Science.gov

Sample records for fragmented type ii

  1. Virtual screening filters for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase inhibitors: a fragment based library generation approach.

    PubMed

    Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G Narahari

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we introduce the development and application of a three-step scoring and filtering procedure for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase leads using allosteric fragments extracted from virtual screening hits. The design of the virtual screening filters is based on a thorough evaluation of docking methods, DFG-loop conformation, binding interactions and chemotype specificity of the 138 p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from Protein Data Bank bound to DFG-in and DFG-out conformations using Glide, GOLD and CDOCKER. A 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation with the apo, type I with DFG-in and type II with DFG-out forms was carried out to delineate the effects of structural variations on inhibitor binding. The designed docking-score and sub-structure filters were first tested on a dataset of 249 potent p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from seven diverse series and 18,842 kinase inhibitors from PDB, to gauge their capacity to discriminate between kinase and non-kinase inhibitors and likewise to selectively filter-in target-specific inhibitors. The designed filters were then applied in the virtual screening of a database of ten million (10⁷) compounds resulting in the identification of 100 hits. Based on their binding modes, 98 allosteric fragments were extracted from the hits and a fragment library was generated. New type II p38 MAP kinase leads were designed by tailoring the existing type I ATP site binders with allosteric fragments using a common urea linker. Target specific virtual screening filters can thus be easily developed for other kinases based on this strategy to retrieve target selective compounds.

  2. Hydroxyethylene isosteres introduced in type II collagen fragments substantially alter the structure and dynamics of class II MHC A(q)/glycopeptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Cecilia; Andersson, Ida E; Berg, Lotta; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Ge, Changrong; Haag, Sabrina; Uciechowska, Urszula; Holmdahl, Rikard; Kihlberg, Jan; Linusson, Anna

    2015-06-14

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins are involved in initiation of immune responses to foreign antigens via presentation of peptides to receptors of CD4(+) T-cells. An analogous presentation of self-peptides may lead to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The glycopeptide fragment CII259-273, derived from type II collagen, is presented by A(q) MHCII molecules in the mouse and has a key role in development of collagen induced arthritis (CIA), a validated model for RA. We have introduced hydroxyethylene amide bond isosteres at the Ala(261)-Gly(262) position of CII259-273. Biological evaluation showed that A(q) binding and T cell recognition were dramatically reduced for the modified glycopeptides, although static models predicted similar binding modes as the native type II collagen fragment. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrated that introduction of the hydroxyethylene isosteres disturbed the entire hydrogen bond network between the glycopeptides and A(q). As a consequence the hydroxyethylene isosteric glycopeptides were prone to dissociation from A(q) and unfolding of the β1-helix. Thus, the isostere induced adjustment of the hydrogen bond network altered the structure and dynamics of A(q)/glycopeptide complexes leading to the loss of A(q) affinity and subsequent T cell response.

  3. Lead Discovery of Type II BRAF V600E Inhibitors Targeting the Structurally Validated DFG-Out Conformation Based upon Selected Fragments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwen; Zhang, Xuejin; You, Qidong

    2016-07-16

    The success of the first approved kinase inhibitor imatinib has spurred great interest in the development of type II inhibitors targeting the inactive DFG-out conformation, wherein the Phe of the DFG motif at the start of the activation loop points into the ATP binding site. Nevertheless, kinase inhibitors launched so far are heavily biased toward type I inhibitors targeting the active DFG-in conformation, wherein the Phe of the DFG motif flips by approximately 180° relative to the inactive conformation, resulting in Phe and Asp swapping their positions. Data recently obtained with structurally validated type II inhibitors supported the conclusion that type II inhibitors are more selective than type I inhibitors. In our type II BRAF V600E inhibitor lead discovery effort, we identified phenylaminopyrimidine (PAP) and unsymmetrically disubstituted urea as two fragments that are frequently presented in FDA-approved protein kinase inhibitors. We therefore defined PAP and unsymmetrically disubstituted urea as privileged fragments for kinase drug discovery. A pharmacophore for type II inhibitors, 4-phenylaminopyrimidine urea (4-PAPU), was assembled based upon these privileged fragments. Lead compound SI-046 with BRAF V600E inhibitory activity comparable to the template compound sorafenib was in turn obtained through preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study. Molecular docking suggested that SI-046 is a bona fide type II kinase inhibitor binding to the structurally validated "classical DFG-out" conformation of BRAF V600E. Our privileged fragments-based approach was shown to efficiently deliver a bona fide type II kinase inhibitor lead. In essence, the theme of this article is to showcase the strategy and rationale of our approach.

  4. An Effective Bifunctional Aldehyde Linchpin for Type II Anion Relay Chemistry: Development and Application to the Synthesis of a C16–C29 Fragment of Rhizopodin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and validation of a new bifunctional aldehyde linchpin for Type II anion relay chemistry have been achieved. For this linchpin, the initial nucleophilic addition proceeds under Felkin–Anh control to generate the syn-alkoxide, which undergoes a 1,4-Brook rearrangement to relay the negative charge, thus leading to the formation of a dithiane-stabilized carbanion. Subsequent trapping with an electrophile furnishes a tricomponent adduct with an embedded propionate subunit, a ubiquitous structural motif found in polyketides. The utility of this new linchpin is demonstrated with the construction of a potential C16–C29 fragment for the synthesis of rhizopodin, an actin-binding macrolide. PMID:26641664

  5. Type II collagen fragment HELIX-II is a marker for early cartilage lesions but does not predict the progression of cartilage destruction in human knee joint synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaochun; Yin, Kun; Li, Pengcui; Wang, Huan; Ding, Juan; Duan, Wangping; Wei, Lei

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether there is a direct correlation between the concentration of type II collagen fragment HELIX-II in synovial fluid and the severity of cartilage damage at the knee joint, 83 patients who had undergone knee arthroscopy or total knee replacement were enrolled in this study (49% women, mean ± SD age 49.5 ± 19). The content of HELIX-II in the synovial fluid samples was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cartilage damage at the knee joint was classified during arthroscopy or direct surgical observation, using the Outerbridge cartilage damage scoring system. The maximum damage score was defined as the highest score among the six areas of the knee joint, and the cumulative score was defined as the sum of the scores of the six areas of the knee joint. The intra-assay and inter-assay variations of the HELIX-II ELISA were lower than 13 and 15%, respectively. The level of HELIX-II in the severely damaged cartilage groups (cumulative scores = 11-24 or maximum score = 2-4) was much higher than in the slightly damaged cartilage groups (cumulative scores = 0-10 or maximum score = 0-1). The level of HELIX-II in cartilage from severely damaged cartilage groups was significantly higher than in the slightly damaged groups, but no significant difference was detected in the level of HELIX-II among the severely damaged cartilage sub-groups. There was a significant correlation between the HELIX-II concentration in the synovial fluid and the cumulative (r = 0.807) and maximum scores (r = 0.794). Thus, elevated HELIX-II level is correlated with early cartilage lesions, but does not have the sensitivity to predict the progression of severity of cartilage damage in the knee joint.

  6. LOCALIZING NATIONAL FRAGMENTATION STATISTICS WITH FOREST TYPE MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fragmmentation of forest types is an indicator of biodiversity in the Montreal Process, but the available national data permit assessment of only overall forestland fragmentation, not forest type fragmentation. Here we illustrate how to localize national statistics from the 2003...

  7. Evidence for sequence scrambling in collision-induced dissociation of y-type fragment ions.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Mahsan; Harper, Brett; Solouki, Touradj

    2013-11-01

    Sequence scrambling from y-type fragment ions has not been previously reported. In a study designed to probe structural variations among b-type fragment ions, it was noted that y fragment ions might also yield sequence-scrambled ions. In this study, we examined the possibility and extent of sequence-scrambled fragment ion generation from collision-induced dissociation (CID) of y-type ions from four peptides (all containing basic residues near the C-terminus) including: AAAAHAA-NH2 (where "A" denotes carbon thirteen ((13)C1) isotope on the alanine carbonyl group), des-acetylated-α-melanocyte (SYSMEHFRWGKPV-NH2), angiotensin II antipeptide (EGVYVHPV), and glu-fibrinopeptide b (EGVNDNEEGFFSAR). We investigated fragmentation patterns of 32 y-type fragment ions, including y fragment ions with different charge states (+1 to +3) and sizes (3 to 12 amino acids). Sequence-scrambled fragment ions were observed from ~50 % (16 out of 32) of the studied y-type ions. However, observed sequence-scrambled ions had low relative intensities from ~0.1 % to a maximum of ~12 %. We present and discuss potential mechanisms for generation of sequence-scrambled fragment ions. To the best of our knowledge, results on y fragment dissociation presented here provide the first experimental evidence for generation of sequence-scrambled fragments from CID of y ions through intermediate cyclic "b-type" ions.

  8. Copper(II) complexes of rat amylin fragments.

    PubMed

    Kállay, Csilla; Dávid, Agnes; Timári, Sarolta; Nagy, Eszter Márta; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; De Bona, Paolo; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Sóvágó, Imre

    2011-10-14

    The fragments of rat amylin rIAPP(17-29) (Ac-VRSSNNLGPVLPP-NH(2)), rIAPP(17-22) (Ac-VRSSNN-NH(2)), rIAPP(19-22) (Ac-SSNN-NH(2)) and rIAPP(17-20) (Ac-VRSS-NH(2)) together with the related mutant peptides (Ac-VASS-NH(2) and Ac-VRAA-NH(2)) have been synthesized and their copper(II) complexes studied by potentiometric, UV-Vis, CD and EPR spectroscopic methods. Despite the lack of any common strongly coordinating donor functions some of these fragments are able to bind copper(II) ions in the physiological pH range. The longest fragment rat amylin(17-29) keeps one equivalent copper(II) ion in solution in the whole pH range, while two other peptides Ac-VRSSNN-NH(2) and Ac-SSNN-NH(2) are also able to interact with copper(II) ions in the slightly alkaline pH range. According to the spectral parameters of the complexes, the peptides can be classified into two different categories: (i) the tetrapeptides Ac-VRSS-NH(2), Ac-VASS-NH(2) and Ac-VRAA-NH(2) can interact with copper(II) only under strongly alkaline conditions (pH > 10.0) and the formation of only one species with four amide nitrogen coordination can be detected; (ii) the peptides Ac-VRSSNNLGPVLPP-NH(2), Ac-VRSSNN-NH(2) and Ac-SSNN-NH(2) can form complexes above pH 6.0 with the major stoichiometries [CuH(-2)L], [CuH(-3)L](-) and [CuH(-4)L](2-). These data support that rIAPP(17-29) can interact with copper(II) ions under physiological conditions and the SSNN tetrapeptide fragment can be considered as the shortest sequence responsible for metal binding. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide some information on the possible coordination modes of Ac-SSNN-NH(2) towards the copper(II) ion and suggest that for [CuH(-2)L], [CuH(-3)L](-) and [CuH(-4)L](2-), the binding of two, three and four deprotonated amide nitrogens, with NH(-) of the side chain of asparagine as anchoring group, is probable. Moreover, these data reveal that peptides can be effective metal binding ligands even in the absence of anchoring

  9. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  10. Statistical Models of Areal Distribution of Fragmented Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C.; Dungan, J.; DAntoni, Hector

    1997-01-01

    Imagery of coarse resolution, such weather satellite imagery with 1 square kilometer pixels, is increasingly used to monitor dynamic and fragmented types of land surface types, such as scars from recent fires and ponds in wetlands. Accurate estimates of these land cover types at regional to global scales are required to assess the roles of fires and wetlands in global warming, yet difficult to compute when much of the area is accounted for by fragments about the same size as the pixels. In previous research, we found that size distribution of the fragments in several example scenes fit simple two-parameter models and related effects of coarse resolution to errors in area estimates based on pixel counts. We summarize our model based approach to improved area estimations and report on progress to develop accurate areas estimates based on modeling the size distribution of the fragments, including analysis of size distributions on an expanded set of maps developed from digital imagery.

  11. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  12. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  13. Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of multihistidine peptide fragments of human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Jószai, Viktória; Turi, Ildikó; Kállay, Csilla; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Sóvágó, Imre

    2012-07-01

    Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of four peptide fragments of human prion protein have been studied by potentiometric, UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. One peptide contained three histidyl residues: HuPrP(84-114) with H85 inside and H96, H111 outside the octarepeat domain. The other three peptides contained two histidyl residues; H96 and H111 for HuPrP(91-115) and HuPrP(84-114)H85A while HuPrP(84-114)H96A contained the histidyl residues at positions 85 and 111. It was found that both histidines of the latter peptides can simultaneously bind copper(II) and nickel(II) ions and dinuclear mixed metal complexes can exist in slightly alkaline solution. One molecule of the peptide with three histidyl residues can bind two copper(II) and one nickel(II) ions. H85 and H111 were identified as the major copper(II) and H96 as the preferred nickel(II) binding sites in mixed metal species. The studies on the zinc(II)-PrP peptide binary systems revealed that zinc(II) ions can coordinate to the 31-mer PrP peptide fragments in the form of macrochelates with two or three coordinated imidazol-nitrogens but the low stability of these complexes cannot prevent the hydrolysis of the metal ion in slightly alkaline solution. These data provide further support for the outstanding affinity of copper(II) ions towards the peptide fragments of prion protein but the binding of nickel(II) can significantly modify the distribution of copper(II) among the available metal binding sites.

  14. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  15. Coordination of dibensothiophenes and corannulenes to organometallic ruthenium (II) fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, Paul Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation contains five papers in the format required for journal publication which describe (in part) my research accomplishments as a graduate student at Iowa State University. This work can be broadly categorized as the binding of weakly-coordinating ligands to cationic organometallic ruthenium fragments, and consists of two main areas of study. Chapters 2-4 are investigations into factors that influence the binding of dibenzothiophenes to [Cp'Ru(CO)2(+ fragments, where Cp' = η5-C5H5 (Cp) and η5-C5Me5 (Cp*). Chapters 5 and 6 present the synthesis and structural characterization of complexes containing corannulene buckybowls that are η6-coordinated to [Cp*Ru(+ fragments. The first chapter contains a brief description of the difficulty in lowering sulfur levels in diesel fuel along with a review of corannulene derivatives and their metal complexes. After the final paper is a short summary of the work herein (Chapter 7). Each chapter is independent, and all equations, schemes, figures, tables, references, and appendices in this dissertation pertain only to the chapter in which they appear.

  16. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  17. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Walker, V; Mills, G A; Peters, S A; Merton, W L

    2000-03-01

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.

  18. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  19. Femtosecond Dynamics of Norrish Type-II Reactions: Nonconcerted Hydrogen-Transfer and Diradical Intermediacy.

    PubMed

    De Feyter S; Diau; Zewail

    2000-01-01

    Norrish type-II and McLafferty rearrangements, which both involve an intramolecular transfer of a gamma H atom, can be differentiated on the femtosecond time scale. The McLafferty rearrangement results in ion fragmentation of the parent ketone, whereas the Norrish type-II reaction leads to a diradical species, which then either cyclizes or fragments (see scheme). For Norrish type-II reactions, the reaction time for the transfer of the hydrogen atom is within 70 - 90 fs, and the lifetime of the diradical intermediate is in the range of 400 - 700 ps at the total energy studied.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies against type II rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, C.H.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (8/1, 10/10, and 25/3) against rat brain type II protein kinase C (PKC) were used to carry out the immunochemical characterization of this kinase. These antibodies immunoprecipitated the type II PKC in a dose-dependent manner but did neither to type I nor type III isozyme. Purified type II PKC has a molecular weight of 82,000 and consists of heterogeneous isoelectric point species, all of which are cross reactive with these antibodies. Immunoblot analysis of the tryptic fragments from PKC revealed that all three antibodies recognized the 33-38-KDa fragments, the phospholipid/phorbol ester-binding domain, but not the 45-48-KDa fragments, the kinase catalytic domain. The immune complexes of the kinase and the antibodies retained the kinase activity which was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine (PS) and further activated by diacylglycerol. With antibody 8/1, the apparent Km values of the kinase for Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS were not influenced. The initial rate and final extent of autophosphorylation were reduced. The concentration of PS required for half-maximal (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding was increased and the total PDBu binding was reduced. In the presence of optimum concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS, the Kd of PDBu was unaffected by the antibody but the total binding was reduced. These results demonstrate that the PS/PDBu-binding domain contains the major epitope for the antibodies and the antibody mainly influences the PS/PDBu binding to the kinase.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  2. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  3. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation.

  4. Analyzing internal fragmentation of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions during beam-type collisional dissociation.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Kenneth R; Skinner, Owen S; Fellers, Ryan T; Kelleher, Neil L

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis.

  5. Analyzing Internal Fragmentation of Electrosprayed Ubiquitin Ions During Beam-Type Collisional Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Kenneth R.; Skinner, Owen S.; Fellers, Ryan T.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis.

  6. Analyzing Internal Fragmentation of Electrosprayed Ubiquitin Ions During Beam-Type Collisional Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Kenneth R.; Skinner, Owen S.; Fellers, Ryan T.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis. PMID:25716753

  7. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible.

  8. Type II endometrial cancers: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora D.; Thomas, Eliz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial carcinoma ranks 3rd in India among gynecological malignancies. Endometrial cancer (EC) can be classified into two distinct groups – type I and type II, based on histology, which differs in molecular, clinical and histopathological profiles. Type II is nonestrogen dependent, nonendometrioid, more aggressive and carries poor prognosis. Although type II cancers contribute only about 10% of EC incidence, they present at advanced age and cause approximately 50% recurrence and deaths with a low 5-year, overall survival rate. Type II EC are also characterized by genetic alterations in p53, human epidermal growth factor-2/neu, p16 and E-cadherin. Materials and Methods: Endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from endometrial biopsies and hysterectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, from January 2007 to June 2012 were included in the study. Clinicopathological analysis of the 84 cases of EC was done with emphasis on morphology. p53 immunostaining was performed in two cases of serous carcinoma. Results: Out of a total of 84 cases of EC, ten cases were of type II (11.9%). Out of which, eight were serous carcinoma (9.5%) and two clear cell (2.4%). p53 immunostain was strongly positive in the serous papillary carcinomas. The age of the patients ranged from 45 to 75 years. Myometrial invasion was more than half. Treatment was hysterectomy followed by aggressive chemotherapy. Conclusion: Of the type II EC, serous carcinoma is the most common type. Clinical presentation and prognosis differs in comparison to type I EC, thus the recognition of this type of EC is pivotal. PMID:27499593

  9. Types of rotor failure and characteristics of fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, D.

    1977-01-01

    Noncontained rotor failures in U.K. engines resulting from low cycle fatigue, low cycle fatigue with superimposed high cycle fatigue, and overheating and-or overspeeding were analyzed. The size, shape, weight, velocity, energy, and direction of the fragments released from turbines and compressors were studied and are presented in graph.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the ... PDF Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that ...

  11. Isolation of cDNA and genomic DNA clones encoding type II collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Young, M F; Vogeli, G; Nunez, A M; Fernandez, M P; Sullivan, M; Sobel, M E

    1984-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from total chick embryo RNA was screened with an enriched fraction of type II collagen mRNA. Two overlapping cDNA clones were characterized and shown to encode the COOH propeptide of type II collagen. In addition, a type II collagen clone was isolated from a Charon 4A library of chick genomic fragments. Definitive identification of the clones was based on DNA sequence analysis. The 3' end of the type II collagen gene appears to be similar to that of other interstitial collagen genes. Northern hybridization data indicates that there is a marked decrease in type II collagen mRNA levels in chondrocytes treated with the dedifferentiating agent 5-bromodeoxyuridine. The major type II collagen mRNA species is 5300 bases long, similar to that of other interstitial collagen RNAs. Images PMID:6203098

  12. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome.

  13. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  14. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  15. Copper(II) interaction with the Human Prion 103-112 fragment - Coordination and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Csire, Gizella; Nagy, Lajos; Várnagy, Katalin; Kállay, Csilla

    2017-02-20

    The prion protein (PrP) is a membrane-anchored cell surface glycoprotein containing 231 amino acids. It has been associated with a group of neurodegenerative disorders. Copper(II) interaction with the Human Prion 103-112 fragment and its mutants has been studied with various techniques. The studied human prion fragment contains both histidine and methionine residues, while methionine residues are systematically replaced or displaced in the studied mutants. pH-potentiometric, UV-Vis and circular dicroism spectroscopic techniques were applied to study the stoichiometry, stability and structure of the copper(II) complexes, while HPLC-MS and MS/MS were used for identifying the products of copper(II) catalyzed oxidation. The complex formation reactions of the studied ligands are rather similar; only 1:1 complexes are formed, where the imidazole nitrogen of the histidine residue is the main binding site beside the amide nitrogens of the peptide chain. The only difference is, that in the peptides which contain methionine in position 109, in addition to the (Nim,N(-),N(-)) coordination mode, a weak interaction of thioether sulfur atoms can be supposed. The mutant peptide which does not contain methionine did not undergo oxidation, only the fragmentation of the peptide chain was perceived. However, in the case of methionine containing peptides, the peptide chain was not cleaved; but the oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide occurred.

  16. 7S Fragment of Type IV Collagen as a Serum Marker of Canine Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Glińska-Suchocka, K; Orłowska, A; Kubiak, K; Spużak, J; Jankowski, M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the serum levels of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen may aid in diagnosing liver fibrosis in dogs. The study was carried out on 20 dogs with liver disease. Serum levels of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen were measured in all dogs. The analysis showed that healthy dogs and dogs with type 1, 2 and 3 liver fibrosis had low serum concentrations of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen compared to dogs with type 4 liver fibrosis. The study revealed that the assessment of serum levels of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen is useful in the diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  17. Identification of Noncompetitive Inhibitors of Cytosolic 5'-Nucleotidase II Using a Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Marton, Zsuzsanna; Guillon, Rémi; Krimm, Isabelle; Preeti; Rahimova, Rahila; Egron, David; Jordheim, Lars P; Aghajari, Nushin; Dumontet, Charles; Périgaud, Christian; Lionne, Corinne; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Chaloin, Laurent

    2015-12-24

    We used a combined approach based on fragment-based drug design (FBDD) and in silico methods to design potential inhibitors of the cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II (cN-II), which has been recognized as an important therapeutic target in hematological cancers. Two subgroups of small compounds (including adenine and biaryl moieties) were identified as cN-II binders and a fragment growing strategy guided by molecular docking was considered. Five compounds induced a strong inhibition of the 5'-nucleotidase activity in vitro, and the most potent ones were characterized as noncompetitive inhibitors. Biological evaluation in cancer cell lines showed synergic effect with selected anticancer drugs. Structural studies using X-ray crystallography lead to the identification of new binding sites for two derivatives and of a new crystal form showing important domain swapping. Altogether, the strategy developed herein allowed identifying new original noncompetitive inhibitors against cN-II that act in a synergistic manner with well-known antitumoral agents.

  18. Lamellar spacing of photosystem II membrane fragments upon dehydration studied by neutron membrane diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, Jörg; Rusevich, Leonid; Hauß, Thomas; Renger, Gernot

    2016-02-01

    The effect of dehydration on the lamellar spacing of photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach has been investigated using neutron membrane diffraction at room temperature. The diffraction data reveal a major peak at a scattering vector Q of 0.049 Å-1 at a relative humidity (r.h.) of 90% corresponding to a repeat distance D of about 129 Å. Upon dehydration to 44% r.h., this peak shifts to about 0.060 Å-1 corresponding to a distance of 104.7±2.5 Å. Within experimental error, the latter repeat distance remains almost the same at hydration levels below 44% r.h. indicating that most of the hydration water is removed. This result is consistent with the earlier finding that hydration-induced conformational protein motions in PS II membrane fragments are observed above 44% r.h. and correlated with the onset electron transfer in PS II (Pieper et al. 2008, Eur. Biophys. J. 37: 657-663).

  19. Lamellar spacing of photosystem II membrane fragments upon dehydration studied by neutron membrane diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, Jörg; Rusevich, Leonid; Hauß, Thomas; Renger, Gernot

    2015-12-01

    The effect of dehydration on the lamellar spacing of photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach has been investigated using neutron membrane diffraction at room temperature. The diffraction data reveal a major peak at a scattering vector Q of 0.049 Å-1 at a relative humidity (r.h.) of 90% corresponding to a repeat distance D of about 129 Å. Upon dehydration to 44% r.h., this peak shifts to about 0.060 Å-1 corresponding to a distance of 104.7±2.5 Å. Within experimental error, the latter repeat distance remains almost the same at hydration levels below 44% r.h. indicating that most of the hydration water is removed. This result is consistent with the earlier finding that hydration-induced conformational protein motions in PS II membrane fragments are observed above 44% r.h. and correlated with the onset electron transfer in PS II (Pieper et al. 2008, Eur. Biophys. J. 37: 657-663).

  20. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges.

  1. Type II Technology Applications in Teacher Education:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen Wang, Lih-Ching; Beasley, William

    2005-01-01

    The use of the Instant Messenger (IM) environment to carry out structured online class discussions in graduate teacher education courses is described. Properties of IM are delineated, and specific procedures in using IM as a vehicle for class discussions are discussed. Attributes of Type II technology applications are addressed directly, and the…

  2. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  3. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  4. Copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of the N-terminal nonapeptide fragment of amyloid-β and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Grenács, Ágnes; Sóvágó, Imre

    2014-10-01

    Copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of the nonapeptide fragment of amyloid-β Aβ(1-9) (NH2-DAEFRHDSG-NH2) and its two derivatives: NH2-DAAAAHAAA-NH2 and NH2-DAAAAAHAA-NH2 have been studied by potentiometric, UV-visible and CD spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the primary role of the amino terminus of peptides in copper(II) and nickel(II) binding. The formation of dinuclear complexes was also possible in the copper(II) containing systems but only the first six amino acids from the amino terminus were involved in metal binding in the physiologically relevant pH range. The coordination chemistry of the two alanine mutated peptides is almost the same as that of the native nonapeptide, but the thermodynamic stability of the copper(II) complexes of the mutants is significantly reduced. This difference probably comes from the secondary interactions of the polar side chains of Asp, Glu, Ser and Arg residues present in the native peptide. Moreover, this difference reveals that the amino acid sequence of the N-terminal domains of amyloid peptides is especially well suited for the complexation with copper(II) ions.

  5. Oscar — Using Byte Pairs to Find File Type and Camera Make of Data Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karresand, Martin; Shahmehri, Nahid

    Mapping out the contents of fragmented storage media is hard if the file system has been corrupted, especially as the current forensic tools rely on meta information to do their job. If it was possible to find all fragments belonging to a certain file type, it would also be possible to recover a lost file. Such a tool could for example be used in the hunt for child pornography. The Oscar method identifies the file type of data fragments based solely on statistics calculated from their structure. The method does not need any meta data to work. We have previously used the byte frequency distribution and the rate of change between consecutive bytes as basis for the statistics, as well as calculating the 2-gram frequency distribution to create a model of different file types. This paper present a variant of the 2-gram method, in that it uses a dynamic smoothing factor. In this way we take the amount of data used to create the centroid into consideration. A previous experiment on file type identification is extended with .mp3 files reaching a detection rate of 76% with a false positives rate of 0.4%. We also use the method to identify the camera make used to capture a .jpg picture from a fragment of the picture. The result shows that we can clearly separate a picture fragment coming from a Fuji or Olympus cameras from a fragment of a picture of the other camera makes used in our test.

  6. Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    neurological exam was normal. Recompression with 100% oxygen produced relief within fifteen minutes. Follow up revealed no recurrence . Case 2 A twenty-seven...Follow up revealed no recurrence . Both cases pose an intriguing question. Should headache always be considered Type II DCS? DCS has a wide range of...with the supporting basis for this alternative view. The background for this paper is based on orthodontic and osteopathic medicine. For years

  7. Structure fragmentation in Fe-based alloys by means of cyclic martensitic transformations of different types.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Volodimir I; Danilchenko, Vitalij Ie; Dzevin, Ievgenij M

    2014-02-24

    The effect of martensite transformations of different types on the misorientation of austenite crystalline lattice, which characterizes the degree of structure fragmentation, was investigated for Fe-Ni and Fe-Mn alloys. As a result of multiple face-centered cubic (f.c.c.)-body-centered cubic (b.c.c.)-f.c.c. transformations, an austenite single-crystalline specimen is transformed in a polycrystalline one due to progressive fragmentation. It was shown that the degree of fragmentation depends on the magnitude of volume change and the density of dislocations generated on martensitic transformations.

  8. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  9. File Type Identification of File Fragments using Longest Common Subsequence (LCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Nicholas, F.; Purnamawati, S.; Sitompul, O. S.

    2017-01-01

    Computer forensic analyst is a person in charge of investigation and evidence tracking. In certain cases, the file needed to be presented as digital evidence was deleted. It is difficult to reconstruct the file, because it often lost its header and cannot be identified while being restored. Therefore, a method is required for identifying the file type of file fragments. In this research, we propose Longest Common Subsequences that consists of three steps, namely training, testing and validation, to identify the file type from file fragments. From all testing results we can conlude that our proposed method works well and achieves 92.91% of accuracy to identify the file type of file fragment for three data types.

  10. Efficient DNA Fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum Types A, B, E, and F by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Nevas, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2005-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification. PMID:15746312

  11. Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Nevas, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2005-03-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to characterize 33 group I and 37 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Four restriction enzyme and 30 primer combinations were screened to tailor the AFLP technique for optimal characterization of C. botulinum. The enzyme combination HindIII and HpyCH4IV, with primers having one selective nucleotide apiece (Hind-C and Hpy-A), was selected. AFLP clearly differentiated between C. botulinum groups I and II; group-specific clusters showed <10% similarity between proteolytic and nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains. In addition, group-specific fragments were detected in both groups. All strains studied were typeable by AFLP, and a total of 42 AFLP types were identified. Extensive diversity was observed among strains of C. botulinum type E, whereas group I had lower genetic biodiversity. These results indicate that AFLP is a fast, highly discriminating, and reproducible DNA fingerprinting method with excellent typeability, which, in addition to its suitability for typing at strain level, can be used for C. botulinum group identification.

  12. Spectral modeling of Type II SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The red supergiant phase represents the final stage of evolution in the life of moderate mass (8-25Msun) massive stars. Hidden from view, the core changes considerably its structure, progressing through the advanced stages of nuclear burning, and eventually becomes degenerate. Upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, this Fe or ONeMg core collapses, leading to the formation of a proto neutron star. A type II supernova results if the shock that forms at core bounce, eventually wins over the envelope accretion and reaches the progenitor surface.The electromagnetic display of such core-collapse SNe starts with this shock breakout, and persists for months as the ejecta releases the energy deposited initially by the shock or continuously through radioactive decay. Over a timescale of weeks to months, the originally optically-thick ejecta thins out and turns nebular. SN radiation contains a wealth of information about the explosion physics (energy, explosive nucleosynthesis), the progenitor properties (structure and composition). Polarised radiation also offers signatures that can help constrain the morphology of the ejecta.In this talk, I will review the current status of type II SN spectral modelling, and emphasise that a proper solution requires a time dependent treatment of the radiative transfer problem. I will discuss the wealth of information that can be gleaned from spectra as well as light curves, from both the early times (photospheric phase) and late times (nebular phase). I will discuss the diversity of Type SNe properties and how they are related to the diversity of red supergiant stars from which they originate.SN radiation offers an alternate means of constraining the properties of red-supergiant stars. To wrap up, I will illustrate how SNe II-P can also be used as probes, for example to constrain the metallicity of their environment.

  13. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  14. Minkowski Flux Vacua of Type II Supergravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriot, David; Blâbäck, Johan; Van Riet, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We study flux compactifications of 10D type II supergravities to 4D Minkowski space-time, supported by parallel orientifold Op planes with 3 ≤p ≤8 . With some geometric restrictions, the 4D Ricci scalar can be written as a negative sum of squares involving Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield-like conditions. Setting all squares to zero provides automatically a solution to 10D equations of motion. This way we characterize a broad class, if not the complete set, of Minkowski flux vacua with parallel orientifolds. We conjecture an extension with nongeometric fluxes. None of our results rely on supersymmetry.

  15. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  16. Mineralogical comparison of the Y86032-type lunar meteorites to feldspathic fragmental breccia 67016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Mori, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical characteristics of lunar meteorites Y82193 and Y86032 were compared to those of Apollo-16 fieldspathic fragmental breccia 67016, using results from electron microprobe analysis and TEM. It was found that the pyroxene mineralogy and chemistry of granulitic clasts in 67016 breccia and the Y86032-type lunar meteorites were much alike, suggesting that the formation processes of the fieldspathic fragmental breccias are also important in the genesis of lunar meteorites. There were differences in matrix microtextures, however, implying that 67016 and Y86032-type breccia formation temperatures were different.

  17. The Fragmenting Superbubble Associated with the H II Region W4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jennifer L.; English, Jayanne; Normandeau, Magdalen; Landecker, T. L.

    2007-02-01

    New observations at high latitudes above the H II region W4 show that the structure formerly identified as a chimney candidate, an opening to the Galactic halo, is instead a superbubble in the process of fragmenting and possibly evolving into a chimney. Data at high Galactic latitudes (b>5deg) above the W3/W4 star-forming region at 1420 and 408 MHz Stokes I (total power) and 1420 MHz Stokes Q and U (linear polarization) reveal an egg-shaped structure with morphological correlations between our data and the Hα data of Dennison, Topasna, and Simonetti. Polarized intensity images show depolarization extending from W4 up the walls of the superbubble, providing strong evidence that the radio continuum is generated by thermal emission coincident with the Hα emission regions. We conclude that the parts of the H II region hitherto known as W4 and the newly revealed thermal emission are all ionized by the open cluster OCl 352. At an assumed distance of 2.35 kpc, the ovoid structure is 164 pc wide and extends 246 pc above the midplane of the Galaxy. The shell's emission decreases in total intensity and polarized intensity in various locations, appearing to have a break at its top and another on one side. Using a geometric analysis of the depolarization in the shell's walls, we estimate that a magnetic field line-of-sight component of 3-5 μG exists in the shell. We explore the connection between W4 and the Galactic halo, considering whether sufficient radiation can escape from the fragmenting superbubble to ionize the kiloparsec-scale Hα loop discovered by Reynolds, Sterling and Haffner.

  18. Investigation of Explosively Driven Fragmentation of Metals - Two Dimensional Fracture and Fragmentation of Metal Shells: Progress Report II

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D

    2003-02-01

    High explosive enclosed by a metal case qualitatively describes an essential component of high energy systems of importance to the Department of Energy. Detonation of the high explosive causes intense transient pressure loading of the metal following arrival of normal or obliquely incident explosive detonation wave. Subsequent expansion and deformation of the metal case leads to eventual rupture and the opening of fractures and fissures. Details of the rupture process are critical to performance of the system. Consequently, it is essential that the material and kinematic issues governing the processes of dynamic loading and subsequent failure of an explosive-metal case component within a functioning system be adequately understood. Among the reasons are to quantify existing performance, characterize potential degradation of performance resulting from system aging, and optimizing or maintaining system performance through implementation of structural or material changes. The physical and engineering issues underlying this dynamic response and failure phenomena are not adequately understood. The purpose of the present program is to identify the key issues and develop theoretical, computational and experimental models needed to achieve a satisfactory theoretical and analysis framework for analysis of metal case failure in the explosive environment. Specific tasks within the present program include: (1) Models and theories currently being pursued based on physical principles of both the statistical fragmentation concepts of Mott and the energy-based concept of others show promise of providing the analytic and computational methodology capable of predicting explosion-induced fracture and fragmentation of metal components. Experimental studies initiated in the earlier effort offer promise to provide critical test data for validation. The present task shall involve the further refinement and development of the dynamic failure and fragmentation models and theories, and the

  19. Recombinant human Fab fragments neutralize human type 1 immunodeficiency virus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, C F; Björling, E; Chiodi, F; Dunlop, N; Cababa, D; Jones, T M; Zebedee, S L; Persson, M A; Nara, P L; Norrby, E

    1992-01-01

    A panel of 20 recombinant Fab fragments reactive with the surface glycoprotein gp120 of human type 1 immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) were examined for their ability to neutralize MN and IIIB strains of the virus. Neutralization was determined as the ability of the Fab fragments to inhibit infection as measured in both a p24 ELISA and a syncytium-formation assay. One group of closely sequence-related Fab fragments was found to neutralize virus in both assays with a 50% neutralization titer at approximately 1 micrograms/ml. Another Fab neutralized in the p24 ELISA but not in the syncytium assay. The other Fab fragments showed weak or no neutralizing ability. The results imply that virion aggregation or crosslinking of gp120 molecules on the virion surface is not an absolute requirement for HIV-1 neutralization. Further, all of the Fab fragments were shown to be competitive with soluble CD4 for binding to gp120 and yet few neutralized the virus effectively, implying that the mechanism of neutralization in this case may not involve receptor blocking. The observation of a preponderance of high-affinity Fab fragments with poor or no neutralizing ability could have implications for vaccine strategies. PMID:1384050

  20. Combined Effects of UV Exposure Duration and Mechanical Abrasion on Microplastic Fragmentation by Polymer Type.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Jung, Seung Won; Shim, Won Joon

    2017-03-28

    It is important to understand the fragmentation processes and mechanisms of plastic litter to predict microplastic production in the marine environment. In this study, accelerated weathering experiments were performed in the laboratory, with ultraviolet (UV) exposure for up to 12 months followed by mechanical abrasion (MA) with sand for 2 months. Fragmentation of low-density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and expanded polystyrene (EPS) was evaluated under conditions that simulated a beach environment. PE and PP were minimally fragmented by MA without photooxidation by UV (8.7 ± 2.5 and 10.7 ± 0.7 particles/pellet, respectively). The rate of fragmentation by UV exposure duration increased more for PP than PE. A 12-month UV exposure and 2-month MA of PP and PE produced 6084 ± 1061 and 20 ± 8.3 particles/pellet, respectively. EPS pellets were susceptible to MA alone (4220 ± 33 particles/pellet), while the combination of 6 months of UV exposure followed by 2 months of MA produced 12,152 ± 3276 particles/pellet. The number of fragmented polymer particles produced by UV exposure and mechanical abrasion increased with decreasing size in all polymer types. The size-normalized abundance of the fragmented PE, PP, and EPS particles according to particle size after UV exposure and MA was predictable. Up to 76.5% of the initial EPS volume was unaccounted for in the final volume of pellet produced particle fragments, indicating that a large proportion of the particles had fragmented into undetectable submicron particles.

  1. Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X Long; Kitamoto, Yasunori; Sadler, J Evan

    2009-06-01

    Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease, is localized to the brush border of the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. It is synthesized as a zymogen (proenteropeptidase) that requires activation by another protease, either trypsin or possibly duodenase. Active enteropeptidase then converts the pancreatic precursor, trypsinogen, to trypsin by cleavage of the specific trypsinogen activation peptide, Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys- Ile that is highly conserved in vertebrates. Trypsin, in turn, activates other digestive zymogens such as chymotrypsinogen, proelastase, procarboxypeptidase and prolipase in the lumen of the gut. The important biological function of enteropeptidase is highlighted by the manifestation of severe diarrhea, failure to thrive, hypoproteinemia and edema as a result of congenital deficiency of enteropeptidase activity in the gut. Conversely, duodenopancreatic reflux of proteolytically active enteropeptidase may cause acute and chronic pancreatitis.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Blaumeiser, Bettina; Loquet, Philip; Wuyts, Wim; Nöthen, Markus M

    2004-08-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by coronal craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great toes. On the basis of clinical findings, three subtypes have been delineated. The clinical variability of Pfeiffer syndrome as well as other causes of craniosynostosis can make a prenatal diagnosis based on sonography alone difficult. We describe a fetus in whom sonographic findings (including 3D ultrasound) suggested a Pfeiffer syndrome type II and in which subsequent molecular analysis verified the diagnosis by identifying a de novo mutation in the FGFR2 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prenatal molecular diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome in a patient without family history.

  3. Ordering dynamics in type-II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2006-12-01

    We use analytic and numerical methods to analyze the dynamics of vortices following the quench of a type-II superconductor under the application of an external magnetic field. In three dimensions, in the absence of a field, the spacing between vortices scales with time t with an exponent phi=0.414+/-0.01, in a thin sheet of a superconductor, the scaling exponent is phi=0.294+/-0.01. When an external magnetic field h is applied, the vortices are confined with respect to the length scale of the Abrikosov lattice, leading to a crossover between the power-law scaling length scale and the lattice length scale. From this we suggest a one-parameter scaling of r with h and r that is consistent with numerical data.

  4. Observing the motion of seed coat fragments on a saw-type lint cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to observe how seed coat fragments (in ginned lint) reacted after colliding with grid bars mounted on a full-size saw-type lint cleaner. A high-speed video camera recorded the collision. A 45° and 105° grid bar were used in the study. The grid bars were labeled to describe t...

  5. Oligomeric State Regulated Trafficking of Human Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Type-II

    PubMed Central

    Monillas, Elizabeth S.; Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Thévenin, Anastasia F.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular enzyme platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II (PAFAH-II) hydrolyzes platelet-activating factor and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. PAFAH-II in its resting state is mainly cytoplasmic, and it responds to oxidative stress by becoming increasingly bound to endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes. Numerous studies have indicated that this enzyme is essential for protecting cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the oxidative stress response by PAFAH-II has not been fully resolved. Here, changes to the oligomeric state of human PAFAH-II were investigated as a potential regulatory mechanism toward enzyme trafficking. Native PAGE analysis in vitro and photon counting histogram within live cells showed that PAFAH-II is both monomeric and dimeric. A Gly-2-Ala site-directed mutation of PAFAH-II demonstrated that the N-terminal myristoyl group is required for homodimerization. Additionally, the distribution of oligomeric PAFAH-II is distinct within the cell; homodimers of PAFAH-II were localized to the cytoplasm while monomers were associated to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We propose that the oligomeric state of PAFAH-II drives functional protein trafficking. PAFAH-II localization to the membrane is critical for substrate acquisition and effective oxidative stress protection. It is hypothesized that the balance between monomer and dimer serves as a regulatory mechanism of a PAFAH-II oxidative stress response. PMID:25707358

  6. Oligomeric state regulated trafficking of human platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II.

    PubMed

    Monillas, Elizabeth S; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Thévenin, Anastasia F; Bahnson, Brian J

    2015-05-01

    The intracellular enzyme platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II (PAFAH-II) hydrolyzes platelet-activating factor and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. PAFAH-II in its resting state is mainly cytoplasmic, and it responds to oxidative stress by becoming increasingly bound to endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes. Numerous studies have indicated that this enzyme is essential for protecting cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the oxidative stress response by PAFAH-II has not been fully resolved. Here, changes to the oligomeric state of human PAFAH-II were investigated as a potential regulatory mechanism toward enzyme trafficking. Native PAGE analysis in vitro and photon counting histogram within live cells showed that PAFAH-II is both monomeric and dimeric. A Gly-2-Ala site-directed mutation of PAFAH-II demonstrated that the N-terminal myristoyl group is required for homodimerization. Additionally, the distribution of oligomeric PAFAH-II is distinct within the cell; homodimers of PAFAH-II were localized to the cytoplasm while monomers were associated to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We propose that the oligomeric state of PAFAH-II drives functional protein trafficking. PAFAH-II localization to the membrane is critical for substrate acquisition and effective oxidative stress protection. It is hypothesized that the balance between monomer and dimer serves as a regulatory mechanism of a PAFAH-II oxidative stress response.

  7. Waardenburg syndrome type II: phenotypic findings and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Z; Newton, V E; Read, A P

    1995-01-02

    The Waardenburg syndrome (WS) consists of at least two distinct autosomal dominant hereditary disorders. WS Type I has been mapped to the distal part of chromosome 2q and the gene identified as PAX3. Other gene(s) are responsible for WS Type II. Mapping WS Type II requires accurate diagnosis within affected families. To establish diagnostic criteria for WS Type II, 81 individuals from 21 families with Type II WS were personally studied, and compared with 60 personally studied patients from 8 families with Type I and 253 cases of WS (Type I or II) from the literature. Sensorineural hearing loss (77%) and heterochromia iridum (47%) were the two most important diagnostic indicators for WS Type II. Both were more common in Type II than in Type I. Other clinical manifestations, such as white forelock and skin patches, were more frequent in Type I. We estimate the frequency of phenotypic traits and propose diagnostic criteria for WS Type II. In practice, a diagnosis of WS Type II can be made with confidence given a family history of congenital hearing loss and pigmentary disorders, where individuals have been accurately measured for ocular distances to exclude dystopia canthorum.

  8. Fragmented Land Cover Types and Estimation of Area with Course Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Chris; Dungan, Jennifer; Gore, William (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Imagery of coarse resolution, such weather satellite imagery with 1 sq km pixels, is increasingly used to monitor dynamic and fragmented types of land surface types, such as scars from recent fires and ponds in wetlands. Accurate estimates of these land cover types at regional to global scales are required to assess the roles of fires and wetlands in global warming, yet difficult to compute when much of the area is accounted for by fragments about the same size as the pixels. In previous research, we found that size distribution of the fragments in several example scenes fit simple two-parameter models and related effects of coarse resolution to errors in area estimates based on pixel counts. We report on progress to develop accurate area estimates based on modelling the size distribution of the fragments, including analysis of size distributions on an expanded set of maps developed from digital imagery and a test of a procedure to correct for effects of coarse spatial resolution.

  9. Dynamic investigation of DNA bending and wrapping by type II topoisomerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qing; Finzi, Laura; Dunlap, David

    2009-11-01

    Type II topoisomerases catalyze DNA decatenation and unwinding which is crucial for cell division, and therefore type II topoisomerases are some of the main targets of anti-cancer drugs. A recent crystal structure shows that, during the catalytic cycle, a yeast type II topoimerase can bend a 10 base pair DNA segment by up to 150 degrees. Bacterial gyrase, another type II topoisomerase, can wrap DNA into a tight 180 degree turn. Bending a stiff polymer like DNA requires considerable energy and could represent the rate limiting step in the catalytic (topological) cycle. Using modified deoxyribonucleotides in PCR reactions, stiffer DNA fragments have been produced and used as substrates for topoisomerase II-mediated relaxation of plectonemes introduced in single molecules using magnetic tweezers. The wrapping ability of gyrase decreases for diamino-purine-substituted DNA in which every base pair has three hydrogen-bonds. The overall rate of relaxation of plectonemes by recombinant human topoisomerase II alpha also decreases. These results reveal the dynamic properties of DNA bending and wrapping by type II topisomerases and suggest that A:T base pair melting is a rate determining step for bending and wrapping.

  10. Group B Streptococcal Type II and III Conjugate Vaccines: Physicochemical Properties That Influence Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Michon, Francis; Uitz, Catherine; Sarkar, Arun; D'Ambra, Anello J.; Laude-Sharp, Maryline; Moore, Samuel; Fusco, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Recent efforts toward developing vaccines against group B streptococci (GBS) have focused on increasing the immunogenicity of GBS polysaccharides by conjugation to carrier proteins. However, partial depolymerization of GBS polysaccharides for the production of vaccines is a difficult task because of their acid-labile, antigenically critical sialic acids. Here we report a method for the partial depolymerization of type II and III polysaccharides by mild deaminative cleavage to antigenic fragments with reducing-terminal 2,5-anhydro-d-mannose residues. Through the free aldehydes of their newly formed end groups, the fragments were conjugated to tetanus toxoid by reductive amination. The resulting conjugates stimulated the production in animals of high-titer type II- and III-specific antibodies which induced opsonophagocytic killing of type II and III strains of group B streptococci. For the type II conjugates, immunogenicity increased as oligosaccharide size decreased, whereas for type III conjugates, the size of the oligosaccharides did not significantly influence immunogenicity. When oligosaccharides of defined size were conjugated through sialic acid residues, the resulting cross-linkages were shown to affect immunogenicity. When oligosaccharides were conjugated through terminal aldehyde groups generated by deamination, modification of the exocyclic chain of sialic acid did not influence immunogenicity. PMID:16893995

  11. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  12. Current Understanding of Usher Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Le; Song, Hongman; Sokolov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome is the most common deafness-blindness caused by genetic mutations. To date, three genes have been identified underlying the most prevalent form of Usher syndrome, the type II form (USH2). The proteins encoded by these genes are demonstrated to form a complex in vivo. This complex is localized mainly at the periciliary membrane complex in photoreceptors and the ankle-link of the stereocilia in hair cells. Many proteins have been found to interact with USH2 proteins in vitro, suggesting that they are potential additional components of this USH2 complex and that the genes encoding these proteins may be the candidate USH2 genes. However, further investigations are critical to establish their existence in the USH2 complex in vivo. Based on the predicted functional domains in USH2 proteins, their cellular localizations in photoreceptors and hair cells, the observed phenotypes in USH2 mutant mice, and the known knowledge about diseases similar to USH2, putative biological functions of the USH2 complex have been proposed. Finally, therapeutic approaches for this group of diseases are now being actively explored. PMID:22201796

  13. [Achondrogenesis type I and II and hypochondrogenesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Toledo, F; Toledo, J; Villegas, T; López, S; Remírez, J; García-Julián, G

    1980-10-01

    A study is made of achondrogenesis in relation to four observations of early fatal development. One case corresponds to type I (Parenti-Fraccaro); another to type II (Langer-Saldino); the final two, brothers, seem to come under the variation of hypochondrogenesis. In this study, authors stress the heterogenous nature of lethal, neonatal (short-limb) nanisms of which currently include: Type I and II achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, homozygote achondroplasia, classical Torrance-type and San Diego-type thanatophoric dysplasia.

  14. Ligation-mediated PCR amplification of specific fragments from a class-II restriction endonuclease total digest.

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, R A; Leeck, C L; Kroening, K D; Smith, L M; Guo, Z

    1997-01-01

    A method is described which permits the ligation- mediated PCR amplification of specific fragments from a Class-II restriction endonuclease total digest. Feasibility was tested using Bcl I and phage lambda DNA as a model enzyme and amplicon system, respectively. Bcl I is one of many widely used restriction enzymes which cleave at palindromic recognition sequences and leave 5'-protruding ends of defined sequence. Using a single pair of universal primers, a given fragment can be specifically amplified after joining the fragments to adaptors consisting of a duplex primer region and a 9-nucleotide protruding single-stranded 5'-end containing the sequence complementary to the cleaved restriction site and a 4-nucleotide 'indexing sequence.' The protruding strand anneals to a restriction fragment by displacing its corresponding strand in the same fragment-specific indexing sequence located juxtaposed to the restriction site. The adaptor is covalently linked to the restriction fragment by T4 DNA ligase, and amplification is carried out under conditions for long-distance PCR using the M13 forward and reverse primers. The technique discriminated robustly between mismatches and perfect matches for the 16 indexing sequences tested to allow individual lambda Bcl I fragments to be amplified from their respective adaptor pairs. A strategy is proposed enabling a non-cloning approach to the accession, physical mapping and sequencing of genomic DNA. The method could also have application in high-throughput genetic mapping and fingerprinting and should expand the enzyme base for ligation- mediated indexing technology which has previously been limited to the Class-IIS and IP restriction endonucleases. PMID:9108171

  15. Hypocretin-1 Levels Associate with Fragmented Sleep in Patients with Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Alakuijala, Anniina; Sarkanen, Tomi; Partinen, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We aimed to analyze nocturnal sleep characteristics of patients with narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy) measured by actigraphy in respect to cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels of the same patients. Methods: Actigraphy recording of 1−2 w and hypocretin-1 concentration analysis were done to thirty-six unmedicated patients, aged 7 to 63 y, 50% female. Twenty-six of them had hypocretin-1 levels under 30 pg/mL and the rest had levels of 31−79 pg/mL. Results: According to actigraphy, patients with very low hypocretin levels had statistically significantly longer sleep latency (P = 0.033) and more fragmented sleep, indicated by both the number of immobile phases of 1 min (P = 0.020) and movement + fragmentation index (P = 0.049). There were no statistically significant differences in the actual sleep time or circadian rhythm parameters measured by actigraphy. Conclusions: Actigraphy gives additional information about the stabilization of sleep in patients with narcolepsy type 1. Very low hypocretin levels associate with more wake intruding into sleep. Citation: Alakuijala A, Sarkanen T, Partinen M. Hypocretin-1 levels associate with fragmented sleep in patients with narcolepsy type 1. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1047–1050. PMID:26856902

  16. Type-II Dirac surface states in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Chan, Y.-H.; Li, Xiao; Nohara, Y.; Schnyder, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been realized that topological Weyl semimetals come in two different varieties: (i) with standard Weyl cones with pointlike Fermi surfaces (type I) and (ii) with tilted Weyl cones that appear at the contact of electron and hole pockets (type II). These two types of Weyl semimetals have very different physical properties, in particular, in their thermodynamics and magnetotransport. Here, we show that Dirac cone surface states of topological crystalline insulators can be distinguished in a similar way. We demonstrate this in terms of a general surface theory and then apply this knowledge to a family of antiperovskites of the form A3E O , where A denotes an alkaline earth metal, while E stands for Pb or Sn. Using ab initio DFT calculations, we investigate the bulk and surface topology of these antiperovskites and show that they exhibit type-I as well as type-II Dirac surface states protected by reflection symmetry. We find that the type-II Dirac states, as opposed to the type-I Dirac states, exhibit characteristic van Hove singularities in their dispersion, which lead to different thermodynamic properties, and which can serve as an experimental fingerprint of type-II surface states. The different magnetotransport characteristics between type-I and type-II surface states are discussed. In addition, we show that both type-I and type-II surface states exhibit an unusual helical spin polarization, which could lead to topological surface superconductivity.

  17. Surgical Treatment of Tubular Breast Type II

    PubMed Central

    Dabizha, Oleksii Y.; Kostenko, Alona A.; Gomolyako, Irina V.; Samko, Kristina A.; Borovyk, Denys V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubular breasts are caused by connective tissue malformation and occur in puberty. The main clinical characteristics of the tubular breast are breast asymmetry, dense fibrous ring around the areola, hernia bulging of the areola, megaareola, and hypoplasia of quadrants of the breast. Pathology causes great psychological discomfort to patients. Methods: This study included 17 patients, aged 18 to 34 years, with tubular breast type II who had bilateral pathology and were treated from 2013 to 2016. They had surgical treatment by method of the clinic. Correction technique consisted of mobilization of the central part of the gland and formation of a glandular flap with vertical and horizontal scorings, which looks like a “chessboard,” that was sufficient to cover the lower pole of the implant. The flap was fixed to the submammary folds with stitches that prevented its reduction and accented a new submammary fold. To underscore the importance of the method and to study the structural features of the vascular bed of tubular breast tissue, a morphological study was conducted. Results: Mean follow-up time was 25 months (range between 13 and 37 mo). The proposed technique achieved good results. Complications (hematoma, circumareolar scarring, and “double-bubble” deformity) were identified in 4 patients. Conclusions: Our morphological study confirmed that tubular breast tissue has increased vascularity due to the vessels with characteristic minor malformation and due to the high restorative potential of the vascular bed. Therefore, an extended glandular flap could be freely mobilized without damaging its blood supply; thus, the flap in most cases covered the implant completely and good aesthetic results were achieved. PMID:27826461

  18. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  19. Biochemical evidence of key residues for the activation and autoprocessing of tomato type II metacaspase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shuai; Ma, Qiu-Min; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yang, Ji-Ping; Zhao, Guang-Hua; Fu, Da-Qi; Luo, Yun-Bo; Qu, Gui-Qin

    2013-08-19

    To investigate the autolysis pattern and activation of metacaspase in higher plants, the biochemical characteristics of purified recombinant type II metacaspase (LeMCA1) from tomato were explored. Western blotting analysis indicated that four cleaved bands were formed; two N-terminal fragments and two C-terminal fragments. N-terminal sequencing confirmed that LeMCA1 cleaves at Lys223 and Arg332. Site mutants indicated that catalytic Cys139, cleaved Lys223, Arg332 and predicted calcium binding Asp116/Asp117 are the key residues that are responsible for its Ca²⁺ and pH dependent activation. The cleavage of the full-size fragment seemed crucial for the activation of LeMCA1 in vitro.

  20. Coordination Environment of Cu(II) Ions Bound to N-Terminal Peptide Fragments of Angiogenin Protein

    PubMed Central

    Magrì, Antonio; Munzone, Alessia; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Hansson, Orjan; Satriano, Cristina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; La Mendola, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenin (Ang) is a potent angiogenic factor, strongly overexpressed in patients affected by different types of cancers. The specific Ang cellular receptors have not been identified, but it is known that Ang–actin interaction induces changes both in the cell cytoskeleton and in the extracellular matrix. Most in vitro studies use the recombinant form (r-Ang) instead of the form that is normally present in vivo (“wild-type”, wt-Ang). The first residue of r-Ang is a methionine, with a free amino group, whereas wt-Ang has a glutamic acid, whose amino group spontaneously cyclizes in the pyro-glutamate form. The Ang biological activity is influenced by copper ions. To elucidate the role of such a free amino group on the protein–copper binding, we scrutinized the copper(II) complexes with the peptide fragments Ang(1–17) and AcAng(1–17), which encompass the sequence 1–17 of angiogenin (QDNSRYTHFLTQHYDAK-NH2), with free amino and acetylated N-terminus, respectively. Potentiometric, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) studies demonstrate that the two peptides show a different metal coordination environment. Confocal microscopy imaging of neuroblastoma cells with the actin staining supports the spectroscopic results, with the finding of different responses in the cytoskeleton organization upon the interaction, in the presence or not of copper ions, with the free amino and the acetylated N-terminus peptides. PMID:27490533

  1. Type II collagenopathies: Are there additional family members?

    SciTech Connect

    Freisinger, P.; Pontz, B.F.; Emmrich, P.; Stoess, H.; Bonaventure, J.

    1996-05-03

    The type II collagenopathies represent a group of chondrodysplasia sharing clinical and radiological manifestations which are expressed as a continuous spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from perinatally lethal to very mild conditions. Their common molecular bases are mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). We describe one case of lethal platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type, and a variant of lethal Kniest dysplasia, neither of which has been reported as a type II collagenopathy. Biochemical studies of cartilage collagens and morphological analysis of cartilage sections suggest that abnormalities of type II collagen structure and biosynthesis are the main pathogenetic factors in both cases. Thus, the phenotypic spectrum of type II collagenopathies might be greater than hitherto suspected. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  2. [Cloning and analysis of three genes encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides from Fennropenaeus chinensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of sequence similarity, the crustean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family peptides have been classified into two types of hormones: type I and type II. Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) is a neuropeptide member of type II CHH family. Molting in shrimp is controlled by MIH and ecdysone. By inhibiting the synthesis of ecdysone in the Y-organ, MIH indirectly suppresses the molting activity of shrimp. In this study, we reported the cloning and characterization of 3 gene fragments encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides of the shrimp Fennropenaeus chinensis. According to the complementary DNA sequence of the mult-inhibiting hormone of Fennropenaeus chinensis, 3 primers were designed and synthesized. MP1 and MP2 are sense primers, and MP3 is anti-sense primer. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using genomic DNA of Fennropenaeus chinensis as template. Three PCR products were obtained using primers MP1 and MP3. Their sizes are about 600 bp, 850 bp, 1050 bp, respectively. A 580 bp PCR product was obtained using primers MP2 and MP3. All the 4 PCR products were cloned into pMD18-T vector. The recombinant clones were sequenced using ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer. After sequencing, all the DNA sequences were searched in the GenBank by Blast program to find similar gene sequences. The searching results revealed 3 DNA fragment sequences were of high similarity with CHH family neuropeptide genes from various crustean species. The 3 DNA fragments were named as NP1, NP2, and NP3. Their sizes were 540 bp, 601 bp, and 826 bp, respectively. Using the mRNA sequences with the most similarity to the 3 sequence fragments as reference, the gene structure of the 3 DNA fragment sequences was analyzed. The exons of 3 sequence fragments were aligned with their similar sequences by Clustal W program. Both NP1 and NP2 consisted of 1 intron and 2 exons. NP3 consisted of 2 introns and 3 exons. Sequence analysis suggested that these 3 products belonged to sequence fragments of neuropeptide

  3. Expression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Neutralizing Antibody Fragments Using Human Vaginal Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, Angela; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Wenlei; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Jia, Letong; Lee, Peter P.; Fouts, Timothy R.; Parks, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eradication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by vaccination with epitopes that produce broadly neutralizing antibodies is the ultimate goal for HIV prevention. However, generating appropriate immune responses has proven difficult. Expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies by vaginal colonizing lactobacilli provides an approach to passively target these antibodies to the mucosa. We tested the feasibility of expressing single-chain and single-domain antibodies (dAbs) in Lactobacillus to be used as a topical microbicide/live biotherapeutic. Lactobacilli provide an excellent platform to express anti-HIV proteins. Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been identified against epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope and have been made into active antibody fragments. We tested single-chain variable fragment m9 and dAb-m36 and its derivative m36.4 as prototype antibodies. We cloned and expressed the antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 in Lactobacillus jensenii-1153 and tested the expression levels and functionality. We made a recombinant L. jensenii 1153-1128 that expresses dAb-m36.4. All antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 were expressed by lactobacilli. However, we noted the smaller m36/m36.4 were expressed to higher levels, ≥3 μg/ml. All L. jensenii-expressed antibody fragments bound to gp120/CD4 complex; Lactobacillus-produced m36.4 inhibited HIV-1BaL in a neutralization assay. Using a TZM-bl assay, we characterized the breadth of neutralization of the m36.4. Delivery of dAbs by Lactobacillus could provide passive transfer of these antibodies to the mucosa and longevity at the site of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26950606

  4. Generating controllable type-II Weyl points via periodic driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-12-01

    Type-II Weyl semimetals are a novel gapless topological phase of matter discovered recently in 2015. Similar to normal (type-I) Weyl semimetals, type-II Weyl semimetals consist of isolated band touching points. However, unlike type-I Weyl semimetals which have a linear energy dispersion around the band touching points forming a three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cone, type-II Weyl semimetals have a tilted conelike structure around the band touching points. This leads to various novel physical properties that are different from type-I Weyl semimetals. In order to study further the properties of type-II Weyl semimetals and perhaps realize them for future applications, generating controllable type-II Weyl semimetals is desirable. In this paper, we propose a way to generate a type-II Weyl semimetal via a generalized Harper model interacting with a harmonic driving field. When the field is treated classically, we find that only type-I Weyl points emerge. However, by treating the field quantum mechanically, some of these type-I Weyl points may turn into type-II Weyl points. Moreover, by tuning the coupling strength, it is possible to control the tilt of the Weyl points and the energy difference between two Weyl points, which makes it possible to generate a pair of mixed Weyl points of type-I and type-II. We also discuss how to physically distinguish these two types of Weyl points in the framework of our model via the Landau level structures in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. The results are of general interest to quantum optics as well as ongoing studies of Floquet topological phases.

  5. Effect of exercise on concentrations of free amino acids in pools of type I and type II fibres in human muscle with reduced glycogen stores.

    PubMed

    Essén-Gustavsson, B; Blomstrand, E

    2002-03-01

    A few animal studies have shown that some amino acid concentrations vary between different muscle fibre types. In the present study, amino acid concentrations were measured in separate pools of different fibre types in human skeletal muscle, with reduced glycogen stores, before and after sustained exercise. Five subjects exercised at a submaximal work rate for 60 min and then at a maximal rate for 20 min. Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise; they were freeze-dried and individual fibres were dissected out. Fragments of these fibres were stained for myosin-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and identified as type I or type II fibres. The concentrations of free amino acids were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in perchloric acid (PCA) extracts containing pools of either type of fibre. After exercise, glycogen was decreased in type I fibres (53%) and in four subjects also in type II fibres. The concentrations of most amino acids were similar in the two fibre types before exercise, but the glutamate, aspartate and arginine levels were 10% higher in type II than in type I fibres. After exercise, the glutamate concentration was decreased by 45% in both fibre types and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were decreased in type II fibres (14%). Exercise caused an increase by 25-30% in tyrosine concentration in both type I and type II fibres. The results show that amino acids can be measured in pools of fibre fragments and suggest that amino acid metabolism play an important role in both type I and type II fibres during exercise.

  6. Degree of polarization of type-II unpolarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-05-15

    We address a quantitative determination of the degree of polarization of type-II unpolarized light via the computation of the distance between the polarization distribution and the uniform distribution associated with fully unpolarized light (i.e., type-I unpolarized light or natural light). We determine the maximum degree of polarization for type-II unpolarized light and the states reaching it. We show that the degree of polarization can be arbitrarily large, approaching complete polarization for increasing mean photon numbers.

  7. A doppel alpha-helix peptide fragment mimics the copper(II) interactions with the whole protein.

    PubMed

    La Mendola, Diego; Magrì, Antonio; Campagna, Tiziana; Campitiello, Maria Anna; Raiola, Luca; Isernia, Carla; Hansson, Orjan; Bonomo, Raffaele P; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2010-06-01

    The doppel protein (Dpl) is the first homologue of the prion protein (PrP(C)) to be discovered; it is overexpressed in transgenic mice that lack the prion gene, resulting in neurotoxicity. The whole prion protein is able to inhibit Dpl neurotoxicity, and its N-terminal domain is the determinant part of the protein function. This region represents the main copper(II) binding site of PrP(C). Dpl is able to bind at least one copper ion, and the specific metal-binding site has been identified as the histidine residue at the beginning of the third helical region. However, a reliable characterization of copper(II) coordination features has not been reported. In a previous paper, we studied the copper(II) interaction with a peptide that encompasses only the loop region potentially involved in metal binding. Nevertheless, we did not find a complete match between the EPR spectroscopic parameters of the copper(II) complexes formed with the synthesized peptide and those reported for the copper(II) binding sites of the whole protein. Herein, the synthesis of the human Dpl peptide fragment hDpl(122-139) (Ac-KPDNKLHQQVLWRLVQEL-NH(2)) and its copper(II) complex species are reported. This peptide encompasses the third alpha helix and part of the loop linking the second and the third helix of human doppel protein. The single-point-mutated peptide, hDpl(122-139)D124N, in which aspartate 124 replaces an asparagine residue, was also synthesized. This peptide was used to highlight the role of the carboxylate group on both the conformation preference of the Dpl fragment and its copper(II) coordination features. NMR spectroscopic measurements show that the hDpl(122-139) peptide fragment is in the prevailing alpha-helix conformation. It is localized within the 127-137 amino acid residue region that represents a reliable conformational mimic of the related protein domain. A comparison with the single-point-mutated hDpl(122-139)D124N reveals the significant role played by the aspartic

  8. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  9. Herringbone bursts associated with type II solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed observations of the herringbone (HB) fine structure on type II solar radio bursts are presented. Data from the Culgoora radiospectrograph, radiometer and radioheliograph are analyzed. The characteristic spectral profiles, frequency drift rates and exciter velocities, fluxes, source sizes, brightness temperatures, and polarizations of individual HB bursts are determined. Correlations between individual bursts within the characteristic groups of bursts and the properties of the associated type II bursts are examined. These data are compatible with HB bursts being radiation at multiples of the plasma frequency generated by electron streams accelerated by the type II shock. HB bursts are physically distinct phenomena from type II and type III bursts, differing significantly in emission processes and/or source conditions; this conclusion indicates that many of the presently available theoretical ideas for HB bursts are incorrect.

  10. Type II oestrogen binding sites in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Piantelli, M; Ricci, R; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Capelli, A; Rizzo, S; Scambia, G; Ranelletti, F O

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated for the presence of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The tumours specifically bound oestradiol. This binding almost exclusively resulted from the presence of high numbers of type II oestrogen binding sites. Oestrogen receptors were absent or present at very low concentrations. Immunohistochemical investigation of nuclear oestrogen receptors gave negative results. This indicates that antioestrogen receptor antibodies recognise oestrogen receptors but not type II oestrogen binding sites. The presence of specific type II oestrogen binding sites and progesterone binding offers further evidence for a potential role for these steroids and their receptors in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:2266171

  11. Nondetectability of restriction fragments and independence of DNA fragment sizes within and between loci in RFLP typing of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Zhong, Y.; Jin, L. ); Budowle, B. )

    1994-08-01

    The authors provide experimental evidence showing that, during the restriction-enzyme digestion of DNA samples, some of the HaeIII-digested DNA fragments are small enough to prevent their reliable sizing on a Southern gel. As a result of such nondetectability of DNA fragments, individuals who show a single-band DNA profile at a VNTR locus may not necessarily be true homozygotes. In a population database, when the presence of such nondetectable alleles is ignored, they show that a pseudodependence of alleles within as well as across loci may occur. Using a known statistical method, under the hypothesis of independence of alleles within loci, they derive an efficient estimate of null allele frequency, which may be subsequently used for testing allelic independence within and across loci. The estimates of null allele frequencies, thus derived, are shown to agree with direct experimental data on the frequencies of HaeIII-null alleles. Incorporation of null alleles into the analysis of the forensic VNTR database suggests that the assumptions of allelic independence within and between loci are appropriate. In contrast, a failure to incorporate the occurrence of null alleles would provide a wrong inference regarding the independence of alleles within and between loci. 47 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen.

  13. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  14. Identification of Unique Type II Polyketide Synthase Genes in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wawrik, Boris; Kerkhof, Lee; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kukor, Jerome J.

    2005-01-01

    Many bacteria, particularly actinomycetes, are known to produce secondary metabolites synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKS). Bacterial polyketides are a particularly rich source of bioactive molecules, many of which are of potential pharmaceutical relevance. To directly access PKS gene diversity from soil, we developed degenerate PCR primers for actinomycete type II KSα (ketosynthase) genes. Twenty-one soil samples were collected from diverse sources in New Jersey, and their bacterial communities were compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of PCR products generated using bacterial 16S rRNA gene primers (27F and 1525R) as well as an actinomycete-specific forward primer. The distribution of actinomycetes was highly variable but correlated with the overall bacterial species composition as determined by TRFLP. Two samples were identified to contain a particularly rich and unique actinomycete community based on their TRFLP patterns. The same samples also contained the greatest diversity of KSα genes as determined by TRFLP analysis of KSα PCR products. KSα PCR products from these and three additional samples with interesting TRFLP pattern were cloned, and seven novel clades of KSα genes were identified. Greatest sequence diversity was observed in a sample containing a moderate number of peaks in its KSα TRFLP. The nucleotide sequences were between 74 and 81% identical to known sequences in GenBank. One cluster of sequences was most similar to the KSα involved in ardacin (glycopeptide antibiotic) production by Kibdelosporangium aridum. The remaining sequences showed greatest similarity to the KSα genes in pathways producing the angucycline-derived antibiotics simocyclinone, pradimicin, and jasomycin. PMID:15870305

  15. Collapse and Fragmentation Models of Prolate Molecular Cloud Cores. II. Initial Differential Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di G. Sigalotti, Leonardo

    1998-05-01

    The prevalence of companions to pre-main-sequence stars and the emerging observational evidence for binary and multiple protostellar condensations suggest that fragmentation during protostellar collapse is a mechanism that may occur frequently in the star formation process. Here a second-order accurate hydrodynamic code has been used to investigate the gravitational (postmagnetic) collapse and fragmentation of low-mass (~1 M⊙), small (~0.05 pc) molecular cloud cores, starting from moderately centrally condensed (Gaussian), prolate (2:1 and 4:1 axial ratios) configurations with varying thermal energies (α) and degrees of differential rotation (ν = 1/3 and 2/3). To facilitate comparisons with previous collapse calculations of uniformly rotating prolate cloud cores (Sigalotti & Klapp), all the models were made to start with a ratio of rotational to gravitational energy of β ~ 0.036. The results indicate that prolate clouds are highly susceptible to binary fragmentation and that with respect to uniformly rotating initial conditions, differential rotation plays no role in either determining or enhancing fragmentation in initially slowly rotating clouds. In contrast to the fragmentation criteria previously established by Boss and Myhill, the results also indicate that clouds with α = 0.56 and varied prolateness collapse in a similar fashion, producing intermediate central condensations of oblate spheroidal shape before fragmenting into either a binary (2:1 clouds) or multiple protostellar core (4:1 clouds). The models with α <= 0.45 all produced binary systems after having formed intermediate central condensations, which might be of prolate ellipsoidal (2:1 clouds) or narrow cylindrical (4:1 clouds) shape. The mass and separation of the binary fragments increase with decreasing α and with an increase of both the degree of differential rotation and the cloud elongation. The results imply that for initial low β, the degree of cloud prolateness has a greater effect

  16. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage.

  17. Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Type II Cochlear Afferents in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pankhuri; Wu, Jingjing Sherry; Zimmerman, Amanda; Fuchs, Paul; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic information propagates from the ear to the brain via spiral ganglion neurons that innervate hair cells in the cochlea. These afferents include unmyelinated type II fibers that constitute 5 % of the total, the majority being myelinated type I neurons. Lack of specific genetic markers of type II afferents in the cochlea has been a roadblock in studying their functional role. Unexpectedly, type II afferents were visualized by reporter proteins induced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven Cre recombinase. The present study was designed to determine whether TH-driven Cre recombinase (TH-2A-CreER) provides a selective and reliable tool for identification and genetic manipulation of type II rather than type I cochlear afferents. The "TH-2A-CreER neurons" radiated from the spiral lamina, crossed the tunnel of Corti, turned towards the base of the cochlea, and traveled beneath the rows of outer hair cells. Neither the processes nor the somata of TH-2A-CreER neurons were labeled by antibodies that specifically labeled type I afferents and medial efferents. TH-2A-CreER-positive processes partially co-labeled with antibodies to peripherin, a known marker of type II afferents. Individual TH-2A-CreER neurons gave off short branches contacting 7-25 outer hair cells (OHCs). Only a fraction of TH-2A-CreER boutons were associated with CtBP2-immunopositive ribbons. These results show that TH-2A-CreER provides a selective marker for type II versus type I afferents and can be used to describe the morphology and arborization pattern of type II cochlear afferents in the mouse cochlea.

  18. N-terminal helix reorients in recombinant C-fragment of Clostridium botulinum type B.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Ahmed, S Ashraf; Smith, Leonard A; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2005-04-29

    Botulinum neurotoxins comprise seven distinct serotypes (A-G) produced by Clostridium botulinum. The crystal structure of the binding domain of the botulinum neurotoxin type B (BBHc) has been determined to 2A resolution. The overall structure of BBHc is well ordered and similar to that of the binding domain of the holotoxin. However, significant structural changes occur at what would be the interface of translocation and binding domains of the holotoxin. The loop 911-924 shows a maximum displacement of 14.8A at the farthest point. The N-terminal helix reorients and moves by 19.5A from its original position. BBHc is compared with the binding domain of the holotoxin of botulinum type A and B, and the tetanus C-fragment to characterize the heavy chain-carbohydrate interactions. The probable reasons for different binding affinity of botulinum and tetanus toxins are discussed.

  19. Efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing the type F botulinum toxin Hc fragment using different promoters.

    PubMed

    Jathoul, Amit P; Holley, Jane L; Garmory, Helen S

    2004-09-28

    DNA vaccines which expressed the Hc fragment of the Clostridium botulinum type F neurotoxin (BoNT/F Hc) fused to a signal peptide downstream of four different eukaryotic promoters were prepared. Subsequently, the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccines and protection afforded in mice against challenge with 10(4) MLD of type F botulinum toxin was evaluated. The DNA vaccine containing the human ubiquitin gene (UbC) promoter induced the highest BoNT/F Hc-specific antibody concentration following two intramuscular immunisations and afforded 90% protection against challenge. The results from this study indicate that the selection of promoter used in DNA vaccination studies may be of importance in designing optimised vaccines.

  20. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Swar, M O; Srikrishna, B V

    1995-09-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystophy characterised by extreme micromelia. Definitive clinical and radiographic criteria have been established to differentiate Type II Achondrogenesis (Langer-Saldino) from type I Achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for both types. We are presenting a case of Type II Achondrogenesis, a still born male to consanguinous parents. The clinical features included an enlarged head, protuberant abdomen and short stubby limbs. The mother had earlier delivered two still born males presumably with similar features. Radiographic characteristics of absence of rib fractures and well ossified iliac bones with concave medial margins and absent or deficient ossification of the sacrum, ischiae, and pubic bones differentiated Type II Achondrogenesis from Type I Achondrogenesis.

  1. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology.

  2. Unsupervised Clustering of Type II Supernova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Adam; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities come online, the astronomical community will be provided with extremely large data sets of well-sampled light curves (LCs) of transients. This motivates systematic studies of the LCs of supernovae (SNe) of all types, including the early rising phase. We performed unsupervised k-means clustering on a sample of 59 R-band SN II LCs and find that the rise to peak plays an important role in classifying LCs. Our sample can be divided into three classes: slowly rising (II-S), fast rise/slow decline (II-FS), and fast rise/fast decline (II-FF). We also identify three outliers based on the algorithm. The II-FF and II-FS classes are disjoint in their decline rates, while the II-S class is intermediate and “bridges the gap.” This may explain recent conflicting results regarding II-P/II-L populations. The II-FS class is also significantly less luminous than the other two classes. Performing clustering on the first two principal component analysis components gives equivalent results to using the full LC morphologies. This indicates that Type II LCs could possibly be reduced to two parameters. We present several important caveats to the technique, and find that the division into these classes is not fully robust. Moreover, these classes have some overlap, and are defined in the R band only. It is currently unclear if they represent distinct physical classes, and more data is needed to study these issues. However, we show that the outliers are actually composed of slowly evolving SN IIb, demonstrating the potential of such methods. The slowly evolving SNe IIb may arise from single massive progenitors.

  3. Genetic variants of human T-lymphotrophic virus type II in American Indian groups.

    PubMed

    Biggar, R J; Taylor, M E; Neel, J V; Hjelle, B; Levine, P H; Black, F L; Shaw, G M; Sharp, P M; Hahn, B H

    1996-02-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is found in many New World Indian groups in North and South America and may have entered the New World from Asia with the earliest migration of ancestral Amerindians over 15,000 years ago. To characterize the phylogenetic relationships of HTLV-II strains infecting geographically diverse Indian populations, we used polymerase chain reaction to amplify HTLV-II sequences from lymphocytes of seropositive Amerindians from Brazil (Kraho, Kayapo, and Kaxuyana), Panama (Guaymi), and the United States (the Navajo and Pueblo tribes of the southwestern states and the Seminoles of Florida). Sequence analysis of a 780-base pair fragment (located between the env gene and the second exons of tax/rex) revealed that Amerindian viruses clustered in the same two genetic subtypes (IIa and IIb) previously identified for viruses from intravenous drug users. Most infected North and Central American Indians had subtype IIb, while HTLV-II infected members of three remote Amazonian tribes clustered as a distinct group within subtype IIa. These findings suggest that the ancestral Amerindians migrating to the New World brought at least two genetic subtypes, IIa and IIb. Because HTLV-II strains from Amazonian Indians form a distinct group within subtype HTLV-IIa, these Brazilian tribes are unlikely to be the source of IIa viruses in North American drug users. Finally, the near identity of viral sequences from geographically diverse populations indicate that HTLV-II is a very ancient virus of man.

  4. Mitochondrial fragmentation is an important cellular event induced by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanxin; Fu, Xiaoyan; Li, Hong; Chen, Bolai; Guo, Yuhai; Su, Guoyi; Zhang, Hu; Ning, Feipeng; Lin, Yongpeng; Mei, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-04-01

    A series of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activities. The results showed that ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, especially [Ru(bpy)2 (p-tFPIP)](2+) (2 a; bpy=bipyridine, tFPIP=2-(2-trifluoromethane phenyl)imidazole[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), exhibited novel anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines, but with less toxicity to a human normal cell line. The results of flow cytometry and caspase activities analysis indicated that the 2 a-induced growth inhibition against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells was mainly caused by mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation as detected by TUNEL-DAPI co-staining further confirmed 2 a-induced apoptotic cell death. Further, fluorescence imaging revealed that ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes could target mitochondria to induce mitochondrial fragmentation, accompanied by depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these findings suggest a potential application of theses ruthenium(II) complexes in the treatment of cancers.

  5. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  6. Acoustic Type-II Weyl Nodes from Stacking Dimerized Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2016-11-01

    Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl fermions, which were missed in Weyl's prediction of nowadays classified type-I Weyl fermions in quantum field theory, have recently been proposed in condensed matter systems. The semimetals hosting type-II Weyl fermions offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena that are different from type-I Weyl systems. Here we construct the acoustic version of a type-II Weyl Hamiltonian by stacking one-dimensional dimerized chains of acoustic resonators. This acoustic type-II Weyl system exhibits distinct features in a finite density of states and unique transport properties of Fermi-arc-like surface states. In a certain momentum space direction, the velocity of these surface states is determined by the tilting direction of the type-II Weyl nodes rather than the chirality dictated by the Chern number. Our study also provides an approach of constructing acoustic topological phases at different dimensions with the same building blocks.

  7. Characterization of a transthyretin (prealbumin) variant associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type II (Indiana/Swiss).

    PubMed Central

    Dwulet, F E; Benson, M D

    1986-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils were isolated from cardiac tissue of two brothers who died from familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type II. Sequence analysis on peptides derived from proteolytic cleavage with trypsin and fragmentation with cyanogen bromide reveal that the fibril subunit protein is derived from plasma transthyretin (prealbumin). About two-thirds of the fibril subunit protein was found to contain an amino acid substitution at position 84 where the normal isoleucine residue has been replaced by serine. Sequence analysis of the plasma transthyretin (prealbumin) from the two brothers as well as two clinically diagnosed FAP type II family members and two of four children of affected individuals showed the presence of serine at position 84. The presence of this substitution also correlates with low serum levels of retinol-binding protein and thus transthyretin (prealbumin) position 84 may be involved with the interaction of these two proteins. Images PMID:3760189

  8. Immunohistochemical analysis of lattice corneal dystrophies types I and II.

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, T; Tarkkanen, A; McLean, I; Ghiso, J; Frangione, B; Haltia, M

    1993-01-01

    Corneal buttons from four patients with lattice corneal dystrophy (LD) type I, thought to be an isolated corneal amyloidosis, and from six patients with LD type II, part of systemic familial amyloidosis, Finnish type (FAF; Meretoja's syndrome), were studied by immunohistochemistry to determine the differential distribution in the amyloid deposits of amyloid P component (AP), mutated gelsolin specific for FAF, and native gelsolin. In both types of LD, antibodies to AP labelled lattice lines and a discontinuous layer of amyloid deposits under Bowman's layer. In LD type II, particularly, they also reacted with streak-like amyloid deposits between corneal almellae, especially in the limbal region. While the anti-FAF antiserum strongly labelled all amyloid deposits in LD type II, it failed to react unequivocally with them in LD type I. Both in LD type I and in two control specimens representing granular dystrophy, the monoclonal antibody (MAb) GS-2C4 to gelsolin faintly labelled some deposits, while in LD type II it reacted non-homogeneously with most amyloid deposits. In all specimens, MAb GS-2C4 labelled corneal epithelial cells and occasional stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells. The results suggest that Meretoja's syndrome, a systemic disease, can be diagnosed even retrospectively from corneal buttons subjected to histopathological study. Images PMID:8110676

  9. Origin of wide-band IP type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjolainen, S.; Allawi, H.; Valtonen, E.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Different types of interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been observed, where the more usual ones show narrow-band and patchy emissions, sometimes with harmonics, and which at intervals may disappear completely from the dynamic spectrum. The more unusual bursts are wide-band and diffuse, show no patches or breaks or harmonic emission, and often have long durations. Type II bursts are thought to be plasma emission, caused by propagating shock waves, but a synchrotron-emitting source has also been proposed as the origin for the wide-band type IIs. Aims: Our aim is to find out where the wide-band IP type II bursts originate and what is their connection to particle acceleration. Methods: We analyzed in detail 25 solar events that produced well-separated, wide-band IP type II bursts in 2001-2011. Their associations to flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic particle events (SEPs) were investigated. Results: Of the 25 bursts, 18 were estimated to have heights corresponding to the CME leading fronts, suggesting that they were created by bow shocks ahead of the CMEs. However, seven events were found in which the burst heights were significantly lower and which showed a different type of height-time evolution. Almost all the analyzed wide-band type II bursts were associated with very high-speed CMEs, originating from different parts of the solar hemisphere. In terms of SEP associations, many of the SEP events were weak, had poor connectivity due to the eastern limb source location, or were masked by previous events. Some of the events had precursors in specific energy ranges. These properties and conditions affected the intensity-time profiles and made the injection-time-based associations with the type II bursts difficult to interpret. In several cases where the SEP injection times could be determined, the radio dynamic spectra showed other features (in addition to the wide-band type II bursts) that could be signatures of shock fronts

  10. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A. ); Gaynor, R.B. Wadsworth Veterans Hospital, Los Angeles, CA )

    1988-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses.

  11. Directly probing redox-linked quinones in photosystem II membrane fragments via UV resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yao, Mingdong; Pagba, Cynthia V; Zheng, Yang; Fei, Liping; Feng, Zhaochi; Barry, Bridgette A

    2015-01-01

    In photosynthesis, photosystem II (PSII) harvests sunlight with bound pigments to oxidize water and reduce quinone to quinol, which serves as electron and proton mediators for solar-to-chemical energy conversion. At least two types of quinone cofactors in PSII are redox-linked: QA, and QB. Here, we for the first time apply 257-nm ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy to acquire the molecular vibrations of plastoquinone (PQ) in PSII membranes. Owing to the resonance enhancement effect, the vibrational signal of PQ in PSII membranes is prominent. A strong band at 1661 cm(-1) is assigned to ring CC/CO symmetric stretch mode (ν8a mode) of PQ, and a weak band at 469 cm(-1) to ring stretch mode. By using a pump-probe difference UVRR method and a sample jet technique, the signals of QA and QB can be distinguished. A frequency difference of 1.4 cm(-1) in ν8a vibrational mode between QA and QB is observed, corresponding to ~86 mV redox potential difference imposed by their protein environment. In addition, there are other PQs in the PSII membranes. A negligible anharmonicity effect on their combination band at 2130 cm(-1) suggests that the 'other PQs' are situated in a hydrophobic environment. The detection of the 'other PQs' might be consistent with the view that another functional PQ cofactor (not QA or QB) exists in PSII. This UVRR approach will be useful to the study of quinone molecules in photosynthesis or other biological systems.

  12. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones.

  13. Alveolar type II cell-fibroblast interactions, synthesis and secretion of surfactant and type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M; Bhandari, R; Hamilton, G; Chan, Y C; Powell, J T

    1993-06-01

    During alveolar development and alveolar repair close contacts are established between fibroblasts and lung epithelial cells through gaps in the basement membrane. Using co-culture systems we have investigated whether these close contacts influence synthesis and secretion of the principal surfactant apoprotein (SP-A) by cultured rat lung alveolar type II cells and the synthesis and secretion of type I collagen by fibroblasts. The alveolar type II cells remained cuboidal and grew in colonies on fibroblast feeder layers and on Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts but were progressively more flattened on fixed fibroblast monolayers and plastic. Alveolar type II cells cultured on plastic released almost all their SP-A into the medium by 4 days. Alveolar type II cells cultured on viable fibroblasts or Matrigel-coated inserts above fibroblasts accumulated SP-A in the medium at a constant rate for the first 4 days, and probably recycle SP-A by endocytosis. The amount of mRNA for SP-A was very low after 4 days of culture of alveolar type II cells on plastic, Matrigel-coated inserts or fixed fibroblast monolayers: relatively, the amount of mRNA for SP-A was increased 4-fold after culture of alveolar type II cells on viable fibroblasts. Co-culture of alveolar type II cells with confluent human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 2- to 3-fold the secretion of collagen type I into the culture medium, even after the fibroblasts' growth had been arrested with mitomycin C. Collagen secretion, by fibroblasts, also was stimulated 2-fold by conditioned medium from alveolar type II cells cultured on Matrigel. The amount of mRNA for type I collagen increased only modestly when fibroblasts were cultured in this conditioned medium. This stimulation of type I collagen secretion diminished as the conditioned medium was diluted out, but at high dilutions further stimulation occurred, indicating that a factor that inhibited collagen secretion also was being diluted out. The conditioned medium

  14. Single spin asymmetry in forward p A collisions. II. Fragmentation contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yoshida, Shinsuke; Yuan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    We compute the twist-three fragmentation contribution to the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) in light hadron production p↑p →h X and p↑A →h X including the gluon saturation effect in the unpolarized nucleon/nucleus. Together with the results in our previous paper, this completes the full evaluation of the SSA in this process in the "hybrid" formalism. We argue that the dependence of SSAs on the atomic mass number in the forward region can elucidate the relative importance of the soft gluon pole contribution from the twist-three quark-gluon-quark correlation in the polarized nucleon and the twist-three fragmentation contribution from the final state hadron.

  15. A sample of Type II-L supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Leonard, D. C.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention - both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ˜15-25 M⊙ range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterized by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyse the multiband light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Hα absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong O I λ7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose to define them based on their decline in the V band: SNe II-L decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in four photometric bands.

  16. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  17. The Role of Pebble Fragmentation in Planetesimal Formation. II. Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg Jansson, Karl; Johansen, Anders; Bukhari Syed, Mohtashim; Blum, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Some scenarios for planetesimal formation go through a phase of collapse of gravitationally bound clouds of millimeter- to centimeter-size pebbles. Such clouds can form, for example, through the streaming instability in protoplanetary disks. We model the collapse process with a statistical model to obtain the internal structure of planetesimals with solid radii between 10 and 1000 km. During the collapse, pebbles collide, and depending on their relative speeds, collisions have different outcomes. A mixture of particle sizes inside a planetesimal leads to better packing capabilities and higher densities. In this paper we apply results from new laboratory experiments of dust aggregate collisions (presented in a companion paper) to model collision outcomes. We find that the internal structure of a planetesimal is strongly dependent on both its mass and the applied fragmentation model. Low-mass planetesimals have no/few fragmenting pebble collisions in the collapse phase and end up as porous pebble piles. The number of fragmenting collisions increases with increasing cloud mass, resulting in wider particle size distributions and higher density. The collapse is nevertheless “cold” in the sense that collision speeds are damped by the high collision frequency. This ensures that a significant fraction of large pebbles survive the collapse in all but the most massive clouds. Our results are in broad agreement with the observed increase in density of Kuiper Belt objects with increasing size, as exemplified by the recent characterization of the highly porous comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

  18. CD44 stimulation by fragmented hyaluronic acid induces upregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor and subsequently facilitates invasion of human chondrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Mika; Kanayama, Naohiro; Nishida, Takashi; Takigawa, Masaharu; Terao, Toshihiko

    2002-12-01

    It has been established that fragmented hyaluronic acid (HA), but not native high molecular weight HA, can induce angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration. We have studied the outside-in signal transduction pathways responsible for fragmented HA-mediated cancer cell invasion. In our study, we have studied the effects of CD44 stimulation by ligation with HA upon the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 as well as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor (uPAR) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) and the subsequent induction of invasion of human chondrosarcoma cell line HCS-2/8. Our study indicates that (i) CD44 stimulation by fragmented HA upregulates expression of uPA and uPAR mRNA and protein but does not affect MMPs secretion or PAI-1 mRNA expression; (ii) the effects of HA fragments are critically HA size dependent: high molecular weight HA is inactive, but lower molecular weight fragmented HA (Mr 3.5 kDa) is active; (iii) cells can bind avidly Mr 3.5 kDa fragmented HA through a CD44 molecule, whereas cells do not effectively bind higher Mr HA; (iv) a fragmented HA induces phosphorylation of MAP kinase proteins (MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and c-Jun) within 30 min; (v) CD44 is critical for the response (activation of MAP kinase and upregulation of uPA and uPAR expression); and (vi) cell invasion induced by CD44 stimulation with a fragmented HA is inhibited by anti-CD44 mAb, MAP kinase inhibitors, neutralizing anti-uPAR pAb, anti-catalytic anti-uPA mAb or amiloride. Therefore, our study represents the first report that CD44 stimulation induced by a fragmented HA results in activation of MAP kinase and, subsequently, enhances uPA and uPAR expression and facilitates invasion of human chondrosarcoma cells.

  19. Depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Sultan, Sayed Mohammad; Nazli, Rubina; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mudasar Ahmad; Sher, Nabila; Aslam, Hina

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus in Peshawar at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from March to September 2010. Depression was assessed by using Beck Depressive Inventory-II (BDI-II). Out of 140 patients with type-II diabetes, 85 (61%) were women and 55 (39%) were men. Mean age was 45±7.45 years. Eighty four (60%) patients presented with severe depression. Depression was higher in females than males and widows. Depression was high in diabetic patients, especially in females and widows. It is of essence that psychiatric attention may be necessary to be incorporated in diabetes care both for prevention and treatment.

  20. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  1. Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine.

    PubMed Central

    Walz, P H; Baker, J C; Mullaney, T P; Kaneene, J B; Maes, R K

    1999-01-01

    Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A noncytopathic type I and a noncytopathic type II BVDV isolate were chosen for evaluation in feeder age swine based upon preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. A dose titration study was performed using 4 groups of 4 pigs for each viral isolate. The groups were inoculated intranasally with either sham (control), 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) TCID50 of virus. The pigs were examined daily and clinical findings were recorded. Antemortem and postmortem samples were collected for virus isolation. Neither the type I nor type II BVDV isolates resulted in clinical signs of disease in pigs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from antemortem and postmortem samples from groups of pigs receiving the 10(5) and the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type I BVDV isolate. In contrast, BVDV was only isolated from postmortem samples in the group of pigs receiving the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type II BVDV isolate. Type I BVDV was able to establish infection in pigs at lower doses by intranasal instillation than type II BVDV. Infection of pigs with a type II isolate of BVDV known to cause severe disease in calves did not result in clinically apparent disease in pigs. PMID:10369569

  2. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  3. Asymptomatic type II hyperprolinaemia associated with hyperglycinaemia in three sibs.

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, L; Mollica, F; Levy, H L

    1975-01-01

    Three clinically normal sibs were discovered to have type II hyperprolinaemia in a routine serum amino acid screening programme in Sicily. In addition to the basic biochemical features of type II hyperprolinaemia, all 3 children had marked hyperglycinaemia, whereas their parents had both normal blood proline and glycine concentrations. Clinical normality in individuals with hyperprolinaemia may suggest that these two metabolic disorders (types I and II) are benign entities. Furthermore, the absence of clinical abnormality in these sibs, despite the presence of marked hyperprolinaemia and hyperglycinaemia, may suggest that neither of these findings alone causes brain damage. The hyperglycinaemia in these sibs is unexplained and is an unusual if not unique finding in association with hyperprolinaemia. PMID:1200680

  4. Realizing type-II Weyl points in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Kunal; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Lorentz symmetry-violating "type-II" Weyl semimetal phase has renewed interest in the study of Weyl physics in condensed-matter systems. However, tuning the exceptional properties of this novel state has remained a challenge. Optical lattices, created using standing laser beams, provide a convenient platform to tune tunneling parameters continuously in time. In this paper, we propose a generalized two level system exhibiting type-II Weyl points that can be realized using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The system is engineered using a three-dimensional lattice with complex π phase tunneling amplitudes. Various unique properties of the type-II Weyl semimetal such as open Fermi surface, anomalous chirality, and topological Fermi arcs can be probed using the proposed optical lattice scheme.

  5. A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITHOUT A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q. E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn

    2015-05-10

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s{sup −1} during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  6. Vortex liquid crystals in anisotropic type II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, E W; Castro Neto, A H; Campbell, D K

    2003-02-28

    In an isotropic type II superconductor in a moderate magnetic field, the transition to the normal state occurs by vortex lattice melting. In certain anisotropic cases, the vortices acquire elongated cross sections and interactions. Systems of anisotropic, interacting constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II superconductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first a vortex smectic and then a vortex nematic at high temperature and magnetic field. We find that fluctuations of the ordered phase favor an instability to an intermediate smectic-A in the absence of intrinsic pinning.

  7. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Doh, J W; Kim, C J; Chi, J G

    2000-10-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis) detected by prenatal ultrasonography at 20-week gestation. A dwarfed fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs was terminated transvaginally. Radiologic and histopathologic examination revealed features of mild form of achondrogenesis type II. Although the case had no known risk factor and the phenotypic abnormality was mild, modern development in prenatal screening made the early detection possible.

  8. Clinical and morphological features of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, P B; Parsons, M A; Weatherhead, R G; Karcioglu, Z A

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of 4-month-old girl who presented with congenital cataracts revealed heterochromia iridis, fundus hypopigmentation, residual white forelock and sensory neural hearing loss--findings consistent with Waardenburg syndrome type II. Bilateral peripheral iridectomies performed at lensectomy provided tissue for evaluation. Light microscopy revealed fewer melanocytes in the blue iris than in the brown. Electron microscopic examination showed a significant (p = 0.0001) reduction in melanosome size in the blue iris, and the nerve endings contained fewer vesicles. A defect in neural crest cell migration and melanin synthesis may be responsible for the heterochromia iridis seen in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

  9. Pyrazinamide potential effects on male rats DNA fragmentation, bone type I collagen amino acid composition, reproductive capability and posterity antenatal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Larysa B; Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Byshovets, Taisiya F; Kovalenko, Valentina M

    2012-01-01

    Current therapeutic regimens with first-line antitubercular agents are associated with a high rate of adverse effects which can lead to therapeutic failure. Understanding the nature and the severity of these effects is important for treatment optimization. The aim of present study was to investigate pyrazinamide potential effects on male rats DNA fragmentation, amino acid composition of bone type I collagen, reproductive capability and their posterity antenatal and postnatal development. Wistar albino male rats (160-200 g b.w.) were divided into three groups: I--received pyrazinamide per os at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w./day, II--at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w./day, in both groups it was given for 60 days; III--control. After 60 days of the experiment, rats of the experimental (groups I and II) and control groups were mated with intact virgin females. The amino acids contents of male rat bone type I collagens were determined using amino acid analyzer, epididymis and testis DNA fragmentation--electrophoretically; posterity antenatal development indices and postnatal development--by standard procedures. The study of pyrazinamide effects (administered in different doses) on males bone type I collagen amino acid contents and testis DNA fragmentation demonstrated the presence of dose-dependent pyrazinamide-mediated quantitative and qualitative changes in male rat reproductive organs DNA and extracellular matrix proteins in comparison with control. Changes in nucleic acids and proteins structure were accompanied by alterations in processes of fertilization (with intact females), embryogenesis and by lowering of posterity survival.

  10. Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho de; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Silva, Marlei Gomes da; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2005-11-01

    Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR) and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 AIDS inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.

  11. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  12. Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. II. Experimental detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The basic 30-nm chromatin fiber in the mammalian cell consists of an unknown (possibly helical) arrangement of nucleosomes, with about 1.2 kb of DNA per 10-nm length of fiber. Track-structure considerations suggest that interactions of single delta rays or high-LET particles with the chromatin fiber might result in the formation of multiple lesions spread over a few kilobases of DNA (see the accompanying paper: W.R. Holley and A. Chatterjee, Radiat. Res. 145, 188-199, 1996). In particular, multiple DNA double-strand breaks and single-strand breaks may form. To test this experimentally, primary human fibroblasts were labeled with [3H]thymidine and exposed at 0 degrees C to X rays or accelerated nitrogen or iron ions in the LET range of 97-440 keV/microns. DNA was isolated inside agarose plugs and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis under conditions that allowed good separation of 0.1-2 kb size DNA. The bulk of DNA remained in the well or migrated only a small distance into the gel. It was found that DNA fragments in the expected size range were formed linearly with dose with an efficiency that increased with LET. A comparison of the yield of such fragments with the yield of total DNA double-strand breaks suggests that for the high-LET ions a substantial proportion (20-90%) of DNA double-strand breaks are accompanied within 0.1-2 kb by at least one additional DNA double-strand break. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on treating the 30-nm chromatin fiber as the target for ionizing particles. Theoretical considerations also predict that the clusters will contain numerous single-strand breaks and base damages. It is proposed that such clusters be designated "regionally multiply damaged sites." Postirradiation incubation at 37 degrees C resulted in a decline in the number of short DNA fragments, suggesting a repair activity. The biological significance of regionally multiply damaged sites is presently unknown.

  13. Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: Formation of short DNA fragments. II. Experimental detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, B.

    1996-02-01

    The basic 30-nm chromatin fiber in the mammalian cell consists of an unknown (possibly helical) arrangement of nucleosomes, with about 1.2 kb of DNA per 10-nm length of fiber. Track-structure considerations suggest that interactions of single {delta} rays or high-LET particles with the chromatin fiber might result in the formation of multiple lesions spread over a few kilobases of DNA. In particular, multiple DNA double-strand breaks and single-strand breaks may form. To test this experimentally, primary human fibroblasts were labeled with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and exposed at 0{degrees}C to X rays or accelerated nitrogen or iron ions in the LET range of 97-440 keV/pm. DNA was isolated inside agarose plugs and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis under conditions that allowed good separation of 0.1-2 kb size DNA. The bulk of DNA remained in the well or migrated only a small distance into the gel. It was found that DNA fragments in the expected size range were formed linearly with dose with an efficiency that increased with LET. A comparison of the yield of such fragments with the yield of total DNA double-strand breaks suggests that for the high-LET ions a substantial proportion (20-90%) of DNA double-strand breaks are accompanied within 0.1-2 kb by at least one additional DNA double-strand break. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on treating the 30-nm chromatin fiber as the target for ionizing particles. Theoretical considerations also predict that the clusters will contain numerous single-strand breaks and base damages. It is proposed that such clusters be designated {open_quotes}regionally multiply damaged sites.{close_quotes} Postirradiation incubation at 37{degrees}C resulted in a decline in the number of short DNA fragments, suggesting a repair activity. The biological significance of regionally multiply damaged sites is presently unknown. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities in denervated type I and type II muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, G; Tågerud, S; Libelius, R

    1992-01-01

    Previous work has shown that increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities occur in the endplate region of denervated skeletal muscle fibres. This, however, does not engage all fibres of a muscle at a given time after denervation. The present study was carried out in order to determine if both type I (slow) and type II (fast) muscle fibres can react to denervation by increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities. Uptake of horseradish peroxidase as a marker for endocytosis was studied in conjunction with acid phosphatase staining for lysosomal activity in type I and type II fibres of the denervated mouse hemidiaphragm. Fibre typing was performed using a monoclonal antibody against fast skeletal myosin and by adenosine triphosphatase staining. The results show that increased endocytosis and lysosomal activation occur in both type I and type II fibres after denervation.

  15. SHAPING OF ACTION POTENTIALS BY TYPE I AND TYPE II BK CHANNELS

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, David B.; Wang, Bin; Brenner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The BK channel is a Ca2+ and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca2+ was high (>20 µM) and the other where BK-activating Ca2+ was low (~0.4–1.2 µM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca2+ dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron. PMID:21723921

  16. Structural models for Cu(II) bound to the fragment 92-96 of the human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Grande-Aztatzi, Rafael; Rivillas-Acevedo, Lina; Quintanar, Liliana; Vela, Alberto

    2013-01-24

    The prion protein (PrP(C)) binds Cu(II) in its N-terminal region, and it is associated to a group of neurodegenerative diseases termed transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (TSEs). The isoform PrP(Sc), derived from the normal PrP(C), is the pathogenic agent of TSEs. Using spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance) and electronic structure calculations, we obtained a structural description for the different pH-dependent binding modes of Cu(II) to the PrP(92-96) fragment. We have also evaluated the possibility of water molecule ligation to the His96-bound copper ion. Geometry-optimized structural models that reproduce the spectroscopic features of these complexes are presented. Two Cu(II) binding modes are relevant at physiological pH: 4N and 3NO equatorial coordination modes; these are best described by models with no participation of water molecules in the coordination sphere of the metal ion. In contrast, the 2N2O and N3O coordination modes that are formed at lower pH involve the coordination of an axial water molecule. This study underscores the importance of including explicit water molecules when modeling copper binding sites in PrP(C).

  17. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: Treatment updates

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, P. S.; Chen, Y. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  18. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Kishnani, P S; Chen, Y T

    2007-04-01

    Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future.

  19. Breast Tumor-Generated Type 1 Collagen Breakdown Fragments Act as Matrikines to Drive Osteolysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    triplicate. A dose - response curve will be determined using different concentrations of matrikine fragments. Cathepsin K, PTHrP, TNF-alpha, GM...in triplicate. A dose - response curve will be determined using different concentrations of matrikine fragments. Cathepsin K, PTHrP, TNF-alpha, GM

  20. Antidepressants in type II versus type I bipolar depression: A randomized discontinuation trial

    PubMed Central

    Vöhringer, Paul A.; Ostacher, Michael J.; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Holtzman, Niki S.; Thommi, Sairah B.; Whitham, Elizabeth A.; Sullivan, Matthew C.; Baldassano, Claudia F.; Goodwin, Fredrick K.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to test the hypothesis that antidepressants (ADs) may show preferential efficacy and safety among type-II over type-I bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Methods DSM-IV BD-I (n=21) and -II patients (n=49) in acute major depressive episodes were treated with ADs plus mood-stabilizers to euthymia sustained for two months, and then randomized openly to continue or discontinue ADs for up to three years. Outcomes were episode-recurrences and changes in standardized symptom-ratings. Results In follow-up averaging 1.64±0.98 years, both subgroups showed improvement in depressive episode frequency with AD continuation, but contrary to the hypothesis, more improvement was seen in type I than in type II bipolar depression (for type II, mean decrease in depressive episodes per year 0.21 ± 0.26 [CI:0.05, 0.37]; for type I: mean decrease 0.35 ± 0.15 [CI:0.30, 0.41]). Type II subjects continued on ADs had slightly more depressive, but fewer manic/hypomanic, episodes than BD-I subjects. No notable differences were seen in either group in time to a recurrence of mood episodes or total time-in-remission. Conclusions The findings do not confirm the hypothesis that long-term AD treatment in BP-II has better outcomes than in BD-I patients, except somewhat lower risk of manic/hypomanic episodes. PMID:26267418

  1. Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II with otolaryngological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Havle, A; Shedge, S; Malashetti, S; Jain, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr's syndrome) which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.

  2. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  3. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  4. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  5. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  6. Subcellular localization of mammalian type II membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Aturaliya, Rajith N; Fink, J Lynn; Davis, Melissa J; Teasdale, Melvena S; Hanson, Kelly A; Miranda, Kevin C; Forrest, Alistair R R; Grimmond, Sean M; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kanamori, Mutsumi; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2006-05-01

    Application of a computational membrane organization prediction pipeline, MemO, identified putative type II membrane proteins as proteins predicted to encode a single alpha-helical transmembrane domain (TMD) and no signal peptides. MemO was applied to RIKEN's mouse isoform protein set to identify 1436 non-overlapping genomic regions or transcriptional units (TUs), which encode exclusively type II membrane proteins. Proteins with overlapping predicted InterPro and TMDs were reviewed to discard false positive predictions resulting in a dataset comprised of 1831 transcripts in 1408 TUs. This dataset was used to develop a systematic protocol to document subcellular localization of type II membrane proteins. This approach combines mining of published literature to identify subcellular localization data and a high-throughput, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to experimentally characterize subcellular localization. These approaches have provided localization data for 244 and 169 proteins. Type II membrane proteins are localized to all major organelle compartments; however, some biases were observed towards the early secretory pathway and punctate structures. Collectively, this study reports the subcellular localization of 26% of the defined dataset. All reported localization data are presented in the LOCATE database (http://www.locate.imb.uq.edu.au).

  7. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain. PMID:27252946

  8. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: During each of the 10 test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak capacity... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II...

  9. Carbon and Silicate Dust Condensation in Type II Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneault, Ethan A.-N.; Morales, B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry of formation and destruction processes of molecules in the expanding and cooling ejecta of Type II Supernovae. In this work, we use a kinetic chemistry network to explore the parameters and conditions of the ejecta which are required for the condensation of graphite and silicon carbide grains.

  10. Type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes: new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, B J

    1997-01-01

    Type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) is a common primary and secondary diagnosis in home care patients. This article describes the pathophysiology of NIDDM, the new drugs that have been released for treatment, and the nursing implications inherent in using these new medications.

  11. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  12. Type II alveolar epithelial cell in vitro culture in aerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B

    1988-08-01

    A method of Type II alveolar epithelial cell culture in aerobiosis has been developed. Isolation of Type II cells was performed by digesting guinea-pig lung tissue with crude trypsin and elastase and using discontinuous Percoll density gradients. The Type II cells, as identified by light and electron microscopy, were cultured in aerobiosis for up to six days, in direct contact with the atmosphere in conditions mimicking those present in the lower respiratory tract. Significant activities of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found at the time of isolation. In contrast, cell glutathione content varied widely from one experiment to another. Changes of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated during cell culture in aerobiosis. SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase were significantly decreased after three days but were not significantly different between a three day and six day culture. Antioxidant changes did not influence the cell culture. In marked contrast, decrease in cell glutathione was associated with rapid cell death, whereas good cell survival was obtained at high levels of cell glutathione. Cell culture in aerobiosis will permit a precise evaluation of the effects of gases, particularly oxidant gases, on a primary culture of Type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  13. Type II restriction endonucleases--a historical perspective and more.

    PubMed

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss 'Type II' REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures.

  14. Predicting the types of metabolic pathway of compounds using molecular fragments and sequential minimal optimization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Feng, Kaiyan

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic pathway is a series of biological processes providing necessary molecules and energies for an organism, which could be essential to the lives of the living organisms. Most metabolic pathways require the involvement of compounds and given a compound it is helpful to know what types of metabolic pathways the compound participates in. In this study, compounds are first represented by molecular fragments which are then delivered to a prediction engine called Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) for predictions. Maximum relevance and minimum redundancy (mRMR) and incremental feature selection are adopted to extract key features based on which an optimal prediction engine is established. The proposed method is effective comparing to the random forest, Dagging and a popular method that integrating chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-chemical similarities. We also make predictions using some compounds with unknown metabolic pathways and choose 17 compounds for analysis. The results indicate that the method proposed may become a useful tool in predicting and analyzing metabolic pathways.

  15. Effects of patch size and type of coffee matrix on ithomiine butterfly diversity and dispersal in cloud-forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Muriel, Sandra B; Kattan, Gustavo H

    2009-08-01

    Determining the permeability of different types of landscape matrices to animal movement is essential for conserving populations in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of habitat patch size and matrix type on diversity, isolation, and dispersal of ithomiine butterflies in forest fragments surrounded by coffee agroecosystems in the Colombian Andes. Because ithomiines prefer a shaded understory, we expected the highest diversity and abundance in large fragments surrounded by shade coffee and the lowest in small fragments surrounded by sun coffee. We also thought shade coffee would favor butterfly dispersal and immigration into forest patches. We marked 9675 butterflies of 39 species in 12 forest patches over a year. Microclimate conditions were more similar to the forest interior in the shade-coffee matrix than in the sun-coffee matrix, but patch size and matrix type did not affect species richness and abundance in forest fragments. Furthermore, age structure and temporal recruitment patterns of the butterfly community were similar in all fragments, independent of patch size or matrix type. There were no differences in the numbers of butterflies flying in the matrices at two distances from the forest patch, but their behavior differed. Flight in the sun-coffee matrix was rapid and directional, whereas butterflies in shade-coffee matrix flew slowly. Seven out of 130 recaptured butterflies immigrated into patches in the shade-coffee matrix, and one immigrated into a patch surrounded by sun coffee. Although the shade-coffee matrix facilitated movement in the landscape, sun-coffee matrix was not impermeable to butterflies. Ithomiines exhibited behavioral plasticity in habitat use and high mobility. These traits favor their persistence in heterogeneous landscapes, opening opportunities for their conservation. Understanding the dynamics and resource requirements of different organisms in rural landscapes is critical for identifying management options that

  16. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  17. A universal characteristic of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    We present a study on the spectral properties of interplanetary type II radio bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We investigated the relative bandwidth of the type II radio bursts observed by WAVES from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low-frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz, detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high-frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). Statistical results show that the average bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) was 0.28 ± 0.15, 0.26 ± 0.16, and 0.32 ± 0.15 for RAD1, RAD2, and RAD1 + RAD2, respectively. We compared our results with those obtained for ISEE-3 type II bursts and found a difference in the average BFR, which seems to be due to a selection effect. The BFR of the WAVES type II bursts is similar to that of metric type II bursts reported in published works. This suggests that the BFR is a universal characteristic, irrespective of the spectral domain. Finally, we also studied the BFR evolution with heliocentric distance using white-light observation of the associated coronal mass ejections. We found that the BFR remains roughly constant in the SOHO/LASCO field of view (i.e., from 2.1 to 32 solar radii), while the bandwidth itself decreases.

  18. Gain spectroscopy of a type-II VECSEL chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, C.; Stein, M.; Berger, C.; Möller, C.; Fuchs, C.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Koch, M.

    2016-12-01

    Using optical pump-white light probe spectroscopy, the gain dynamics is investigated for a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser chip, which is based on a type-II heterostructure. The active region of the chip consists of a GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs multiple quantum well. For this structure, a fully microscopic theory predicts a modal room temperature gain at a wavelength of 1170 nm, which is confirmed by the experimental spectra. The results show a gain buildup on the type-II chip that is delayed relative to that of a type-I chip. This slower gain dynamics is attributed to a diminished cooling rate arising from the reduced electron-hole scattering.

  19. SPECTRA OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES AND RELATED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E. G.; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: drogall1@bigred.unl.edu

    2011-02-15

    We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as intrinsic variables. Variation among the main-sequence stars is likely to be mostly due to binarity or stellar activity.

  20. Copper(II) complexes of prion protein PEG11-tetraoctarepeat fragment: spectroscopic and voltammetric studies.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Raffaele P; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Tabbì, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I

    2009-04-14

    Spectroscopic (UV-Vis and EPR) and voltammetric studies have been carried out on the copper(II) complexes with the Ac-PEG11-(PHGGGWGQ)4-NH2 (L) polypeptide. In the ratios Cu : L 3 : 1 and 4 : 1, the two [Cu3(L)H(-6)] and [Cu4(L)H(-8)] complex species have been characterized at neutral pH values. All the copper atoms occupy similar coordination sites formed by imidazole, peptidic nitrogen atoms and carbonyl oxygen atoms in a square base pyramidal geometry. Voltammetric measurements on these systems point out the cooperativity in the electron transfer processes among the copper(II) sites during their reduction. NO interaction with these polynuclear copper species is characterized by the reduction of the copper sites through the formation of two different intermediate complex species. When an excess of the Ac-PEG11-(PHGGGWGQ)4-NH2 ligand is considered, frozen solution EPR parameters and UV-Vis spectroscopic data identify the [Cu(N(im))4]2+ chromophore, which does not interact with NO.

  1. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-29

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  2. Localization of types I, II, and III collagen mRNAs in developing human skeletal tissues by in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Paraffin sections of human skeletal tissues were studied in order to identify cells responsible for production of types I, II, and III collagens by in situ hybridization. Northern hybridization and sequence information were used to select restriction fragments of cDNA clones for the corresponding mRNAs to obtain probes with a minimum of cross- hybridization. The specificity of the probes was proven in hybridizations to sections of developing fingers: osteoblasts and chondrocytes, known to produce only one type of fibrillar collagen each (I and II, respectively) were only recognized by the corresponding cDNA probes. Smooth connective tissues exhibited variable hybridization intensities with types I and III collagen cDNA probes. The technique was used to localize the activity of type II collagen production in the different zones of cartilage during the growth of long bones. Visual inspection and grain counting revealed the highest levels of pro alpha 1(II) collagen mRNAs in chondrocytes of the lower proliferative and upper hypertrophic zones of the growth plate cartilage. This finding was confirmed by Northern blotting of RNAs isolated from epiphyseal (resting) cartilage and from growth zone cartilage. Analysis of the osseochondral junction revealed virtually no overlap between hybridization patterns obtained with probes specific for type I and type II collagen mRNAs. Only a fraction of the chondrocytes in the degenerative zone were recognized by the pro alpha 1(II) collagen cDNA probe, and none by the type I collagen cDNA probe. In the mineralizing zone virtually all cells were recognized by the type I collagen cDNA probe, but only very few scattered cells appeared to contain type II collagen mRNA. These data indicate that in situ hybridization is a valuable tool for identification of connective tissue cells which are actively producing different types of collagens at the various stages of development, differentiation, and growth. PMID:3558480

  3. Fragment-Based Discovery of Type I Inhibitors of Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design was successfully applied to maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). A low affinity (160 μM) fragment hit was identified, which bound to the hinge region with an atypical binding mode, and this was optimized using structure-based design into a low-nanomolar and cell-penetrant inhibitor, with a good selectivity profile, suitable for use as a chemical probe for elucidation of MELK biology. PMID:25589925

  4. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  5. Refined genetic and physical mapping of BPES type II.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, L; Leroy, B P; De Bie, S; De Pauw, K; Van Roy, N; Speleman, F; Van Camp, G; De Paepe, A

    1996-01-01

    BPES is a genetic disorder including blepharophimosis, ptosis of the eyelids, epicanthus inversus and telecanthus. Type I is associated with female infertility, whereas type II presents without other symptoms. Both types I and II occur sporadically or are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. We present a molecular genetic and cytogenetic study in a large four-generation Belgian family with BPES type II. Karyotype analysis on high-resolution banded chromosomes yielded normal results. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes spanning 3q22-q24 revealed normal hybridization patterns. Sixteen polymorphic CA repeats encompassing region 3q13-q25 were analysed. Linkage analysis in this large four-generation family provides conclusive evidence for the presence of a BPES gene in this region. Two-point lod scores greater than 3.0 between the disease and the following markers were seen: D3S1589 (4.67), D3S1292 (3.52), D3S1290 (3.59) and D3S1549 (3.65). By FISH, D3S1290, D3S1292 and D3S1549 were assigned to chromosome 3q23 using YACs positive for these markers.

  6. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924

  7. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Pruzhinskaya, Maria V.; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 M⊙. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1051 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 M⊙ can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (≳2 × 1051 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (≲0.01 M⊙), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius larger. Helium mixing in hydrogen-rich layers makes the light-curve decline rates large but does not help reducing the light-curve bump. Because the light-curve bump we found in our light-curve models has not been observed in rapidly fading Type II supernovae, they may be characterized by not only low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes but also higher explosion energy, larger degrees of 56Ni mixing, and/or larger progenitor radii than slowly fading Type II supernovae, so that the light-curve bump does not become significant.

  8. Biogeography of Actinomycete Communities and Type II Polyketide Synthase Genes in Soils Collected in New Jersey and Central Asia▿

    PubMed Central

    Wawrik, Boris; Kutliev, Djumaniyaz; Abdivasievna, Urinova A.; Kukor, Jerome J.; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kerkhof, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are believed to be comprised of thousands of different bacterial species. One prevailing idea is that “everything is everywhere, and the environment selects,” implying that all types of bacteria are present in all environments where their growth requirements are met. We tested this hypothesis using actinomycete communities and type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes found in soils collected from New Jersey and Uzbekistan (n = 91). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using actinomycete 16S rRNA and type II PKS genes was employed to determine community profiles. The terminal fragment frequencies in soil samples had a lognormal distribution, indicating that the majority of actinomycete phylotypes and PKS pathways are present infrequently in the environment. Less than 1% of peaks were detected in more than 50% of samples, and as many as 18% of the fragments were unique and detected in only one sample. Actinomycete 16S rRNA fingerprints clustered by country of origin, indicating that unique populations are present in North America and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of type II PKS gene fragments cloned from Uzbek soil revealed 35 novel sequence clades whose levels of identity to genes in the GenBank database ranged from 68 to 92%. The data indicate that actinomycetes are patchily distributed but that distinct populations are present in North American and Central Asia. These results have implications for microbial bioprospecting and indicate that the cosmopolitan actinomycete species and PKS pathways may account for only a small proportion of the total diversity in soil. PMID:17337547

  9. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  10. Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J.

    2011-04-14

    trifluorosulfonate). Gradual generation of this polymer accounts for the steady increase in the viscosity of the ILs upon irradiation. Previous studies at lower dose have missed this species due to its wide mass distribution (stretching out to m/z 1600) and broad NMR lines, which make it harder to detect at lower concentrations. Among other observed changes is the formation of water immiscible fractions in hydrophilic ILs and water miscible fractions in hydrophobic ILs. The latter is due to anion fragmentation. The import of these observations for use of ILs as extraction solvents in nuclear cycle separations is discussed.

  11. Characteristics of Type-II Radio Bursts Associated with Flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanth, V.; Umapathy, S.; Vršnak, Bojan; Anna Lakshmi, M.

    2011-10-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of type-II radio bursts observed in the metric (m) and deca-hectometer (DH) wavelength range during 1997-2008. The collected events are divided into two groups: Group I contains the events of m-type-II bursts with starting frequency ≥ 100 MHz, and group II contains the events with starting frequency of m-type-II radio bursts < 100 MHz. We have analyzed both samples considering three different aspects: i) statistical properties of type-II bursts, ii) statistical properties of flares and CMEs associated with type-II bursts, and iii) time delays between type-II bursts, flares, and CMEs. We find significant differences in the properties of m-type-II bursts in duration, bandwidth, drift rate, shock speed and delay between m- and DH-type-II bursts. From the timing analysis we found that the majority of m-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the flare impulsive phase. On the other hand, the DH-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the decaying phase of the associated flares. Almost all m-DH-type-II bursts are found to be associated with CMEs. Our results indicate that there are two kinds of shock in which group I (high frequency) m-type-II bursts seem to be ignited by flares whereas group II (low frequency) m-type-II bursts are CME-driven.

  12. Exploring Type I and Type II Errors Using Rhizopus Sporangia Diameter Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Burns, Gerard; Freud, Brian; Fenning, Stacy; Hoffman, Rosemary; Sabapathi, Durai

    2000-01-01

    Presents exercises in which students can explore Type I and Type II errors using sporangia diameter measurements as a means of differentiating between two species. Examines the influence of sample size and significance level on the outcome of the analysis. (SAH)

  13. Variation in the biomolecular interactions of nickel(II) hydrazone complexes upon tuning the hydrazide fragment.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Paramasivam; Sathyadevi, Palanisamy; Butorac, Rachel R; Cowley, Alan H; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2012-06-14

    Three new bivalent nickel hydrazone complexes have been synthesised from the reactions of [NiCl(2)(PPh(3))(2)] with H(2)L {L = dianion of the hydrazones derived from the condensation of o-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with furoic acid hydrazide (H(2)L(1)) (1)/thiophene-2-acid hydrazide (H(2)L(2)) (2)/isonicotinic acid hydrazide (H(2)L(3)) (3)} and formulated as [Ni(L(1))(PPh(3))] (4), [Ni(L(2))(PPh(3))] (5) and [Ni(L(3))(PPh(3))] (6). Structural characterization of these compounds 4-6 were accomplished by using various physico-chemical techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data of complexes 4 and 5 proved their distorted square planar geometry. In order to ascertain the potential of the above synthesised compounds towards biomolecular interactions, additional experiments involving interaction with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were carried out. All the ligands and corresponding nickel(ii) chelates have been screened for their scavenging effect towards O(2)(-), OH and NO radicals. The efficiency of complexes 4-6 to arrest the growth of HeLa, HepG-2 and A431 tumour cell lines has been studied along with the cell viability test against the non-cancerous NIH 3T3 cells under in vitro conditions.

  14. Fragmented testament: letters written by World War II resisters before their execution.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Anne; Lefer, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychoanalysis does not always take moral greatness as a given, a fact attributed by Horney to Freud's view of psychology as a natural science. The French psychiatrist Henri Baruk, however, attempts to bridge the gap between normative and empirical considerations by proposing a model based on the Biblical concept of tsedek, a Hebrew term for altruism coupled with a strong sense of justice. Those who possessed these qualities, Baruk argued, had a more highly developed sense of Self and Other. Consistent with Baruk's model, we argue that moral greatness may be defined as a high degree of moral consciousness combined with courage. Character qualities of World War II resisters, as revealed in a review of over 200 letters written to family and friends immediately before their execution, indicate a strong sense of Self and Other and an equilibrium between a sense of duty and an affective impulse. These qualities are seen in letters written by those engaged in a broad spectrum of resistance activity. The interpersonal quality of these letters; the concern for the suffering that their deaths will cause others; the efforts to reassure those left behind and even to impart useful information and instructions; and the gratitude expressed for large and small favors, all suggest that altruism is a marker for moral greatness, and that it is present even in those whose resistance activity might not at first be classified as altruistic.

  15. Multicolor Oservations of the Type II Cepheid Prototype W Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Henden, A. A.; Crawford, T.; James, R.; Bonnardeau, M.; Wells, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the AAVSO's six-month photometric campaign on the bright, pulsating variable star W Virginis, class prototype of the Type II Cepheid variables. This campaign was organized in support of separate spectroscopic observations (Wallerstein et al., in preparation), but these photometric data also stand alone as a valuable, recent, multicolor light curve of this object. Observations were obtained by several amateur and professional observers using a variety of equipment; data are primarily in the V filter, but include two complete pulsation cycles in the BVRcIc filters. We present lightand color-curves of this star, and compare our results to previous observational and theoretical results on W Vir and the Type II Cepheids.

  16. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  17. UBVRIz Light Curves of 51 Type II Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, Lluís; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; de Jaeger, Thomas; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Krzeminski, Wojtek; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón; Anguita, Claudio; Galaz, Gaspar; Green, Elisabeth M.; Impey, Chris; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Kirhakos, Sofia; Malkan, Mathew A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Pizzella, Alessandro; Prosser, Charles F.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Schommer, Robert A.; Sherry, William; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wells, Lisa A.; Williger, Gerard M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986-2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C&T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  18. New insights into bacterial type II polyketide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuan; Pan, Hai-Xue; Tang, Gong-Li

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides, exemplified by anthracyclines, angucyclines, tetracyclines, and pentangular polyphenols, are a large family of natural products with diverse structures and biological activities and are usually biosynthesized by type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). Since the starting point of biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis in 1984–1985, there has been a continuous effort to investigate the biosynthetic logic of aromatic polyketides owing to the urgent need of developing promising therapeutic candidates from these compounds. Recently, significant advances in the structural and mechanistic identification of enzymes involved in aromatic polyketide biosynthesis have been made on the basis of novel genetic, biochemical, and chemical technologies. This review highlights the progress in bacterial type II PKSs in the past three years (2013–2016). Moreover, novel compounds discovered or created by genome mining and biosynthetic engineering are also included. PMID:28299197

  19. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  20. On the Covariant Quantization of Type II Superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Sebastian; Knapp, Johanna; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2004-06-01

    In a series of papers Grassi, Policastro, Porrati and van Nieuwenhuizen have introduced a new method to covariantly quantize the GS-superstring by constructing a resolution of the pure spinor constraint of Berkovits' approach. Their latest version is based on a gauged WZNW model and a definition of physical states in terms of relative cohomology groups. We first put the off-shell formulation of the type-II version of their ideas into a chirally split form and directly construct the free action of the gauged WZNW model, thus circumventing some complications of the super group manifold approach to type-II. Then we discuss the BRST charges that define the relative cohomology and the N=2 superconformal algebra. A surprising result is that nilpotency of the BRST charge requires the introduction of another quartet of ghosts.

  1. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; Krisciunas, Kevin; Krzeminski, Wojtek; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón; and others

    2016-02-15

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  2. Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.

  3. Study of interacting CMEs and DH type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Subramanian, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.

    2013-04-01

    The subject of interaction between the Corona Mass Ejections (CMEs) is important in the concept of space-weather studies. In this paper, we analyzed a set of 15 interacting events taken from the list compiled by Manoharan et al. (in J. Geophys. Res. 109:A06109, 2004) and their associated DH type II radio bursts. The pre and primary CMEs, and their associated DH type II bursts are identified using the SOHO/LASCO catalog and Wind/WAVES catalog, respectively. All the primary CMEs are associated with shocks and interplanetary CMEs. These CMEs are found to be preceded by secondary slow CMEs. Most of primary CMEs are halo type CME and much faster (Mean speed = 1205 km s-1) than the pre CME (Mean speed = 450 km s-1). The average delay between the pre and primary CMEs, drift rate of DH type IIs and interaction height are found to be 211 min, 0.878 kHz/s and 17.87 Ro, respectively. The final observed distance (FOD) of all pre CMEs are found to be less than 15 Ro and it is seen that many of the pre CMEs got merged with the primary CMEs, and, they were not traced as separate CMEs in the LASCO field of view. Some radio signatures are identified for these events in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The interaction height obtained from the height-time plots of pre and primary CMEs is found to have correlations with (i) the time delay between the two CMEs and (ii) the central frequency of emission in the radio signatures in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The centre frequency of emission in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction seems to decrease when the interaction height increases. This result is compared with an interplanetary density model of Saito et al. (in Solar Phys. 55:121, 1977).

  4. Closed Timelike Curves in Type II Non-Vacuum Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Faizuddin

    2017-02-01

    Here we present a cyclicly symmetric non-vacuum spacetime, admitting closed timelike curves (CTCs) which appear after a certain instant of time, i.e., a time-machine spacetime. The spacetime is asymptotically flat, free-from curvature singularities and a four-dimensional extension of the Misner space in curved spacetime. The spacetime is of type II in the Petrov classification scheme and the matter field pure radiation satisfy the energy condition.

  5. Classification of SN2005dj, a Type II Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Sauge, L.; Smadja, G.; Antilogus, P.; Garavini, G.; Gilles, S.; Pain, R.; Aldering, G.; Bailey, S.; Lee, B. C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Scalzo, R.; Thomas, R. C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B. A.; Bonnaud, C.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2005-08-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory reports that a spectrum (range 320-1000 nm) of SN 2005dj (IAUC#8585), obtained August 19.6 UT with the Supernova Integral Field Spectrograph on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope, reveals P-Cygni H-alpha and H-beta, indicative of a Type II supernova. The observed redshift is consistent with that of the host UGC 3545 (z = 0.011508, Huchtmeier & Skillman 1998 via NED).

  6. Evaluation of nanoarchitectured collagen type II molecules on cartilage engineering.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shyh Ming; Chiang, Ming Yu; Lan, Cheng Wen; Niu, Gregory Cheng-Chie; Chang, Shwu Jen

    2013-02-01

    Scaffold architecture, including the geometry and dimension of scaffolds, is an important parameter in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Following the characterization of collagen type II nanoarchitectured molecules, collagen fibrils (CNFs) and collagen spheres (CNPs) prepared using a high-voltage electric field in our laboratory, we proposed to use these nanoarchitectured molecules to assess their influence on the culturing of chondrocytes in stirred bioreactors. The results demonstrate that chondrocytes rapidly formed more and larger chondrocyte pellets (spheroids) after the addition of nanoarchitectured molecules into the culture medium. The maintenance of chondrocytes with round morphology and increased glycosaminoglycan secretion indicated that these spheroids contained viable and un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. No significant increases in DNA content were detected. These results show that the introduction of these molecules did not affect chondrocyte proliferation during a 3-day culture period. After the addition of CNPs and CNFs into the culture medium, the expression levels of collagen type II and aggrecan genes in chondrocytes increased significantly as demonstrated by real-time PCR analysis. Interestingly, chondrocytes exhibited distinct collagen type II and aggrecan gene expression profiles in culture with CNPs and CNFs. The aggrecan gene expression level of the chondrocytes was 2.5-fold greater following CFN addition than following the addition of CNPs. In contrast, the collagen type II expression level of the chondrocytes was 2.2-fold greater following the addition of CNPs than following the addition of CNFs. The chondrocyte pellets rapidly restored defects in articular cartilage during a 1-month implantation period in a rabbit model.

  7. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  8. Type III intermediate filament peripherin inhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Meagan; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Ryan, Allen F.; Housley, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Peripherin, a type III intermediate filament protein, forms part of the cytoskeleton in a subset of neurons, most of which have peripheral fibre projections. Studies suggest a role for peripherin in axon outgrowth and regeneration, but evidence for this in sensory and brain tissues is limited. The exclusive expression of peripherin in a sub-population of primary auditory neurons, the type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) prompted our investigation of the effect of peripherin gene deletion (pphKO) on these neurons. We used confocal immunofluorescence to examine the establishment of the innervation of the cochlear outer hair cells by the type II SGN neurites in vivo and in vitro, in wildtype (WT) and pphKO mice, in the first postnatal week. The distribution of the type II SGN nerve fibres was normal in pphKO cochleae. However, using P1 spiral ganglion explants under culture conditions where the majority of neurites were derived from type II SGN, pphKO resulted in increased numbers of neurites/explant compared WT controls. Type II SGN neurites from pphKO explants extended ~ double the distance of WT neurites, and had reduced complexity based on greater distance between turning points. Addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the culture media increased neurite number in WT and KO explants ~30-fold, but did not affect neurite length or distance between turning. These results indicate that peripherin may interact with other cytoskeletal elements to regulate outgrowth of the peripheral neurites of type II SGN, distinguishing these neurons from the type I SGN innervating the inner hair cells. PMID:20132868

  9. Type-II superlattice infrared detector technology at Fraunhofer IAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Daumer, Volker; Hugger, Tsvetelina; Kohn, Norbert; Luppold, Wolfgang; Müller, Raphael; Niemasz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Stadelmann, Tim; Wauro, Matthias; Wörl, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    For more than two decades, Antimony-based type-II superlattice photodetectors for the infrared spectral range between 3-15 μm are under development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Today, Fraunhofer IAF is Germany's only national foundry for InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice detectors and we cover a wide range of aspects from basic materials research to small series production in this field. We develop single-element photodetectors for sensing systems as well as two-dimensional detector arrays for high-performance imaging and threat warning systems in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength region of the thermal infrared. We continuously enhance our production capabilities by extending our in-line process control facilities. As a recent example, we present a semiautomatic wafer probe station that has developed into an important tool for electrooptical characterization. A large amount of the basic materials research focuses on the reduction of the dark current by the development of bandgap engineered device designs on the basis of heterojunction concepts. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated Europe's first LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice imager with 640x512 pixels with 15 μm pitch. The demonstrator camera already delivers a good image quality and achieves a thermal resolution better than 30 mK.

  10. Subcellular dynamics of type II PKA in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haining; Sia, Gek-Ming; Sato, Takashi R.; Gray, Noah W.; Mao, Tianyi; Khuchua, Zaza; Huganir, Richard L.; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein kinase A (PKA) plays multiple roles in neurons. The localization and specificity of PKA are largely controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA in neurons, and the roles of specific AKAPs, are poorly understood. We imaged the distribution of type II PKA in hippocampal and cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. PKA was concentrated in dendritic shafts compared to the soma, axons and dendritic spines. This spatial distribution was imposed by the microtubule-binding protein MAP2, indicating that MAP2 is the dominant AKAP in neurons. Following cAMP elevation, catalytic subunits dissociated from the MAP2-tethered regulatory subunits and rapidly moved to become enriched in nearby spines. The spatial gradient of type II PKA between dendritic shafts and spines was critical for the regulation of synaptic strength and long-term potentiation. The localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are therefore important determinants of PKA function. PMID:19447092

  11. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  12. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship and geographic distribution of multiple human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, W M; Pieniazek, D; Swanson, P; Samdal, H H; Soriano, V; Khabbaz, R F; Kaplan, J E; Lal, R B; Heneine, W

    1995-01-01

    The current env-based subtyping of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) identifies only two heterogenetic groups, HTLV-IIa and HTLV-IIb. To better understand the genetic diversity and phylogeny of HTLV-II, we examined the most divergent genomic region of HTLV-II, the long terminal repeat, by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis. Long terminal repeat sequences were amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and digested with seven restriction endonucleases that differentiated HTLV-II into five HTLV-IIa (IIa0 to IIa4) and six HTLV-IIb (IIb0 to IIb5) restriction types, with HTLV-IIa0 and HTLV-IIb0 being prototypes for the MoT and NRA isolates, respectively. We examined 169 HTLV-II-infected samples, including 123 from blood donors and intravenous drug users (IDU) from the Americas, 16 from IDU from Europe, and 30 from Amerindians. Of the 169 samples, 109 (64.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIa and 60 (35.5%) were categorized as HTLV-IIb. The predominant restriction types seen among the U.S. blood donors and U.S. IDU were IIa0 (68.7%) and IIb4 (10.4%). Four Spanish and seven Italian samples were IIb4, while five Norwegian samples were IIa2. Twelve Guaymi and all ten Seminole samples were single restriction types (IIb1 and IIb5, respectively), whereas the two Navajo and six Pueblo samples had a mixture of restriction types IIa0, IIa4, and IIb5. Of the HTLV-IIb restriction types observed in the U.S. non-Indians, 42.8% appear to have originated from the North Amerindian (IIb5), while 57.2% were similar to the European IIb4 restriction type. Sequences of 15 selected HTLV-II samples were determined and phylogenetically compared with 7 previously published HTLV-II LTR sequences. The derived topologies revealed three HTLV-IIa phylogroups (A-I to A-III) and four HTLV-IIb phylogroups (B-I to B-IV). Furthermore, the HTLV-IIa phylogroups appear to have evolved from the HTLV-IIb phylogroups. In the HTLV-IIa cluster, a

  14. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF TYPE II PNEUMOCOCCUS AND ITS SEPARATION INTO PARTIAL SPECIFICITIES. II

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael

    1960-01-01

    Quantitative data are given on the cross reactions in Type II antipneumococcal horse sera of plant gums and hemicelluloses containing multiple terminal groupings of glucuronic acid and/or 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. Great variability is shown both in the reactivities of the polysaccharides and in the antibodies in the sera of different animals immunized with the same antigen. The 4-O-methyl substituent on the glucuronic acid residues in a gum often appears to diminish cross-precipitation with antibodies to S II. PMID:13852209

  15. A study of low-energy type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2015-08-01

    All stars with an initial mass greater than 8Msun, but not massive enough to encounter the pair-production instability, eventually form a degenerate core and collapse to form a compact object, either a neutron star or a black hole.At the lower mass end, these massive stars die as red-supergiant stars and give rise to Type II supernovae (SNe). The diversity of observed properties of SNe II suggests a range of progenitor mass, radii, but also explosion energy.We have performed a large grid simulations designed to cover this range of progenitor and explosion properties. Using MESA STAR, we compute a set of massive star models (12-30Msun) from the main sequence until core collapse. We then generate explosions with V1D to produce ejecta with a range of explosion energies and yields. Finally, all ejecta are evolved with CMFGEN to generate multi-band light curves and spectra.In this poster, we focus our attention on the properties of low-energy explosions that give rise to low-luminosity Type II Plateau (II-P) SNe. In particular, we present a detailed study of SN 2008bk, but also include other notorious low-energy SNe II-P like 2005cs, emphasising their non-standard properties by comparing to models that match well events like SN 1999em. Such low-energy explosions, characterised by low ejecta expansion rates, are more suitable for reliable spectral line identifications.Based on our models, we discuss the distinct signatures of low-energy explosions in lower and higher mass models. One important goal is to identify whether there is a progenitor-mass bias leading to such events.

  16. Effect of a misspecification of response rates on type I and type II errors, in a phase II Simon design.

    PubMed

    Baey, Charlotte; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Phase-II trials are a key stage in the clinical development of a new treatment. Their main objective is to provide the required information for a go/no-go decision regarding a subsequent phase-III trial. In single arm phase-II trials, widely used in oncology, this decision relies on the comparison of efficacy outcomes observed in the trial to historical controls. The false positive rate generally accepted in phase-II trials, around 10%, contrasts with the very high attrition rate of new compounds tested in phase-III trials, estimated at about 60%. We assumed that this gap could partly be explained by the misspecification of the response rate expected with standard treatment, leading to erroneous hypotheses tested in the phase-II trial. We computed the false positive probability of a defined design under various hypotheses of expected efficacy probability. Similarly we calculated the power of the trial to detect the efficacy of a new compound for different expected efficacy rates. Calculations were done considering a binary outcome, such as the response rate, with a decision rule based on a Simon two-stage design. When analysing a single-arm phase-II trial, based on a design with a pre-specified null hypothesis, a 5% absolute error in the expected response rate leads to a false positive rate of about 30% when it is supposed to be 10%. This inflation of type-I error varies only slightly according to the hypotheses of the initial design. Single-arm phase-II trials poorly control for the false positive rate. Randomised phase-II trials should, therefore, be more often considered.

  17. EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE II AND Ib SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Hyewon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Yoon, Sung-chul

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies find that some early-type galaxies host Type II or Ibc supernovae (SNe II, Ibc). This may imply recent star formation activities in these SNe host galaxies, but a massive star origin of the SNe Ib so far observed in early-type galaxies has been questioned because of their intrinsic faintness and unusually strong Ca lines shown in the nebular phase. To address the issue, we investigate the properties of early-type SNe host galaxies using the data with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet photometry and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical data. Our sample includes eight SNe II and one peculiar SN Ib (SN 2000ds) host galaxies as well as 32 SN Ia host galaxies. The host galaxy of SN 2005cz, another peculiar SN Ib, is also analyzed using the GALEX data and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database optical data. We find that the NUV-optical colors of SN II/Ib host galaxies are systematically bluer than those of SN Ia host galaxies, and some SN II/Ib host galaxies with NUV - r colors markedly bluer than the others exhibit strong radio emission. We perform a stellar population synthesis analysis and find a clear signature of recent star formation activities in most of the SN II/Ib host galaxies. Our results generally support the association of the SNe II/Ib hosted in early-type galaxies with core collapse of massive stars. We briefly discuss implications for the progenitors of the peculiar SNe Ib 2000ds and 2005cz.

  18. Deciphering the role of the type II glyoxalase isoenzyme YcbL (GlxII-2) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reiger, Matthias; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) requires glyoxalases I and II. Glyoxalase I (gloA/GlxI) isomerizes the hemithioacetal, formed spontaneously from MG and glutathione (GSH) to S-lactoylglutathione (SLG), which is hydrolyzed by glyoxalase II (gloB/GlxII) to lactate and GSH. YcbL from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an unusual type II glyoxalase whose role in MG detoxification has remained enigmatic. Here we show that YcbL (gloC/GlxII-2) acts as an accessory type II glyoxylase in E. coli. The two isoenzymes have additive effects and ensure maximal MG degradation.

  19. Preferential Type II Muscle Fiber Damage From Plyometric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Filippo; Isaacs, Ashwin W.; Myburgh, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    Context Plyometric training has been successfully used in different sporting contexts. Studies that investigated the effect of plyometric training on muscle morphology are limited, and results are controversial with regard to which muscle fiber type is mainly affected. Objective To analyze the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural change induced by an acute bout of plyometric exercise to determine which type of muscle fibers is predominantly damaged. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight healthy, untrained individuals (age = 22 ± 1 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 5.9 kg). Intervention(s) Participants completed an acute bout of plyometric exercise (10 sets of 10 squat-jumps with a 1-minute rest between sets). Main Outcome Measure(s) Blood samples were collected 9 days and immediately before and 6 hours and 1, 2, and 3 days after the acute intervention. Muscle samples were collected 9 days before and 3 days after the exercise intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for creatine kinase activity. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for damage using fluorescent and electron transmission microscopy. Results Creatine kinase activity peaked 1 day after the exercise bout (529.0 ± 317.8 U/L). Immunofluorescence revealed sarcolemmal damage in 155 of 1616 fibers analyzed. Mainly fast-twitch fibers were damaged. Within subgroups, 7.6% of type I fibers, 10.3% of type IIa fibers, and 14.3% of type IIx fibers were damaged as assessed by losses in dystrophin staining. Similar damage was prevalent in IIx and IIa fibers. Electron microscopy revealed clearly distinguishable moderate and severe sarcomere damage, with damage quantifiably predominant in type II muscle fibers of both the glycolytic and oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, respectively, versus only 27% of slow-twitch fibers). Conclusions We provide direct evidence that a single bout of plyometric exercise affected mainly type II muscle

  20. Fragments of the key flowering gene GIGANTEA are associated with helitron-type sequences in the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Tim; Thomas, Ann; Huang, Lin; Farrar, Kerrie; King, Julie; Armstead, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Background Helitrons are a class of transposable elements which have been identified in a number of species of plants, animals and fungi. They are unique in their proposed rolling-circle mode of replication, have a highly variable copy-number and have been implicated in the restructuring of coding sequences both by their insertion into existing genes and by their incorporation of transcriptionally competent gene fragments. Helitron discovery depends on identifying associated DNA signature sequences and comprehensive evaluation of helitron contribution to a particular genome requires detailed computational analysis of whole genome sequence. Therefore, the role which helitrons have played in modelling non-model plant genomes is largely unknown. Results Cloning of the flowering gene GIGANTEA (GI) from a BAC library of the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) identified the target gene and several GI pseudogene fragments spanning the first five exons. Analysis of genomic sequence 5' and 3' of one these GI fragments revealed motifs consistent with helitron-type transposon insertion, specifically a putative 5'-A↓T-3' insertion site containing 5'-TC and CTAG-3' borders with a sub-terminal 16 bp hairpin. Screening of a BAC library of the closely related grass species Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) indicated similar helitron-associated GI fragments present in this genome, as well as non-helitron associated GI fragments derived from the same region of GI. In order to investigate the possible extent of ancestral helitron-activity in L. perenne, a methylation-filtered GeneThresher® genomic library developed from this species was screened for potential helitron 3' hairpin sequences associated with a 3'-CTRR motif. This identified 7 potential helitron hairpin-types present between at least 9 and 51 times within the L. perenne methylation-filtered library. Conclusion This represents evidence for a possible ancestral role for helitrons in modelling the genomes

  1. Structural basis for the inhibition of truncated islet amyloid polypeptide aggregation by Cu(II): insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rivillas-Acevedo, Lina; Sánchez-López, Carolina; Amero, Carlos; Quintanar, Liliana

    2015-04-20

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting over 300 million people worldwide. One of the hallmarks of T2D is the presence of amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the islets of Langerhans of pancreatic β-cells. Recent reports indicate that Cu(II) can inhibit the aggregation of human IAPP, although the mechanism for this inhibitory effect is not clear. In this study, different spectroscopic techniques and model fragments of IAPP were employed to shed light on the structural basis for the interaction of Cu(II) with human IAPP. Our results show that Cu(II) anchors to His18 and the subsequent amide groups toward the C-terminal, forming a complex with an equatorial coordination mode 3N1O at physiological pH. Cu(II) binding to truncated IAPP at the His18 region is the key event for its inhibitory effect in amyloid aggregation. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies indicate that the monomeric Cu(II)-IAPP(15-22) complex differs significantly from Cu(II) bound to mature IAPP(15-22) fibers, suggesting that copper binding to monomeric IAPP(15-22) competes with the conformation changes needed to form β-sheet structures, thus delaying fibril formation. A general mechanism is proposed for the inhibitory effect of copper and other imidazole-binding metal ions in IAPP amyloid formation, providing further insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of T2D.

  2. Dynamics of keratin assembly: exogenous type I keratin rapidly associates with type II keratin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IF) are obligate heteropolymers containing equal amounts of type I and type II keratin. We have previously shown that microinjected biotinylated type I keratin is rapidly incorporated into endogenous bundles of keratin IF (tonofilaments) of PtK2 cells. In this study we show that the earliest steps in the assembly of keratin subunits into tonofilaments involve the extremely rapid formation of discrete aggregates of microinjected keratin. These are seen as fluorescent spots containing both type I and type II keratins within 1 min post-injection as determined by double label immunofluorescence. These observations suggest that endogenous type II keratin subunits can be rapidly mobilized from their endogenous state to form complexes with the injected type I protein. Furthermore, confocal microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy suggest that the type I-type II keratin spots from in close association with the endogenous keratin IF network. When the biotinylated protein is injected at concentrations of 0.3-0.5 mg/ml, the organization of the endogenous network of tonofilaments remains undisturbed during incorporation into tonofilaments. However, microinjection of 1.5-2.0 mg/ml of biotinylated type I results in significant alterations in the organization and assembly state of the endogenous keratin IF network soon after microinjection. The results of this study are consistent with the existence of a state of equilibrium between keratin subunits and polymerized keratin IF in epithelial cells, and provide further proof that IF are dynamic elements of the cytoskeleton of mammalian cells. PMID:7686161

  3. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  4. Early photocoagulation in patients with either type I or type II diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the benefits of early photocoagulation in patients with type I versus type II diabetes. DESIGN: One eye of each of 3,711 patients was randomly assigned to early photocoagulation; the other was assigned to deferral of photocoagulation, with follow-up visits scheduled every 4 months and photocoagulation to be carried out promptly if high-risk proliferative retinopathy developed. Patients were categorized by age and type of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best corrected visual acuity was measured at each study visit scheduled at 4-month intervals. Stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken and evaluated at baseline, 4 months, and yearly thereafter. Retinopathy severity was assessed from fundus photographs. Severe visual loss was defined as visual acuity of worse than 5/200 for at least two consecutive study visits. RESULTS: Previously published results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) demonstrated a statistically significant benefit of early photocoagulation in preventing severe vision loss. Further analyses demonstrate that this benefit of early photocoagulation is greater in patients with type II diabetes than in those with type I. The relative benefit of early photocoagulation in patients with type II diabetes is also seen for other outcomes (development of high-risk proliferative retinopathy, development of the combined end point [severe visual loss or vitrectomy], development of moderate visual loss, or development of legal blindness). The patients most likely to benefit from early photocoagulation had severe nonproliferative retinopathy or early proliferative retinopathy. Analyses from the Diabetic Retinopathy Study confirm the relative benefit of scatter photocoagulation for type II patients. Because of the high correlation between age and type of diabetes, analyses sub-grouped by age show similar results. CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest that patients with type II diabetes, or older patients with diabetes

  5. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes.

  6. Modeling fluid dynamics on type II quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, James; Weeks, David; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-03-01

    A quantum algorithm is presented for modeling the time evolution of density and flow fields governed by classical equations, such as the diffusion equation, the nonlinear Burgers equation, and the damped wave equation. The algorithm is intended to run on a type-II quantum computer, a parallel quantum computer consisting of a lattice of small type I quantum computers undergoing unitary evolution and interacting via information interchanges represented by an orthogonal matrices. Information is effectively transferred between adjacent quantum computers over classical communications channels because of controlled state demolition following local quantum mechanical qubit-qubit interactions within each quantum computer. The type-II quantum algorithm presented in this paper describes a methodology for generating quantum logic operations as a generalization of classical operations associated with finite-point group symmetries. The quantum mechanical evolution of multiple qubits within each node is described. Presented is a proof that the parallel quantum system obeys a finite-difference quantum Boltzman equation at the mesoscopic scale, leading in turn to various classical linear and nonlinear effective field theories at the macroscopic scale depending on the details of the local qubit-qubit interactions.

  7. On the Intrinsic Diversity of Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Prieto, Jose L.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen-rich Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe) exhibit correlations between the plateau luminosity {L}{pl}, the nickel mass {M}{Ni}, the explosion energy {E}{exp}, and the ejecta mass {M}{ej}. Using our global, self-consistent, multi-band model of nearby well-observed SNe, we find that the covariances of these quantities are strong and that the confidence ellipsoids are oriented in the direction of the correlations, which reduces their significance. By proper treatment of the covariance matrix of the model, we discover a significant intrinsic width to the correlations between {L}{pl}, {E}{exp} and {M}{Ni}, where the uncertainties due to the distance and the extinction dominate. For fixed {E}{exp}, the spread in {M}{Ni} is about 0.25 dex, which we attribute to the differences in the progenitor internal structure. We argue that the effects of incomplete γ-ray trapping are not important in our sample. Similarly, the physics of the Type II-Plateau SN light curves leads to inherently degenerate estimates of {E}{exp} and {M}{ej}, which makes their observed correlation weak. Ignoring the covariances of SN parameters or the intrinsic width of the correlations causes significant biases in the slopes of the fitted relations. Our results imply that Type II-Plateau SN explosions are not described by a single physical parameter or a simple one-dimensional trajectory through the parameter space, but instead reflect the diversity of the core and surface properties of their progenitors. We discuss the implications for the physics of the explosion mechanism and possible future observational constraints.

  8. Effect of the type-I to type-II Weyl semimetal topological transition on superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dingping; Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Shapiro, I.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of recently discovered topological transition between type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals on superconductivity is considered. A set of Gorkov equations for weak superconductivity in Weyl semimetal under topological phase transition is derived and solved. The critical temperature and superconducting gap both have spikes in the transition point as functions of the tilt parameter of the Dirac cone determined, in turn, by the material parameters like pressure. The spectrum of superconducting excitations is different in two phases: The sharp cone pinnacle is characteristic for type I, while two parallel almost flat bands, are formed in type II. Spectral density is calculated on both sides of transition to demonstrate the different weights of the bands. The superconductivity thus can be used as a clear indicator for the topological transformation. Results are discussed in the light of recent experiments.

  9. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  10. Predicted continuum spectra of type II supernovae - LTE results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaviv, G.; Wehrse, R.; Wagoner, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The continuum spectral energy distribution of the flux emerging from type II supernovae is calculated from quasi-static radiative transfer through a power-law density gradient, assuming radiative equilibrium and LTE. It is found that the Balmer jump disappears at high effective temperatures and low densities, while the spectrum resembles that of a dilute blackbody but is flatter with a sharper cutoff at the short-wavelength end. A significant UV excess is found in all models calculated. The calculation should be considered exploratory because of significant effects which are anticipated to arise from departure from LTE.

  11. Predictive data modeling of human type II diabetes related statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Kristina L.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Albritton, Nathaniel G.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of routine Type II treatment of one of the authors, it was decided to derive predictive analytical Data Models of the daily sampled vital statistics: namely weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar, to determine if the covariance among the observed variables could yield a descriptive equation based model, or better still, a predictive analytical model that could forecast the expected future trend of the variables and possibly eliminate the number of finger stickings required to montior blood sugar levels. The personal history and analysis with resulting models are presented.

  12. Interaction of ultrasound with vortices in type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1996-04-01

    The theory of ultrasound in the mixed state of type-II superconductors is suggested which takes into account the Magnus force on vortices, the anti-Magnus force on ions, and diamagnetism of the mixed state. The acoustic Faraday effect (rotation of polarization of the transverse ultrasonic wave propagating along vortices) is linear in the Magnus force in any regime of the flux flow for wavelengths now used in the ultrasound experiments. Therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, the Faraday effect should be looked for only in clean superconductors with a strong Magnus force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Type II strained layer superlattice: A potential future IR solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidrow, Meimei Z.

    2009-11-01

    Type II strained layer superlattice (SLS) has been making tremendous progress in the past few years funded by the Missile Defense Agency Advanced Technology Directorate (MDA/DV) under the Passive EO/IR Program. SLS has shown great potential as a future solution for infrared military systems. In this presentation, the most recent progress in SLS development will be presented. The presentation will also discuss the comparison of SLS with mercury-cadmium-telluride (HgCdTe) using Rule 07, SLS minority carrier lifetime issues, and future directions.

  14. Biologic Activity of Type I and Type II Fusobacterium nucleatum Isolates from Clinically Characterized Sites,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-26

    journal of choice is the Journal of Periodontology . 1 ncl JACK W. VINCENT as COL, DC Microbiology Branch SGRD-UDZ (19 Jul 84) TO COL Jack W. Vincent...Activitity of Type I and Type II Manuscript for Publication Fusobacterium nucleatum Isolates From Clinically Chatacterized Sites. 6. PERFORMING ONG...120) were obtained from subgingival plaque samples taken from 27 clinically characterized sites utilizing a selec- tive culture medium. All isolates

  15. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  16. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Drug Master Files Under the Generic Drug User Fee... Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active...

  17. [Achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis: radiological features.Case report].

    PubMed

    Delgado Carrasco, J; Casanova Morcillo, A; Zabalza Alvillos, M; Ayala Garcés, A

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of lethal dysplasia in the neonatal period. The abnormality was suspected after ultrasonography of a pregnant woman presenting weak fetal movements revealed shortening of the extremities, voluminous cranium and polyhydramnios. Clinical and radiological findings showed platyspondylic dwarfism with short extremities, narrow thorax and hydropic appearance. The infant died on the third day of life from progressive respiratory distress. In the absence of histological, chondro-osseus and molecular studies, detailed clinical and radiological studies, as well as the lethal evolution during the neonatal period, guided the diagnosis of hypochondrogenesis. This entity, together with achondrogenesis II (and other dysplasias), forms part of the same spectrum of collagen type II abnormalities produced by a defect in the gene (COL2A1) that codifies collagen II, located in chromosome 12 I(12q13.1-13.2). When a heterozygote is produced, transmission is dominant autosomal. The phenotype shows wide variation and severity depends on the mechanism and location of the mutation. The definitive diagnosis is given by cytomolecular studies, while individualization of the different entities is based on histological data from the cartilage; clinical findings and skeletal radiology serve as a guide.

  18. Type-II Bursts in Meter and Deca - Hectometer Wavelengths and Their Relation to Flares and CMEs: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Umapathy, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Pappa Kalaivani, P.; Vršnak, Bojan

    2010-09-01

    A study of the relationship between 38 type-II bursts recorded in meter and deca-hectometer (hereinafter m and DH) wavelength range and the associated flares and CMEs observed during the years 2000 - 2005 was carried out by Prakash et al. (2009). These events were divided into two classes: i) Class I, representing events where DH-type-II bursts are not a continuation of m-type-II bursts and ii) Class II, where DH-type-II bursts are a continuation of m-type-II bursts. In the present work, we extend the analysis of this sample of 38 events in three different steps: i) statistical properties of m- and DH-type-II bursts; ii) analysis of time lags between onsets of flares and CMEs associated with type-II bursts; and iii) statistical properties and relation between flares and CMEs of Class I and Class II events. We found a significant difference between the properties of m- and DH-type-II bursts of Class I and Class II events. For example, there are significant differences in starting and ending frequencies, bandwidth and speed. From the time delay analysis, we found the following. i) In 64% of Class I events, flares start after the onset of CMEs and the remaining 36% of flares start before the onset of CMEs. On the other hand, in the case of Class II events, the values are 83% and 17%, respectively. ii) The difference between the mean values of delay between flare start and DH start has high statistical significance (probability P of null hypothesis <1%). The time delays between the start of m-type-II burst and the CME onset are considerably larger for Class I events ( P=7%) than Class II events. iii) There are notable differences in: (a) delay between the flare and CME onset times ( P<1%); (b) flare rise time of Class I and Class II events ( P<5%). iv) While the flare rise time is well correlated with the lag between the flare start and the CME onset in Class I events, there is no such correlation for Class II events.

  19. Probing the copper(II) binding features of angiogenin. Similarities and differences between a N-terminus peptide fragment and the recombinant human protein.

    PubMed

    La Mendola, Diego; Farkas, Daniel; Bellia, Francesco; Magrì, Antonio; Travaglia, Alessio; Hansson, Örjan; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2012-01-02

    The angiogenin protein (hAng) is a potent angiogenic factor and its cellular activities may be affected by copper ions even if it is yet unknown how this metal ion is able to produce this effect. Among the different regions of hAng potentially able to bind copper ions, the N-terminal domain appears to be an ideal candidate. Copper(II) complexes of the peptide fragments encompassing the amino acid residues 4-17 of hAng protein were characterized by potentiometric, UV-vis, CD, and EPR spectroscopic methods. The results show that these fragments have an unusual copper(II) binding ability. At physiological pH, the prevailing complex species formed by the peptide encompassing the protein sequence 4-17 is [CuHL], in which the metal ion is bound to two imidazole and two deprotonated amide nitrogen atoms disposed in a planar equatorial arrangement. Preliminary spectroscopic (UV-vis, CD, and EPR) data obtained on the copper(II) complexes formed by the whole recombinant hAng protein, show a great similarity with those obtained for the N-terminal peptide fragments. These findings indicate that within the N-terminal domain there is one of the preferred copper(II) ions anchoring site of the whole recombinant hAng protein.

  20. A-current and type I/type II transition determine collective spiking from common input.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Andrea K; Thilo, Evan L; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The mechanisms and impact of correlated, or synchronous, firing among pairs and groups of neurons are under intense investigation throughout the nervous system. A ubiquitous circuit feature that can give rise to such correlations consists of overlapping, or common, inputs to pairs and populations of cells, leading to common spike train responses. Here, we use computational tools to study how the transfer of common input currents into common spike outputs is modulated by the physiology of the recipient cells. We focus on a key conductance, g(A), for the A-type potassium current, which drives neurons between "type II" excitability (low g(A)), and "type I" excitability (high g(A)). Regardless of g(A), cells transform common input fluctuations into a tendency to spike nearly simultaneously. However, this process is more pronounced at low g(A) values. Thus, for a given level of common input, type II neurons produce spikes that are relatively more correlated over short time scales. Over long time scales, the trend reverses, with type II neurons producing relatively less correlated spike trains. This is because these cells' increased tendency for simultaneous spiking is balanced by an anticorrelation of spikes at larger time lags. These findings extend and interpret prior findings for phase oscillators to conductance-based neuron models that cover both oscillatory (superthreshold) and subthreshold firing regimes. We demonstrate a novel implication for neural signal processing: downstream cells with long time constants are selectively driven by type I cell populations upstream and those with short time constants by type II cell populations. Our results are established via high-throughput numerical simulations and explained via the cells' filtering properties and nonlinear dynamics.

  1. Type-II Weyl cone transitions in driven semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ching-Kit; Oh, Yun-Tak; Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Patrick A.

    2016-09-01

    Periodically driven systems provide tunable platforms to realize interesting Floquet topological phases and phase transitions. In electronic systems with Weyl dispersions, the band crossings are topologically protected even in the presence of time-periodic perturbations. This robustness permits various routes to shift and tilt the Weyl spectra in the momentum and energy space using circularly polarized light of sufficient intensity. We show that type-II Weyl fermions, in which the Weyl dispersions are tilted with the appearance of pocketlike Fermi surfaces, can be induced in driven Dirac semimetals and line node semimetals. Under a circularly polarized drive, both semimetal systems immediately generate Weyl node pairs whose types can be further controlled by the driving amplitude and direction. The resultant phase diagrams demonstrate experimental feasibilities.

  2. Exotic dual of type II double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Riccioni, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    We perform an exotic dualization of the Ramond-Ramond fields in type II double field theory, in which they are encoded in a Majorana-Weyl spinor of O (D , D). Starting from a first-order master action, the dual theory in terms of a tensor-spinor of O (D , D) is determined. This tensor-spinor is subject to an exotic version of the (self-)duality constraint needed for a democratic formulation. We show that in components, reducing O (D , D) to GL (D), one obtains the expected exotically dual theory in terms of mixed Young tableaux fields. To this end, we generalize exotic dualizations to self-dual fields, such as the 4-form in type IIB string theory.

  3. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-05-01

    Two different mutations were found in two unrelated probands with lethal chondrodysplasias, one with achondrogenesis type II and the other with the less severe phenotype of hypochondrogenesis. The mutations in the COL2A1 gene were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA followed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing and restriction site analysis. The proband with achondrogenesis type II had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted aspartate for glycine at position 310 of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II procollagen. The proband with hypochondrogenesis had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted serine for glycine at position 805. Type II collagen extracted from cartilage from the probands demonstrated the presence of type I collagen and a delayed electrophoretic mobility, indicating post-translational overmodifications. Analysis of CNBr peptides showed that, in proband 1, the entire peptides were overmodified. Examination of chondrocytes cultured in agarose or alginate indicated that there was a delayed secretion of type II procollagen. In addition, type II collagen synthesized by cartilage fragments from the probands demonstrated a decreased thermal stability. The melting temperature of the type II collagen containing the aspartate-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 4 degrees C, and that of the collagen containing the serine-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 2 degrees C. Electron microscopy of the extracellular matrix from the chondrocyte cultures showed a decreased density of matrix and the presence of unusually short and thin fibrils. Our results indicate that glycine substitutions in the N-terminal region of the type II collagen molecule can produce more severe phenotypes than mutations in the C-terminal region. The aspartate-for-glycine substitution at position 310, which was associated with defective secretion and a probable increased degradation of collagen, is the most destabilizing

  4. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-01-01

    Two different mutations were found in two unrelated probands with lethal chondrodysplasias, one with achondrogenesis type II and the other with the less severe phenotype of hypochondrogenesis. The mutations in the COL2A1 gene were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA followed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing and restriction site analysis. The proband with achondrogenesis type II had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted aspartate for glycine at position 310 of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II procollagen. The proband with hypochondrogenesis had a heterozygous single-base mutation that substituted serine for glycine at position 805. Type II collagen extracted from cartilage from the probands demonstrated the presence of type I collagen and a delayed electrophoretic mobility, indicating post-translational overmodifications. Analysis of CNBr peptides showed that, in proband 1, the entire peptides were overmodified. Examination of chondrocytes cultured in agarose or alginate indicated that there was a delayed secretion of type II procollagen. In addition, type II collagen synthesized by cartilage fragments from the probands demonstrated a decreased thermal stability. The melting temperature of the type II collagen containing the aspartate-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 4 degrees C, and that of the collagen containing the serine-for-glycine substitution was reduced by 2 degrees C. Electron microscopy of the extracellular matrix from the chondrocyte cultures showed a decreased density of matrix and the presence of unusually short and thin fibrils. Our results indicate that glycine substitutions in the N-terminal region of the type II collagen molecule can produce more severe phenotypes than mutations in the C-terminal region. The aspartate-for-glycine substitution at position 310, which was associated with defective secretion and a probable increased degradation of collagen, is the most destabilizing

  5. Feeding problems and malnutrition in spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; De Rose, Paola; Vasta, Isabella; Sorleti, Domenica; Aloysius, Annie; Sciarra, Federico; Mangiola, Fortunato; Kinali, Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a survey using a dedicated questionnaire to assess feeding difficulties and weight gain in a population of 122 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) type II patients, aged between 1 and 47 years. All the answers were entered in a database and were analysed subdividing the cohort into age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-19, 20-29, and 30-50 years). Six out of our 122 patients (5%), all younger than 11 years, had weights more than 2SD above the median for age matched controls, whilst 45 (37%) had weights less than 2SD below the median. Chewing difficulties were reported in 34 of the 122 patients (28%) and limitation in the ability to open the mouth in 36 (30%) and both were increasingly more frequent with age. Swallowing difficulties were reported in 30 patients (25%). The results of our survey suggest that a number of patients with SMA type II have limited jaw opening, and chewing and swallowing difficulties. Our findings raise a few issues concerning standards of care that should be implemented in the monitoring and management of feeding difficulties and weight gain.

  6. Model light curves of linear Type II supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, D.A.; Wheeler, J.C.; Harkness, R.P. )

    1991-06-01

    Light curves computed from hydrodynamic models of supernova are compared graphically with the average observed B and V-band light curves of linear Type II supernovae. Models are based on the following explosion scenarios: carbon deflagration within a C + O core near the Chandrasekhar mass, electron-capture-induced core collapse of an O-Ne-Mg core of the Chandrasekhar mass, and collapse of an Fe core in a massive star. A range of envelope mass, initial radius, and composition is investigated. Only a narrow range of values of these parameters are consistent with observations. Within this narrow range, most of the observed light curve properties can be obtained in part, but none of the models can reproduce the entire light curve shape and absolute magnitude over the full 200 day comparison period. The observed lack of a plateau phase is explained in terms of a combination of small envelope mass and envelope helium enhancement. The final cobalt tail phase of the light curve can be reproduced only if the mass of explosively synthesized radioactive Ni-56 is small. The results presented here, in conjunction with the observed homogeneity among individual members of the supernova subclass, argue favorably for the O-Ne-Mg core collapse mechanism as an explanation for linear Type II supernovae. The Crab Nebula may arisen from such an explosion. Carbon deflagrations may lead to brighter events like SN 1979C. 62 refs.

  7. Type II intermediate-luminosity optical transients (ILOTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Amit; Soker, Noam

    2017-01-01

    We propose that in a small fraction of intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs) powered by a strongly interacting binary system, the ejected mass in the equatorial plane can block the central source from our line of sight. We can therefore observe only radiation that is reprocessed by polar outflow, much as in type II active galactic nuclei (AGN). An ejection of M_ej,e=10^{-4} M_⊙ (1 M_⊙) at 30 degrees from the equatorial plane and at a velocity of v_e = 100 {km} {s}^{-1} will block the central source in the NIR for about 5 years (500 years). During that period of time the object might disappear in the visible band, and be detected only in the IR band due to polar dust. We raise the possibility that the recently observed disappearance of a red giant in the visible, designated N6946-BH1, is a type II ILOT rather than a failed supernova. For this case we estimate that the ejected mass in the polar direction was M_ej,p≈ 10^{-3} M_⊙. Our scenario predicts that this event should reinstate its visible emission in several decades.

  8. Antibodies with specificities against a dispase-produced 15-kilodalton hexon fragment neutralize adenovirus type 2 infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, M J; Bergman, T; Everitt, E

    1990-01-01

    During the entrance of adenovirus type 2 into cells, it has been suggested that the virion undergoes a conformational change. In this investigation, we have further characterized the hypothetical conformational change, which the structural protein hexon undergoes in response to low pH. From pH 5.0 to pH 6.0, the proteolytic enzyme dispase cleaved the hexon into a few distinct fragments with a dominating low-molecular-weight fragment with a molecular weight of 15,000 (15K peptide), whereas between pH 6.5 and pH 8.0, the cleavage of the hexon was negligible. The degradation of the hexon with dispase at low pH was not due to an increased activity or alteration of the active site of dispase at low pH. The 15K fragment was identified as a segment of the N-terminal part of the hexon polypeptide beginning at amino acid residue 5. An immune serum produced in response to acid-treated and glutaraldehyde-fixed hexons contained a small amount of antibodies directed towards the 15K fragment, as judged by Western immunoblotting. An anti-15K antibody fraction was isolated by affinity chromatography by removing antibodies recognizing the hexon in the alkaline configuration. Such antibodies displayed a higher relative titer at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.5 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The isolated antibodies showed a specific neutralizing capacity five times higher than that of the corresponding unfractionated polyclonal anti-hexon serum; however, the neutralizing ability was independent of pH. The neutralization of adenovirus type 2 infection by the isolated anti-15K antibodies implies that the N-terminal end of the hexon may play a critical role in the early steps of the virion-cell interaction. Images PMID:1696636

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of type I and type II feline coronavirus in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) are two important coronaviruses of domestic cat worldwide. Although FCoV is prevalent among cats; the fastidious nature of type I FCoV to grow on cell culture has limited further studies on tissue tropism and pathogenesis of FCoV. While several studies reported serological evidence for FCoV in Malaysia, neither the circulating FCoV isolated nor its biotypes determined. This study for the first time, describes the isolation and biotypes determination of type I and type II FCoV from naturally infected cats in Malaysia. Findings Of the total number of cats sampled, 95% (40/42) were RT-PCR positive for FCoV. Inoculation of clinical samples into Crandell feline kidney cells (CrFK), and Feline catus whole fetus-4 cells (Fcwf-4), show cytopathic effect (CPE) characterized by syncytial cells formation and later cell detachment. Differentiation of FCoV biotypes using RT-PCR assay revealed that, 97.5% and 2.5% of local isolates were type I and type II FCoV, respectively. These isolates had high sequence homology and phylogenetic similarity with several FCoV isolates from Europe, South East Asia and USA. Conclusions This study reported the successful isolation of local type I and type II FCoV evident with formation of cytopathic effects in two types of cell cultures namely the CrFK and Fcwf-4 , where the later cells being more permissive. However, the RT-PCR assay is more sensitive in detecting the antigen in suspected samples as compared to virus isolation in cell culture. The present study indicated that type I FCoV is more prevalent among cats in Malaysia. PMID:23171743

  10. Supernova 1993J as a spectroscopic link between type II and type Ib supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, D. A.; Clocchiatti, A.; Benjamin, R.; Lester, D. F.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Supernova 1993J in the nearby galaxy M81 is one of the closest - and hence brightest - supernovae to be witnessed this century. The early spectrum of SN1993J showed the characteristic hydrogen signature of type II supernovae, but its subsequent evolution is atypical for this class of supernova. Here we present optical and infrared spectra of SN1993J up to 43 days after outburst, which reveal the onset of the helium absorption and emission features more commonly associated with hydrogen-free type Ib supernovae. Corresponding model spectra show that the progenitor star must have possessed an unusually thin (for type II supernovae) hydrogen-rich envelope overlying a helium-rich mantle. Moreover, the supernova ejecta must have remained compositionally stratified, with little transport of the hydrogen-rich material down into the underlying helium layer or mixing of heavier elements outwards. SN1993J therefore represents a transition object between hydrogen-dominated type II supernovae, and hydrogen-free, helium-dominated type Ib supernovae.

  11. Magnetic description of the Fermi arc in type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O.

    2017-03-01

    We consider finite-sized interfaces of a Weyl semimetal and show that the corresponding confinement potential is similar to the application of a magnetic field. Among the numerous states, which can be labeled by indices n like in Landau levels, the n =0 surface state describes the Weyl semimetal Fermi arc at a given chemical potential. Moreover, the analogy with a magnetic field shows that an external in-plane magnetic field can be used to distort the Fermi arc and would explain some features of magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals. We derive the Fermi arc for type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals where we deal with the tilt anisotropy by the use of Lorentz boosts. In the case of type-II Weyl semimetals, this leads to many additional topologically trivial surface states at low energy. Finally, we extend the Aharonov-Casher argument and demonstrate the stability of the Fermi arc over fluctuations of the surface potential.

  12. Piezoelectricity in collagen type II fibrils measured by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, D.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Hsu, T.; Habelitz, S.; Fertala, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    The converse piezoelectric effect in collagen type II fibrils, the main collagen constituent in cartilage, was investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. The fibrils exhibited shear piezoelectric behavior similar to that previously reported in collagen type I fibrils and followed the same cantilever-fibril angle dependence present for type I. A uniform polarization directed from the amine to carboxyl termini, as seen for collagen type I, was observed in all type II fibrils studied. The shear piezoelectric coefficient, d15, however, for type II was roughly 28-32% of the value measured for type I fibrils. Possible explanations for the reduced piezoelectric coefficient of type II collagen are provided.

  13. Neutrinos from type II supernovae - The first 100 milliseconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Burrows, Adam

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of a 1.17 solar mass iron core is numerically followed through infall to 100 ms past core bounce, and the emergent neutrino spectra during each phase are highlighted. It is found that, even with fairly optimistic conditions for producing a strong, sustained core-bounce shock wave, the prompt shock stalls within 9 ms of core bounce at a radius of less than 250 km. It appears that a radical change in the character of the progenitor core or in our understanding of the relevant physics of stellar collapse is needed before the direct mechanism for type II supernovae can become viable. Expanding the number of neutrino types from one to six magnifies the debilitating effect of neutrino loss on shock propagation. At shock breakout, prompt bursts of all neutrino types are observed. The luminosities of the nonelectron types show a sudden turn-on in luminosity while that of the electron neutrinos steadily increases throughout infall as a result of accelerating electron capture.

  14. The genomic structure of the gene encoding the human transforming growth factor {beta} type II receptor (TGF-{beta} RII)

    SciTech Connect

    Takenoshita, Seiichi; Hagiwara, Koichi; Nagashima, Makoto; Gemma, Akihiko

    1996-09-01

    The genomic structure of the human transforming growth factor-{beta} type II receptor gene (TGF-{beta} RII) was determined by two PCR-based methods, the {open_quotes}long distance sequencer{close_quotes} method and the {open_quotes}promoter finder{close_quotes} method. Genomic fragments containing exons and adjacent introns were amplified by PCR, and the nucleotide sequences were determined by direct sequencing and subcloning sequencing. The TGF-{beta} RII protein is encoded by 567 codons in 7 exons. This is the first report about the genomic structure of a gene that belongs to the serine/threonine kinase type II receptor subfamily. Knowledge of the genomic structure of the TGF-{beta} RII gene will facilitate investigation of the TGF-{beta} RII gene will facilitate investigation of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in normal human cells and of the aberrations occurring during carcinogenesis. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. HTLV type I and HTLV type II infection among Indians and natives from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, M B; Zapiola, I; Quiruelas, S; Gorvein, D; Panzita, A; Rey, J; Carnese, F P; Corral, R; Perez, C; Zala, C

    1994-11-01

    Endemic foci for HTLV-II infection have been identified in several Amerindian populations. To determine HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II infection among Amerindians living in Argentina we studied 454 sera or plasmas from Indians and natives from different areas of our country. All samples were tested by the particle agglutination technique, and positive reactions were confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA titration was used to differentiate HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies. Twenty-three of 222 samples (10.4%) were found positive among the Tobas Indians; 22 samples were typed as HTLV-II and 1 as HTLV-I. Antibodies for HTLV-I were found in the serum and CSF of three natives from Salta with a TSP diagnosis. No positive samples were found among 96 Mapuche Indians and 133 natives from San Luis. Our results indicate that HTLV-II is endemic among the Tobas Indians. In this study, infection by these retroviruses in Argentinian Amerindians seems to have a marked geographic distribution.

  16. An Improved PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Method for the Identification of cry1-Type Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Changlong; Liu, Dongming; Zhou, Zishan; Cai, Jilin; Peng, Qi; Gao, Jiguo; Song, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    The cry1-type genes of Bacillus thuringiensis represent the largest cry gene family, which contains 50 distinct holotypes. It is becoming more and more difficult to identify cry1-type genes using current methods because of the increasing number of cry1-type genes. In the present study, an improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method which can distinguish 41 holotypes of cry1-type genes was developed. This improved method was used to identify cry1-type genes in 20 B. thuringiensis strains that are toxic to lepidoptera. The results showed that the improved method can efficiently identify single and clustered cry1-type genes and can be used to evaluate cry1-type genes in novel strain collections of B. thuringiensis. Among the detected cry1-type genes, we identified four novel genes, cry1Ai, cry1Bb, cry1Ja, and cry1La. The bioassay results from the expressed products of the four novel cry genes showed that Cry1Ai2, Cry1Bb2, and Cry1Ja2 were highly toxic against Plutella xylostella, whereas Cry1La2 exhibited no activity. Moreover, Cry1Ai2 had good lethal activity against Ostrinia furnacalis, Hyphantria cunea, Chilo suppressalis, and Bombyx mori larvae and considerable weight loss activity against Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:23995930

  17. The importance of type II error and falsifiability.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Before intergovernmental consensus under the Rio Declaration in 1992, ignorance of type I errors had been disfavored in science. However, the Precautionary Principle (PP) counsels the avoidance of type II errors, rather than of type I errors. We need a new academic code for the PP. The risk of extinction has usually been evaluated based on conservative estimates of the present population size. I define the weight of evidence as the extinction risk of Japanese vascular plants based on unbiased estimates. Catch quotas in the fisheries are usually decided by precautionary approach. I calculate the long-term yield and risk of stock collapse under a simple stock dynamics model. The weight of evidence depends on the frequency of grids with size unknown. In a few plant species, rankings based on conservative estimates have differed from rankings based on unbiased estimates. In fishery management, a catch quota based on a precautionary approach proved neither sufficient nor necessary to avoid stock collapse. The precautionary approach is one of the reasons that prevent us from maximizing a sustainable yield. We need to clarify the end-point of risks, and check whether it is necessary to adopt a PP. We can obtain the weight of evidence that is measured under unbiased estimates, while the risk based on a PP is measured under conservative estimates.

  18. Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Mailhiot, C.

    1987-09-01

    It is shown that strained type II superlattices made of InAs-Ga(1-x)In(x)Sb(x) about 0.4 have favorable optical properties for infrared detection. By adjusting the layer thicknesses and the alloy composition, a wide range of wavelengths can be reached. Optical absorption calculations for a case where the cutoff wavelength is about 10 microns show that, near threshold, the absorption is as good as for the HgCdTe alloy with the same band gap. The electron effective mass is nearly isotropic and equal to 0.04 m. This effective mass should give favorable electrical properties, such as small diode tunneling currents and good mobilities, and diffusion lengths.

  19. Type II seesaw model and multilepton signatures at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Manimala; Niyogi, Saurabh; Spannowsky, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We investigate multilepton signatures, arising from the decays of doubly charged and singly charged Higgs bosons in the Type II seesaw model. Depending on the vacuum expectation value of the triplet vΔ , the doubly and singly charged Higgs bosons can decay into a large variety of multilepton final states. We explore all possible decay modes corresponding to different regimes of vΔ that generate distinguishing four and five leptonic signatures. We focus on the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and further extend the study to a very high energy proton-proton collider (VLHC) with a center-of-mass energy of 100 TeV. We find that a doubly charged Higgs boson of masses around 375 GeV can be discovered at immediate LHC runs. A heavier mass of 630 GeV can instead be discovered at the high-luminosity run of the LHC or at the VLHC with 30 fb-1 .

  20. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception.

  1. Type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca Estela; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung. PMID:23762890

  2. Vorticity and magnetic shielding in a type-II superconductor.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro; Sacramento, Pedro D

    2006-09-20

    We study in detail, solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, the magnetic field, supercurrent and order parameter profiles originated by a solenoid or magnetic whisker inserted in a type-II superconductor. We consider solutions of different vorticities, n, in the various cases. The results confirm the connection between the vorticity, the internal currents and the boundstates in a self-consistent way. The number of boundstates is given by the vorticity of the phase of the gap function as in the case with no external solenoid. In the limiting case of an infinitely thin solenoid, like a Dirac string, the solution is qualitatively different. The quasiparticle spectrum and wavefunctions are a function of n-n(ext), where n(ext) is the vorticity of the solenoid. The flux is in all cases determined by the vorticity of the gap function.

  3. Unusual approach for the treatment of a type II endoleak.

    PubMed

    Ciampi Dopazo, J J; Gastaldo, F; Lanciego Pérez, C

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation is about an 88 years-old male patient with previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repairment history and aortic endoleak type II (EL2). The direct lumbar artery catheterization was considered an alternative to solve EL2, associated with aortic endovascular prosthesis and due to an incomplete sealing or exclusion of the aneurysmal sac or a vascular segment demonstrated by imaging studies, when other treatment alternative failed (transarterial embolization) to control the aneurysm growing. Performing translumbar approach was decided by puncturing the artery lumbar (L4) left, previously the lumbar arteries (L4) were evaluated in the abdominal CT arterial phase to guide a puncture/access under flouroscopy control. Diagnostic angiogram clearly demonstrated the median sacral and right lumbar arteries inflow into the aneurysm sac. Transcatheter embolization with fibered platinum microcoils was performed of the median sacral artery and lumbar left and right arteries (L4), showing satisfactory endoleak devascularization.

  4. Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Arabic-Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has not spared the Arabic-speaking countries, which have some of the highest prevalence of type II diabetes. This is particularly true of the Arab Gulf, a conglomerate of high income, oil-producing countries where prevalence rates are the highest. The prevalence rates among adults of the Arabic speaking countries as a whole range between 4%–21%, with the lowest being in Somalia and the highest in Kuwait. As economic growth has accelerated, so has the movement of the populations to urban centers where people are more likely to adopt lifestyles that embrace increased high-calorie food consumption and sedentary lifestyles. These factors likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Arabic speaking countries. PMID:22851968

  5. Type II congenital cystic pulmonary malformation in an esophageal lung.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca E; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung.

  6. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): expanding the vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bober, Michael B; Khan, Nadia; Kaplan, Jennifer; Lewis, Kristi; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Scott, Charles I; Steinberg, Gary K

    2010-04-01

    Majewski Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism, Type II (MOPD II) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder. Features include severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), poor postnatal growth (adult stature approximately 100 cm), severe microcephaly, skeletal dysplasia, characteristic facial features, and normal or near normal intelligence. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved registry was created and currently follows 25 patients with a diagnosis of MOPD II. Based on previous studies, a neurovascular screening program was implemented and 13 (52%) of these patients have been found to have cerebral neurovascular abnormalities including moyamoya angiopathy and/or intracranial aneurysms. The typical moyamoya pathogenesis begins with vessel narrowing in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral (A1) or middle cerebral (M1) artery segments. The narrowing may predominate initially on one side, progresses to bilateral stenosis, with subsequent occlusion of the vessels and collateral formation. We present four patients who, on neurovascular screening, were found to have cerebrovascular changes. Two were asymptomatic, one presented with a severe headache and projectile vomiting related to a ruptured aneurysm, and one presented after an apparent decline in cognitive functioning. Analysis of the registry suggests screening for moyamoya disease be performed at the time of MOPD II diagnosis and at least every 12-18 months using MRA or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). We believe this is imperative. If diagnosed early enough, re-vascularization and aneurysm treatment in skilled hands can be performed safely and prevent or minimize long-term sequelae in this population. Emergent evaluation is also needed when other neurologic or cardiac symptoms are present.

  7. Type-II superlattice materials for mid-infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gail J.; Haugan, Heather; Szmulowicz, Frank; Mahalingam, Krishnamur; Grazulis, L.; Houston, Shanee

    2005-03-01

    Type-II superlattices composed of alternating thin layers of InAs and GaSb, have been shown to be a highly flexible infrared materials system in which the energy band gap can be adjusted anywhere between 360 meV and 40 meV. These superlattices (SLs) are the III-V equivalent to the well established HgxCd1-xTe alloys used for infrared detection in the short, mid and long wavelength bands of the infrared spectrum. There are many possible designs for these superlattices that will produce the same narrow band gap by adjusting individual layer thicknesses and interface composition. Systematic growth and characterization studies were performed to determine optimum superlattice designs suitable for infrared detection in the 3 to 5 μm wavelength band. For these studies the individual layer thicknesses were less than 35Å. The effects of adding different thickness InSb-like interfaces were also studied. Through precision molecular beam epitaxy, design changes as small as 3Å to the SL layers could be studied. Significant changes were observed in the infrared photoresponse spectra of the various SL samples. The infrared properties of the various designs of these type-II superlattices were modeled using an 8-band Envelope Function Approximation. The infrared photoresponse spectra, combined with quantum mechanical modeling of predicted absorption spectra, were a key factor in the design optimization of the InAs/GaSb superlattices with band gaps in the range of 200 to 360 meV.

  8. Bilateral internal auditory canal gangliogliomas mimicking neurofibromatosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Hooten, Kristopher G.; Oliveria, Seth F.; Sadrameli, Saeed S.; Gandhi, Shashank; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Lewis, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gangliogliomas are rare low grade, typically well-differentiated, tumors that are composed of mature ganglion cells and neoplastic glial cells. These tumors can appear at virtually any location along the neuroaxis but classically occur in the temporal lobe of young patients. In a small number of cases, gangliogliomas have presented as masses in the brainstem or involving cranial nerves. With the exception of vestibular schwannomas, bilateral tumors in the region of the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceedingly rare. Case Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of bilateral IAC/CPA gangliogliomas. When evaluating bilateral IAC/CPA lesions with unusual imaging characteristics, ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27127704

  9. Type II collagen defects in the chondrodysplasias. I. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, L W; Bautista, J; James, P L; Rimoin, D L

    1989-01-01

    The spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias (SEDs) and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasias (SEMDs) are a heterogeneous group of skeletal dysplasias (dwarfing disorders) characterized by abnormal epiphyses, with and without varying degrees of metaphyseal irregularities, flattened vertebral bodies, and myopia. To better define the underlying cause of these disorders, we have analyzed the collagens from costal cartilage from several of these patients, using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of intact chains and cyanogen bromide (CNBr) peptides and amino acid analysis. In almost all of the patients in this study group, the type II collagen exhibited a slower electrophoretic mobility when compared with that in normal controls. The mobility of many, but not all, of the CNBr peptides was also retarded. Peptides near the amino terminus were almost always altered, while the mobility of peptides close to the carboxyl terminus were normal in all but the severely affected cases. Analysis of the CNBr peptides on an HPLC sieving column confirmed that the electrophoretically abnormal peptides were of a higher molecular weight than were control peptides. Amino acid analysis indicated that the abnormal collagens have a higher ratio of hydroxylysine to lysine than does control collagen, suggesting that overmodification may be involved in the altered mobility. Our results are consistent with a defect in the collagen helix that results in overmodification of the molecule from that point toward the amino terminus. We propose that some forms of SED and SEMD are associated with abnormalities in type II collagen that results in delayed helix formation and consequent overmodification of the collagen. Cases of SED fit onto a continuous spectrum of clinical severity that correlates positively with both the extent of alteration and the proximity of the defect to the carboxyl terminus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2741952

  10. Phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from lung, isolated alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived adenomas.

    PubMed Central

    Pool, G L; Bubacz, D G; Lumb, R H; Mason, R J

    1983-01-01

    We have examined phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from rat and mouse whole lung, isolated rat alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived mouse pulmonary adenomas. We report an enrichment in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (but not phosphatidylinositol) protein-catalysed transfer in the type II cell and adenoma cytosols compared with the whole-lung cytosols. The activities from these cytosols were resolved using column chromatofocusing, which clearly demonstrated the presence of a phosphatidylcholine-specific transfer protein in each of the four tissues. In addition, two proteins (rat) or three proteins (mouse) catalysing both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol transfer were resolved from whole lung, whereas in both the rat isolated alveolar type II cells and the mouse type II cell-derived adenomas one of these less specific proteins is not present. PMID:6661189

  11. Localization of pro-collagen type II mRNA and collagen type II in the healing tooth socket of the rat.

    PubMed

    Devlin, H; Hoyland, J; Freemont, A J; Sloan, P

    1995-03-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats (50 days old) were anaesthetized and the maxillary right molars extracted. The rats were killed at 2, 3, 6, 8 and 10 days after extraction. The maxillae were dissected and prepared for either routine histology, in situ hybridization for pro-collagen type II mRNA, or immunohistochemical detection of collagen type II. Pro-collagen type II mRNA was expressed maximally in the healing tooth socket at 8 days after the extractions, but the protein was not expressed at any time. This suggests that the translation of pro-collagen type II mRNA does not occur in osteoblasts following tooth extraction. Ossification was present in the socket at 6 days after the extractions, which is consistent with the suggestion that an early feature of osteoblastic differentiation may be the expression of type II pro-collagen mRNA.

  12. Rescue of Isolated GH Deficiency Type II (IGHD II) via Pharmacologic Modulation of GH-1 Splicing.

    PubMed

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2016-10-01

    Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) type II, the autosomal dominant form of GHD, is mainly caused by mutations that affect splicing of GH-1. When misspliced RNA is translated, it produces a toxic 17.5-kDa GH isoform that reduces the accumulation and secretion of wild-type-human GH (wt-hGH). Usually, isolated GHD type II patients are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH in order to maintain normal growth. However, this type of replacement therapy does not prevent toxic effects of the 17.5-kDa GH isoform on the pituitary gland, which can eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. Here, we tested the possibility to restore the constitutive splicing pattern of GH-1 by using butyrate, a drug that mainly acts as histone deacetylase inhibitor. To this aim, wt-hGH and/or different hGH-splice site mutants (GH-IVS3+2, GH-IVS3+6, and GH-ISE+28) were transfected in rat pituitary cells expressing human GHRH receptor (GHRHR) (GC-GHRHR). Upon butyrate treatment, GC-GHRHR cells coexpressing wt-hGH and each of the mutants displayed increased GH transcript level, intracellular GH content, and GH secretion when compared with the corresponding untreated condition. The effect of butyrate was most likely mediated by the alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2. Overexpression of alternative ASF/SF2 in the same experimental setting, indeed, promoted the amount of full-length transcripts thus increasing synthesis and secretion of the 22-kDa GH isoform. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that modulation of GH-1 splicing pattern to increase the 22-kDa GH isoform levels can be clinically beneficial and hence a crucial challenge in GHD research.

  13. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-01-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  14. Magnetization studies of II-VI semiconductor columnar quantum dots with type-II band alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eginligil, M.; Sellers, I. R.; McCombe, B. D.; Chou, W.-C.; Kuskovsky, I. L.

    2009-03-01

    We report SQUID magnetization measurements of MBE-grown type-II, II-VI semiconductor quantum dot (QD) samples, with and without Mn incorporation. In all samples, the easy axis is out-of-plane, possibly due to columnar QD formation that arises from strain interaction between adjacent thin dot-containing layers. In addition, both types of QDs display a non-zero spontaneous magnetic ordering at 300 K. One set of samples consists of five-layers of (Zn,Mn)Te/ZnSe with a nominal (Zn,Mn)Te thickness of 3 nm, and ZnSe spacer thickness of 5 nm and 20 nm. These magnetic QD samples show magnetization vs. temperature behavior that can be interpreted in terms of two independent FM phases characterized by transition temperatures TC1 < TC2. A sample containing no Mn consists of 130 ZnTe/ZnSe layers, which forms Zn(Se,Te) QD layers separated by ZnSe spacers. Evidence of ferromagnetism is also seen in this structure, but the spontaneous magnetization is much weaker. For this sample only one phase is seen with TC above 300 K. Results will be discussed in terms of magneto-polaronic effects and defect-level induced ferromagnetism.

  15. Magnetic-Field-Induced Relativistic Properties in Type-I and Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate Weyl semimetals with tilted conical bands in a magnetic field. Even when the cones are overtilted (type-II Weyl semimetal), Landau-level quantization can be possible as long as the magnetic field is oriented close to the tilt direction. Most saliently, the tilt can be described within the relativistic framework of Lorentz transformations that give rise to a rich spectrum, displaying new transitions beyond the usual dipolar ones in the optical conductivity. We identify particular features in the latter that allow one to distinguish between semimetals of different types.

  16. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Liu Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an {alpha}-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G{sup 1111} and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G{sup 1111} in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G{sup 1111}, a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G{sup 1111} had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  17. XIAP acts as a switch between type I and type II FAS-induced apoptosis signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Philipp J.; Grabow, Stephanie; Gray, Daniel; McKenzie, Mark D.; Nachbur, Ueli; Huang, David C.S.; Bouillet, Philippe; Thomas, Helen E.; Borner, Christoph; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Kaufmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    FAS (APO-1/CD95) and its physiological ligand, FASL, regulate apoptotic death of unwanted or dangerous cells in many tissues, functioning as a guardian against autoimmunity and cancer development1-4. Distinct cell types differ in the mechanisms by which the ‘death receptor’ FAS triggers their apoptosis1-4. In type I cells, such as lymphocytes, activation of ‘effector caspases’ by FAS-induced activation of caspase-8 suffices for cell killing whereas in type II cells, including hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells, amplification of the caspase cascade through caspase-8 mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BID5 is essential6-8. Here we show, that loss of X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)9,10 function by gene-targeting or treatment with a second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC11, also called DIABLO12: direct IAP binding protein with low pI) mimetic drug rendered hepatocytes independent of BID for FAS-induced apoptosis signalling. These results show that XIAP is the critical discriminator between type I versus type II apoptosis signalling and suggest that IAP inhibitors should be used with caution in cancer patients with underlying liver conditions. PMID:19626005

  18. XIAP discriminates between type I and type II FAS-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jost, Philipp J; Grabow, Stephanie; Gray, Daniel; McKenzie, Mark D; Nachbur, Ueli; Huang, David C S; Bouillet, Philippe; Thomas, Helen E; Borner, Christoph; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Kaufmann, Thomas

    2009-08-20

    FAS (also called APO-1 and CD95) and its physiological ligand, FASL, regulate apoptosis of unwanted or dangerous cells, functioning as a guardian against autoimmunity and cancer development. Distinct cell types differ in the mechanisms by which the 'death receptor' FAS triggers their apoptosis. In type I cells, such as lymphocytes, activation of 'effector caspases' by FAS-induced activation of caspase-8 suffices for cell killing, whereas in type II cells, including hepatocytes and pancreatic beta-cells, caspase cascade amplification through caspase-8-mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BID (BH3 interacting domain death agonist) is essential. Here we show that loss of XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) function by gene targeting or treatment with a second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC, also called DIABLO; direct IAP-binding protein with low pI) mimetic drug in mice rendered hepatocytes and beta-cells independent of BID for FAS-induced apoptosis. These results show that XIAP is the critical discriminator between type I and type II apoptosis signalling and suggest that IAP inhibitors should be used with caution in cancer patients with underlying liver conditions.

  19. Complex Type-II Interband Cascade MQW Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Multiple-quantum-well (MQW) photodetectors of a proposed type would contain active regions comprising multiple superlattice subregions. These devices would have complex structures: The superlattice of each subregion would be designed for enhanced absorption of photons in a desired wavelength band (typically in the infrared) and multiple subregions of different design would be cascaded for multicolor operation. The designs of these photodetectors would take advantage of the characteristic alignment of the edges of the electron-energy bands in type-II quantum-well structures: Within each finite superlattice, interband transitions would be used for detecting photons, and between finite superlattices, intraband relaxation and interband tunneling would be used for transport of charge carriers, all such as to enable detection of normally incident photons. Absorption of photons in the active region of a photodetector according to the proposal could be significantly enhanced by designing the superlattice/MQW structures to contain closely spaced energy states. The photodetector could be operated with a small bias to facilitate transport of charge carriers. The superlattices could be somewhat chirped, with a preferred transport direction.

  20. Adjuvant arthritis pretreatment with type II collagen and Mycobacterium butyricum.

    PubMed

    Franch, A; Cassany, S; Castellote, C; Castell, M

    1992-11-01

    A treatment previous to adjuvant arthritis induction has been performed with type II collagen (CII) or Mycobacterium butyricum (Mb), which is the inducer of the pathology. Pretreatment was administered in two different ways: a) subcutaneously or intradermally 14 days before arthritis induction, and b) intravenously 3 days before induction. In order to relate the change in inflammation to the corresponding antigen immune response, serum antibodies and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) against CII or Mb were studied. Pretreatment with s.c. CII 14 days before induction produced slight protection against arthritis and significantly delayed its onset; systemic inflammation showed good positive correlation with anti-CII antibodies. The CII administered i.v. 3 days before arthritic challenge did not significantly modify the inflammatory process. The use of i.d. subarthritogenic doses of Mb 14 days before induction protected a high percentage of the animals from the posterior arthritic challenge; this protection was accompanied by high anti-Mb antibody titers and DTH reaction. When Mb was given i.v. 3 days before induction, a partial protection of inflammation was observed; arthritis was milder and its onset was delayed. These changes were accompanied by reduced humoral and cellular response to Mb.

  1. Vaccination with recombinant whole heavy chain fragments of Clostridium botulinum Type C and D neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Lee, Jae-Chul; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Hayakawa, Yuji; Hayashi, Michiko; Nakaura, Miki; Takai, Hikaru; Lin, Song-Nan; Mukamoto, Masafumi; Murphy, Tom; Oguma, Keiji

    2004-05-01

    Mice and ducks were subcutaneously immunized with recombinant whole heavy (H) chains of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins, which were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. In the case of mice, it was confirmed that two immunizations with type C- and D-H chains, 10 microg each time, significantly increased the specific antibodies against 100-kDa H chains of type C and D neurotoxins in an immunoblot analysis and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The mice immunized with type C- and D-H chains showed no symptoms of botulism when they were challenged with C- and D-16 S toxins at doses, given intraperitoneally, of up to 10(5) and 10(6) minmum lethal doses (MLD), respectively, per mouse. Ducks were immunized with a total of 100 microg of type C-H chain. The ducks also developed specific antibodies to the type C-H chain and showed significant protection against a challenge with 10(3) duck MLD of C-16 S toxin given intravenously. These results indicate that recombinant whole H chains can be used as an effective and safe vaccine for type C and D botulism in domestic animals.

  2. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  3. Evaporation and recondensation of sodium in Semarkona Type II chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Zanda, Brigitte; Bendersky, Claire

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the Na distributions in Semarkona Type II chondrules by electron microprobe, analyzing olivine and melt inclusions in it, mesostasis and bulk chondrule, to see whether they indicate interactions with an ambient gas during chondrule formation. Sodium concentrations of bulk chondrule liquids, melt inclusions and mesostases can be explained to a first approximation by fractional crystallization of olivine ± pyroxene. The most primitive olivine cores in each chondrule are mostly between Fa 8 and Fa 13, with 0.0022-0.0069 ± 0.0013 wt.% Na 2O. Type IIA chondrule olivines have consistently higher Na contents than olivines in Type IIAB chondrules. We used the dependence of olivine-liquid Na partitioning on FeO in olivine as a measure of equilibration. Extreme olivine rim compositions are ˜Fa 35 and 0.03 wt.% Na 2O and are close to being in equilibrium with the mesostasis glass. Olivine cores compared with the bulk chondrule compositions, particularly in IIA chondrules, show very high apparent D Na, indicating disequilibrium and suggesting that chondrule initial melts were more Na-rich than present chondrule bulk compositions. The apparent D Na values correlate with the Na concentrations of the olivine, but not with concentrations in the bulk melt. We use equilibrium D Na to find the Na content of the true parent liquid and estimate that Type IIA chondrules lost more than half their Na and recondensation was incomplete, whereas Type IIAB chondrules recovered most of theirs in their mesostases . Glass inclusions in olivine have lower Na than expected from fractionation of bulk composition liquids, and mesostases have higher Na than expected in calculated daughter liquids formed by fractional crystallization alone. These observations also require open system behavior of chondrules, specifically evaporation of Na before formation of melt inclusions followed by recondensation of Na in mesostases. Within this record of evaporation followed by

  4. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejections in case of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Beena; Prasad, Lalan; Chandra, Harish; Garia, Suman

    2016-08-01

    We have statistically studied 220 events from 1996 to 2008 (i.e. solar cycle 23). Two set of flare-CME is examined one with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II and other without DH type II radio burst. Out of 220 events 135 (flare-halo CME) are accompanied with DH type II radio burst and 85 are without DH type II radio burst. Statistical analysis is performed to examine the distribution of solar flare-halo CME around the solar disk and to investigate the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters in case of with and without DH type II radio burst. In our analysis we have observed that: (i) 10-20° latitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the southern region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, whereas in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the northern region. (ii) 0-10° longitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II radio burst and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the western region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, while in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the eastern region. (iii) Mean speed of halo CMEs (1382 km/s) with DH type II radio burst is more than the mean speed of halo CMEs (775 km/s) without DH type II radio burst. (iv) Maximum number of M-class flares is found in both the cases. (v) Average speed of halo CMEs in each class accompanied with DH type II radio burst is higher than the average speed of halo CMEs in each class without DH type II radio burst. (vi) Average speed of halo CMEs, associated with X-class flares, is greater than the other class of solar flares in both the cases.

  5. A type II protein secretory pathway required for levansucrase secretion by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Juan G; Sotolongo, Mailin; Menéndez, Carmen; Alfonso, Dubiel; Trujillo, Luis E; Soto, Melvis; Ramírez, Ricardo; Hernández, Lázaro

    2004-08-01

    The endophytic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus secretes a constitutively expressed levansucrase (LsdA, EC 2.4.1.10) to utilize plant sucrose. LsdA, unlike other extracellular levansucrases from gram-negative bacteria, is transported to the periplasm by a signal-peptide-dependent pathway. We identified an unusually organized gene cluster encoding at least the components LsdG, -O, -E, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D of a type II secretory system required for LsdA translocation across the outer membrane. Another open reading frame, designated lsdX, is located between the operon promoter and lsdG, but it was not identified in BLASTX searches of the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. The lsdX, -G, and -O genes were isolated from a cosmid library of strain SRT4 by complementation of an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant unable to transport LsdA across the outer membrane. The downstream genes lsdE, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D were isolated through chromosomal walking. The high G+C content (64 to 74%) and the codon usage of the genes identified are consistent with the G+C content and codon usage of the standard G. diazotrophicus structural gene. Sequence analysis of the gene cluster indicated that a polycistronic transcript is synthesized. Targeted disruption of lsdG, lsdO, or lsdF blocked LsdA secretion, and the bacterium failed to grow on sucrose. Replacement of Cys(162) by Gly at the C terminus of the pseudopilin LsdG abolished the protein functionality, suggesting that there is a relationship with type IV pilins. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed conservation of the type II secretion operon downstream of the levansucrase-levanase (lsdA-lsdB) locus in 14 G. diazotrophicus strains representing 11 genotypes recovered from four different host plants in diverse geographical regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a type II pathway for protein secretion in the Acetobacteraceae.

  6. Fragmentation Behaviour of Two Types of 120 mm Mortargrenades (Verschervingsgedrag van twee typen 120 mm mortiergranaten).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    proevenserie kon worden beschikt over vijftien stuks granaten: tien stuks 104C2 (gietlizer) en viif stuks 104C5 (staal). Om redenen zoals hierboven geschetst...doelpiaten voor de 104C2 Daar maar over vijf stuks granaten van het type 104C5 beschikt werd zijn maar twee doelen over de gewenste delta emissiehoek van

  7. Characteristics of DH type II bursts, CMEs and flares with respect to the acceleration of CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Umapathy, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Pappa Kalaivani, P.; Vršnak, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    A detailed investigation on DH-type-II radio bursts recorded in Deca-Hectometer (hereinafter DH-type-II) wavelength range and their associated CMEs observed during the year 1997-2008 is presented. The sample of 212 DH-type-II associated with CMEs are classified into three populations: (i) Group I (43 events): DH-type-II associated CMEs are accelerating in the LASCO field view ( a>15 m s-2); (ii) Group II (99 events): approximately constant velocity CMEs (-15< a<15 m s-2) and (iii) Group III (70 events): represents decelerating CMEs ( a<-15 m s-2). Our study consists of three steps: (i) statistical properties of DH-type-II bursts of Group I, II and III events; (ii) analysis of time lags between onsets of flares and CMEs associated with DH-type-II bursts and (iii) statistical properties of flares and CMEs of Group I, II and III events. We found statistically significant differences between the properties of DH-type-II bursts of Group I, II and III events. The significance ( P a ) is found using the one-way ANOVA-test to examine the differences between means of groups. For example, there is significant difference in the duration ( P a =5%), ending frequency ( P a =4%) and bandwidth ( P a =4%). The accelerating and decelerating CMEs have more kinetic energy than the constant speed CMEs. There is a significant difference between the nose height of CMEs at the end time of DH-type-IIs ( P a ≪1%). From the time delay analysis, we found: (i) there is no significant difference in the delay (flare start—DH-type-II start and flare peak—DH-type-II start); (ii) small differences in the time delay between the CME onset and DH-type-II start, delay between the flare start and CME onset times. However, there are high significant differences in: flare duration ( P a =1%), flare rise time ( P a =0.5%), flare decay time ( P a =5%) and CMEs speed ( P a ≪1%) of Group I, II and III events. The general LASCO CMEs have lower width and speeds when compared to the DH CMEs. It seems

  8. Type I and type II fatty acid biosynthesis in Eimeria tenella: enoyl reductase activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Z; Muench, S P; Allary, M; Campbell, S; Roberts, C W; Mui, E; McLeod, R L; Rice, D W; Prigge, S T

    2007-12-01

    Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria are the major causative agent of avian coccidiosis, leading to high economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent results show that Eimeria tenella harbours an apicoplast organelle, and that a key biosynthetic enzyme, enoyl reductase, is located in this organelle. In related parasites, enoyl reductase is one component of a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and has proven to be an attractive target for antimicrobial compounds. We cloned and expressed the mature form of E. tenella enoyl reductase (EtENR) for biochemical and structural studies. Recombinant EtENR exhibits NADH-dependent enoyl reductase activity and is inhibited by triclosan with an IC50 value of 60 nm. The crystal structure of EtENR reveals overall similarity with other ENR enzymes; however, the active site of EtENR is unoccupied, a state rarely observed in other ENR structures. Furthermore, the position of the central beta-sheet appears to block NADH binding and would require significant movement to allow NADH binding, a feature not previously seen in the ENR family. We analysed the E. tenella genomic database for orthologues of well-characterized bacterial and apicomplexan FAS enzymes and identified 6 additional genes, suggesting that E. tenella contains a type II FAS capable of synthesizing saturated, but not unsaturated, fatty acids. Interestingly, we also identified sequences that appear to encode multifunctional type I FAS enzymes, a feature also observed in Toxoplasma gondii, highlighting the similarity between these apicomplexan parasites.

  9. The fragmentation of 510 MeV/nucleon iron-56 in polyethylene. II. Comparisons between data and a model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Townsend, L. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a Monte Carlo model for calculating fragment fluences and LET spectra are compared to data taken with 600 MeV/nucleon iron ions incident on an accelerator beamline configured for irradiation of biological samples, with no target and with 2, 5 and 8 cm of polyethylene. The model uses a multi-generation nuclear fragmentation code, coupled with a formulation of ionization energy loss based on the Bethe-Bloch equation. In the region where the data are reliable and the experimental acceptance is well understood, many of the features of the experimental spectra are well replicated by the model. To obtain good agreement with the experimental data, the model must allow for at least two generations of fragment production in the target.

  10. Type II topoisomerases--inhibitors, repair mechanisms and mutations.

    PubMed

    Heisig, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Type II topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes that play an essential role in the control of replicative DNA synthesis and share structural and functional homology among different prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Antibacterial fluoroquinolones target prokaryotic topoisomerases at concentrations 100- to 1000-fold lower than mammalian enzymes, the preferred targets of anticancer drugs such as etoposide. The mechanisms of action of both of these types of inhibitors involve the fixation of an intermediate reaction step, where the enzyme is covalently bound to an enzyme-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB). The resulting ternary drug-enzyme-DNA complexes can then be converted to cleavage complexes that block further movement of the DNA replication fork, subsequently inducing stress responses. In haploid prokaryotic cells, stress responses include error-free and error-prone DNA damage repair pathways, such as homologous recombination and translesion synthesis, respectively. The latter can result in the acquisition of point mutations. Diploid mammalian cells are assumed to preferentially use recombination mechanisms for the repair of DSBs, an example of which, non-homologous end joining, is a major error-prone repair mechanism associated with an increased frequency of detectable small deletions, insertions and translocations. However, results obtained from safety testing of novel fluoroquinolones at high concentrations indicate that point mutations may also occur in mammalian cells. Recent data provide evidence for translesion synthesis catalysed by error-prone repair polymerases as a damage-tolerance repair mechanism of DSBs in eukaryotic cells. This paper discusses possible roles of different mechanisms for the repair of DSBs operating in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells that result in recombinational rearrangements, deletions/insertions as well as point mutations.

  11. Bolometric Lightcurves of Peculiar Type II-P Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, Jeremy A.; Baron, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the bolometric lightcurves of five Type II-P supernovae (SNe 1998A, 2000cb, 2006V, 2006au and 2009E) which are thought to originate from blue supergiant progenitors using a new python package named SuperBoL. With this code, we calculate SNe lightcurves using three different techniques common in the literature: the quasi-bolometric method, which integrates the observed photometry, the direct integration method, which additionally corrects for unobserved flux in the UV and IR, and the bolometric correction method, which uses correlations between observed colors and V-band bolometric corrections. We present here the lightcurves calculated by SuperBoL along with previously published lightcurves, as well as peak luminosities and 56Ni yields. We find that the direct integration and bolometric correction lightcurves largely agree with previously published lightcurves, but with what we believe to be more robust error calculations, with 0.2 ≤ δL/L ≤ 0.5. Peak luminosities and 56Ni masses are similarly comparable to previous work. SN 2000cb remains an unusual member of this sub-group, owing to the faster rise and flatter plateau than the other supernovae in the sample. Initial comparisons with the NLTE atmosphere code PHOENIX show that the direct integration technique reproduces the luminosity of a model supernova spectrum to ˜5% when given synthetic photometry of the spectrum as input. Our code is publicly available. The ability to produce bolometric lightcurves from observed sets of broad-band light curves should be helpful in the interpretation of other types of supernovae, particularly those that are not well characterized, such as extremely luminous supernovae and faint fast objects.

  12. Bolometric Light Curves of Peculiar Type II-P Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, Jeremy A.; Baron, E.

    2017-04-01

    We examine the bolometric light curves of five Type II-P supernovae (SNe 1998A, 2000cb, 2006V, 2006au, and 2009E), which are thought to originate from blue supergiant progenitors like that of SN 1987A, using a new python package named SuperBoL. With this code, we calculate SNe light curves using three different common techniques common from the literature: the quasi-bolometric method, which integrates the observed photometry, the direct integration method, which additionally corrects for unobserved flux in the UV and IR, and the bolometric correction method, which uses correlations between observed colors and V-band bolometric corrections. We present here the light curves calculated by SuperBoL, along with previously published light curves, as well as peak luminosities and 56Ni yields. We find that the direct integration and bolometric correction light curves largely agree with previously published light curves, but with what we believe to be more robust error calculations, with 0.2≲ δ {L}{bol}/{L}{bol}≲ 0.5. Peak luminosities and 56Ni masses are similarly comparable to previous work. SN 2000cb remains an unusual member of this sub-group, owing to the faster rise and flatter plateau than the other supernovae in the sample. Initial comparisons with the NLTE atmosphere code PHOENIX show that the direct integration technique reproduces the luminosity of a model supernova spectrum to ∼5% when given synthetic photometry of the spectrum as input. Our code is publicly available. The ability to produce bolometric light curves from observed sets of broadband light curves should be helpful in the interpretation of other types of supernovae, particularly those that are not well characterized, such as extremely luminous supernovae and faint fast objects.

  13. Alternative Splicing of Type II Procollagen: IIB or not IIB?

    PubMed Central

    McAlinden, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Over two decades ago, two isoforms of the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) were discovered. These isoforms, named IIA and IIB, are generated in a developmentally-regulated manner by alternative splicing of exon 2. Chondroprogenitor cells synthesize predominantly IIA isoforms (containing exon 2) while differentiated chondrocytes produce mainly IIB transcripts (devoid of exon 2). Importantly, this IIA-to-IIB alternative splicing switch occurs only during chondrogenesis. More recently, two other isoforms have been reported (IIC and IID) that also involve splicing of exon 2; these findings highlight the complexities involving regulation of COL2A1 expression. The biological significance of why different isoforms of COL2A1 exist within the context of skeletal development and maintenance is still not completely understood. This review will provide current knowledge on COL2A1 isoform expression during chondrocyte differentiation and what is known about some of the mechanisms that control exon 2 alternative splicing. Utilization of mouse models to address the biological significance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in vivo will also be discussed. From the knowledge acquired to date, some new questions and concepts are now being proposed on the importance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in regulating extracellular matrix assembly and how this may subsequently affect cartilage and endochondral bone quality and function. PMID:24669942

  14. Type II supernovae as a significant source of interstellar dust.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Stephen; Ivison, Rob; Morgan, Haley; Edmunds, Mike

    2003-07-17

    Large amounts of dust (>10(8)M(o)) have recently been discovered in high-redshift quasars and galaxies corresponding to a time when the Universe was less than one-tenth of its present age. The stellar winds produced by stars in the late stages of their evolution (on the asymptotic giant branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram) are thought to be the main source of dust in galaxies, but they cannot produce that dust on a short enough timescale (&<1 Gyr) to explain the results in the high-redshift galaxies. Supernova explosions of massive stars (type II) are also a potential source, with models predicting 0.2-4M(o) of dust. As massive stars evolve rapidly, on timescales of a few Myr, these supernovae could be responsible for the high-redshift dust. Observations of supernova remnants in the Milky Way, however, have hitherto revealed only 10(-7)-10(-3)M(o) each, which is insufficient to explain the high-redshift data. Here we report the detection of approximately 2-4M(o) of cold dust in the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant, Cassiopeia A. This observation implies that supernovae are at least as important as stellar winds in producing dust in our Galaxy and would have been the dominant source of dust at high redshifts.

  15. Inert dark matter in type-II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Nomura, Takaaki

    2014-09-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) as a dark matter (DM) candidate is further inspired by recent AMS-02 data, which confirm the excess of positron fraction observed earlier by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments. Additionally, the excess of positron+electron flux is still significant in the measurement of Fermi-LAT. For solving the problems of massive neutrinos and observed excess of cosmic-ray, we study the model with an inert Higgs doublet (IHD) in the framework of type-II seesaw model by imposing a Z 2 symmetry on the IHD, where the lightest particle of IHD is the DM candidate and the neutrino masses originate from the Yukawa couplings of Higgs triplet and leptons. We calculate the cosmic-ray production in our model by using three kinds of neutrino mass spectra, which are classified by normal ordering, inverted ordering and quasi-degeneracy. We find that when the constraints of DM relic density and comic-ray antiproton spectrum are taken into account, the observed excess of positron/electron flux could be explained well in normal ordered neutrino mass spectrum. Moreover, excess of comic-ray neutrinos is implied in our model. We find that our results on < σv> are satisfied with and close to the upper limit of IceCube analysis. More data from comic-ray neutrinos could test our model.

  16. Identification of type II and III DDR2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Richters, André; Nguyen, Hoang D; Phan, Trang; Simard, Jeffrey R; Grütter, Christian; Engel, Julian; Rauh, Daniel

    2014-05-22

    Discoidin domain-containing receptors (DDRs) exhibit a unique mechanism of action among the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) because their catalytic activity is induced by extracellular collagen binding. Moreover, they are essential components in the assimilation of extracellular signals. Recently, DDRs were reported to be significantly linked to tumor progression in breast cancer by facilitating the processes of invasion, migration, and metastasis. Here, we report the successful development of a fluorescence-based, direct binding assay for the detection of type II and III DFG-out binders for DDR2. Using sequence alignments and homology modeling, we designed a DDR2 construct appropriate for fluorescent labeling. Successful assay development was validated by sensitive detection of a reference DFG-out binder. Subsequent downscaling led to convenient application to high-throughput screening formats. Screening of a representative compound library identified high-affinity DDR2 ligands validated by orthogonal activity-based assays, and a subset of identified compounds was further investigated with respect to DDR1 inhibition.

  17. Type II dehydroquinase: molecular replacement with many copies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kirsty Anne; Robinson, David Alexander; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Type II dehydroquinase is a small (150-amino-acid) protein which in solution packs together to form a dodecamer with 23 cubic symmetry. In crystals of this protein the symmetry of the biological unit can be coincident with the crystallographic symmetry, giving rise to cubic crystal forms with a single monomer in the asymmetric unit. In crystals where this is not the case, multiple copies of the monomer are present, giving rise to significant and often confusing noncrystallographic symmetry in low-symmetry crystal systems. These different crystal forms pose a variety of challenges for solution by molecular replacement. Three examples of structure solutions, including a highly unusual triclinic crystal form with 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell, are described. Four commonly used molecular-replacement packages are assessed against two of these examples, one of high symmetry and the other of low symmetry; this study highlights how program performance can vary significantly depending on the given problem. In addition, the final refined structure of the 16-dodecamer triclinic crystal form is analysed and shown not to be a superlattice structure, but rather an F-centred cubic crystal with frustrated crystallographic symmetry. PMID:18094474

  18. Health perceptions among urban American Indians with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Davila, Javier; Patel, Sonam; Norman, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1940s, American Indians (AIs) have increasingly urbanized, moving off of reservations in large part due to federal policies of tribal termination and relocation. Though previous AI research has largely focused on reservation-associated challenges, many of these same challenges persist among urban AI populations. One mutual concern is the growing prevalence and incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While behavioral, genetic, and socioeconomic determinants of T2DM have been explored, much less is known about the influence of cultural and psychosocial factors. Recent studies suggest that the way AIs perceive diabetes may affect their health trajectory and explain their poor prognosis. Through the use of the Illness Perception Questionnaire, we explored this hypothesis in a pilot study of urban AI with T2DM living in Los Angeles County. We found that the majority of participants have a neutral perception about their diabetes: They view their condition to be long lasting yet treatable and indicate reasonable understanding of its symptoms and progression. We also identified "personal control," the level of perceived control one has over his or her disease, as a strong correlate of overall illness perception and, thus, a potentially useful psychological metric.

  19. Balneotherapy and platelet glutathione metabolism in type II diabetic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Ichiro; Noro, Hiroshi; Agishi, Yuko

    1996-09-01

    Effects of balneotherapy on platelet glutathione metabolism were investigated in 12 type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) on admission were well correlated with those of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; r=0.692, P<0.02). After 4 weeks of balneotherapy, the mean level of GSH showed no changes; however, in well-controlled patients (FPG <150 mg/dl), the level increased ( P<0.01) and in poorly controlled patients (FPG >150 mg/dl), the value decreased ( P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and the levels of FPG ( r=-0.430, P<0.05). After balneotherapy, the activity increased in 5 patients, decreased in 3 patients and showed no changes (alteration within ±3%) in all the other patients. From these findings in diabetic patients we concluded: (1) platelet GSH synthesis appeared to be induced in response to oxidative stress; (2) lowered GPX activities indicated that the antioxidative defense system was impaired; and (3) platelet glutathione metabolism was partially improved by 4 weeks balneotherapy, an effect thought to be dependent on the control status of plasma glucose levels. It is suggested that balneotherapy is beneficial for patients whose platelet antioxidative defense system is damaged, such as those with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease.

  20. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  1. ``N'' structure for type-II superlattice photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Muti, Abdullah; Kutluer, Kutlu; Tansel, Tunay; Turan, Rasit; Ergun, Yuksel; Aydinli, Atilla

    2012-08-01

    In the quest to raise the operating temperature and improve the detectivity of type II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors, we introduce a design approach that we call the "N structure." N structure aims to improve absorption by manipulating electron and hole wavefunctions that are spatially separated in T2SLs, increasing the absorption while decreasing the dark current. In order to engineer the wavefunctions, we introduce a thin AlSb layer between InAs and GaSb layers in the growth direction which also acts as a unipolar electron barrier. Unlike the symmetrical insertion of AlSb into GaSb layers, N design aims to exploit the shifting of the electron and hole wavefunctions under reverse bias. With cutoff wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K, temperature dependent dark current and detectivity measurements show that the dark current density is 3.6 × 10-9 A/cm2, under zero bias. Photodetector reaches background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) condition at 125 K with the BLIP detectivity (D*BLIP) of 2.6 × 1010 Jones under 300 K background and -0.3 V bias voltage.

  2. Type II Radio Bursts as an Indicator of CME Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, C. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; Henning, C.; Xie, H.; Gilbert, H. R.; Orlove, M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-12-01

    We examined a subset of nine low-frequency radio events with type II radio bursts that drifted below 2 megahertz and were detected by the WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft. For each event, we identified the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and derived the electron density using a model of solar wind plasma frequency (fp ≈ 9 * ne1/2, where fp is plasma frequency in kHz and ne is electron density in cm-3) . We also used the pb_inverter program in SolarSoft developed by Howard and Hayes to examine the electron density structure. Expanding on the Van De Hulst process of inverting polarized brightness measurements, the program inverts total brightness measurements from SOHO LASCO images to extract electron density information. From the electron density inferred from radio spectra, we derived the location of the CME using five standard electron density to height models (Leblanc, 1996; Saito, 1977; Bougeret, 1984; Alvarez, 1973; and Fainberg, 1971). Using images from the LASCO instrument on SOHO and the SECCHI instrument on STEREO, we extracted locations of the leading edge of the CME and compared the heights and velocities to those found using the frequency data. For the lowest frequency events, we also compared our results to the outputs of ENLIL, a time-dependent, three-dimensional, MHD model of the heliosphere hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. Analysis of Venetian-type glass fragments from the ancient city of Lezha (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Stamati, F.; Civici, N.; Vevecka-Priftaj, A.; Kos, M.; Jezeršek, D.

    2009-08-01

    A series of glasses excavated in the Albanian city of Lezha (ancient Lissos) were analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method in air and by source-excited XRF. The analysis revealed two types of glass that can be identified as façon de Venise glass and its subsequent younger phase, produced by chemically purer components and using As 2O 3 as decolorant.

  4. Redesigning the type II' β-turn in green fluorescent protein to type I': implications for folding kinetics and stability.

    PubMed

    Madan, Bharat; Sokalingam, Sriram; Raghunathan, Govindan; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2014-10-01

    Both Type I' and Type II' β-turns have the same sense of the β-turn twist that is compatible with the β-sheet twist. They occur predominantly in two residue β-hairpins, but the occurrence of Type I' β-turns is two times higher than Type II' β-turns. This suggests that Type I' β-turns may be more stable than Type II' β-turns, and Type I' β-turn sequence and structure can be more favorable for protein folding than Type II' β-turns. Here, we redesigned the native Type II' β-turn in GFP to Type I' β-turn, and investigated its effect on protein folding and stability. The Type I' β-turns were designed based on the statistical analysis of residues in natural Type I' β-turns. The substitution of the native "GD" sequence of i+1 and i+2 residues with Type I' preferred "(N/D)G" sequence motif increased the folding rate by 50% and slightly improved the thermodynamic stability. Despite the enhancement of in vitro refolding kinetics and stability of the redesigned mutants, they showed poor soluble expression level compared to wild type. To overcome this problem, i and i + 3 residues of the designed Type I' β-turn were further engineered. The mutation of Thr to Lys at i + 3 could restore the in vivo soluble expression of the Type I' mutant. This study indicates that Type II' β-turns in natural β-hairpins can be further optimized by converting the sequence to Type I'.

  5. Nonsurgical treatment of Mason type II radial head fractures in athletes. A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    GUZZINI, M.; VADALÀ, A.; AGRÒ, A.; DI SANZO, V.; PIRONI, D.; REDLER, A.; SERLORENZI, P.; PROIETTI, L.; CIVITENGA, C.; MAZZA, D.; LANZETTI, R.M.; FERRETTI, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The best treatment for moderately displaced radial head fractures (Mason type II) still remains controversial. In cases of isolated fractures, there is no evidence that a fragment displacement of ≥ 2 mm gives poor results in conservatively treated fractures. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 52 patients (31M, 21F) affected by an isolated Mason type II fracture, treated with a long arm cast for two weeks between 2008 and 2013. All patients had practiced sports before being injured. They were all either bicyclists, or baseball, boxers, basketball, rugby, tennis or football players. The mean follow-up was 36 months. Elbow and forearm range of motion were measured. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH score) were analyzed. Follow-up radiographs were examined for evidence of consolidation, late displacement, early arthritis and non-unions. Results Flexion was slightly impaired in the injured limb when compared to the uninjured limb (137°± 6° versus 139°±5°) as were extension (–3°±6° versus 1°±4°, p < 0.05), supination (86°±6° versus 88°±3°), pronation (87°±4° versus 88°±6°) and valgus deviation (10°±4° versus 8°±3°, p < 0.05). 40 patients had no elbow complaints; 9 patients experienced occasional pain, 2 a mild instability of the elbow, and 4 a mild loss of grip strength. The DASH score was excellent in 48 patients (92.31%). In only 6 cases (11.53%) degenerative changes were greater in formerly injured elbows than in uninjured elbows. All patients returned to their previous sports activities. Conclusions Isolated Mason type II fractures can have a good or excellent mid-term functional outcome even when treated conservatively. PMID:28098055

  6. Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranere, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CP{sub even} state h{sup 0} (H{sup 0}) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value {mu}{sub c} of {mu} (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound m{sub h}{sup 0} or approx. {mu}{sub c} and {mu} < or approx. {mu}{sub c}. In the first regime the Higgs sector is typically very heavy, and only h{sup 0} that becomes SM-like could be accessible to the LHC. In contrast, in the second regime, somewhat overlooked in the literature, most of the Higgs sector is light. In particular, the heaviest state H{sup 0} becomes SM-like, the lighter states being the CP{sub odd} Higgs, the (doubly) charged Higgses, and a decoupled h{sup 0}, possibly

  7. Primary structure of a histidine-rich proteolytic fragment of human ceruloplasmin. II. Amino acid sequence of the tryptic peptides.

    PubMed

    Kingston, I B; Kingston, B L; Putnam, F W

    1980-04-10

    Amino acid sequence studies of tryptic peptides isolated from a histidine-rich fragment (Cp F5) of human ceruloplasmin are described. Nineteen tryptic peptides were isolated from unmodified Cp F5 and five tryptic peptides were isolated from citraconylated Cp F5. These peptides, together with the cyanogen bromide fragments reported previously, allowed the assembly of the complete sequence of Cp F5. The fragment has 159 residues and a molecular weight of 18,650; it lacks carbohydrate, is rich in histidine, and contains 1 free cysteine that may be part of a copper-binding site. Human ceruloplasmin is a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 130,000 that is readily cleaved to large fragments by proteolytic enzymes; the relationships of Cp F5 to intact ceruloplasmin and to structural subunits earlier proposed is described. Cp F5 probably is an intact globular domain that is attached to the COOH-terminal end of ceruloplasmin by a labile interdomain peptide bond.

  8. 46 CFR 171.070 - Subdivision requirements--Type II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have a collision bulkhead. (d) Paragraph (c) of this section applies to a ferry vessel that— (1) Is 150... other main transverse watertight bulkhead; (ii) The collision bulkhead; and (iii) The aftermost point on... transverse watertight bulkhead; (ii) The collision bulkhead; and (iii) The aftermost point on the...

  9. 46 CFR 171.070 - Subdivision requirements--Type II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have a collision bulkhead. (d) Paragraph (c) of this section applies to a ferry vessel that— (1) Is 150... other main transverse watertight bulkhead; (ii) The collision bulkhead; and (iii) The aftermost point on... transverse watertight bulkhead; (ii) The collision bulkhead; and (iii) The aftermost point on the...

  10. Purification and Crystallization of a Multimodular Heterotrimeric Complex Containing Both Type I and Type II Cohesin-dockerin Interactions from the Cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    M Currie; J Adams; S Ali; S Smith; Z Jia

    2011-12-31

    The multimodular scaffoldin subunit CipA is the central component of the cellulosome, a multienzyme plant cell-wall-degrading complex, from Clostridium thermocellum. It captures secreted cellulases and hemicellulases and anchors the entire complex to the cell surface via high-affinity calcium-dependent interactions between cohesin and dockerin modules termed type I and type II interactions. The crystallization of a heterotrimeric complex comprising the type II cohesin module from the cell-surface protein SdbA, a trimodular C-terminal fragment of the scaffoldin CipA and the type I dockerin module from the CelD cellulase is reported. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 119.37, b = 186.31, c = 191.17 {angstrom}. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 {angstrom} resolution with four or eight molecules of the ternary protein complex in the asymmetric unit.

  11. Quantification of aristolochic acids I and II in herbal dietary supplements by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS³) method was developed and evaluated for the determination of aristolochic acids I and II (AA I and II) in herbal dietary supplements. A hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion-trap mass spectrometry was used to monitor MS³ ion transitions m/z 359.2 > 298.1 > 268.0 and m/z 329.2 > 268.2 > 238.0 to detect AA I and II, respectively. The extraction and clean-up of target analytes from dry powdered samples was performed using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure. Herbal liquid extracts were analysed directly. Average recoveries ranged from 89% to 112%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3% to 16%. Limits of quantification (LOQs) estimated for three selected matrices were as follows (AA I/II): 5/10 ng g⁻¹ (tablets); 25/50 ng g⁻¹ (capsules); and 2.5/5.0 ng ml⁻¹ (liquid herbal extract). The method was applied in a limited survey of 30 herbal products marketed in the United States via the Internet. AA I and II were detected in 20% and 7%, respectively, of tested samples.

  12. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION OF MICE WITH THE POLYSACCHARIDES OF PNEUMOCOCCI TYPES I, II AND III

    PubMed Central

    Zozaya, José; Clark, Janet

    1933-01-01

    1. Pneumococcus polysaccharides Types I, II and III adsorbed on collodion particles, and Types I and III adsorbed on carbon (norit) are antigenic in mice. 2. Unadsorbed pneumococcus polysaccharide of Type I is antigenic in mice in proper dilution. One preparation of Type II polysaccharide was not antigenic, while another one immunized against Types I and II. Type III polysaccharide was only slightly antigenic against Type III but immunized against Type I. 3. The antigenicity of pneumococcus polysaccharide in optimal dosage is tentatively explained by an adsorption phenomenon taking place in the body in instances in which the polysaccharides had not been adsorbed before injection. 4. The aggressin-like action of large doses of pneumococcus polysaccharides Types I, II and III is further established. PMID:19870119

  13. Matrix composition of cartilaginous anlagen in achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino).

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Susanne; Söeder, Stephan; Bösch, Hubert; Aigner, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias represent in vivo models of genetic defects. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), caused by a genetic defect in the major cartilage matrix protein, collagen type II, is a rare and severe skeletal dysplasia. It comprises a severe derangement of the fetal growth plate cartilage with subsequent ossification defects. In this study, we analyzed the matrix composition and cell differentiation pattern in 3 relatives with achondrogenesis type II. Most strikingly we found a strongly reduced collagen type II and moderately reduced aggrecan proteoglycan content in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Type II collagen is, at least to some extent, replaced by collagens type I III, and VI. Ultrastructural analysis of the dysplastic cartilage matrix demonstrated a distended rER (rough endoplasmic reticulum), which is typical for this condition and most likely related to improper processing and retention of genetically altered type II collagen. Immunostaining for type IIA and X collagens suggest a severe delay in chondrocyte maturation. Thus, the genetic defect in the present cases leads most likely to a severe retention of collagen type II in the rER and, therefore, a strongly reduced collagen deposition and replacement by other interstitial collagens. However, the latter are less efficient in binding aggrecan proteoglycans in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Additionally, a delay in chondrocyte maturation appears to be important in achondrogenesis type II.

  14. Investigation of resistive losses in type II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benapfl, Brendan W.

    For low-TC materials, the superconducting transition temperature (TC) is depressed by the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, one of the remarkable features of cuprate high-TC materials is that the superconducting transition is broadened by the application of a magnetic field. Tinkham presented a model for the field-dependent resistive transition of high-T C materials, arising from "phase slippage at a complicated network of channels." Coffey & Clem did not include this field-broadening effect in their sophisticated model for the field and temperature dependence of the surface resistance in type-II superconductors. From the model by Lee & Stroud, treating Josephson Junction-coupled superconducting segments, it is concluded that doped, layered superconductors are certain to have a field-broadened superconducting transition. This effect can be identified by measurements of the resistivity as a function of temperature, magnetic field strength, angle of field with respect to the crystal axis as well as with respect to an induced current density. The iron pnictide materials such as Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (BaK122) have chemical layers with different compositions, differentiating them from elemental type-II superconductors such as niobium, and also from cuprates, by the absence of copper. Experimental data on BaK122 indicate a field-broadened transition in conjunction with a field-depressed superconducting transition temperature. In this work, techniques associated with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were used to measure the temperature and field-induced changes in the surface resistance of single-crystal BaK122 samples. In addition, polycrystalline foils of niobium and a NbTi (70/30) alloy were measured using the same techniques to provide comparison. Measurements were taken as a function of applied magnetic field, temperature, rf field intensity, and angle of the applied field with respect to the rf-induced current. BaK122 sample field-dependent surface

  15. Unusual compactness of a polyproline type II structure

    PubMed Central

    Zagrovic, Bojan; Lipfert, Jan; Sorin, Eric J.; Millett, Ian S.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.; Doniach, Sebastian; Pande, Vijay S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyproline type II (PPII) helix has emerged recently as the dominant paradigm for describing the conformation of unfolded polypeptides. However, most experimental observables used to characterize unfolded proteins typically provide only short-range, sequence-local structural information that is both time- and ensemble-averaged, giving limited detail about the long-range structure of the chain. Here, we report a study of a long-range property: the radius of gyration of an alanine-based peptide, Ace-(diaminobutyric acid)2-(Ala)7-(ornithine)2-NH2. This molecule has previously been studied as a model for the unfolded state of proteins under folding conditions and is believed to adopt a PPII fold based on short-range techniques such as NMR and CD. By using synchrotron radiation and small-angle x-ray scattering, we have determined the radius of gyration of this peptide to be 7.4 ± 0.5 Å, which is significantly less than the value expected from an ideal PPII helix in solution (13.1 Å). To further study this contradiction, we have used molecular dynamics simulations using six variants of the AMBER force field and the GROMOS 53A6 force field. However, in all cases, the simulated ensembles underestimate the PPII content while overestimating the experimental radius of gyration. The conformational model that we propose, based on our small angle x-ray scattering results and what is known about this molecule from before, is that of a very flexible, fluctuating structure that on the level of individual residues explores a wide basin around the ideal PPII geometry but is never, or only rarely, in the ideal extended PPII helical conformation. PMID:16085707

  16. Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, W

    1991-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia with resistance to ketosis. The onset is usually after age 40 years. Patients are variably symptomatic and frequently obese, hyperlipidemic and hypertensive. Clinical, pathological and biochemical evidence suggests that the disease is caused by a combined defect of insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Goals in the treatment of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension should be appropriate to the patient's age, the status of diabetic complications and the safety of the regimen. Nonpharmacologic management includes meal planning to achieve a suitable weight, such that carbohydrates supply 50% to 60% of the daily energy intake, with limitation of saturated fats, cholesterol and salt when indicated, and physical activity appropriate to the patient's age and cardiovascular status. Follow-up should include regular visits with the physician, access to diabetes education, self-monitoring of the blood or urine glucose level and laboratory-based measurement of the plasma levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin. If unacceptably high plasma glucose levels (e.g., 8 mmol/L or more before meals) persist the use of orally given hypoglycemic agents (a sulfonylurea agent or metformin or both) is indicated. Temporary insulin therapy may be needed during intercurrent illness, surgery or pregnancy. Long-term insulin therapy is recommended in patients with continuing symptoms or hyperglycemia despite treatment with diet modification and orally given hypoglycemic agents. The risk of pancreatitis may be reduced by treating severe hypertriglyceridemia (fasting serum level greater than 10 mmol/L) and atherosclerotic disease through dietary and, if necessary, pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia. Antihypertensive agents are available that have fewer adverse metabolic effects than thiazides and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. New drugs are being developed that

  17. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemker, B.K.; Swaroop, A.; Kimberling, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  18. Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of underluminous Type II plateau supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Spiro, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Manicò, G.; Turatto, M.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of improving our knowledge about the nature of the progenitors of low-luminosity Type II plateau supernovae (LL SNe IIP), we made radiation-hydrodynamical models of the well-sampled LL SNe IIP 2003Z, 2008bk and 2009md. For these three SNe, we infer explosion energies of 0.16-0.18 foe, radii at explosion of 1.8-3.5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of 10-11.3 M⊙. The estimated progenitor mass on the main sequence is in the range ˜13.2-15.1 M⊙ for SN 2003Z and ˜11.4-12.9 M⊙ for SNe 2008bk and 2009md, in agreement with estimates from observations of the progenitors. These results together with those for other LL SNe IIP modelled in the same way enable us also to conduct a comparative study on this SN sub-group. The results suggest that (a) the progenitors of faint SNe IIP are slightly less massive and have less energetic explosions than those of intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP; (b) both faint and intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP originate from low-energy explosions of red (or yellow) supergiant stars of low to intermediate mass; (c) some faint objects may also be explained as electron-capture SNe from massive super-asymptotic giant branch stars; and (d) LL SNe IIP form the underluminous tail of the SNe IIP family, where the main parameter `guiding' the distribution seems to be the ratio of the total explosion energy to the ejected mass. Further hydrodynamical studies should be performed and compared to a more extended sample of LL SNe IIP before drawing any conclusion on the relevance of fall-back to this class of events.

  19. Macrovascular complications in Mexican Americans with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Haffner, S M; Mitchell, B D; Stern, M P; Hazuda, H P

    1991-07-01

    Mexican Americans have a threefold greater prevalence of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus than non-Hispanic whites in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes. In addition, Mexican-American diabetic subjects (n = 365) have greater fasting glycemia than non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects (P less than 0.001). Despite these findings, and despite a higher prevalence of microvascular complications among Mexican Americans, there does not appear to be a marked difference in prevalence of macrovascular complications between Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects. Mexican-American diabetic subjects have only a moderate excess of peripheral vascular disease (as judged by ankle-arm blood pressure ratios) relative to non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects (sex-adjusted Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 0.75-4.49). Mexican-American diabetic subjects actually reported fewer myocardial infarctions than non-Hispanic white diabetic subjects (sex-adjusted Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.31-1.71). Duration was not associated with either peripheral vascular disease or myocardial infarction. Severity of glycemia was only mildly associated with presence of peripheral vascular disease and negatively associated with self-reported myocardial infarction. This latter finding may represent a survival bias in that more severe diabetic subjects have already died and are not ascertained in a prevalence study. The absence of an ethnic difference in the prevalence of macrovascular disease contrasts with our previous reports from the San Antonio Heart Study, in which the prevalence of both retinopathy and proteinuria was observed to be higher in Mexican-American diabetic subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Analytic Approximation of Carbon Condensation Issues in Type ii Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    2013-01-01

    I present analytic approximations for some issues related to condensation of graphite, TiC, and silicon carbide in oxygen-rich cores of supernovae of Type II. Increased understanding, which mathematical analysis can support, renders researchers more receptive to condensation in O-rich supernova gases. Taking SN 1987A as typical, my first analysis shows why the abundance of CO molecules reaches an early maximum in which free carbon remains more abundant than CO. This analysis clarifies why O-rich gas cannot oxidize C if 56Co radioactivity is as strong as in SN 1987A. My next analysis shows that the CO abundance could be regarded as being in chemical equilibrium if the CO molecule is given an effective binding energy rather than its laboratory dissociation energy. The effective binding energy makes the thermal dissociation rate of CO equal to its radioactive dissociation rate. This preserves possible relevance for the concept of chemical equilibrium. My next analysis shows that the observed abundances of CO and SiO molecules in SN 1987A rule out frequent suggestions that equilibrium condensation of SUNOCONs has occurred following atomic mixing of the He-burning shell with more central zones in such a way as to reproduce roughly the observed spectrum of isotopes in SUNOCONs while preserving C/O > 1. He atoms admixed along with the excess carbon would destroy CO and SiO molecules, leaving their observed abundances unexplained. The final analysis argues that a chemical quasiequilibrium among grains (but not gas) may exist approximately during condensation, so that its computational use is partially justified as a guide to which mineral phases would be stable against reactions with gas. I illustrate this point with quasiequilibrium calculations by Ebel & Grossman that have shown that graphite is stable even when O/C >1 if prominent molecules are justifiably excluded from the calculation of chemical equilibrium.

  1. The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Singh, Ranjan K.; Moxley, Michael A.; Henzl, Michael T.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2012-08-31

    Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in {Delta}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first structure of human P5CDH (HsP5CDH) and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2. 5-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 {angstrom}) and S352L (2.85 {angstrom}) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93% identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 {angstrom} resolution), glutamate (1.5 {angstrom}), and NAD{sup +} (1.5 {angstrom}) were determined to obtain high-resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD{sup +} binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-{angstrom} rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD{sup +}, and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.

  2. The three-dimensional structural basis of type II hyperprolinemia.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Singh, Ranjan K; Moxley, Michael A; Henzl, Michael T; Becker, Donald F; Tanner, John J

    2012-07-13

    Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first structure of human P5CDH (HsP5CDH) and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2. 5-Å-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 Å) and S352L (2.85 Å) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93% identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 Å resolution), glutamate (1.5 Å), and NAD(+) (1.5 Å) were determined to obtain high-resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD(+) binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-Å rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD(+), and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.

  3. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. METHODS We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321–580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG321–580His) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG321–580His as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. RESULTS In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG321–580His-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. CONCLUSION The study indicates that gG321–580His has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans. PMID:25532518

  4. Studies on the topology of the renal type II NaPi-cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Lambert, G; Traebert, M; Hernando, N; Biber, J; Murer, H

    1999-05-01

    The rat type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-2) is a 85- to 90-kDa glycosylated protein located at the proximal tubular brush border membrane. Hydropathy predictions suggest eight transmembrane domains (sTM) with a large glycosylated loop between sTM 3 and sTM 4. We have studied the membrane topology of NaPi-2 expressed in oocytes. A 33-amino-acid fragment containing the FLAG epitope was inserted into seven loops connecting the sTMs and into the NH2- and COOH-ends of the protein. FLAG-antibody binding suggested that the loops connecting sTM 1 and sTM 2 as well as sTM 3 and sTM 4 are located extracellularly. Based on the lack of FLAG-antibody binding we suggest intracellular locations for the NH2- and COOH-termini and the region connecting sTM 4 and sTM 5. Immunoprecipitation studies of in vitro translated protein also suggest that the NH2-terminus is sited extracellularly. In immunohistochemical studies with NaPi-2-transfected MDCK cells, an interaction with NH2- and COOH- terminal antipeptide antibodies could only be obtained after membrane permeabilization. The presented data are an experimental documentation of the intracellular location of the NH2- and COOH-termini, and of the extracellular location of extracellular loops 1 and 2.

  5. Ring A of nukacin ISK-1: a lipid II-binding motif for type-A(II) lantibiotic.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad R; Nishie, Mami; Nagao, Jun-ichi; Zendo, Takeshi; Keller, Sandro; Nakayama, Jiro; Kohda, Daisuke; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2012-02-29

    Ring A of nukacin ISK-1, which is also present in different type-A(II) lantibiotics, resembles a lipid II-binding motif (TxS/TxD/EC, x denotes undefined residues) similar to that present in mersacidin (type-B lantibiotics), which suggests that nukacin ISK-1 binds to lipid II as a docking molecule. Results from our experiments on peptidoglycan precursor (UDP-MurNAc-pp) accumulation and peptide antagonism assays clearly indicated that nukacin ISK-1 inhibits cell-wall biosynthesis, accumulating lipid II precursor inside the cell, and the peptide activity can be repressed by lipid I and lipid II. Interaction analysis of nukacin ISK-1 and different ring A variants with lipid II revealed that nukacin ISK-1 and nukacin D13E (a more active variant) have a high affinity (K(D) = 0.17 and 0.19 μM, respectively) for lipid II, whereas nukacin D13A (a less active variant) showed a lower affinity, and nukacin C14S (a negative variant lacking the ring A structure) exhibited no interaction. Therefore, on the basis of the structural similarity and positional significance of the amino acids in this region, we concluded that nukacin ISK-1 binds lipid II via its ring A region and may lead to the inhibition of cell-wall biosynthesis.

  6. Differential analyses of major allergen proteins in wild-type rice and rice producing a fragment of anti-rotavirus antibody.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kurokawa, Shiho; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Mejima, Mio; Kuroda, Masaharu; Oyama, Masaaki; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    To develop oral antibody therapy against rotavirus infection, we previously produced a recombinant fragment of llama heavy-chain antibody to rotavirus (ARP1) in rice seeds (MucoRice-ARP1). We intend to use a purification-free rice powder for clinical application but needed to check whether MucoRice-ARP1 had increased levels of known allergen proteins. For this purpose, we used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis to compare the allergen protein levels in MucoRice-ARP1 and wild-type rice. We detected no notable differences, except in the levels of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like family proteins. Because by this approach we could not completely separate ARP1 from the proteins of this family, we confirmed the absence of changes in the levels of these allergens by using shotgun mass spectrometry as well as immunoblot. By using immunoelectron microscopy, we also showed that RAG2, a member of the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family, was relocated from protein bodies II to the plasma membrane or cell wall in MucoRice-ARP1 seed. The relocation did not affect the level of RAG2. We demonstrated that most of the known rice allergens were not considerably upregulated by the genetic modification in MucoRice-ARP1. Our data suggest that MucoRice-ARP1 is a potentially safe oral antibody for clinical application.

  7. Structure of a human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment against gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, X. M.; Ruker, F.; Casale, E.; Carter, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a human monoclonal antibody (Fab), which binds specifically to a major epitope of the transmembrane protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, has been determined by crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.7 A. It has been previously determined that this antibody recognizes the epitope SGKLICTTAVPWNAS, belongs to the subclass IgG1 (kappa), and exhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The quaternary structure of the Fab is in an extended conformation with an elbow bend angle between the constant and variable domains of 175 degrees. Structurally, four of the hypervariable loops can be classified according to previously recognized canonical structures. The third hypervariable loops of the heavy (H3) and light chain (L3) are structurally distinct. Hypervariable loop H3, residues 102H-109H, is unusually extended from the surface. The complementarity-determining region forms a hydrophobic binding pocket that is created primarily from hypervariable loops L3, H3, and H2.

  8. Use of Enterally Delivered Angiotensin II Type Ia Receptor Antagonists to Reduce the Severity of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Koga, Hiroyuki; Larsen, Scott D.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Turbiak, Anjanette J.; Jin, Xiaohong; Lucas, Peter C.; Lipka, Elke; Hillfinger, John; Kim, Jae Seung

    2011-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin system blockade reduces inflammation in several organ systems. Having found a fourfold increase in angiotensin II type Ia receptor expression in a dextran sodium sulfate colitis model, we targeted blockade with angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists to prevent colitis development. Because hypotension is a major complication of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists use, we hypothesized that use of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists compounds which lack cell membrane permeability, and thus enteric absorption, would allow for direct enteral delivery at far higher concentrations than would be tolerated systemically, yet retain efficacy. Methods Based on the structure of the angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist losartan, deschloro-losartan was synthesized, which has extremely poor cell membrane permeability. Angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy was evaluated by determining the ability to block NF-κB activation in vitro. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in mice and angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy delivered transanally was assessed. Results In vitro, deschloro-losartan demonstrated near equal angiotensin II type Ia receptor blockade compared to losartan as well as another angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist, candesartan. In the dextran sodium sulfate model, each compound significantly improved clinical and histologic scores and epithelial cell apoptosis. Abundance of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL6 mRNA were significantly decreased with each compound. In vitro and in vivo intestinal drug absorption, as well as measures of blood pressure and mucosal and colonic blood flow, showed significantly lower uptake of deschloro-losartan compared to losartan and candesartan. Conclusions This study demonstrated efficacy of high-dose angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists in this colitis model. We postulate that a specially designed angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist with

  9. [Extraction, purification and identification of type II collagen from Agkistrodon acutus].

    PubMed

    Gu, Heng-Cun; Hu, Jin-Bo; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Fan, Yong-Sheng; Ding, Xing-Hong

    2013-11-01

    The object of the research was to extract, purify and identify the type II collagen of Agkistrodon acutus. Type II collagen of A. acutus was extracted by enzyme decomposition method, and purified by ion exchange column chromatography. It was characterized by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The results showed that the size of C II was about 130 kDa. It absorbed at 223 nm. IR spectrum obtained showed that the triple helical domains of amino-acid sequences were characterized by the repetition of triplets Gly-X-Y. The MS spectrum graphically stated that C II extracted from cow and A. acutus have the similar peptides. The C II of A. acutus was obtained by extraction and purification. Appraisal analysis by SDS-PAGE, UV, IR and MS, C II of A. acutus was consistent with the standard C II of cow. It was proved that the extracted protein was C II.

  10. Shaping of action potentials by type I and type II large-conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, D B; Wang, B; Brenner, R

    2011-09-29

    The BK channel is a Ca(2+) and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca(2+) was high (>20 μM) and the other where BK-activating Ca(2+) was low (∼0.4-1.2 μM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca(2+) dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron.

  11. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  12. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, T; Shirasaki, T; Munakata, M; Hirata, A; Akaike, N

    1993-07-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA. 6. The results are important in clarifying the mechanism of anxiety and might explain the anxioselectivity of BZR partial agonists.

  13. Both Met(109) and Met(112) are Utilized for Cu(II) Coordination to the Amyloidogenic Fragment of the Human Prion Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, J.; Soh, P; Lentz, S

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein is a ubiquitous neuronal membrane protein. Misfolding of the prion protein has been implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases). It has been demonstrated that the human prion protein (PrP) is capable of coordinating at least five Cu{sup II} ions under physiological conditions; four copper binding sites can be found in the octarepeat domain between residues 61 and 91, while another copper binding site can be found in the unstructured 'amyloidogenic' domain between residues 91 and 126 PrP(91-126). Herein we expand upon a previous study (J. Shearer, P. Soh, Inorg. Chem. 46 (2007) 710-719) where we demonstrated that the physiologically relevant high affinity Cu{sup II} coordination site within PrP(91-126) is found between residues 106 and 114. It was shown that Cu{sup II} is contained within a square planar (N/O){sub 3}S coordination environment with one His imidazole ligand (H(111)) and one Met thioether ligand (either M(109) or M(112)). The identity of the Met thioether ligand was not identified in that study. In this study we perform a detailed investigation of the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within the PrP fragment containing residues 106-114 (PrP(106-114)) involving optical, X-ray absorption, EPR, and fluorescence spectroscopies in conjunction with electronic structure calculations. By using derivatives of PrP(106-114) with systematic Met {yields} Ile 'mutations' we show that the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within PrP(106-114) is actually comprised of a mixture of two major species; one CuII(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(109) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II} and another Cu{sup II}(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(112) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II}. Furthermore, deletion of one or more Met residues from the primary sequence of PrP(106-114) both reduces the Cu{sup II} affinity of the peptide by two to seven fold, and renders the resulting Cu{sup II} metallopeptides redox inactive. The biological

  14. Both Met(109) and Met(112) Are Utilized For Cu(II) Coordination By The Amyloidogenic Fragment of The Human Prion Protein at Physiological pH

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Jason; Soh, Pamela; Lentz, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein is a ubiquitous neuronal membrane protein. Misfolding of the prion protein has been implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases). It has been demonstrated that the human prion protein (PrP) is capable of coordinating at least five CuII ions under physiological conditions; four copper binding sites can be found in the octarepeat domain between residues 61 – 91, while another copper binding site can be found in the unstructured “amyloidogenic” domain between residues 91 – 126 (PrP(91–126). Herein we expand upon a previous study (J. Shearer, P. Soh, Inorg. Chem. 46 (2007) 710–719) where we demonstrated that the physiologically relevant high affinity CuII coordination site within PrP(91–126) is found between residues 106–114. It was shown that CuII is contained within a square planar (N/O)3S coordination environment with one His imidazole ligand (H(111)) and one Met thioether ligand (either M(109) or M(112)). The identity of the Met thioether ligand was not identified in that study. In this study we perform a detailed investigation of the CuII coordination environment within the PrP fragment containing residues 106–114 (PrP(106–114)) involving optical, X-ray absorption, EPR, and fluorescence spectroscopies in conjunction with electronic structure calculations. By using derivatives of PrP(106–114) with systematic Met → Ile “mutations” we show that the CuII coordination environment within PrP(106–114) is actually comprised of a mixture of two major species; one CuII(N/O)3S center with the M(109) thioether coordinated to CuII and another CuII(N/O)3S center with the M(112) thioether coordinated to CuII. Furthermore, deletion of one or more Met residues from the primary sequence of PrP(106–114) both reduces the CuII affinity of the peptide by two to seven fold, and renders the resulting CuII metallopeptides redox inactive. The biological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18778855

  15. The Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on the Behavior of the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus):Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, G.W.; Drelin, E.A.; Mabry, K.E.

    2001-07-01

    The authors studied the movements of cotton rats and cotton mice in experimental landscapes at the SRS in order to determine the effects of fragmentation and connectivity between habitat patches on dispersal movements and population dynamics. Densities between connected and isolated patches were not different. Small patches tended to support higher densities. Cotton rats were more common in corridors than expected and cotton mice were more likely to leave by a corridor.

  16. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent samples... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in...

  17. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent samples... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in...

  18. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  19. Characteristics of coronal mass ejections associated with solar frontside and backside metric Type II bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Sheeley, N. R.; Howard, R. A.; Michels, D. J.; Koomen, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Fast velocities of 500 km/s or greater coronal mass ejections (CME's) are compared with reported metric type II bursts to study the properties of CME's associated with coronal shocks. An earlier report of fast frontside CME's with no associated metric type II bursts is confirmed, and it is calculated that 33 + or - 15 percent of all fast frontside CME's are not associated with such bursts. Faster CME's are more likely to be associated with type II bursts, as expected from the hypothesis of piston-driven shocks. However, CME brightness and associated peak 3-cm burst intensity are also important factors, as might be inferred from the Wagner and MacQueen (1983) view of type II shocks decoupled from associated CME's. The equal visibility of solar frontside and backside CME's is used to deduce the observability of backside type II bursts. It is calculated that 23 + or - 7 percent of all backside type II bursts associated with fast CME's can be observed at the earth and that 13 + or - 4 percent of all type II bursts originate in backside flares. CME speed again is the most important factor in the obervability of backside type II bursts.

  20. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  1. The effect of type II collagen on MSC osteogenic differentiation and bone defect repair.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Lai, Wen-Fu T; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Wong, Chin-Chean; Fan, Cheng-Yu; Fang, Chia-Lang; Tsai, Yu-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The function of type II collagen in cartilage is well documented and its importance for long bone development has been implicated. However, the involvement of type II collagen in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) osteogenesis has not been well investigated. This study elucidated the pivotal role of type II collagen in BMSC osteogenesis and its potential application to bone healing. Type II collagen-coated surface was found to accelerate calcium deposition, and the interaction of osteogenic medium-induced BMSCs with type II collagen-coated surface was mainly mediated through integrin α2β1. Exogenous type II collagen directly activated FAK-JNK signaling and resulted in the phosphorylation of RUNX2. In a segmental defect model in rats, type II collagen-HA/TCP-implanted rats showed significant callus formation at the reunion site, and a higher SFI (sciatic function index) scoring as comparing to other groups were also observed at 7, 14, and 21 day post-surgery. Collectively, type II collagen serves as a better modulator during early osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by facilitating RUNX2 activation through integrin α2β1-FAK-JNK signaling axis, and enhance bone defect repair through an endochondral ossification-like process. These results advance our understanding about the cartilaginous ECM-BMSC interaction, and provide perspective for bone defect repair strategies.

  2. 46 CFR 171.072 - Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision. 171... permeability for Type II subdivision. When doing calcualtions to show compliance with § 171.070, the following uniform average permeabilities must be assumed: (a) 85 percent in the machinery space. (b) 60 percent...

  3. 46 CFR 171.072 - Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision. 171... Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision. When doing calcualtions to show compliance with § 171.070, the following uniform average permeabilities must be assumed: (a) 85 percent in the machinery...

  4. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture.

  5. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Soil Bacterial Communities under Different Vegetation Types in Subtropical Area.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zeyan; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes are active players in energy flow and material exchange of the forest ecosystems, but the research on the relationship between the microbial diversity and the vegetation types is less conducted, especially in the subtropical area of China. In this present study, the rhizosphere soils of evergreen broad-leaf forest (EBF), coniferous forest (CF), subalpine dwarf forest (SDF) and alpine meadow (AM) were chosen as test sites. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) analysis was used to detect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities under different vegetation types in the National Natural Reserve of Wuyi Mountains. Our results revealed distinct differences in soil microbial composition under different vegetation types. Total 73 microbes were identified in soil samples of the four vegetation types, and 56, 49, 46 and 36 clones were obtained from the soils of EBF, CF, SDF and AM, respectively, and subsequently sequenced. The Actinobacteria, Fusobacterium, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most predominant in all soil samples. The order of Shannon-Wiener index (H) of all soil samples was in the order of EBF>CF>SDF>AM, whereas bacterial species richness as estimated by four restriction enzymes indicated no significant difference. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the soil bacterial communities' structures of EBF, CF, SDF and AM were clearly separated along the first and second principal components, which explained 62.17% and 31.58% of the total variance, respectively. The soil physical-chemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total potassium (TK) were positively correlated with the diversity of bacterial communities.

  6. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Soil Bacterial Communities under Different Vegetation Types in Subtropical Area

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeyan; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes are active players in energy flow and material exchange of the forest ecosystems, but the research on the relationship between the microbial diversity and the vegetation types is less conducted, especially in the subtropical area of China. In this present study, the rhizosphere soils of evergreen broad-leaf forest (EBF), coniferous forest (CF), subalpine dwarf forest (SDF) and alpine meadow (AM) were chosen as test sites. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) analysis was used to detect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities under different vegetation types in the National Natural Reserve of Wuyi Mountains. Our results revealed distinct differences in soil microbial composition under different vegetation types. Total 73 microbes were identified in soil samples of the four vegetation types, and 56, 49, 46 and 36 clones were obtained from the soils of EBF, CF, SDF and AM, respectively, and subsequently sequenced. The Actinobacteria, Fusobacterium, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most predominant in all soil samples. The order of Shannon-Wiener index (H) of all soil samples was in the order of EBF>CF>SDF>AM, whereas bacterial species richness as estimated by four restriction enzymes indicated no significant difference. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the soil bacterial communities’ structures of EBF, CF, SDF and AM were clearly separated along the first and second principal components, which explained 62.17% and 31.58% of the total variance, respectively. The soil physical-chemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total potassium (TK) were positively correlated with the diversity of bacterial communities. PMID:26098851

  7. Secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles in an Amazonian forest fragment of Colombia: influence of dung type and edge effect.

    PubMed

    Santos-Heredia, Carolina; Andresen, Ellen; Stevenson, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Seeds of many plant species are secondarily dispersed by dung beetles, but the outcome of this interaction is highly context-specific. Little is known about how certain anthropogenic disturbances affect this plant-animal interaction. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of dung type on secondary dispersal by dung beetles in a forest fragment, and to determine whether this interaction is affected by edge effects. Using pitfall traps, we captured dung beetles attracted to dung of 2 frugivorous mammals: woolly monkeys and howler monkeys. We found differences between both dung beetle assemblages, but these differences were not consistent in time. Using seeds surrounded by both dung types, we carried out a field experiment using seeds of 2 plant species. We found that the probability of secondary dispersal by dung beetles was higher for seeds placed in woolly monkey dung. Finally, we carried out a field experiment using plastic beads as seed mimics to assess edge effects. We found that secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles was negatively affected by edges. The disruption of plant-animal interactions along anthropogenic forest edges could have long-term negative effects on forest dynamics by affecting processes of regeneration.

  8. Expression of the phenotypic abnormality of platelet-type von Willebrand disease in a recombinant glycoprotein Ib alpha fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Murata, M; Russell, S R; Ruggeri, Z M; Ware, J

    1993-01-01

    The platelet GP Ib-IX receptor supports platelet adhesion and activation by binding to vWf in the exposed subendothelial matrix. An abnormal GP Ib-IX complex exists in platelet-type or pseudo-von Willebrand disease and has a characteristic increased affinity for soluble vWf resulting in impaired hemostatic function due to the removal of larger vWf multimers from the circulation. Genetic studies within an afflicted family have demonstrated that the disease is linked to a Gly233-->Val amino acid substitution within the alpha-subunit of the oligomeric GP Ib-IX complex (Miller, J.L., D. Cunningham, V.A. Lyle, and C. L. Finch. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:4761-4765). To evaluate the functional consequences of this mutation, we constructed a recombinant analogue of the alpha-subunit of GP Ib containing Val233. Experiments comparing molecules with either Gly233 or Val233 revealed that the Val substitution generates a molecule with increased affinity for vWf. The recombinant fragment reproduces the functional abnormality of the GP Ib-IX complex in platelet-type von Willebrand disease, thus establishing the molecular basis of the bleeding disorder within this family. Moreover, it becomes apparent that structural elements responsible for the regulation of hemostasis through modulation of vWf affinity for platelets reside within the alpha-subunit of the GP Ib-IX complex. Images PMID:8486780

  9. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-09-01

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star. After that, an outward moving shock triggers a successful supernova. However, the supernova ejecta lacks momentum and within a few seconds the newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta has been studied extensively in the past. We use these well-established hydrodynamic models for our accretion disk in order to understand nucleosynthesis, which is mainly advection dominated in the outer regions. Neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. The higher the accretion rate (dot M) is, the higher the density and temperature are in the disks. We deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 Msolar s-1 ≲ dot M ≲ 0.01 Msolar s-1 and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Sirich abundances as the initial condition of nucleosynthesis at the outer disk, and being equipped with the disk hydrodynamics and the nuclear network code, we study the abundance evolution as matter inflows and falls into the central object. We investigate the variation in the nucleosynthesis products in the disk with the change in the initial abundance at the outer disk and also with the change in the mass accretion rate. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like 31P, 39K, 43Sc, 35Cl and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk via outflows and hence they

  11. Investigation of the Geoeffectiveness of CMEs Associated with IP Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanth, V.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Wang, B.

    2015-06-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of the geoeffectiveness of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are associated with interplanetary (IP) type II bursts in Solar Cycle 23 during the period 1997 - 2008. About 47 % (109 out of 232) of IP type II bursts are found to be associated with geomagnetic storms. Of these 47 %, 27 % are associated with moderate, 14 % with intense, and 6 % with severe geomagnetic storms. We find that the IP type II bursts and their corresponding end frequencies can be used as indicators of CME geoeffectiveness: the lower the type II burst end frequency, the higher the possibility of having a stronger storm. In addition, we show that various combinations of CME remote-sensing and IP type II parameters can be used to improve geomagnetic storm forecasting.

  12. Organotypic culture of fetal lung type II alveolar epithelial cells: applications to pulmonary toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Shami, S G; Aghajanian, J D; Sanders, R L

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for isolation and culture of fetal Type II alveolar epithelial cells, as well as the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of these histotypic cultures, are described. Type II alveolar epithelial cells can be isolated from fetal rat lungs and grown in an organotypic culture system as described in this review. The fetal Type II cells resemble differentiated rat Type II cells in morphology, biochemistry, and karyotype as they grow in culture for up to 5 weeks. The cells of the mature organotypic cultures form alveolarlike structures while growing on a gelatin sponge matrix. The Type II cells also synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant similar in biochemical composition to that produced in vivo. This system has been used to study the effects of hormones on surfactant production and composition. The organotypic model has many potential applications to the study of pulmonary toxicology. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:6548184

  13. Treatment of Type II Endoleaks After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Transcaval Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mansueto, Giancarlo Cenzi, Daniela; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Petrella, Enrico; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the note is to describe a new technique for type II endoleak treatment, using an alternative approach through femoral venous access. Three patients who developed type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated with direct transcaval puncture and embolization inside the aneurysm sac. The detailed technique is described. All patients were treated without any complications and discharged 48 hours after the treatment. At 1 month follow-up the computed tomograph scan did not show a recurrence of a type II endoleak. The management of patients with type II endoleak is a controversial issue and different techniques have been proposed. We suggest an alternative technique for type II endoleak treatment. The feasibility and the advantages of this approach can offer new possibilities for the diagnosis as well as for the treatment of this complication.

  14. Notch maintains Drosophila type II neuroblasts by suppressing expression of the Fez transcription factor Earmuff.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaosu; Xie, Yonggang; Zhu, Sijun

    2016-07-15

    Notch signaling is crucial for maintaining neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and heterogeneity; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In Drosophila, loss of Notch prematurely terminates the self-renewal of larval type II neuroblasts (NBs, the Drosophila NSCs) and transforms type II NBs into type I NBs. Here, we demonstrate that Notch maintains type II NBs by suppressing the activation of earmuff (erm) by Pointed P1 (PntP1). We show that loss of Notch or components of its canonical pathway leads to PntP1-dependent ectopic Erm expression in type II NBs. Knockdown of Erm significantly rescues the loss-of-Notch phenotypes, and misexpression of Erm phenocopies the loss of Notch. Ectopically expressed Erm promotes the transformation of type II NBs into type I NBs by inhibiting PntP1 function and expression in type II NBs. Our work not only elucidates a key mechanism of Notch-mediated maintenance of type II NB self-renewal and identity, but also reveals a novel function of Erm.

  15. Diverse effects of type II collagen on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Huang, Huei-Mei; Leu, Sy-Jye; Yang, Charng-Bin; Tsai, Yu-Hui

    2012-06-01

    Type II collagen is known to modulate chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, MSCs from human bone marrow aspirates were used to study the modulating effects of type II collagen on MSC differentiation during the early stages of osteogenesis and adipogenesis. With osteogenic induction, MSCs cultured on the type II collagen-coated surface showed an enhanced calcium deposition level with increasing mRNA expressions of RUNX2, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase. A synthetic integrin binding peptide, which specifically interacts with the I-domain of α(1)β(1)/α(2)β(1) integrins significantly blocks the mineralization-enhancing effect of type II collagen. MSCs attached on the type II collagen-coated plates exhibited expanded cell morphology with increasing spreading area, and the pretreatment of cells with integrin α(1)β(1) or α(2)β(1)-blocking antibody reduced the effect. The phosphorylation levels of FAK, ERK, and JNK significantly increased in the MSCs that attached on the type II collagen-coated plates. On the contrary, the mineralization-enhancing effect of type II collagen was diminished by JNK and MEK inhibitors. Furthermore, type II collagen blocked the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs, and this effect is rescued by JNK and MEK inhibitors. In conclusion, type II collagen facilitates osteogenesis and suppresses adipogenesis during early stage MSC differentiation. Such effects are integrin binding-mediated and conducted through FAK-JNK and/or FAK-ERK signaling cascades. These results inspire a novel strategy encompassing type II collagen in bone tissue engineering.

  16. Collapse and fragmentation of magnetic molecular cloud cores with the Enzo AMR MHD code. II. Prolate and oblate cores

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2014-10-10

    We present the results of a large suite of three-dimensional models of the collapse of magnetic molecular cloud cores using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo2.2 in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. The cloud cores are initially either prolate or oblate, centrally condensed clouds with masses of 1.73 or 2.73 M {sub ☉}, respectively. The radial density profiles are Gaussian, with central densities 20 times higher than boundary densities. A barotropic equation of state is used to represent the transition from low density isothermal phases, to high density optically thick phases. The initial magnetic field strength ranges from 6.3 to 100 μG, corresponding to clouds that are strongly to marginally supercritical, respectively, in terms of the mass to magnetic flux ratio. The magnetic field is initially uniform and aligned with the clouds' rotation axes, with initial ratios of rotational to gravitational energy ranging from 10{sup –4} to 0.1. Two significantly different outcomes for collapse result: (1) formation of single protostars with spiral arms, and (2) fragmentation into multiple protostar systems. The transition between these two outcomes depends primarily on the initial magnetic field strength, with fragmentation occurring for mass to flux ratios greater than about 14 times the critical ratio for prolate clouds. Oblate clouds typically fragment into several times more clumps than prolate clouds. Multiple, rather than binary, system formation is the general rule in either case, suggesting that binary stars are primarily the result of the orbital dissolution of multiple protostar systems.

  17. Analysis of Clostridium botulinum Serotype E Strains by Using Multilocus Sequence Typing, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, and Botulinum Neurotoxin Gene Sequencing▿

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Thomas E.; Helma, Charles H.; Shou, Yulin; Valdez, Yolanda E.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Foley, Brian T.; Davis, Stephen W.; Hannett, George E.; Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra D.; Barash, Jason R.; Arnon, Stephen S.; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu; Smith, Leonard A.; Smith, Theresa J.; Hill, Karen K.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 41 Clostridium botulinum serotype E strains from different geographic regions, including Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Greenland, Japan, and the United States, were compared by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis, and botulinum neurotoxin (bont) E gene sequencing. The strains, representing environmental, food-borne, and infant botulism samples collected from 1932 to 2007, were analyzed to compare serotype E strains from different geographic regions and types of botulism and to determine whether each of the strains contained the transposon-associated recombinase rarA, involved with bont/E insertion. MLST examination using 15 genes clustered the strains into several clades, with most members within a cluster sharing the same BoNT/E subtype (BoNT/E1, E2, E3, or E6). Sequencing of the bont/E gene identified two new variants (E7, E8) that showed regions of recombination with other E subtypes. The AFLP dendrogram clustered the 41 strains similarly to the MLST dendrogram. Strains that could not be differentiated by AFLP, MLST, or bont gene sequencing were further examined using three VNTR regions. Both intact and split rarA genes were amplified by PCR in each of the strains, and their identities were confirmed in 11 strains by amplicon sequencing. The findings suggest that (i) the C. botulinum serotype E strains result from the targeted insertion of the bont/E gene into genetically conserved bacteria and (ii) recombination events (not random mutations) within bont/E result in toxin variants or subtypes within strains. PMID:22003031

  18. Regional differences of type II collagen synthesis in the human temporomandibular joint disc: immunolocalization study of carboxy-terminal type II procollagen peptide (chondrocalcin).

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Toshirou; Hamada, Yoshiki; Iino, Mitsuyoshi; Takahashi, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Toshiyuki; Fujikawa, Kyousuke; Seto, Kannichi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the regional differences of distribution of the carboxy-terminal type II procollagen peptide (pCOL-II-C; chondrocalcin) as markers of cartilaginous expression in the human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc. Twelve human TMJ discs without morphologic abnormalities were obtained from 12 fresh cadavers. All specimens were analysed for pCOL-II-C expression using polyclonal rabbit anti-human pCOL-II-C antibody in avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex staining. The results were demonstrated that the percentage of pCOL-II-C immunoreactive disc cells was significantly higher in the outer part (the articular surfaces) than in the inner part (the deep central areas) of the disc. These findings suggest that the tissue heterogeneity of cartilaginous expression reflects the functional demands of the remodelling process in the human TMJ disc.

  19. Angiotensin-II mediates ACE2 Internalization and Degradation through an Angiotensin-II type I receptor-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lazartigues, Eric; Filipeanu, Catalin M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) is a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, promoting the conversion of Angiotensin (Ang)-II to Ang-(1-7). We previously reported that decreased ACE2 expression and activity contribute to the development of Ang-II-mediated hypertension in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in ACE2 down-regulation during neurogenic hypertension. In ACE2-transfected Neuro-2A cells, Ang-II treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of ACE2 enzymatic activity. Examination of the subcellular localization of ACE2 revealed that Ang-II treatment leads to ACE2 internalization and degradation into lysosomes. These effects were prevented by both the Ang-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan and the lysosomal inhibitor leupeptin. In contrast, in HEK293T cells, which lack endogenous AT1R, Ang-II failed to promote ACE2 internalization. Moreover, this effect could be induced after AT1R transfection. Further, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AT1R and ACE2 form complexes and these interactions were decreased by Ang-II treatment, which also enhanced ACE2 ubiquitination. In contrast, ACE2 activity was not changed by transfection of AT2 or Mas receptors. In vivo, Ang-II-mediated hypertension was blunted by chronic infusion of leupeptin in wildtype C57Bl/6, but not in ACE2 knockout mice. Overall, this is the first demonstration that elevated Ang-II levels reduce ACE2 expression and activity by stimulation of lysosomal degradation through an AT1R-dependent mechanism. PMID:25225202

  20. Temperature-dependent vibrational and conformational dynamics of photosystem II membrane fragments from spinach investigated by elastic and inelastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Jörg; Trapp, Marcus; Skomorokhov, Andrei; Natkaniec, Ireneusz; Peters, Judith; Renger, Gernot

    2012-08-01

    Vibrational and conformational protein dynamics of photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach were investigated by elastic and inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS and IINS). As to the EINS experiments, the average atomic mean square displacement values of PS II membrane fragments hydrated at a relative humidity of 57% exhibit a dynamical transition at ~230K. In contrast, the dynamical transition was absent at a relative humidity of 44%. These findings are in agreement with previous studies which reported a "freezing" of protein mobility due to dehydration (Pieper et al. (2008) Eur. Biophys. J. 37: 657-663) and its correlation with an inhibition of electron transfer from Q(A)(-) to Q(B) (Kaminskaya et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 8119-8132). IINS spectra of a sample hydrated at a relative humidity of 57% show a distinct Boson peak at ~7.5meV at 20K, which shifts towards lower energy values upon temperature increase to 250K. This unexpected effect is interpreted in terms of a "softening" of the protein matrix along with the onset of conformational protein dynamics as revealed by the EINS experiments. Information on the density of vibrational states of pigment-protein complexes is important for a realistic calculation of excitation energy transfer kinetics and spectral lineshapes and is often routinely obtained by optical line-narrowing spectroscopy at liquid helium temperature. The data presented here demonstrate that IINS is a valuable experimental tool in determining the density of vibrational states not only at cryogenic, but also at nearly physiological temperatures up to 250K. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  1. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  2. Cardiac angiotensin II type I and type II receptors are increased in rats submitted to experimental hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro-Ramos, M S; Diniz, G P; Almeida, J; Vieira, R L P; Pinheiro, S V B; Santos, R A; Barreto-Chaves, M L M

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the behaviour of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in an experimental hypothyroidism model in male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to thyroidectomy and resting for 14 days. The alteration of cardiac mass was evaluated by total heart weight (HW), right ventricle weight (RVW), left ventricle weight (LVW), ratio of HW, RVW and LVW to body weight (BW) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) expression. Cardiac and plasma Ang II levels and serum T3 and T4 were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of Ang II receptors were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Functional analyses were performed using binding assays. T3 and T4 levels and the haemodynamic parameters confirmed the hypothyroid state. HW/BW, RVW/BW and LVW/BW ratios and the ANF expression were lower than those of control animals. No change was observed in cardiac or plasma Ang II levels. Both AT1/AT2 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the heart of hypothyroid animals due to a significant increase of these receptors in the RV. Experiments performed in cardiomyocytes showed a direct effect promoted by low thyroid hormone levels upon AT1 and AT2 receptors, discarding possible influence of haemodynamic parameters. Functional assays showed that both receptors are able to bind Ang II. Herein, we have identified, for the first time, a close and direct relation of elevated Ang II receptor levels in hypothyroidism. Whether the increase in these receptors in hypothyroidism is an alternative mechanism to compensate the atrophic state of heart or whether it may represent a potential means to the progression of heart failure remains unknown. PMID:17540701

  3. Interfacial strain effect on type-I and type-II core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheshlaghi, Negar; Pisheh, Hadi Sedaghat; Karim, M. Rezaul; Malkoc, Derya; Ünlü, Hilmi

    2016-09-01

    A comparative experimental and theoretical study on the calculation of capped core diameter in ZnSe/ZnS, CdSe/Cd(Zn)S type-I and ZnSe/CdS type-II core/shell nanocrystals is presented. The lattice mismatch induced interface strain between core and shell was calculated from continuum elastic theory and applied in effective mass approximation method to obtain the corresponding capped core diameter. The calculated results were compared with diameter of bare cores (CdSe and ZnSe) from transmission electron microscopy images to obtain the amount of the stretched or squeezed core after deposition of tensile or compressive shells. The result of the study showed that the core is squeezed in ZnSe/ZnS and CdSe/Cd(Zn)S after compressive shell and stretched in ZnSe/CdS after tensile shell deposition. The stretched and squeezed amount of the capped core found to be in proportion with lattice mismatch amount in the core/shell structure.

  4. Proteolysis of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, U J; Malek, S K; Liu, L; Li, H L

    1999-10-01

    Synaptobrevin-2, syntaxin-1, and SNAP-25 were identified in rat alveolar epithelial type II cells by Western blot analysis. Synaptobrevin-2 was localized in the lamellar bodies, and syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 were found in 0.4% Nonidet P40-soluble and -insoluble fractions, respectively, of the type II cells. When the isolated type II cells were stimulated for secretion with calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, these proteins were found to have been proteolyzed. Preincubation of cells with calpain inhibitor II (N-acetylleucylleucylmethionine), however, prevented the proteolysis. Treatment of the cell lysate with exogenous calpain resulted in a time-dependent decrease of these proteins. The data suggest that synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 are subject to proteolytic modification by activated calpain in intact type II cells stimulated for secretion.

  5. Copper(II) interaction with peptide fragments of histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein: Speciation, stability and binding details.

    PubMed

    La Mendola, Diego; Magrì, Antonio; Santoro, Anna Maria; Nicoletti, Vincenzo G; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    GHHPH is the peptide repeat present in histidine-proline rich glycoprotein (HPRG), a plasma glycoprotein involved in angiogenesis process. The copper(II) ions interaction with mono (Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2)) and its bis-repeat (Ac-GHHPHGHHPHG-NH(2)) was investigated by means of potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques. To single out the copper(II) coordination environments of different species formed with Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2), three single point mutated peptides were also synthesized and their ability to coordinate Cu(2+) investigated. Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2) binds Cu(2+) by the imidazole side chain and the amide nitrogen deprotonation that takes place towards the N-terminus. The bis-repeat is able to bind Cu(2+) more efficiently than Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2). This difference is not only due to the number of His residues in the sequence but also to the different binding sites. In fact, the comparison of the potentiometric and spectroscopic data of the copper(II) complexes with a bis-repeatPeg construct Ac-(GHHPHG)-Peg-(GHHPHG)-NH(2) and those of the metal complexes with Ac-HGHH-NH(2), indicates that the central HGHH amino acid sequence is the main copper(II) binding site.

  6. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  7. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-05

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone.

  8. Achondrogenesis: a review with special consideration of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino).

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Liu, C T; Yang, S S

    1981-01-01

    We describe two dwarfed infants with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen, and short limbs. Both died neonatally. Radiographic and morphologic characteristics identified the Langer-Saldino form of achondrogenesis (type II). Review of type II achondrogenesis documented distinctive clinical and anthropometric manifestations (fewer stillbirths, longer survival time and gestation period, larger size of the baby, longer limbs, and characteristic craniofacial features) as compared with type I achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro).

  9. IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing of Mycobacterium avium from patients admitted to a reference hospital in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Panunto, A C; Villares, M C B; Ramos, M C

    2003-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an important pathogen among immunodeficient patients, especially patients with AIDS. The natural history of this disease is unclear. Several environmental sources have been implicated as the origin of this infection. Polyclonal infection with this species is observed, challenging the understanding of its pathogenesis and treatment. In the present study 45 M. avium strains were recovered from 39 patients admitted to a reference hospital between 1996 and 1998. Species identification was performed using a species-specific nucleic acid hybridization test (AccuProbe) from Gen-Probe. Strains were genotyped using IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. Blood was the main source of the organism. In one patient with disseminated disease, M. avium could be recovered more than once from potentially sterile sites. Strains isolated from this patient had different genotypes, indicating that the infection was polyclonal. Four patient clones were characterized in this population, the largest clone being detected in eight patients. This finding points to a common-source transmission of the organism.

  10. Total Synthesis of (−)-Mandelalide A Exploiting Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC): Identification of a Type II ARC/CuCN Cross-Coupling Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anion relay chemistry (ARC), an effective, multicomponent union tactic, was successfully employed for the total synthesis of the highly cytotoxic marine macrolide (−)-mandelalide A (1). The northern hemisphere was constructed via a new type II ARC/CuCN cross-coupling tactic, while the southern hemisphere was secured via a highly efficient four-component type I ARC union. Importantly, the synthesis of 1 showcases ARC as a rapid, scalable coupling strategy for the union of simple readily available building blocks to access diverse complex molecular fragments with excellent stereochemical control. PMID:26954306

  11. Total Synthesis of (-)-Mandelalide A Exploiting Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC): Identification of a Type II ARC/CuCN Cross-Coupling Protocol.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh H; Imanishi, Masashi; Kurogi, Taichi; Smith, Amos B

    2016-03-23

    Anion relay chemistry (ARC), an effective, multicomponent union tactic, was successfully employed for the total synthesis of the highly cytotoxic marine macrolide (-)-mandelalide A (1). The northern hemisphere was constructed via a new type II ARC/CuCN cross-coupling tactic, while the southern hemisphere was secured via a highly efficient four-component type I ARC union. Importantly, the synthesis of 1 showcases ARC as a rapid, scalable coupling strategy for the union of simple readily available building blocks to access diverse complex molecular fragments with excellent stereochemical control.

  12. Alteration of sequence specificity of the type II restriction endonuclease HincII through an indirect readout mechanism.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hemant K; Etzkorn, Christopher; Chatwell, Lorentz; Bitinaite, Jurate; Horton, Nancy C

    2006-08-18

    The functional and structural consequences of a mutation of the DNA intercalating residue of HincII, Q138F, are presented. Modeling has suggested that the DNA intercalation by Gln-138 results in DNA distortions potentially used by HincII in indirect readout of its cognate DNA, GTYRAC (Y = C or T, R = A or G) (Horton, N. C., Dorner, L. F., and Perona, J. J. (2002) Nat. Struct. Biol. 9, 42-47). Kinetic data presented here indicate that the mutation of glutamine 138 to phenylalanine (Q138F) results in a change in sequence specificity at the center two base pairs of the cognate recognition site. We show that the preference of HincII for cutting, but not binding, the three cognate sites differing in the center two base pairs has been altered by the mutation Q138F. Five new crystal structures are presented including Q138F HincII bound to GTTAAC and GTCGAC both with and without Ca2+ as well as the structure of wild type HincII bound to GTTAAC. The Q138F HincII/DNA structures show conformational changes in the protein, bound DNA, and at the protein-DNA interface, consistent with the formation of adaptive complexes. Analysis of these structures and the effect of Ca2+ binding on the protein-DNA interface illuminates the origin of the altered specificity by the mutation Q138F in the HincII enzyme.

  13. Development of type-I/type-II hybrid dye sensitizer with both pyridyl group and catechol unit as anchoring group for type-I/type-II dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Furue, Kensuke; Enoki, Toshiaki; Kanda, Masahiro; Adachi, Yohei; Ohshita, Joji

    2016-11-09

    A type-I/type-II hybrid dye sensitizer with a pyridyl group and a catechol unit as the anchoring group has been developed and its photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. The sensitizer has the ability to adsorb on a TiO2 electrode through both the coordination bond at Lewis acid sites and the bidentate binuclear bridging linkage at Brønsted acid sites on the TiO2 surface, which makes it possible to inject an electron into the conduction band of the TiO2 electrode by the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation (type-I pathway) and by the photoexcitation of the dye-to-TiO2 charge transfer (DTCT) band (type-II pathway). It was found that the type-I/type-II hybrid dye sensitizer adsorbed on TiO2 film exhibits a broad photoabsorption band originating from ICT and DTCT characteristics. Here we reveal the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the type-I/type-II hybrid dye sensitizer bearing a pyridyl group and a catechol unit, along with its adsorption modes onto TiO2 film, and its photovoltaic performance in type-I/type-II DSSC, based on optical (photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry), density functional theory (DFT) calculation, FT-IR spectroscopy of the dyes adsorbed on TiO2 film, photocurrent-voltage (I-V) curves, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for DSSC.

  14. Biochemical transformation of thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient mouse cells by herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA fragments purified from hybrid plasmids.

    PubMed

    Kit, S; Otsuka, H; Qavi, H; Trkula, D; Dubbs, D R; Hazen, M

    1980-11-25

    The thymidine kinase (TK) gene of HSV-1 has been cloned in Escherichia coli K12 plasmids, pMH1, pMH1A, and pMH4. These plasmids contain a 1,92Obp HSV-1 TK DNA sequence, which replaces a 2,067 bp EcoR I to Pvu II sequence of plasmid pBR322 DNA. Superhelical DNAs of plasmids pMH1, pMH1A, and pMH4 as well as plasmid DNAs cleaved by EcoR I, Hinc II, Bg1 II, Sma I, and Pvu II transformed TK-deficient LM(TK-) cells to the TK+ phenotype. A 1,230bp EcoR I-Sma I fragment purified from pMH1 DNA (and from plasmid pAGO, DNA, the parent of pMH1) also transformed LM(TK-) cells. Serological and disc PAGE studies demonstrated that the TK activity expressed in biochemically transformed cells were HSV-1-specific. The experiments suggest that the HSV-1 TK coding region may be contained within a l.1kbp DNA sequence extending from about the Hinc II (or Bgl II) cleavage site to the Sma I site. 35S-methionine labeling experiments carried out on cell lines transformed by Hinc II-cleaved pMH1 DNA and by the EcoR I-Sma I fragment showed that the TKs purified from the transformed cells consisted of about 39-40,000 dalton polypeptides.

  15. Functionalized fullerenes mediate photodynamic killing of cancer cells: Type I versus Type II photochemical mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Pawlak, Anna; Satti, Minahil; Lee, Haeryeon; Wharton, Tim; Gali, Hariprasad; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill cells. Most clinically studied PS are based on the tetrapyrrole structure of porphyrins, chlorins and related molecules, but new non-tetrapyrrole PS are being sought. Fullerenes are soccer-ball shaped molecules composed of sixty or seventy carbon atoms and have attracted interest in connection with the search for biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Fullerenes are biologically inert unless derivatized with functional groups, whereupon they become soluble and can act as PS. We have compared the photodynamic activity of six functionalized fullerenes with 1, 2, or 3 hydrophilic or 1, 2, or 3 cationic groups. The octanol-water partition coefficients were determined and the relative contributions of Type I photochemistry (photogeneration of superoxide in the presence of NADH) and Type II photochemistry (photogeneration of singlet oxygen) were studied by measurement of oxygen consumption, 1270-nm luminescence and EPR spin-trapping of the superoxide product. We studied three mouse cancer cell lines: (J774, LLC and CT26) incubated for 24 h with fullerenes and illuminated with white light. The order of effectiveness as PS was inversely proportional to the degree of substitution of the fullerene nucleus for both the neutral and cationic series. The mono-pyrrolidinium fullerene was the most active PS against all cell lines and induced apoptosis 4–6 hours after illumination. It produced diffuse intracellular fluorescence when dichlorodihydrofluorescein was added as an ROS probe suggesting a Type I mechanism for phototoxicity. We conclude that certain functionalized fullerenes have potential as novel PDT agents and phototoxicity may be mediated both by superoxide and by singlet oxygen. PMID:17664135

  16. Characteristics of flares producing metric type II bursts and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Howard, R. A.; Michels, D. J.; Koomen, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to study the origin of coronal shocks by comparing several flare characteristics for two groups of flares: those with associated metric type II bursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and those with associated metric type II bursts but no CMEs. CMEs accompany about 60 percent of all flares with type II bursts for solar longitudes greater than 30 deg, where CMEs are well observed with the NRL Solwind coronagraph. H-alpha flare areas, 1-8 A X-ray fluxes, and impulsive 3-cm fluxes are all statistically smaller for events with no CMEs than for events with CMEs. It appears that both compact and large mass ejection flares are associated with type II bursts. The events with no CMEs imply that at least many type II shocks are not piston-driven, but the large number of events of both groups with small 3 cm bursts does not support the usual assumption that type II shocks are produced by large energy releases in flare impulsive phases. The poor correlation between 3 cm burst fluxes and the occurrence of type II bursts may be due to large variations in the coronal Alfven velocity.

  17. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  18. THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UV AND OPTICAL Fe ii EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacević-Dojcinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č. E-mail: lpopovic@aob.bg.ac.rs

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650–3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000–5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe ii{sub opt}) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe ii{sub opt} versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  19. Effectiveness of cervical hemilaminectomy in canine Hansen Type I and Type II disc disease: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Oliver; Golini, Lorenzo; Steffen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Medical records of 41 dogs, including 15 small breed dogs (<15 kg) and 26 large breed dogs (>15 kg), with cervical intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) that underwent a hemilaminectomy were reviewed. Dogs were diagnosed using myelography, computed tomography/myelography, or MRI, and dogs were classified as having either Hansen Type I disc extrusion or Hansen Type II disc protrusion located ventrally, ventrolaterally, or laterally within the cervical spinal canal. The most common clinical presentation was ambulatory tetraparesis and/or lameness (44%). The most affected sites for cervical IVDD were between the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae (C6-C7; 78% of Hansen Type II discs) and C2-C3 (86% of Hansen Type I discs). Treatment was effective in 88% of dogs. Five large breed dogs (12%) did not improve. In dogs with a Hansen Type I disc extrusion, clinical signs improved in 96% of the cases. In dogs with a Hansen Type II disc protrusion, an excellent and good outcome was seen in 47% and 32% of cases, respectively. Outcome was significantly better for small breed dogs and dogs with Hansen Type I disc disease compared with large breed dogs and dogs with Hansen Type II disc disease.

  20. Computer simulation of vortex pinning in type II superconductors. II. Random point pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, E. H.

    1983-10-01

    Pinning of vortices in a type II superconductor by randomly positioned identical point pins is simulated using the two-dimensional method described in a previous paper (Part I). The system is characterized by the vortex and pin numbers ( N v , N p ), the vortex and pin interaction ranges ( R v , R p ), and the amplitude of the pin potential A p . The computation is performed for many cases: dilute or dense, sharp or soft, attractive or repulsive, weak or strong pins, and ideal or amorphous vortex lattice. The total pinning force F as a function of the mean vortex displacement X increases first linearly (over a distance usually much smaller than the vortex spacing and than R p ) and then saturates, fluctuating about its averagebar F. We interpretbar F as the maximum pinning force j c B of a large specimen. For weak pins the prediction of Larkin and Ovchinnikov for two-dimensional collective pinning is confirmed:bar F=const·bar W/ R p c 66, wherebar W is the mean square pinning force and c 66 is the shear modulus of the vortex lattice. If the initial vortex lattice is chosen highly defective (“amorphous”) the constant is 1.3 3 times larger than for the ideal triangular lattice. This finding may explain the often observed “history effect”. The functionbar F( A p ) exhibits a jump, which for dilute, sharp, attractive pins occurs close to the “threshold value” predicted for isolated pins by Labusch. This jump reflects the onset of plastic deformation of the vortex lattice, and in some cases of vortex trapping, but is not a genuine threshold. For strong pinsbar F˜( N p bar W)1/2 approaches the direct summation limit. For both weak and strong pinning j c B is related to the mean square actual (not maximum) force of each pin. This mean square in general is not proportional to A {/p 2} but, due to relaxation of the vortex lattice, may be smaller or larger than its rigid-lattice limit. Therefore, simple power laws j c ˜ n p A {/p 2} or j c ˜ n p A p in

  1. Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II proviral sequences in Argentinian blood donors with indeterminate Western blot patterns.

    PubMed

    Mangano, A M; Remesar, M; del Pozo, A; Sen, Luisa

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) seroindeterminate blood donors have been reported worldwide including Argentina. To investigate the significance of HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns, we conducted an 8-year cross-sectional study. Of 86,238 Argentinian blood donors, 146 sera were reactive by screening tests. The WB results indicated that 20% were HTLV-I reactive, 8% HTLV-II reactive, 61% indeterminate, and 11% negative. The overall seroprevalence was 0.034% for HTLV-I, 0.014% for HTLV-II, and 0.103% for indeterminate. In 57 reactive specimens, HTLV-I/II provirus could be examined by type specific PCR for tax, pol, and env regions. When at least two gene fragments were amplified HTLV-I/II infection was considered confirmed. PCR results confirmed all WB seropositive samples for HTLV-I (n = 15), and HTLV-II (n = 7), and the only WB negative case was also PCR negative, showing a complete concordance between PCR and WB. However, of 34 WB seroindeterminate sera studied by PCR, in 5 was proviral DNA amplified. According to our criteria PCR confirmed one to be HTLV-I, and one HTLV-II, 3 remained indeterminate since only tax sequences were amplified. Among WB indeterminate samples tested by PCR, most of their serological profile showed reactivity to gag codified proteins but lacked env reactivities (70%). One sample with a WB gag pattern showed proviral tax sequences, but of the four samples with reactivity to env proteins GD21 (n = 3) or rgp46II (n = 1) PCR results indicated that one was HTLV-I, one was HTLV-II, and two were indeterminate (only tax sequences). In conclusion, the majority of HTLV-seroindeterminate WB donors exhibited a gag indeterminate profile lacking HTLV provirus, and were thus considered uninfected. However, seroreactivity to env proteins, in particular to GD21, may indicate infection and a follow-up study of each seroreactive blood donor should be considered.

  2. Use of amplified-fragment length polymorphism to study the ecology of Campylobacter jejuni in environmental water and to predict multilocus sequence typing clonal complexes.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Simon; St-Pierre, Karen; Frost, Eric; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2012-04-01

    We determined the genetic variability among water isolates of Campylobacter jejuni by using amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Across a highly diverse collection of isolates, AFLP clusters did not correlate with MLST clonal complexes, suggesting that AFLP is not reliable for deciphering population genetic relationships and may be problematic for larger epidemiologic analyses.

  3. Shock-associated kilometric radio emission and solar metric type II bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.

    1989-01-01

    New criteria are used here to select and study the properties of shock-associated (SA) kilometric bursts. Nearly half of all intense metric type II bursts were temporally associated with 1980 kHz emission which was not attributable to metric type III bursts. A quarter of all intense type II bursts are not associated with any significant 1980 kHz emission and another quarter are accompanied by 1980 kHz emission presumed due to type II bursts. The SA bursts are generally not well correlated with microwave flux-density profiles but compare more closely with the most intense and structured parts of the profiles of metric type II bursts. These results imply that the SA emission is due primarily to energetic electrons accelerated at the associated shock.

  4. Quantum cascade light emitting diodes based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Yang, R.Q.; Zhang, D.; Murry, S.J.; Pei, S.S.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-01-21

    The authors have demonstrated room-temperature CW operation of type-II quantum cascade (QC) light emitting diodes at 4.2 {micro}m using InAs/InGaSb/InAlSb type-II quantum wells. The type-II QC configuration utilizes sequential multiple photon emissions in a staircase of coupled type-II quantum wells. The device was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a p-type GaSb substrate and was compared of 20 periods of active regions separated by digitally graded quantum well injection regions. The maximum average output power is about 250 {micro}W at 80 K, and 140 {micro}W at 300 K at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with a duty cycle of 50%.

  5. Type-II AGN population from the zCOSMOS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, A.; Mignoli, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zcosmos Team

    2008-10-01

    I'll present the first results on the type-II AGN population isolated from the zCOSMOS bright sample which consists of 10k sources, purely magnitude selected at I=22.5. The selected type-II AGN sample consists of about 200 AGN, selected using the diagnostic diagrams up to redshift ~1.0. I'll present the properties of this sample (i.e. SED and morphology) and some preliminary results on the evolution of type-II AGN, as well as on the evolution of their fraction with respect to the total AGN population (Type-I + Type-II), as a function of both luminosity and redshift.

  6. Type II collagen is transiently expressed during avian cardiac valve morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, R E; Daniels, K J; Jensen, K L; Solursh, M

    1994-08-01

    We present new evidence of the temporal and spatial expression of type II collagen in the embryonic chick heart during the very early stages of its development. In particular, we emphasize the distribution of its mRNA and protein during valve formation. Type II collagen as well as several other fibrillar collagens (types I, III, and V) are present in stage 18 endocardial cushion mesenchymal cells. At stage 23, alpha 1 (II) collagen transcripts and the cognate polypeptide colocalize in the atrioventricular valves. As development proceeds, the relative abundance of alpha 1 (II) collagen transcripts decreases during the stages studied (stages 22 to 45; day 3.5 to day 19) as assayed by RNA blotting of extracts of whole hearts. Type II collagen protein was immunologically undetectable in stage 38 (day 12) hearts, although collagens I, III, and V persisted and localize in the valve regions, in the endothelial lining of the heart, and in the epicardium. In keeping with other observations of type II collagen expression in non-chondrogenic regions of a variety of vertebrate embryos, the avian heart also exhibits transient type II collagen expression.

  7. Halo Coronal Mass Ejections and Their Relation to DH Type-II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.

    2015-10-01

    A set of 88 halo CMEs observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/ Large Angle Solar Coronagraph (SOHO/LASCO) during the period 2005 to 2010 is considered to study the relationship of these halo CMEs with Type-II radio bursts in the deca-hectametric (DH) wavelength range observed by Wind/(Plasma and Radio Waves: WAVES). Among the 88 events, 39 halo CMEs are found to be associated with DH Type-II radio bursts and their characteristics are analyzed with the following results: i) The heights of the CME leading edge at the time of the starting frequencies of many of the selected DH Type-II events (74 %) are in the range (2 - 10 R_{⊙}) where the shocks are formed. ii) The mean speed of DH-associated halo CMEs (1610 km s-1) is nearly twice the mean speed (853 km s-1) of halo CMEs without DH Type-II radio bursts, implying that the peak of the Alfvén speed profile in the outer corona where DH Type-II radio bursts start might be around 800 km s-1. iii) The shock speed of DH Type-II radio bursts calculated using the heights of shock signatures of the corresponding CME events is found to be slightly higher than the CME speed. iv) The CME speed plays a major role in the determination of the ending frequency of DH Type-II radio bursts but not the starting frequency. v) The relationship between the characteristics of DH Type-II radio bursts and CMEs is explained in the context of the universal drift-rate spectrum.

  8. Novel Bioinformatics–Based Approach for Proteomic Biomarkers Prediction of Calpain-2 & Caspase-3 Protease Fragmentation: Application to βII-Spectrin Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Assaad, Atlal; Dawy, Zaher; Nemer, Georges; Kobeissy, Firas

    2017-01-01

    The crucial biological role of proteases has been visible with the development of degradomics discipline involved in the determination of the proteases/substrates resulting in breakdown-products (BDPs) that can be utilized as putative biomarkers associated with different biological-clinical significance. In the field of cancer biology, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have shown to result in MMPs-generated protein BDPs that are indicative of malignant growth in cancer, while in the field of neural injury, calpain-2 and caspase-3 proteases generate BDPs fragments that are indicative of different neural cell death mechanisms in different injury scenarios. Advanced proteomic techniques have shown a remarkable progress in identifying these BDPs experimentally. In this work, we present a bioinformatics-based prediction method that identifies protease-associated BDPs with high precision and efficiency. The method utilizes state-of-the-art sequence matching and alignment algorithms. It starts by locating consensus sequence occurrences and their variants in any set of protein substrates, generating all fragments resulting from cleavage. The complexity exists in space O(mn) as well as in O(Nmn) time, where N, m, and n are the number of protein sequences, length of the consensus sequence, and length per protein sequence, respectively. Finally, the proposed methodology is validated against βII-spectrin protein, a brain injury validated biomarker.

  9. Novel Bioinformatics–Based Approach for Proteomic Biomarkers Prediction of Calpain-2 & Caspase-3 Protease Fragmentation: Application to βII-Spectrin Protein

    PubMed Central

    El-Assaad, Atlal; Dawy, Zaher; Nemer, Georges; Kobeissy, Firas

    2017-01-01

    The crucial biological role of proteases has been visible with the development of degradomics discipline involved in the determination of the proteases/substrates resulting in breakdown-products (BDPs) that can be utilized as putative biomarkers associated with different biological-clinical significance. In the field of cancer biology, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have shown to result in MMPs-generated protein BDPs that are indicative of malignant growth in cancer, while in the field of neural injury, calpain-2 and caspase-3 proteases generate BDPs fragments that are indicative of different neural cell death mechanisms in different injury scenarios. Advanced proteomic techniques have shown a remarkable progress in identifying these BDPs experimentally. In this work, we present a bioinformatics-based prediction method that identifies protease-associated BDPs with high precision and efficiency. The method utilizes state-of-the-art sequence matching and alignment algorithms. It starts by locating consensus sequence occurrences and their variants in any set of protein substrates, generating all fragments resulting from cleavage. The complexity exists in space O(mn) as well as in O(Nmn) time, where N, m, and n are the number of protein sequences, length of the consensus sequence, and length per protein sequence, respectively. Finally, the proposed methodology is validated against βII-spectrin protein, a brain injury validated biomarker. PMID:28112201

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  11. Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaqing; Zhou, Shuyun; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a new "type-II" Weyl fermion, which exhibits exotic phenomena, such as an angle-dependent chiral anomaly, was discovered in a new phase of matter where electron and hole pockets contact at isolated Weyl points [Nature (London) 527, 495 (2015), 10.1038/nature15768]. This raises an interesting question about whether its counterpart, i.e., a type-II Dirac fermion, exists in real materials. Here, we predict the existence of symmetry-protected type-II Dirac fermions in a class of transition metal dichalcogenide materials. Our first-principles calculations on PtSe2 reveal its bulk type-II Dirac fermions which are characterized by strongly tilted Dirac cones, novel surface states, and exotic doping-driven Lifshitz transition. Our results show that the existence of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe2-type materials is closely related to its structural P 3 ¯m 1 symmetry, which provides useful guidance for the experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions and intriguing physical properties distinct from those of the standard Dirac fermions known before.

  12. Expression of collagen types I and II on articular cartilage in a rat knee contracture model.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Ando, Akira; Chimoto, Eiichi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ichiro; Sasano, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Yoshito; Suda, Hideaki; Itoi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify the expression patterns of collagen types I and II on articular cartilage after immobilization in a rat knee contracture model in 3 specific areas (noncontact area, transitional area, contact area). The unilateral knee joints of adult male rats were rigidly immobilized at 150 degrees of flexion using screws and a rigid plastic plate. Sham-operated animals had holes drilled in the femur and the tibia and screws inserted but were not plated. The expression patterns of collagen types I and II in each area were evaluated by in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The expression of collagen type II in the noncontact area was decreased by ISH but appeared unchanged when examined by IHC. In the transitional and contact areas, the expression of collagen type II was initially shown to have decreased and then increased at the hypertrophic chondrocytes by ISH but appeared decreased by IHC. Quantitative PCR revealed the decreased expression of type II collagen in the contact area. Immunostaining of collagen type I was increased at the noncontact area and transitional areas. Alterations of collagen types I and II expression may also affect the degeneration of articular cartilage after immobilization and the changes were different in the three areas.

  13. Organization of the human keratin type II gene cluster at 12q13

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.J.; LeBlanc-Straceski, J.; Krauter, K.

    1994-12-01

    Keratin proteins constitute intermediate filaments and are the major differentiation products of mammalian epithelial cells. The epithelial keratins are classified into two groups, type I and type II, and one member of each group is expressed in a given epithelial cell differentiation stage. Mutations in type I and type II keratin genes have now been implicated in three different human genetic disorders, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. Members of the type I keratins are mapped to human chromosome 17, and the type II keratin genes are mapped to chromosome 12. To understand the organization of the type II keratin genes on chromosome 12, we isolated several yeast artificial chromosomes carrying these keratin genes and examined them in detail. We show that eight already known type II keratin genes are located in a cluster at 12q13, and their relative organization reflects their evolutionary relationship. We also determined that a type I keratin gene, KRT8, is located next to its partner, KRT18, in this cluster. Careful examination of the cluster also revealed that there may be a number of additional keratin genes at this locus that have not been described previously. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Clinical Research Network: The Inherited Neuropathies Consortium Educational Resources (2 links) Orphanet: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 University of Chicago Center for Peripheral Neuropathy Patient Support ...

  15. Tissue-specific expression of the human type II collagen gene in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lovell-Badge, R.H.; Bygrave, A.; Bradley, A.; Robertson, E.; Tilly, R.; Cheah, K.S.E.

    1987-05-01

    Type II collagen is crucial to the development of form in vertebrates as it is the major protein of cartilage. To study the factors regulating its expression the authors introduced a cosmid containing the human type II collagen gene, including 4.5 kilobases of 5' and 2.2 kilobases of 3' flanking DNA, into embryonic stem cells in vitro. The transformed cells contribute to all tissues in chimeric mice allowing the expression of the exogenous gene to be studied in vivo. Human type II collagen mRNA is restricted to tissues showing transcription from the endogenous gene and human type II collagen is found in extracellular matrix surrounding chondrocytes in cartilage. The results indicate that the cis-acting requirements for correct temporal and spatial regulation of the gene are contained with the introduced DNA.

  16. Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brains of pigs with salt poisoning (water deprivation/intoxication).

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Williamson, M M

    2010-10-01

    The finding of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, in addition to the pathognomonic combination of laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and eosinophil infiltration, in the brains of pigs is reported for the first time in cases of indirect salt poisoning following water deprivation.

  17. Quantitative prediction of type II solar radio emission from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are frequently associated with shocks and type II solar radio bursts. Despite involving fundamental plasma physics and being the archetype for collective radio emission from shocks, type II bursts have resisted detailed explanation for over 60 years. Between 29 November and 1 December 2013 the two widely separated spacecraft STEREO A and B observed a long lasting, intermittent, type II radio burst from ≈4 MHz to 30 kHz (harmonic), including an intensification when the CME-driven shock reached STEREO A. We demonstrate the first accurate and quantitative simulation of a type II burst from the high corona (near 11 solar radii) to 1 AU for this event with a combination of a data-driven three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation for the CME and plasma background and an analytic quantitative kinetic model for the radio emission.

  18. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  19. Chromosomal localization and structure of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.; Huberman, E. |; Collart, F.; Varkony, T.; Drabkin, H.

    1994-05-01

    We determined the chromosomal localization and structure of the gene encoding human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205), an enzyme associated with cellular proliferation, malignant transformation, and differentiation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for type II IMPDH, we screened a panel of human-Chinese hamster cell somatic hybrids and a separate deletion panel of chromosome 3 hybrids and localized the gene to 3p21.1{yields}p24.2. Two overlapping yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the full gene for type II IMPDH were isolated and a physical map of 117 kb of human genomic DNA in this region of chromosome 3 was constructed. The gene for type II IMPDH was localized and oriented on this map and found to span no more than 12.5 kb.

  20. Opsonic effect of jacalin and human immunoglobulin A on type II group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, N R; Concepcion, N F; Anthony, B F

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effect of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the IgA-binding lectin jacalin on the phagocytosis of type II group B streptococci (GBS). Strains possessing the trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant components of the c protein (II/c) and type II GBS lacking the c protein (II) were examined by radiolabeled bacterial uptake, bactericidal assays, and electron microscopy. Type II/c GBS resisted phagocytosis by monocytes (4.9% +/- 0.8% uptake, mean +/- SE, n = 25) compared with type II GBS (8.5% +/- 1.4% uptake, n = 14, P = 0.03). Phagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes was also less for the type II/c strain 78-471 than for the type II strain 79-176 (68% +/- 5% versus 86% +/- 4% reduction in CFU at 45 min, P = 0.03). IgA binding did not explain the resistance of type II/c GBS to phagocytosis. The uptake of type II/c GBS was not significantly different after opsonization in cord sera lacking endogenous IgA (5.93% +/- 1.4%) than in the same cord sera after addition of exogenous IgA (5.48% +/- 1.4%, P = 0.69, n = 9). Attempts to remove serum IgA with the IgA-binding lectin jacalin resulted in the binding of IgA-jacalin complexes to II/c GBS. This combination of nonspecific IgA and jacalin increased uptake of II/c GBS from 4.9% +/- 0.8% to 11.8% +/- 1.9% (P = 0.002). Jacalin also combined with specific, immune, monoclonal IgA bound to the surface of Haemophilus influenzae and promoted the uptake of these bacteria. Jacalin and IgA mediated phagocytosis of II/c GBS via receptors that were not dependent on divalent cations and that were not modulated by plating monocytes on antigen-antibody complexes. Images PMID:2228238

  1. Iron Kα emission in type-I and type-II active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Ueda, Y.; Paltani, S.; Ichikawa, K.; Gandhi, P.; Awaki, H.

    2014-07-01

    The narrow Fe Kα line is one of the main signatures of the reprocessing of X-ray radiation from the material surrounding supermassive black holes, and it has been found to be omnipresent in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this work, we study the characteristics of the narrow Fe Kα line in different types of AGN. Using the results of a large Suzaku study, we find that Seyfert 2s have on average lower Fe Kα luminosities than Seyfert 1s for the same 10-50 keV continuum luminosity. Simulating dummy Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s populations using physical torus models of X-ray reflected emission, we find that this difference can be explained by means of different average inclination angles with respect to the torus, as predicted by the unified model. Alternative explanations include differences in the intensities of Compton humps, in the photon index distributions or in the average iron abundances. We show that the ratio between the flux of the broad and narrow Fe Kα line in the 6.35-6.45 keV range depends on the torus geometry considered, and is on average <25 per cent and <15 per cent for type-I and type-II AGN, respectively. We find evidence of absorption of the narrow Fe Kα line flux in Compton-thick AGN, which suggests that part of the reflecting material is obscured. We estimate that on average in obscured AGN the reflected radiation from neutral material is seen through a column density which is 1/4 of that absorbing the primary X-ray emission. This should be taken into account in synthesis models of the CXB and when studying the luminosity function of heavily obscured AGN. We detect the first evidence of the X-ray Baldwin effect in Seyfert 2s, with the same slope as that found for Seyfert 1s, which suggests that the mechanism responsible for the decrease of the equivalent width with the continuum luminosity is the same in the two classes of objects.

  2. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    PubMed

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  3. Positions of type II fundamental and harmonic sources in the 30-100 MHZ range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Gergely, T. E.; Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    An excellent example of a type III-V burst followed by a type II burst with fundamental and harmonic bands was observed on June 18, 1979 at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The observations are described in detail and their implications are discussed with regard to the problem of directionality with respect to the magnetic field lines of the collisionless MHD shock wave generated at the start of the flash phase. It is found that the positions of type III and type II (F) bursts at a number of frequencies are essentially the same, which implies that the shock responsible for the type II radiation follows the path of the type III exciter, that is, the shock propagates along the open field lines.

  4. MACHO observations of Type II cepheids and RV Tauri Stars in the LMC

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Pollard, K.A.; Alisman, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    We report the of the existence of RV Tauri stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This class of variable star has hitherto been unidentified in the Magellanic Clouds. In light and color curve behavior the RV Tauri stars appear to be an extension of the Type II Cepheids to longer periods. A single period-luminosity-color relationship is seen to describe both the Type II Cepheids and the RV Tauri stars in the LMC.

  5. Black hole and hawking radiation by type-II Weyl fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, G. E.

    2016-11-01

    The type-II Weyl and type-II Dirac fermions may emerge behind the event horizon of black holes. Correspondingly, the black hole can be simulated by creation of the region with overtilted Weyl or Dirac cones. The filling of the electronic states inside the "black hole" is accompanied by Hawking radiation. The Hawking temperature in the Weyl semimetals can reach the room temperature, if the black hole region is sufficiently small, and thus the effective gravity at the horizon is large.

  6. The Relation Between Large-Scale Coronal Propagating Fronts and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Liu, Wei; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale, wave-like disturbances in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and type II radio bursts are often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Both phenomena may signify shock waves driven by CMEs. Taking EUV full-disk images at an unprecedented cadence, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed the so-called EIT waves or large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs) from their early evolution, which coincides with the period when most metric type II bursts occur. This article discusses the relation of LCPFs as captured by AIA with metric type II bursts. We show examples of type II bursts without a clear LCPF and fast LCPFs without a type II burst. Part of the disconnect between the two phenomena may be due to the difficulty in identifying them objectively. Furthermore, it is possible that the individual LCPFs and type II bursts may reflect different physical processes and external factors. In particular, the type II bursts that start at low frequencies and high altitudes tend to accompany an extended arc-shaped feature, which probably represents the 3D structure of the CME and the shock wave around it, and not just its near-surface track, which has usually been identified with EIT waves. This feature expands and propagates toward and beyond the limb. These events may be characterized by stretching of field lines in the radial direction and may be distinct from other LCPFs, which may be explained in terms of sudden lateral expansion of the coronal volume. Neither LCPFs nor type II bursts by themselves serve as necessary conditions for coronal shock waves, but these phenomena may provide useful information on the early evolution of the shock waves in 3D when both are clearly identified in eruptive events.

  7. Flux tubes and the type-I/type-II transition in a superconductor coupled to a superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark G.; Good, Gerald

    2008-07-01

    We analyze magnetic-flux tubes at zero temperature in a superconductor that is coupled to a superfluid via both density and gradient ('entrainment') interactions. The example we have in mind is high-density nuclear matter, which is a proton superconductor and a neutron superfluid, but our treatment is general and simple, modeling the interactions as a Ginzburg-Landau effective theory with four-fermion couplings, including only s-wave pairing. We numerically solve the field equations for flux tubes with an arbitrary number of flux quanta and compare their energies. This allows us to map the type-I/type-II transition in the superconductor, which occurs at the conventional {kappa}{identical_to}{lambda}/{xi}=1/{radical}(2) if the condensates are uncoupled. We find that a density coupling between the condensates raises the critical {kappa} and, for a sufficiently high neutron density, resolves the type-I/type-II transition line into an infinite number of bands corresponding to 'type-II(n)' phases, in which n, the number of quanta in the favored flux tube, steps from 1 to infinity. For lower neutron density, the coupling creates spinodal regions around the type-I/type-II boundary, in which metastable flux configurations are possible. We find that a gradient coupling between the condensates lowers the critical {kappa} and creates spinodal regions. These exotic phenomena may not occur in nuclear matter, which is thought to be deep in the type-II region but might be observed in condensed-matter systems.

  8. CHZ868, a Type II JAK2 Inhibitor, Reverses Type I JAK Inhibitor Persistence and Demonstrates Efficacy in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sara C.; Keller, Matthew D.; Chiu, Sophia; Koppikar, Priya; Guryanova, Olga A.; Rapaport, Franck; Xu, Ke; Manova, Katia; Pankov, Dmitry; O’Reilly, Richard J.; Kleppe, Maria; McKenney, Anna Sophia; Shih, Alan H.; Shank, Kaitlyn; Ahn, Jihae; Papalexi, Eftymia; Spitzer, Barbara; Socci, Nick; Viale, Agnes; Mandon, Emeline; Ebel, Nicolas; Andraos, Rita; Rubert, Joëlle; Dammassa, Ernesta; Romanet, Vincent; Dölemeyer, Arno; Zender, Michael; Heinlein, Melanie; Rampal, Rajit; Weinberg, Rona Singer; Hoffman, Ron; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Murakami, Masato; Baffert, Fabienne; Gaul, Christoph; Radimerski, Thomas; Levine, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Although clinically tested JAK inhibitors reduce splenomegaly and systemic symptoms, molecular responses are not observed in most myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. We previously demonstrated that MPN cells become persistent to type I JAK inhibitors that bind the active conformation of JAK2. We investigated if CHZ868, a type II JAK inhibitor, would demonstrate activity in JAK inhibitor persistent cells, murine MPN models, and MPN patient samples. JAK2- and MPL-mutant cell lines were sensitive to CHZ868, including type I JAK inhibitor persistent cells. CHZ868 showed significant activity in murine MPN models and induced reductions in mutant allele burden not observed with type I JAK inhibitors. These data demonstrate that type II JAK inhibition is a viable therapeutic approach for MPN patients. PMID:26175413

  9. Statistical Study of Shocks and CMEs Associated With Interplanetary Type II Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    We present a study of some spectral properties associated with interplanetary Type II radio emission. Type II radio bursts are signatures of violent eruptions from the Sun that result in shock waves propagating through the corona and the interplanetary medium. We investigated the relative bandwidth of all the type II bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (WAVES) on board the Wind spacecraft from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). We present statistical results for the bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) in the three subsets as well as a comparision of our results with the Type II solar radio bursts observed by ISEE-3 radio experiment, which is similar to WAVES/RAD1. We analyzed the bandwidth and BFR evolution with the heliocentric distance as well as an analysis of drift rate magnitude of type II radio bursts and its starting frequency. We also present some properties of shocks and coronal mass ejections associated with interplanetary type II bursts. This work is partially supported by NSF/SHINE (ATM 0204588)

  10. Production of human type II collagen using an efficient baculovirus-silkworm multigene expression system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qi; Yao, Lunguang; Liang, Zhisheng; Yan, Donghua; Li, Zhuo; Huang, Yadong; Sun, Jingchen

    2016-12-01

    Human type II collagen is a macromolecular protein found throughout the human body. The baculovirus expression vector system is one of the most ideal systems for the routine production and display of recombinant eukaryotic proteins in insect, larvae, and mammalian cells. We use this system to express a full-length gene, human type II collagen cDNA (4257 bp), in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells (Sf9), Bombyx mori cells, and silkworm larvae. In this study, the expression of human type II collagen gene in both insect cells and silkworm larvae was purified by nickel column chromatography, leading to 300-kDa bands in SDS-PAGE and western blotting indicative of collagen α-chains organized in a triple-helical structure. About 1 mg/larva human type II collagen is purified from silkworm skin, which shows a putative large scale of collagen production way. An activity assay of recombinant human type II collagen expressed by silkworm larvae demonstrated that the recombinant protein has considerable bioactive properties. Scanning electron microscopy of purified proteins clearly reveals randomly distributed and pitted structures. We conclude that the baculovirus-silkworm multigene expression system can be used as an efficient platform for express active human type II collagen and other complicated eukaryotic proteins.

  11. Exploring the unified class of Type II Supernovae with the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, Stefano; Howell, Dale Andrew; Sand, David J.; Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; McCully, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally Type II supernovae (SNe) have been separated into two distinct classes based on the shape of their light curves after peak: Type II plateau (IIP) and Type II linear (IIL) SNe. Recent works suggest that Type II SNe form a continuum of objects from a single progenitor system. Here we present data for a set of Type II SNe collected with the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network and observed simultaneously with UVOT-Swift. In the growing sample of Type II SNe, we search for clear evidence to distinguish the two classes. SNe IIL show a similar drop at the end of their short steep plateau that resemble the drop visible in SNe IIP. We show that also at early phase SNe IIP and IIL are similar both in the UV and in the optical. Our analysis is consistent with the scenario that SNe IIP and IIL come from similar progenitors but with SN IIL progenitors having been stripped of their hydrogen envelope before explosion. While SNe IIL are on average more luminous than SNe IIP, we show that they both produce a comparable amount of nickel.

  12. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in "sneaker" type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Colleye, Orphal; Zeddies, David G; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-02-28

    Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in "sneaker" type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive "sneaker" type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 µPa and 1 ms(-2), respectively) that were ~8-21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season.

  13. Crystal structure of the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment complexed to a class II MHC molecule.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-H.; Meijers, R.; Xiong, Y.; Liu, J.-H.; Sakihama, T.; Zhang, R.-G.; Joachimiak, A.; Reinherz, E. L.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School

    2001-09-11

    The structural basis of the interaction between the CD4 coreceptor and a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is described. The crystal structure of a complex containing the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment and the murine I-A{sup k }class II MHC molecule with associated peptide (pMHCII) shows that only the 'top corner' of the CD4 molecule directly contacts pMHCII. The CD4 Phe-43 side chain extends into a hydrophobic concavity formed by MHC residues from both {alpha}2 and {beta}2 domains. A ternary model of the CD4-pMHCII-T-cell receptor (TCR) reveals that the complex appears V-shaped with the membrane-proximal pMHCII at the apex. This configuration excludes a direct TCR-CD4 interaction and suggests how TCR and CD4 signaling is coordinated around the antigenic pMHCII complex. Human CD4 binds to HIV gp120 in a manner strikingly similar to the way in which CD4 interacts with pMHCII. Additional contacts between gp120 and CD4 give the CD4-gp120 complex a greater affinity. Thus, ligation of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 occludes the pMHCII-binding site on CD4, contributing to immunodeficiency.

  14. Lasing the DNA fragments through β-diketimine framed Knoevenagel condensed Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes--an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Raman, Natarajan; Pravin, Narayanaperumal

    2014-01-24

    The syntheses, structures and spectroscopic properties of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes having Knoevenagel condensate β-diketimine Schiff base ligands have been investigated in this paper. Characterization of these complexes was carried out using FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, mass and EPR techniques. Absorption titration, electrochemical analyses and viscosity measurements have also been carried out to determine the mode of binding. The shift in ΔEp, E1/2 and Ipc values explores the interaction of CT DNA with the above metal complexes. Interaction of ligands and their complexes with DNA revealed an intercalative mode of binding between them. Antimicrobial studies showed an effective antimicrobial activity of the metal ions after coordination with the ligands. The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands and their complexes were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and H2O2 free radical scavengers. In vivo and in vitro antitumor functions of the complexes against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor model have also been investigated. All the results support that β-diketone derived Knoevenagel condensate Schiff base complexes may act as novel antitumor drugs and suggest that their potent cell life inhibition may contribute to their anti-cancer efficacy.

  15. Lasing the DNA fragments through β-diketimine framed Knoevenagel condensed Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes - An in vitro and in vivo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Natarajan; Pravin, Narayanaperumal

    2014-01-01

    The syntheses, structures and spectroscopic properties of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes having Knoevenagel condensate β-diketimine Schiff base ligands have been investigated in this paper. Characterization of these complexes was carried out using FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, mass and EPR techniques. Absorption titration, electrochemical analyses and viscosity measurements have also been carried out to determine the mode of binding. The shift in ΔEp, E1/2 and Ipc values explores the interaction of CT DNA with the above metal complexes. Interaction of ligands and their complexes with DNA revealed an intercalative mode of binding between them. Antimicrobial studies showed an effective antimicrobial activity of the metal ions after coordination with the ligands. The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands and their complexes were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHrad ) and H2O2 free radical scavengers. In vivo and in vitro antitumor functions of the complexes against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor model have also been investigated. All the results support that β-diketone derived Knoevenagel condensate Schiff base complexes may act as novel antitumor drugs and suggest that their potent cell life inhibition may contribute to their anti-cancer efficacy.

  16. Modeling the Effects of Ecosystem Fragmentation and Restoration: Management Models for Mobile Animals. Volume 1. Appendices I-II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    mesquite in mesquite (no edge effect ) How to Run the Model Open an existing or new ArcView GIS project. Open a View, and if not already present, add...values, which in the same example would be 0.7 and 25, respectively. To model no edge effect (the null model) for any one edge type, enter a value of...units for dmax are the same as the map units of the habitat spatial data. For edge types in which no edge effect will be modeled, enter a “basal

  17. Todani choledochal cyst type II: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Farías Molina, Solange Marcela; Castillo Machado, Rafael Lisandro; Sanhueza Palma, Natalia Carolina; Calzadilla Riveras, Jeannette Alejandra

    2016-10-20

    Choledochal cyst is a rare pathological condition, which represents 1% of benign diseases of the biliary tract. It is seen with significant frequency in childhood, with a higher prevalence in females, and a greater diagnostic incidence in Asia. Diagnosis is primarily based on clinical suspicion. Its symptoms are variable, and its treatment, depending on the type, is surgical.

  18. Personal Educational Tools (PETs) for Type II Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Overall, Theresa; Knezek, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of Personal Educational Tools (PETs) and places these tools within the context of existing rationales for using technology for teaching, learning, and instruction. An identification of the distinguishing characteristics of these devices is followed by the conjecture that these types of classifying…

  19. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  20. Differential effect of cholesterol on type I and II feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Satomi, Yui; Oyama, Yuu; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of domestic and wild felidae that is caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoV has been classified into types I and II. Since type I FCoV infection is dominant in the field, it is necessary to develop antiviral agents and vaccines against type I FCoV infection. However, few studies have been conducted on type I FCoV. Here, we compare the effects of cholesterol on types I and II FCoV infections. When cells were treated methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and inoculated with type I FCoV, the infection rate decreased significantly, and the addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells resulted in the recovery of the infectivity of type I FCoV. Furthermore, exogenous cholesterol increased the infectivity of type I FCoV. In contrast, the addition of MβCD and exogenous cholesterol had little effect on the efficiency of type II FCoV infection. These results strongly suggest that the dependence of infection by types I and II FCoV on cholesterol differs.

  1. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  2. Self-consistent calculations of optical properties of type I and type II quantum heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvayev, Vladimir A.

    In this Thesis the self-consistent computational methods are applied to the study of the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures with one- and two-dimensional quantum confinements. At first, the self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations is applied to the cylindrical core-shell structure with type II band alignment without direct Coulomb interaction between carriers. The electron and hole states and confining potential are obtained from a numerical solution of this system. The photoluminescence kinetics is theoretically analyzed, with the nanostructure size dispersion taken into account. The results are applied to the radiative recombination in the system of ZnTe/ZnSe stacked quantum dots. A good agreement with both continuous wave and time-resolved experimental observations is found. It is shown that size distribution results in the photoluminescence decay that has essentially non-exponential behavior even at the tail of the decay where the carrier lifetime is almost the same due to slowly changing overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions. Also, a model situation applicable to colloidal core-shell nanowires is investigated and discussed. With respect to the excitons in type I quantum wells, a new computationally efficient and flexible approach of calculating the characteristics of excitons, based on a self-consistent variational treatment of the electron-hole Coulomb interaction, is developed. In this approach, a system of self-consistent equations describing the motion of an electron-hole pair is derived. The motion in the growth direction of the quantum well is separated from the in-plane motion, but each of them occurs in modified potentials found self-consistently. This approach is applied to a shallow quantum well with the delta-potential profile, for which analytical expressions for the exciton binding energy and the ground state eigenfunctions are obtained, and to the quantum well with the square potential profile with several

  3. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  4. Clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of type II and type I focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Zhou, Jian; Li, Lin; Zhai, Feng; Dong, Yanting; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Zhong; Bian, Yu; Qi, Xueling; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) II and I are major causes for drug-resistant epilepsy. In order to gain insight into the possible correlations between FCD II and FCD I, different clinical characteristics and immunohistochemical expression characteristics in FCD I and II were analyzed. The median age of onset and duration of epilepsy in FCD I and FCD II patients were 2.1 years and 5.3 years vs 2.4 years and 4.5 years. Therefore, the median age of onset and duration of epilepsy were similar in the two groups. Pathological lesions were predominantly located in frontal lobe in FCD II and temporal in FCD I. Significantly more signal abnormalities in FLAIR and T2 images were demonstrated in FCD II than FCD I. The rate of satisfied seizure outcome was relative higher in FCDII patients (95.12%) than that in FCDI group (84.6%). Furthermore, we detected expressions of progenitor cell proteins and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade activation protein in FCDs. Results showed that sex-determiningregion Y-box 2(SOX2), Kruppel-likefactor 4 (KLF4) and phospho-S6 ribosomal proteins (ser240/244 or ser235/236) were expressed in FCDII group but not in FCD I. Overall, this study unveils FCD I and II exhibit distinct clinical and immunohistochemical expression characteristics, revealing different pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:27811355

  5. Characterisation of Dyp-type peroxidases from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5: Oxidation of Mn(II) and polymeric lignin by Dyp1B.

    PubMed

    Rahmanpour, Rahman; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2015-05-15

    Members of the DyP family of peroxidases in Gram-positive bacteria have recently been shown to oxidise Mn(II) and lignin model compounds. Gram-negative pseudomonads, which also show activity for lignin oxidation, also contain dyp-type peroxidase genes. Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 contains three dyp-type peroxidases (35, 40 and 55kDa), each of which has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterised. Each of the three enzymes shows activity for oxidation of phenol substrates, but the 35kDa Dyp1B enzyme also shows activity for oxidation of Mn(II) and Kraft lignin. Treatment of powdered lignocellulose with Dyp1B in the presence of Mn(II) and hydrogen peroxide leads to the release of a low molecular weight lignin fragment, which has been identified by mass spectrometry as a β-aryl ether lignin dimer containing one G unit and one H unit bearing a benzylic ketone. A mechanism for release of this fragment from lignin oxidation is proposed.

  6. Type II NKT Cells in Inflammation, Autoimmunity, Microbial Immunity, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marrero, Idania; Ware, Randle; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) recognize self and microbial lipid antigens presented by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules. Two major NKT cell subsets, type I and II, express different types of antigen receptors (TCR) with distinct mode of CD1d/lipid recognition. Though type II NKT cells are less frequent in mice and difficult to study, they are predominant in human. One of the major subsets of type II NKT cells reactive to the self-glycolipid sulfatide is the best characterized and has been shown to induce a dominant immune regulatory mechanism that controls inflammation in autoimmunity and in anti-cancer immunity. Recently, type II NKT cells reactive to other self-glycolipids and phospholipids have been identified suggesting both promiscuous and specific TCR recognition in microbial immunity as well. Since the CD1d pathway is highly conserved, a detailed understanding of the biology and function of type II NKT cells as well as their interplay with type I NKT cells or other innate and adaptive T cells will have major implications for potential novel interventions in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, microbial immunity, and cancer. PMID:26136748

  7. Mitochondrial fragmentation and superoxide anion production in coronary endothelial cells from a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Makino, A.; Scott, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Mitochondria frequently change their shapes by fusion and fission and these morphological dynamics play important roles in mitochondrial function and development as well as programmed cell death. The goal of this study is to investigate whether: (1) mitochondria in mouse coronary endothelial cells (MCECs) isolated from diabetic mice exhibit increased fragmentation; and (2) chronic treatment with a superoxide anion (O2−) scavenger has a beneficial effect on mitochondrial fragmentation in MCECs. Methods MCECs were freshly isolated and lysed for protein measurement, or cultured to determine mitochondrial morphology and O2− production. For the ex vivo hyperglycaemia experiments, human coronary endothelial cells were used. Results Elongated mitochondrial tubules were observed in MCECs isolated from control mice, whereas mitochondria in MCECs from diabetic mice exhibited augmented fragmentation. The level of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) protein, which leads to mitochondrial fusion, was significantly decreased, while dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), which leads to mitochondrial fission, was significantly increased in MCECs from diabetic mice. Diabetic MCECs exhibited significantly higher O2− concentrations in cytosol and mitochondria than control MCECs. Administration of the O2− scavenger TEMPOL to diabetic mice for 4 weeks led to a significant decrease in mitochondrial fragmentation without altering the levels of OPA1 and DRP1 proteins in MCECs. High-glucose treatment for 24 h significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which was restored by TEMPOL treatment. In addition, excess O2− production, either in cytosol or in mitochondria, significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Conclusions/interpretation These data suggest that lowering the O2− concentration can restore the morphological change in mitochondria and may help improve mitochondrial function in diabetic MCECs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  8. Characterization of the Type III restriction endonuclease PstII from Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed

    Sears, Alice; Peakman, Luke J; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    A new Type III restriction endonuclease designated PstII has been purified from Providencia stuartii. PstII recognizes the hexanucleotide sequence 5'-CTGATG(N)(25-26/27-28)-3'. Endonuclease activity requires a substrate with two copies of the recognition site in head-to-head repeat and is dependent on a low level of ATP hydrolysis ( approximately 40 ATP/site/min). Cleavage occurs at just one of the two sites and results in a staggered cut 25-26 nt downstream of the top strand sequence to generate a two base 5'-protruding end. Methylation of the site occurs on one strand only at the first adenine of 5'-CATCAG-3'. Therefore, PstII has characteristic Type III restriction enzyme activity as exemplified by EcoPI or EcoP15I. Moreover, sequence asymmetry of the PstII recognition site in the T7 genome acts as an historical imprint of Type III restriction activity in vivo. In contrast to other Type I and III enzymes, PstII has a more relaxed nucleotide specificity and can cut DNA with GTP and CTP (but not UTP). We also demonstrate that PstII and EcoP15I cannot interact and cleave a DNA substrate suggesting that Type III enzymes must make specific protein-protein contacts to activate endonuclease activity.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Huang, Bin; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Guojun; Xiong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the current evidence on risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Materials and methods A systematic literature search was carried out for studies that evaluated the association of demographic, co-morbidity, and other patient-determined factors with the onset of type II endoleaks. Pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was updated. Results Among the 504 studies screened, 45 studies with a total of 36,588 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19%–25%]. The main factors consistently associated with type II endoleaks included age [pooled odds ratio (OR), 0.37; 95% CI, 0.31–0.43; P<0.001], smoking (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55–0.92; P<0.001), patent inferior mesenteric artery (pooled OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.06–3.71; P = 0.012), maximum aneurysm diameter (pooled OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.30; P<0.001), and number of patent lumbar arteries (pooled OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.81–3.33; P<0.001). Sex, diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulants, antiplatelet, hyperlipidemia, chronic renal insufficiency, types of graft material, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) did not show any association with the onset of type II endoleaks. Conclusions Clinicians can use the identified risk factors to detect and manage patients at risk of developing type II endoleaks after EVAR. However, further studies are needed to analyze a number of potential risk factors. PMID:28182753

  10. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  11. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  12. Molecular identification of a recent type of canine distemper virus in Japan by restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K; Iwatsuki, K; Nakamura, K; Mikami, T; Kai, C

    1998-11-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to differentiate recent field viruses of canine distemper virus (CDU) from vaccine strains. Virus genomes were amplified by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in part of the haemagglutinin gene. After digestion with EcoRV, the PCR products of recent field isolates were cut into two fragments that differ from the uncut form of old strains including all of vaccine strains. This method could be applied to fresh or stored brains, spleens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of infected dogs. This molecular approach is useful for determining the causative agent of postvaccinated CDV infection.

  13. Type-II second-harmonic-generation properties of YCOB and GdCOB single crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanqing; Qi, Hongwei; Lu, Qingming; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Xu, Xinguang; Zhao, Xian

    2015-02-09

    As excellent nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals, YCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (YCOB) and GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (GdCOB) have been paid much attention since their first appearance in 1990's. From that time to now, almost all of related researches and applications have focused on their type-I phase-matching (PM) configurations which possess large effective NLO coefficient (d(eff)). In this paper, type-II second-harmonic-generation (SHG) properties of these two crystals are reported, including PM curve, d(eff), angular acceptance and walk-off angle. Both of the type-II SHG experiments for 1064 and 1320 nm have indicated that the optimum directions which have maximum d(eff) locate in the second octant, i.e. (90° < θ< 180°, 0° < ϕ < 90°). For a (112°, 81.3°)-cut, 24 mm long YCOB crystal, the largest type-II SHG conversion efficiency of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG pico-second laser is 55%, which reaches the same level of the optimum type-I sample. To our knowledge this is the first time that type-II SHG performance of YCOB and GdCOB crystals is investigated intensively. Our research has shown that the smaller d(eff) of type-II PM can be compensated by its larger angular acceptance and less beam walk-off. The same level SHG conversion efficiency implies for such type crystals the type-II components have the potential to replace type-I ones and obtain important NLO applications in the future.

  14. Copper(II)-bis-histidine coordination structure in a fibrillar amyloid β-peptide fragment and model complexes revealed by electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Jessica; Sun, Li; Mehta, Anil K; Dong, Jijun; Lynn, David G; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-09-23

    Truncated and mutated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are models for systematic study-in homogeneous preparations-of the molecular origins of metal ion effects on Aβ aggregation rates, types of aggregate structures formed, and cytotoxicity. The 3D geometry of bis-histidine imidazole coordination of Cu(II) in fibrils of the nonapetide acetyl-Aβ(13-21)H14A has been determined by powder (14) N electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. The method of simulation of the anisotropic combination modulation is described and benchmarked for a Cu(II) -bis-cis-imidazole complex of known structure. The revealed bis-cis coordination mode, and the mutual orientation of the imidazole rings, for Cu(II) in Ac-Aβ(13-21)H14A fibrils are consistent with the proposed β-sheet structural model and pairwise peptide interaction with Cu(II) , with an alternating [-metal-vacancy-]n pattern, along the N-terminal edge. Metal coordination does not significantly distort the intra-β-strand peptide interactions, which provides a possible explanation for the acceleration of Ac-Aβ(13-21)H14A fibrillization by Cu(II) , through stabilization of the associated state and low-reorganization integration of β-strand peptide pair precursors.

  15. Expression, in cartilage, of a 7-amino-acid deletion in type II collagen from two unrelated individuals with Kniest dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, R.; Wilkin, D.; Wilcox, W. R.; Lachman, R.; Rimoin, D.; Cohn, D. H.; Eyre, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Kniest dysplasia is a heritable chondrodysplasia that severely affects skeletal growth. Recent evidence suggests that the etiology is based on mutations in COL2A1, the gene for collagen type II. We report the detection and partial characterization of an identical defect in type II collagen in two unrelated patients with Kniest dysplasia. Analysis of cyanogen bromide (CB)-digested cartilage samples from both probands by SDS-PAGE revealed an abnormal band for peptide alpha 1(II)CB12. The peptide was purified and digested with endoproteinase Asp-N. Fragments unique to the Kniest tissues were identified by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and by sequence analysis. The results established a deletion of amino acids 102-108 of the alpha 1(II) triple-helical domain, which disrupted the (gly-X-Y)n repeat needed for helix formation. This was confirmed by sequence analysis of DNA amplified from both probands, revealing the molecular basis to be a single nucleotide mutation at a CpG dinucleotide (GCG-->GTG) in the codon for alanine 102. The mutation created a new splice donor site, which would account for the absence of the last seven amino acids from the 3' end of exon 12 in alpha 1(II)CB12. Light and electron micrographs of the probands' cartilage showed the perilacunar foamy matrix ("Swiss cheese") characteristic of Kniest dysplasia and chondrocytes containing dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, which earlier studies had shown were filled with type II procollagen. These two cases strengthen the concept that Kniest dysplasia is based on mutations of COL2A1 and belongs within the broad spectrum of chondrodysplasias caused by type II collagenopathies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7977371

  16. Type-II Weyl points in three-dimensional cold-atom optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Duan, L.-M.

    2016-11-01

    Topological Lifshitz phase transition characterizes an abrupt change of the topology of the Fermi surface through a continuous deformation of parameters. Recently, Lifshitz transition has been predicted to separate two types of Weyl points: type-I and type-II (or called structured Weyl points), which has attracted considerable attention in various fields. Although recent experimental investigation has seen a rapid progress on type-II Weyl points, it still remains a significant challenge to observe their characteristic Lifshitz transition. Here, we propose a scheme to realize both type-I and type-II Weyl points in three-dimensional ultracold atomic gases by introducing an experimentally feasible configuration based on current spin-orbit coupling technology. In the resultant Hamiltonian, we find three degenerate points: two Weyl points carrying a Chern number -1 and a fourfold degenerate point carrying a Chern number 2. Remarkably, by continuous tuning of a convenient experimental knob, all these degenerate points can transition from type-I to type-II, thereby providing an ideal platform to study different types of Weyl points and directly probe their Lifshitz phase transition.

  17. Physical mapping of the restriction fragments obtained from bacteriophage T4 dC-DNA with the restriction endonucleases SmaI, KpnI and BglII.

    PubMed

    Kiko, H; Niggemann, E; Rüger, W

    1979-01-01

    The cytosine-containing DNA of a mutant of bacteriophage T4 was digested with restriction endonucleases SmaI, KpnI and BglII producing 5, 7 and 13 fragments respectively. Complete physical maps of the T4 genome were constructed with the enzymes SmaI and KpnI and an almost complete map with the enzyme BglII.

  18. Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tesh, V L; Burris, J A; Owens, J W; Gordon, V M; Wadolkowski, E A; O'Brien, A D; Samuel, J E

    1993-01-01

    In earlier studies using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of infection caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), animals fed Shiga-like toxin type II (SLT-II)-producing strains developed acute renal cortical necrosis and died, while mice fed Shiga-like toxin type I (SLT-I)-producing clones did not die (E. A. Wadolkowski, L. M. Sung, J. A. Burris, J. E. Samuel, and A. D. O'Brien, Infect. Immun. 58:3959-3965, 1990). To examine the bases for the differences we noted between the two toxins in the murine infection model, we injected mice with purified toxins and carried out histopathological examinations. Despite the genetic and structural similarities between the two toxins, SLT-II had a 50% lethal dose (LD50) which was approximately 400 times lower than that of SLT-I when injected intravenously or intraperitoneally into mice. Histopathologic examination of toxin-injected mice revealed that detectable damage was limited to renal cortical tubule epithelial cells. Passive administration of anti-SLT-II antibodies protected mice from SLT-II-mediated kidney damage and death. Immunofluorescence staining of normal murine kidney sections incubated with purified SLT-I or SLT-II demonstrated that both toxins bound to cortical tubule and medullary duct epithelial cells. Compared with SLT-I, SLT-II was more heat and pH stable, suggesting that SLT-II is a relatively more stable macromolecule. Although both toxins bound to globotriaosylceramide, SLT-I bound with a higher affinity in a solid-phase binding assay. Differences in enzymatic activity between the two toxins were not detected. These data suggest that structural/functional differences between the two toxins, possibly involving holotoxin stability and/or receptor affinity, may contribute to the differential LD50s in mice. Images PMID:8335369

  19. Evaluation of a Modified Single-Enzyme Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique for Fingerprinting and Differentiating of Mycobacterium kansasii Type I Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gaafar, Ayman; Josebe Unzaga, M.; Cisterna, Ramón; Clavo, Felicitas Elena; Urra, Elena; Ayarza, Rafael; Martín, Gloria

    2003-01-01

    The usefulness of single-enzyme amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis for the subtyping of Mycobacterium kansasii type I isolates was evaluated. This simplified technique classified 253 type I strains into 12 distinct clusters. The discriminating power of this technique was high, and the technique easily distinguished between the epidemiologically unrelated control strains and our clinical isolates. Overall, the technique was relatively rapid and technically simple, yet it gave reproducible and discriminatory results. This technique provides a powerful typing tool which may be helpful in solving many questions concerning the reservoirs, pathogenicities, and modes of transmission of these isolates. PMID:12904399

  20. Evaluation of a modified single-enzyme amplified-fragment length polymorphism technique for fingerprinting and differentiating of Mycobacterium kansasii type I isolates.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Ayman; Unzaga, M Josebe; Cisterna, Ramón; Clavo, Felicitas Elena; Urra, Elena; Ayarza, Rafael; Martín, Gloria

    2003-08-01

    The usefulness of single-enzyme amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis for the subtyping of Mycobacterium kansasii type I isolates was evaluated. This simplified technique classified 253 type I strains into 12 distinct clusters. The discriminating power of this technique was high, and the technique easily distinguished between the epidemiologically unrelated control strains and our clinical isolates. Overall, the technique was relatively rapid and technically simple, yet it gave reproducible and discriminatory results. This technique provides a powerful typing tool which may be helpful in solving many questions concerning the reservoirs, pathogenicities, and modes of transmission of these isolates.

  1. Optogenetic Stimulation Shifts the Excitability of Cerebral Cortex from Type I to Type II: Oscillation Onset and Wave Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Michael; Truccolo, Wilson; Ermentrout, Bard

    2017-01-01

    Constant optogenetic stimulation targeting both pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons has recently been shown to elicit propagating waves of gamma-band (40–80 Hz) oscillations in the local field potential of non-human primate motor cortex. The oscillations emerge with non-zero frequency and small amplitude—the hallmark of a type II excitable medium—yet they also propagate far beyond the stimulation site in the manner of a type I excitable medium. How can neural tissue exhibit both type I and type II excitability? We investigated the apparent contradiction by modeling the cortex as a Wilson-Cowan neural field in which optogenetic stimulation was represented by an external current source. In the absence of any external current, the model operated as a type I excitable medium that supported propagating waves of gamma oscillations similar to those observed in vivo. Applying an external current to the population of inhibitory neurons transformed the model into a type II excitable medium. The findings suggest that cortical tissue normally operates as a type I excitable medium but it is locally transformed into a type II medium by optogenetic stimulation which predominantly targets inhibitory neurons. The proposed mechanism accounts for the graded emergence of gamma oscillations at the stimulation site while retaining propagating waves of gamma oscillations in the non-stimulated tissue. It also predicts that gamma waves can be emitted on every second cycle of a 100 Hz oscillation. That prediction was subsequently confirmed by re-analysis of the neurophysiological data. The model thus offers a theoretical account of how optogenetic stimulation alters the excitability of cortical neural fields. PMID:28118355

  2. Repression of host RNA polymerase II transcription by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, C A; Dahmus, M E; Rice, S A

    1997-01-01

    Lytic infection of mammalian cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in rapid repression of host gene expression and selective activation of the viral genome. This transformation in gene expression is thought to involve repression of host transcription and diversion of the host RNA polymerase (RNAP II) transcription machinery to the viral genome. However, the extent of virus-induced host transcription repression and the mechanisms responsible for these major shifts in transcription specificities have not been examined. To determine how HSV-1 accomplishes repression of host RNAP II transcription, we assayed transcription patterns on several cellular genes in cells infected with mutant and wild-type HSV-1. Our results suggest that HSV-1 represses RNAP II transcription on most cellular genes. However, each cellular gene we examined responds differently to the transcription repressive effects of virus infection, both quantitatively and with respect to the involvement of viral gene products. Virus-induced shutoff of host RNAP II transcription requires expression of multiple immediate-early genes. In contrast, expression of delayed-early and late genes and viral DNA replication appear to contribute little to repression of host cell RNAP II transcription. Modification of RNAP II to the intermediately phosphorylated (II(I)) form appears unlinked to virus-induced repression of host cell transcription. However, full repression of host transcription is correlated with depletion of the hyperphosphorylated (IIO) form of RNAP II. PMID:9032335

  3. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Dependent GLP-1 and PYY Secretion in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Ramona; Rievaj, Juraj; Larraufie, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the key hormone mediator of the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Here we report that in the colonic epithelium, the Ang II type 1 receptor is highly and exclusively expressed in enteroendocrine L cells, which produce the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY). Ang II stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 and PYY release from primary cultures of mouse and human colon, which was antagonized by the specific Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan. Ang II raised intracellular calcium levels in L cells in primary cultures, recorded by live-cell imaging of L cells specifically expressing the fluorescent calcium sensor GCaMP3. In Ussing chamber recordings, Ang II reduced short circuit currents in mouse distal colon preparations, which was antagonized by candesartan or a specific neuropeptide Y1 receptor inhibitor but insensitive to amiloride. We conclude that Ang II stimulates PYY secretion, in turn inhibiting epithelial anion fluxes, thereby reducing net fluid secretion into the colonic lumen. Our findings highlight an important role of colonic L cells in whole-body fluid homeostasis by controlling water loss through the intestine. PMID:27447725

  4. Prediction of Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver; Schmidt, Joachim

    Type II radio bursts are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else by blast waves. Recently we coupled the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our kinetic ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. Initialising the simulation code with event specific coronal and CME data, the combined code can be used to predict the dynamic spectrum of type II emission for a specific radio event. We demonstrate very good agreement with Wind spacecraft observations for three type II bursts, one on 15 February 2011 and two on 7 March 2012 (associated with successive CMEs from different sides of the same active region). The intensities, frequencies, and times of fundamental and harmonic type II emission are predicted very well from the high corona to 1 AU (frequencies ~ 20 MHz - 30 kHz). The islands of increased emission correspond to different regions of the shock interacting with coronal structures, with streamers typically corresponding to reduced emission. The results provide strong evidence that both the type II theory and the BATS-R-US (driven with event-specific data) are accurate. They also provide strong evidence that the observation and detailed theoretical modelling of type II bursts can in principle provide warnings with lead-times of over a day for large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. The MHD code can also predict whether the CME will hit Earth's magnetopause and the magnetic field direction at the magnetopause as the shock, sheath, and CME, vital quantities for predicting space weather at Earth.

  5. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  6. Unifying Type II Supernova Light Curves with Dense Circumstellar Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Piro, Anthony L.; Valenti, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    A longstanding problem in the study of supernovae (SNe) has been the relationship between the Type IIP and Type IIL subclasses. Whether they come from distinct progenitors or they are from similar stars with some property that smoothly transitions from one class to another has been the subject of much debate. Here, using one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic SN models, we show that the multi-band light curves of SNe IIL are well fit by ordinary red supergiants surrounded by dense circumstellar material (CSM). The inferred extent of this material, coupled with a typical wind velocity of ∼ 10{--}100 {km} {{{s}}}-1, suggests enhanced activity by these stars during the last ~months to ∼years of their lives, which may be connected with advanced stages of nuclear burning. Furthermore, we find that, even for more plateau-like SNe, dense CSM provides a better fit to the first ∼ 20 days of their light curves, indicating that the presence of such material may be more widespread than previously appreciated. Here we choose to model the CSM with a wind-like density profile, but it is unclear whether this just generally represents some other mass distribution, such as a recent mass ejection, thick disk, or even inflated envelope material. Better understanding the exact geometry and density distribution of this material will be an important question for future studies.

  7. In Situ D-periodic Molecular Structure of Type II Collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Antipova, Olga; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2010-05-06

    Collagens are essential components of extracellular matrices in multicellular animals. Fibrillar type II collagen is the most prominent component of articular cartilage and other cartilage-like tissues such as notochord. Its in situ macromolecular and packing structures have not been fully characterized, but an understanding of these attributes may help reveal mechanisms of tissue assembly and degradation (as in osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis). In some tissues such as lamprey notochord, the collagen fibrillar organization is naturally crystalline and may be studied by x-ray diffraction. We used diffraction data from native and derivative notochord tissue samples to solve the axial, D-periodic structure of type II collagen via multiple isomorphous replacement. The electron density maps and heavy atom data revealed the conformation of the nonhelical telopeptides and the overall D-periodic structure of collagen type II in native tissues, data that were further supported by structure prediction and transmission electron microscopy. These results help to explain the observed differences in collagen type I and type II fibrillar architecture and indicate the collagen type II cross-link organization, which is crucial for fibrillogenesis. Transmission electron microscopy data show the close relationship between lamprey and mammalian collagen fibrils, even though the respective larger scale tissue architecture differs.

  8. The threshold temperature where type-I and type-II interchange in mesoscopic superconductors at the Bogomolnyi limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Isaías G.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we discuss the H - T phase diagram for mesoscopic squared superconducting samples at the Bogomolnyi limit, where the Ginzburg-Landau constant κ = 1 /√{ 2}. We calculate Hp (T), the vortex penetration field, and Hu (T) the upper critical field. Through the study of the temperature dependence on the Hp, it is possible to distinguish the region where the magnetic field penetrates into the sample, like a type-I or a type-II superconductor. It permits to determine the threshold temperature T⋆ (L , H) where the phase transition from type-I to type-II occurs for some different sizes L of the mesoscopic superconducting samples. The calculation of the upper critical field Hu (T), for these samples, shows that, these two curves, Hp (T) and Hu (T), overlap at the threshold temperature mentioned above. The magnetization of the system was calculated for all sizes studied in this work, and for temperatures above and below T⋆ (L , H). This study confirms the existence of the threshold temperature, T⋆ (L , H), where type-I and type-II interchange in mesoscopic superconductors at the Bogomolnyi limit.

  9. Coordination of copper(II) ions by the fragments of neuropeptide gamma containing D1, H9, H12 residues and products of copper-catalyzed oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Elżbieta; Pietruszka, Marta; Kowalik-Jankowska, Teresa

    2012-02-14

    A potentiometric, spectroscopic (UV-Vis, CD and EPR) and mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study of Cu(II) binding to the (1-2,7-21)NPG, Asp(1)-Ala-Ile(7)-Ser-His(9)-Lys-Arg-His(12)-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met(21)-NH(2), and Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG, Ac-Asp(1)-Ala-Ile(7)-Ser-His(9)-Lys-Arg-His(12)-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met(21)-NH(2), fragments of neuropeptide gamma were carried out. The results clearly indicate the stabilization of the 1 N {NH(2), β-COO(-)}, 2 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), N(Im)} and 3 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), 2N(Im)} complexes by the coordination of the β-carboxylate group of the D(1) residue. For the (1-2,7-21)NPG the CuH(2)L complex with 3 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), 2N(Im)}, the binding mode dominates in a wide pH range of 4-8.5. With the sequential increase of pH, deprotonated amide nitrogens are involved in copper coordination. For the Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG peptide the imidazole nitrogen atoms are the primary metal binding sites forming macrochelates in the pH range 4 to 7. The CuHL complex with 4 N {N(Im), N(-), N(-), N(Im)} coordination mode is formed in pH range 6-9. Deprotonation and co-ordination of the third amide nitrogen were detected at pH ∼8.6. Metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) of proteins is mainly a site-specific process in which one or a few amino acids at metal-binding sites on the protein are preferentially oxidized. To elucidate the products of the copper(II)-catalyzed oxidation of the (1-2,7-21)NPG and Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG, the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method and Cu(II)/hydrogen peroxide as a model oxidizing system were employed. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide with 1 : 4 peptide-H(2)O(2) molar ratio for the Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG peptide the oxidation of the methionine residue to methionine sulfoxide and for (1-2,7-21)NPG to sulfone was observed. For the Cu(II)-peptide-hydrogen peroxide in 1 : 1 : 4 molar ratio systems, oxidation of the histidine residues to 2-oxohistidines was detected. Under experimental

  10. Having a promising efficacy on type II diabetes, it's definitely a green tea time.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hen; Hu, Guohua; Gu, Dayong; Ni, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of green tea have been confirmed in various diseases, such as different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease. The effective components of green tea mainly include tea polysaccharides and tea polyphenols, such as catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Increasing in vivo and in vitro evidences have explored the potential molecular mechanisms of green tea as well as the specific biological actions. Moreover, clinical trials have also explored the potential value of green tea components in treating metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study explores the effects of the two major green tea components on the improvement of type II diabetes. It is concluded that regular consumption of green tea is beneficial for the improvement of high-fat dietary-induced obesity and type II diabetes.

  11. Rad: A member of the Ras family overexpressed in muscle of type II diabetic humans

    SciTech Connect

    Reynet, C.; Kahn, C.R. )

    1993-11-26

    To identify the gene or genes associated with insulin resistance in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, subtraction libraries were prepared from skeletal muscle of normal and diabetic humans and screened with subtracted probes. Only one clone out of 4000 was selectively overexpressed in Type II diabetic muscle as compared to muscle of non-diabetic or Type I diabetic individuals. This clone encoded a new 290 kilodalton member of the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase superfamily and was termed Rad (Ras associated with diabetes). Messenger ribonucleic acid of Rad was expressed primarily in skeletal and cardiac muscle and was increased an average of 8.6-fold in the muscle of Type II diabetics as compared to normal individuals.

  12. Signature of type-II Weyl semimetal phase in MoTe2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Liu, Z K; Sun, Y; Yang, H F; Rajamathi, C R; Qi, Y P; Yang, L X; Chen, C; Peng, H; Hwang, C-C; Sun, S Z; Mo, S-K; Vobornik, I; Fujii, J; Parkin, S S P; Felser, C; Yan, B H; Chen, Y L

    2017-01-13

    Topological Weyl semimetal (TWS), a new state of quantum matter, has sparked enormous research interest recently. Possessing unique Weyl fermions in the bulk and Fermi arcs on the surface, TWSs offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena. TWSs can be classified into type-I that respect Lorentz symmetry and type-II that do not. Here, we directly visualize the electronic structure of MoTe2, a recently proposed type-II TWS. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we unravel the unique surface Fermi arcs, in good agreement with our ab initio calculations that have nontrivial topological nature. Our work not only leads to new understandings of the unusual properties discovered in this family of compounds, but also allows for the further exploration of exotic properties and practical applications of type-II TWSs, as well as the interplay between superconductivity (MoTe2 was discovered to be superconducting recently) and their topological order.

  13. Signature of type-II Weyl semimetal phase in MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Liu, Z. K.; Sun, Y.; Yang, H. F.; Rajamathi, C. R.; Qi, Y. P.; Yang, L. X.; Chen, C.; Peng, H.; Hwang, C.-C.; Sun, S. Z.; Mo, S.-K.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Felser, C.; Yan, B. H.; Chen, Y. L.

    2017-01-01

    Topological Weyl semimetal (TWS), a new state of quantum matter, has sparked enormous research interest recently. Possessing unique Weyl fermions in the bulk and Fermi arcs on the surface, TWSs offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena. TWSs can be classified into type-I that respect Lorentz symmetry and type-II that do not. Here, we directly visualize the electronic structure of MoTe2, a recently proposed type-II TWS. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we unravel the unique surface Fermi arcs, in good agreement with our ab initio calculations that have nontrivial topological nature. Our work not only leads to new understandings of the unusual properties discovered in this family of compounds, but also allows for the further exploration of exotic properties and practical applications of type-II TWSs, as well as the interplay between superconductivity (MoTe2 was discovered to be superconducting recently) and their topological order.

  14. Pectic type II arabinogalactans from starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.).

    PubMed

    Leivas, Carolina Lopes; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2016-05-15

    A structural characterization of polysaccharides from edible tropical fruit named starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) was carried out. After the purification steps, two homogeneous fractions were obtained. Fraction 50R was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acid in 4.3:56.2:37.4:2M ratio, respectively and fraction 10R was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acid in 2.8:65.8:28.5:3M ratio, respectively. Methylation and NMR spectroscopy analyses showed that these fractions are formed by pectic arabinogalactans, which contain (1→3), (1→6) and (1→3,6)-linked Galp units. The side chains have 3-O-, 5-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked α-Araf and nonreducing end-units of α-Araf, Arap, β-Galp and α-GlcpA. These arabinogalactans were linked to type I rhamnogalacturonans.

  15. Efficacy of an adeno-associated virus 8-pseudotyped vector in glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Franco, Luis M; Young, Sarah P; Schneider, Ayn; Bird, Andrew; Amalfitano, Andrea; Chen, Y-T; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2005-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease) causes death in infancy from cardiorespiratory failure. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase) can be corrected by liver-targeted gene therapy in GSD-II, if secretion of GAA is accompanied by receptor-mediated uptake in cardiac and skeletal muscle. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding human (h) GAA was pseudotyped as AAV8 (AAV2/8) and injected intravenously into immunodeficient GSD-II mice. High levels of hGAA were maintained in plasma for 24 weeks following AAV2/8 vector administration. A marked increase in vector copy number in the liver was demonstrated for the AAV2/8 vector compared to the analogous AAV2/2 vector. GAA deficiency in the heart and skeletal muscle was corrected with the AAV2/8 vector in male GSD-II mice, consistent with receptor-mediated uptake of hGAA. Male GSD-II mice demonstrated complete correction of glycogen storage in heart and diaphragm with the AAV2/8 vector, while female GSD-II mice had correction only in the heart. A biomarker for GSD-II was reduced in both sexes following AAV2/8 vector administration. Therefore, GAA production with an AAV2/8 vector in a depot organ, the liver, generated evidence for efficacious gene therapy in a mouse model for GSD-II.

  16. rFN/Cad-11-Modified Collagen Type II Biomimetic Interface Promotes the Adhesion and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zhengsheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Bo; Kang, Xia; Wen, Can; Yan, Yanfei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Yujiang

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the cell-material interface are determining factors in the successful function of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Currently, cell adhesion is commonly promoted through the use of polypeptides; however, due to their lack of complementary or modulatory domains, polypeptides must be modified to improve their ability to promote adhesion. In this study, we utilized the principle of matrix-based biomimetic modification and a recombinant protein, which spans fragments 7–10 of fibronectin module III (heterophilic motif ) and extracellular domains 1–2 of cadherin-11 (rFN/Cad-11) (homophilic motif ), to modify the interface of collagen type II (Col II) sponges. We showed that the designed material was able to stimulate cell proliferation and promote better chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro than both the FN modified surfaces and the negative control. Further, the Col II/rFN/Cad-11-MSCs composite stimulated cartilage formation in vivo; the chondrogenic effect of Col II alone was much less significant. These results suggested that the rFN/Cad-11-modified collagen type II biomimetic interface has dual biological functions of promoting adhesion and stimulating chondrogenic differentiation. This substance, thus, may serve as an ideal scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing repair of injured cartilage in vivo. PMID:23919505

  17. The tryptophan switch: changing ligand-binding specificity from type I to type II in SH3 domains.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Blanes-Mira, Clara; Serrano, Luis

    2004-01-09

    The ability of certain Src homology 3 (SH3) domains to bind specifically both type I and type II polyproline ligands is perhaps the best characterized, but also the worst understood, example in the family of protein-interaction modules. A detailed analysis of the structural variations in SH3 domains, with respect to ligand-binding specificity, together with mutagenesis of SH3 Fyn tyrosine kinase, reveal the structural basis for types I and II binding specificity by SH3 domains. The conserved Trp in the SH3 binding pocket can adopt two different orientations that, in turn, determine the type of ligand (I or II) able to bind to the domain. The only exceptions are ligands with Leu at positions P(-1) and P(2), that deviate from standard poly-Pro angles. The motion of the conserved Trp depends on the presence of certain residues located in a key position (132 for Fyn), near the binding pocket. SH3 domains placing aromatic residues in this key position are promiscuous. By contrast, those presenting beta-branched or long aliphatic residues block the conserved Trp in one of the two possible orientations, preventing binding in a type I orientation. This is experimentally demonstrated by a single mutation in Fyn SH3 (Y132I) that abolishes type I ligand binding, while preserving binding to type II ligands. Thus, simple conformational changes, governed by simple rules, can have profound effects on protein-protein interactions, highlighting the importance of structural details to predict protein-protein interactions.

  18. Novel binding interactions of the DNA fragment d(pGpG) cross-linked by the antitumor active compound tetrakis(mu-carboxylato)dirhodium(II,II).

    PubMed

    Chifotides, Helen T; Koshlap, Karl M; Pérez, Lisa M; Dunbar, Kim R

    2003-09-03

    Insight into the N7/O6 equatorial binding interactions of the antitumor active complex Rh(2)(OAc)(4)(H(2)O)(2) (OAc(-) = CH(3)CO(2)(-)) with the nucleotide 5'-GMP and the DNA fragment d(pGpG) has been obtained by one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. The lack of N7 protonation at low pH values and the significant increase in the acidity of N1-H (pK(a) approximately 5.6 as compared to 8.5 for N7 only bound platinum adducts), indicated by the pH dependence study of the H8 (1)H NMR resonance for the HT (head-to-tail) isomer of Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2), are consistent with bidentate N7/O6 binding of the guanine. The H8 (1)H NMR resonance of the HH (head-to-head) Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2) isomer, as well as the 5'-G and 3'-G H8 resonances of the Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] adduct exhibit pH-independent titration curves, attributable to the added effect of the 5'-phosphate group deprotonation at a pH value similar to that of the N1 site. The enhancement in the acidity of N1-H, with respect to N7 only bound metal adducts, afforded by the O6 binding of the bases to the rhodium centers, has been corroborated by monitoring the pH dependence of the purine C6 and C2 (13)C NMR resonances for Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2) and Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)]. The latter studies resulted in pK(a) values in good agreement with those derived from the pH-dependent (1)H NMR titrations of the H8 resonances. Comparison of the (13)C NMR resonances of C6 and C2 for the dirhodium adducts Rh(2)(OAc)(2)(5'-GMP)(2) and Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] with the corresponding resonances of the unbound ligands at pH 8.0, showed substantial downfield shifts of Deltadelta approximately 11.0 and 6.0 ppm, respectively. The HH arrangement of the bases in the Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] adduct is evidenced by intense H8/H8 ROE cross-peaks in the 2D ROESY NMR spectrum. The presence of the terminal 5'-phosphate group in d(pGpG) results in stabilization of one left-handed Rh(2)(OAc)(2) [d(pGpG)] HH1 L conformer, due to

  19. Endemicity and phylogeny of the human T cell lymphotropic virus type II subtype A from the Kayapo Indians of Brazil: evidence for limited regional dissemination.

    PubMed

    Switzer, W M; Black, F L; Pieniazek, D; Biggar, R J; Lal, R B; Heneine, W

    1996-05-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) from 17 seropositive Kayapo Indians from Brazil showed that all 17 samples contained a unique HTLV-IIa subtype (A-II). Additional RFLP screening demonstrated the presence of this subtype in two of three Brazilian blood donors and a Mexican prostitute and her child. In contrast, 129 samples from blood donors and intravenous drug users (IDUs) from the United States, two Pueblo Indian samples, five samples from Norwegian IDUs, and two samples from blood donors from Denmark were all found to be a different HTLV-IIa subtype (A-III). Phylogenetic analysis of two Kayapo and one Mexican LTR sequences showed that they cluster with a subtype A-II sequence from a Brazilian blood donor and with sequences from two prostitutes from Ghana and Cameroon. These results demonstrate that infection with the A-II subtype is endemic among the Kayapo Amerindians, has disseminated to non-Indian populations in Brazil, and is also present in Mexico. Furthermore, the A-II subtype does not appear to represent an origin for the HTLV-IIa infection in urban areas of the United States and Europe. This study provides evidence that HTLV-IIa may be a Paleo-Indian subtype as previously suggested for HTLV-IIb.

  20. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  1. Mg II h+k Flux - Rotational Period Correlation for G-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, J. M.; Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; De la Luz, V.

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the correlation between the mid-UV Mg II h and k emission lines and measured rotational periods of G-type stars. Based on IUE and HST high resolution spectra of a sample of 36 stars, we derive an exponential function that best represents the correlation. We find that the variation of the Mg II h + k fluxes is about a factor of 2.5 larger than that of Ca II H+K, indicating that the UV features are more sensitive to the decline of Prot. The comparison of UV-predicted rotational periods with those derived from empirical Prot - Ca II H+K flux calibrations are consistent, with some scatter at large periods, where the emission are less intense. We present newly derived rotational periods for 15 G-type stars (see Olmedo et al. 2013).

  2. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dilday, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  3. Reduction of Melatonin Level in Patients with Type II Diabetes and Periodontal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Ahmadi Motemayel, Fatemeh; Jazaeri, Mina; Feradmal, Javad; Zarabadi, Mahdiyeh; Hoseyni, Mostafa; Torkzaban, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis.

  4. DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SOURCE PROPERTIES OF A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITH SPECTRAL BUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Guo, Fan

    2013-04-10

    In recent studies, we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 2007 December 31 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps result from a CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are likely quasi-perpendicular or oblique. Since the emission lanes are bumped as a whole within a relatively short time, it suggests that the type II radio bursts with bumps of this study are emitted from spatially confined sources (with a projected lateral dimension smaller than 0.05-0.1 R{sub Sun} at a fundamental frequency level of 20-30 MHz).

  5. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  6. The Brm-HDAC3-Erm repressor complex suppresses dedifferentiation in Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages

    PubMed Central

    Koe, Chwee Tat; Li, Song; Rossi, Fabrizio; Wong, Jack Jing Lin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhizhuo; Chen, Keng; Aw, Sherry Shiying; Richardson, Helena E; Robson, Paul; Sung, Wing-Kin; Yu, Fengwei; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    The control of self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells is a crucial issue in stem cell and cancer biology. Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages are prone to developing impaired neuroblast homeostasis if the limited self-renewing potential of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) is unrestrained. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling Brahma (Brm) complex functions cooperatively with another chromatin remodeling factor, Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) to suppress the formation of ectopic type II neuroblasts. We show that multiple components of the Brm complex and HDAC3 physically associate with Earmuff (Erm), a type II-specific transcription factor that prevents dedifferentiation of INPs into neuroblasts. Consistently, the predicted Erm-binding motif is present in most of known binding loci of Brm. Furthermore, brm and hdac3 genetically interact with erm to prevent type II neuroblast overgrowth. Thus, the Brm-HDAC3-Erm repressor complex suppresses dedifferentiation of INPs back into type II neuroblasts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01906.001 PMID:24618901

  7. Oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Aerts, C; Gressier, B; Gosset, P; Voisin, C

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of guinea pig alveolar epithelial type II cells to generate significant amounts of reactive oxygen species to inactivate alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI). Inactivation of alpha 1-PI was evaluated by its inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic elastase and was expressed as a percentage. The same experiments were performed in parallel with alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from the same animals and with MRC-5 fibroblasts. Both type II cells and AM released significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, whereas the fibroblasts did not. Unstimulated type II cells (0.5 +/- 2%), AM (1.2 +/- 1.5%), and fibroblasts (0.5 +/- 0.5%) were unable to inactivate alpha 1-PI. Addition of phorbol myristate acetate did not increase their ability to inactivate alpha 1-PI. In contrast, type II cells (79.7 +/- 7%) and AM (80.1 +/- 8%) dramatically inactivated alpha 1-PI in the presence of myeloperoxidase (25 mU/ml), whereas fibroblasts did not. Addition of catalase to the reaction significantly prevented the inactivation of alpha 1-PI. Western blot analysis of alpha 1-PI did not reveal a significant proteolysis of alpha 1-PI, which supports the hypothesis that, in the presence of neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase, type II cells may oxidatively inactivate alpha 1-PI.

  8. Surfactant treatment effects on lung structure and type II cells of preterm ventilated lambs.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, K E; Ikegami, M; Dillard, L M; Jobe, A H

    2000-05-01

    We evaluated surfactant treatment effects on lung morphology and alveolar type II cells of preterm ventilated lambs. Lambs were ventilated for 10 h following treatment of the right lung with natural surfactant. Lung parenchyma from the surfactant-treated right and the untreated left lung was compared morphometrically. Mechanical ventilation without surfactant resulted in distention of alveolar ducts accompanied by shallowing and loss of well-defined alveoli without disruption of collagen or elastin fibers. Surfactant treatment almost completely prevented these changes. The percent of normal parenchyma was 82 +/- 7% in surfactant-treated lobes and 26 +/- 5% in the nontreated lobes (p < 0.05). Type II cells became flatter in lungs ventilated without surfactant, and cell shape was preserved by surfactant treatment. The volume densities of lamellar bodies and multivesicular bodies in alveolar type II cells were not changed by surfactant treatment. With or without surfactant treatment, mechanical ventilation was associated with a shift in lamellar body distribution to a smaller size and a decrease in glycogen content of type II cells. Surfactant treatment of the preterm lung prevents alveolar distortion and atelectasis, but does not result in changes in subcellular organelles in immature type II cells.

  9. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  10. Excitonic transitions in highly efficient (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) type-II quantum-well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, S.; Kruska, C.; Berger, C.; Hens, P.; Fuchs, C.; Rosemann, N. W.; Veletas, J.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Heimbrodt, W.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.

    2015-11-02

    The excitonic transitions of the type-II (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) gain medium of a “W”-laser structure are characterized experimentally by modulation spectroscopy and analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the very good agreement between the measured and calculated photoreflectivity, the type-I or type-II character of the observable excitonic transitions is identified. Whereas the energetically lowest three transitions exhibit type-II character, the subsequent energetically higher transitions possess type-I character with much stronger dipole moments. Despite the type-II character, the quantum-well structure exhibits a bright luminescence.

  11. Type II diabetes of early onset: a distinct clinical and genetic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, S; Spivey, R S; Holman, R R; Nugent, Z; Clark, A; Turner, R C

    1987-01-01

    The inheritance of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes was studied by a continuous infusion of glucose test in all available first degree relatives of 48 diabetic probands of various ages and with differing severity of disease. In an initial study of 38 type II diabetic subjects and their first degree relatives six islet cell antibody negative patients with early onset disease (aged 25-40 at diagnosis) were found to have a particularly high familial prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance. Nine of 10 parents available for study either had type II diabetes or were glucose intolerant. A high prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance was also found in their siblings (11/16;69%). In a second study of the families of a further 10 young diabetic probands (presenting age 25-40) whose islet cell antibody state was unknown a similar high prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance was found among parents of the five islet cell antibody negative probands (8/9; 89%) but not among parents of the five islet cell antibody positive probands (3/8;38%). Islet cell antibody negative diabetics with early onset type II disease may have inherited a diabetogenic gene or genes from both parents. They commonly need insulin to maintain adequate glycaemic control and may develop severe diabetic complications. Early onset type II diabetes may represent a syndrome in which characteristic pedigrees, clinical severity, and absence of islet autoimmunity make it distinct from either type I diabetes, maturity onset diabetes of the young, or late onset type II diabetes. PMID:3107658

  12. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment.

  13. The alpha-herpesviridae in dermatology : Herpes simplex virus types I and II.

    PubMed

    El Hayderi, L; Rübben, A; Nikkels, A F

    2017-02-14

    This review on herpes simplex virus type I and type II (HSV‑I, HSV‑II) summarizes recent developments in clinical manifestations and treatment interventions for primary and recurrent orolabial and genital herpes, as well as those regarding vaccination issues. Among the clinical presentations, the relationship between pyogenic granuloma and chronic HSV‑I infection; HSV-related folliculitis; verrucous HSV‑I and HSV‑II lesions; the role of recurrent HSV‑I infection in burning mouth syndrome; HSV‑I and HSV‑II infection of the periareolar area; zosteriform HSV; the "knife-cut sign"; and the preferential colonization and infection of preexisting dermatoses by HSV‑I or HSV‑II are discussed. The usual antiviral treatment regimens for primary and recurrent orolabial and genital herpes are compared to short-term and one-day treatment options. New anti-HSV‑I and anti-HSV‑II agents include amenavir, pritelivir, brincidofovir, valomaciclovir, and FV-100. Therapeutic or preventive vaccination against HSV‑I and HSV‑II infections still remains a highly desirable treatment aim, which, unfortunately, has no clinically relevant applications to date.

  14. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  15. Assessment of Whole-Genome Regression for Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Ana I.; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Veturi, Yogasudha C.; Paérez-Rodríguez, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle and genetic factors play a large role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Despite the important role of genetic factors, genetic information is not incorporated into the clinical assessment of T2D risk. We assessed and compared Whole Genome Regression methods to predict the T2D status of 5,245 subjects from the Framingham Heart Study. For evaluating each method we constructed the following set of regression models: A clinical baseline model (CBM) which included non-genetic covariates only. CBM was extended by adding the first two marker-derived principal components and 65 SNPs identified by a recent GWAS consortium for T2D (M-65SNPs). Subsequently, it was further extended by adding 249,798 genome-wide SNPs from a high-density array. The Bayesian models used to incorporate genome-wide marker information as predictors were: Bayes A, Bayes Cπ, Bayesian LASSO (BL), and the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (G-BLUP). Results included estimates of the genetic variance and heritability, genetic scores for T2D, and predictive ability evaluated in a 10-fold cross-validation. The predictive AUC estimates for CBM and M-65SNPs were: 0.668 and 0.684, respectively. We found evidence of contribution of genetic effects in T2D, as reflected in the genomic heritability estimates (0.492±0.066). The highest predictive AUC among the genome-wide marker Bayesian models was 0.681 for the Bayesian LASSO. Overall, the improvement in predictive ability was moderate and did not differ greatly among models that included genetic information. Approximately 58% of the total number of genetic variants was found to contribute to the overall genetic variation, indicating a complex genetic architecture for T2D. Our results suggest that the Bayes Cπ and the G-BLUP models with a large set of genome-wide markers could be used for predicting risk to T2D, as an alternative to using high-density arrays when selected markers from large consortiums for a given complex trait or

  16. Assessment of whole-genome regression for type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Ana I; Klimentidis, Yann C; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Veturi, Yogasudha C; Paérez-Rodríguez, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle and genetic factors play a large role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Despite the important role of genetic factors, genetic information is not incorporated into the clinical assessment of T2D risk. We assessed and compared Whole Genome Regression methods to predict the T2D status of 5,245 subjects from the Framingham Heart Study. For evaluating each method we constructed the following set of regression models: A clinical baseline model (CBM) which included non-genetic covariates only. CBM was extended by adding the first two marker-derived principal components and 65 SNPs identified by a recent GWAS consortium for T2D (M-65SNPs). Subsequently, it was further extended by adding 249,798 genome-wide SNPs from a high-density array. The Bayesian models used to incorporate genome-wide marker information as predictors were: Bayes A, Bayes Cπ, Bayesian LASSO (BL), and the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (G-BLUP). Results included estimates of the genetic variance and heritability, genetic scores for T2D, and predictive ability evaluated in a 10-fold cross-validation. The predictive AUC estimates for CBM and M-65SNPs were: 0.668 and 0.684, respectively. We found evidence of contribution of genetic effects in T2D, as reflected in the genomic heritability estimates (0.492±0.066). The highest predictive AUC among the genome-wide marker Bayesian models was 0.681 for the Bayesian LASSO. Overall, the improvement in predictive ability was moderate and did not differ greatly among models that included genetic information. Approximately 58% of the total number of genetic variants was found to contribute to the overall genetic variation, indicating a complex genetic architecture for T2D. Our results suggest that the Bayes Cπ and the G-BLUP models with a large set of genome-wide markers could be used for predicting risk to T2D, as an alternative to using high-density arrays when selected markers from large consortiums for a given complex trait or

  17. Influence of habitat, litter type, and soil invertebrates on leaf-litter decomposition in a fragmented Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Laurance, William F

    2005-07-01

    Amazonian forest fragments and second-growth forests often differ substantially from undisturbed forests in their microclimate, plant-species composition, and soil fauna. To determine if these changes could affect litter decomposition, we quantified the mass loss of two contrasting leaf-litter mixtures, in the presence or absence of soil macroinvertebrates, and in three forest habitats. Leaf-litter decomposition rates in second-growth forests (>10 years old) and in fragment edges (<100 m from the edge) did not differ from that in the forest interior (>250 m from the edges of primary forests). In all three habitats, experimental exclusion of soil invertebrates resulted in slower decomposition rates. Faunal-exclosure effects were stronger for litter of the primary forest, composed mostly of leaves of old-growth trees, than for litter of second-growth forests, which was dominated by leaves of successional species. The latter had a significantly lower initial concentration of N, higher C:N and lignin:N ratios, and decomposed at a slower rate than did litter from forest interiors. Our results indicate that land-cover changes in Amazonia affect decomposition mainly through changes in plant species composition, which in turn affect litter quality. Similar effects may occur on fragment edges, particularly on very disturbed edges, where successional trees become dominant. The drier microclimatic conditions in fragment edges and second-growth forests (>10 years old) did not appear to inhibit decomposition. Finally, although soil invertebrates play a key role in leaf-litter decomposition, we found no evidence that differences in the abundance, species richness, or species composition of invertebrates between disturbed and undisturbed forests significantly altered decomposition rates.

  18. A Type II Supernova Hubble Diagram from the CSP-I, SDSS-II, and SNLS Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Folatelli, G.; Pritchet, C.; Basa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will restrict spectroscopic follow-up in the vast majority of cases, and hence new methods based solely on photometric data must be developed. Here, we construct a complete Hubble diagram of Type II supernovae (SNe II) combining data from three different samples: the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II SN, and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Applying the Photometric Color Method (PCM) to 73 SNe II with a redshift range of 0.01–0.5 and with no spectral information, we derive an intrinsic dispersion of 0.35 mag. A comparison with the Standard Candle Method (SCM) using 61 SNe II is also performed and an intrinsic dispersion in the Hubble diagram of 0.27 mag, i.e., 13% in distance uncertainties, is derived. Due to the lack of good statistics at higher redshifts for both methods, only weak constraints on the cosmological parameters are obtained. However, assuming a flat universe and using the PCM, we derive the universe’s matter density: {{{Ω }}}m={0.32}-0.21+0.30 providing a new independent evidence for dark energy at the level of two sigma. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes, with the du Pont and Swope telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program N-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GS-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, and GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programmes 076.A-0156,078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  19. Proteomic peptide scan of porphyromonas gingivalis fima type ii for searching potential b-cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    LUCCHESE, A.; GUIDA, A.; CAPONE, G.; DONNARUMMA, G.; LAINO, L.; PETRUZZI, M.; SERPICO, R.; SILVESTRE, F.; GARGARI, M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose To identify potential antigenic targets for Porphyromonas gingivalis vaccine development. Materials and methods In the present study, we analyzed the Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA type II primary amino acid sequence and characterized the similarity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level. Results We found that exact peptide-peptide profiling of the fimbrial antigen versus the human proteome shows that only 19 out of 344 fimA type II pentapeptides are uniquely owned by the bacterial protein. Conclusions The concept that protein immunogenicity is allocated in rare peptide sequences and the search the Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA type II sequence for peptides unique to the bacterial protein and absent in the human host, might be used in new therapeutical approaches as a significant adjunct to current periodontal therapies. PMID:28042435

  20. Excitonic structure and pumping power dependent emission blue-shift of type-II quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Klenovský, Petr; Steindl, Petr; Geffroy, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    In this work we study theoretically and experimentally the multi-particle structure of the so-called type-II quantum dots with spatially separated electrons and holes. Our calculations based on customarily developed full configuration interaction ap- proach reveal that exciton complexes containing holes interacting with two or more electrons exhibit fairly large antibinding energies. This effect is found to be the hallmark of the type-II confinement. In addition, an approximate self-consistent solution of the multi-exciton problem allows us to explain two pronounced phenomena: the blue-shift of the emission with pumping and the large inhomogeneous spectral broadening, both of those eluding explanation so far. The results are confirmed by detailed intensity and polarization resolved photoluminescence measurements on a number of type-II samples. PMID:28358120

  1. Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    El husseny, Mostafa Wanees Ahmed; Mamdouh, Mediana; Shaban, Sara; Zaki, Marwa Mostafa Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama M.

    2017-01-01

    Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity. PMID:28286779

  2. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  3. Fixation of unstable type II clavicle fractures with distal clavicle plate and suture button.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter S; Sears, Benjamin W; Lazarus, Mark R; Frieman, Barbara G

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on a technique to treat unstable type II distal clavicle fractures using fracture-specific plates and coracoclavicular augmentation with a suture button. Six patients with clinically unstable type II distal clavicle fractures underwent treatment using the above technique. All fractures demonstrated radiographic union at 9.6 (8.4-11.6) weeks with a mean follow-up of 15.6 (12.4-22.3) months. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Penn Shoulder Score, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores were 97.97 (98.33-100), 96.4 (91-99), and 95 (90-100), respectively. One patient required implant removal. Fracture-specific plating with suture-button augmentation for type II distal clavicle fractures provides reliable rates of union without absolute requirement for implant removal.

  4. Peripheral papillary tumor of type-II pneumocytes: a rare neoplasm of undetermined malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Dessy, E; Braidotti, P; Del Curto, B; Falleni, M; Coggi, G; Santa Cruz, G; Carai, A; Versace, R; Pietra, G G

    2000-03-01

    Peripheral papillary adenomas of the lung are uncommon neoplasms (only ten cases have been described so far in the English literature) composed predominantly of type-II pneumocytes and generally considered benign. We describe here two additional cases of this lung tumor. In both cases histological examination revealed an encapsulated papillary neoplasm with invasion of the capsule and, in one case, invasion of the adjacent alveoli and visceral pleura too. The proliferative index (Ki67) was less than 2% and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratins, surfactant apoproteins (SP), and nuclear thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF- 1). Ultrastructurally, the epithelial cells showed the characteristic surface microvilli and cytoplasmic lamellar inclusions of type-II cells. Review of the literature has revealed two other cases of peripheral papillary adenoma of type-II pneumocytes with infiltrative features. Thus, we propose replacing the term peripheral papillary adenoma with peripheral papillary tumor of undetermined malignant potential.

  5. Solar gamma-ray-line flares, type II radio bursts, and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Forrest, D. J.; Koomen, M. J.; Howard, R. A.; Wright, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    A Big Flare Syndrome (BFS) test is used to substantiate earlier reports of a statistically significant association between nuclear gamma-ray-line (GRL) flares and metric type II bursts from coronal shocks. The type II onset characteristically follows the onset of gamma-ray emission with a median delay of two minutes. It is found that 70-90 percent of GRL flares for which coronagraph data were available were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Gradual and impulsive GRL flares were equally well associated with CMEs. The CMEs were typically fast, with a median speed greater than 800 km/s. possible `non-BFS' explanations for the GRL-type II association are discussed.

  6. [Possible role of glucocorticoids in pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Chernysh, P P

    2009-01-01

    Etiology and pathogenesis of II type diabetes mellitus remain until now not finally studied. Modern ideas suppose the presence of two fundamental pathophysiologic defects: insulin resistance (IR) and dysfunctions of beta-cells of the pancreas, accompanied by absolute or relative insulin insufficiency. The article presents IR as the adaptive instead of pathological reaction serving for providing the necessary level of substrata of the metabolism--glucose and the free fat acids necessary to increase energy production in a cell. The author offers a new scheme of pathogenesis of II type diabetes mellitus basing probably on hyper production of the glucocorticoids, causing the main clinical and pathophysiological display of II type diabetes mellitus in people with the certain heredity, limiting the adequate energy production in a cell under the keen demands to an organism.

  7. TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES. IV. OBJECTS FROM THE NORTHERN SKY VARIABILITY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Edward G.

    2013-09-15

    We have obtained VR photometry of 447 Cepheid variable star candidates with declinations north of -14 Degree-Sign 30', most of which were identified using the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) data archive. Periods and other photometric properties were derived from the combination of our data with the NSVS data. Atmospheric parameters were determined for 81 of these stars from low-resolution spectra. The identification of type II Cepheids based on the data presented in all four papers in this series is discussed. On the basis of spectra, 30 type II Cepheids were identified while 53 variables were identified as cool, main sequence stars and 283 as red giants following the definitions in Paper III. An additional 30 type II Cepheids were identified on the basis of light curves. The present classifications are compared with those from the Machine-learned All Sky Automated Survey Classification Catalog for 174 stars in common.

  8. TEMPORAL SPECTRAL SHIFT AND POLARIZATION OF A BAND-SPLITTING SOLAR TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Lv, Maoshui; Kong, Xiangliang; Feng, Shiwei; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-10-01

    In many type II solar radio bursts, the fundamental and/or the harmonic branches of the bursts can split into two almost parallel bands with similar spectral shapes and frequency drifts. However, the mechanisms accounting for this intriguing phenomenon remain elusive. In this study, we report a special band-splitting type II event in which spectral features appear systematically earlier on the upper band (with higher frequencies) than on the lower band (with lower frequencies) by several seconds. Furthermore, the emissions carried by the splitting band are moderately polarized with the left-hand polarized signals stronger than the right-hand ones. The polarization degree varies in a range of –0.3 to –0.6. These novel observational findings provide important constraints on the underlying physical mechanisms of band-splitting of type II radio bursts.

  9. A specific collagen type II gene (COL2A1) mutation presenting as spondyloperipheral dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, B.; Hilbert, K.; Spranger, J.; Winterpacht, A.; Stoeb, H.; Superti-Furga, A.

    1996-05-03

    We report on a patient with a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, spondylo-epiphyseal involvement, and brachydactyly E-like changes. This condition has been described as spondyloperipheral dysplasia and the few published cases suggest autosomal dominant inheritance with considerable clinical variability. We found our sporadic case to be due to a collagen type II defect resulting from a specific COL2A1 mutation. This mutation is the first to be located at the C-terminal outside the helical domain of COL2A1. A frameshift as consequence of a 5 bp duplication in exon 51 leads to a stop codon. The resulting truncated C-propeptide region seems to affect helix formation and produces changes of chondrocyte morphology, collagen type II fibril structure and cartilage matrix composition. Our case with its distinct phenotype adds another chondrodysplasia to the clinical spectrum of type II collagenopathies. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Type-II heterojunctions in GaSb-InAs solid solutions: physics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailova, Maya P.; Baranov, Alexej N.; Imenkov, Albert N.; Yakovlev, Yury P.

    1991-03-01

    Staggered-''lineup type II heterojunctions have been realized in Ga In As Sb solid solutions lattice matched. to GaSb as well as ones depending on alloy composition (x1 O. 23 or XinO8O)i n Unique features of type II heterojunctions due to carrier localization and spatial separation on the interface have been experixnen tally observed by electroluminescence generation of coherent radiation and photocurrent gain. Distinctive hallmarks of the narrow-''gap GaSbGaInAsSb heterojunctions have been considered in connection with CV 1-. V and spectral response experiments. Energy band schemes of such structures have been analized. GaSbGaInAsSb heterojunctions with x 0. 80 were found to be type II misaligned ones. Novel optoelectronic devices for midIR spectral range of 1 (lasers LID''s and high-. speed photodiodes) were developed on the base of GaSb-GaInAsSb heterojunctions.

  11. Understanding the source: The nitrogen isotope composition of Type II mantle diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Sami; Howell, Dan; Jones, Adrian; Milledge, Judith; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds can be broadly subdivided into 2 groups based on their nitrogen content; type I with > 10ppm nitrogen and type II with < 10ppm (1). Roughly 98 % of upper mantle diamonds are classified as type I, interestingly nearly all lower mantle diamonds are of type II (2). This study aims to identify the processes involved or source of type II diamonds from several localities by measuring their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions simultaneously for the first time. Samples have been categorised as type II using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis. The carbon and nitrogen isotopes as well as additional nitrogen content data have been acquired using a custom made a hi-sensitivity gas sourced mass spectrometer built and housed at the Open University, UK. There are two ways in which we can model the petrogenesis of type II diamonds. 1- During diamond growth nitrogen can be incorporated into diamond as a compatible element in a closed system and therefore the N/C ratio in the source can be depleted by Rayleigh fractionation as the first diamonds to crystallise will partition nitrogen atoms into their lattice as a 1:1 substitution for carbon atoms (type I diamonds). However nitrogen may behave as an incompatible element in diamond (and be a compatible element in the metasomatic fluid), this coupled with an open system would lead to the removal of nitrogen by the metasomatic fluids, thus causing the source to progressively become depleted in nitrogen. Continued diamond crystallization in either system will produce diamonds with ever decreasing nitrogen concentrations with time, possibly to the point of them being almost nitrogen free. 2- It is conceivable that type I & II diamonds found in the same deposit and sharing a common paragenesis (eclogitic or peridotitic) may have formed from different metasomatic fluids in separate diamond forming events. The latter has been proposed for samples from the Cullinan mine (South Africa) based on their carbon

  12. Between types I and II: Intertype flux exotic states in thin superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Camacho, W. Y.; da Silva, R. M.; Vagov, A.; Shanenko, A. A.; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2016-08-01

    The Bogomolnyi point separates superconductivity types I and II while itself hiding infinitely degenerate magnetic flux configurations, including very exotic states (referred to here as flux "monsters"). When the degeneracy is removed, the Bogomolnyi point unfolds into a finite, intertype domain in the phase diagram between types I and II. One can expect that in this case the flux monsters can escape their "prison" at the Bogomolnyi point, occupying the intertype domain and shaping its internal structure. Our calculations reveal that such exotic flux distributions are indeed stable in the intertype regime of thin superconductors made of a type-I material, where the Bogomolnyi degeneracy is removed by stray magnetic fields. They can be classified into three typical patterns that are qualitatively different from those in types I and II: superconducting islands separated by vortex chains; stripes/worms/labyrinths patterns; and mixtures of giant vortices and vortex clusters. Our findings shed light on the problem of the interchange between types I and II, raising important questions on the completeness of the textbook classification of the superconductivity types.

  13. Full genome analysis of a novel type II feline coronavirus NTU156.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Nan; Chang, Ruey-Yi; Su, Bi-Ling; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Infections by type II feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) have been shown to be significantly correlated with fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Despite nearly six decades having passed since its first emergence, different studies have shown that type II FCoV represents only a small portion of the total FCoV seropositivity in cats; hence, there is very limited knowledge of the evolution of type II FCoV. To elucidate the correlation between viral emergence and FIP, a local isolate (NTU156) that was derived from a FIP cat was analyzed along with other worldwide strains. Containing an in-frame deletion of 442 nucleotides in open reading frame 3c, the complete genome size of NTU156 (28,897 nucleotides) appears to be the smallest among the known type II feline coronaviruses. Bootscan analysis revealed that NTU156 evolved from two crossover events between type I FCoV and canine coronavirus, with recombination sites located in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and M genes. With an exchange of nearly one-third of the genome with other members of alphacoronaviruses, the new emerging virus could gain new antigenicity, posing a threat to cats that either have been infected with a type I virus before or never have been infected with FCoV.

  14. Evaluation of Coronal Shock Wave Velocities from the II Type Radio Bursts Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanin, V. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Kravetz, R. O.

    The work presents the results of research of connection between the coronal shock waves and the parameters of type II (mII) meter-decameter bursts in 25-180 MHz band for 66 solar proton events. The velocities of coronal shock waves for this two cases where determined. In the first case the velocities of the shock waves was evaluated according to the Newkirck model and in the second case - directly from the type II radio burst parameters. The calculated values of shock waves velocity was compared with the same velocity values that is published on NGDC site. The comparative analysis showed that precision of coronal shock waves velocity estimation which gets directly from type II radio bursts parameters was higher than the same one which used the Newkirck model. Research showed that there is exist the sufficiently strong connection between the shock wave velocity and the delay of type II burst intensity maximum on the second harmonica. Correlation coefficient between the studied parameters was equal to ≍ 0.65.

  15. Recurrence of achondrogenesis type II within the same family: evidence for germline mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Laurence; Le Merrer, Martine; Douvier, Serges; Laurent, Nicole; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rousseau, Thierry; Vereecke, Inge; Sagot, Paul; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Coucke, Paul; Mortier, Geert

    2004-04-30

    Achondrogenesis type II is a lethal skeletal dysplasia caused by new dominant mutations within the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). Here we report on two pregnancies of a healthy, nonconsanguineous young couple. In the first pregnancy, severe micromelia and generalized edema were noted on ultrasound at 21 weeks' gestation. Clinical, radiological, and histological evaluation of the fetus after termination of the pregnancy showed typical findings of achondrogenesis type II. In the second pregnancy, fetal hygroma was noted at 11 weeks' gestation. Similar clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings were observed in the second fetus, suggesting the recurrence of achondrogenesis II within this family. Molecular analysis of genomic DNA extracted from amniotic cells of the second fetus revealed heterozygosity for a 1340G > A missense mutation (G316D) in the COL2A1 gene. This mutation was not found in the parents. Although, we could not evaluate the presence of this mutation in the first fetus, we strongly believe that our data are in favor of germline mosaicism as the most likely explanation for the recurrence of type II achondrogenesis in both sibs.

  16. Action Potentials and Ion Conductances in Wild-type and CALHM1-knockout Type II Taste Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongming; Saung, Wint Thu; Foskett, J Kevin

    2017-02-15

    Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering non-vesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. Here, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1-knockout (KO) mice. The activation kinetics of large voltage-gated outward currents were accelerated in cells from Calhm1-KO mice, and their associated non-selective tail currents, previously shown to be highly correlated with ATP release, were completely absent in Calhm1-KO cells, suggesting that CALHM1 contributes to all of these currents. Calhm1 deletion did not significantly alter resting membrane potential or input resistance, the amplitudes and kinetics of Na(+) currents either estimated from action potentials or recorded from steady-state voltage-pulses, or action potential threshold, overshoot peak, after-hyperpolarization and firing frequency. However, Calhm1-deletion reduced the half-widths of action potentials and accelerated the deactivation kinetics of transient outward currents, suggesting that the CALHM1-associated conductance becomes activated during the repolarization phase of action potentials.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II) in comparison to glucosamine and chondroitin in arthritic horses.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Canerdy, T D; Skaggs, P; Stocker, A; Zyrkowski, G; Burke, R; Wegford, K; Goad, J T; Rohde, K; Barnett, D; DeWees, W; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated arthritic pain in horses receiving daily placebo, undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) at 320, 480, or 640 mg (providing 80, 120, and 160 mg active UC-II, respectively), and glucosamine and chondroitin (5.4 and 1.8 g, respectively, bid for the first month, and thereafter once daily) for 150 days. Horses were evaluated for overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, physical examination, and liver and kidney functions. Evaluation of overall pain was based upon a consistent observation of all subjects during a walk and a trot in the same pattern on the same surface. Pain upon limb manipulation was conducted after the walk and trot. It consisted of placing the affected joint in severe flexion for a period of 60 sec. The limb was then placed to the ground and the animal trotted off. The response to the flexion test was then noted with the first couple of strides the animal took. Flexion test was consistent with determining clinically the degree of osteoarthritis in a joint. Horses receiving placebo showed no change in arthritic condition, while those receiving 320 or 480 or 640 mg UC-II exhibited significant reduction in arthritic pain (P <