321–580His) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG321–580His as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. RESULTS In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG321–580His-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. CONCLUSION The study indicates that gG321–580His has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans. PMID:25532518

  12. Enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A: two approaches to the macrolactone fragment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.; Burch, Jason D.; Hu, Essa; Jaeschke, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A is described. Two syntheses of the macrolactone subunit are included: the first relies upon an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to generate the trisubstituted olefin geometry and the second utilizes an enantioselective vinylogous aldol reaction for this purpose. Enantioselective syntheses of the sugar and chlorocyclopropane side chain fragments are also disclosed. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of this natural product was determined by fragment coupling with the two enantiomers of the side chain fragment. PMID:22859865

  13. LC-MS/MS structural characterization of stress degradation products including the development of a stability indicating assay of Darunavir: An anti-HIV drug.

    PubMed

    Rao, R Nageswara; Ramachandra, B; Sravan, B; Khalid, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Darunavir, an anti-HIV drug was subjected to forced degradation under acid, base, thermal and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation and photolysis as prescribed by ICH guidelines. Four major degradation products were formed under acid and base hydrolysis, while stable under neutral and thermal hydrolysis, oxidative and photolysis. The drug and its degradation products were separated on Hiber, LiChrospher® 60, RP-select B, C8 column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm) using 10mM ammonium acetate: acetonitrile (52:48, v/v) as mobile phase in an isocratic elution mode by LC. The degradation products were characterized by LC-MS/MS and fragmentation pathways were proposed. The proposed structures of degradation products were confirmed by HRMS and the LC method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, recovery, LOD and LOQ. PMID:24252722

  14. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  15. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  16. Production and increased detection of amyloid beta protein and amyloidogenic fragments in brain microvessels, meningeal vessels and choroid plexus in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalaria, R N; Premkumar, D R; Pax, A B; Cohen, D L; Lieberburg, I

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances indicate soluble amyloid beta (A beta) protein is produced constitutively during normal metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). This has not been directly examined in human brain vascular tissues. Using a panel of well-characterized antibodies, here we show that increased amounts of soluble A beta were found in isolated vascular tissues from AD subjects compared to age-matched controls without significant Alzheimer pathology. Immunocytochemical analyses of isolated vessel preparations showed characteristic transverse patterns of A beta deposits in large vessels with smooth muscle, however, fine A beta deposits were apparent even in capillaries. A proportion of such A beta protein and potentially amyloidogenic carboxyl terminal fragments were released by solubilization and disruption of the vascular basement membrane by collagenase treatments. We further demonstrated by in vitro metabolic labelling that soluble A beta or an A beta-like peptide is associated and produced by cerebral microvessels, meningeal vessels and the choroid plexus isolated postmortem from human as well as rat brain. Compared to those from young rats, cerebral microvessels from aging rats showed increased release of carboxyl terminal fragments of APP and A beta-like peptide. Our observations provide the first direct demonstration that human vascular tissues produce soluble A beta, a product of the secretory pathway in APP processing. Our findings also suggest that aging associated alterations in the basement membranes are a factor in A beta accumulation that results in vascular amyloid deposition, the principal feature of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

  17. Molecular beacon-based fluorescence biosensor for the detection of gene fragment and PCR amplification products related to chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailin; Sun, Zhouliang; Wang, Kun; Chen, Xuhai; Xu, Xiongwei; Wu, Yong; Lin, Xinhua; Chen, Yuanzhong; Du, Min

    2012-01-01

    A novel fluorescence method has been established for the determination of gene fragment and PCR amplification products related to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). A molecular beacon (MB) which comprises a DNA loop section, a pair of fluorophore (tetramethoxyl rhodamine, TAMRA), and a quencher (4-(2-methyl-on-amino-azobenzene) benzoate, DABCYL) was designed. The loop sequence of MB was designed according to the DNA sequence relating to CML (type b3a2) which contained a single-stranded oligonucleotide. Before hybridization, the fluorescence from the TAMRA had been quenched by the DABCYL. After hybridization with the complementary DNA, the quencher will become far away from the TAMRA, and the fluorescence intensity detected will increase. Changes in the fluorescence intensity have a linear relationship with the concentration of complementary DNA (C) in the range of 4.0 × 10(-9)-3.2 × 10(-8) mol/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9973; the detection limit was 6.0 × 10(-10) mol/L (S/N = 3). The developed method has high selectivity, which can be used to discriminate single-base mismatch sequence. The method has been applied to detect the short-stranded CML DNA fragment (278 bp) with high sensitivity. This approach is a promising method for the detection of CML in real samples for medical diagnostics.

  18. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  19. Search for azimuthal asymmetry of. pi. sup 0 -meson production in beam fragmentation region on polarized protons and deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Apokin, V.D.; Astafiev, O.V.; Belikov, N.I.; Chujko, B.V.; Derevshchikov, A.A.; Ermolin, Yu.V.; Grachev, O.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Meshchanin, A.P.; Morozov, A.A.; Mochalov, V.V.; Mysnik, A.I.; Mjalitsyn, V.K.; Nurushev, S.B.; Prudkogliad, A.F.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovianov, V.L.; Soloviev, L.F.; Sytin, A.N.; Vasiliev, A.N. ); Borisov, N.S.; Kazarinov, Yu.M.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Liburg, M.Yu.; Matafonov, V.N.; Neganov, A.B.; Usov, Yu.A. ); Bagaturia, Yu.Sh.; Glonti, L.N.; Macharashvili, G.G.; Ocherashvili, A.I.; Sakhelashvili, T.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The inclusive production of {pi}{sup 0}'s in the interaction of unpolarized {pi}{sup {minus}}, {ital k}{sup {minus}}, and antiproton beams with polarized proton and deuteron targets has been studied at IHEP. The absolute value of the asymmetry for {pi}{sup 0} production in the polarized proton and deuteron targets is between zero and fiften percent for large {ital x}={ital P}*/{ital P}*{sub max} and small {ital P}{sub {ital t}} and independent on the quark flavor. Results are presented and compared with theoretical calculations. (AIP)

  20. Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron near the η-production threshold including polarization observables

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, Eed M.; Al-Thoyaib, Suleiman S.

    2014-12-15

    Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization observables is studied in the energy region near the η-production threshold at backward center-of-mass angles of the outgoing pion. This work is motivated by the measurements of the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, where a cusp-like structure in the energy dependence of the differential cross section has been observed at extremely backward pion angles. The present approach is based on the impulse approximation and first-order rescattering diagrams with intermediate production of both π- and η-mesons. Numerical results for unpolarized cross sections, the linear photon asymmetry (Σ), the vector (T{sub 11}) and tensor (T{sub 2M}, M=0, 1, 2) deuteron target asymmetries, and the double polarization E-asymmetry are predicted and compared with available experimental data and other theoretical models. The effect of first-order rescattering is found to be much larger in spin asymmetries than in the unpolarized cross sections. It reaches on average about 40% in the tensor target and E asymmetries. Compared to the experimental data from CLAS Collaboration, sizable discrepancies are found. This is not the case for the linear photon asymmetry, for which a better comparison with the data from YerPhI Collaboration is obtained.

  1. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  2. Identification of Salmonella serotypes isolated from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems in Mexico by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Robles, Miguel A; Morales-Loredo, Alberto; Alvarez-Ojeda, Genoveva; Vega-P, Adrián; Chew-M, Yazmín; Velarde, Sixto; Fratamico, Pina

    2008-11-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on three cantaloupe farms in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico, and on one farm that cultivates chile peppers var. Bell in Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Samples from cantaloupe farms consisted of cantaloupe rinses, irrigation water, water from furrows in the field, and workers' hands. Samples from the chile pepper farm consisted of rinses of chile peppers obtained at the field, pepper rinses obtained at the packing house, and irrigation water from the field. A total of 55 samples were obtained from both production systems. Twelve and 10 samples from the cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella according to a traditional culture method. The difference between the proportion of Salmonella-positive samples from the cantaloupe production system (12 of 28 = 0.43) and the chile pepper production system (10 of 27 = 0.37) was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method based on the fliC gene was used to determine the serotype of the isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium was the only serotype found associated with the cantaloupe production system, whereas both Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis serotypes were found associated with the chile pepper production system. Results showed that 91% (20 of 22) and 9% (2 of 22) of the isolates from both agricultural systems matched with the Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis reference strain restriction profiles, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of the PCR-RFLP technique for determining the serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems.

  3. The rpoN gene product of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for expression of diverse genes, including the flagellin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Totten, P A; Lara, J C; Lory, S

    1990-01-01

    The product of the rpoN gene is an alternative sigma factor of RNA polymerase which is required for transcription of a number of genes in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including those that specify enzymes of nitrogen assimilation, amino acid uptake, and degradation of a variety of organic molecules. We have previously shown that transcription of the pilin gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa also requires RpoN (K. S. Ishimoto and S. Lory, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1954-1957, 1989) and have undertaken a more extensive survey of genes under RpoN control. Strains of P. aeruginosa that carry an insertionally inactivated rpoN gene were constructed and shown to be nonmotile because of the inability of these mutants to synthesize flagellin. The mutation in rpoN had no effect on expression of extracellular polypeptides, outer membrane proteins, and the alginate capsule. However, the rpoN mutants were glutamine auxotrophs and were defective in glutamine synthetase, indicating defects in nitrogen assimilation. In addition, the P. aeruginosa rpoN mutants were defective in urease activity. These findings indicate that the sigma factor encoded by the rpoN gene is used by P. aeruginosa for transcription of a diverse set of genes that specify biosynthetic enzymes, degradative enzymes, and surface components. These rpoN-controlled genes include pili and flagella which are required for full virulence of the organism. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2152909

  4. The Evolution of Grain Size Distribution in Explosive Rock Fragmentation - Sequential Fragmentation Theory Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheu, B.; Fowler, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    including in the description of the fracturing events in which the rock fragments, with a recipe for the production of fines, as observed in the experiments. To our knowledge, this implementation of a deterministic fracturing process into a stochastic (sequential) model is unique, further it provides the model with some forecasting power.

  5. Rapid optimization of antibotulinum toxin antibody fragment production by an integral approach utilizing RC-SELDI mass spectrometry and statistical design.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Bradbury, Lisa; Kragl, Frank J; Lukens, Dennis C; Valdes, James J

    2006-01-01

    A process for the rapid development and optimization of the fermentation process for an antibotulinum neurotoxin antibody fragment (bt-Fab) production expressed in Escherichia coli was achieved via a high-throughput process proteomics and statistical experimental design. This process, using retentate chromatography-surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (RC-SELDI MS), was employed for identifying and quantifying bt-Fab antibody in complex biological samples for the optimization of microbial fermentation conditions. Five variables (type of culture media, glycerol concentration, post-induction temperature, IPTG concentration, and incubation time after induction) were statistically combined using an experimental 2(5)(-1) fractional factorial design and tested for their effects on maximal bt-Fab antibody production. When the effects of individual variables and their interactions were assessed, type of media and post-induction temperature showed statistically significant increase in yield of the fermentation process for the maximal bt-Fab antibody production. This study establishes an integral approach as a valuable tool for the rapid development of manufacturing processes for producing various biological materials. To verify the RC-SELDI MS method, a Fab-specific immuno-affinity HPLC assay developed here was also employed for the quantification of the bt-Fab antibody in crude lysate samples obtained during the fermentation optimization process. Similar results were obtained.

  6. Fragment Screening and HIV Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Joseph D.; Patel, Disha; Arnold, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Fragment screening has proven to be a powerful alternative to traditional methods for drug discovery. Biophysical methods, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and surface plasmon resonance, are used to screen a diverse library of small molecule compounds. Although compounds identified via this approach have relatively weak affinity, they provide a good platform for lead development and are highly efficient binders with respect to their size. Fragment screening has been utilized for a wide-range of targets, including HIV-1 proteins. Here, we review the fragment screening studies targeting HIV-1 proteins using X-ray crystallography or surface plasmon resonance. These studies have successfully detected binding of novel fragments to either previously established or new sites on HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. In addition, fragment screening against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase has been used as a tool to better understand the complex nature of ligand binding to a flexible target. PMID:21972022

  7. 75 FR 45160 - Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., Formerly Known as Locknetics Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Harrow Products... affected by a shift in production of electronic security devices for commercial applications to Mexico....

  8. Beta-nodavirus B2 protein induces hydrogen peroxide production, leading to Drp1-recruited mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death via mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu C; Chiu, Hsuan W; Hung, Jo C; Hong, Jiann R

    2014-10-01

    Because the role of the viral B2 protein in the pathogenesis of nervous necrosis virus infection remains unknown, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of B2 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated cell death via mitochondrial targeting. Using a B2 deletion mutant, the B2 mitochondrial targeting signal sequence ((41)RTFVISAHAA(50)) correlated with mitochondrial free radical production and cell death in fish cells, embryonic zebrafish, and human cancer cells. After treatment of grouper fin cells (GF-1) overexpressing B2 protein with the anti-oxidant drug, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and overexpression of the antioxidant enzymes, zfCu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and zfCatalase, decreased H2O2 production and cell death were observed. To investigate the correlation between B2 cytotoxicity and H2O2 production in vivo, B2 was injected into zebrafish embryos. Cell damage, as assessed by the acridine orange assay, gradually increased over 24 h post-fertilization, and was accompanied by marked increases in H2O2 production and embryonic death. Increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by the up-regulation of Mn SOD, catalase, and Nrf2, was also observed during this period. Finally, B2-induced dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death could be reversed by NAC and inhibitors of Drp1 and Mdivi in GF-1 cells. Taken together, betanodavirus B2 induces H2O2 production via targeting the mitochondria, where it inhibits complex II function. H2O2 activates Drp1, resulting in its association with the mitochondria, mitochondrial fission and cell death in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Beta-nodavirus B2 protein induces hydrogen peroxide production, leading to Drp1-recruited mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death via mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu C; Chiu, Hsuan W; Hung, Jo C; Hong, Jiann R

    2014-10-01

    Because the role of the viral B2 protein in the pathogenesis of nervous necrosis virus infection remains unknown, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of B2 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated cell death via mitochondrial targeting. Using a B2 deletion mutant, the B2 mitochondrial targeting signal sequence ((41)RTFVISAHAA(50)) correlated with mitochondrial free radical production and cell death in fish cells, embryonic zebrafish, and human cancer cells. After treatment of grouper fin cells (GF-1) overexpressing B2 protein with the anti-oxidant drug, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and overexpression of the antioxidant enzymes, zfCu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and zfCatalase, decreased H2O2 production and cell death were observed. To investigate the correlation between B2 cytotoxicity and H2O2 production in vivo, B2 was injected into zebrafish embryos. Cell damage, as assessed by the acridine orange assay, gradually increased over 24 h post-fertilization, and was accompanied by marked increases in H2O2 production and embryonic death. Increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by the up-regulation of Mn SOD, catalase, and Nrf2, was also observed during this period. Finally, B2-induced dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death could be reversed by NAC and inhibitors of Drp1 and Mdivi in GF-1 cells. Taken together, betanodavirus B2 induces H2O2 production via targeting the mitochondria, where it inhibits complex II function. H2O2 activates Drp1, resulting in its association with the mitochondria, mitochondrial fission and cell death in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25008790

  10. Use of primer selection and restriction enzymes to assess bacterial community diversity in an agricultural soil used for potato production via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Ann-Marie; Marsh, Terence L; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Halteman, William A

    2011-08-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) can be used to assess how land use management changes the dominant members of bacterial communities. We compared T-RFLP profiles obtained via amplification with forward primers (27, 63F) each coupled with the fluorescently labeled reverse primer (1392R) and multiple restriction enzymes to determine the best combination for interrogating soil bacterial populations in an agricultural soil used for potato production. Both primer pairs provide nearly universal recognition of a 1,400-bp sequence of the bacterial domain in the V(1)-V(3) region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene relative to known sequences. Labeling the reverse primer allowed for direct comparison of each forward primer and the terminal restriction fragments' relative migration units obtained with each primer pair and restriction enzyme. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and nested multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to assess the effects of primer pair and choice of restriction enzyme on the measured relative migration units. Our research indicates that the 63F-1392R amplimer pair provides a more complete description with respect to the bacterial communities present in this potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rotation over seeded to crimson clover (Trifolium praense L.). Domain-specific 16S rRNA gene primers are rigorously tested to determine their ability to amplify across a target region of the gene. Yet, variability within or between T-RFLP profiles can result from factors independent of the primer pair. Therefore, researchers should use RDA and MANOVA analyses to evaluate the effects that additional laboratory and environmental variables have on bacterial diversity.

  11. Fragment-based de novo design of a cystathionine γ-lyase selective inhibitor blocking hydrogen sulfide production

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Angela; Severino, Beatrice; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Perissutti, Elisa; Santagada, Vincenzo; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cirino, Giuseppe; Kelly, Geoff; Servillo, Luigi; Popowicz, Grzegorz; Pastore, Annalisa; Caliendo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an essential catabolite that intervenes in the pathophysiology of several diseases from hypertension to stroke, diabetes and pancreatitis. It is endogenously synthesized mainly by two pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes involved in L-cysteine metabolism: cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Research in this field is currently impaired by the lack of pharmacological tools such as selective enzymatic inhibitors that could target specifically only one of these pathways. We used a novel approach based on a hybrid method that includes drug design, synthetic biology, metabolomics and pharmacological assays to rationally design a new inhibitor selective for the CSE enzyme. The identification of this compound opens new frontiers towards a better understanding of the role of CSE over CBS in the pathophysiology of diseases where a role for the H2S pathway has been proposed and the development of new lead compounds that could target the CSE enzyme. PMID:27708394

  12. Double Gene Targeting Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay Discriminates Beef, Buffalo, and Pork Substitution in Frankfurter Products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Asing; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-08-17

    Beef, buffalo, and pork adulteration in the food chain is an emerging and sensitive issue. Current molecular techniques to authenticate these species depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays involving long and single targets which break down under natural decomposition and/or processing treatments. This novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeted two different gene sites for each of the bovine, buffalo, and porcine materials. This authentication ensured better security, first through a complementation approach because it is highly unlikely that both sites will be missing under compromised states, and second through molecular fingerprints. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND5 genes were targeted, and all targets (73, 90, 106, 120, 138, and 146 bp) were stable under extreme boiling and autoclaving treatments. Target specificity and authenticity were ensured through cross-amplification reaction and restriction digestion of PCR products with AluI, EciI, FatI, and CviKI-1 enzymes. A survey of Malaysian frankfurter products revealed rampant substitution of beef with buffalo but purity in porcine materials.

  13. Double Gene Targeting Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay Discriminates Beef, Buffalo, and Pork Substitution in Frankfurter Products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Asing; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-08-17

    Beef, buffalo, and pork adulteration in the food chain is an emerging and sensitive issue. Current molecular techniques to authenticate these species depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays involving long and single targets which break down under natural decomposition and/or processing treatments. This novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeted two different gene sites for each of the bovine, buffalo, and porcine materials. This authentication ensured better security, first through a complementation approach because it is highly unlikely that both sites will be missing under compromised states, and second through molecular fingerprints. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND5 genes were targeted, and all targets (73, 90, 106, 120, 138, and 146 bp) were stable under extreme boiling and autoclaving treatments. Target specificity and authenticity were ensured through cross-amplification reaction and restriction digestion of PCR products with AluI, EciI, FatI, and CviKI-1 enzymes. A survey of Malaysian frankfurter products revealed rampant substitution of beef with buffalo but purity in porcine materials. PMID:27501408

  14. Production of extracellular proteolytic activity by Histoplasma capsulatum grown in Histoplasma-macrophage medium is limited to restriction fragment length polymorphism class 1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Zarnowski, Robert; Connolly, Patricia A; Wheat, L Joseph; Woods, Jon P

    2007-09-01

    Extracellular proteolytic activity was studied for 28 strains of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and 2 strains of H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Secreted protease activity assessed by skim milk agarose clearance was limited solely to H. capsulatum var. capsulatum restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) class 1 strains. There was a difference in proteolytic activity levels among class 1 strains. Extracellular proteolytic activity was further determined during growth of those strains in liquid medium using azodye-impregnated protein substrates. In general, the highest activities were measured when azocollagen was used, whereas azocasein and azoalbumin were cleaved less efficiently. The activity was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride, antipain, and chymostatin, indicating, thereby, the presence of chymotrypsin-like serine proteases. Chromatographic analyses as well as variable substrate use at different culture times revealed production of at least 2 different enzyme pools of the same serine-like protease family. Our results demonstrate a distinctive ability of RFLP class 1 isolates to produce and secrete serine proteinase-type activity. This peculiarity may be relevant to the biology and pathogenesis of this particular clade of H. capsulatum isolates. Overall, the feature of extracellular proteolytic activity production enables a convenient and unequivocal identification of RFLP class 1 isolates and, thereby, can be used in H. capsulatum strain differentiation and typing. PMID:17509799

  15. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  16. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 (Volume 78 FR... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original...

  17. Fractals and fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of renormalization group techniques on fragmentation problems is examined. The equations which represent fractals and the size-frequency distributions of fragments are presented. Method for calculating the size distributions of asteriods and meteorites are described; the frequency-mass distribution for these interplanetary objects are due to fragmentation. The application of two renormalization group models to fragmentation is analyzed. It is observed that the models yield a fractal behavior for fragmentation; however, different values for the fractal dimension are produced . It is concluded that fragmentation is a scale invariant process and that the fractal dimension is a measure of the fragility of the fragmented material.

  18. A novel pathway of direct methane production and emission by eukaryotes including plants, animals and fungi: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangong; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiuan; Shen, Yan; Wang, Xue; Wang, Meng; Peng, Changhui

    2015-08-01

    Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 28 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). CH4 is responsible for approximately 20% of the Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Knowledge of the sources of CH4 is crucial due to the recent substantial interannual variability of growth rates and uncertainties regarding individual sources. The prevailing paradigm is that methanogenesis carried out by methanogenic archaea occurs primarily under strictly anaerobic conditions. However, in the past decade, studies have confirmed direct CH4 release from three important kingdoms of eukaryotes-Plantae, Animalia and Fungi-even in the presence of oxygen. This novel CH4 production pathway has been aptly termed "aerobic CH4 production" to distinguish it from the well-known anaerobic CH4 production pathway, which involves catalytic activity by methanogenic archaeal enzymes. In this review, we collated recent experimental evidence from the published literature and documented this novel pathway of direct CH4 production and emission by eukaryotes. The mechanisms involved in this pathway may be related to protective strategies of eukaryotes in response to changing environmental stresses, with CH4 a by-product or end-product during or at the end of the process(es) that originates from organic methyl-type compounds. Based on the existing, albeit uncertain estimates, plants seem to contribute less to the global CH4 budget (3-24%) compared to previous estimates (10-37%). We still lack estimates of CH4 emissions by animals and fungi. Overall, there is an urgent need to identify the precursors for this novel CH4 source and improve our understanding of the mechanisms of direct CH4 production and the impacts of environmental stresses. An estimate of this new CH4 source, which was not considered as a CH4 source by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013), could be useful for better quantitation of the global CH4 budget.

  19. Utility of the Clostridial Site-Specific Recombinase TnpX To Clone Toxic-Product-Encoding Genes and Selectively Remove Genomic DNA Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vicki; Bantwal, Radhika; Stevenson, Lauren; Cheung, Jackie K.; Awad, Milena M.; Nicholson, Joel; Carter, Glen P.; Mackin, Kate E.; Rood, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    TnpX is a site-specific recombinase responsible for the excision and insertion of the transposons Tn4451 and Tn4453 in Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile, respectively. Here, we exploit phenotypic features of TnpX to facilitate genetic mutagenesis and complementation studies. Genetic manipulation of bacteria often relies on the use of antibiotic resistance genes; however, a limited number are available for use in the clostridia. The ability of TnpX to recognize and excise specific DNA fragments was exploited here as the basis of an antibiotic resistance marker recycling system, specifically to remove antibiotic resistance genes from plasmids in Escherichia coli and from marked chromosomal C. perfringens mutants. This methodology enabled the construction of a C. perfringens plc virR double mutant by allowing the removal and subsequent reuse of the same resistance gene to construct a second mutation. Genetic complementation can be challenging when the gene of interest encodes a product toxic to E. coli. We show that TnpX represses expression from its own promoter, PattCI, which can be exploited to facilitate the cloning of recalcitrant genes in E. coli for subsequent expression in the heterologous host C. perfringens. Importantly, this technology expands the repertoire of tools available for the genetic manipulation of the clostridia. PMID:24682304

  20. Merging Allosteric and Active Site Binding Motifs: De novo Generation of Target Selectivity and Potency via Natural-Product-Derived Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Jan; Riedl, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The de novo design of molecules from scratch with tailored biological activity is still the major intellectual challenge in chemical biology and drug discovery. Herein we validate natural-product-derived fragments (NPDFs) as excellent molecular seeds for the targeted de novo discovery of lead structures for the modulation of therapeutically relevant proteins. The application of this de novo approach delivered, in synergy with the combination of allosteric and active site binding motifs, highly selective and ligand-efficient non-zinc-binding (3: 4-{[5-(2-{[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]carbamoyl}eth-1-yn-1-yl)-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) as well as zinc-binding (4: 4-({5-[2-({[3-(3-carboxypropoxy)phenyl]methyl}carbamoyl)eth-1-yn-1-yl]-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl}methyl)benzoic acid) uracil-based MMP-13 inhibitors presenting IC50 values of 11 nm (3: LE=0.35) and 6 nm (4: LE=0.31). PMID:25487909

  1. Merging allosteric and active site binding motifs: de novo generation of target selectivity and potency via natural-product-derived fragments.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Jan; Riedl, Rainer

    2015-03-01

    The de novo design of molecules from scratch with tailored biological activity is still the major intellectual challenge in chemical biology and drug discovery. Herein we validate natural-product-derived fragments (NPDFs) as excellent molecular seeds for the targeted de novo discovery of lead structures for the modulation of therapeutically relevant proteins. The application of this de novo approach delivered, in synergy with the combination of allosteric and active site binding motifs, highly selective and ligand-efficient non-zinc-binding (3: 4-{[5-(2-{[(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]carbamoyl}eth-1-yn-1-yl)-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) as well as zinc-binding (4: 4-({5-[2-({[3-(3-carboxypropoxy)phenyl]methyl}carbamoyl)eth-1-yn-1-yl]-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl}methyl)benzoic acid) uracil-based MMP-13 inhibitors presenting IC50 values of 11 nM (3: LE=0.35) and 6 nM (4: LE=0.31).

  2. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 2136). The certification was amended on December 29, 2008 to correct the impact date to read December 6, 2008. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 6, 2009 (74 FR 469... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated Logistics and Including On-Site Workers From...

  3. A Human Anti-Toll Like Receptor 4 Fab Fragment Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Cai, Binggang; Zhang, Yiqing; Zheng, Feng; Zhou, Linfu; Yang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Changjun; Nie, Shinan; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The results of clinical and experimental studies suggest that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling activation is critical in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, studies examining the role of specific TLR4 inhibitor are still lacking. The present study was aimed to prepare a human anti-TLR4 Fab fragment, named hTLR4-Fab01, and to explore its immune activity. We screened the positive clone of anti-human TLR4 phagemid from a human phage-display antibody library using recombinant TLR4 protein, which was used as template cDNA for the amplification of variable regions of the heavy (VH) chain and light chain (VL), then coupled with highly conserved regions of the heavy chain domain 1 (CH1) and the light chain (CL), respectively. Thus, the prokaryotic expression vector pETDuet-1 of hTLR4-Fab01 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21. The characteristic of hTLR4-Fab01 was examined by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, affinity and kinetics assay. Further, our data demonstrate that hTLR4-Fab01 could specifically bind to TLR4, and its treatment obviously attenuated the proinflammatory effect, characterized by less LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 production in human macrophages. In conclusion, we have successfully prepared the hTLR4-Fab01 with efficient activity for blocking LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production, suggesting that the hTLR4-Fab01 may be a potential candidate for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26785354

  4. A Human Anti-Toll Like Receptor 4 Fab Fragment Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Maorong; Zheng, Wenkai; Zhu, Xuhui; Xu, Jing; Cai, Binggang; Zhang, Yiqing; Zheng, Feng; Zhou, Linfu; Yang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Changjun; Nie, Shinan; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The results of clinical and experimental studies suggest that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling activation is critical in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, studies examining the role of specific TLR4 inhibitor are still lacking. The present study was aimed to prepare a human anti-TLR4 Fab fragment, named hTLR4-Fab01, and to explore its immune activity. We screened the positive clone of anti-human TLR4 phagemid from a human phage-display antibody library using recombinant TLR4 protein, which was used as template cDNA for the amplification of variable regions of the heavy (VH) chain and light chain (VL), then coupled with highly conserved regions of the heavy chain domain 1 (CH1) and the light chain (CL), respectively. Thus, the prokaryotic expression vector pETDuet-1 of hTLR4-Fab01 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21. The characteristic of hTLR4-Fab01 was examined by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, affinity and kinetics assay. Further, our data demonstrate that hTLR4-Fab01 could specifically bind to TLR4, and its treatment obviously attenuated the proinflammatory effect, characterized by less LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 production in human macrophages. In conclusion, we have successfully prepared the hTLR4-Fab01 with efficient activity for blocking LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production, suggesting that the hTLR4-Fab01 may be a potential candidate for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  5. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms.

  6. Exclusive measurements of light fragment production at forward angles in Ne-Pb and Ne-NaF collisions at E/A=400 MeV and 800 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastid, N.; Alard, J. P.; Arnold, J.; Augerat, J.; Babinet, R.; Biagi, F.; Brochard, F.; Crouau, M.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; et, a. l.; Schimmerling, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Emission of light fragments at small angles is studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions using the Diogene plastic wall for both symmetrical and non-symmetrical target-projectile systems with 400 MeV per nucleon and 800 MeV per nucleon incident neon nuclei. Efficiency of multiplicity measurements in the small angle range for the selection of central or peripheral collisions is confirmed for asymmetric systems. Differential production cross sections of Z = 1 fragments show evidence for the existence of two emitting sources. The apparent temperature of each source is obtained from comparison with a thermodynamical model.

  7. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inhalation exposure to vinyl chloride. Furthermore, vinyl chloride has recently been linked to liver disease, including liver cancer, in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride. It is the view of...

  8. Cephamycins, a new family of beta-lactam antibiotics. I. Production by actinomycetes, including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n.

    PubMed

    Stapley, E O; Jackson, M; Hernandez, S; Zimmerman, S B; Currie, S A; Mochales, S; Mata, J M; Woodruff, H B; Hendlin, D

    1972-09-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  9. Microbial gardening in the ocean's twilight zone: detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus: fragmentation of refractory detritus by zooplankton beneath the euphotic zone stimulates the harvestable production of labile and nutritious microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard; Giering, Sarah L C; Anderson, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Sinking organic particles transfer ∼10 gigatonnes of carbon into the deep ocean each year, keeping the atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly lower than would otherwise be the case. The exact size of this effect is strongly influenced by biological activity in the ocean's twilight zone (∼50-1,000 m beneath the surface). Recent work suggests that the resident zooplankton fragment, rather than ingest, the majority of encountered organic particles, thereby stimulating bacterial proliferation and the deep-ocean microbial food web. Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of 'microbial gardening', a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the 'gardener's' access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life. We demonstrate the potential gains that zooplankton stand to make from microbial gardening using a simple steady state model, and we suggest avenues for future research.

  10. 24 CFR 180.525 - Requests for production of documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including physical and mental examinations. 180.525... physical and mental examinations. (a) Any party may serve on any other party a request to: (1) Produce and... for the objection shall be stated. (d) Upon motion of any party, when the mental or physical...

  11. 24 CFR 180.525 - Requests for production of documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... documents or things for inspection or other purposes, including physical and mental examinations. 180.525... physical and mental examinations. (a) Any party may serve on any other party a request to: (1) Produce and... for the objection shall be stated. (d) Upon motion of any party, when the mental or physical...

  12. Energetics of glass fragmentation: Experiments on synthetic and natural glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Natural silicate glasses are an essential component of many volcanic rock types including coherent and pyroclastic rocks; they span a wide range of compositions, occur in diverse environments, and form under a variety of pressure-temperature conditions. In subsurface volcanic environments (e.g., conduits and feeders), melts intersect the thermodynamically defined glass transition temperature to form glasses at elevated confining pressures and under differential stresses. We present a series of room temperature experiments designed to explore the fundamental mechanical and fragmentation behavior of natural (obsidian) and synthetic glasses (Pyrex™) under confining pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. In each experiment, glass cores are driven to brittle failure under compressive triaxial stress. Analysis of the load-displacement response curves is used to quantify the storage of energy in samples prior to failure, the (brittle) release of elastic energy at failure, and the residual energy stored in the post-failure material. We then establish a relationship between the energy density within the sample at failure and the grain-size distributions (D-values) of the experimental products. The relationship between D-values and energy density for compressive fragmentation is significantly different from relationships established by previous workers for decompressive fragmentation. Compressive fragmentation is found to have lower fragmentation efficiency than fragmentation through decompression (i.e., a smaller change in D-value with increasing energy density). We further show that the stress storage capacity of natural glasses can be enhanced (approaching synthetic glasses) through heat treatment.

  13. High-level production in Pichia pastoris of an anti-p185HER-2 single-chain antibody fragment using an alternative secretion expression vector.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, Cemal; Symeonides, Stefan N; Ellar, David J

    2004-02-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become a highly popular expression host for the recombinant production of a wide variety of proteins. Initial success with this system was greatly facilitated by the development of versatile expression vectors that were almost exclusively based on the strong, tightly regulated promoter of the P. pastoris major alcohol oxidase gene ( AOX1 ). For example, pIB4 is an Escherichia coli - P. pastoris shuttle vector that also uses the AOX1 promoter to allow intracellular expression of endogenous and foreign genes in the latter organism. Since the eukaryotic advantages of P. pastoris would be best harnessed through the secretory targeting of the recombinant proteins, we modified the pIB4 vector by adding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor secretion signal immediately upstream of its multiple cloning site. Here we describe the construction of this modified vector, pIB4alpha, and its successful use for the high-level expression and secretion of a functional single-chain antibody fragment (scFv), C6.5, which targets p185(HER-2), a cell-surface glycoprotein overexpressed in about 30% of human breast and ovarian cancers. The PCR strategy used for the subcloning of the C6.5 construct into pIB4alpha also introduced a short DNA sequence coding for a C-terminal hexahistidine tag, which allowed subsequent purification of the secreted scFv, by immobilized-metal-affinity chromatography, to a yield of 70 mg x l(-1) of shake-flask culture. In conclusion, our results suggest that the secretion expression vector pIB4alpha not only complements the original pIB4 vector for intracellular expression in P. pastoris, but might also constitute an attractive alternative to the commercially available secretion expression vectors. PMID:12962542

  14. Production and fragmentation of the D sup *0 charm meson in e sup + e sup minus annihilations at radical s = 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Low, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis, the neutral vector charm meson D{sup *0} has been studied. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300 pb{sup {minus}1}, were collected using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS). The HRS is located at the PEP e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The detector subsystems relevant to the analysis are the seventeen layer drift chamber system and the barrel calorimeter system. Both of these devices are located within a solenoidal magnetic field of 1.62 Tesla. The charged particle momentum resolution is {sigma}{sub p}/p {approx} 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}p (p in GeV) for the momentum range used in this analysis. The electromagnetic energy resolution of the barrel shower counter system is {sigma}{sub E}/E {approx} 0.16/{radical}E (E in GeV). The radiative decay of the D{sup {asterisk}0} into a scalar charm meson, D{sup 0}, and a photon, {gamma}, where the D{sup 0} decays into a kaon and a pion (K{sup {minus}} {pi}{sup +}) has been observed. The production cross section in units of the point cross section is 0.63 {plus minus} 0.22 for fractional energy Z {ge} 0.5. This results is compared with the result form the JADE collaboration. The fragmentation function is compared with that of the D{sup *+} meson, also measured with the HRS.

  15. Multiparameter optimization method and enhanced production of secreted recombinant single-chain variable fragment against the HIV-1 P17 protein from Escherichia coli by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Paopang, Porntip; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2016-01-01

    The single-chain fragment variable (scFv) was used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advancements in antibody engineering have simplified the method of producing Fv fragments and made it more efficient and generally relevant. In a previous study, the scFv anti HIV-1 P17 protein was produced by a batch production system, optimized by the sequential simplex optimization method. This study continued that work in order to enhance secreted scFv production by fed-batch cultivation, which supported high volumetric productivity and provided a large amount of scFvs for diagnostic and therapeutic research. The developments in cell culture media and process parameter settings were required to realize the maximum production of cells. This study investigated the combined optimization methods, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and sequential simplex optimization, with the aim of optimize feed medium. Fed-batch cultivation with an optimal feeding rate was determined. The result demonstrated that a 20-mL/hr feeding rate of the optimized medium can increase cell growth, total protein production, and scFv anti-p17 activity by 4.43, 1.48, and 6.5 times more than batch cultivation, respectively. The combined optimization method demonstrated novel power tools for the optimization strategy of multiparameter experiments.

  16. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fazzolari, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) is investigating the use of monatomic chlorine produced in a cold plasma to recover oxygen and metallurgically significant metals from lunar materials. Development of techniques for the production of the chlorine radical (and other energetic radicals for these processes) using local planetary resources is a key step for a successful approach. It was demonstrated terrestrially that the use of UV light to energize the photogeneration of OH radicals from ozone or hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solutions can lead to rapid reaction rates for the breakdown of toxic organic compounds in water. A key question is how to use the expanded solar resource at the lunar surface to generate process-useful radicals. This project is aimed at investigating that question.

  17. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the superscaling model including quasielastic, pion production and meson-exchange contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Megias, G. D.; González-Jiménez, R.; Moreno, O.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-08-01

    Charged current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections are evaluated using the superscaling model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region. The contribution of two-particle-two-hole vector meson-exchange current excitations is also considered within a fully relativistic model tested against electron scattering data. The results are compared with the inclusive neutrino-nucleus data from the T2K and SciBooNE experiments. For experiments where < {E}ν > ∼ 0.8 {{GeV}}, the three mechanisms considered in this work provide good agreement with the data. However, when the neutrino energy is larger, effects from beyond the Δ also appear to be playing a role. The results show that processes induced by vector two-body currents play a minor role in the inclusive cross sections at the kinematics considered.

  18. Simultaneous determination of four anti-dandruff agents including octopirox in shampoo products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chao, L

    2001-06-01

    A method based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitative determination of four anti-dandruff agents such as salicylic acid, ketoconazole, climbazole, octopirox in commercial anti-dandruff shampoo products. A symmetry C18 column (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) was used at temperature of 35 degrees C, mobile phase with flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) was acetonitrile: water (containing 10 mm potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 4.0, adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) = 60 : 40 (V/V) and UV detection at 224 nm and 305 nm. Samples were extracted with mobile phase by stirring and ultrasonic method. The average recoveries of four anti-dandruff agents were 98.0-104.1%. The relative standard deviations for samples were 0.11-0.90%. The method is simple, rapid and reproducible. PMID:18498472

  19. Isolation and structure of the principal products of preproglucagon processing, including an amidated glucagon-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P C; Hawke, D H; Lee, T D; Legesse, K; Noe, B D; Shively, J E

    1986-06-25

    The principal products derived from in vivo processing of anglerfish preproglucagon II were isolated and their structures determined. The structures were confirmed by a combination of automated Edman degradation, amino acid analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptide corresponding to anglerfish preproglucagon II-(22-49) (numbering from the amino terminus of preproglucagon) was isolated intact and defines the site of signal cleavage to be between Gln-21 and Met-22. Glucagon from the anglerfish preproglucagon gene II was found to correspond to preproglucagon II-(52-80) (numbering from the amino terminus). Three forms of a glucagon-like peptide derived from preproglucagon II were also isolated. The structure of the longest form was consistent with the sequence of preproglucagon II-(89-122) deduced from the cDNA, His-Ala-Asp-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Ser-Asp-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Gln-Asp-Gln-Ala- Ala-Lys-Asp-Phe-Val-Ser-Trp-Leu-Lys-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Arg-Arg-Glu. The carboxyl-terminal portion deduced from the cDNA remains intact in this form. A second form, preproglucagon II-(89-119) appears to result from proteolytic processing of the major form at the two adjacent arginine residues occurring at the carboxyl terminus. This second form has a glycine residue at its carboxyl terminus and is processed to the third form (preproglucagon II-(89-118)) which contains a carboxyl-terminal arginineamide. Radiolabeling studies in primary tissue culture support the observation that glucagon (preproglucagon II-(52-80], preproglucagon II-(89-122), and preproglucagon II-(89-119) are products of proglucagon processing in vivo. PMID:3755132

  20. Augmented generation of protein fragments during wakefulness as the molecular cause of sleep: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Varshavsky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive understanding of sleep regulation, the molecular-level cause and function of sleep are unknown. I suggest that they originate in individual neurons and stem from increased production of protein fragments during wakefulness. These fragments are transient parts of protein complexes in which the fragments were generated. Neuronal Ca2+ fluxes are higher during wakefulness than during sleep. Subunits of transmembrane channels and other proteins are cleaved by Ca2+-activated calpains and by other nonprocessive proteases, including caspases and secretases. In the proposed concept, termed the fragment generation (FG) hypothesis, sleep is a state during which the production of fragments is decreased (owing to lower Ca2+ transients) while fragment-destroying pathways are upregulated. These changes facilitate the elimination of fragments and the remodeling of protein complexes in which the fragments resided. The FG hypothesis posits that a proteolytic cleavage, which produces two fragments, can have both deleterious effects and fitness-increasing functions. This (previously not considered) dichotomy can explain both the conservation of cleavage sites in proteins and the evolutionary persistence of sleep, because sleep would counteract deleterious aspects of protein fragments. The FG hypothesis leads to new explanations of sleep phenomena, including a longer sleep after sleep deprivation. Studies in the 1970s showed that ethanol-induced sleep in mice can be strikingly prolonged by intracerebroventricular injections of either Ca2+ alone or Ca2+ and its ionophore (Erickson et al., Science 1978;199:1219–1221; Harris, Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1979;10:527–534; Erickson et al., Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1980;12:651–656). These results, which were never interpreted in connection to protein fragments or the function of sleep, may be accounted for by the FG hypothesis about molecular causation of sleep. PMID:22930402

  1. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  2. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Courtney S.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Montoya, Nelson I.; Stahl, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A selectable fragmentation warhead capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  3. Fragment-based ligand discovery.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marcus; Hubbard, Roderick E

    2009-02-01

    From home building and decor to mass production, modular design is a standard feature of the modern age. The concept also promises to define drug discovery efforts in the near future, as a wide range of methodologies, from NMR to X-ray crystallography, are being adapted to high-throughput platforms. In particular, "fragment-based ligand discovery" describes the laboratory-driven evolution of drugs from libraries of chemical building blocks. "Evolution" is an apt word for the process, as a wide array of methods are used to define how compound fragments can be best fit into the binding sites of medically relevant target biomolecules. A number of compounds that evolved from fragments have entered the clinic, and the approach is increasingly accepted as an additional route to identifying new hit compounds in pharmaceutical discovery and inhibitor design. PMID:19299661

  4. The Zero-Degree Detector system for fragmentation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Christl, M. J.; Howell, L. W.; Kuznetsov, E.

    2007-08-01

    The measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross-sections requires the detection and identification of individual projectile fragments. If light and heavy fragments are recorded in the same detector, it may be impossible to distinguish the signal from the light fragment. To overcome this problem, we have developed the Zero-degree Detector System (ZDDS). The ZDDS enables the measurement of cross-sections for light fragment production by using pixelated detectors to separately measure the signals of each fragment. The system has been used to measure the fragmentation of beams as heavy as Fe at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan.

  5. Fragment-size prediction during dynamic fragmentation of shock-melted tin: recovery experiments and modeling issues

    SciTech Connect

    Signor, L.; Roy, G.; Llorca, F.; Resseguier, T. de; Dragon, A.

    2007-12-12

    We are interested in dynamic fragmentation of shock-melted metals. The present work is devoted to laser-shock experiments in tin samples including fragments recovery and post-test evaluation of the fragment-size distribution. These results are compared with theoretical predictions from hydrocode simulations coupled with a modified formulation of a fragmentation model from the literature.

  6. Fragment-Size Prediction during Dynamic Fragmentation of Shock-Melted Tin: Recovery Experiments and Modeling Issues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signor, L.; de Rességuier, T.; Roy, G.; Dragon, A.; Llorca, F.

    2007-12-01

    We are interested in dynamic fragmentation of shock-melted metals. The present work is devoted to laser-shock experiments in tin samples including fragments recovery and post-test evaluation of the fragment-size distribution. These results are compared with theoretical predictions from hydrocode simulations coupled with a modified formulation of a fragmentation model from the literature.

  7. Structures of endothiapepsin-fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library.

    PubMed

    Huschmann, Franziska U; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein-ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin-fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity. PMID:27139825

  8. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  9. Universality of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  10. Hydrogen peroxide-induced production of a 40 kDa immunoreactive thyroglobulin fragment in human thyroid cells: the onset of thyroid autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Duthoit, C; Estienne, V; Giraud, A; Durand-Gorde, J M; Rasmussen, A K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Carayon, P; Ruf, J

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that, during in vitro thyroid-hormone synthesis, H(2)O(2) stress cleaved thyroglobulin (Tg) into C-terminal peptides. These peptides were found to contain the immunodominant region of Tg recognized by Tg autoantibodies from patients with an autoimmune thyroid disease. To test the hypothesis that Tg fragmentation is an early upstream initiating event involved in Tg autoimmune response and the consequence of oxidative injuries, we studied the effect of H(2)O(2) stress on human thyroid cells. In culture conditions allowing Tg synthesis and iodine organification by the cells, we found that bolus addition of increasing millimolar doses of H(2)O(2) induced a dose-response appearance of floating cells in the culture medium. These cells apparently resulted from a necrotic process, and they bore iodinated Tg fragments. These fragments were found to be similar to those previously obtained in vitro from purified Tg. In both cases, Tg peptides were recognized by a well-defined monoclonal antibody directed to the immunodominant region of Tg. The smallest immunoreactive Tg peptide had a molecular mass of 40 kDa and entered human thyrocytes more efficiently than the entire Tg. These data suggest that thyrocytes exposed to locally increased H(2)O(2) doses accumulate fragmented Tg for further delivery into surrounding living thyrocytes in the course of an autoimmune response. PMID:11736644

  11. Fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides.

    PubMed

    Paizs, Béla; Suhai, Sándor

    2005-01-01

    The fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides are reviewed in the present paper paying special attention to classification of the known fragmentation channels into a simple hierarchy defined according to the chemistry involved. It is shown that the 'mobile proton' model of peptide fragmentation can be used to understand the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides only in a qualitative manner rationalizing differences observed for low-energy collision induced dissociation of peptide ions having or lacking a mobile proton. To overcome this limitation, a deeper understanding of the dissociation chemistry of protonated peptides is needed. To this end use of the 'pathways in competition' (PIC) model that involves a detailed energetic and kinetic characterization of the major peptide fragmentation pathways (PFPs) is proposed. The known PFPs are described in detail including all the pre-dissociation, dissociation, and post-dissociation events. It is our hope that studies to further extend PIC will lead to semi-quantative understanding of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides which could be used to develop refined bioinformatics algorithms for MS/MS based proteomics. Experimental and computational data on the fragmentation of protonated peptides are reevaluated from the point of view of the PIC model considering the mechanism, energetics, and kinetics of the major PFPs. Evidence proving semi-quantitative predictability of some of the ion intensity relationships (IIRs) of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides is presented. PMID:15389847

  12. QCD corrections to vector boson pair production in gluon fusion including interference effects with off-shell Higgs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caola, Fabrizio; Dowling, Matthew; Melnikov, Kirill; Röntsch, Raoul; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    We compute next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the production of two massive electroweak bosons in gluon fusion. We consider both the prompt production process gg → V V and the production mediated by an exchange of an s-channel Higgs boson, gg → H ∗ → V V . We include final states with both on- and off-shell vector bosons with leptonic decays. The gluonic production of vector bosons is a loop-induced process, including both massless and massive quarks in the loop. For gg → ZZ production, we obtain the NLO QCD corrections to the massive loops through an expansion around the heavy top limit. This approximation is valid below the top production threshold, giving a broad range of invariant masses between the Higgs production and the top production thresholds in which our results are valid. We explore the NLO QCD effects in gg → ZZ focusing, in particular, on the interference between prompt and Higgs-mediated processes. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference are large and similar in size to the corrections to both the signal and the background processes. At the same time, we observe that corrections to the interference change rapidly with the four-lepton invariant mass in the region around the ZZ production threshold. We also study the interference effects in gg → W + W - production where, due to technical limitations, we only consider contributions of massless loops. We find that the QCD corrections to the interference in this case are somewhat larger than those for either the signal or the background.

  13. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  14. HZEFRG1 - SEMIEMPIRICAL NUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    The high charge and energy (HZE), Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model, HZEFRG1, was developed to provide a computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program package for generating nuclear fragmentation databases. These databases can then be used in radiation transport applications such as space radiation shielding and dosimetry, cancer therapy with laboratory heavy ion beams, and simulation studies of detector design in nuclear physics experiments. The program provides individual element and isotope production cross sections for the breakup of high energy heavy ions by the combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei. The nuclear breakup contributions are estimated using an energy-dependent abrasion-ablation model of heavy ion fragmentation. The abrasion step involves removal of nucleons by direct knockout in the overlap region of the colliding nuclei. The abrasions are treated on a geometric basis and uniform spherical nuclear density distributions are assumed. Actual experimental nuclear radii obtained from tabulations of electron scattering data are incorporated. Nuclear transparency effects are included by using an energy-dependent, impact-parameter-dependent average transmission factor for the projectile and target nuclei, which accounts for the finite mean free path of nucleons in nuclear matter. The ablation step, as implemented by Bowman, Swiatecki, and Tsang (LBL report no. LBL-2908, July 1973), was treated as a single-nucleon emission for every 10 MeV of excitation energy. Fragmentation contributions from electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) processes, arising from the interacting Coulomb fields, are estimated by using the Weiszacker-Williams theory, extended to include electric dipole and electric quadrupole contributions to one-nucleon removal cross sections. HZEFRG1 consists of a main program, seven function subprograms, and thirteen subroutines. Each is fully commented and begins with a brief description of its

  15. Studies toward the Total Synthesis of Dihydrolycolucine. Preparation of AB and CEF Ring Fragments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A strategy for the synthesis of the lycopodium alkaloid dihydrolycolucine (1) has been investigated. Synthetic routes were developed based on N-acylpyridinium salt chemistry to prepare target fragments 3 and 4 that could ultimately converge to the natural product. Key reactions include IMDA cycloadditions and retro-Mannich ring-openings to form both the AB and the EF ring fragments. The ring C precursor was prepared using pyridine substitution and directed lithiation chemistry. A Suzuki cross-coupling of rings C and EF led to the CEF ring fragment. Initial attempts at closure of the seven-membered D ring were unsuccessful. PMID:24841361

  16. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections for High LET Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear interaction cross sections are used in space radiation transport codes to calculate the probability of fragment emission in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Strong interactions usually dominate in these collisions, but electromagnetic (EM) interactions can also sometimes be important. Strong interactions typically occur when the projectile nucleus hits a target nucleus, with a small impact parameter. For impact parameters larger than the sum of the nuclear radii, EM reactions dominate and the process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) if one of the nuclei undergo fragmentation. Previous models of EMD have been used to calculate single proton (p) production, single neutron (n) production or light ion production, where a light ion is defined as an isotope of hydrogen (H) or helium (He), such as a deuteron (2H), a triton (3H), a helion (3He) or an alpha particle (4He). A new model is described which can also account for multiple nucleon production, such as 2p, 2n, 1p1n, 2p1n, 2p2n, etc. in addition to light ion production. Such processes are important to include for the following reasons. Consider, for example, the EMD reaction 56Fe + Al --> 52Cr + X + Al, for a 56Fe projectile impacting Al, which produces the high linear energy transfer (LET) fragment 52Cr. In this reaction, the most probable particles representing X are either 2p2n or 4He. Therefore, production of the high LET fragment 52Cr, must include the multiple nucleon production of 2p2n in addition to the light ion production of 4He. Previous models, such as the NUCFRG3 model, could only account for the 4He production process in this reaction and could not account for 2p2n. The new EMD model presented in this work accounts for both the light ion and multiple nucleon processes, and is therefore able to correctly account for the production of high LET products such as 52Cr. The model will be described and calculations will be presented that show the importance of light ion and multiple

  17. Role of heavy quarks in light hadron fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epele, Manuel; García Canal, Carlos; Sassot, R.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the role of heavy quarks in the production of light flavored hadrons and in the determination of the corresponding nonperturbative hadronization probabilities. We define a general mass variable flavor number scheme for fragmentation functions that accounts for heavy quark mass effects, and perform a global QCD analysis to an up-to-date data set including very precise Belle and BABAR results. We show that the mass dependent picture provides a much more accurate and consistent description of the data.

  18. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  19. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  20. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1993-07-20

    A selectable fragmentation warhead is described comprising: a case having proximal and distal ends; a fragmenting plate mounted in said distal end of said casing; first explosive means cast adjacent to said fragmenting plate for creating a predetermined number of fragments from said fragmenting plate; three or more first laser-driven slapper detonators located adjacent to said first explosive means for detonating said first explosive means in a predetermined pattern; smoother-disk means located adjacent to said first means for accelerating said fragments; second explosive means cast adjacent to said smoother-disk means for further accelerating said fragments; at least one laser-driven slapper detonators located in said second explosive means; a laser located in said proximal end of said casing; optical fibers connecting said laser to said first and second laser-driven slapper detonators; and optical switch means located in series with said optical fibers connected to said plurality of first laser-driven slapper detonators for blocking or passing light from said laser to said plurality of first laser-driven slapper detonators.

  1. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  2. Auroral fragmentation into patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Ayumi; Hori, Tomoaki; Sakaguchi, Kaori; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Donovan, Eric; Spanswick, Emma; Connors, Martin; Otsuka, Yuichi; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Nozawa, Satonori; McWilliams, Kathryn

    2014-10-01

    Auroral patches in diffuse auroras are very common features in the postmidnight local time. However, the processes that produce auroral patches are not yet well understood. In this paper we present two examples of auroral fragmentation which is the process by which uniform aurora is broken into several fragments to form auroral patches. These examples were observed at Athabasca, Canada (geomagnetic latitude: 61.7°N), and Tromsø, Norway (67.1°N). Captured in sequences of images, the auroral fragmentation occurs as finger-like structures developing latitudinally with horizontal-scale sizes of 40-100 km at ionospheric altitudes. The structures tend to develop in a north-south direction with speeds of 150-420 m/s without any shearing motion, suggesting that pressure-driven instability in the balance between the earthward magnetic-tension force and the tailward pressure gradient force in the magnetosphere is the main driving force of the auroral fragmentation. Therefore, these observations indicate that auroral fragmentation associated with pressure-driven instability is a process that creates auroral patches. The observed slow eastward drift of aurora during the auroral fragmentation suggests that fragmentation occurs in low-energy ambient plasma.

  3. Isotopic Effects in Nuclear Fragmentation and GCR Transport Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    Improving the accuracy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment and transport models is an important goal in preparing for studies of the projected risks and the efficiency of potential mitigations methods for space exploration. In this paper we consider the effects of the isotopic composition of the primary cosmic rays and the isotopic dependence of nuclear fragmentation cross sections on GCR transport models. Measurements are used to describe the isotopic composition of the GCR including their modulation throughout the solar cycle. The quantum multiple-scattering approach to nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used as the data base generator in order to accurately describe the odd-even effect in fragment production. Using the Badhwar and O'Neill GCR model, the QMSFRG model and the HZETRN transport code, the effects of the isotopic dependence of the primary GCR composition and on fragment production for transport problems is described for a complete GCR isotopic-grid. The principle finding of this study is that large errors ( 100%) will occur in the mass-flux spectra when comparing the complete isotopic-grid (141 ions) to a reduced isotopic-grid (59 ions), however less significant errors 30%) occur in the elemental-flux spectra. Because the full isotopic-grid is readily handled on small computer work-stations, it is recommended that they be used for future GCR studies.

  4. The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Lynn W; Lawrence, Kendra L; Coleman, Russell E

    2009-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep loss; therefore, monitoring of vector impact and integrated use of personal protective measures (PPM) and methods to reduce the vector populations are needed to protect service members. The U.S. military has played a vital role in vector identification tools and the development and testing of many of the most effective PPM and vector control products available today, including the topical repellent DEET and the repellent/insecticide permethrin, which is applied to clothing and bed nets. Efforts to develop superior products are ongoing. Although the U.S. military often needs vector control products with rather specific properties (e.g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control.

  5. Simultaneous determination of multiclass preservatives including isothiazolinones and benzophenone-type UV filters in household and personal care products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ≥ 0.992, repeatability RSD values ˂9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products.

  6. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  7. CDP-choline reduces pro-caspase and cleaved caspase-3 expression, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and specific PARP-cleaved products of caspase activation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, J; Ferrer, I; Barrachina, M; Secades, J J; Mercadal, J; Lozano, R

    2002-05-01

    Citicoline has been demonstrated to be beneficial in several models of cerebral ischaemia. We tested the hypothesis that citicoline may provide apoptotic pathways following focal cerebral ischaemia. Focal cerebral ischaemia was produced by distal, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomised into four groups: (B+A) Citicoline 500 mg/kg IP 24 and 1 h before MCAO, and 23 h after MCAO; (A) citicoline 500 mg/kg IP, within 30 min after MCAO, and 23 h after MCAO; (C) vehicle IP; and (D) sham-operated. The animals were sacrificed at 12 h (n=8 per group) and 24 h (n=8 per group) after MCAO. Immunohistochemistry was performed on free-floating tissue sections with goat polyclonal antibodies to procaspase-1, -2, -3, -6 and -8, and in paraffin-embedded sections processed for cleaved caspase-3 (17 kDa) immunohistochemistry. Finally, some sections were stained with the method of in situ end-labelling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. For gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, antibodies to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) products of 89 kDa were used to reveal specific cleavage substrates of caspases. MCAO induced the expression of all procaspases and the expression of PARP products of 89 kDa, as well as cells with nuclear DNA fragmentation, at 12 and 24 h, in the infarcted core and penumbra. Citicoline reduced the expression of all procaspases at 12 and 24 h after MCAO, as well as the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in cells in the penumbra area. This was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells bearing nuclear DNA fragments. The expression of caspase-cleaved products of PARP (PARP 89 kDa) was reduced in citicoline-treated ischaemic rats. These results show that citicoline inhibits the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis following MCAO.

  8. Fragment capture device

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  9. Fragmentation in the First Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2010-11-01

    Motivated by recent simulations of galaxy formation in which protogalaxies acquire their baryonic content through cold accretion, we study the gravitational fragmentation of cold streams flowing into a typical first galaxy. We use a one-zone hydrodynamical model to examine the thermal evolution of the gas flowing into a 108 M sun dark matter halo at redshift z = 10. The goal is to gain an understanding of the expected fragmentation mass scale and thus the characteristic mass of the first population of stars to form by shock fragmentation. Our model accurately describes the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas as we are specifically concerned with how the chemical abundances and initial conditions of the low-density, metal-enriched, cold accretion streams that pass an accretion shock alter the cooling properties and tendency to fragment in the post-shock gas. Cold accretion flows are not shock heated at the virial radius but instead flow along high-baryonic-density filaments of the cosmic web and penetrate deep into the host halo of the protogalaxy. In this physical regime, if molecular cooling is absent because of a strong Lyman-Werner background, we find there to be a sharp drop in the fragmentation mass at a metallicity of Z ~ 10-4 Z sun. If, however, H2 and HD molecules are present, they dominate the cooling at T < 104 K, and metallicity then has no effect on the fragmentation properties of the cold stream. For a solar abundance pattern of metallicity, O is the most effective metal coolant throughout the evolution, while for a pair instability supernova (PISN) metallicity yield, Si+ is the most effective coolant. PISN abundance patterns also exhibit a slightly smaller critical metallicity. Dust grains are not included in our chemical model, but we argue that their inclusion would not significantly alter the results. We also find that this physical scenario allows for the formation of stellar clusters and large, 104 M sun bound fragments, possibly the

  10. FRAGMENTATION IN THE FIRST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljevic, Milos

    2010-11-10

    Motivated by recent simulations of galaxy formation in which protogalaxies acquire their baryonic content through cold accretion, we study the gravitational fragmentation of cold streams flowing into a typical first galaxy. We use a one-zone hydrodynamical model to examine the thermal evolution of the gas flowing into a 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} dark matter halo at redshift z = 10. The goal is to gain an understanding of the expected fragmentation mass scale and thus the characteristic mass of the first population of stars to form by shock fragmentation. Our model accurately describes the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas as we are specifically concerned with how the chemical abundances and initial conditions of the low-density, metal-enriched, cold accretion streams that pass an accretion shock alter the cooling properties and tendency to fragment in the post-shock gas. Cold accretion flows are not shock heated at the virial radius but instead flow along high-baryonic-density filaments of the cosmic web and penetrate deep into the host halo of the protogalaxy. In this physical regime, if molecular cooling is absent because of a strong Lyman-Werner background, we find there to be a sharp drop in the fragmentation mass at a metallicity of Z {approx} 10{sup -4} Z{sub sun}. If, however, H{sub 2} and HD molecules are present, they dominate the cooling at T < 10{sup 4} K, and metallicity then has no effect on the fragmentation properties of the cold stream. For a solar abundance pattern of metallicity, O is the most effective metal coolant throughout the evolution, while for a pair instability supernova (PISN) metallicity yield, Si{sup +} is the most effective coolant. PISN abundance patterns also exhibit a slightly smaller critical metallicity. Dust grains are not included in our chemical model, but we argue that their inclusion would not significantly alter the results. We also find that this physical scenario allows for the formation of stellar clusters and large

  11. Nisin production in a chitin-including continuous fermentation system with Lactococcus lactis displaying a cell wall chitin-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ömer

    2014-03-01

    The limiting factors in the continuous production of nisin are high amount of biomass loss and low dilution rate application. In this study, a chitin-including continuous nisin fermentation system (CICON-FER) was constructed for high volumetric nisin production using nisin producer L. lactis displaying cell wall chitin-binding domain (ChBD) together with chitin in the reactor. In this respect, the highest binding conditions of relevant L. lactis cells to chitin were determined. Then the chitin flakes carrying nisin-producing L. lactis cells were used within the CICON-FER system at different dilution rates (0.1-0.9 h⁻¹) and initial glucose concentrations (20-60 g l⁻¹). The results revealed that the pH 7 conditions and the use of 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 % Tween 20 and Triton X-100 significantly increased the binding capacity of ChBD displaying L. lactis cells to chitin. The constructed CICON-FER system maintained the presence of the ChBD surface displaying L. lactis cells in the reactor system until 0.9 h⁻¹ dilution rate that resulted in a considerably high level of volumetric nisin production and productivity (10,500 IU ml⁻¹ and 9,450 IU ml⁻¹ h⁻¹, respectively) with the combination of a 0.9-h⁻¹ dilution rate and a 40-g l⁻¹ initial glucose concentration. In conclusion, an innovative nisin fermentation system that yielded the highest nisin production thus far and that was feasible for industrial application was created.

  12. Workflow Design Using Fragment Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, Sébastien; Blay-Fornarino, Mireille; France, Robert

    The Service-Oriented Architecture (Soa) paradigm supports the assembly of atomic services to create applications that implement complex business processes. Assembly can be accomplished by service orchestrations defined by Soa architects. The Adore method allows Soa architects to model complex orchestrations of services by composing models of smaller orchestrations called orchestration fragments. The Adore method can also be used to weave fragments that address new concerns into existing application models. In this paper we illustrate how the Adore method can be used to separate and compose process aspects in a Soa design of the Car Crash Crisis Management System. The paper also includes a discussion of the benefits and limitations of the Adore method.

  13. DNA sequence from Cretaceous period bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Woodward, S R; Weyand, N J; Bunnell, M

    1994-11-18

    DNA was extracted from 80-million-year-old bone fragments found in strata of the Upper Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation in the roof of an underground coal mine in eastern Utah. This DNA was used as the template in a polymerase chain reaction that amplified and sequenced a portion of the gene encoding mitochondrial cytochrome b. These sequences differ from all other cytochrome b sequences investigated, including those in the GenBank and European Molecular Biology Laboratory databases. DNA isolated from these bone fragments and the resulting gene sequences demonstrate that small fragments of DNA may survive in bone for millions of years.

  14. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  15. Heavy fragment radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.

    1987-12-10

    This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

  16. Okazaki fragment metabolism.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Lata; Bambara, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    Cellular DNA replication requires efficient copying of the double-stranded chromosomal DNA. The leading strand is elongated continuously in the direction of fork opening, whereas the lagging strand is made discontinuously in the opposite direction. The lagging strand needs to be processed to form a functional DNA segment. Genetic analyses and reconstitution experiments identified proteins and multiple pathways responsible for maturation of the lagging strand. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes the lagging-strand fragments are initiated by RNA primers, which are removed by a joining mechanism involving strand displacement of the primer into a flap, flap removal, and then ligation. Although the prokaryotic fragments are ~1200 nucleotides long, the eukaryotic fragments are much shorter, with lengths determined by nucleosome periodicity. The prokaryotic joining mechanism is simple and efficient. The eukaryotic maturation mechanism involves many enzymes, possibly three pathways, and regulation that can shift from high efficiency to high fidelity.

  17. Allogenous tooth fragment reattachment

    PubMed Central

    Maitin, Nitin; Maitin, Shipra; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Coronal fractures of the anterior teeth are a common form of dental trauma and its sequelae may impair the establishment and accomplishment of an adequate treatment plan. Among the various treatment options, reattachment of a crown fragment obtained from a previously extracted tooth is a conservative treatment that should be considered for crown fractures of anterior teeth. This article reports reattachment of an allogenous tooth fragment in a fractured maxillary lateral incisor in a 38-year-old patient. It is suggested that allogenous reattachment in a fractured anterior tooth serves to be a better alternative and should be further researched. Aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of a fractured complicated anterior crown using allogenous tooth fragment is a better alternative to other more conventional treatment options. PMID:23845684

  18. Fusion, fragmentation, and fission of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Yu; Soukhomlinova, M Yu; Fais, D

    2003-08-01

    Individual mitochondria which form the chondriom of eucaryotic cells are highly dynamic systems capable of fusion and fragmentation. These two processes do not exclude one another and can occur concurrently. However, fragmentation and fusion of mitochondria regularly alternate in the cell cycle of some unicellular and multicellular organisms. Mitochondrial shapes are also described which are interpreted as intermediates of their "equational" division, or fission. Unlike the fragmentation, the division of mitochondria, especially synchronous division, is also accompanied by segregation of mitochondrial genomes and production of specific "dumbbell-shaped" intermediates. This review considers molecular components and possible mechanisms of fusion, fragmentation, and fission of mitochondria, and the biological significance of these processes is discussed. PMID:12948383

  19. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibody and its recombinant single chain variable fragment specific for a food-born mycotoxin, fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Cho, Young-Jin; Park, Jun-Bock; Bae, Yi-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisin B(1) (FMB(1)) is a food-born mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Monoclonal antibody against FMB(1) (anti-FMB(1) mAb) was produced in the hybridoma DV9, which was established from a BALB/c mouse immunized with bovine serum albumin conjugated FMB(1) (FMB(1)-BSA). A competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that anti-FMB(1) mAb has about 10 ppb of minimum FMB(1) detection concentration and 220 ppb of 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)). Much lower cross-reactivity of anti-FMB(1) mAb on ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B(1) and deoxynivalenol provided that anti-FMB(1) mAb was specific for FMB(1). The gene coding single chain variable fragment against FMB(1) (anti-FMB(1) scFv) was cloned from the hybridoma DV9 and was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. Insoluble anti-FMB(1) scFv required optimization of its refolding condition, and hence functional scFv was obtained. By using indirect ELISA, about 12-fold lower binding activity of anti-FMB(1) scFv on FMB(1)-BSA was obtained in comparison with that of the parental mAb. PMID:19597742

  20. Delivery of gene-expressing fragments using quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Hanada, Sanshiro; Fujioka, Kouki; Yasuhara, Masato; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive approach to supplement a deficient gene function. Although there has been some success with specific gene delivery using various methods including viral vectors and liposomes, most of these methods have a limited efficiency or also carry a risk for oncogenesis. Fluorescent nanoparticles, such as nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs), have potential to be applied to molecular biology and bioimaging, since some nanocrystals emit higher and longer lasting fluorescence than conventional organic probes do. We herein report that quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with nuclear localizing signal peptides (NLSP) successfully introduced the gene-fragments with promoter elements, which promoted the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene in mammalian cells. The expression of eGFP protein was observed when the QD/geneconstruct was added to the culture media. The gene-expression efficiency varied depending on multiple factors around QDs, such as 1) the reading direction of gene fragments, 2) the quantity of gene fragments attached on the surface of QD-constructs, 3) the surface electronic charges varied according to the structure of QD/gene-constructs, and 4) the particle size of QD/gene complex varied according to the structure and amounts of gene fragments. Using this QD/geneconstruct system, eGFP protein could be detected 28 days after the gene-introduction whereas the fluorescence of QDs was disappeared. This system therefore provides another method for the intracellular delivery of gene-fragments without using either viral vectors or specific liposomes. These results suggest that inappropriate treatment and disposal of QDs may still have risks to the environmental pollution including human health under certain conditions. Here we propose the further research for the immune and physiological responses in not only immune cells but also other cells, in order to clear the effect of all other nanoscale products as well as nanocrystal

  1. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  2. Target fragmentation in radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear reactions in biological systems produce low-energy fragments of the target nuclei seen as local high events of linear energy transfer (LET). A nuclear-reaction formalism is used to evaluate the nuclear-induced fields within biosystems and their effects within several biological models. On the basis of direct ionization interaction, one anticipates high-energy protons to have a quality factor and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of unity. Target fragmentation contributions raise the effective quality factor of 10 GeV protons to 3.3 in reasonable agreement with RBE values for induced micronuclei in bean sprouts. Application of the Katz model indicates that the relative increase in RBE with decreasing exposure observed in cell survival experiments with 160 MeV protons is related solely to target fragmentation events. Target fragment contributions to lens opacity given an RBE of 1.4 for 2 GeV protons in agreement with the work of Lett and Cox. Predictions are made for the effective RBE for Harderian gland tumors induced by high-energy protons. An exposure model for lifetime cancer risk is derived from NCRP 98 risk tables, and protraction effects are examined for proton and helium ion exposures. The implications of dose rate enhancement effects on space radiation protection are considered.

  3. Fragment Separator ACCULINNA-2

    SciTech Connect

    Krupko, S. A.; Fomichev, A. S.; Chudoba, V.; Daniel, A. V.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sidorchuk, S. I.; Slepnev, R. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Wolski, R.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Tarasov, O. B.; Ershov, S. N.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Danilin, B. V.; Korsheninnikov, A. A.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukha, I. G.

    2010-04-30

    Project of a new in-flight fragment separator is proposed as a part of the third generation DRIBs facilities in Dubna. As compared to the existing separator ACCULINNA, beam intensity should be increased by a factor 10-15, the beam quality improved and the RIB assortment should broaden considerably at ACCULINNA-2. Research program and structure are outlined for the new instrument.

  4. Comment on diquark fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fredriksson, S.; Larsson, T.

    1983-07-01

    We discuss diquark fragmentation and suggest that a spectator uu system in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering has a larger breakup probability than a ud system. The reason for this is argued to be that half of the leftover ud systems are in bound (ud)/sub 0/ diquark configurations, while no such bound uu diquarks exist.

  5. Fragmentation of the Chelyabinsk Fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The most intense bolide since the 1908 Tunguska event occurred in the early morning hours of 15 February 2013 near the Russian town of Chelyabinsk. The impacting asteroid ranged between 17 and 20 m diameter with a mass of about 10,000 tons. Its estimated pre-atmospheric velocity was about 18.6 km/sec at a low angle of 20° from the horizontal. The resulting airburst occurred at an altitude of about 23 km and released an estimated total energy of about 440 kT (1.7 x 1015 J). The blast wave shattered windows on the ground over a wide area and collapsed the roof of a zinc factory. In spite of the size of the initital asteroid, only small fragments (a few kg, so far) have been recovered. The entry of an asteroid into Earth's atmosphere and its aerodynamic fragmentation and deceleration has been modeled by a number of authors over the past few decades. Full-featured numerical simulations are presently limited in their ability to simultaneously incorporate fragmentation, energy coupling between solid fragments and the atmosphere, and thermal radiation, but an approximate treatment of the fragmentation and dispersion of a large entering meteoroid called the 'pancake model' has achieved good fits to other observed events, including the Tunguska explosion, the 1947 Shikote-Alin fall and strewn fields from larger iron meteorite falls, such as the Henbury craters. Simulations using the pancake model can fit the overall observations of the Chelyabinsk event using an 18 m diameter asteroid of density 3000 kg/m3 following the observed trajectory and possessing an initial strength of about 7 MPa, which is relatively high for a stony meteoroid. This suggests that the asteroid was not a strengthless rubble pile, but in fact possessed considerable strength, compared to other stony meteorites of similar type. Aerodynamic breakup begins at an altitude of 31 km and the final airburst occurs at 22 km, releasing about 250 kT at this time. Subsequent to this airburst, large fragments

  6. Fragmentation of positively-charged biological ions activated with a beam of high-energy cations.

    PubMed

    Chingin, Konstantin; Makarov, Alexander; Denisov, Eduard; Rebrov, Oleksii; Zubarev, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    First results are reported on the fragmentation of multiply protonated polypeptide ions produced in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with a beam of high-energy cations as a source of activation. The ion beam is generated with a microwave plasma gun installed on a benchtop Q Exactive mass spectrometer. Precursor polypeptide ions are activated when trapped inside the collision cell of the instrument (HCD cell), and product species are detected in the Orbitrap analyzer. Upon exposure to the beam of air plasma cations (∼100 μA, 5 s), model precursor species such as multiply protonated angiotensin I and ubiquitin dissociated across a variety of pathways. Those pathways include the cleavages of C-CO, C-N as well as N-Cα backbone bonds, accordingly manifested as b/y, a, and c/z fragment ion series in tandem mass spectra. The fragmentation pattern observed includes characteristic fragments of collision-induced dissociation (CID) (b/y/a fragments) as well as electron capture/transfer dissociation (ECD, ETD) (c/z fragments), suggesting substantial contribution of both vibrational and electronic excitation in our experiments. Besides backbone cleavages, notable amounts of nondissociated precursor species were observed with reduced net charge, formed via electron or proton transfer between the colliding partners. Peaks corresponding to increased charge states of the precursor ions were also detected, which is the major distinctive feature of ion beam activation.

  7. String Fragmentation Model in Space Radiation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Alfred; Johnson, Eloise (Editor); Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    String fragmentation models such as the Lund Model fit experimental particle production cross sections very well in the high-energy limit. This paper gives an introduction of the massless relativistic string in the Lund Model and shows how it can be modified with a simple assumption to produce formulas for meson production cross sections for space radiation research. The results of the string model are compared with inclusive pion production data from proton-proton collision experiments.

  8. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  9. Pronase E-Based Generation of Fluorescent Peptide Fragments: Tracking Intracellular Peptide Fate in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Emilie R; Dobes, Nicholas C; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2015-08-01

    The ability to track intracellular peptide proteolysis at the single cell level is of growing interest, particularly as short peptide sequences continue to play important roles as biosensors, therapeutics, and endogenous participants in antigen processing and intracellular signaling. We describe a rapid and inexpensive methodology to generate fluorescent peptide fragments from a parent sequence with diverse chemical properties, including aliphatic, nonpolar, basic, acidic, and non-native amino acids. Four peptide sequences with existing biochemical applications were fragmented using incubation with Pronase E and/or formic acid, and in each case a complete set of fluorescent fragments was generated for use as proteolysis standards in chemical cytometry. Fragment formation and identity was monitored with capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to confirm the presence of all sequences and yield fragmentation profiles across Pronase E concentrations which can readily be used by others. As a pilot study, Pronase E-generated standards from an Abl kinase sensor and an ovalbumin antigenic peptide were then employed to identify proteolysis products arising from the metabolism of these sequences in single cells. The Abl kinase sensor fragmented at 4.2 ± 4.8 zmol μM(-1) s(-1) and the majority of cells possessed similar fragment identities. In contrast, an ovalbumin epitope peptide was degraded at 8.9 ± 0.1 zmol μM(-1) s(-1), but with differential fragment formation between individual cells. Overall, Pronase E-generated peptide standards were a rapid and efficient method to identify proteolysis products from cells. PMID:26171808

  10. Structures and fragmentation of [Cu(uracil-H)(uracil)]+ in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Ali, Osama Y; Fridgen, Travis D

    2012-02-01

    Complexes of copper (II) ions and uracil were studied using tandem mass spectrometry (Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, FTICR, mass spectrometry) including extensive isotopic labeling as well as theoretical calculations. Positive ion electrospray mass spectra of aqueous solutions of CuCl(2) and uracil show that the [Cu(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) ion is the most abundant ion even at low concentrations of uracil. Sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) experiments show that the lowest energy decomposition pathway for [Cu(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) , surprisingly, is not the loss of uracil, but the loss of HNCO followed by HCN as the most abundant secondary fragmentation product. MS(n) studies identified primary, secondary and tertiary fragmentation products. Extensive isotopic labeling studies, as well as computational studies allowed for a detailed fragmentation scheme for the [Cu(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) ion, beginning with the lowest energy structure. PMID:22183913

  11. Dissociation of CH4 and CD4 by electron impact - Production of metastable and high-Rydberg hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Wells, W. C.; Zipf, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and carbon atoms in metastable and high-lying Rydberg states by electron-impact dissociation of methane and deuterated methane is investigated for incident electron energies ranging from threshold values to 300 eV. Threshold energies for five different processes resulting in metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms are determined in the energy range from 20 to 70 eV, and it is shown that metastable hydrogen atoms are produced in four of these collisional processes while metastable carbon atoms are produced in the other. The nature of each collisional process is described, differential cross sections are derived for the dissociative excitation of both types of atoms to metastable and high-Rydberg states at 100 eV, and the onset energy for UV photon production is measured. Much of the data is interpreted in terms of the ion core model suggested by Kupriyanov (1968) and developed by Freund (1971).

  12. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (P<0.05, ANOVA). A seasonal response to chilling was observed in the coral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (P<0.05, ANOVA). However, in the late spring, coral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P<0.05, ANOVA). When a cryoprotectant (1M dimethyl sulfoxide) was used in concert with chilling it protected the coral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (P<0.05, ANOVA). The zooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity.

  13. Cloning of a Serratia marcescens DNA fragment that induces quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase-mediated gluconic acid production in Escherichia coli in the presence of stationary phase Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, P U; Goldstein, A H

    2001-12-18

    Serratia marcescens ER2 was isolated from an endorhizosphere sample based on its high level of mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) activity. This phenotype was correlated with expression of the direct oxidation pathway. An ER2 plasmid library constructed in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha was screened for MPS activity. A recombinant clone DH5alpha (pKG3791) was capable of gluconic acid (GA) production and tricalcium phosphate solubilization but only in the presence of stationary phase ER2 cells. GA production in DH5alpha (pKG3791) was apparently the result of the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase activity because AG121 (a Tn5 knockout of gcd) carrying pKG3791 did not produce GA under the same conditions. GA production by DH5alpha (pKG3791) was not observed when ER2 was replaced by another PQQ-producing strain bacterium. These data add to a growing body of evidence that E. coli contains some type of PQQ biosynthesis pathway distinct from those previously characterized in Gram-negative bacteria and that these genes may be induced under appropriate conditions.

  14. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation. PMID:27180836

  15. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation.

  16. Fragmentation of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanapalli, Siva; Kamyabi, Nabiollah

    Tumor cells have to travel through blood capillaries to be able to metastasize and colonize in distant organs. Among the numerous cells that are shed by the primary tumor, very few survive in circulation. In vivo studies have shown that tumor cells can undergo breakup at microcapillary junctions affecting their survival. It is currently unclear what hydrodynamic and biomechanical factors contribute to fragmentation and moreover how different are the breakup dynamics of highly and weakly metastatic cells. In this study, we use microfluidics to investigate flow-induced breakup of prostate and breast cancer cells. We observe several different modes of breakup of cancer cells, which have striking similarities with breakup of viscous drops. We quantify the breakup time and find that highly metastatic cancer cells take longer to breakup than lowly metastatic cells suggesting that tumor cells may dynamically modify their deformability to avoid fragmentation. We also identify the role that cytoskeleton and membrane plays in the breakup process. Our study highlights the important role that tumor cell fragmentation plays in cancer metastasis. Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas.

  17. Fracture, failure, and fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dienes, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Though continuum descriptions of material behavior are useful for many kinds of problems, particularly those involving plastic flow, a more general approach is required when the failure is likely to involve growth and coalescence of a large number of fractures, as in fragmentation. Failures of this kind appear frequently in rapid dynamic processes such as those resulting from impacts and explosions, particularly in the formation of spall fragments. In the first part of this paper an approach to formulating constitutive relations that accounts for the opening, shear and growth of an ensemble of cracks is discussed. The approach also accounts for plastic flow accompanying fragmentation. The resulting constitutive relations have been incorporated into a Lagrangean computer program. In the second part of this paper a theoretical approach to coalescence is described. The simplest formulation makes use of a linear Liouville equation, with crack growth limited by the mean free path of cracks, assumed constant. This approach allows for an anisotropic distribution of cracks. An alternative approach is also described in which the decrease of the mean free path with increasing crack size is accounted for, but the crack distribution is assumed isotropic. A reduction of the governing Liouville equation to an ordinary differential equation of third order is possible, and the result can be used to determine how mean-free-path decreases with increasing crack size.

  18. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  19. Effects of polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene on lymphocyte pro-inflammatory cytokine production of senior horses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Siard, Melissa H; McMurry, Kellie E; Adams, Amanda A

    2016-05-01

    Senior horses (aged ≥ 20 years) exhibit increased chronic, low-grade inflammation systemically, termed inflamm-aging. Inflammation is associated with many afflictions common to the horse, including laminitis and osteoarthritis, which are commonly treated with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. Although these NSAIDs are effective in treating acute inflammatory problems, long-term treatment with NSAIDs can result in negative side effects. Thus, bioactive polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene were investigated to determine their effectiveness as anti-inflammatory agents in vitro. Heparinized blood was collected via jugular venipuncture from senior horses (n = 6; mean age = 26 ± 2 years), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated using a Ficoll density gradient. PBMC were then incubated 22 h at 37°C, 5% CO2 with multiple concentrations (320, 160, 80, 40, 20, 10 μM) of all five polyphenols (curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene), dissolved in DMSO to achieve the aforementioned concentrations. PBMC were stimulated the last 4h of the incubation period with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin and Brefeldin A (BFA). A Vicell-XR counter evaluated cell viability following incubation. PBMC were stained intracellularly for interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and analyzed via flow cytometry. Data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Viability of PBMC incubated with various compound concentrations were compared with PBMC incubated with DMSO alone (positive control) to determine at what concentration each compound caused cytotoxicity. The highest concentration at which cell viability did not significantly differ from the positive control was: 20 μM for curcuminoids, 40 μM for hydroxypterostilbene, 80 μM for pterostilbene, and 160 μM for

  20. Effects of polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene on lymphocyte pro-inflammatory cytokine production of senior horses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Siard, Melissa H; McMurry, Kellie E; Adams, Amanda A

    2016-05-01

    Senior horses (aged ≥ 20 years) exhibit increased chronic, low-grade inflammation systemically, termed inflamm-aging. Inflammation is associated with many afflictions common to the horse, including laminitis and osteoarthritis, which are commonly treated with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. Although these NSAIDs are effective in treating acute inflammatory problems, long-term treatment with NSAIDs can result in negative side effects. Thus, bioactive polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene were investigated to determine their effectiveness as anti-inflammatory agents in vitro. Heparinized blood was collected via jugular venipuncture from senior horses (n = 6; mean age = 26 ± 2 years), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated using a Ficoll density gradient. PBMC were then incubated 22 h at 37°C, 5% CO2 with multiple concentrations (320, 160, 80, 40, 20, 10 μM) of all five polyphenols (curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene), dissolved in DMSO to achieve the aforementioned concentrations. PBMC were stimulated the last 4h of the incubation period with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin and Brefeldin A (BFA). A Vicell-XR counter evaluated cell viability following incubation. PBMC were stained intracellularly for interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and analyzed via flow cytometry. Data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Viability of PBMC incubated with various compound concentrations were compared with PBMC incubated with DMSO alone (positive control) to determine at what concentration each compound caused cytotoxicity. The highest concentration at which cell viability did not significantly differ from the positive control was: 20 μM for curcuminoids, 40 μM for hydroxypterostilbene, 80 μM for pterostilbene, and 160 μM for

  1. Cell bank characterization and fermentation optimization for production of recombinant heavy chain C-terminal fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (rBoNTE(H(c)): antigen E) by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Inan, Mehmet; Fanders, Sarah; Taoka, Shinichi; Gouthro, Mark; Swanson, Todd; Barent, Rick; Barthuli, Ardis; Loveless, Bonnie M; Smith, Leonard A; Smith, Theresa; Henderson, Ian; Ross, John; Meagher, Michael M

    2007-01-10

    A process was developed for production of a candidate vaccine antigen, recombinant C-terminal heavy chain fragment of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype E, rBoNTE(H(c)) in Pichia pastoris. P. pastoris strain GS115 was transformed with the rBoNTE(H(c)) gene inserted into pHILD4 Escherichia coli-P. pastoris shuttle plasmid. The clone was characterized for genetic stability, copy number, and BoNTE(H(c)) sequence. Expression of rBoNTE(H(c)) from the Mut(+) HIS4 clone was confirmed in the shake-flask, prior to developing a fed-batch fermentation process at 5 and 19 L scale. The fermentation process consists of a glycerol growth phase in batch and fed-batch mode using a defined medium followed by a glycerol/methanol transition phase for adaptation to growth on methanol and a methanol induction phase resulting in the production of rBoNTE(H(c)). Specific growth rate, ratio of growth to induction phase, and time of induction were critical for optimal rBoNTE(H(c)) production and minimal proteolytic degradation. A computer-controlled exponential growth model was used for process automation and off-gas analysis was used for process monitoring. The optimized process had an induction time of 9 h on methanol and produced up to 3 mg of rBoNTE(H(c)) per gram wet cell mass as determined by HPLC and Western blot analysis.

  2. Genetic gain and economic values of selection strategies including semen traits in three- and four-way crossbreeding systems for swine production.

    PubMed

    González-Peña, D; Knox, R V; MacNeil, M D; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2015-03-01

    Four semen traits: volume (VOL), concentration (CON), progressive motility of spermatozoa (MOT), and abnormal spermatozoa (ABN) provide complementary information on boar fertility. Assessment of the impact of selection for semen traits is hindered by limited information on economic parameters. Objectives of this study were to estimate economic values for semen traits and to evaluate the genetic gain when these traits are incorporated into traditional selection strategies in a 3-tier system of swine production. Three-way (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) and 4-way (additional paternal nucleus line D) crossbreeding schemes were compared. A novel population structure that accommodated selection for semen traits was developed. Three selection strategies were simulated. Selection Strategy I (baseline) encompassed selection for maternal traits: number of pigs born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (LBW), adjusted 21-d litter weight (A21), and number of pigs at 21 d (N21); and paternal traits: number of days to 113.5 kg (D113), backfat (BF), ADG, feed efficiency (FE), and carcass lean % (LEAN). Selection Strategy II included Strategy I and the number of usable semen doses per collection (DOSES), a function of the 4 semen traits. Selection Strategy III included Strategy I and the 4 semen traits individually. The estimated economic values of VOL, CON, MOT, ABN, and DOSES for 7 to 1 collections/wk ranged from $0.21 to $1.44/mL, $0.12 to $0.83/10 spermatozoa/mm, $0.61 to $12.66/%, -$0.53 to -$10.88/%, and $2.01 to $41.43/%, respectively. The decrease in the relative economic values of semen traits and DOSES with higher number of collections per wk was sharper between 1 and 2.33 collections/wk than between 2.33 and 7 collections/wk. The higher economic value of MOT and ABN relative to VOL and CON could be linked to the genetic variances and covariances of these traits. Average genetic gains for the maternal traits were comparable across strategies

  3. Fragmentation of metal particles during heterogeneous explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, R. C.; Donahue, L.; Zhang, F.

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous explosives contain a mixture of standard explosive material and reactive metal particles. The inclusion of metal particles alters the energy density and energy release timescales involved in the blast event. Available experimental evidence indicates that metal particles may be damaged or fragmented during heterogeneous blast, altering the distribution of particle sizes from their initial state. This paper discusses adaptation and application of fragmentation theory and physical models for particle damage during condensed matter detonation, aerodynamic breakup of molten particles, and particle impact fragmentation with nearby structures. The shock compression and impact fragmentation models are based on the energy methods for dynamic fragmentation by Grady and Kipp, while aerodynamic breakup is treated according to Weber number stability criteria for droplets. These particle fragmentation models are validated against fundamental test cases from the literature. The models are then applied to heterogeneous blast scenarios including free field and wall reflection in a semi-confined urban street. Comparison with experimental records of pressure shows good agreement despite challenges inherent in the complexity of heterogeneous blast measurement and multiphase simulation.

  4. Electroweak fragmentation functions for dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Cavasonza, Leila Ali; Krämer, Michael; Pellen, Mathieu

    2015-02-18

    Electroweak corrections can play a crucial role in dark matter annihilation. The emission of gauge bosons, in particular, leads to a secondary flux consisting of all Standard Model particles, and may be described by electroweak fragmentation functions. To assess the quality of the fragmentation function approximation to electroweak radiation in dark matter annihilation, we have calculated the flux of secondary particles from gauge-boson emission in models with Majorana fermion and vector dark matter, respectively. For both models, we have compared cross sections and energy spectra of positrons and antiprotons after propagation through the galactic halo in the fragmentation function approximation and in the full calculation. Fragmentation functions fail to describe the particle fluxes in the case of Majorana fermion annihilation into light fermions: the helicity suppression of the lowest-order cross section in such models cannot be lifted by the leading logarithmic contributions included in the fragmentation function approach. However, for other classes of models like vector dark matter, where the lowest-order cross section is not suppressed, electroweak fragmentation functions provide a simple, model-independent and accurate description of secondary particle fluxes.

  5. Fragmentation methods in laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi X.; Whitehurst, Colin; King, Terence A.

    1991-07-01

    Following a series of opto-acoustic-mechanical and spectroscopic studies into the basic mechanisms of laser lithotripsy, a plasma-mediated opto-mechanical energy transfer model is presented. Laser energy, first absorbed by the calculi material at the surface and couples into the initiated plasma following ionization of vaporized material, is finally transformed into destructive mechanical energy via a shock wave induced by the impulsive expansion of the resulting plasma. This leads to the fragmentation of the calculi. The laser-plasma energy coupling gives a new definition for the fluence threshold to laser induced breakdown, which agrees with shock wave detection and analysis. A laser pulse shape with initial low intensity and sufficient fluence to vaporize a required amount of target material (lasting a few microsecond(s) ) and terminating in a short, intense pulse of about 1microsecond(s) or less, to couple most of the laser energy into the dense young plasma and so create high pressures, is required to produce optimum effect for laser lithotripsy. An opto-mechanical coupler has been designed which transfers the maximum laser energy into mechanically destructive energy, and successfully fragments various types of urinary and biliary calculi even including those calculi with poor surface absorptance, like pure white cystine. A solid state laser, Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers wavelength and 150 microsecond(s) pulse width), has also been tested as an alternative to the flashlamp-excited dye laser. The underwater shock wave induced by this laser has been measured and has successfully fragmented calculi with poor absorptance in the visible region.

  6. Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D'Enterria, Valeria Muccifora

    2009-12-01

    We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.

  7. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  8. Virtual fragment preparation for computational fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Ludington, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an important component of the drug discovery process. The use of fragments can accelerate both the search for a hit molecule and the development of that hit into a lead molecule for clinical testing. In addition to experimental methodologies for FBDD such as NMR and X-ray Crystallography screens, computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role. The success of the computational simulations is due in large part to how the database of virtual fragments is prepared. In order to prepare the fragments appropriately it is necessary to understand how FBDD differs from other approaches and the issues inherent in building up molecules from smaller fragment pieces. The ultimate goal of these calculations is to link two or more simulated fragments into a molecule that has an experimental binding affinity consistent with the additive predicted binding affinities of the virtual fragments. Computationally predicting binding affinities is a complex process, with many opportunities for introducing error. Therefore, care should be taken with the fragment preparation procedure to avoid introducing additional inaccuracies.This chapter is focused on the preparation process used to create a virtual fragment database. Several key issues of fragment preparation which affect the accuracy of binding affinity predictions are discussed. The first issue is the selection of the two-dimensional atomic structure of the virtual fragment. Although the particular usage of the fragment can affect this choice (i.e., whether the fragment will be used for calibration, binding site characterization, hit identification, or lead optimization), general factors such as synthetic accessibility, size, and flexibility are major considerations in selecting the 2D structure. Other aspects of preparing the virtual fragments for simulation are the generation of three-dimensional conformations and the assignment of the associated atomic point charges

  9. Metal ion-catalyzed nucleic acid alkylation and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kenneth A

    2002-07-10

    Nucleic acid microarrays are a growing technology in which high densities of known sequences are attached to a substrate in known locations (addressed). Hybridization of complementary sequences leads to a detectable signal such as an electrical impulse or fluorescence. This combination of sequence addressing, hybridization, and detection increases the efficiency of a variety of genomic disciplines including those that profile genetic expression, search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or diagnose infectious diseases by sequencing portions of microbial or viral genomes. Incorporation of reporter molecules into nucleic acids is essential for the sensitive detection of minute amounts of nucleic acids on most types of microarrays. Furthermore, polynucleic acid size reduction increases hybridization because of increased diffusion rates and decreased competing secondary structure of the target nucleic acids. Typically, these reactions would be performed as two separate processes. An improvement to past techniques, termed labeling-during-cleavage (LDC), is presented in which DNA or RNA is alkylated with fluorescent tags and fragmented in the same reaction mixture. In model studies with 26 nucleotide-long RNA and DNA oligomers using ultraviolet/visible and fluorescence spectroscopies as well as high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, addition of both alkylating agents (5-(bromomethyl)fluorescein, 5- or 6-iodoacetamidofluorescein) and select metal ions (of 21 tested) to nucleic acids in aqueous solutions was critical for significant increases in both labeling and fragmentation, with >or=100-fold increases in alkylation possible relative to metal ion-free reactions. Lanthanide series metal ions, Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) were the most reactive ions in terms of catalyzing alkylation and fragmentation. While oligonucleotides were particularly susceptible to fragmentation at sites containing phosphorothioate moieties, labeling and cleavage reactions

  10. New Scalings in Nuclear Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, E.; Bougault, R.; Galichet, E.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Marini, P.; Parlog, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4-10 MeV per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed.

  11. Fragmentation function measurements at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, Ralf; Vossen, Anselm; Leitgab, Martin; Grosse-Perdekamp, Matthias; Giordano, Francesca; Ogawa, Akio

    2011-12-14

    The precision measurement of fragmentation functions is an important requirement to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Unpolarized fragmentation functions at reasonably low scale and high fractional energy are necessary to complement the measurements mostly performed at LEP in order to obtain high enough precision for measurements at semi-inclusive DIS experiments and at RHIC. Those can be obtained from the abundant data collected with the Belle detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider KEKB. In addition one can cleanly measure the transversely polarized fragmentation functions such as the Collins fragmentation function and the interference fragmentation functions. Both have been obtained with great precision at Belle.

  12. Creation of a Machine File and Subsequent Computer-Assisted Production of Publishing Outputs, Including a Translation Journal and an Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Lawrence F.; Weaver, Vance

    Reported are the findings of the Uspekhi experiment in creating a labeled machine file, as well as sample products of this system - an article from a scientific journal and an index page. Production cost tables are presented for the machine file, primary journals, and journal indexes. Comparisons were made between the 1965 predicted costs and the…

  13. Thermochemistry and photochemistry of spiroketals derived from indan-2-one: Stepwise processes versus coarctate fragmentations

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Summary Coarctate reactions are defined as reactions that include atoms at which two bonds are made and two bonds are broken simultaneously. In the pursuit of the discovery of new coarctate reactions we investigate the fragmentation reactions of cyclic ketals. Three ketals with different ring sizes derived from indan-2-one were decomposed by photolysis and pyrolysis. Particularly clean is the photolysis of the indan-2-one ketal 1, which gives o-quinodimethane, carbon dioxide and ethylene. The mechanism formally corresponds to a photochemically allowed coarctate fragmentation. Pyrolysis of the five-ring ketal yields a number of products. This is in agreement with the fact that coarctate fragmentation observed upon irradiation would be thermochemically forbidden, although this exclusion principle does not hold for chelotropic reactions. In contrast, fragmentation of the seven-ring ketal 3 is thermochemically allowed and photochemically forbidden. Upon pyrolysis of 3 several products were isolated that could be explained by a coarctate fragmentation. However, the reaction is less clean and stepwise mechanisms may compete. PMID:24062827

  14. Simvastatin inhibits CD44 fragmentation in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Terabe, Kenya; Takahashi, Nobunori; Takemoto, Toki; Knudson, Warren; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    In human osteoarthritic chondrocytes, the hyaluronan receptor CD44 undergoes proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface. CD44 cleavage is thought to require transit of CD44 into cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statins exert a protective effect on articular chondrocytes due to diminution of cholesterol. Three model systems of chondrocytes were examined including human HCS-2/8 chondrosarcoma cells, human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and normal bovine articular chondrocytes. Treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M resulted in a substantial increase in CD44 fragmentation in each of the three chondrocyte models. Pre-incubation with simvastatin prior to treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M decreased the level of CD44 fragmentation, decreased the proportion of CD44 that transits into the lipid raft fractions, decreased ADAM10 activity and diminished the interaction between CD44 and ADAM10. In HCS-2/8 cells and bovine articular chondrocytes, fragmentation of CD44 was blocked by the knockdown of ADAM10. Inhibition of CD44 fragmentation by simvastatin also resulted in improved retention of pericellular matrix. Addition of cholesterol and farnesyl-pyrophosphate reversed the protective effects of simvastatin. Thus, the addition of simvastatin exerts positive effects on chondrocytes including reduced CD44 fragmentation and enhanced the retention of pericellular matrix.

  15. Fragment oriented molecular shapes.

    PubMed

    Hain, Ethan; Camacho, Carlos J; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Molecular shape is an important concept in drug design and virtual screening. Shape similarity typically uses either alignment methods, which dynamically optimize molecular poses with respect to the query molecular shape, or feature vector methods, which are computationally less demanding but less accurate. The computational cost of alignment can be reduced by pre-aligning shapes, as is done with the Volumetric-Aligned Molecular Shapes (VAMS) method. Here, we introduce and evaluate fragment oriented molecular shapes (FOMS), where shapes are aligned based on molecular fragments. FOMS enables the use of shape constraints, a novel method for precisely specifying molecular shape queries that provides the ability to perform partial shape matching and supports search algorithms that function on an interactive time scale. When evaluated using the challenging Maximum Unbiased Validation dataset, shape constraints were able to extract significantly enriched subsets of compounds for the majority of targets, and FOMS matched or exceeded the performance of both VAMS and an optimizing alignment method of shape similarity search. PMID:27085751

  16. Ultrafast ionization and fragmentation of molecular silane

    SciTech Connect

    Sayres, Scott G.; Ross, Matt W.; Castleman, A. W. Jr.

    2010-09-15

    The ionization and fragmentation of molecular silane is examined here with laser intensities ranging between 7x10{sup 12} and 1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} at 624 nm. The ionization potential of silane determined using both multiphoton ionization (MPI) and tunneling ionization (TI) models agrees with the vertical ionization potential of the molecule. In addition, the application of the tunneling ionization model is extended here to the fragments of silane to determine their appearance potentials. MPI values for SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, SiH{sub 2}{sup +}, SiH{sup +}, Si{sup +}, as well as H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sup +} are consistent with vertical potentials, whereas the TI measurements are found to be in accord with adiabatic potentials. The tunneling appearance potentials observed for the fragments H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sup +} are lower than reported for other techniques. In fact, the appearance potential measurements for these species resulting from silane are lower than their ionization potentials. The fragmentation rate of silane is determined to be nearly 20 times larger than the ionization rate. The main precursor for producing amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films, SiH{sub 3}{sup +} is the dominant fragmentation product making up roughly a third of the total ion yield, a substantial increase from other techniques.

  17. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  18. Numerical solution of Q evolution equations for fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.

    2012-04-01

    Semi-inclusive hadron-production processes are becoming important in high-energy hadron reactions. They are used for investigating properties of quark-hadron matters in heavy-ion collisions, for finding the origin of nucleon spin in polarized lepton-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon reactions, and possibly for finding exotic hadrons. In describing the hadron-production cross sections in high-energy reactions, fragmentation functions are essential quantities. A fragmentation function indicates the probability of producing a hadron from a parton in the leading order of the running coupling constant αs. Its Q dependence is described by the standard DGLAP (Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi) evolution equations, which are often used in theoretical and experimental analyses of the fragmentation functions and in calculating semi-inclusive cross sections. The DGLAP equations are complicated integro-differential equations, which cannot be solved in an analytical method. In this work, a simple method is employed for solving the evolution equations by using Gauss-Legendre quadrature for evaluating integrals, and a useful code is provided for calculating the Q evolution of the fragmentation functions in the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) of αs. The renormalization scheme is MSbar in the NLO evolution. Our evolution code is explained for using it in one's studies on the fragmentation functions. Catalogue identifier: AELJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 191 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran77 Computer: Tested on an HP DL360G5-DC-X5160 Operating system: Linux 2.6.9-42.ELsmp RAM: 130 M

  19. Evolution of fragment-species production in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from 1.6 au to 0.4 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, A.; Cochran, A.; Dello Russo, N.; Weaver, H.; Vervack, R.; Harris, W.; Kawakita, H.; DiSanti, M.; Chanover, N.; Tsvetanov, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of cometary ices is among the most primitive in the Solar System. For this reason, studies of cometary composition are important for constraining planetary formation models. Because the best way to characterize the chemical composition of the cometary population as a whole is through remote-sensing spectroscopy of volatiles in the gas phase, it is paramount that the coma physics and chemistry responsible for the observed emissions are understood. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided an unprecedented opportunity to study coma physics and chemistry for a sun-grazing comet. Owing to its early discovery, observations of ISON could be planned well in advance of its close perihelion passage at only 2.7 solar radii. Although it did not survive perihelion (and therefore observations of how the comet's composition changed after exposure to the harsh near-Sun environment were not possible), observations of the coma composition evolution with decreasing heliocentric distance were possible throughout the pre-perihelion observing window. We present high-spectral-resolution optical spectroscopy of ISON obtained pre-perihelion in October and November 2013, spanning a heliocentric distance range of 1.6--0.4 au. We obtained high-resolution optical spectroscopy throughout ISON's pre-perihelion leg using three instruments: HIRESb on the Keck I telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, ARCES on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope in Sunspot, NM, and the 2DCoude on the 2.7-meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. All these spectrographs provide high spectral resolution (R=30,000--60,000). This enables several avenues of analysis not possible at lower spectral resolution, such as analysis of the forbidden oxygen lines at 5577, 6300, and 6364 Angstroms, and ortho-para ratios in NH_2. We report detections of many species in our spectral data set, including CN, C_2, C_3, CH, NH_2, [OI], NH, and OH (OH and NH are only detected with HIRES because

  20. Vocabularies Clashing: "The Fragmented Generation" Describes Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    After reading Scott Seider and Howard Gardner's essay "The Fragmented Generation" (2009) in a college freshman writing class, students responded by providing their own labels for their generation. This article includes excerpts from their essays. Following these excerpts is the instructor's theoretical justification for this kind of classroom…

  1. Rapamycin reverses age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, oxidative stress, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, and lipofuscin level, and increases autophagy, in the liver of middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cisuelo, V; Gómez, J; García-Junceda, I; Naudí, A; Cabré, R; Mota-Martorell, N; López-Torres, M; González-Sánchez, M; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2016-10-01

    Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver. After 7weeks of dietary treatment all those increases were totally or partially (lipofuscin) abolished by rapamycin, middle aged rapamycin-treated animals showing similar levels in those parameters to young animals. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS production was due to qualitative instead of quantitative changes in complex I. The decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoxidation was not due to decreases in the amount of highly oxidizable unsaturated fatty acids. Rapamycin also decreased the amount of RAPTOR (of mTOR complex) and increased the amounts of the PGC1-α and ATG13 proteins. The results are consistent with the possibility that rapamycin increases longevity in mice at least in part by lowering mitochondrial ROS production and increasing autophagy, decreasing the derived final forms of damage accumulated with age which are responsible for increased longevity. The decrease in lipofuscin accumulation induced by rapamycin adds to previous information suggesting that the increase in longevity induced by this drug can be due to a decrease in the rate of aging. PMID:27498120

  2. Rapamycin reverses age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, oxidative stress, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, and lipofuscin level, and increases autophagy, in the liver of middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cisuelo, V; Gómez, J; García-Junceda, I; Naudí, A; Cabré, R; Mota-Martorell, N; López-Torres, M; González-Sánchez, M; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2016-10-01

    Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver. After 7weeks of dietary treatment all those increases were totally or partially (lipofuscin) abolished by rapamycin, middle aged rapamycin-treated animals showing similar levels in those parameters to young animals. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS production was due to qualitative instead of quantitative changes in complex I. The decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoxidation was not due to decreases in the amount of highly oxidizable unsaturated fatty acids. Rapamycin also decreased the amount of RAPTOR (of mTOR complex) and increased the amounts of the PGC1-α and ATG13 proteins. The results are consistent with the possibility that rapamycin increases longevity in mice at least in part by lowering mitochondrial ROS production and increasing autophagy, decreasing the derived final forms of damage accumulated with age which are responsible for increased longevity. The decrease in lipofuscin accumulation induced by rapamycin adds to previous information suggesting that the increase in longevity induced by this drug can be due to a decrease in the rate of aging.

  3. Dissertation: Precompound Emission of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-04

    Emission of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions is an open question. Different reaction mechanisms contribute to their production; the relative roles of each, and how they change with incident energy, mass number of the target, and the type and emission energy of the fragments is not completely understood. None of the available models are able to accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the ability to describe production of LF (especially at energies ≳ 30 MeV) from many reactions is important for different applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) version 03.03 and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) version 03.03 event generators in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 6 (MCNP6) describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to ⁴He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies (up to ~ 5 GeV for CEM and up to ~ 1 TeV/A for LAQGSM). However, they do not predict the high energy tails of LF spectra heavier than ⁴He well. Most LF with energies above several tens of MeV are emitted during the precompound stage of a reaction. The current versions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators do not account for precompound emission of LF larger than ⁴He. The aim of our work is to extend the precompound model in them to include such processes, leading to an increase of predictive power of LF-production in MCNP6. This entails upgrading the Modified Exciton Model currently used at the preequilibrium stage in CEM and LAQGSM. It also includes expansion and examination of the coalescence and Fermi break-up models used in the precompound stages of spallation reactions within CEM and LAQGSM. Extending our models to include emission of fragments heavier than ⁴He at the precompound stage has indeed provided results that have much

  4. Searching Fragment Spaces with feature trees.

    PubMed

    Lessel, Uta; Wellenzohn, Bernd; Lilienthal, Markus; Claussen, Holger

    2009-02-01

    Virtual combinatorial chemistry easily produces billions of compounds, for which conventional virtual screening cannot be performed even with the fastest methods available. An efficient solution for such a scenario is the generation of Fragment Spaces, which encode huge numbers of virtual compounds by their fragments/reagents and rules of how to combine them. Similarity-based searches can be performed in such spaces without ever fully enumerating all virtual products. Here we describe the generation of a huge Fragment Space encoding about 5 * 10(11) compounds based on established in-house synthesis protocols for combinatorial libraries, i.e., we encode practically evaluated combinatorial chemistry protocols in a machine readable form, rendering them accessible to in silico search methods. We show how such searches in this Fragment Space can be integrated as a first step in an overall workflow. It reduces the extremely huge number of virtual products by several orders of magnitude so that the resulting list of molecules becomes more manageable for further more elaborated and time-consuming analysis steps. Results of a case study are presented and discussed, which lead to some general conclusions for an efficient expansion of the chemical space to be screened in pharmaceutical companies.

  5. Dynamic fragmentation of powders in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Floyd, E.; Longbottom, A. W.; Taylor, P.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental evidence from a wide range of sources shows that the expanding cloud of explosively disseminated material comprises of "particles" or fragments which have different dimensions from those associated with the original material. Photographic evidence shows jets or fingers behind these expanding fragments. Powders and liquids have often been used to surround explosives to act as blast mitigants; this is the main driver for our research. Other examples of areas where these features are observed include fuel air explosives and enhanced blast explosives as well as quasi-static pressure mitigation systems. In this paper, we consider the processes occurring when an explosive interacts with a surrounding layer of powder in spherical geometry. Results from explosive experiments designed to investigate the effects of powder grain size and powder fill-to-burster charge mass ratio (/) are presented and compared with results from numerical modelling to explore what determines the primary fragment size distribution resulting from explosive dissemination of a layer of material and when this process begins. The evidence clearly shows that the process starts during the first wave transit period of the powder material and, despite the surrounding material initially being a loose powder, shows the characteristics of a brittle fracture mechanism. Later time video evidence shows the same number of jets or fingers as are identified by X-rays of the early, primary fragmentation process. The number of fragments is only a very weak function of the initial grain size of the powder.

  6. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  7. Fourier transform of the multicenter product of 1s hydrogenic orbitals and Coulomb or Yukawa potentials and the analytically reduced form for subsequent integrals that include plane waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straton, Jack C.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourier transform of the multicenter product of N 1s hydrogenic orbitals and M Coulomb or Yukawa potentials is given as an (M+N-1)-dimensional Feynman integral with external momenta and shifted coordinates. This is accomplished through the introduction of an integral transformation, in addition to the standard Feynman transformation for the denominators of the momentum representation of the terms in the product, which moves the resulting denominator into an exponential. This allows the angular dependence of the denominator to be combined with the angular dependence in the plane waves.

  8. Clinical considerations for reattachment of tooth fragments.

    PubMed

    Chu, F C; Yim, T M; Wei, S H

    2000-06-01

    Trauma to anterior teeth is relatively common among children and teenagers; it has been estimated that approximately one quarter of the population under the age of 18 years sustain traumatic injury in the form of anterior crown fracture. Reattachment of a fractured fragment to the remaining tooth can provide esthetically pleasing results provided that the fragment is available. In this report, a systematic clinical approach through evaluation of periodontal, endodontic, coronal, and occlusal aspects is presented to help dentists analyze the factors affecting selection of techniques and materials. In addition, use of adhesive materials for tooth fragment reattachment is illustrated. Modifications of the reattachment process, including placement of veneer and radicular post, are also discussed. PMID:11203954

  9. Chapter 4 embedded metal fragments.

    PubMed

    Kalinich, John F; Vane, Elizabeth A; Centeno, Jose A; Gaitens, Joanna M; Squibb, Katherine S; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Kasper, Christine E

    2014-01-01

    The continued evolution of military munitions and armor on the battlefield, as well as the insurgent use of improvised explosive devices, has led to embedded fragment wounds containing metal and metal mixtures whose long-term toxicologic and carcinogenic properties are not as yet known. Advances in medical care have greatly increased the survival from these types of injuries. Standard surgical guidelines suggest leaving embedded fragments in place, thus individuals may carry these retained metal fragments for the rest of their lives. Nursing professionals will be at the forefront in caring for these wounded individuals, both immediately after the trauma and during the healing and rehabilitation process. Therefore, an understanding of the potential health effects of embedded metal fragment wounds is essential. This review will explore the history of embedded fragment wounds, current research in the field, and Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs guidelines for the identification and long-term monitoring of individuals with embedded fragments.

  10. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  11. Mineralogy and petrology of basaltic fragments from the Luna 24 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The petrology of rock fragments and monomineralic grains from Luna 24 samples is described, and a petrogenetic scheme for the derivation of Mare Crisium basalts is presented. Components of the rock fragments include subophitic basalts, metabasalts, late-stage fragments, olivine vitrophyres, and non-mare lithic fragments of possible cumulate origin. Among the monomineralic grains (which are much more abundant than the rock fragments) are pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite and native Fe.

  12. Binary stars - Formation by fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of binary star formation by capture, separate nuclei, fission and fragmentation are compared, assessing the success of theoretical attempts to explain the observed properties of main-sequence binary stars. The theory of formation by fragmentation is examined, discussing the prospects for checking the theory against observations of binary premain-sequence stars. It is concluded that formation by fragmentation is successful at explaining many of the key properties of main-sequence binary stars.

  13. Production of a Dominant-Negative Fragment Due to G3BP1 Cleavage Contributes to the Disruption of Mitochondria-Associated Protective Stress Granules during CVB3 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Gabriel; Ng, Chen Seng; Zhang, Jingchun; Shi, Junyan; Wong, Jerry; Piesik, Paulina; Han, Lillian; Chu, Fanny; Jagdeo, Julienne; Jan, Eric; Fujita, Takashi; Luo, Honglin

    2013-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytosolic aggregates containing messenger ribonucleoproteins and target poly-adenylated (A)-mRNA. A key component of SGs is Ras-GAP SH3 domain binding protein-1 (G3BP1), which in part mediates protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. SGs are modulated during infection by several viruses, however, the function and significance of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the interplay between SGs and Coxsackievirus type B3 (CVB3), a member of the Picornaviridae family. Our studies demonstrated that SGs were formed early during CVB3 infection; however, G3BP1-positive SGs were actively disassembled at 5 hrs post-infection, while poly(A)-positive RNA granules persisted. Furthermore, we confirmed G3BP1 cleavage by 3Cpro at Q325. We also demonstrated that overexpression of G3BP1-SGs negatively impacted viral replication at the RNA, protein, and viral progeny levels. Using electron microscopy techniques, we showed that G3BP1-positive SGs localized near mitochondrial surfaces. Finally, we provided evidence that the C-terminal cleavage product of G3BP1 inhibited SG formation and promoted CVB3 replication. Taken together, we conclude that CVB3 infection selectively targets G3BP1-SGs by cleaving G3BP1 to produce a dominant-negative fragment that further inhibits G3BP1-SG formation and facilitates viral replication. PMID:24260247

  14. Quantitative experimental modelling of fragmentation during explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordén Haug, Ø.; Galland, O.; Gisler, G.

    2012-04-01

    Phreatomagmatic eruptions results from the violent interaction between magma and an external source of water, such as ground water or a lake. This interaction causes fragmentation of the magma and/or the host rock, resulting in coarse-grained (lapilli) to very fine-grained (ash) material. The products of phreatomagmatic explosions are classically described by their fragment size distribution, which commonly follows power laws of exponent D. Such descriptive approach, however, considers the final products only and do not provide information on the dynamics of fragmentation. The aim of this contribution is thus to address the following fundamental questions. What are the physics that govern fragmentation processes? How fragmentation occurs through time? What are the mechanisms that produce power law fragment size distributions? And what are the scaling laws that control the exponent D? To address these questions, we performed a quantitative experimental study. The setup consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a layer of cohesive silica flour, at the base of which a pulse of pressurized air is injected, leading to fragmentation of the layer of flour. The fragmentation process is monitored through time using a high-speed camera. By varying systematically the air pressure (P) and the thickness of the flour layer (h) we observed two morphologies of fragmentation: "lift off" where the silica flour above the injection inlet is ejected upwards, and "channeling" where the air pierces through the layer along sub-vertical conduit. By building a phase diagram, we show that the morphology is controlled by P/dgh, where d is the density of the flour and g is the gravitational acceleration. To quantify the fragmentation process, we developed a Matlab image analysis program, which calculates the number and sizes of the fragments, and so the fragment size distribution, during the experiments. The fragment size distributions are in general described by power law distributions of

  15. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  16. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  17. Optical model analyses of heavy ion fragmentation in hydrogen targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical optical-model methods for calculating cross sections for the fragmentation of high-energy heavy ions by hydrogen targets are presented. The cross sections are calculated with a knockout-ablation collision formalism which has no arbitrary fitting parameters. Predictions of elemental production cross sections from the fragmentation of 1.2A Ge(V(La-139) nuclei and of isotope production cross sections from the fragmentation of 400A MeV(S-32) nuclei are in good agreement with recently reported experimental measurements.

  18. Impact Fragmentation: From the Laboratory to Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Eileen V.; Melosh, H. J.

    1998-05-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of target size on the fragmentation outcome of rock targets using a 2D numerical hydrocode. After comparing our hydrocode calculations to laboratory data (including explosive disruption experiments) to validate the results, we use the code to calculate how the critical specific energy (Q*) needed to catastrophically fracture a body varies with target size in the regimes not accessible to experiment. Impact velocity is generally kept constant at about 2.0 km s-1, although some higher velocity (∼5 km s-1) simulations were run to determine a velocity dependence for the fragmentation outcome. To reflect the asteroid population, target diameters range from 10 cm to 1000 km, spanning the regimes where strength and self-gravity (radially varying lithostatic stress) each dominate resistance to fragmentation. We find that there is a significant difference in fragmentation outcome when the lithostatic stress is included in the computations. As expected, surface layers fragment more easily, while the strength of the central regions is greatly enhanced. We derive theQ* versus size relationship for three materials, (basalt, strong-, and weak-cement mortar) each having different static compressive strengths and representing a range of asteroid materials. The hydrocode results showed thatQ* decreased with increasing target size in the strength regime, with slopes of 0.43, 0.59, and 0.6 for basalt, strong and weak mortar, respectively. This decrease is directly related to the decrease in strain rate as target size grows. In the gravity regime,Q* increases with increasing target size, with a slope equal to 2.6 for all three of the materials modeled. These values are much steeper than those previously derived from scaling theories. Ejecta velocity distributions as a function of target size are examined as well. For large bodies, resultant ejecta speeds tend to be well below escape velocity, implying that these asteroids are likely to be

  19. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2009-05-01

    volatile-fluid phases, which have encountered a local hydrologically active fault. The explosions were inadequate in mechanical energy release (72% of a mine production blast) to eject material from the pipe, and the pipe may not have breached surface. The next stage of fragmentation is interpreted to have been an upward-moving collapse of the pre-conditioned hanging wall of a subterranean volcanic excavation. This would explain the mega-scale layering across the width of the breccia pipe. It must be questioned whether the preserved K08 architecture represents early pipe development in general, or is a special case of a late pipe geometry modification process. Previous literature describes sidewall and hanging wall caving processes elsewhere in the Venetia cluster and other kimberlites world wide. A requirement for emplacement models that include upward pipe growth processes is the availability of space (mass deficit at depth) into which the caving and/or dilating breccia can expand. It is possible that K08 might be connected to adjacent K02 at a depth somewhere below 400m, which would explain the presence of volcaniclastic kimberlite at depth within the K08 pipe. K08 is likely an incomplete ancillary sideward development to K02. The latest stage of brecciation is quantified through an observed evolution in the fractal dimension of the PSD. It is interpreted to be due to complex adjustments in volume in the pipe causing shearing and re-fragmentation of the breccia.

  20. Role of Quorum Sensing and Antimicrobial Component Production by Serratia plymuthica in Formation of Biofilms, Including Mixed Biofilms with Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Pieter; Van Houdt, Rob; Aertsen, Abram; Vanoirbeek, Kristof; Engelborghs, Yves; Michiels, Chris W.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously characterized the N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone-based quorum-sensing system of the biofilm isolate Serratia plymuthica RVH1. Here we investigated the role of quorum sensing and of quorum-sensing-dependent production of an antimicrobial compound (AC) on biofilm formation by RVH1 and on the cocultivation of RVH1 and Escherichia coli in planktonic cultures or in biofilms. Biofilm formation of S. plymuthica was not affected by the knockout of splI or splR, the S. plymuthica homologs of the luxI or luxR quorum-sensing gene, respectively, or by the knockout of AC production. E. coli grew well in mixed broth culture with RVH1 until the latter reached 8.5 to 9.5 log CFU/ml, after which the E. coli colony counts steeply declined. In comparison, only a very small decline occurred in cocultures with the S. plymuthica AC-deficient and splI mutants. Complementation with exogenous N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone rescued the wild-type phenotype of the splI mutant. The splR knockout mutant also induced a steep decline of E. coli, consistent with its proposed function as a repressor of quorum-sensing-regulated genes. The numbers of E. coli in 3-day-old mixed biofilms followed a similar pattern, being higher with S. plymuthica deficient in SplI or AC production than with wild-type S. plymuthica, the splR mutant, or the splI mutant in the presence of N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis of mixed biofilms established with strains producing different fluorescent proteins showed that E. coli microcolonies were less developed in the presence of RVH1 than in the presence of the AC-deficient mutant. PMID:16997989

  1. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

  2. Fragmentation and Hadronization in e+e- Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, David

    2001-11-15

    We present a number of jet fragmentation and hadronization measurements in e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} Z{sup 0} {yields} hadrons. The L3 collaboration has searched for pointlike color singlet radiation in multi-jet events, limiting any such contribution to rapidity gap events at the few percent level. ALEPH and SLD have measured production rates of a number of identified hadrons, including precise, full-coverage spectra of B hadrons. L3 and SLD have studied charged track and identified hadron production in heavy- and light-flavor events. OPAL has made a pioneering comparison of charged multiplicities between events of the three light flavors, u{bar u}, d{bar d} and s{bar s}.

  3. 78 FR 21151 - G4 Products, LLC a Subsidiary of G4 Holdings, Inc. Including Workers Whose Wages are Paid Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...). The Department's Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on May 17, 2012 (77 FR... Brothers, Geiger Group, Livgeiger, and Sun Graphix and Including On-Site Leased Workers from OSW and Maine..., LLC, Geiger Brothers, Geiger Group, Livgeiger, LLC, and Sun Graphix. The subject worker group does...

  4. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate.

  5. Methods for rearing Mesostoma ehrenbergii in the laboratory for cell biology experiments, including identification of factors that influence production of different egg types.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Carina; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Gauthier, Kimberley; Forer, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes are uniquely useful to study various aspects of cell division. Their chromosomes are large in size and few in number, with only three bivalent and four univalent chromosomes. During prometaphase, bipolar bivalents oscillate regularly to and from the poles for 1-2 hours. The univalents remain at the poles but occasionally move from one pole to the other. In addition, a precocious cleavage furrow forms during prometaphase and remains partially constricted until anaphase. Attempts to rear these animals indefinitely in laboratory conditions, however, have been mostly unsuccessful because of their reproductive strategy. M. ehrenbergii are hermaphroditic flatworms that can produce viviparous offspring (termed S eggs) and/or diapausing eggs (termed D eggs) and they follow either one of two reproductive patterns: (1) they first form S eggs and following the delivery of these eggs produce D eggs, or (2) they only produce D eggs. When only D eggs are formed, which is common under laboratory conditions, the stocks die out until the D eggs hatch, which is irregular and creates unpredictable wait times. Consequently, in order to maintain M. ehrenbergii stocks to study their spermatocytes, we examined various factors that might influence egg-type production. Feeding them daily and keeping them at 25°C favours S egg production. Currently, our cultures have reached the 53rd generation. We herein describe our rearing and dissection methods, and some experiments which led to our present rearing methods. PMID:23686667

  6. Methods for rearing Mesostoma ehrenbergii in the laboratory for cell biology experiments, including identification of factors that influence production of different egg types.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Carina; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Gauthier, Kimberley; Forer, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes are uniquely useful to study various aspects of cell division. Their chromosomes are large in size and few in number, with only three bivalent and four univalent chromosomes. During prometaphase, bipolar bivalents oscillate regularly to and from the poles for 1-2 hours. The univalents remain at the poles but occasionally move from one pole to the other. In addition, a precocious cleavage furrow forms during prometaphase and remains partially constricted until anaphase. Attempts to rear these animals indefinitely in laboratory conditions, however, have been mostly unsuccessful because of their reproductive strategy. M. ehrenbergii are hermaphroditic flatworms that can produce viviparous offspring (termed S eggs) and/or diapausing eggs (termed D eggs) and they follow either one of two reproductive patterns: (1) they first form S eggs and following the delivery of these eggs produce D eggs, or (2) they only produce D eggs. When only D eggs are formed, which is common under laboratory conditions, the stocks die out until the D eggs hatch, which is irregular and creates unpredictable wait times. Consequently, in order to maintain M. ehrenbergii stocks to study their spermatocytes, we examined various factors that might influence egg-type production. Feeding them daily and keeping them at 25°C favours S egg production. Currently, our cultures have reached the 53rd generation. We herein describe our rearing and dissection methods, and some experiments which led to our present rearing methods.

  7. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

  8. Analysis of Peptidoglycan Fragment Release.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Ryan E; Lenz, Jonathan D; Dillard, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria break down a significant portion of their cell wall peptidoglycan during each round of growth and cell division. This process generates peptidoglycan fragments of various sizes that can either be imported back into the cytoplasm for recycling or released from the cell. Released fragments have been shown to act as microbe-associated molecular patterns for the initiation of immune responses, as triggers for the initiation of mutualistic host-microbe relationships, and as signals for cell-cell communication in bacteria. Characterizing these released peptidoglycan fragments can, therefore, be considered an important step in understanding how microbes communicate with other organisms in their environments. In this chapter, we describe methods for labeling cell wall peptidoglycan, calculating the rate at which peptidoglycan is turned over, and collecting released peptidoglycan to determine the abundance and species of released fragments. Methods are described for both the separation of peptidoglycan fragments by size-exclusion chromatography and further detailed analysis by HPLC.

  9. Fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Feyfant, Eric; Cross, Jason B; Paris, Kevin; Tsao, Désirée H H

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD), which is comprised of both fragment screening and the use of fragment hits to design leads, began more than 15 years ago and has been steadily gaining in popularity and utility. Its origin lies on the fact that the coverage of chemical space and the binding efficiency of hits are directly related to the size of the compounds screened. Nevertheless, FBDD still faces challenges, among them developing fragment screening libraries that ensure optimal coverage of chemical space, physical properties and chemical tractability. Fragment screening also requires sensitive assays, often biophysical in nature, to detect weak binders. In this chapter we will introduce the technologies used to address these challenges and outline the experimental advantages that make FBDD one of the most popular new hit-to-lead process. PMID:20981527

  10. The role of valence quarks in proton fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hove, L.

    1981-06-01

    Following earlier theoretical and experimental work (Kalinowski et al. [6], Bourquin et al. [7]), baryon production by fragmentation of incident protons in high energy hadron collisions is re-investigated in terms of a fragmentation-recombination mechanism similar to a model proposed by Fukuda and Iso [4]. The multiplicities n f (B) for the various types of baryons B produced in proton fragmentation are expressed in terms of the probabilities a i for i=0, ..., 3 valence quarks of the incident proton to emerge in the baryon B and 3- i to emerge in mesons (following [7] we suppose that antibaryon production is mostly due to baryon-antibaryon pair production by a mechanism of non-fragmentation type, and this is taken into account in deducing n f (B) from baryon and antibaryon multiplicity data). The positivity of the a i is found to impose remarkably narrow constraints on the n f (B) for (meta)stable B, and we find the data to satisfy these constraints. We show furthermore that the data are compatible with uncorrelated behaviour of the valence quarks of the incident proton, each of them having a probability ≃ 0.6 to emerge in the fragmentation baryon B, and a probability ≃ 0.4 to emerge in a meson. We also briefly discuss the relation of our analysis to previous work on the recombination model of proton fragmentation and its possible extension to meson fragmentation.

  11. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed. PMID:23853355

  12. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed.

  13. Fragment generation, survival, and attachment of Dictyota spp. at Conch Reef in the Florida Keys, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herren, L. W.; Walters, L. J.; Beach, K. S.

    2006-05-01

    During the past decade, the relative abundance of the brown macroalgae Dictyota spp. has been high in the Florida Keys. Recent studies have shown that members of this genus successfully reproduce via vegetative fragmentation. To investigate the importance of fragmentation on the reef community, this study examined: (1) the degree of epiphytism on benthic organisms, (2) the rate of fragment production through fish foraging activities, (3) the likelihood of fragment entanglement, and (4) the fragment attachment and success rate. It was found that reef fish contributed substantially to the fragment pool; furthermore, most fish-produced fragments produced rhizoids and attached to sand grains within 24 h in the field. Fragments of Dictyota spp. most commonly became entangled around and then attached themselves to the green alga Halimeda tuna, and other Dictyota spp. These results suggest that vegetative fragmentation of Dictyota spp. plays an important role in the changing community structure on the Florida Keys reef tract.

  14. Stereoelectronic effects in the fragmentation of γ-silyloxy-β-hydroxy-α-diazocarbonyl compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jabre, Nitinkumar D.; Brewer, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A series of γ-silyloxy-β-hydroxy-α-diazocarbonyl compounds were prepared as fragmentation substrates to probe the hypothesis that steric interactions between the diazo ester and adjacent silyloxy group can play an important role in determining the success of fragmentations. Proper stereoelectronic alignment of the diazo ester and the departing hydroxyl group is necessary for productive fragmentation to occur. PMID:23066902

  15. Triphoton production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Williams, Ciaran

    2014-06-01

    We present next-to-leading order predictions for the production of triphoton final states at the LHC and the Tevatron. Our results include the effect of photon fragmentation for the first time and we are able to quantify the impact of different isolation prescriptions. We find that calculations accounting for fragmentation effects at leading order, and those employing a smooth cone isolation where no fragmentation contribution is required, are in reasonable agreement with one another. However, larger differences in the predicted rates arise when higher order corrections to the fragmentation functions are included. In addition we present full analytic results for the $\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma+$jet one-loop amplitudes. These amplitudes, which are particularly compact, may be useful to future higher-order calculations. Our results are available in the Monte Carlo code MCFM.

  16. Nutritional assessment of genetically modified rapeseed synthesizing high amounts of mid-chain fatty acids including production responses of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Hartwig; Rudloff, Eike; Schöne, Friedrich; Schumann, Wolfgang; Hüther, Liane; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2007-08-01

    The nutritive value of genetically modified myristic acid-rich rapeseed, in which a acyl-thioesterase gene inserted, was studied. Crude nutrients, amino acid and fatty acid profiles as well as mineral and glucosinolate contents were determined and compared with those of the non-transgenic parental cultivar. The concentration of crude nutrients, minerals and amino acids were found to be within the range of natural variance. The myristic and palmitic acid content increased from 0.1 - 11.4% and from 3.6-20%, respectively, at the expense of oleic acid, which decreased from 68.6-42.6% of total fatty acids. The glucosinolate contents increased from 12.4 micromol/g in the parental plant to 19 micromol/g DM in the GM-plant. Full-fat rapeseed of both cultivars was incorporated in pig diets at a level of 15%, and the digestibility and the production efficiency were tested under ad libitum feeding conditions with ten pigs each over the growing finishing period from 32-105 kg BW. The experimental diets did not show significant differences in digestibility and energetic feeding value. However, feed intake and weight gain decreased presumably due to the increasing glucosinolate intake associated with the feeding of transgenic rapeseed. The dietary fatty acids profile influenced the fatty acid profile of body fat. Myristic acid accumulated in back fat and intramuscular fat while the oleic acid content decreased. The increased glucosinolate intake affected the weight of thyroid glands and their iodine concentration.

  17. An evaluation of some innovative fragmentation systems for oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hieta, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1991-06-01

    This report describes a large-scale underground mining method, large-hole stoping, using some innovative fragmentation systems (buffer blasting, continuous loading/hauling, and mechanical miners for development). This study includes a literature review and an experimental study of one of the key design factors--buffer blasting. The purpose of the buffer-blasting experiments is to examine the swell that is necessary to achieve satisfactory fragmentation results. The study also includes a technical and economic evaluation of the new mining method compared with conventional room and pillar mining. The purpose of this study is to examine innovative methods that exist today and may provide a more efficient mining system than that currently used. Note that this is a conceptual study, and that the mining for the two mine designs were compared using a daily production rate of 75,000 tones per day. This amount was chosen because it is the maximum amount possible for a rubber-tired room and pillar operation with only a one-shaft complex.

  18. UV-photodegradation of desipramine: Impact of concentration, pH and temperature on formation of products including their biodegradability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Khaleel, Nareman D H; Mahmoud, Waleed M M; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Desipramine (DMI) is a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, and it is the major metabolite of imipramine (IMI) and lofepramine (LMI); IMI and LMI are two of the most commonly used tricyclic antidepressants. If DMI enters the aquatic environment, it can be transformed by the environmental bacteria or UV radiation. Therefore, photolysis of DMI in water was performed using a simulated sunlight Xenon-lamp and a UV-lamp. Subsequently, the biodegradability of DMI and its photo-transformation products (PTPs) formed during its UV photolysis was studied. The influence of variable conditions, such as initial DMI concentration, solution pH, and temperature, on DMI UV photolysis behavior was also studied. The degree of mineralization of DMI and its PTPs was monitored. A Shimadzu HPLC-UV apparatus was used to follow the kinetic profile of DMI during UV-irradiation; after that, ion-trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with chromatography were used to monitor and identify the possible PTPs. The environmentally relevant properties and selected toxicity properties of DMI and the non-biodegradable PTPs were predicted using different QSAR models. DMI underwent UV photolysis with first-order kinetics. Quantum yields were very low. DOC values indicated that DMI formed new PTPs and was not completely mineralized. Analysis by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that the photolysis of DMI followed three main photolysis pathways: isomerization, hydroxylation, and ring opening. The photolysis rate was inversely proportional to initial DMI concentration. The pH showed a significant impact on the photolysis rate of DMI, and on the PTPs in terms of both formation kinetics and mechanisms. Although temperature was expected to increase the photolysis rate, it showed a non-significant impact in this study. Results from biodegradation tests and QSAR analysis revealed that DMI and its PTPs are not readily biodegradable and that some PTPs may be human and/or eco

  19. Identification tree based on fragmentation rules for structure elucidation of organophosphorus esters by electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberg, Adrián; Ichou, Farid; Cole, Richard B; Machuron-Mandard, Xavier; Junot, Christophe; Lesage, Denis; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds have played important roles as pesticides, chemical warfare agents and extractors of radioactive material. Structural elucidation of phosphonates poses a particular challenge because their initial forms can be hydrolyzed, thus, degradation products may predominate in samples acquired in the field. The analysis of non-volatile organophosphorus compounds and their degradation products is possible using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry ESI-MS/MS. Here, we present a generic strategy that allows the unambiguous identification of substituents for two families of organophosphorus compounds: the phosphonates and phosphates. General fragmentation rules were deduced based on the study of decomposition pathways of 55 organophosphorus esters, including examples found in the literature. Multistage MS (MS(n)) experiments at high resolution in a hybrid mass spectrometer provide accurate mass measurements, whereas collision-induced dissociation experiments in a triple quadrupole give access to small fragment ions. The creation of a specific nomenclature for each possible structure of organophosphorus compound, depending on the alkyl side chain linked to the oxygen, was achieved by applying these fragmentation rules. This led to the creation of an 'identification tree' based upon the unique consecutive decomposition pathways uncovered for each individual compound. Hence, seven structural motifs were created that orient an unequivocal identification using the 'identification tree'. Despite the similar structures of the ensemble of phosphate and phosphonate esters, distinct identifications based upon characteristic neutral losses and diagnostic fragment ions were possible in all cases. PMID:23674282

  20. Fragmentation and densities of meteoroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babadzhanov, Pulat B.

    1992-01-01

    Photographic observations of meteors carried out in Dushanbe by the method of instantaneous exposure have shown clearly that meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere are subjected to different types of fragmentation. The quasi-continuous fragmentation of meteoroids is mostly widespread. Using the physical theory of meteors which takes into account the quasi-continuous fragmentation of meteoroids and on the basis of light curves of meteors the densities of meteoroids of different streams have been determined. The results enable us to conclude that the densities of meteoroids are over an order of magnitude higher than they have been assumed before. Moreover they are close to the densities of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites.

  1. Velocity fluctuations of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Carmona, Belén Martínez; Martínez, Jose L. Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    We propose event by event velocity fluctuations of nuclear fission fragments as an additional interesting observable that gives access to the nuclear temperature in an independent way from spectral measurements and relates the diffusion and friction coefficients for the relative fragment coordinate in Kramers-like models (in which some aspects of fission can be understood as the diffusion of a collective variable through a potential barrier). We point out that neutron emission by the heavy fragments can be treated in effective theory if corrections to the velocity distribution are needed.

  2. UV-photodegradation of desipramine: Impact of concentration, pH and temperature on formation of products including their biodegradability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Khaleel, Nareman D H; Mahmoud, Waleed M M; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Desipramine (DMI) is a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, and it is the major metabolite of imipramine (IMI) and lofepramine (LMI); IMI and LMI are two of the most commonly used tricyclic antidepressants. If DMI enters the aquatic environment, it can be transformed by the environmental bacteria or UV radiation. Therefore, photolysis of DMI in water was performed using a simulated sunlight Xenon-lamp and a UV-lamp. Subsequently, the biodegradability of DMI and its photo-transformation products (PTPs) formed during its UV photolysis was studied. The influence of variable conditions, such as initial DMI concentration, solution pH, and temperature, on DMI UV photolysis behavior was also studied. The degree of mineralization of DMI and its PTPs was monitored. A Shimadzu HPLC-UV apparatus was used to follow the kinetic profile of DMI during UV-irradiation; after that, ion-trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with chromatography were used to monitor and identify the possible PTPs. The environmentally relevant properties and selected toxicity properties of DMI and the non-biodegradable PTPs were predicted using different QSAR models. DMI underwent UV photolysis with first-order kinetics. Quantum yields were very low. DOC values indicated that DMI formed new PTPs and was not completely mineralized. Analysis by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that the photolysis of DMI followed three main photolysis pathways: isomerization, hydroxylation, and ring opening. The photolysis rate was inversely proportional to initial DMI concentration. The pH showed a significant impact on the photolysis rate of DMI, and on the PTPs in terms of both formation kinetics and mechanisms. Although temperature was expected to increase the photolysis rate, it showed a non-significant impact in this study. Results from biodegradation tests and QSAR analysis revealed that DMI and its PTPs are not readily biodegradable and that some PTPs may be human and/or eco

  3. Comparison of calculated and experimental results of fragmenting cylinder experiments

    SciTech Connect

    WILSON,L.T.; REEDAL,D.R.; KIPP,MARLIN E.; MARTINEZ,REINA R.; GRADY,D.E.

    2000-06-02

    The Grady-Kipp fragmentation model provides a physically based method for determining the fracture and breakup of materials under high loading rates. Recently, this model has been implemented into the CTH Shock Physics Code and has been used to simulate several published experiments. Materials studied in this paper are AerMet 100 steel and a 90% tungsten alloy. The experimental geometry consists of a right circular cylinder filled with an explosive main charge that is initiated at its center. The sudden expansion of the resulting detonation products causes fracture of the cylinder. Strain rates seen in the cylinder are on the order of 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. The average fragment sizes calculated with the Grady-Kipp fragmentation model successfully replicate the mean fragment size obtained from the experimental fragment distribution. When Poisson statistics are applied to the calculated local average fragment sizes, good correlation is also observed with the shape of the experimental cumulative fragment distribution. The experimental fragmentation results, CTH numerical simulations, and correlation of these numerical results with the experimental data are described.

  4. Gluon fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Jing; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2016-09-01

    We derive gluon fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by treating a gluon as a pair of color lines formed by a fictitious quark and antiquark (q q ¯). Gluon elementary fragmentation functions are obtained from the quark and antiquark elementary fragmentation functions for emitting specific mesons in the NJL model under the requirement that the q q ¯ pair maintains in the flavor-singlet state after meson emissions. An integral equation, which iterates the gluon elementary fragmentation functions to all orders, is then solved to yield the gluon fragmentation functions at a model scale. It is observed that these solutions are stable with respect to variation of relevant model parameters, especially after QCD evolution to a higher scale is implemented. We show that the inclusion of the gluon fragmentation functions into the theoretical predictions from only the quark fragmentation functions greatly improves the agreement with the SLD data for the pion and kaon productions in e+e- annihilation. Our proposal provides a plausible construct for the gluon fragmentation functions, which are supposed to be null in the NJL model.

  5. Experimental modelling of fragmentation applied to volcanic explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, Øystein Thordén; Galland, Olivier; Gisler, Galen R.

    2013-12-01

    Explosions during volcanic eruptions cause fragmentation of magma and host rock, resulting in fragments with sizes ranging from boulders to fine ash. The products can be described by fragment size distributions (FSD), which commonly follow power laws with exponent D. The processes that lead to power-law distributions and the physical parameters that control D remain unknown. We developed a quantitative experimental procedure to study the physics of the fragmentation process through time. The apparatus consists of a Hele-Shaw cell containing a layer of cohesive silica flour that is fragmented by a rapid injection of pressurized air. The evolving fragmentation of the flour is monitored with a high-speed camera, and the images are analysed to obtain the evolution of the number of fragments (N), their average size (A), and the FSD. Using the results from our image-analysis procedure, we find transient empirical laws for N, A and the exponent D of the power-law FSD as functions of the initial air pressure. We show that our experimental procedure is a promising tool for unravelling the complex physics of fragmentation during phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptions.

  6. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  7. A decadal view of magma fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although the past decade has seen fundamental advances in studies of explosive volcanism, the disruption to air traffic caused by the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, highlights the need for improved understanding of magmatic fragmentation in general, and of fine ash generation in particular. To develop a theoretical basis for predicting the fine ash content of eruptive plumes, we need to understand not only fragmentation mechanisms but also the dependence of those mechanisms on conditions of magma ascent and degassing. Experimental and analytical approaches to this problem include experimental studies of vesiculation and permeability development in silicic melts, quantitative textural studies of pyroclasts to constrain conditions that reduce fragmentation efficiency (that is, allow vesicular clasts to be preserved), direct experiments on fragmentation in both natural and analog materials, and determination of total grain size distributions (TGSDs) of pyroclastic deposits. Experiments on silicic melts have demonstrated that very high supersaturations (overpressures ΔP) may be achieved in silicic melts prior to homogeneous bubble nucleation, and that the high bubble number densities of silicic pumice require not only homogeneous nucleation but also nucleation of a mixed H2O-CO2 gas phase. In most pumice and scoria clasts, resulting vesicle populations form power law size distributions; power law exponents >3 in silicic tephras indicate that small vesicles comprise most of the vesicle volume (consistent with rapid late-stage vesiculation at high ΔP), while exponents < 3 in mafic tephras show that larger bubbles are volumetrically dominant and may reflect extensive bubble coalescence prior to fragmentation. Modal vesicularites of pyroclasts are typically high (> 60-70%) and show no dependence on either melt composition or mass eruption rate; this suggests that melt porosity is more important than either decompression rate or magma rheology for clast

  8. Fragmentation and Isolation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscapes are being modified by humans at ever-increasing rates worldwide. This landscape level modification has resulted in changes in ecological patterns and processes, including species distributions. The rate at which humans are altering both terrestrial and aquatic habitats...

  9. Fragmentation of drying paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

  10. Calculus fragmentation in laser lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Welch, A J; Kang, H W; Lee, H; Teichman, J M H

    2004-03-01

    The intracorporeal treatment of urinary calculi with lasers is presented, which describes laser-calculus interactions associated with lithotripsy. Reliable fragmentation of calculi with diverse compositions and minimal collateral tissue damage are primarily contingent upon laser parameters (wavelength, pulse duration, and pulse energy) and physical properties of calculi (optical, mechanical, and chemical). The pulse duration governs the dominant mechanism in calculi fragmentation, which is either photothermal or photoacoustical/photomechanical. Lasers with long pulse durations (i.e. > tens of micros) induce a temperature rise in the laser-affected zone with minimal acoustic waves; material is removed by means of vaporization, melting, mechanical stress, and/or chemical decomposition. Short-pulsed laser ablation (i.e. < 10 micros), on the other hand, produces shock waves, and the resultant mechanical energy fragments calculi. Work continues throughout the world to evaluate the feasibility of advanced lasers in lithotripsy and to optimize laser parameters and light delivery systems pertinent to efficient fragmentation of calculi.

  11. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  13. ACFIS: a web server for fragment-based drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Jiang, Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Wu, Feng-Xu; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In order to foster innovation and improve the effectiveness of drug discovery, there is a considerable interest in exploring unknown ‘chemical space’ to identify new bioactive compounds with novel and diverse scaffolds. Hence, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) was developed rapidly due to its advanced expansive search for ‘chemical space’, which can lead to a higher hit rate and ligand efficiency (LE). However, computational screening of fragments is always hampered by the promiscuous binding model. In this study, we developed a new web server Auto Core Fragment in silico Screening (ACFIS). It includes three computational modules, PARA_GEN, CORE_GEN and CAND_GEN. ACFIS can generate core fragment structure from the active molecule using fragment deconstruction analysis and perform in silico screening by growing fragments to the junction of core fragment structure. An integrated energy calculation rapidly identifies which fragments fit the binding site of a protein. We constructed a simple interface to enable users to view top-ranking molecules in 2D and the binding mode in 3D for further experimental exploration. This makes the ACFIS a highly valuable tool for drug discovery. The ACFIS web server is free and open to all users at http://chemyang.ccnu.edu.cn/ccb/server/ACFIS/. PMID:27150808

  14. Long-term dynamics of a fragmented rainforest mammal assemblage.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Laurance, Susan G; Hilbert, David W

    2008-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a severe threat to tropical biotas, but its long-term effects are poorly understood. We evaluated longer-term changes in the abundance of larger (>1 kg) mammals in fragmented and intact rainforest and in riparian "corridors" in tropical Queensland, with data from 190 spotlighting surveys conducted in 1986-1987 and 2006-2007. In 1986-1987 when most fragments were already 20-50 years old, mammal assemblages differed markedly between fragmented and intact forest. Most vulnerable were lemuroid ringtail possums (Hemibelideus lemuroides), followed by Lumholtz's tree-kangaroos (Dendrolagus lumholtzi) and Herbert River ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus herbertensis). Further changes were evident 20 years later. Mammal species richness fell significantly in fragments, and the abundances of 4 species, coppery brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula johnstoni), green ringtail possums (Pseudochirops archeri), red-legged pademelons (Thylogale stigmatica), and tree-kangaroos, declined significantly. The most surprising finding was that the lemuroid ringtail, a strict rainforest specialist, apparently recolonized one fragment, despite a 99.98% decrease in abundance in fragments and corridors. A combination of factors, including long-term fragmentation effects, shifts in the surrounding matrix vegetation, and recurring cyclone disturbances, appear to underlie these dynamic changes in mammal assemblages.

  15. ACFIS: a web server for fragment-based drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Jiang, Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Wu, Feng-Xu; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-07-01

    In order to foster innovation and improve the effectiveness of drug discovery, there is a considerable interest in exploring unknown 'chemical space' to identify new bioactive compounds with novel and diverse scaffolds. Hence, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) was developed rapidly due to its advanced expansive search for 'chemical space', which can lead to a higher hit rate and ligand efficiency (LE). However, computational screening of fragments is always hampered by the promiscuous binding model. In this study, we developed a new web server Auto Core Fragment in silico Screening (ACFIS). It includes three computational modules, PARA_GEN, CORE_GEN and CAND_GEN. ACFIS can generate core fragment structure from the active molecule using fragment deconstruction analysis and perform in silico screening by growing fragments to the junction of core fragment structure. An integrated energy calculation rapidly identifies which fragments fit the binding site of a protein. We constructed a simple interface to enable users to view top-ranking molecules in 2D and the binding mode in 3D for further experimental exploration. This makes the ACFIS a highly valuable tool for drug discovery. The ACFIS web server is free and open to all users at http://chemyang.ccnu.edu.cn/ccb/server/ACFIS/. PMID:27150808

  16. Reconstructing fragmentation processes at Santiaguito volcano by combining ash analysis with geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, Adrian; Lavallée, Yan; Clesham, Stephen; De Angelis, Silvio; Kendrick, Jackie; Cimarelli, Corrado; Rollinson, Gavyn; Butcher, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Santiaguito volcano exhibits cyclic deformation and regular Vulcanian gas-and-ash explosions, ongoing for almost 100 years. Airfall ash samples collected 500 m from the active Caliente vent constitute a snapshot of the ash-forming mechanisms between and during eruptive events. Samples collected following ashfall from Vulcanian explosion plumes and following a major dome collapse with associated pyroclastic density currents on 28 November 2012, appear blocky and poorly vesicular under scanning electron microscope, indicating fragmentation of dense, low porosity magma. Particle size distributions show a single dominant fragmentation mechanism during co-pyroclastic flow airfall ash, at least three significant sources of erupted ash can be identified for vulcanian plume-derived ash. We employ QEMSCAN analysis, which provides a micron-scale dataset of ash particle morphology and phase distribution, to explore the textural fingerprint of these fragmentation processes. Ash generated during dome collapse shows a greater abundance of interstitial glass at particle boundaries over most of the particle size range, showing that the segregation of glass-enriched fines into airfall deposits during pyroclastic flow cannot fully account for this trend. Conversely, the relative depletion of glass in vulcanian explosion deposits may be due to viscous stress accommodation within interstitial glass, which concentrates stress within crystalline phases during fragmentation. By comparing ash analyses with observations of dome inflation and faulting, lava effusion and seismic and infrasound measurements, including recent measurements recorded during Workshops on Volcanoes 2016, we describe a stable sequence of ash-generating processes occurring during normal vulcanian activity: 1) Fracture and faulting and abrasion of plug material, 2) Failure and fragmentation of magma below the plug, 3) Expulsion of clastic material residing above the fragmentation depth, 4) Expansion and flow of the

  17. Fragmentation of singly, doubly, and triply charged hydrogen deficient peptide radical cations in infrared multiphoton dissociation and electron induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Kalli, Anastasia; Hess, Sonja

    2012-02-01

    Gas phase fragmentation of hydrogen deficient peptide radical cations continues to be an active area of research. While collision induced dissociation (CID) of singly charged species is widely examined, dissociation channels of singly and multiply charged radical cations in infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron induced dissociation (EID) have not been, so far, investigated. Here, we report on the gas phase dissociation of singly, doubly and triply charged hydrogen deficient peptide radicals, [M + nH]((n+1)+·) (n=0, 1, 2), in MS(3) IRMPD and EID and compare the observed fragmentation pathways to those obtained in MS(3) CID. Backbone fragmentation in MS(3) IRMPD and EID was highly dependent on the charge state of the radical precursor ions, whereas amino acid side chain cleavages were largely independent of the charge state selected for fragmentation. Cleavages at aromatic amino acids, either through side chain loss or backbone fragmentation, were significantly enhanced over other dissociation channels. For singly charged species, the MS(3) IRMPD and EID spectra were mainly governed by radical-driven dissociation. Fragmentation of doubly and triply charged radical cations proceeded through both radical- and charge-driven processes, resulting in the formation of a wide range of backbone product ions including, a-, b-, c-, y-, x-, and z-type. While similarities existed between MS(3) CID, IRMPD, and EID of the same species, several backbone product ions and side chain losses were unique for each activation method. Furthermore, dominant dissociation pathways in each spectrum were dependent on ion activation method, amino acid composition, and charge state selected for fragmentation.

  18. Native State Mass Spectrometry, Surface Plasmon Resonance, and X-ray Crystallography Correlate Strongly as a Fragment Screening Combination.

    PubMed

    Woods, Lucy A; Dolezal, Olan; Ren, Bin; Ryan, John H; Peat, Thomas S; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2016-03-10

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is contingent on the development of analytical methods to identify weak protein-fragment noncovalent interactions. Herein we have combined an underutilized fragment screening method, native state mass spectrometry, together with two proven and popular fragment screening methods, surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography, in a fragment screening campaign against human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II). In an initial fragment screen against a 720-member fragment library (the "CSIRO Fragment Library") seven CA II binding fragments, including a selection of nonclassical CA II binding chemotypes, were identified. A further 70 compounds that comprised the initial hit chemotypes were subsequently sourced from the full CSIRO compound collection and screened. The fragment results were extremely well correlated across the three methods. Our findings demonstrate that there is a tremendous opportunity to apply native state mass spectrometry as a complementary fragment screening method to accelerate drug discovery. PMID:26882437

  19. Discovery of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Inhibitors Using Metabolomics Biased Fragment Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.; Mamat, B; Magnusson, O; Christensen, J; Haraldsson, M; Mishra, R; Pease, B; Hansen, E; Singh, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel fragment library termed fragments of life (FOL) for structure-based drug discovery. The FOL library includes natural small molecules of life, derivatives thereof, and biaryl protein architecture mimetics. The choice of fragments facilitates the interrogation of protein active sites, allosteric binding sites, and protein-protein interaction surfaces for fragment binding. We screened the FOL library against leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) by X-ray crystallography. A diverse set of fragments including derivatives of resveratrol, nicotinamide, and indole were identified as efficient ligands for LTA4H. These fragments were elaborated in a small number of synthetic cycles into potent inhibitors of LTA4H representing multiple novel chemotypes for modulating leukotriene biosynthesis. Analysis of the fragment-bound structures also showed that the fragments comprehensively recapitulated key chemical features and binding modes of several reported LTA4H inhibitors.

  20. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option. PMID:25789413

  1. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option.

  2. Production and characterization of a single-chain variable fragment linked alkaline phosphatase fusion protein for detection of O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides in a one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein for detection of O, O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was produced and characterized. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning VL and VH genes from a hybridoma cell secreting monoclonal antibody with broad-s...

  3. The combined fragmentation and systematic molecular fragmentation methods.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael A; Cvitkovic, Milan W; Bettens, Ryan P A

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Chemistry, particularly organic chemistry, is mostly concerned with functional groups: amines, amides, alcohols, ketones, and so forth. This is because the reactivity of molecules can be categorized in terms of the reactions of these functional groups, and by the influence of other adjacent groups in the molecule. These simple truths ought to be reflected in the electronic structure and electronic energy of molecules, as reactivity is determined by electronic structure. However, sophisticated ab initio quantum calculations of the molecular electronic energy usually do not make these truths apparent. In recent years, several computational chemistry groups have discovered methods for estimating the electronic energy as a sum of the energies of small molecular fragments, or small sets of groups. By decomposing molecules into such fragments of adjacent functional groups, researchers can estimate the electronic energy to chemical accuracy; not just qualitative trends, but accurate enough to understand reactivity. In addition, this has the benefit of cutting down on both computational time and cost, as the necessary calculation time increases rapidly with an increasing number of electrons. Even with steady advances in computer technology, progress in the study of large molecules is slow. In this Account, we describe two related "fragmentation" methods for treating molecules, the combined fragmentation method (CFM) and systematic molecular fragmentation (SMF). In addition, we show how we can use the SMF approach to estimate the energy and properties of nonconducting crystals, by fragmenting the periodic crystal structure into relatively small pieces. A large part of this Account is devoted to simple overviews of how the methods work. We also discuss the application of these approaches to calculating reactivity and other useful properties, such as the NMR and vibrational spectra of molecules and crystals. These applications rely on the ability of these

  4. Fragmentation and ablation during entry

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    This note discusses objects that both fragment and ablate during entry, using the results of previous reports to describe the velocity, pressure, and fragmentation of entering objects. It shows that the mechanisms used there to describe the breakup of non-ablating objects during deceleration remain valid for most ablating objects. It treats coupled fragmentation and ablation during entry, building on earlier models that separately discuss the entry of objects that are hard, whose high heat of ablation permits little erosion, and those who are strong whose strength prevents fragmentation, which are discussed in ``Radiation from Hard Objects,`` ``Deceleration and Radiation of Strong, Hard, Asteroids During Atmospheric Impact,`` and ``Meteor Signature Interpretation.`` This note provides a more detailed treatment of the further breakup and separation of fragments during descent. It replaces the constraint on mass per unit area used earlier to determine the altitude and magnitude of peak power radiation with a detailed analytic solution of deceleration. Model predictions are shown to be in agreement with the key features of numerical calculations of deceleration. The model equations are solved for the altitudes of maximum radiation, which agree with numerical integrations. The model is inverted analytically to infer object size and speed from measurements of peak power and altitude to provide a complete model for the approximate inversion of meteor data.

  5. Change and fragmentation trends of Zhanjiang mangrove forests in southern China using multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1977-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. S.; Mao, L. J.; Shen, W. J.; Liu, S. Q.; Wei, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Mangrove forests, which are found in saline coastal environments around the tropical and subtropical latitudes, are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems in the world and provide valuable ecological and societal goods and services. The objective of this work was to characterize the spatio-temporal changes in mangrove distribution and fragmentation patterns in the Zhanjiang National Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve, Guangdong province of Southern China, from 1977 through 2010. In addition, a major goal was to assess the socio-economic drivers contributing to the chronic changes taking place within and around the mangrove reserve. Land use and land cover data sets were generated for the reserve for multiple years via unsupervised classification using Landsat time series images. Mangrove fragmentation patterns were then assessed with a fragmentation model. Results revealed that the mangrove spatial extent decreased sharply during the period from 1977 to 1991 due to deforestation caused by diverse development programs, particularly shrimp farming. Afterwards, there was a continuous increase in mangrove extent from 1991 to 2010 due to afforestation and conservation efforts. The mangrove fragmentation trends depicted by the fragmentation model had a high degree of correlation with the observed areal changes. Additionally, the recorded dynamics of the local biodiversity (mainly birds) were consistent with the mangrove ecosystem fragmentation trends over time, and different fragmentation components, including interior, perforated and edge, had distinct impacts on the local mangrove-dependent biodiversity. The most effective way to protect and expand the current mangroves include the following: (1) establishment of mangrove natural reserves, (2) forceful implementation of regulations, (3) establishment of educational programs related to mangrove management, (4) deepening international exchanges and cooperation and (5) increasing the transparency of the project

  6. DNA fragmentation induced by ionizing radiation - Atomic Force Microscopy study .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Psonka, K.; Elsaesser, Th.; Brons, S.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

    DNA as a carrier of genetic information is considered to be the critical target for radiation induced damage Especially severe are DNA double-strand breaks DSBs formed when breaks occur in both strands of the molecule The DSBs production is determined by the spatial distribution of ionization events dependent on the physical properties of the energy deposition and the chemical environment of the DNA According to theoretical predictions high LET charged particle radiation induces lesions in close proximity forming so called clustered damage in the DNA Atomic Force Microscopy AFM was newly established as a technique allowing the direct visualization of DNA fragments resulting from DSBs induced in small DNA molecules plasmids by ionizing radiation We have used AFM to visualize the DNA fragmentation induced by heavy ions high LET radiation and to compare it to the fragmentation pattern obtained after X-rays low LET radiation Plasmid supercoiled DNA was irradiated in vitro with X-rays and 3 9 MeV u Ni ions within a dose range 0 -- 3000 Gy Afterwards the samples were analyzed using AFM which allowed the detection and length measurement of individual fragments with a nanometer resolution Recording of the length of the induced fragments allowed to distinguish between molecules broken by a single DSB or by multiple DSBs The fragment length distributions were derived for different doses and different radiation qualities The first results of the measurement of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation show an influence of radiation quality on

  7. Modelling of post-fragmentation waste stream processing within UK shredder facilities.

    PubMed

    Coates, Gareth; Rahimifard, Shahin

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of producer responsibility legislation within the UK (i.e., waste electrical and electronic equipment directive and end-of-life vehicles directive), specific recycling and recovery targets have been imposed to improve the sustainability of end-of-life products. With the introduction of these targets, and the increased investment in post-fragmentation facilities, automated material separation technologies are playing an integral role within the UK's end-of-life waste management strategy. Post-fragmentation facilities utilise a range of purification technologies that target certain material attributes (e.g., density, magnetism, volume) to isolate materials from the shredded waste stream. High ferrous prices have historically meant that UK facilities have been primarily interested in recovering iron and steel, establishing processing routes that are very effective at removing these material types, but as a consequence are extremely rigid and inflexible. With the proliferation of more exotic materials within end-of-life products, combined with more stringent recycling targets, there is therefore a need to optimise the current waste reclamation processes to better realise effort-to-value returns. This paper provides a background as to the current post-fragmentation processing adopted within the UK, and describes the development of a post-fragmentation modelling approach, capable of simulating the value-added processing that a piece of automated separation equipment can have on a fragmented waste stream. These include the modelling of the inefficiencies of the technology, the effects of material entanglement on separation, determination of typical material sizing and an appreciation for compositional value. The implementation of this approach within a software decision-support system is described, before the limitations, calibration and further validation of the approach are discussed. PMID:18472415

  8. Analyzing Internal Fragmentation of Electrosprayed Ubiquitin Ions During Beam-Type Collisional Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Kenneth R.; Skinner, Owen S.; Fellers, Ryan T.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis.

  9. Phenocryst fragments in rhyolitic lavas and lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. R.; McPhie, J.

    2003-08-01

    Although rhyolitic lavas and lava domes are characterised by evenly porphyritic textures, not all the phenocrysts are whole euhedra. We undertook image analysis of 46 rhyolitic lava and lava dome samples to determine the abundance and shape of quartz and feldspar phenocryst fragments. Phenocryst fragments were identified in nearly all samples. On average, fragments amount to ˜5% of the total phenocryst population, or ˜0.5 modal%. The abundance of fragments in lavas and lava domes is not related to the groundmass texture (whether vesicular, flow banded, massive, glassy or crystalline), nor to distance from source. Fragments are, however, more abundant in samples with higher phenocryst contents. The phenocryst fragments in rhyolitic lavas and lava domes are mainly medium to large (0.5-3.5 mm), almost euhedral crystals with only a small portion removed, or chunky, equant, subhedral fragments, and occur in near-jigsaw-fit or clast-rotated pairs or groups. The fragments probably formed in response to decompression of large melt inclusions. Shear during laminar flow then dismembered the phenocrysts; continued laminar shear separated and rotated the fragments. Fractures probably formed preferentially along weaknesses in the phenocrysts, such as zones of melt inclusions, cleavage planes and twin composition planes. Rare splintery fragments are also present, especially within devitrified domains. Splinters are attributed to comminution of solid lava adjacent to fractures that were later healed. For comparison, we measured crystal abundance in a further 12 rhyolite samples that include block and ash flow deposits and ignimbrite. Phenocryst fragments within clasts in the block and ash flow samples showed similar shapes and abundances to those fragments within the lava and lava domes. Crystal fragments are much more abundant in ignimbrite (exceeding 67% of the crystal population) however, and dominated by small, equant, anhedral chunks or splinters. The larger crystals in

  10. Quark fragmentation functions in NJL-jet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, Wolfgang; Matevosyan, Hrayr; Thomas, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. Supported by Grant in Aid for Scientific Research, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Project No. 20168769.

  11. Synergistic impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on model ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Lewis J; Newbold, Tim; Purves, Drew W; Tittensor, Derek P; Harfoot, Michael B J

    2016-09-28

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, yet separating their effects is challenging. We use a multi-trophic, trait-based, and spatially explicit general ecosystem model to examine the independent and synergistic effects of these processes on ecosystem structure. We manipulated habitat by removing plant biomass in varying spatial extents, intensities, and configurations. We found that emergent synergistic interactions of loss and fragmentation are major determinants of ecosystem response, including population declines and trophic pyramid shifts. Furthermore, trait-mediated interactions, such as a disproportionate sensitivity of large-sized organisms to fragmentation, produce significant effects in shaping responses. We also show that top-down regulation mitigates the effects of land use on plant biomass loss, suggesting that models lacking these interactions-including most carbon stock models-may not adequately capture land-use change impacts. Our results have important implications for understanding ecosystem responses to environmental change, and assessing the impacts of habitat fragmentation.

  12. Biological restorations using tooth fragments.

    PubMed

    Busato, A L; Loguercio, A D; Barbosa, A N; Sanseverino, M do C; Macedo, R P; Baldissera, R A

    1998-02-01

    A "biological" restoration technique using dental fragments and adhesive materials is described. These fragments were obtained from extracted human teeth which had been previously sterilized and stored in a tooth bank. The advantages are: the use of extracted teeth as restorative material, esthetics, and treatment cost. The positive sensation of having back the missing tooth was the most mentioned comment among patients. The disadvantages are: the difficulty of obtaining teeth with the needed characteristics, problems of making an indirect restoration, matching the original color, and the non-acceptance by some patients who consider it strange to have other people's teeth placed in their mouths.

  13. DNA Oligonucleotide Fragment Ion Rearrangements Upon Collision-Induced Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Brett; Neumann, Elizabeth K.; Solouki, Touradj

    2015-08-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of m/z-isolated w type fragment ions and an intact 5' phosphorylated DNA oligonucleotide generated rearranged product ions. Of the 21 studied w ions of various nucleotide sequences, fragment ion sizes, and charge states, 18 (~86%) generated rearranged product ions upon CID in a Synapt G2-S HDMS (Waters Corporation, Manchester, England, UK) ion mobility-mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometry (MS), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and theoretical modeling data suggest that purine bases can attack the free 5' phosphate group in w type ions and 5' phosphorylated DNA to generate sequence permuted [phosphopurine]- fragment ions. We propose and discuss a potential mechanism for generation of rearranged [phosphopurine]- and complementary y-B type product ions.

  14. Measurement of [ital b] quark fragmentation fractions in the production of strange and light [ital B] mesons in p[bar p] collisions at [radical] (s) =1. 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, R.E.; Byrum, K.L.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.E.; LeCompte, T.; Nodulman, L. ); Breccia, L.; Brunetti, R.; Deninno, M.; Fiori, I.; Mazzanti, P. ); Behrends, S.; Bensinger, J.; Blocker, C.; Kirk, M.; Kirsch, L.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Niu, H. ); Bonushkin, Y.; Hauser, J.; Lindgren, M. ); Ashmanskas, W.; Berryhill, J.; Contreras, M.; Culbertson, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Nakaya, T. ); Benjamin, D.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dittmann, J.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Khazins, D.; Kowald, W.; Oh, S.H. ); Albrow, M.G.; Atac, M.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Biery, K.; Binkley, M.; Bu

    1999-11-01

    A new technique to measure the ratio of [ital b] quark fragmentation fractions in p[bar p] collisions is described. Using a 70-pb[sup [minus]1] sample of low-mass dimuon trigger data recorded with the Collider Detector at Fermilab, we identify [ital B] mesons by observing the double semileptonic decays b[r arrow]c[mu]X with c[r arrow]s[mu]X. By counting the numbers of K[sup [asterisk

  15. The Fragmentation of Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrell, David

    Although outdoor leadership does not appear to be coalescing into a unified profession, there are potential solutions to this fragmentation. Six robust approaches to the professional provision of outdoor leadership are: (1) outfitting and guiding; (2) organized camping; (3) adventure education, such as Outward Bound; (4) the outdoor school; (5)…

  16. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  17. Properties of fragmented repulsive condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2005-06-15

    Repulsive Bose-Einstein condensates immersed into a double-well trap potential are studied within the framework of the recently introduced mean-field approach which allows for bosons to reside in several different orthonormal orbitals. In the case of a one-orbital mean-field theory (Gross-Pitaevskii) the ground state of the system reveals a bifurcation scenario at some critical values of the interparticle interaction and/or the number of particles. At about the same values of the parameters the two-orbital mean field predicts that the system becomes twofold fragmented. By applying the three-orbital mean field we verify numerically that for the double-well external potential studied here the overall best mean field is achieved with two orbitals. The variational principle minimizes the energy at a vanishing population of the third orbital. To discuss the energies needed to remove a boson from and the energies gained by adding a boson to the condensate, we introduce boson ionization potentials and boson affinities and relate them to the chemical potentials. The impact of the finite number of bosons in the condensate on these quantities is analyzed. We recall that within the framework of the multiorbital mean-field theory each fragment is characterized by its own chemical potential. Finally, the stability of fragmented states is discussed in terms of the boson transfer energy which is the energy needed to transfer a boson from one fragment to another.

  18. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  19. Fragment merger: an online tool to merge overlapping long sequence fragments.

    PubMed

    Bell, Trevor G; Kramvis, Anna

    2013-03-12

    While PCR amplicons extend to a few thousand bases, the length of sequences from direct Sanger sequencing is limited to 500-800 nucleotides. Therefore, several fragments may be required to cover an amplicon, a gene or an entire genome. These fragments are typically sequenced in an overlapping fashion and assembled by manually sliding and aligning the sequences visually. This is time-consuming, repetitive and error-prone, and further complicated by circular genomes. An online tool merging two to twelve long overlapping sequence fragments was developed. Either chromatograms or FASTA files are submitted to the tool, which trims poor quality ends of chromatograms according to user-specified parameters. Fragments are assembled into a single sequence by repeatedly calling the EMBOSS merger tool in a consecutive manner. Output includes the number of trimmed nucleotides, details of each merge, and an optional alignment to a reference sequence. The final merge sequence is displayed and can be downloaded in FASTA format. All output files can be downloaded as a ZIP archive. This tool allows for easy and automated assembly of overlapping sequences and is aimed at researchers without specialist computer skills. The tool is genome- and organism-agnostic and has been developed using hepatitis B virus sequence data.

  20. High-resolution (e, 2e + ion) study of electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xueguang Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yong; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2015-05-07

    The ionization and fragmentation of methane induced by low-energy (E{sub 0} = 66 eV) electron-impact is investigated using a reaction microscope. The momentum vectors of all three charged final state particles, two outgoing electrons, and one fragment ion, are detected in coincidence. Compared to the earlier study [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134307 (2013)], considerable improvements to the instrumental mass and energy resolutions have been achieved. The fragment products CH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, CH{sup +}, and C{sup +} are clearly resolved. The binding energy resolution of ΔE = 2.0 eV is a factor of three better than in the earlier measurements. The fragmentation channels are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy distributions and the binding energy spectra. While being mostly in consistence with existing photoionization studies the results show differences including missing fragmentation channels and previously unseen channels.

  1. Revised Phase II Plan for the National Education Practice File Development Project Including: Creation; Pilot Testing; and Evaluation of a Test Practice File. Product 1.7/1.8 (Product 1.6 Appended).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Gregory, Jr.; And Others

    A detailed work plan is presented for the conduct of Phase II activities, which are concerned with creating a pilot test file, conducting a test of it, evaluating the process and input of the file, and preparing the file management plan. Due to the outcomes of activities in Phase I, this plan was revised from an earlier outline. Included in the…

  2. Fragments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    This performance autoethnography shows the author's struggle in finding his place, scholarship, voice, and body, into the academic setting. Mixing together memories of his lived experience with sugar cane workers, notes, and leftovers of different fieldworks, plus 6 years of life as grad student at the University of Illinois, the author looks for…

  3. Unimolecular thermal fragmentation of ortho-benzyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Maccarone, Alan T.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Kato, Shuji; Bierbaum, Veronica M.; Ellison, G. Barney; Ruscic, Branko; Simmonett, Andrew C.; Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2007-01-01

    The ortho-benzyne diradical, o-C6H4 has been produced with a supersonic nozzle and its subsequent thermal decomposition has been studied. As the temperature of the nozzle is increased, the benzyne molecule fragments: o-C6H4+Δ → products. The thermal dissociation products were identified by three experimental methods: (i) time-of-flight photoionization mass spectrometry, (ii) matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and (iii) chemical ionization mass spectrometry. At the threshold dissociation temperature, o-benzyne cleanly decomposes into acetylene and diacetylene via an apparent retro-Diels-Alder process: o-C6H4+Δ →HCCH+HCC-CCH. The experimental ΔrxnH298(o-C6H4→HCCH+HCC-CCH) is found to be 57±3kcalmol-1. Further experiments with the substituted benzyne, 3,6-(CH3)2-o-C6H2, are consistent with a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation. But at higher nozzle temperatures, the cracking pattern becomes more complicated. To interpret these experiments, the retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation of o-benzyne has been investigated by rigorous ab initio electronic structure computations. These calculations used basis sets as large as [C(7s6p5d4f3g2h1i)/H(6s5p4d3f2g1h)] (cc-pV6Z) and electron correlation treatments as extensive as full coupled cluster through triple excitations (CCSDT), in cases with a perturbative term for connected quadruples [CCSDT(Q)]. Focal point extrapolations of the computational data yield a 0K barrier for the concerted, C2v-symmetric decomposition of o-benzyne, Eb(o-C6H4→HCCH+HCC-CCH)=88.0±0.5kcalmol-1. A barrier of this magnitude is consistent with the experimental results. A careful assessment of the thermochemistry for the high temperature fragmentation of benzene is presented: C6H6→H+[C6H5]→H+[o-C6H4]→HCCH+HCC-CCH. Benzyne may be an important intermediate in the thermal decomposition of many alkylbenzenes (arenes). High engine temperatures above 1500K may crack these

  4. Unimolecular thermal fragmentation of ortho-benzyne.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Maccarone, Alan T; Nimlos, Mark R; Kato, Shuji; Bierbaum, Veronica M; Ellison, G Barney; Ruscic, Branko; Simmonett, Andrew C; Allen, Wesley D; Schaefer, Henry F

    2007-01-28

    The ortho-benzyne diradical, o-C(6)H(4) has been produced with a supersonic nozzle and its subsequent thermal decomposition has been studied. As the temperature of the nozzle is increased, the benzyne molecule fragments: o-C(6)H(4)+Delta--> products. The thermal dissociation products were identified by three experimental methods: (i) time-of-flight photoionization mass spectrometry, (ii) matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and (iii) chemical ionization mass spectrometry. At the threshold dissociation temperature, o-benzyne cleanly decomposes into acetylene and diacetylene via an apparent retro-Diels-Alder process: o-C(6)H(4)+Delta-->HC triple bond CH+HC triple bond C-C triple bond CH. The experimental Delta(rxn)H(298)(o-C(6)H(4)-->HC triple bond CH+HC triple bond C-C triple bond CH) is found to be 57+/-3 kcal mol(-1). Further experiments with the substituted benzyne, 3,6-(CH(3))(2)-o-C(6)H(2), are consistent with a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation. But at higher nozzle temperatures, the cracking pattern becomes more complicated. To interpret these experiments, the retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation of o-benzyne has been investigated by rigorous ab initio electronic structure computations. These calculations used basis sets as large as [C(7s6p5d4f3g2h1i)H(6s5p4d3f2g1h)] (cc-pV6Z) and electron correlation treatments as extensive as full coupled cluster through triple excitations (CCSDT), in cases with a perturbative term for connected quadruples [CCSDT(Q)]. Focal point extrapolations of the computational data yield a 0 K barrier for the concerted, C(2v)-symmetric decomposition of o-benzyne, E(b)(o-C(6)H(4)-->HC triple bond CH+HC triple bond C-C triple bond CH)=88.0+/-0.5 kcal mol(-1). A barrier of this magnitude is consistent with the experimental results. A careful assessment of the thermochemistry for the high temperature fragmentation of benzene is presented: C(6)H(6)-->H+[C(6)H(5)]-->H+[o-C(6)H(4)]-->HC triple bond CH+HC triple bond C

  5. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate.

  6. Hydraulic properties of mine soils with embedded lignitic fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Horst H.

    2014-05-01

    Lignitic mine soils represent a typical two-scale dual-porosity medium consisting of a technogenic mixture of overburden sediments that include lignitic components as dust and as porous fragments embedded within a mostly coarse-textured matrix. Flow and transport processes in such soils are not sufficiently understood to predict the course of soil reclamation or of mine drainage. The objective of this contribution is to identify the most appropriate conceptual model for describing small-scale heterogeneity effects on flow on the basis of the physical structure of the system. Two-domain hydraulic properties were derived based on multi-step outflow data. The interface between fragments and sandy matrix represents an additional pore region that cannot be derived from information of either the matrix or the fragments. New information is required on the geometry (size and shape) and spatial distribution of fragments to describe the properties of the mine soil as a whole.

  7. Assembly and analysis of fragmentation data for liquid propellant vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Parr, V. B.; Bessey, R. L.; Cox, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Fragmentation data was assembled and analyzed for exploding liquid propellant vessels. These data were to be retrieved from reports of tests and accidents, including measurements or estimates of blast yield, etc. A significant amount of data was retrieved from a series of tests conducted for measurement of blast and fireball effects of liquid propellant explosions (Project PYRO), a few well-documented accident reports, and a series of tests to determine auto-ignition properties of mixing liquid propellants. The data were reduced and fitted to various statistical functions. Comparisons were made with methods of prediction for blast yield, initial fragment velocities, and fragment range. Reasonably good correlation was achieved. Methods presented in the report allow prediction of fragment patterns, given type and quantity of propellant, type of accident, and time of propellant mixing.

  8. Peptide Fragmentation by Corona Discharge Induced Electrochemical Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental studies have greatly improved our understanding of electrospray, including the underlying electrochemical reactions. Generally regarded as disadvantageous, we have recently shown that corona discharge (CD) can be used as an effective method to create a radical cation species [M]+•, thus optimizing the electrochemical reactions that occur on the surface of the stainless steel (SS) electrospray capillary tip. This technique is known as CD initiated electrochemical ionization (CD-ECI). Here, we report on the fundamental studies using CD-ECI to induce analytically useful in-source fragmentation of a range of molecules that complex transition metals. Compounds that have been selectively fragmented using CD-ECI include enolate forming phenylglycine containing peptides, glycopeptides, nucleosides and phosphopeptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) or other activation techniques were not necessary for CD-ECI fragmentation. A four step mechanism was proposed: 1. Complexation using either Fe in the SS capillary tip material or Cu(II) as an offline complexation reagent; 2. Electrochemical oxidation of the complexed metal and thus formation of a radical cation (e.g.; Fe - e− → Fe +•); 3. Radical fragmentation of the complexed compound. 4. Electrospray ionization of the fragmented neutrals. Fragmentation patterns resembling b- and y-type ions were observed and allowed the localization of the phosphorylation sites. PMID:20869880

  9. Accurate Peptide Fragment Mass Analysis: Multiplexed Peptide Identification and Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Weisbrod, Chad R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Baker, Tahmina; Bruce, James E.

    2012-01-01

    FT All Reaction Monitoring (FT-ARM) is a novel approach for the identification and quantification of peptides that relies upon the selectivity of high mass accuracy data and the specificity of peptide fragmentation patterns. An FT-ARM experiment involves continuous, data-independent, high mass accuracy MS/MS acquisition spanning a defined m/z range. Custom software was developed to search peptides against the multiplexed fragmentation spectra by comparing theoretical or empirical fragment ions against every fragmentation spectrum across the entire acquisition. A dot product score is calculated against each spectrum in order to generate a score chromatogram used for both identification and quantification. Chromatographic elution profile characteristics are not used to cluster precursor peptide signals to their respective fragment ions. FT-ARM identifications are demonstrated to be complementary to conventional data-dependent shotgun analysis, especially in cases where the data-dependent method fails due to fragmenting multiple overlapping precursors. The sensitivity, robustness and specificity of FT-ARM quantification are shown to be analogous to selected reaction monitoring-based peptide quantification with the added benefit of minimal assay development. Thus, FT-ARM is demonstrated to be a novel and complementary data acquisition, identification, and quantification method for the large scale analysis of peptides. PMID:22288382

  10. Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles by Recognizing Patterns in Microscopic Images of Elytra Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Inn; Bisgin, Halil; Ding, Hongjian; Semey, Howard G.; Langley, Darryl A.; Tong, Weida

    2016-01-01

    A crucial step of food contamination inspection is identifying the species of beetle fragments found in the sample, since the presence of some storage beetles is a good indicator of insanitation or potential food safety hazards. The current pratice, visual examination by human analysts, is time consuming and requires several years of experience. Here we developed a species identification algorithm which utilizes images of microscopic elytra fragments. The elytra, or hardened forewings, occupy a large portion of the body, and contain distinctive patterns. In addition, elytra fragments are more commonly recovered from processed food products than other body parts due to their hardness. As a preliminary effort, we chose 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. The elytra were then separated from the specimens and imaged under a microscope. Both global and local characteristics were quantified and used as feature inputs to artificial neural networks for species classification. With leave-one-out cross validation, we achieved overall accuracy of 80% through the proposed global and local features, which indicates that our proposed features could differentiate these species. Through examining the overall and per species accuracies, we further demonstrated that the local features are better suited than the global features for species identification. Future work will include robust testing with more beetle species and algorithm refinement for a higher accuracy. PMID:27341524

  11. High Resolution Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy Of Comet Fragments 73P/ Schwassmann-Wachmann 3-B,C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Morgenthaler, J. P.; Harris, W. M.; Kokorowski, M.; Kidder, A.; Schnackenberg, T.; Carpena Nunez, J.; Hall, T.; Haffner, L.

    2006-09-01

    In May 2006, comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW3) made a spectacular close approach to the Earth. During its 1995 apparition, the comet fragmented into several pieces. One of the brighter components, SW3-B, fragmented into dozens of pieces during the 2006 apparition while another bright fragment, SW3-C did not. Understanding the difference between these two fragments will contribute significantly to our understanding of cometary interiors. We performed observations of SW3-B and SW3-C from Kitt Peak using the Fabry-Perot spectrometers at the McMath-Pierce (MMP) telescope from April 29 - May 10 and at the Wisconsin Hydrogen Alpha Mapper (WHαM) from May 1 - 6, 2006. This period is significant due to its proximity to perigee, overlap with complementary observations, and coincidence with the onset and decline-phase of a major outburst/fragmentation event from SW3-B. The MMP and WHAM Fabry-Perot spectrometers made high resolution measurements of [O I] and NH2 emissions near 6300 Å at δV = 5 km/s and 12 km/s with 4.5 arcmin and 1 degree fields of view, respectively. Many of the spectra separate the cometary and terrestrial [O I] lines and allow determination of water production rates. We report the preliminary analysis of these data, including discussion of the radial distribution of emissions, a comparison activity levels between the two fragments, and a comparison with complementary production rate measurements made over the same period. In addition, following the SW3-B May 9 outburst, H20+ measurements near 6200 Å were made to map the acceleration of water ions near the head and down the tail.

  12. Telomere Fragment Induced Amnion Cell Senescence: A Contributor to Parturition?

    PubMed

    Polettini, Jossimara; Behnia, Faranak; Taylor, Brandie D; Saade, George R; Taylor, Robert N; Menon, Ramkumar

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS)-induced senescence of the amniochorion has been associated with parturition at term. We investigated whether telomere fragments shed into the amniotic fluid (AF) correlated with labor status and tested if exogenous telomere fragments (T-oligos) could induce human and murine amnion cell senescence. In a cross-sectional clinical study, AF telomere fragment concentrations quantitated by a validated real-time PCR assay were higher in women in labor at term compared to those not in labor. In vitro treatment of primary human amnion epithelial cells with 40 μM T-oligos ([TTAGGG]2) that mimic telomere fragments, activated p38MAPK, produced senescence-associated (SA) β-gal staining and increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production compared to cells treated with complementary DNA sequences (Cont-oligos, [AATCCC]2). T-oligos injected into the uteri of pregnant CD1 mice on day 14 of gestation, led to increased p38MAPK, SA-β-gal (SA β-gal) staining in murine amniotic sacs and higher AF IL-8 levels on day 18, compared to saline treated controls. In summary, term labor AF samples had higher telomere fragments than term not in labor AF. In vitro and in situ telomere fragments increased human and murine amnion p38MAPK, senescence and inflammatory cytokines. We propose that telomere fragments released from senescent fetal cells are indicative of fetal cell aging. Based on our data, these telomere fragments cause oxidative stress associated damages to the term amniotic sac and force them to release other DAMPS, which, in turn, provide a sterile immune response that may be one of the many inflammatory signals required to initiate parturition at term.

  13. Telomere Fragment Induced Amnion Cell Senescence: A Contributor to Parturition?

    PubMed Central

    Polettini, Jossimara; Behnia, Faranak; Taylor, Brandie D.; Saade, George R.; Taylor, Robert N.; Menon, Ramkumar

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS)-induced senescence of the amniochorion has been associated with parturition at term. We investigated whether telomere fragments shed into the amniotic fluid (AF) correlated with labor status and tested if exogenous telomere fragments (T-oligos) could induce human and murine amnion cell senescence. In a cross-sectional clinical study, AF telomere fragment concentrations quantitated by a validated real-time PCR assay were higher in women in labor at term compared to those not in labor. In vitro treatment of primary human amnion epithelial cells with 40 μM T-oligos ([TTAGGG]2) that mimic telomere fragments, activated p38MAPK, produced senescence-associated (SA) β-gal staining and increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production compared to cells treated with complementary DNA sequences (Cont-oligos, [AATCCC]2). T-oligos injected into the uteri of pregnant CD1 mice on day 14 of gestation, led to increased p38MAPK, SA-β-gal (SA β-gal) staining in murine amniotic sacs and higher AF IL-8 levels on day 18, compared to saline treated controls. In summary, term labor AF samples had higher telomere fragments than term not in labor AF. In vitro and in situ telomere fragments increased human and murine amnion p38MAPK, senescence and inflammatory cytokines. We propose that telomere fragments released from senescent fetal cells are indicative of fetal cell aging. Based on our data, these telomere fragments cause oxidative stress associated damages to the term amniotic sac and force them to release other DAMPS, which, in turn, provide a sterile immune response that may be one of the many inflammatory signals required to initiate parturition at term. PMID:26397719

  14. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

  15. Fragmentation: Is the message clear?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Storch, Ilse

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the fundamental problems arising from the inherent complexity of larger-scale ecological systems. We examine the tenuous assumption of a direct correspondence between ecological data and theory, we comment on a recent report that evaluated the efficacy of fragmentation experiments, and we briefly assess its implications for ecological research and conservation practice on the landscape scale. Copyright ?? 2002 by the author(s). Published here under licence by The Resilience Alliance.

  16. Modeling of Fragmentation of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Carlozzi, Alexander; Hart, Kenneth; Bryson, Katie; Sears, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand fragmentation and fracture of a given asteroid and mechanisms of break-up. The focus of the present work is to develop modeling techniques for stony asteroids in 10m-100m range to answer two questions: 1) What is the role of material makeup of an asteroid in the stress distribution? 2)How is stress distribution altered in the presence of pre-existing defects?

  17. [The fragmentation of representational space in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Plagnol, A; Oïta, M; Montreuil, M; Granger, B; Lubart, T

    2003-01-01

    compatible with numerous etiological factors. Multiple clinical forms can be differentiated in accordance with the persistence of parasitic areas, the degree of fragmentation, and the formation of sutures. We use this approach to account for an empirical study concerning the analysis of analogical representations in schizophrenia. We used the Parallel Visual Information Processing Test (PVIPT) which assesses the analysis of interfering visual information. Subjects were asked to connect several small geometric figures printed on a transparency. The transparency was displayed above four photographs which were the interfering material. Then, subjects completed three tasks concerning the photographs: a recognition task, a recall task, and an affective qualification task. Using a case-by-case study, this test allows us to access the defense processes of the subjects, which is not possible with the usual methods in cognitive psychopathology. Twelve clinically-stable schizophrenic subjects participated in the study which also included a self-assessment of alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We obtained 2 main results: (a) creation of items in recall or false recognition by 8 subjects, and (b) lack of the usual -negative correlations between the alexithymia score and the recall, recognition and affective qualification scores in the PVIPT. These 2 results contrast with what has been previously observed for alexithymia using the same methodology. The result (a) confirms an interfering activation in schizophrenic memory, which can be interpreted in our framework as indicative of parasitic areas. The creation of items suggests the formation of sutures between the semantic content of photographs and some delusional fragments. The result (b) suggests that the apparent alexithymia in schizophrenia is a defense against interfering activation in parasitic areas. We underline the interest of individual protocols to exhibit the dynamic interplay between an interfering activity in

  18. Assessment of phthalates/phthalate alternatives in children's toys and childcare articles: Review of the report including conclusions and recommendation of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Hauser, Russ; Gennings, Chris; Koch, Holger M; Mirkes, Philip E; Schwetz, Bernard A; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) convened a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates found in children's toys, and childcare products, and in products used by women of childbearing age. The CHAP conducted a risk assessment on phthalates and phthalate substitutes, and made recommendations to either ban, impose an interim ban, or allow the continued use of phthalates and phthalate substitutes in the above products. After a review of the literature, the evaluation included toxic end points of primary concern, biomonitoring results, extant exposure reconstruction, and epidemiological results. The health end points chosen were associated with the rat phthalate syndrome, which is characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), and by cryptorchidism (undescended testes), retention of nipples/areolae, and demasculinization (~incomplete masculinization) of the perineum, resulting in reduced anogenital distance. Risk assessment demonstrated that some phthalates should be permanently banned, removed from the banned list, or remain interim banned. Biomonitoring and toxicology data provided the strongest basis for a mixture risk assessment. In contrast, external exposure data were the weakest and need to be upgraded for epidemiological studies and risk assessments. Such studies would focus on routes and sources. The review presents recommendations and uncertainties. PMID:25944701

  19. Assessment of phthalates/phthalate alternatives in children's toys and childcare articles: Review of the report including conclusions and recommendation of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Hauser, Russ; Gennings, Chris; Koch, Holger M; Mirkes, Philip E; Schwetz, Bernard A; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) convened a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates found in children's toys, and childcare products, and in products used by women of childbearing age. The CHAP conducted a risk assessment on phthalates and phthalate substitutes, and made recommendations to either ban, impose an interim ban, or allow the continued use of phthalates and phthalate substitutes in the above products. After a review of the literature, the evaluation included toxic end points of primary concern, biomonitoring results, extant exposure reconstruction, and epidemiological results. The health end points chosen were associated with the rat phthalate syndrome, which is characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), and by cryptorchidism (undescended testes), retention of nipples/areolae, and demasculinization (~incomplete masculinization) of the perineum, resulting in reduced anogenital distance. Risk assessment demonstrated that some phthalates should be permanently banned, removed from the banned list, or remain interim banned. Biomonitoring and toxicology data provided the strongest basis for a mixture risk assessment. In contrast, external exposure data were the weakest and need to be upgraded for epidemiological studies and risk assessments. Such studies would focus on routes and sources. The review presents recommendations and uncertainties.

  20. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  1. Fragmentation and management of Ethiopian moist evergreen forest drive compositional shifts of insect communities visiting wild Arabica coffee flowers.

    PubMed

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the 'forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the 'semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures. PMID:25355631

  2. Fragmentation and management of Ethiopian moist evergreen forest drive compositional shifts of insect communities visiting wild Arabica coffee flowers.

    PubMed

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the 'forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the 'semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  3. Evidence for Sequence Scrambling in Collision-Induced Dissociation of y-Type Fragment Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladi, Mahsan; Harper, Brett; Solouki, Touradj

    2013-11-01

    Sequence scrambling from y-type fragment ions has not been previously reported. In a study designed to probe structural variations among b-type fragment ions, it was noted that y fragment ions might also yield sequence-scrambled ions. In this study, we examined the possibility and extent of sequence-scrambled fragment ion generation from collision-induced dissociation (CID) of y-type ions from four peptides (all containing basic residues near the C-terminus) including: AAAAH AA-NH2 (where " A" denotes carbon thirteen (13C1) isotope on the alanine carbonyl group), des-acetylated-α-melanocyte (SYSMEHFRWGKPV-NH2), angiotensin II antipeptide (EGVYVHPV), and glu-fibrinopeptide b (EGVNDNEEGFFSAR). We investigated fragmentation patterns of 32 y-type fragment ions, including y fragment ions with different charge states (+1 to +3) and sizes (3 to 12 amino acids). Sequence-scrambled fragment ions were observed from ~50 % (16 out of 32) of the studied y-type ions. However, observed sequence-scrambled ions had low relative intensities from ~0.1 % to a maximum of ~12 %. We present and discuss potential mechanisms for generation of sequence-scrambled fragment ions. To the best of our knowledge, results on y fragment dissociation presented here provide the first experimental evidence for generation of sequence-scrambled fragments from CID of y ions through intermediate cyclic "b-type" ions.

  4. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  5. The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Gross, M.; Assmann, W.; Beck, L.; Grossmann, R.; Maier, H.-J.; Schumann, M.; Sewtz, M.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.; Kruecken, R.; Faestermann, T.; Maier-Komor, P.; Nebel, F.; Zech, E.; Hartung, P.; Stoepler, R.; Juettner, Ph.; Tralmer, F.L.

    2005-11-21

    The layout and status of MAFF at the Munich high flux reactor FRM-II is described. At MAFF 1014 fissions/s will be induced by thermal neutrons in a target with approx. 1 g of 235U. The situation is compared to the SPIRAL2 facility where 1014 fissions/s are expected by fast neutron fission in a target containing 5100 g of 238U. A comparison of the yields of SPIRAL2 and MAFF is performed to show the complementarity of the two ISOL-facilities for fission fragments. MAFF has approximately five times the beam intensities of SPIRAL2 for short-lived fission isotopes with lifetimes shorter than 5 s and thus will focus on the most neutron-rich nuclei, while SPIRAL2 has better perspectives for the more intense, less neutron-rich post-accelerated beams.A problem that also deserves attention is the production of {alpha} emitters, in particular plutonium. Here MAFF has the advantage to contain the Pu-producing 238U only as impurity not as the main fissile system. If SPIRAL2 would use 235U instead of 238U this problematic issue could be avoided at the cost of a further reduction in intensity of very neutron-rich fission fragments by a factor of 10. Finally new physics close to the classically doubly-magic nuclei 78Ni and 132Sn is described.

  6. Improvements to a model of projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.; Das Gupta, S.

    2011-11-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.83.044612 83, 044612 (2011)] we proposed a model for calculating cross sections of various reaction products which arise from disintegration of projectile-like fragments resulting from heavy-ion collisions at intermediate or higher energy. The model has three parts: (1) abrasion, (2) disintegration of the hot abraded projectile-like fragment (PLF) into nucleons and primary composites using a model of equilibrium statistical mechanics, and (3) possible evaporation of hot primary composites. It was assumed that the PLF resulting from abrasion has one temperature T. Data suggested that, while just one value of T seemed adequate for most cross-section calculations, a single value failed when dealing with very peripheral collisions. We have now introduced a variable T=T(b) where b is the impact parameter of the collision. We argue that there are data which not only show that T must be a function of b but, in addition, also point to an approximate value of T for a given b. We propose a very simple formula: T(b)=D0+D1[As(b)/A0] where As(b) is the mass of the abraded PLF and A0 is the mass of the projectile; D0 and D1 are constants. Using this model we compute cross sections for several collisions and compare with data.

  7. Bimodal Behavior of the Heaviest Fragment Distribution in Projectile Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F.; Dayras, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Parlog, M.; Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M.

    2009-08-14

    The charge distribution of the heaviest fragment detected in the decay of quasiprojectiles produced in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions has been observed to be bimodal. This feature is expected as a generic signal of phase transition in nonextensive systems. In this Letter, we present new analyses of experimental data from Au on Au collisions at 60, 80, and 100 MeV/nucleon showing that bimodality is largely independent of the data selection procedure and of entrance channel effects. An estimate of the latent heat of the transition is extracted.

  8. Characterizing GEO Titan Transtage Fragmentations using Ground-based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2016-01-01

    In a continued effort to better characterize the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) environment, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while a third Transtage fragmented in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in Low Earth Orbit. In order to better assess what may be causing these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO recently acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article that was previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that the test article was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to JSC to continue material analysis and historical documentation of the Titan Transtage. The Transtage will be a subject of forensic analysis using spectral measurements to compare with telescopic data; as well, a scale model will be created to use in the Optical Measurement Center for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including a BRDF. The following presentation will provide a review of the Titan Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment.

  9. Cryopreservation increases DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of smokers.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Serif; Senturk, Gozde Erkanli; Ercan, Feriha

    2013-05-01

    Smoking causes subfertility due to deterioration of spermatozoa including decreased concentration and abnormal morphology. Although evidence on the deleterious effects of smoking on spermatozoa parameters is well known, its interference with cryopreservation is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation in non-smokers and smokers. Semen samples were obtained from 40 normospermic male volunteers of whom 20 were non-smokers and 20 smokers. Samples were analyzed in terms of motility, concentration, morphology, and DNA fragmentation before freezing and 1 and 3 months after freezing and thawing. Ultrastructural alterations were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Sperm morphology seemed to be more affected after cryopreservation in samples obtained from smokers. Ultrastructural examination showed alterations in the integrity of the membranes and increased subacrosomal swelling. Before freezing, the increase in DNA fragmentation rate in smokers was not statistically significant compared to that of non-smokers. However, after thawing, the DNA fragmentation rates were significantly high in both non-smokers and smokers compared to their respective rates before freezing. The extent of the increase in DNA fragmentation rate was significantly higher in smokers after thawing compared to that of non-smokers. In conclusion, cryopreservation causes alterations in membrane integrity and increases DNA fragmentation, thus triggering relatively negative effects on the sperm samples of smokers compared to that of non-smokers.

  10. Fragmentation functions at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderle, Daniele P.; Stratmann, Marco; Ringer, Felix

    2015-12-14

    We present a first analysis of parton-to-pion fragmentation functions at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD based on single-inclusive pion production in electron-positron annihilation. Special emphasis is put on the technical details necessary to perform the QCD scale evolution and cross section calculation in Mellin moment space. Lastly, we demonstrate how the description of the data and the theoretical uncertainties are improved when next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections are included.

  11. Fragmentation functions at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderle, Daniele P.; Stratmann, Marco; Ringer, Felix

    2015-12-01

    We present a first analysis of parton-to-pion fragmentation functions at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD based on single-inclusive pion production in electron-positron annihilation. Special emphasis is put on the technical details necessary to perform the QCD scale evolution and cross section calculation in Mellin moment space. Lastly, we demonstrate how the description of the data and the theoretical uncertainties are improved when next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections are included.

  12. Fragmentation under the Scaling Symmetry and Turbulent Cascade with Intermittency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorokhovski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fragmentation plays an important role in a variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes. Examples include atomization in sprays, crushing of rocks, explosion and impact of solids, polymer degradation, etc. Although each individual action of fragmentation is a complex process, the number of these elementary actions is large. It is natural to abstract a simple 'effective' scenario of fragmentation and to represent its essential features. One of the models is the fragmentation under the scaling symmetry: each breakup action reduces the typical length of fragments, r (right arrow) alpha r, by an independent random multiplier alpha (0 < alpha < 1), which is governed by the fragmentation intensity spectrum q(alpha), integral(sup 1)(sub 0) q(alpha)d alpha = 1. This scenario has been proposed by Kolmogorov (1941), when he considered the breakup of solid carbon particle. Describing the breakup as a random discrete process, Kolmogorov stated that at latest times, such a process leads to the log-normal distribution. In Gorokhovski & Saveliev, the fragmentation under the scaling symmetry has been reviewed as a continuous evolution process with new features established. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, the paper synthesizes and completes theoretical part of Gorokhovski & Saveliev. Second, the paper shows a new application of the fragmentation theory under the scale invariance. This application concerns the turbulent cascade with intermittency. We formulate here a model describing the evolution of the velocity increment distribution along the progressively decreasing length scale. The model shows that when the turbulent length scale gets smaller, the velocity increment distribution has central growing peak and develops stretched tails. The intermittency in turbulence is manifested in the same way: large fluctuations of velocity provoke highest strain in narrow (dissipative) regions of flow.

  13. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Minutes of the annual formal project manager's review, including preliminary technical review reports of FY80 experiments. [wheat/barley and corn/soybean experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S./Canada wheat/barley exploratory experiment is discussed with emphasis on labeling, machine processing using P1A, and the crop calendar. Classification and the simulated aggregation test used in the U.S. corn/soybean exploratory experiment are also considered. Topics covered regarding the foreign commodity production forecasting project include: (1) the acquisition, handling, and processing of both U.S. and foreign agricultural data, as well as meteorological data. The accuracy assessment methodology, multicrop sampling and aggregation technology development, frame development, the yield project interface, and classification for area estimation are also examined.

  14. Combating health care fragmentation through integrated health services delivery networks

    PubMed Central

    Ramagem, Caroline; Urrutia, Soledad; Griffith, Tephany; Cruz, Mario; Fabrega, Ricardo; Holder, Reynaldo; Montenegro, Hernán

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Despite existing initiatives to integrate health services in the Americas Health Care fragmentation remains a significant challenge. Excessive fragmentation leads to difficulties in access to services, delivery of services of poor technical quality, inefficient use of resources, increases in production costs, and low user satisfaction. To address this problem, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has launched the Integrated Health Services Delivery Networks (IHSDN) Initiative to support the development of more accessible, equitable and efficient health care models in the Region [1]. Theory/conceptual framework IHSDN are defined as a network of organizations that provides, or makes arrangements to provide, equitable, comprehensive, and integrated health services to a defined population and is willing to be held accountable for its clinical and economic outcomes and the health status of the population served. IHSDN require 14 essential attributes for their adequate operation grouped according to four principal domains: model of care, governance and strategy, organization and management, and financial allocation and incentives [1]. Methods An extensive literature review, expert meetings and country consultations (national, subregional and regional) in the Americas resulted in a set of consensus-based essential attributes and policy options for implementing IHSDN. Results and conclusions The research and evidence on health services integration remains limited; however, several studies suggest that IHSDN could improve health systems performance. Principal lessons learned include: i) integration processes are difficult, complex and long term; ii) integration requires extensive systemic changes and a commitment by health workers, health service managers and policymakers; and iii) multiple modalities and degrees of integration can coexist within a single system. The public policy objective is to propose a design that meets each system’s specific

  15. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.

    2014-06-14

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.

  16. Photon-jet correlations and constraints on fragmentation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Belghobsi, Z.; Fontannaz, M.; Guillet, J.-Ph.; Pilon, E.; Werlen, M.; Heinrich, G.

    2009-06-01

    We study the production of a large-p{sub T} photon in association with a jet in proton-proton collisions. We examine the sensitivity of the jet rapidity distribution to the gluon distribution function in the proton. We then assess the sensitivity of various photon+jet correlation observables to the photon fragmentation functions. We argue that RHIC data on photon-jet correlations can be used to constrain the photon fragmentation functions in a region which was barely accessible in LEP experiments.

  17. Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new model of fragmentation based on a probabilistic calculation of the repeated fracture of a particle population. The resulting continuous solution, which is in closed form, gives the evolution of fragmentation products from an initial block, through a scale-invariant power-law relationship to a final comminuted powder. Models for the fragmentation of particles have been developed separately in mainly two different disciplines: the continuous integro-differential equations of batch mineral grinding (Reid, 1965) and the fractal analysis of geophysics (Turcotte, 1986) based on a discrete model with a single probability of fracture. The first gives a time-dependent development of the particle-size distribution, but has resisted a closed-form solution, while the latter leads to the scale-invariant power laws, but with no time dependence. Bird (2009) recently introduced a bridge between these two approaches with a step-wise iterative calculation of the fragmentation products. The development of the particle-size distribution occurs with discrete steps: during each fragmentation event, the particles will repeatedly fracture probabilistically, cascading down the length scales to a final size distribution reached after all particles have failed to further fragment. We have identified this process as the equivalent to a sequence of trials for each particle with a fixed probability of fragmentation. Although the resulting distribution is discrete, it can be reformulated as a continuous distribution in maturity over time and particle size. In our model, Turcotte's power-law distribution emerges at a unique maturation index that defines a regime boundary. Up to this index, the fragmentation is in an erosional regime with the initial particle size setting the scaling. Fragmentation beyond this index is in a regime of comminution with rebreakage of the particles down to the size limit of fracture. The maturation index can increment continuously, for example under

  18. The asteroids - Accretion, differentiation, fragmentation, and irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkening, L. L.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of meteorites have experienced processes of condensation, accretion, metamorphism, differentiation, brecciation, irradiation and fragmentation. A typical view of meteorite formation has been that the processes following accretion take place in a few asteroidal-sized (approximately 100 km) objects. Discovery of decay products of now extinct Al-26 and Pd-107 in meteorites, discovery of isotopic heterogeneity among meteorite types, re-analysis of meteorite cooling rates, and continuing study of meteoritic compositions have led some meteoriticists to conclude that meteorites obtained their chemical, isotopic, and some textural characteristics in objects initially less than 10 km in diameter. Such a scenario, which is described in this paper, raises the possibility that some of these small planetesimals may have been 'condensation nuclei' for the formation of comets as well as the precursors of asteroids.

  19. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  20. Fragmentation Reactions of Methionine-Containing Protonated Octapeptides and Fragment Ions Therefrom: An Energy-Resolved Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Alex G.

    2013-10-01

    The fragmentation reactions of the MH+ ions as well as the b7, a7, and a7* ions derived therefrom have been studied in detail for the octapeptides MAAAAAAA, AAMAAAAA, AAAAMAAA, and AAAAAAMA. Ionization was by electrospray using a QqToF mass spectrometer, which allowed a study of the evolution of the fragmentation channels as a function of the collision energy. Not surprisingly, the product ion mass spectra for the b7 ions are independent of the original precursor sequence, indicating macrocyclization and reopening to the same mixture of protonated oxazolones prior to fragmentation. The results show that this sequence scrambling results in a distinct preference to place the Met residue in the C-terminal position of the protonated oxazolones. The a7 and a7* ions also produce product ion mass spectra independent of the original peptide sequence. The results for the a7 ions indicate that fragmentation occurs primarily from an amide structure analogous to that observed for a4 ions (Bythell et al. in J Am Chem Soc 132:14766-14779, 2010). Clearly, the rearrangement reaction they have proposed applies equally well to an ions as large as a7. The major fragmentation modes of the MH+ ions at low collision energies produce b7, b6, and b5 ions. As the collision energy is increased further fragmentation of these primary products produces, in part, non-direct sequence ions, which become prominent at lower m/z values, particularly for the peptides with the Met residue near the N-terminus.

  1. Impact fragmentation of model flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Pearson W.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2014-04-01

    Predicting the bulk material properties of active matter is challenging since these materials are far from equilibrium and standard statistical-mechanics approaches may fail. We report a computational study of the surface properties of a well known active matter system: aggregations of self-propelled particles that are coupled via an orientational interaction and that resemble bird flocks. By simulating the impact of these models flocks on an impermeable surface, we find that they fragment into subflocks with power-law mass distributions, similar to shattering brittle solids but not to splashing liquid drops. Thus, we find that despite the interparticle interactions, these model flocks do not possess an emergent surface tension.

  2. Fragmentation in massive star formation.

    PubMed

    Beuther, Henrik; Schilke, Peter

    2004-02-20

    Studies of evolved massive stars indicate that they form in a clustered mode. During the earliest evolutionary stages, these regions are embedded within their natal cores. Here we present high-spatial-resolution interferometric dust continuum observations disentangling the cluster-like structure of a young massive star-forming region. The derived protocluster mass distribution is consistent with the stellar initial mass function. Thus, fragmentation of the initial massive cores may determine the initial mass function and the masses of the final stars. This implies that stars of all masses can form via accretion processes, and coalescence of intermediate-mass protostars appears not to be necessary.

  3. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of amore » $q$-$$\\bar q$$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $$\\Delta y$$ falling within the window of $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $$dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$$ on the near side at $$(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $$(\\Delta \\phi$$$$\\sim$$$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$$$\\sim$$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, but there is no such prohibition for $$|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.« less

  4. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of a $q$-$\\bar q$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $\\Delta y$ falling within the window of $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$ on the near side at $(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $(\\Delta \\phi$$\\sim$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$\\sim$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, but there is no such prohibition for $|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.

  5. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-15

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  6. Polarization phenomena in projectile fragmentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuta, K.; Ozawa, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Minamisono, T.; Fukuda, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Momota, S.; Ohtsubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Takechi, H.; Fukuda, S.; Minami, I.; Sugimoto, K.; Tanihata, I.; Omata, K.; Alonso, J.R.; Krebs, G.F.; Symons, T.J.M.

    1992-03-01

    The nuclear spin polarization of beta-emitting fragments {sup 37}K and {sup 39} Ca has been measured at around the grazing angle of the {sup 40}Ca + Au collision at 106 MeV/u. Momentum dependence of the observed fragment polarization supports the idea that the origin of the polarization is the orbital angular momentum held by the fragment part of the projectile before the collision takes place. The sizable polarization of about 5% that was observed for the fragments will be a powerful tool for NMR study of the fragments.

  7. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  8. Fragment-Based Screening by Protein Crystallography: Successes and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Chilingaryan, Zorik; Yin, Zhou; Oakley, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) concerns the screening of low-molecular weight compounds against macromolecular targets of clinical relevance. These compounds act as starting points for the development of drugs. FBDD has evolved and grown in popularity over the past 15 years. In this paper, the rationale and technology behind the use of X-ray crystallography in fragment based screening (FBS) will be described, including fragment library design and use of synchrotron radiation and robotics for high-throughput X-ray data collection. Some recent uses of crystallography in FBS will be described in detail, including interrogation of the drug targets β-secretase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, phosphodiesterase 4A and Hsp90. These examples provide illustrations of projects where crystallography is straightforward or difficult, and where other screening methods can help overcome the limitations of crystallography necessitated by diffraction quality. PMID:23202926

  9. Fragment-based screening by protein crystallography: successes and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chilingaryan, Zorik; Yin, Zhou; Oakley, Aaron J

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) concerns the screening of low-molecular weight compounds against macromolecular targets of clinical relevance. These compounds act as starting points for the development of drugs. FBDD has evolved and grown in popularity over the past 15 years. In this paper, the rationale and technology behind the use of X-ray crystallography in fragment based screening (FBS) will be described, including fragment library design and use of synchrotron radiation and robotics for high-throughput X-ray data collection. Some recent uses of crystallography in FBS will be described in detail, including interrogation of the drug targets β-secretase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, phosphodiesterase 4A and Hsp90. These examples provide illustrations of projects where crystallography is straightforward or difficult, and where other screening methods can help overcome the limitations of crystallography necessitated by diffraction quality. PMID:23202926

  10. Improved atmospheric trace gas measurements with an aircraft-based tandem mass spectrometer: Ion identification by mass-selected fragmentation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Thomas; MöHler, Ottmar; Arnold, Frank

    1998-12-01

    We have built and employed an aircraft-borne triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) for fragmentation studies of mass-selected ions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The fragmentation studies included both ambient and artificially produced ions relevant for the measurement of atmospheric trace gases by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry (IMRMS) and led to an unambiguous identification of the chemical composition of important ions used for IMRMS measurements. Among these are the product ions of ion molecule reactions of CO3-(H2O)n and H3O+(H2O)n ions with HNO3, SO2, acetone, HCN, and methyl cyanide. These reactions have been studied in the laboratory, and ions having the same masses as the expected product ions have been previously observed in atmospheric IMRMS spectra. The present fragmentation studies are the first to actually identify the chemical composition of these ions during aircraft measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and demonstrate that these ions can reliably be used for atmospheric trace gas measurements. Furthermore, the fragmentation studies gave indications for the existence and the possible identification of previously unknown ions. Among these the tentative identification of CO3-H2O2 offers the possibility for sensitive measurements of H2O2 by IMRMS. The fragmentation studies were accompanied by IMRMS measurements of atmospheric trace gases using the TQMS. Altitude profiles of HNO3, SO2, and lower limits for H2O2 are shown.

  11. New neutron-deficient isotopes from 78Kr fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, B.; Goigoux, T.; Ascher, P.; Gerbaux, M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grévy, S.; Kurtukian Nieto, T.; Magron, C.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Guadilla, V.; Montaner-Piza, A.; Morales, A. I.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Rubio, B.; Ahn, D. S.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kiss, G.; Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Nishimura, S.; Phong, V. H.; Sakurai, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Wu, J.; Fujita, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Gelletly, W.; Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Diel, F.; Lubos, D.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D.; Borcea, C.; Boso, A.; Cakirli, R. B.; Ganioglu, E.; Chiba, J.; Nishimura, D.; Oikawa, H.; Takei, Y.; Yagi, S.; Wimmer, K.; de France, G.; Go, S.

    2016-06-01

    In an experiment with the RIKEN projectile fragment separator called BigRIPS at the RIKEN Nishina Center, the fragmentation of a 78Kr beam allowed the observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes at the proton drip line. Clean identification spectra could be produced and 63Se,67Kr, and 68Kr were identified for the first time. In addition, 59Ge was also observed. Three of these isotopes, 59Ge,63Se, and 67Kr, are potential candidates for ground-state two-proton radioactivity. In addition, the isotopes 58Ge,62Se, and 66Kr were also sought but without success. The present experiment also allowed the determination of production cross sections for some of the most exotic isotopes. These measurements confirm the trend already observed that the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, significantly overestimates experimental cross sections in this mass region.

  12. Fragmentation in filamentary molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Yanett; Garay, Guido; Rathborne, Jill M.; Sanhueza, Patricio

    2016-02-01

    Recent surveys of dust continuum emission at sub-mm wavelengths have shown that filamentary molecular clouds are ubiquitous along the Galactic plane. These structures are inhomogeneous, with overdensities that are sometimes associated with infrared emission and active of star formation. To investigate the connection between filaments and star formation, requires an understanding of the processes that lead to the fragmentation of filaments and a determination of the physical properties of the overdensities (clumps). In this paper, we present a multiwavelength study of five filamentary molecular clouds, containing several clumps in different evolutionary stages of star formation. We analyse the fragmentation of the filaments and derive the physical properties of their clumps. We find that the clumps in all filaments have a characteristic spacing consistent with the prediction of the `sausage' instability theory, regardless of the complex morphology of the filaments or their evolutionary stage. We also find that most clumps have sufficient mass and density to form high-mass stars, supporting the idea that high-mass stars and clusters form within filaments.

  13. Automated glass-fragmentation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Gaile G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a novel automated inspection process for tempered safety glass. The system is geared toward the European Community (EC) import regulations which are based on fragment count and dimensions in a fractured glass sample. The automation of this test presents two key challenges: image acquisition, and robust particle segmentation. The image acquisition must perform well both for clear and opaque glass. Opaque regions of glass are common in the American auto industry due to painted styling or adhesives (e.g. defroster cables). The system presented uses a multiple light source, reflected light imaging technique, rather than transmitted light imaging which is often used in manual versions of this inspection test. Segmentation of the glass fragments in the resulting images must produce clean and completely connected crack lines in order to compute the correct particle count. Processing must therefore be robust with respect to noise in the imaging process such as dust and glint on the glass. The system presented takes advantage of mathematical morphology algorithms, in particular the watershed algorithm, to perform robust preprocessing and segmentation. Example images and image segmentation results are shown for tempered safety glass which has been painted on the outside edges for styling purposes.

  14. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services.

  15. Drop fragmentation by laser-induced cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-A, S. Roberto; Kerssens, Pjotr; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    The fragmentation of water droplets by a short laser pulse has received significant attention since the 70's. The fundamental understanding of droplet vaporization/fragmentation is of interest in laser beam propagation in the atmosphere, in situ analysis of combustion products -a great concern due to its ecological implications- and more recently driven by a better understanding of the drop shaping by a laser pulse which is of interest in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) machines. In this presentation we discuss about the incipient events that lead to the fragmentation of a drop produced by a cavitation bubble. When the bubble expands, it stretches the drop into a thin liquid film; this liquid film is eventually ruptured and a shockwave and small droplets are ejected as fast as 4 times the speed of sound in air. Interestingly, we also observe bubbles on the surface of the stretched film. Numerical simulations of a shock wave propagating inside a droplet show that cavitation bubbles appear when counter propagating shock waves that rebound from the walls of the drop meet. We also show different fragmentation scenarios recorded with high-speed video, one of them being a jelly fish like liquid film that eventually fragments into smaller drops.

  16. Bacterial expression and purification of recombinant bovine Fab fragments.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Philippa M; Maxwell, Gavin; Campo, M Saveria

    2002-02-01

    We have previously described a recombinant phagemid expression vector, pComBov, designed for the production of native sequence bovine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) generated by antibody phage display. Bovine mAb Fab fragments isolated from libraries constructed using pComBov in Escherichia coli strain XL1-Blue, which is routinely used for antibodies expressed on the surface of phage, were expressed at very low yields. Therefore, a study was undertaken to determine optimal growth conditions for maximal expression of bovine Fab fragments in E. coli. By varying the E. coli strain, and the temperature and length of the culture growth, we were able to substantially increase the yield of soluble Fab fragments. A high yield of Fab fragments was found in the culture growth medium, which enabled us to devise a rapid and simple single-step method for the purification of native (nondenatured) Fabs based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography against a six-histidine amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension of the heavy-chain constant region. Using these methods we were able to express and purify antigen-specific bovine Fab fragments from E. coli. PMID:11812221

  17. In vitro sponge fragment culture of Chondrosia reniformis (Nardo, 1847).

    PubMed

    Nickel, Michael; Brümmer, Franz

    2003-01-23

    In vitro cultivation systems for sponges (Porifera) have to be developed to produce compounds of value in biotechnological processes. Organotypic culture attempts, which maintain or mimic the natural tissue structure, are promising ways towards a biotechnology of sponges. We used the Mediterranean species Chondrosia reniformis for sponge fragment in vitro cultivation. The species is common throughout the Mediterranean, easy to keep in aquariums and shows good recovery and regeneration after fragmentation. The regeneration process of the 50-80 mm(3) fragments lasted for several days and resulted in a rounded or ovoid body shape. The aquiferous system was reduced. Cells performed proliferation during the first weeks as we could demonstrate by 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation. No proliferation could be demonstrated after a culture period of 3 months, but silicate uptake. Cellular density decreased with cultivation length, but collagen production increased. Fragments have been kept in culture up to 19 months. C. reniformis can be used as a model system to develop feeding strategies and evaluate the biotechnological potential of sponge fragment in vitro cultivation.

  18. Identification of genes affecting vacuole membrane fragmentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Michaillat, Lydie; Mayer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission influences the volume and copy number of organelles. Fusion of yeast vacuoles has been well characterized but their fission and the mechanisms determining vacuole size and abundance remain poorly understood. We therefore attempted to systematically characterize factors necessary for vacuole fission. Here, we present results of an in vivo screening for deficiencies in vacuolar fragmentation activity of an ordered collection deletion mutants, representing 4881 non-essential genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen identified 133 mutants with strong defects in vacuole fragmentation. These comprise numerous known fragmentation factors, such as the Fab1p complex, Tor1p, Sit4p and the V-ATPase, thus validating the approach. The screen identified many novel factors promoting vacuole fragmentation. Among those are 22 open reading frames of unknown function and three conspicuous clusters of proteins with known function. The clusters concern the ESCRT machinery, adaptins, and lipases, which influence the production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. A common feature of these factors of known function is their capacity to change membrane curvature, suggesting that they might promote vacuole fragmentation via this property.

  19. Does habitat fragmentation influence nest predation in the shortgrass prairie?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, M.N.; Skagen, S.K.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat fragmentation and vegetation structure of shortgrass prairie and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands on predation rates of artificial and natural nests in northeastern Colorado. The CRP provides federal payments to landowners to take highly erodible cropland out of agricultural production. In our study area, CRP lands have been reseeded primarily with non-native grasses, and this vegetation is taller than native shortgrass prairie. We measured three indices of habitat fragmentation (patch size, degree of matrix fragmentation, and distance from edge), none of which influenced mortality rates of artificial or natural nests. Vegetation structure did influence predation rates of artificial nests; daily mortality decreased significantly with increasing vegetation height. Vegetation structure did not influence predation rates of natural nests. CRP lands and shortgrass sites did not differ with respect to mortality rates of artificial nests. Our study area is only moderately fragmented; 62% of the study area is occupied by native grassland. We conclude that the extent of habitat fragmentation in our study area does not result in increased predation in remaining patches of shortgrass prairie habitat.

  20. Identification of Genes Affecting Vacuole Membrane Fragmentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Michaillat, Lydie; Mayer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission influences the volume and copy number of organelles. Fusion of yeast vacuoles has been well characterized but their fission and the mechanisms determining vacuole size and abundance remain poorly understood. We therefore attempted to systematically characterize factors necessary for vacuole fission. Here, we present results of an in vivo screening for deficiencies in vacuolar fragmentation activity of an ordered collection deletion mutants, representing 4881 non-essential genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen identified 133 mutants with strong defects in vacuole fragmentation. These comprise numerous known fragmentation factors, such as the Fab1p complex, Tor1p, Sit4p and the V-ATPase, thus validating the approach. The screen identified many novel factors promoting vacuole fragmentation. Among those are 22 open reading frames of unknown function and three conspicuous clusters of proteins with known function. The clusters concern the ESCRT machinery, adaptins, and lipases, which influence the production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. A common feature of these factors of known function is their capacity to change membrane curvature, suggesting that they might promote vacuole fragmentation via this property. PMID:23383298

  1. Fragmentation of Bicyclic γ-Silyloxy-β-hydroxy-α-diazolactones as an Approach to Ynolides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Medium-sized ynolides were prepared by the Lewis acid-mediated fragmentation of bicyclic γ-silyloxy-β-hydroxy-α-diazolactones in which the Cβ–Cγ bond is the ring fusion bond. Although these lactone fragmentation substrates reacted somewhat less efficiently than their carbocyclic counterparts, the fragmentation provided 11-membered ynolides in up to 84% yield. Unlike prior fragmentations of similar substrates, elevated temperatures were required to obtain optimum yields of the ynolide products. The ynolides reported herein have ring sizes of 10 or 11, which are the smallest reported to date. PMID:24922068

  2. Multi-scale models of grassland passerine abundance in a fragmented system in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renfrew, R.B.; Ribic, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Fragmentation of grasslands has been implicated in grassland bird population declines. Multi-scale models are being increasingly used to assess potential factors that influence grassland bird presence, abundance, and productivity. However, studies rarely assess fragmentation metrics, and seldom evaluate more than two scales or interactions among scales. We evaluated the relative importance of characteristics at multiple scales to patterns in relative abundance of Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). We surveyed birds in 74 southwestern Wisconsin pastures from 1997 to 1999 and compared models with explanatory variables from multiple scales: within-patch vegetation structure (microhabitat), patch (macrohabitat), and three landscape extents. We also examined interactions between macrohabitat and landscape factors. Core area of pastures was an important predictor of relative abundance, and composition of the landscape was more important than configuration. Relative abundance was frequently higher in pastures with more core area and in landscapes with more grassland and less wooded area. The direction and strength of the effect of core pasture size on relative abundance changed depending on amount of wooded area in the landscape. Relative abundance of grassland birds was associated with landscape variables more frequently at the 1200-m scale than at smaller scales. To develop better predictive models, parameters at multiple scales and their interactive effects should be included, and results should be evaluated in the context of microhabitat variability, landscape composition, and fragmentation in the study area. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Isomeric signatures in the fragmentation of pyridazine and pyrimidine induced by fast ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Wania; Luna, Hugo; Montenegro, Eduardo C.

    2015-07-01

    We present fast proton impact induced fragmentations of pyrimidine and pyridazine as an experimental resource to investigate isomeric signatures. Major isomeric imprints are identified for few fragment ions and differences of more than an order of magnitude for the cross sections of fragments of the same mass were measured. The observation of the molecular structure of these isomers gives no apparent indication for the reasons for such substantial differences. It is verified that the simple displacement of the position of one nitrogen atom strongly inhibits or favors the production of some ionic fragment species. The dependency of the fragmentation cross sections on the proton impact energy, investigated by means of time of flight mass spectroscopy and of a model calculation based in first order perturbation theory, allows us to disentangle the complex collision dynamics of the ionic fragments. The proton-induced fragmentation discriminates rather directly the association between a molecular orbital ionization and the fragment-ions creation and abundance, as well as how the redistribution of the energy imparted to the molecules takes place, triggering not only single but also double vacancy and leads to specific fragmentation pathways.

  4. Isomeric signatures in the fragmentation of pyridazine and pyrimidine induced by fast ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Wania Luna, Hugo; Montenegro, Eduardo C.

    2015-07-28

    We present fast proton impact induced fragmentations of pyrimidine and pyridazine as an experimental resource to investigate isomeric signatures. Major isomeric imprints are identified for few fragment ions and differences of more than an order of magnitude for the cross sections of fragments of the same mass were measured. The observation of the molecular structure of these isomers gives no apparent indication for the reasons for such substantial differences. It is verified that the simple displacement of the position of one nitrogen atom strongly inhibits or favors the production of some ionic fragment species. The dependency of the fragmentation cross sections on the proton impact energy, investigated by means of time of flight mass spectroscopy and of a model calculation based in first order perturbation theory, allows us to disentangle the complex collision dynamics of the ionic fragments. The proton-induced fragmentation discriminates rather directly the association between a molecular orbital ionization and the fragment-ions creation and abundance, as well as how the redistribution of the energy imparted to the molecules takes place, triggering not only single but also double vacancy and leads to specific fragmentation pathways.

  5. Mammal assemblages in forest fragments and landscapes occupied by black howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Coyohua-Fuentes, Alejandro; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D

    2014-07-01

    Species assemblages in disturbed habitats vary as a function of the interaction between species requirements and the spatial configuration of the habitat. There are many reports accounting for the presence of howler monkeys in fragments where other mammals are absent, suggesting that they are more resilient. In the present study we explored this idea and predicted that if howler monkeys were more resilient to habitat loss and fragmentation than other mammals, mammal assemblages in fragments occupied by howler monkeys should include fewer species with decreasing amount of habitat (smaller fragment size and less habitat in the landscape) and increasing number of forest fragments. We explored these relationships by additionally considering the feeding and life habits of mammal species, as well as the isolation and proximity of each fragment to human settlements and roads. We sampled the presence of mammals in five fragments occupied by black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in the Mexican state of Campeche. Through direct sights performed during 240 h in each fragment, we observed 23 species. At the landscape scale, higher fragmentation was associated with a decrease in herbivores, omnivores and total number of species. At the fragment scale semiarboreal, omnivore, and total number of species increased with increasing fragment size. This study supports the idea that howler monkeys are more resilient to forest loss and fragmentation than other native mammals, and our exploratory analyses suggest that the specific mammal assemblages that are found in fragments are related to both landscape and fragment scale spatial attributes, as well as with species-specific characteristics.

  6. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  7. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  8. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    PubMed

    Cole, Krystal; Roessler, Christian G; Mulé, Elizabeth A; Benson-Xu, Emma J; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Le, Benjamin A; Tieman, Alanna M; Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size. PMID:24988328

  9. Recombination Enhances HIV-1 Envelope Diversity by Facilitating the Survival of Latent Genomic Fragments in the Plasma Virus Population.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Taina T; Conway, Jessica M; Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Perelson, Alan S; Leitner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  10. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    SciTech Connect

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas; Kouyos, Roger Dimitri

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  11. Creative Fragments: The Subjunctive Spaces of E-Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some of the benefits of reading and writing e-literature, including its influences on prints texts, challenges to the imagination, and attention to metafictive devices and processes. The less cohesive, more fragmented quality of e-literature creates a subjunctive space for creation where writers can consider interesting…

  12. Unimolecular Thermal Fragmentation of Ortho-Benzyne

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Maccarone, A. T.; Nimlos, M. R.; Kato, S.; Bierbaum, V. M.; Ellison, G. B.; Ruscic, B.; Simmonett, A. C.; Allen, W. D.; Schaefer, H. F., III

    2007-01-01

    The ortho-benzyne diradical, o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} has been produced with a supersonic nozzle and its subsequent thermal decomposition has been studied. As the temperature of the nozzle is increased, the benzyne molecule fragments: o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} + {Delta} {yields} products. The thermal dissociation products were identified by three experimental methods: (i) time-of-flight photoionization mass spectrometry, (ii) matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and (iii) chemical ionization mass spectrometry. At the threshold dissociation temperature, o-benzyne cleanly decomposes into acetylene and diacetylene via an apparent retro-Diels-Alder process: o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} + {Delta} {yields} HC {triple_bond} CH+HC {triple_bond} C-C {triple_bond} CH. The experimental {Delta}{sub rxn}H{sub 298}(o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} {yields} HC {triple_bond} CH+HC {triple_bond} C-C {triple_bond} CH) is found to be 57 {+-} 3 kcal mol{sup -1}. Further experiments with the substituted benzyne, 3,6-(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}-o-C{sub 6}H{sub 2}, are consistent with a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation. But at higher nozzle temperatures, the cracking pattern becomes more complicated. To interpret these experiments, the retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation of o-benzyne has been investigated by rigorous ab initio electronic structure computations. These calculations used basis sets as large as [C(7s6p5d4f3g2h1i)/H(6s5p4d3f2g1h)] (cc-pV6Z) and electron correlation treatments as extensive as full coupled cluster through triple excitations (CCSDT), in cases with a perturbative term for connected quadruples [CCSDT(Q)]. Focal point extrapolations of the computational data yield a 0 K barrier for the concerted, C{sub 2v}-symmetric decomposition of o-benzyne, E{sub b}(o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} {yields} HC {triple_bond} CH+HC {triple_bond} C-C {triple_bond} CH) = 88.0 {+-} 0.5 kcal mol{sup -1}. A barrier of this magnitude is consistent with the experimental results. A careful assessment of the

  13. Unimolecular thermal fragmentation of ortho-benzene.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Maccarone, A. T.; Nimlos, M. R.; Kato, S.; Bierbaum, V. M.; Ellison, G. B.; Ruscic, B.; Simmonett, A. C.; Allen, W. D.; Schaefer, H. F.; Chemistry; Univ. of Colorado; NREL; Univ. of Georgia

    2007-01-01

    The ortho-benzyne diradical, o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} has been produced with a supersonic nozzle and its subsequent thermal decomposition has been studied. As the temperature of the nozzle is increased, the benzyne molecule fragments o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}{sup +} {Delta} {yields} products. The thermal dissociation products were identified by three experimental methods: (i) time-of-flight photoionization mass spectrometry, (ii) matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and (iii) chemical ionization mass spectrometry. At the threshold dissociation temperature, o-benzyne cleanly decomposes into acetylene and diacetylene via an apparent retro-Diels-Alder process: o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}{sup +}{Delta}{yields} HC {triple_bond} CH+HC {triple_bond} C-C {triple_bond} CH. The experimental {Delta}{sub rxn}H{sub 298}(o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} {yields} HC {triple_bond} CH+HC {triple_bond} C-C {triple_bond} CH) is found to be 57 {+-} 3 kcal mol{sup -1}. Further experiments with the substituted benzyne, 3,6-(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}-o-C{sub 6}H{sub 2}, are consistent with a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation. But at higher nozzle temperatures, the cracking pattern becomes more complicated. To interpret these experiments, the retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation of o-benzyne has been investigated by rigorous ab initio electronic structure computations. These calculations used basis sets as large as [C(7s6p5d4f3g2h1i)/H(6s5p4d3f2g1h)] (cc-pV6Z) and electron correlation treatments as extensive as full coupled cluster through triple excitations (CCSDT), in cases with a perturbative term for connected quadruples [CCSDT(Q)]. Focal point extrapolations of the computational data yield a 0 K barrier for the concerted, C{sub 2v}-symmetric decomposition of o-benzyne, E{sub b}(o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} {yields} HC {triple_bond} CH+HC {triple_bond} C-C {triple_bond} CH) = 88.0 {+-} 0.5 kcal mol{sup -1}. A barrier of this magnitude is consistent with the experimental results. A careful assessment of the

  14. Isolation of soluble scFv antibody fragments specific for small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, using phage display.

    PubMed

    Abou El-Magd, Rabab M; Vozza, Nicolas F; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of single chain antibody fragment (scFv) clones from naïve Tomlinson I+J phage display libraries that specifically bind a small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, was performed using iterative affinity selection procedures. L-Carnitine has been described as a conditionally essential nutrient for humans. Abnormally high concentrations of L-Carnitine in urine are related to many health disorders including diabetes mellitus type 2 and lung cancer. ELISA-based affinity characterization results indicate that selectants preferentially bind to L-Carnitine in the presence of key bioselecting component materials and closely related L-Carnitine derivatives. In addition, the affinity results were confirmed using biophysical fluorescence quenching for tyrosine residues in the V segment. Small-scale production of the soluble fragment yielded 1.3mg/L using immunopure-immobilized protein A affinity column. Circular Dichroism data revealed that the antibody fragment (Ab) represents a folded protein that mainly consists of β-sheets. These novel antibody fragments may find utility as molecular affinity interface receptors in various electrochemical biosensor platforms to provide specific L-Carnitine binding capability with potential applications in metabolomic devices for companion diagnostics and personalized medicine applications. It may also be used in any other biomedical application where detection of the L-Carnitine level is important. PMID:26608419

  15. Amplification of a species-specific DNA fragment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its possible use in diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Del Portillo, P; Murillo, L A; Patarroyo, M E

    1991-01-01

    In recent work, a species-specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fragment was cloned and sequenced. On the basis of its nucleotide sequence, two oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. A 396-bp fragment was specifically amplified from the M. tuberculosis genome. No amplification was observed from any of 10 different mycobacterial strains, included those belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. Neither was this fragment amplified from genomes of humans or different species of clinically important bacteria. The PCR product was detected by dot blot hybridization even when as little as 10 fg of purified M. tuberculosis DNA was used. This amplification method was subsequently used to detect and identify bacilli in different clinical samples, such as sputum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. A good correlation was observed between the results obtained with the PCR method that we describe and other diagnostic tests currently used. Thus, PCR amplification of this genomic fragment is proposed as a specific, rapid, and sensitive test for the diagnosis of infection with M. tuberculosis. Images PMID:1939567

  16. Unpolarized transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions at next-to-next-to-leading order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Scimemi, Ignazio; Vladimirov, Alexey

    2016-09-01

    The transverse momentum dependent parton distribution/fragmentation functions (TMDs) are essential in the factorization of a number of processes like Drell-Yan scattering, vector boson production, semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, etc. We provide a comprehensive study of unpolarized TMDs at next-to-next-to-leading order, which includes an explicit calculation of these TMDs and an extraction of their matching coefficients onto their integrated analogues, for all flavor combinations. The obtained matching coefficients are important for any kind of phenomenology involving TMDs. In the present study each individual TMD is calculated without any reference to a specific process. We recover the known results for parton distribution functions and provide new results for the fragmentation functions. The results for the gluon transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions are presented for the first time at one and two loops. We also discuss the structure of singularities of TMD operators and TMD matrix elements, crossing relations between TMD parton distribution functions and TMD fragmentation functions, and renormalization group equations. In addition, we consider the behavior of the matching coefficients at threshold and make a conjecture on their structure to all orders in perturbation theory.

  17. Considerations for a Collector Ring of Nuclear Fragments at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Nolden, F.; Dolinsky, A.; Franzke, B.

    2000-12-31

    A possible scenario for an extension of the present GSI accelerator complex would include a dedicated ring for the collection and cooling of secondary beams. Both radioactive ions from the upgraded Fragment Separator FRS and optionally antiprotons from a source yet to be built are possible beams to be treated in the ring. After injection and subsequent active debunching, fast stochastic cooling in all three phase space dimensions will be applied. Very short overall cooling times of {le} 100 ms are envisaged for highly charged nuclear fragments.

  18. The multifaceted nature of amyloid precursor protein and its proteolytic fragments: friends and foes

    PubMed Central

    Nhan, Hoang S.; Chiang, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has occupied a central position in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathophysiology, in large part due to the seminal role of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic fragment derived from APP. Although the contribution of Aβ to AD pathogenesis is accepted by many in the research community, recent studies have unveiled a more complicated picture of APP’s involvement in neurodegeneration in that other APP-derived fragments have been shown to exert pathological influences on neuronal function. However, not all APP-derived peptides are neurotoxic, and some even harbor neuroprotective effects. In this review, we will explore this complex picture by first discussing the pleiotropic effects of the major APP-derived peptides cleaved by multiple proteases, including soluble APP peptides (sAPPα, sAPPβ), various C- and N-terminal fragments, p3, and APP intracellular domain fragments. In addition, we will highlight two interesting sequences within APP that likely contribute to this duality in APP function. First, it has been found that caspase-mediated cleavage of APP in the cytosolic region may release a cytotoxic peptide, C31, which plays a role in synapse loss and neuronal death. Second, recent studies have implicated the –YENPTY– motif in the cytoplasmic region as a domain that modulates several APP activities through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the first tyrosine residue. Thus, this review summarizes the current understanding of various APP proteolytic products and the interplay among them to gain deeper insights into the possible mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and AD pathophysiology. PMID:25287911

  19. Diagnosis and management of postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy residual stone fragments.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2009-10-01

    Residual stone fragments can occur in up to 8% of patients who are treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). When left untreated, approximately half of these patients will experience a stone-related event, for which more than half will need a secondary surgical intervention. Predictors of adverse events are a residual fragment larger than 2 mm that is located in the pelvis or ureter. Preventive measures for the creation of residual fragments include a carefully selected access giving exposure to the bulk of the stone, the creation of multiple tracts, the use of single pulse pneumatic lithotripsy, the prevention of stone migration with ureteral balloons or stone cones, and careful flushing of the stones from the collecting system. Plain radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, linear tomography, and ultrasonography have all been used to judge the result of PCNL and to detect the presence of residual fragments. Thin-slice, unenhanced helical CT, however, is more sensitive and should be performed at 1 month after surgery. While medical therapy and shockwave lithotripsy possess a minor role, second-look flexible nephroscopy and/or flexible ureterorenoscopy seem to be the treatments of choice for residual stone fragments after PCNL.

  20. Bird communities in two fragments of Cerrado in Itirapina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-08-01

    The Cerrado domain is a mosaic of vegetation types at the local scale, and this environmental heterogeneity leads to high regional bird diversity. Therefore, we aimed to survey quantitative and qualitatively the bird fauna of two fragments of Cerrado and to compare them with an adjacent protected area (Estação Ecológica de Itirapina), in order to assess the heterogeneity of bird diversity in the region. The present study was conducted during 12 months from October 2006 to September 2007 in the municipality of Itirapina, Southeastern Brazil. Altogether we recorded 210 bird species. Fifty-six of them had never been detected in Estação Ecológica de Itirapina, and eleven species are new records for the whole Itirapina region. The list also includes six species that are endangered in Sao Paulo State and five endemic species of the Cerrado domain. Most species were recorded in less than 50% of the visits and exhibited low relative abundance. Primarily insectivorous species were the most common, followed by omnivores. Frugivorous birds were poorly represented. Carnivores were more abundant than usually observed in fragments. The similarity among fragments was higher than between fragments and the protected area. Considering the vegetation heterogeneity in the Cerrado domain, our results reinforce the importance of conserving fragments in order to sample this diversity. PMID:20730340

  1. Petrology of some lithic fragments from Luna 20

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies were made of polished thin sections of part of a 30-mg sample of 250-500 ??m lunar soil returned by Luna 20 from a point between Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Crisium. Very fine-grained lithic (crystalline) rock fragments, composing about one fifth of the total sample, have mineralogical compositions equivalent to various types of gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, gabbroic anorthosite and troctolite, with minor basalt. The textures now observed in these fragments are in large part metamorphic. Twentyseven electron microprobe analyses of minerals from these fragments are presented, including olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, spinel, nickel-iron and a Zr-Ti-REE mineral possibly similar to 'phase B' of Lovering and Wark (1971). Analyses of seven melt inclusions and twenty-eight defocused beam analyses of lithic fragments are also given. Some of the fragments contain 'gas' inclusions which, along with the fine grain size, are believed to indicate final crystallization under low pressure near surface conditions. The almost complete absence of granophyric material in this sample raises the question of whether or not there are at least two distinct magmas for the plagioclase-rich terrae rocks from which this soil sample was derived in part. ?? 1973.

  2. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species.

  3. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D; Fuchs, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  4. Petrology of some lithic fragments from Luna 20.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies were made of polished thin sections of part of a 30-mg sample of 250- to 500-micron lunar soil returned by Luna 20 from a point between Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Crisium. Very fine-grained lithic (crystalline) rock fragments, composing about one-fifth of the total sample, have mineralogical compositions equivalent to various types of gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, gabbroic anorthosite, and troctolite, with minor basalt. The textures now observed in these fragments are in large part metamorphic. Twenty-seven electron microprobe analyses of minerals from these fragments are presented, including olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, spinel, nickel-iron, and a Zr-Ti-REE mineral possibly similar to 'phase B' of Lovering and Wark (1971). Analyses of seven melt inclusions and 28 defocused beam analyses of lithic fragments are also given. Some of the fragments contain 'gas' inclusions which, along with the fine grain size, are believed to indicate final crystallization under low pressure near surface conditions.

  5. Bird communities in two fragments of Cerrado in Itirapina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-08-01

    The Cerrado domain is a mosaic of vegetation types at the local scale, and this environmental heterogeneity leads to high regional bird diversity. Therefore, we aimed to survey quantitative and qualitatively the bird fauna of two fragments of Cerrado and to compare them with an adjacent protected area (Estação Ecológica de Itirapina), in order to assess the heterogeneity of bird diversity in the region. The present study was conducted during 12 months from October 2006 to September 2007 in the municipality of Itirapina, Southeastern Brazil. Altogether we recorded 210 bird species. Fifty-six of them had never been detected in Estação Ecológica de Itirapina, and eleven species are new records for the whole Itirapina region. The list also includes six species that are endangered in Sao Paulo State and five endemic species of the Cerrado domain. Most species were recorded in less than 50% of the visits and exhibited low relative abundance. Primarily insectivorous species were the most common, followed by omnivores. Frugivorous birds were poorly represented. Carnivores were more abundant than usually observed in fragments. The similarity among fragments was higher than between fragments and the protected area. Considering the vegetation heterogeneity in the Cerrado domain, our results reinforce the importance of conserving fragments in order to sample this diversity.

  6. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  7. Targeting metalloproteins by fragment-based lead discovery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherida; Barile, Elisa; Farina, Biancamaria; Purves, Angela; Wei, Jun; Chen, Li-Hsing; Shiryaev, Sergey; Zhang, Ziming; Rodionova, Irina; Agrawal, Arpita; Cohen, Seth M; Osterman, Andrei; Strongin, Alex; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    It has been estimated that nearly one-third of functional proteins contain a metal ion. These constitute a wide variety of possible drug targets including metalloproteinases, dehydrogenases, oxidoreductases, hydrolases, deacetylases, or many others in which the metal ion is either of catalytic or of structural nature. Despite the predominant role of a metal ion in so many classes of drug targets, current high-throughput screening techniques do not usually produce viable hits against these proteins, likely due to the lack of proper metal-binding pharmacophores in the current screening libraries. Herein, we describe a novel fragment-based drug discovery approach using a metal-targeting fragment library that is based on a variety of distinct classes of metal-binding groups designed to reliably anchor the fragments at the target's metal ions. We show that the approach can effectively identify novel, potent and selective agents that can be readily developed into metalloprotein-targeted therapeutics.

  8. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  9. Fragmentation statistics from Eulerian hydrocode calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.; Grady, D.E.; McGlaun, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a procedure for computing discrete fragmentation information for terminal ballistics events from the continuum data that emerges from two-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode simulations of these events. The present examples deal with the normal impact of lead cylinders on lead plates at velocities below 1600 m/s. In this regime, the resulting debris is almost exclusively solid lead fragments. We have experimental data of sufficient accuracy to evaluate the extraction of such fragmentation information from code simulations. The problem is interesting because the observed distribution of fragment size would require extreme subgrid resolution in the hydrocode if the statistics were computed directly. Our approach is different. We ask whether or not the general continuum description predicted by the code contains enough information to allow coupling of an analytic fragmentation theory that successfully predicts fragmentation statistics. We believe that this approach is valid, and discuss our current success in matching experimental data. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Impact failure and fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1998-03-01

    In the present study we describe the development of an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  11. Co-Expression of Anti-Rotavirus Proteins (Llama VHH Antibody Fragments) in Lactobacillus: Development and Functionality of Vectors Containing Two Expression Cassettes in Tandem

    PubMed Central

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Álvarez, Beatriz; Lin, Yin; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is an important pediatric pathogen, causing severe diarrhea and being associated with a high mortality rate causing approximately 500 000 deaths annually worldwide. Even though some vaccines are currently available, their efficacy is lower in the developing world, as compared to developed countries. Therefore, alternative or complementary treatment options are needed in the developing countries where the disease burden is the largest. The effect of Lactobacillus in promoting health and its use as a vehicle for delivery of protein and antibody fragments was previously shown. In this study, we have developed co-expression vectors enabling Lactobacillus paracasei BL23 to produce two VHH fragments against rotavirus (referred to as anti-rotavirus proteins 1 and 3, ARP1 and ARP3) as secreted and/or surface displayed products. ARP1 and ARP3 fragments were successfully co-expressed as shown by Western blot and flow cytometry. In addition, engineered Lactobacillus produced VHH antibody fragments were shown to bind to a broad range of rotavirus serotypes (including the human rotavirus strains 69M, Va70, F45, DS1, Wa and ST3 and simian rotavirus strains including RRV and SA11), by flow cytometry and ELISA. Hereby, we have demonstrated for the first time that when RRV was captured by one VHH displayed on the surface of co-expressor Lactobacillus, targeting other epitope was possible with another VHH secreted from the same bacterium. Therefore, Lactobacillus producing two VHH antibody fragments may potentially serve as treatment against rotavirus with a reduced risk of development of escape mutants. This co-expression and delivery platform can also be used for delivery of VHH fragments against a variety of mucosal pathogens or production of other therapeutic molecules. PMID:24781086

  12. Herbivory and seedling performance in a fragmented temperate forest of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Javier A.; Grez, Audrey A.; Celis-Diez, Juan L.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2007-11-01

    Forest fragmentation alters plant-animal interactions, including herbivory. Relying manipulative experiments, we test if the reduction in insect herbivory associated with forest fragmentation translates into increased seedling growth and survival of three tree common species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba and Persea lingue) in forest fragments and continuous forests in coastal Maulino forest, central Chile. Furthermore, we test if after protecting seedlings from herbivorous insects, plant performance is increased regardless of forest fragmentation. Nursery grown seedlings were transplanted into four forest fragments and a continuous forest during 2002. Insects, important herbivores in this forest, were excluded from half the seedlings by repeated applications of insecticides. Compared to continuous forests, in forest fragments, herbivory was reduced in all three species, seedling growth was greater in A. chilensis and C. alba but not in P. lingue, and survivorship was unaffected by herbivory or fragmentation in all three species. Protecting seedlings from insects reduced herbivory in the continuous forest to similar levels attained in the forest fragments. No change in herbivory results from by protecting seedlings in forest fragments. These results confirm that insects are important herbivores in the Maulino forest and also support the hypothesis that fragmentation can have strong indirect effects on plant communities as mediated through trophic interactions.

  13. Filter for interpretation of fragmentation during entry

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-10-01

    Objects that fragment cascade and decelerate abruptly, producing short, bright, signatures which can be used to estimate object diameter and speed. Other objects can be incorporated into a generalized fragmentation filter. This note summarizes the results of previous reports on the prediction and inversion of signatures from objects that radiate, ablate, and fragment during entry and uses them to produce models for the parameters of entering objects.

  14. Effects of asymmetry in string fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, N.L. ); Csoergoe, T.; Lukacs, B.; Zimanyi, J. )

    1991-06-01

    The general solution of the one flavor integral equation for string fragmentation is presented and is approximated by a finite sum. The N pion phase space distribution is calculated for the emission points; thence the hadronic fragmentation function, the number density, and the energy density vs. rapidity are obtained. The authors discuss the effects of the left-right asymmetry embedded into the integral equation, and present numerical results based on the Lund fragmentation function.

  15. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs.

  16. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  17. Secondary fragmentation routes of glycine in ice under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, A.; Pilme, J.; Ellinger, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The question of the relative stability of the complex organic molecules (COM) under the interstellar radiation field is a crucial question, especially in the context of the panspermia hypothesis for which their survival during the transfer from space to the Earth is a necessary condition for the appearance of life (Ehrenfreund et al 2001, 2002). Assuming that these species are originally embedded in interstellar grains, their resistance to the solar UV radiation in ice is a key issue. The case of glycine, H2NCH2COOH, has been considered recently in irradiation experiments carried out at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. It appeared that glycine is partially protected by ice but also suffers some fragmentation leading in the end to CO2 and to CN containing species. Quantum chemical simulations have been performed in parallel for all the possible fragmentations of neutral, ionized, doubly ionized, protonated and zwitterionic glycine (Lattelais et al. 2010). This study has shown that the primary decomposition routes leading to fragments CH2COOH, H2NCH2, H2NCH2+, CH2COOH+, H2NCH3, and CO2 are energetically valid. The experiments have also shown that the role of water is mainly to increase the production of the end products in the photoreactions, most probably due to the reactions with the OH radicals formed during the irradiation of the ice. We present a theoretical study of the secondary fragmentation channels initiated by the OH radical by means of quantum chemical calculations using DFT and ab initio correlated methods (MP2,CCSD(T)). We have examined all the possible secondary fragmentations starting from the primary fragments mentioned above. We considered all species embedded in the dielectric continuum simulating an icy environment (comparison with the gas phase situation serves as reference). Thermodynamic stabilities as well as activation barriers have been determined. This study shows that the formation of the HCN molecule as end product is energetically

  18. Saturation transfer difference NMR for fragment screening.

    PubMed

    Begley, Darren W; Moen, Spencer O; Pierce, Phillip G; Zartler, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    Fragment screening by saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) is a robust method for identifying small molecule binders and is well suited to a broad set of biological targets. STD-NMR is exquisitely sensitive for detecting weakly binding compounds (a common characteristic of fragments), which is a crucial step in finding promising compounds for a fragment-based drug discovery campaign. This protocol describes the development of a library suitable for STD-NMR fragment screening, as well as preparation of protein samples, optimization of experimental conditions, and procedures for data collection and analysis. PMID:24391096

  19. The mechanisms of stone fragmentation in ESWL.

    PubMed

    Eisenmenger, W

    2001-05-01

    Currently, several mechanisms of kidney stone fragmentation in extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) are under discussion. As a new mechanism, the circumferential quasistatic compression or "squeezing" by evanescent waves in the stone has been introduced. In fragmentation experiments with self-focussing electromagnetic shock-wave generators with focal diameters comparable to or larger than the stone diameter, we observed first cleavage surfaces either parallel or perpendicular to the wave propagation direction. This is in agreement with the expectation of the "squeezing" mechanism. Because, for positive pulse pressures below 35 MPa and stones with radii of 15 mm or smaller, cleavage into only two fragments was observed, we developed a quantitative model of binary fragmentation by "quasistatic squeezing." This model predicts the ratio of the number of pulses for the fragmentation to 2-mm size and of the number of pulses required for the first cleavage into two parts. This "fragmentation-ratio" depends linearly alone on the stone radius and on the final size of the fragments. The experimental results for spherical artificial stones of 5 mm, 12 mm and 15 mm diameter at a pulse pressure of 11 MPa are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Thus, binary fragmentation by quasistatic squeezing in ESWL as a new efficient fragmentation mechanism is also quantitatively verified.

  20. The dihadron fragmentation function and its evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, Abhijit; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-02-24

    Dihadron fragmentation functions and their evolution arestudied in the process of e+e- annihilation. Under the collinearfactorization approximation and facilitated by the cut-vertex technique,the two hadron inclusive cross section at leading order (LO) is shown tofactorize into a short distance parton cross section and a long distancedihadron fragmentation function. We provide the definition of such adihadron fragmentation function in terms of parton matrix elements andderive its DGLAP evolution equation at leading log. The evolutionequation for the non-singlet quark fragmentation function is solvednumerically with a simple ansatz for the initial condition and resultsare presented for cases of physical interest.

  1. Electron-impact-induced tryptophan molecule fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamuliene, Jelena; Romanova, Liudmila G.; Vukstich, Vasyl S.; Papp, Alexander V.; Snegursky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of a gas-phase tryptophan molecule by a low-energy (<70 eV) electron impact was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Various positively charged fragments were observed and analyzed. A special attention was paid to the energy characteristics of the ionic fragment yield. The geometrical parameters of the initial molecule rearrangement were also analyzed. The fragmentation observed was due to either a simple bond cleavage or more complex reactions involving molecular rearrangements. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejcik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  2. Fragment-Based Screen against HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, A. L.; Zhang, Q.; Soutter, H. H.; Rosenfeld, R.; McRee, D. E.; Olson, A. J.; Elder, J. E.; Stout, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    We have employed a fragment-based screen against wild-type (NL4-3) HIV protease (PR) using the Active Sight fragment library and X-ray crystallography. The experiments reveal two new binding sites for small molecules. PR was co-crystallized with fragments, or crystals were soaked in fragment solutions, using five crystal forms, and 378 data sets were collected to 2.3-1.3 Å resolution. Fragment binding induces a distinct conformation and specific crystal form of TL-3 inhibited PR during co-crystallization. One fragment, 2-methylcyclohexanol, binds in the ‘exo site’ adjacent to the Gly16Gly17Gln18 loop where the amide of Gly17 is a specific hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic contacts occur with the side chains of Lys14 and Leu63. Another fragment, indole-6-carboxylic acid, binds on the ‘outside/top of the flap’ via hydrophobic contacts with Trp42, Pro44, Met46, and Lys55, a hydrogen bond with Val56, and a salt-bridge with Arg57. 2-acetyl-benzothiophene also binds at this site. This study is the first fragment-based crystallographic screen against HIV PR, and the first time that fragments were screened against an inhibitor-bound drug target to search for compounds that both bind to novel sites and stabilize the inhibited conformation of the target. PMID:20659109

  3. Fragment-based screen against HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Alexander L; Zhang, Qing; Soutter, Holly H; Rosenfeld, Robin; McRee, Duncan E; Olson, Arthur J; Elder, John E; Stout, C David

    2010-03-01

    We have employed a fragment-based screen against wild-type (NL4-3) HIV protease (PR) using the Active Sight fragment library and X-ray crystallography. The experiments reveal two new binding sites for small molecules. PR was co-crystallized with fragments, or crystals were soaked in fragment solutions, using five crystal forms, and 378 data sets were collected to 2.3-1.3 A resolution. Fragment binding induces a distinct conformation and specific crystal form of TL-3 inhibited PR during co-crystallization. One fragment, 2-methylcyclohexanol, binds in the 'exo site' adjacent to the Gly(16)Gly(17)Gln(18)loop where the amide of Gly(17)is a specific hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic contacts occur with the side chains of Lys(14)and Leu(63). Another fragment, indole-6-carboxylic acid, binds on the 'outside/top of the flap' via hydrophobic contacts with Trp(42), Pro(44), Met(46), and Lys(55), a hydrogen bond with Val(56), and a salt-bridge with Arg(57). 2-acetyl-benzothiophene also binds at this site. This study is the first fragment-based crystallographic screen against HIV PR, and the first time that fragments were screened against an inhibitor-bound drug target to search for compounds that both bind to novel sites and stabilize the inhibited conformation of the target.

  4. Defining the Contribution of Fragmentation to Icy World Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. C.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    The fracture and failure of the outer planet satellites' icy shells are not only an observable record of stress and activity throughout their evolution, they are also key mechanisms in the interaction of surface and subsurface material and thus crucial aspects of the study of crustal overturn and ice shell habitability. Recent work suggests that Europa's chaos terrain formation may include a collapse phase, with the eventual appearance of the chaos terrain determined in part by fracture density in the ice. Similarly, Enceladus' subdued south polar terrain is now known to exist above a trapped south polar sea. With this in mind, the work to be presented combines fractal analysis and a novel fragmentation physics model to characterize the transition from fractured ice to fragmented/collapsed ice and thus, implications for crustal overturn in Europa's ice shell using terrestrial glaciological studies to develop and test plausible processes. While intuition may suggest that ice "explosions" and simple elastic crack propagation are different, a fast-propagating fracture or other abrupt shift to the status quo (e.g., thinned shell) of the system is in effect very similar, as damage radiates through the system. In studying the size distribution of fragments in Europa's chaos regions, it is possible to back out physical properties of the ice, e.g., material strength, cohesion properties and most importantly, energy necessary to create such a fragmentation event. Fragmentation theory describes the breakage of a body into several pieces. When integrated, our models of crack propagation and fragmentation account for the three modes of fracturing: initiation, propagation, and interaction, and allows for characterization of the energy necessary for fragmented topography (e.g., chaos) to form within an ice shell to better understand the implications for surface overturn. We have modeled fracture formation and coalescence into fragments that results in a similar distribution to

  5. On identifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Breccia fragments expected from a well-studied boulder of Stillwater anorthosite have been modeled to test the ability to identify parental rock types from examination of breccia and soil fragments. Depending on their size, the boulder fragments give distributions that suggest mixtures of rock types, including monominerallic anorthosite with subordinant amounts of more gabbroic anorthosite, anorthosite, and gabbro for small fragments. The distribution of FeO in samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicates that FAN has a heterogeneous distribution of mafic minerals like the boulder.

  6. Jet fragmentation functions in proton-proton collisions using soft-collinear effective theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan; Xing, Hongxi

    2016-05-01

    The jet fragmentation function describes the longitudinal momentum distribution of hadrons inside a reconstructed jet. We study the jet fragmentation function in proton-proton collisions in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). We find that, up to power corrections, the jet fragmentation function can be expressed as the ratio of the fragmenting jet function and the unmeasured jet function. Using renormalization group techniques, we are able to resum large logarithms of jet radii R in the perturbative expansion of the cross section. We use our theoretical formalism to describe the jet fragmentation functions for light hadron and heavy meson production measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Our calculations agree very well with the experimental data for the light hadron production. On the other hand, although our calculations for the heavy meson production inside jets are consistent with the PYTHIA simulation, they fail to describe the LHC data. We find that the jet fragmentation function for heavy meson production is very sensitive to the gluon-to-heavy-meson fragmentation function.

  7. Oxalyl chloride photofragment imaging: One photon - four fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.; Suits, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    Recently we have built an crossed molecular beams ion imaging system to study reactive scattering and photodissociation dynamics. The ion imaging machine has been designed to incorporate tunable vaccuum ultraviolet radiation generated by the Advanced Light Source to carry out soft ionization of product species. Here we present first results of the photodissociation dynamics of oxalyl chloride (CLCO)2. In this case photolysis and probe light were generated using Nd-YAG pumped dye lasers. With the absorption of one photon around 230 nm, the molecule breaks apart into four fragments (Cl + CO + CO + CL). The velocity and angular distributions of these fragments are studied using resonantly enhanced mutiphoton ionization and imaging techniques. Photofragment translational energy and angular distributions are presented for ground state and spin-orbit excited Cl atoms as well as for individual rotational levels of the CO product. These distributions suggest a simple model for the dissociation dynamics.

  8. Laser lithotripsy with the Ho:YAG laser: fragmentation process revealed by time-resolved imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Beghuin, Didier; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Rink, Klaus; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1998-07-01

    Improvements of endoscopic techniques have renewed the interest of urologists in laser lithotripsy in recent years. Laser energy can be easily transmitted through flexible fibers thereby enabling different surgical procedures such as cutting, coagulating and lithotripsy. The Ho:YAG laser offers multiple medical applications in Urology, among them stone fragmentation. However, the present knowledge of its fragmentation mechanism is incomplete. The objective was therefore to analyze the fragmentation process and to discuss the clinical implications related to the underlying fragmentation mechanism. The stone fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF-needle hydrophone. Fragmentation was performed on artificial and cystine kidney stones in water. We observed that though the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has only a minimal effect on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to direct laser stone heating leading to vaporization of organic stone constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. Stone fragmentation with the Holmium laser is the result of vaporization of interstitial (stone) water and organic stone constituents. It is not due to the acoustic effects of a cavitation bubble or plasma formation. The fragmentation process is strongly related with heat production thereby harboring the risk of undesired thermal damage. Therefore, a solid comprehension of the fragmentation process is needed when using the different clinically available laser types of lithotripsy.

  9. The role of thermodynamics in disc fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, Dimitris; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2009-12-01

    Thermodynamics play an important role in determining the way a protostellar disc fragments to form planets, brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We explore the effect that different treatments of radiative transfer have in simulations of fragmenting discs. Three prescriptions for the radiative transfer are used: (i) the diffusion approximation of Stamatellos et al.; (ii) the barotropic equation of state (EOS) of Goodwin et al. and (iii) the barotropic EOS of Bate et al. The barotropic approximations capture the general evolution of the density and temperature at the centre of each proto-fragment but (i) they do not make any adjustments for particular circumstances of a proto-fragment forming in the disc and (ii) they do not take into account thermal inertia effects that are important for fast-forming proto-fragments in the outer disc region. As a result, the number of fragments formed in the disc and their properties are different, when a barotropic EOS is used. This is important not only for disc studies but also for simulations of collapsing turbulent clouds, as in many cases in such simulations stars form with discs that subsequently fragment. We also examine the difference in the way proto-fragments condense out in the disc at different distances from the central star using the diffusion approximation and following the collapse of each proto-fragment until the formation of the second core (ρ ~= 10-3gcm-3). We find that proto-fragments forming closer to the central star tend to form earlier and evolve faster from the first to the second core than proto-fragments forming in the outer disc region. The former have a large pool of material in the inner disc region that they can accrete from and grow in mass. The latter accrete more slowly and they are hotter because they generally form in a quick abrupt event.

  10. Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: joining of correct and incorrect ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated from the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results from this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 X 10(-3) break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. The misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between 2 and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes.

  11. Collins Fragmentation and the Single Transverse Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng; Zhou, Jian

    2009-03-26

    We study the Collins mechanism for the single transverse spin asymmetry in the collinear factorization approach. The correspondent twist-three fragmentation function is identified. We show that the Collins function calculated in this approach is universal.We further examine its contribution to the single transverse spin asymmetry of semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and twist-three collinear approaches are consistent in the intermediate transverse momentum region where both apply.

  12. An Experimental Study of Launch Vehicle Propellant Tank Fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Erin; Jackson, Austin; Hays, Michael; Bangham, Mike; Blackwood, James; Skinner, Troy; Richman, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand launch vehicle abort environments, Bangham Engineering Inc. (BEi) built a test assembly that fails sample materials (steel and aluminum plates of various alloys and thicknesses) under quasi-realistic vehicle failure conditions. Samples are exposed to pressures similar to those expected in vehicle failure scenarios and filmed at high speed to increase understanding of complex fracture mechanics. After failure, the fragments of each test sample are collected, catalogued and reconstructed for further study. Post-test analysis shows that aluminum samples consistently produce fewer fragments than steel samples of similar thickness and at similar failure pressures. Video analysis shows that there are several failure 'patterns' that can be observed for all test samples based on configuration. Fragment velocities are also measured from high speed video data. Sample thickness and material are analyzed for trends in failure pressure. Testing is also done with cryogenic and noncryogenic liquid loading on the samples. It is determined that liquid loading and cryogenic temperatures can decrease material fragmentation for sub-flight thicknesses. A method is developed for capture and collection of fragments that is greater than 97 percent effective in recovering sample mass, addressing the generation of tiny fragments. Currently, samples tested do not match actual launch vehicle propellant tank material thicknesses because of size constraints on test assembly, but test findings are used to inform the design and build of another, larger test assembly with the purpose of testing actual vehicle flight materials that include structural components such as iso-grid and friction stir welds.

  13. Biogeographical and taxonomic biases in tropical forest fragmentation research.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2014-12-01

    Despite several decades of research on the effects of fragmentation and habitat change on biodiversity, there remain strong biases in the geographical regions and taxonomic species studied. The knowledge gaps resulting from these biases are of particular concern if the forests most threatened with modification are also those for which the effects of such change are most poorly understood. To quantify the nature and magnitude of such biases, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on forest fragmentation in the tropics for the period 1980-2012. Studies included focused on any type of response of single species, communities, or assemblages of any taxonomic group to tropical forest fragmentation and on fragmentation-related changes to forests. Of the 853 studies we found in the SCOPUS database, 64% were conducted in the Neotropics, 13% in Asia, 10% in the Afrotropics, and 5% in Australasia. Thus, although the Afrotropics is subject to the highest rates of deforestation globally, it was the most disproportionately poorly studied biome. Significant taxonomic biases were identified. Of the taxonomic groups considered, herpetofauna was the least studied in the tropics, particularly in Africa. Research examining patterns of species distribution was by far the most common type (72%), and work focused on ecological processes (28%) was rare in all biomes, but particularly in the Afrotropics and for fauna. We suggest research efforts be directed toward less-studied biogeographic regions, particularly where the threat of forest fragmentation continues to be high. Increased research investment in the Afrotropics will be important to build knowledge of threats and inform responses in a region where almost no efforts to restore its fragmented landscapes have yet begun and forest protection is arguably most tenuous. PMID:25065550

  14. Shape Distribution of Fragments from Microsatellite Impact Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.C.; Hanada, T.

    2009-01-01

    Fragment shape is an important factor for conducting reliable orbital debris damage assessments for critical space assets, such as the International Space Station. To date, seven microsatellite impact tests have been completed as part of an ongoing collaboration between Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The target satellites ranged in size from 15 cm 15 cm 15 cm to 20 cm 20 cm 20 cm. Each target satellite was equipped with fully functional electronics, including circuits, battery, and transmitter. Solar panels and multi-layer insulation (MLI) were added to the target satellites of the last two tests. The impact tests were carried out with projectiles of different sizes and impact speeds. All fragments down to about 2 mm in size were collected and analyzed based on their three orthogonal dimensions, x, y, and z, where x is the longest dimension, y is the longest dimension in the plane perpendicular to x, and z is the longest dimension perpendicular to both x and y. Each fragment was also photographed and classified by shape and material composition. This data set serves as the basis of our effort to develop a fragment shape distribution. Two distinct groups can be observed in the x/y versus y/z distribution of the fragments. Objects in the first group typically have large x/y values. Many of them are needle-like objects originating from the fragmentation of carbon fiber reinforced plastic materials used to construct the satellites. Objects in the second group tend to have small x/y values, and many of them are box-like or plate-like objects, depending on their y/z values. Each group forms the corresponding peak in the x/y distribution. However, only one peak can be observed in the y/z distribution. These distributions and how they vary with size, material type, and impact parameters will be described in detail within the paper.

  15. Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic A A; Mayar, J Victor Moreno; Rasmussen, Simon; Dahl, Tais W; Rosing, Minik T; Poole, Anthony M; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Inselmann, Sabrina; de Vries, Johann; Wackernagel, Wilfried; Pybus, Oliver G; Nielsen, Rasmus; Johnsen, Pål Jarle; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-12-01

    DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often <100 bp) and may persist in the environment for more than half a million years. Fragmented DNA is recognized as nutrient source for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (≥ 20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations generated by uptake of short DNA fragments escape mismatch repair. Moreover, double-nucleotide polymorphisms appear more common among genomes of transformable than nontransformable bacteria. Our findings reveal that short and damaged, including truly ancient, DNA molecules, which are present in large quantities in the environment, can be acquired by bacteria through natural transformation. Our findings open for the possibility that natural genetic exchange can occur with DNA up to several hundreds of thousands years old.

  16. Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic A A; Mayar, J Victor Moreno; Rasmussen, Simon; Dahl, Tais W; Rosing, Minik T; Poole, Anthony M; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Inselmann, Sabrina; de Vries, Johann; Wackernagel, Wilfried; Pybus, Oliver G; Nielsen, Rasmus; Johnsen, Pål Jarle; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-12-01

    DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often <100 bp) and may persist in the environment for more than half a million years. Fragmented DNA is recognized as nutrient source for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (≥ 20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations generated by uptake of short DNA fragments escape mismatch repair. Moreover, double-nucleotide polymorphisms appear more common among genomes of transformable than nontransformable bacteria. Our findings reveal that short and damaged, including truly ancient, DNA molecules, which are present in large quantities in the environment, can be acquired by bacteria through natural transformation. Our findings open for the possibility that natural genetic exchange can occur with DNA up to several hundreds of thousands years old. PMID:24248361

  17. Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic A. A.; Mayar, J. Victor Moreno; Rasmussen, Simon; Dahl, Tais W.; Rosing, Minik T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Inselmann, Sabrina; de Vries, Johann; Wackernagel, Wilfried; Pybus, Oliver G.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Johnsen, Pål Jarle; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-01-01

    DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often <100 bp) and may persist in the environment for more than half a million years. Fragmented DNA is recognized as nutrient source for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (≥20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations generated by uptake of short DNA fragments escape mismatch repair. Moreover, double-nucleotide polymorphisms appear more common among genomes of transformable than nontransformable bacteria. Our findings reveal that short and damaged, including truly ancient, DNA molecules, which are present in large quantities in the environment, can be acquired by bacteria through natural transformation. Our findings open for the possibility that natural genetic exchange can occur with DNA up to several hundreds of thousands years old. PMID:24248361

  18. Synergistic impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on model ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Lewis J; Newbold, Tim; Purves, Drew W; Tittensor, Derek P; Harfoot, Michael B J

    2016-09-28

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, yet separating their effects is challenging. We use a multi-trophic, trait-based, and spatially explicit general ecosystem model to examine the independent and synergistic effects of these processes on ecosystem structure. We manipulated habitat by removing plant biomass in varying spatial extents, intensities, and configurations. We found that emergent synergistic interactions of loss and fragmentation are major determinants of ecosystem response, including population declines and trophic pyramid shifts. Furthermore, trait-mediated interactions, such as a disproportionate sensitivity of large-sized organisms to fragmentation, produce significant effects in shaping responses. We also show that top-down regulation mitigates the effects of land use on plant biomass loss, suggesting that models lacking these interactions-including most carbon stock models-may not adequately capture land-use change impacts. Our results have important implications for understanding ecosystem responses to environmental change, and assessing the impacts of habitat fragmentation. PMID:27655763

  19. Onco-Golgi: Is Fragmentation a Gate to Cancer Progression?

    PubMed Central

    Petrosyan, Armen

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus-complex is a highly dynamic organelle which is considered the “heart” of intracellular transportation. Since its discovery by Camillo Golgi in 1873, who described it as the “black reaction,” and despite the enormous volume of publications about Golgi, this apparatus remains one of the most enigmatic of the cytoplasmic organelles. A typical mammalian Golgi consists of a parallel series of flattened, disk-shaped cisternae which align into stacks. The tremendous volume of Golgi-related incoming and outgoing traffic is mediated by different motor proteins, including members of the dynein, kinesin, and myosin families. Yet in spite of the strenuous work it performs, Golgi contrives to maintain its monolithic morphology and orchestration of matrix and residential proteins. However, in response to stress, alcohol, and treatment with many pharmacological drugs over time, Golgi undergoes a kind of disorganization which ranges from mild enlargement to critical scattering. While fragmentation of the Golgi was confirmed in cancer by electron microscopy almost fifty years ago, it is only in recent years that we have begun to understand the significance of Golgi fragmentation in the biology of tumors. Below author would like to focus on how Golgi fragmentation opens the doors for cascades of fatal pathways which may facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. Among the issues addressed will be the most important cancer-specific hallmarks of Golgi fragmentation, including aberrant glycosylation, abnormal expression of the Ras GTPases, dysregulation of kinases, and hyperactivity of myosin motor proteins. PMID:27064441

  20. Synergistic impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on model ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Purves, Drew W.; Tittensor, Derek P.; Harfoot, Michael B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, yet separating their effects is challenging. We use a multi-trophic, trait-based, and spatially explicit general ecosystem model to examine the independent and synergistic effects of these processes on ecosystem structure. We manipulated habitat by removing plant biomass in varying spatial extents, intensities, and configurations. We found that emergent synergistic interactions of loss and fragmentation are major determinants of ecosystem response, including population declines and trophic pyramid shifts. Furthermore, trait-mediated interactions, such as a disproportionate sensitivity of large-sized organisms to fragmentation, produce significant effects in shaping responses. We also show that top-down regulation mitigates the effects of land use on plant biomass loss, suggesting that models lacking these interactions—including most carbon stock models—may not adequately capture land-use change impacts. Our results have important implications for understanding ecosystem responses to environmental change, and assessing the impacts of habitat fragmentation. PMID:27655763