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Sample records for fragments production due

  1. Comparison of calculations of fragment production

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    This note compares estimates of fragment production rates in debris collisions through calculations performed with consistent debris distribution functions implicit in integrated collision frequencies provided by Attachment A. Differences between estimates of fragment production rates in space debris collisions are shown to be due primarily to different choices of the exponent in the fragment production function and the distinction between catastrophic and all collisions. Sensitivity to the fragment production parameter over the range of values consistent with experimental data is discussed.

  2. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  3. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-06

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping At{sub otal} fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of {sup 197}Au+{sup 27}Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  4. Transition from fractal cracking to fragmentation due to projectile penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, F.; Halász, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of the fracture of two-dimensional disc-shaped samples due to the penetration of a projectile focusing on the dynamics of fracturing and on the geometrical structure of the generated crack pattern. The penetration of a cone is simulated into a plate of circular shape using a discrete element model of heterogeneous brittle materials varying the speed of penetration in a broad range. As the cone penetrates a destroyed zone is created from which cracks run to the external boundary of the plate. Computer simulations revealed that in the low speed limit of loading two cracks are generated with nearly straight shape. Increasing the penetration speed the crack pattern remains regular, however, both the number of cracks and their fractal dimension increases. High speed penetration gives rise to a crack network such that the sample gets fragmented into a large number of pieces. We give a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the system from simple cracking through fractal cracks to fragmentation with a connected crack network. Simulations showed that in the low speed limit of loading the growing cracks proceed in discrete jumps separated by periods when the crack tips are pinned. The statistics of the size of jumps and of the waitng times shows scale free behaviour, i.e. power law distributions are obtained with universal exponents. Dependence on the loading speed was pointed out only for the cutoffs of the distributions. In the high speed limit of loading the sample falls apart forming a large number of fragments. The size of fragments proved to be power law distributed where dependence on the loading speed is observed only for the cutoffs. The value of the exponent has good agreement with experiments.

  5. High Explosive Deonation Threshold Sensitivity Due to Multiple Fragment Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Georgevich, V; Pincosy, P; Chase, J

    2004-01-07

    Fragments, bullets or projectiles can initiate a detonation in a high explosive (HE). For this to happen certain critical conditions need to be exceeded. For a given explosive, these critical conditions are the projectile velocity, the projectile size and shape, and the projectile material properties. A lot of work has been done in the area of metal shaped charge jets and individual fragments impacting the HE. One major gap in understanding initiation phenomena is the effect of multiple fragment impact. This study shows that multiple fragments can lower the fragment size and the kinetic energy thresholds.

  6. Production of recombinant antibody fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Eva; Hust, Michael; Roth, Andreas; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Schirrmann, Thomas; Jahn, Dieter; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background Recombinant antibodies are essential reagents for research, diagnostics and therapy. The well established production host Escherichia coli relies on the secretion into the periplasmic space for antibody synthesis. Due to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, only a fraction of this material reaches the medium. Recently, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was shown to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins into the growth medium. Here we evaluated B. megaterium for the recombinant production of antibody fragments. Results The lysozyme specific single chain Fv (scFv) fragment D1.3 was succesfully produced using B. megaterium. The impact of culture medium composition, gene expression time and culture temperatures on the production of functional scFv protein was systematically analyzed. A production and secretion at 41°C for 24 h using TB medium was optimal for this individual scFv. Interestingly, these parameters were very different to the optimal conditions for the expression of other proteins in B. megaterium. Per L culture supernatant, more than 400 μg of recombinant His6-tagged antibody fragment were purified by one step affinity chromatography. The material produced by B. megaterium showed an increased specific activity compared to material produced in E. coli. Conclusion High yields of functional scFv antibody fragments can be produced and secreted into the culture medium by B. megaterium, making this production system a reasonable alternative to E. coli. PMID:17224052

  7. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products.

    PubMed

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  9. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  10. Construction of a 3D-shaped, natural product like fragment library by fragmentation and diversification of natural products.

    PubMed

    Prescher, Horst; Koch, Guido; Schuhmann, Tim; Ertl, Peter; Bussenault, Alex; Glick, Meir; Dix, Ina; Petersen, Frank; Lizos, Dimitrios E

    2017-02-01

    A fragment library consisting of 3D-shaped, natural product-like fragments was assembled. Library construction was mainly performed by natural product degradation and natural product diversification reactions and was complemented by the identification of 3D-shaped, natural product like fragments available from commercial sources. In addition, during the course of these studies, novel rearrangements were discovered for Massarigenin C and Cytochalasin E. The obtained fragment library has an excellent 3D-shape and natural product likeness, covering a novel, unexplored and underrepresented chemical space in fragment based drug discovery (FBDD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of Biomechanical Response Due to Fragment Impact on Ballistic Protective Helmet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Investigation of Biomechanical Response Due to Fragment Impact on Ballistic Protective Helmet 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR( S ) King, Quinten M 7...fragments traveling in excess of 2000 ft/ s (609 m/ s ). However, these strides have also exposed the body to greater impact energies without a...development of personnel body armor capable of preventing penetration of fragments traveling in excess of 2000 ft/ s (609 m/ s ). However these strides have

  12. Microbial platform technology for recombinant antibody fragment production: A review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant antibody fragments are being used for the last few years as an important therapeutic protein to cure various critical and life threatening human diseases. Several expression platforms now days employed for the production of these recombinant fragments, out of which bacterial system has emerged a promising host for higher expression. Since, a small antibody fragment unlike full antibody does not require human-like post-translational modification therefore it is potentially expressed in prokaryotic production system. Recently, small antibody fragments such as scFvs (single-chain variable fragments) and Fabs (antibody fragments) which does not require glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have commercially launched for therapeutic use as these fragments shows better tissue penetration and less immunogenic to human body compared to full-size antibody. Recently developed Wacker's ESETEC secretion technology is an efficient technology for the expression and secretion of the antibody fragment (Fab) exceeded up to 4.0 g/L while scFv up to 3.5 g/L into the fermentation broth. The Pfenex system and pOP prokaryotic expression vector are another platform used for the considerably good amount of antibody fragment production successfully. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on various expression platforms and cloning approaches for the production of different forms of antibody fragments in E. coli.

  13. {J}/{ψ} production via fragmentation at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, R. M.; Roy, D. P.; Sridhar, K.

    1996-02-01

    We compute the contributions to large- p T{J}/{ψ} production at DHEA coming from fragmentation of gluons and charm quarks. We find that the charm quark fragmentation contribution dominates over the direct production of {J}/{ψ} via photongluon fusion at large- p T, while the gluon fragmentation is negligibly small over the whole range of pT. An experimental study of pT distributions of {J}/{ψ} at HERA will providea direct probe of the charm quark fragmentation functions.

  14. Mitochondrial Fragmentation Due to Inhibition of Fusion Increases Cyclin B through Mitochondrial Superoxide Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Tejas M.

    2015-01-01

    During the cell cycle, mitochondria undergo regulated changes in morphology. Two particularly interesting events are first, mitochondrial hyperfusion during the G1-S transition and second, fragmentation during entry into mitosis. The mitochondria remain fragmented between late G2- and mitotic exit. This mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation constitutes a checkpoint in some cell types, of which little is known. We bypass the ‘mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation’ checkpoint by inducing fragmented mitochondrial morphology and then measure the effect on cell cycle progression. Using Drosophila larval hemocytes, Drosophila S2R+ cell and cells in the pouch region of wing imaginal disc of Drosophila larvae we show that inhibiting mitochondrial fusion, thereby increasing fragmentation, causes cellular hyperproliferation and an increase in mitotic index. However, mitochondrial fragmentation due to over-expression of the mitochondrial fission machinery does not cause these changes. Our experiments suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial fusion increases superoxide radical content and leads to the upregulation of cyclin B that culminates in the observed changes in the cell cycle. We provide evidence for the importance of mitochondrial superoxide in this process. Our results provide an insight into the need for mitofusin-degradation during mitosis and also help in understanding the mechanism by which mitofusins may function as tumor suppressors. PMID:26000631

  15. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. PMID:24183828

  16. Natural-product-derived fragments for fragment-based ligand discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Over, Björn; Wetzel, Stefan; Grütter, Christian; Nakai, Yasushi; Renner, Steffen; Rauh, Daniel; Waldmann, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Fragment-based ligand and drug discovery predominantly employs sp2-rich compounds covering well-explored regions of chemical space. Despite the ease with which such fragments can be coupled, this focus on flat compounds is widely cited as contributing to the attrition rate of the drug discovery process. In contrast, biologically validated natural products are rich in stereogenic centres and populate areas of chemical space not occupied by average synthetic molecules. Here, we have analysed more than 180,000 natural product structures to arrive at 2,000 clusters of natural-product-derived fragments with high structural diversity, which resemble natural scaffolds and are rich in sp3-configured centres. The structures of the cluster centres differ from previously explored fragment libraries, but for nearly half of the clusters representative members are commercially available. We validate their usefulness for the discovery of novel ligand and inhibitor types by means of protein X-ray crystallography and the identification of novel stabilizers of inactive conformations of p38α MAP kinase and of inhibitors of several phosphatases.

  17. Fragmentation production of charmed hadrons in electron-positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Novoselov, A. A.

    2010-10-15

    Processes involving the production of D* mesons and {Lambda}{sub c} baryons in electron-positron annihilation at the energies of 10.58 and 91.18 GeV are considered. At the energy of 10.58 GeV, the production of pairs of B mesons that is followed by their decay to charmed particles is analyzed along with direct charm production. The violation of scaling in the respective fragmentation functions is taken into account in the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. The required nonperturbative fragmentation functions are extracted numerically from experimental data obtained at B factories and are approximated by simple analytic expressions. It is shown that the difference in the nonperturbative fragmentation functions for transitions to mesons and baryons can readily be explained on the basis of the quark-counting rules.

  18. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody–drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. PMID:26833854

  19. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  20. Enhanced multiparametric hyaluronan degradation for production of molar-mass-defined fragments.

    PubMed

    Holubova, Lucie; Korecka, Lucie; Podzimek, Stepan; Moravcova, Veronika; Rotkova, Jana; Ehlova, Tereza; Velebny, Vladimir; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-11-04

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is known to serve as a dynamic mediator intervening in many physiological functions. Its specific effect has been repeatedly confirmed to be strongly influenced by the molecular size of hyaluronan fragments. However common technological approaches of HA fragments production have their limitations. In many cases, the final products do not meet the strict pharmaceutical requirements, specifically due to size polydispersity and reaction contaminants. We present novel methodology based on combination of unique incidental ability of the plant-derived protease papain to split the glycosidic bonds and an indispensable advantages of biocompatible macroporous material with incorporated ferrous ions serving as carrier for covalent papain fixation. This atypical and yet unpublished highly efficient multiparametric approach allows enhanced HA fragmentation for easily and safely producing molar-mass-defined HA fragments with narrow size distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography/multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS) confirmed the effectiveness of our multiparametric approach.

  1. Heat production due to intracellular killing activity.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Masuda, S; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

    1990-09-01

    Using Saccharomyces ceravisiae, Candida albicans and Stapylococcus aureus, heat production during phagocytosis was measured in U937 cells which are capable of differentiating to monocytic phagocytes. No increase in heat production of non-differentiated U937 was observed since they were not phagocytic cells. However after differentiation to monocytic phagocytes by lymphokine, U937 cells produced a remarkable amount of heat during phagocytosis. Although Ehrlich ascites tumor cells sensitized with antibody were capable of engulfing S. aureus, no increase in heat nor in superoxide anion production during phagocytosis was detected. It was also found that no heat increase occurred in neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). It can thus be concluded that the heat production during phagocytosis is due to the intercellular killing process of phagocytic cells.

  2. West Germany's first North Sea production due

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1986-05-01

    Deutsche Texaco A.G. will be the first operator on behalf of itself and Wintershall A.G. to produce oil from the German sector of the North Sea, with its first oil due end of 1986 from the Mittelplate pilot project. Texaco also was the first to produce oil from the Baltic Sea when Schwedeneck-See field, near Kiel Bay, went on production last year. The pilot project at Mittelplate will yield more data on the reservoirs confirmed by four wells drilled in 1980-1981, and will be carried out in spite of adverse operating conditions. Problems facing Texaco engineers in their project design include: A mud-flat location dry at low tide but submerged at high tide. Efforts to convince environmental groups that no permanent harm would result from company activities. Shipment of low-gravity crude containing asphaltenes. Logistics of transporting equipment and supplies on a schedule dictated by tides.

  3. Large-scale production of palindrome DNA fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.L.; Gewiess, A.; Harp, J.M.

    1995-10-10

    Our structural studies of nucleosomes necessitated the production of over 100 mg of a 146-bp perfect palindrome DNA for use in the reconstitution of perfectly symmetrical nucleosome core particles for detailed X-ray crystallographic analysis. The propagation of palindromic DNA sequences by bacterial culture is hindered by the instability of these sequences during bacterial replication and recombination. While the loss of some palindrome sequences can be elminated by the use of sbcB or sbcC mutants of Escherichia coli, not all palindrome-containing plasmids are faithfully maintained by these strains. The production of large quantities of palindrome DNA can therefore be extremely difficult. After trying several approaches, we were able to develop a reliable procedure for production of large quantities of palindrome DNA that involves production of plasmid containing multiple copies of the repeating unit of the palindrome which are isolated by restriction digestion and ligated in vitro to form the palindrome DNA. The procedure has resulted in the production of over 20 mg of a 146-bp DNA fragment in 2 weeks.

  4. Mitochondrial permeability transition increases reactive oxygen species production and induces DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Treulen, Favián; Uribe, Pamela; Boguen, Rodrigo; Villegas, Juana V

    2015-04-01

    Does mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induced by calcium overload cause reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa? Studies conducted in vitro suggest that in human spermatozoa, MPT occurs in response to intracellular calcium increase and is associated with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) dissipation, increased ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Oxidative stress is a major cause of defective sperm function in male infertility. By opening calcium-dependent pores in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), MPT causes, among other things, increased ROS production and ΔΨm dissipation in somatic cells. MPT as a mechanism for generating oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa has not been studied. Human sperm were exposed to ionomycin for 1.5 h (n = 8) followed by analysis of sperm IMM permeability, ΔΨm, ROS production and DNA fragmentation. To evaluate the MPT in sperm cells, the calcein-AM and cobalt chloride method was used. The ΔΨm was evaluated by JC-1 staining, intracellular ROS production was evaluated with dihydroethidium and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by a modified TUNEL assay. Measurements were performed by fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometry. Decreased calcein fluorescence after treatment with ionomycin (P < 0.05) suggests the opening of pores in the sperm IMM and this was accompanied by ΔΨm dissipation, increased ROS production and DNA fragmentation. ROS production occurred prior to the decrease in ΔΨm. The study was carried out in vitro using motile sperm from healthy donors; tests on sperm from infertile patients were not carried out. We propose that the MPT, due to pores opening in sperm IMM, is an important mechanism of increased ROS and DNA fragmentation. Therefore, agents that modulate the opening of these pores might contribute to the prevention of damage by oxidative stress in human spermatozoa. This study was funded by

  5. Land Use Change and Agricultural Land Fragmentation due to Anthropogenic Activities in an Hot Spot Area: A Case Study for Thrace Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altürk, Bahadır; Konukcu, Fatih

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural lands that supply food, energy and ecosystem services for human life have been lost due to anthropogenic activities such as construction of roads, urban and industry areas. The significant reasons for the increase of artificial surfaces were poorly planned economic decisions by the government and internal migration due to this poorly planning. Unplanned urban sprawl also give rise to land fragmentation. Fragmentation of agricultural land affects both the agricultural production capacity and rural sustainable employment. In this study: i) Land use changes between 1990-2014 period were assessed using remotely sensed data and ii) Spatial and temporal agricultural land fragmentation were investigated using landscape pattern indice (effective mesh size), Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) and Entropy method for 25 years period. The selected"hot spot" study area is located on east Thrace region of Turkey, being the service and industrial development zone where agricultural activities, water resources and natural habitat have been damaged due to rapid urban and industrial development for about 25 years. The results showed that agricultural lands decreased 6.44%, urban areas increased 111.68% and industry areas increased 251.19% during this 25 years period. Additionally, fragmentation analyses demonstrated that core agricultural areas sharply decreased and relative fragmentation (effective mesh size) increased from 50.68% to 56.77% during 1990 and 2014.

  6. Fragmentation due to centrifugal forces in the photodissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +} in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Michael; Schmidt, Ruediger; Lorenz, Ulf; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2011-09-15

    By means of quantum-dynamical and classical trajectory calculations of H{sub 2}{sup +} photodissociation in strong laser fields, it is shown that for certain combinations of pulse durations and intensities the rotational dynamics can lead to fragmentation. In that case, the photofragments exhibit characteristic angular distributions. The classical calculations provide a transparent physical picture of this mechanism which is also very well established in collisions between atomic nuclei or liquid droplets: nonrotating systems are stable, whereas rotating systems fragment due to the decrease of the fragmentation barrier with increasing angular momentum.

  7. Occupational deaths due to penetrating chest injuries from sledgehammer fragments: two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Zumwalt, Ross

    2004-03-01

    Occupational deaths due to projectiles from hand tools are rare. We report 2 unusual cases of individuals killed by metallic projectiles produced by the fragmentation of the head of a sledgehammer. At initial examination, these wounds appear similar to atypical gunshot or stab wounds. Proper evaluation requires radiographic examination, scene correlation, and, when possible, comparison of metallic fragments retrieved at autopsy and tools from the scene.

  8. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  9. Extensive Recombination Due to Heteroduplexes Generates Large Amounts of Artificial Gene Fragments during PCR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Song, Hongshuo; Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Fengmin; Zhuang, Hui; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial recombinants can be generated during PCR when more than two genetically distinct templates coexist in a single PCR reaction. These recombinant amplicons can lead to the false interpretation of genetic diversity and incorrect identification of biological phenotypes that do not exist in vivo. We investigated how recombination between 2 or 35 genetically distinct HIV-1 genomes was affected by different PCR conditions using the parallel allele-specific sequencing (PASS) assay and the next generation sequencing method. In a standard PCR condition, about 40% of amplicons in a PCR reaction were recombinants. The high recombination frequency could be significantly reduced if the number of amplicons in a PCR reaction was below a threshold of 1013–1014 using low thermal cycles, fewer input templates, and longer extension time. Heteroduplexes (each DNA strand from a distinct template) were present at a large proportion in the PCR products when more thermal cycles, more templates, and shorter extension time were used. Importantly, the majority of recombinants were identified in heteroduplexes, indicating that the recombinants were mainly generated through heteroduplexes. Since prematurely terminated extension fragments can form heteroduplexes by annealing to different templates during PCR amplification, recombination has a better chance to occur with samples containing different genomes when the number of amplicons accumulate over the threshold. New technologies are warranted to accurately characterize complex quasispecies gene populations. PMID:25211143

  10. Growth and productivity impacts of periplasmic nuclease expression in an Escherichia coli Fab' fragment production strain.

    PubMed

    Nesbeth, Darren N; Perez-Pardo, Miguel-Angel; Ali, Shaukat; Ward, John; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2012-02-01

    Host cell engineering is becoming a realistic option in whole bioprocess strategies to maximize product manufacturability. High molecular weight (MW) genomic DNA currently hinders bioprocessing of Escherichia coli by causing viscosity in homogenate feedstocks. We previously showed that co-expressing Staphylococcal nuclease and human Fab' fragment in the periplasm of E. coli enables auto-hydrolysis of genomic DNA upon cell disruption, with a consequent reduction in feedstock viscosity and improvement in clarification performance. Here we report the impact of periplasmic nuclease expression on stability of DNA and Fab' fragment in homogenates, host-strain growth kinetics, cell integrity at harvest and Fab' fragment productivity. Nuclease and Fab' plasmids were shown to exert comparable levels of growth burden on the host W3110 E. coli strain. Nuclease co-expression did not compromise either the growth performance or volumetric yield of the production strain. 0.5 g/L Fab' fragment (75 L scale) and 0.7 g/L (20 L scale) was achieved for both unmodified and cell-engineered production strains. Unexpectedly, nuclease-modified cells achieved maximum Fab' levels 8-10 h earlier than the original, unmodified production strain. Scale-down studies of homogenates showed that nuclease-mediated hydrolysis of high MW DNA progressed to completion within minutes of homogenization, even when homogenates were chilled on ice, with no loss of Fab' product and no need for additional co-factors or buffering.

  11. Prediction of initiation of low and high explosive fillers due to fragment or projectile impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabel, P. H.; Parr, V. B.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is presented which provides predictions for the probability of initiation of explosion in high explosive filled warheads and in propellant filled rocket motor cases given the impact of compact fragments or of small projectiles. Equations of velocities at which 50 percent of the explosive filled cases will initiate either high or low order are developed for compact fragments, and for projectiles. These data are used to establish the standard deviation of the data from the 50 percent initiation line. Standard deviation is used to provide predictions of the probability of initiation given the impact velocity and other pertinent parameters using equations and logic which are established in a computer model. This computer model uses fragment material properties and encounter parameters to predict fragment impact initiation, and projectile and casing material properties and encounter parameters to predict projectile impact initiation.

  12. Prediction of initiation of low and high explosive fillers due to fragment or projectile impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabel, P. H.; Parr, V. B.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is presented which provides predictions for the probability of initiation of explosion in high explosive filled warheads and in propellant filled rocket motor cases given the impact of compact fragments or of small projectiles. Equations of velocities at which 50 percent of the explosive filled cases will initiate either high or low order are developed for compact fragments, and for projectiles. These data are used to establish the standard deviation of the data from the 50 percent initiation line. Standard deviation is used to provide predictions of the probability of initiation given the impact velocity and other pertinent parameters using equations and logic which are established in a computer model. This computer model uses fragment material properties and encounter parameters to predict fragment impact initiation, and projectile and casing material properties and encounter parameters to predict projectile impact initiation.

  13. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland.

    PubMed

    Lara, Mark J; Genet, Hélène; McGuire, Anthony D; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R N; Jorgenson, Mark T; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Breen, Amy; Bolton, William R

    2016-02-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  14. Thermokarst Rates Intensify Due to Climate Change and Forest Fragmentation in an Alaskan Boreal Forest Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, M. J.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, D. N.; Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Breen, A. L.; Bolton, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse scar-bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5o C of thawing. Increases in the collapse of lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998 and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30x30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, respectively. Gradient boosting and regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950-2009 landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² of birch forest area to wetlands on the Tanana Flats, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights the vulnerability of lowland

  15. Analytical, time-dependent mass function and fragmentation rate due to gravitational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Fazio, A.

    1986-04-01

    An analytical, theoretical, time-dependent initial mass function is derived for the objects created in the fragmentation of a gravitationally unstable gas protocloud. The mass spectrum depends on the chemical-dynamical-radiative evolution of the protocloud, and it peaks at a mass slightly greater than the minimum Jeans mass attained throughout the evolution. A fragmentation rate mass spectrum is also analytically derived. By using an evolutionary model presented here, it is shown that the fragmentation process implies the existence of several generations of fragments, with different ranges of mass. A protogalactic evolution model, using the new theory, predicts that the first stars are created in the third generation of fragments. These can represent the 'zero-metal' population. Mass functions for various objects are elaborated from observational data. Their shapes are compared among themselves quantitatively. A striking similarity suggests the hypothesis that all the different kinds of astrophysical objects examined were formed by essentially the same process. The theoretical mass functions predicted by the evolutionary models and the fragmentation rate are quantitatively compared with the observations, yielding a remarkably good agreement.

  16. Oil production hike due off Cabinda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    A joint project by a subsidiary of Gulf Oil Corp. and Angola's national oil company has earmarked $1.2 billion to more than double oil production off Cabinda. The venture by Cabinda Gulf Oil Co. (CABGOC) and Sonangol plans to increase production from its offshore Cabinda fields to 200,000 bpd by year end 1985 from the current 93,000 bpd. Cabinda is an enclave of Angola surrounded by Zaire and Congo. The project will increase production from 7 of Cabinda's main fields - North Malongo, South Malongo, West Malongo, Kungulo, Limba, Kali, and Kambala. Addition of another offshore field, Takula, is included in the expansion project. It is scheduled to come on stream during the second-half of 1982 at a rate of 15,000 bpd, increasing to approximately 70,000 late in 1985. Earlier this year, production from all Cabinda fields was reported at 100,000 to 120,000 bpd.

  17. Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Toby; Nieminen, Marko; Sirén, Jukka; Wong, Swee Chong; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-03-08

    Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction.

  18. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, M.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, Anthony; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R. N.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Romanovsky, V.; Breen, Amy L.; Bolton, W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  19. Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

    2011-03-24

    A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA

  20. Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Toby; Nieminen, Marko; Sirén, Jukka; Wong, Swee Chong; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction. PMID:26903642

  1. Entropy production due to Lorentz invariance violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Farahmand, Mehrnoosh; Maleki, Mahnaz

    2017-07-01

    It is generally believed that the concept of the spacetime continuum should be modified for distances as small as the Planck length. This is a length scale at which the spacetime might have a discrete structure and quantum gravity effects are dominant. Presumably, the microscopic fluctuations within the geometry of spacetime should result in an enormous entropy production. In the present work, we look for the effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in flat and curved backgrounds that can be measured by quantum entanglement and quantum thermodynamic entropies for scalar modes. Our results show that the general behavior of these entropies is the same. We also consider variations of the entropies with respect to LIV and cosmological and field parameters. Using the properties of these entropies, along with detecting the most entangled modes, we extract information about the past existence of LIV, which in turn might be useful in recovering the quantum structure of gravity. Indeed, the occurrence of a peak in the behavior of these entropies for a specific momentum could provide information about the expansion parameters. Moreover, information about the LIV parameter is codified in this peak.

  2. Fractures Due to Gunshot Wounds: Do Retained Bullet Fragments Affect Union?

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, John T.; Connolly, Keith; Haidukewych, George; Koval, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background Many types of projectiles, including modern hollow point bullets, fragment into smaller pieces upon impact, particularly when striking bone. This study was performed to examine the effect on time to union with retained bullet material near a fracture site in cases of gunshot injury. Methods All gunshot injuries operatively treated with internal fixation at a Level 1 Trauma Center between March 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Retained bullet load near the fracture site was calculated based on percentage of material retained compared to the cortical diameter of the involved bone. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the lead-cortical ratio and amount of comminution on time to fracture union. Results Thirty-two patients (34 fractures) met the inclusion criteria, with an equal number of comminuted (17) and non-comminuted fractures (17). Seventeen of 34 fractures (50%) united within 4 months, 16/34 (47%) developed a delayed union, and 1/34 (3%) developed a nonunion requiring revision surgery. Sixteen of 17 fractures (94%) that united by 4 months had a cumulative amount of bullet fragmentation retained near the fracture site of less than 20% of the cortical diameter. Nine out of 10 fractures (90%) with retained fragments near the fracture site was equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical diameter had delayed or nonunion. Fracture comminution had no effect on time to union. Conclusions The quantity of retained bullet material near the fracture site was more predictive of the rate of fracture union than was comminution. Fractures with bullet fragmentation equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical width demonstrated a significantly higher rate of delayed union/nonunion compared to those fractures with less retained bullet material, which may indicate a local cytotoxic effect from lead on bone healing. These findings may influence decisions on timing of secondary surgeries. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26361445

  3. Production of rare isotope beams with the NSCL fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, A.; Baumann, T.; Ginter, T. N.; Morrissey, D. J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Steiner, M.; Stetson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Rare isotope beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory are produced by projectile fragmentation of medium energy primary beams on beryllium targets. The fragments of interest are selected by the A1900 high-acceptance fragment separator. The A1900 consists of superconducting magnets: four 45° dipoles and eight quadrupole triplets with a maximum magnetic rigidity of 6 Tm. A momentum acceptance of Δp/p = 5% with a solid angle acceptance of ΔΩ = 8 msr makes the A1900 one of the highest-acceptance separators in the world. Detector systems installed within the device allow tracking and unambiguous identification of individual isotopes. During the first three years of operation of the A1900, more than 200 different rare isotope beams approaching both the neutron and proton driplines have been delivered to experiments.

  4. Flow regulation and river fragmentation in large basins due to global dam development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, G. O.; Lehner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dam construction has recently received new interest as an alternative and renewable source of energy, especially in developing countries, and as a means to provide water security in regions with naturally variable water flows. On the other hand, the negative effects from increased fragmentation of the world's large rivers through hydropower and irrigation dams is a matter of great concern for ecologists and conservationists. The main negative effects of dams result from their role as a barrier for migratory fish species, as well as the alteration of the natural flow regime owing to artificial water release schedules. While the trade-offs between these antagonistic effects are usually assessed locally by conducting environmental impact assessments at and in the vicinity of the construction site, the cumulative effects of multiple dams located in the same basin are generally neglected in such plans. To address the cumulative effects at the scale of large river networks, we developed a new impact assessment approach by combining state-of-the-art global scale hydrographic (HydroSHEDS) and hydrological models (WaterGAP) with a river routing scheme (HydroROUT). This combination enables modelers to simulate scenarios for historic, current and future conditions that allow for comparisons between the large river basins of the world. We derive indices that can describe the relative impact of individual and multiple dams regarding flow alteration and habitat fragmentation at a global scale. Our model also allows for the application of tailor-made weighting schemes to include information of eco-hydrological classifications, as well as species richness and diversity. Furthermore, we include natural barriers such as waterfalls, and examine their effect on river network connectivity. Results for the Greater Mekong Region show that ecosystem connectivity and flow alteration are most strongly affected by dams located at the mainstream rivers, particularly for basins where the main

  5. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  6. Protein fibrillation due to elongation and fragmentation of initially appeared fibrils: A simple kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashchiev, Dimo

    2013-09-01

    The assembly of various proteins into fibrillar aggregates is an important phenomenon with wide implications ranging from human disease to nanoscience. Employing a new model, we analyze the kinetics of protein fibrillation in the case when the process occurs by elongation of initially appeared fibrils which multiply solely by fragmentation, because fibril nucleation is negligible. Owing to its simplicity, our model leads to mathematically friendly and physically clear formulas for the time dependence of the fibrillation degree and for a number of experimental observables such as the maximum fibrillation rate, the fibrillation lag time, and the half-fibrillation time. These formulas provide a mechanistic insight into the kinetics of fragmentation-affected fibrillation of proteins. We confront theory with experiment and find that our model allows a good global description of a large dataset [W.-F. Xue, S. W. Homans, and S. E. Radford, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 8926 (2008)], 10.1073/pnas.0711664105 for the fibrillation kinetics of beta-2 microglobulin. Our analysis leads to new methods for experimental determination of the fibril solubility, elongation rate constant, and nucleation rate from data for the time course of protein fibrillation.

  7. Access to photon fragmentation functions in hadronic jet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Tom; Mukherjee, Asmita; Vogelsang, Werner

    2016-06-01

    We argue that the process p p →(jet γ )X , for which a photon is observed inside a fully reconstructed jet and is treated as part of the jet, offers new probes of the so far little-known fragmentation functions for photons. We present a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation of the cross section for this process in the limit that the jet is relatively narrow. We also investigate the background resulting from the two-photon decay of neutral pions. We present numerical results relevant for possible measurements at the LHC and at RHIC. These suggest that p p →(jet γ )X should provide clean access to the photon fragmentation functions, provided an efficient suppression of the background is available in experiment.

  8. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Vivi; Lokman, Christien; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Punt, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components will be discussed. As an example of the fusion protein strategy, the 'magic bullet' approach for industrial applications, will be highlighted. PMID:12605725

  9. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Vivi; Lokman, Christien; Van Den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Punt, Peter J

    2003-01-30

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components will be discussed. As an example of the fusion protein strategy, the 'magic bullet' approach for industrial applications, will be highlighted.

  10. How are particle production, nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation processes interrelated in hadron-nucleus collisions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between particle production, nucleon emission, and fragment evaporation processes were searched for in hadron-nucleus collisions. It was stated that: (1) the nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation proceed independently of the particle production process; and (2) relation between multiplicities of the emitted protons and of the evaporated charged fragments is expressed by simple formula.

  11. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  12. Identification of Corrosion Products Due to Seawater and Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al Rawas, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Widatallah, H.; Rais, A.

    2004-12-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed on corrosion products extracted from the inner surface of two different metal tubes used in a desalination plant in Oman. One of the tubes corroded due to the seawater while the second was corroded due to fresh water. The corrosion products thus resulted due to seawater were scrapped off in to two layers, the easily removable rust from the top is termed outer surface corrosion product and the strongly adhered rust as internal corrosion product. The Mössbauer spectra together with the XRD pattern of the outer surface showed the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3). The inner surface however showed the presence of akaganite, goethite, and magnetite. On the other hand, the corrosion products due to the fresh water showed only the presence of goethite and magnetite. The mechanism of the corrosion process will be discussed based on the significant differences between the formation of the iron components of the corrosion products due to seawater and the fresh water.

  13. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; ...

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission productsmore » from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  14. Theory of cooperative fluorescence from products of reactions or collisions: Identical neutral atomic fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Ben-Reuven, Abraham

    1987-07-01

    The time-resolved cooperative emission from a system of correlated neutral dissociation fragments, or molecular collision products in beams, is investigated. The investigation is focused on emission at large fragment separations (between 1 nm and a few emission wavelengths), exceeding the domain of short-range interactions within the reactive or collisional molecular complex. A master-equation approach is used to obtain a general expression for the cooperative emission rate, which consists of nonexponential decay factors multiplied by temporal ringing patterns. These features result from the time-dependent radiative coupling between the receding fragments; they depend in an essential manner on the initial electronic state of the parent molecular complex and its symmetry which determine the correlations between the fragments. In the model system of a pair of identical two-level fragments two cases are considered separately. (a) A single photon shared by the fragments, where the emission is initially superradiant or subradiant (radiation trapping), depending on the spin and inversion symmetry of the parent molecular system and of the nascent fragments. The ringing pattern depends on the electronic angular momentum state of the parent molecule and on the polarization of the emitted light. (Such a ringing has been observed recently by Grangier, Aspect, and Vigué [Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 418 (1985)] in the emission of photodissociated Ca2.) (b) Two initially excited fragments, where the ringing pattern is of smaller amplitude, and is weakly dependent on the electronic angular momentum of the parent molecule. All the aforementioned cooperative features generally last until the fragments recede several radiation wavelengths away from each other. The application of this time-resolved analysis to various diagnostic problems is discussed, especially with regard to the identification of excited electronic states of the parent molecular complex, and the stereospecificity of the

  15. Regolith production on asteroid surfaces via thermal fatigue fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Delbo, M.; Libourel, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Michel, P.; Ramesh, K.; Ganino, C.; Verati, C.; Marchi, S.

    2014-07-01

    Classically, regolith is believed to be produced by impacts of small particles hitting asteroid surfaces. However, crater ejecta velocities are typically greater than several tens of centimetres per second [1,2], which corresponds to the gravitational escape velocity of kilometre-sized asteroids. Impact debris reaccumulation, therefore, fails to account for the ubiquitous presence of regolith on small asteroids. It is known that temperature cycles can lead to mechanical load cycles producing stresses in surface rocks. Cracks could form and propagate due to temperature variations and the resulting temperature gradients set up by the thermal cycles. Several works have suggested that such thermal fatigue may play an important role in the evolution of airless landscapes on bodies such as the Moon, Mercury, and on (433) Eros [3,4,5]. We will describe laboratory experiments and numerical modelling devoted to investigating whether thermal fatigue is active on asteroid surfaces [6]. First we calculate typical temperature variations on the surfaces of near-Earth asteroids due to the diurnal cycles. We then perform laboratory experiments of thermal cycling of meteorites --- taken as analogues of asteroid surface material --- to study under which conditions rock cracking on near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) occurs. The temperature cycle period and magnitude of the temperature excursion in the experiment thermal cycles were typical of those of NEA surfaces. Finally, using a micro-mechanical model, validated via a direct comparison to our experiments, we extrapolate our results to different cycle periods, to larger rocks and to smaller temperature variations (for example for main-belt asteroids).

  16. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  17. Nonsinglet kaon fragmentation function from e{sup +}e{sup -} kaon production

    SciTech Connect

    Albino, Simon; Christova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    We perform fits to the available charged and neutral kaon-production data in e{sup +}+e{sup -{yields}}K+X, K=K{sup {+-},} and K{sub S}{sup 0}, and determine the nonsinglet combination of kaon fragmentation functions D{sub u}{sup K{+-}-}D{sub d}{sup K{+-}}in a model independent way and without any correlations to the other fragmentation functions. Only nuclear isospin invariance is assumed. Working with nonsinglets allows us to include the data at very low momentum fractions, which have so far been excluded in global fits, and to perform a first next-next-to leading order fit to fragmentation functions. We find that the kaon nonsinglet fragmentation function at large z is larger than that obtained by the other collaborations from global fit analysis and differs significantly at low z.

  18. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  19. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Kocot, Ewa; Seweryn, Michał; Koperny, Magdalena

    Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer's influence on population's ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost) due to 4 following reasons: 1) temporary disability to work, 2) permanent disability, 3) informal care, and 4) mortality. Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients' mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women's mortality. The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3):289-299. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Productivity Cost Due to Maternal Ill Health in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth; Agampodi, Thilini; Wickramasinghe, Nuwan; Fernando, Santhushya; Chathurani, Umanga; Adhikari, Wathsala; Dharshika, Ishani; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela; Dharmaratne, Samath; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. Methods and Findings We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3%) reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8%) of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1%) of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss) and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss). Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60%) had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215) was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64) was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78). Conclusions Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy. PMID:22879943

  1. Identification of pesticide transformation products in food by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry via "fragmentation-degradation" relationships.

    PubMed

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R

    2007-01-01

    The identification of transformation products of pesticides in foodstuffs is a crucial task difficult to tackle, due to the lack of standards and scarce information available. In this work, we describe a methodology for the identification and structural elucidation of pesticide transformation products in food. The proposed strategy is based on the use of liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS): accurate mass measurements of (molecule and fragment) ions of interest are used in order to establish relationships between fragmentation of the parent pesticides in the instrument (in-source CID fragmentation) and possible degradation products of these pesticides in food. Examples of this strategy showing the potential of LC/TOFMS to determine unknown pesticides in food are described in two different real samples, suggesting that pesticides often are transformed into degradation products in the same fashion that they are fragmented in the instrument. Using the proposed approach and without using standards a priori, based solely on accurate mass measurements of ions and "fragmentation-degradation" relationships, we have identified two parent pesticides (amitraz and malathion) along with six degradation products, m/z 253 (N,N'-bisdimethylphenylformamidine), 163 (N-2,4-dimethylphenyl-N-methyl formamidine), 150 (2,4-dimethylformamidine), and 122 (2,4-dimethylaniline) from amitraz, and m/z 317 and 303, due to ether hydrolysis of methyl and ethyl groups from malathion. Structures for these species were proposed, and the potential of the proposed approach was critically discussed.

  2. MINERALOGY OF THE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF THE SPUTNIK 4 FRAGMENT AND OF IRON METEORITES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The melted and oxidized products on the Sputnik 4 fragment make up 10 to 15% of the total mass and consist of droplets of alpha iron, coated with the...oxidized to hematite . Wustite and akaganeite are metastable at surface temperatures and are therefore virtually unknown in terrestrial rocks and in

  3. Influence of the hydromechanical stress and temperature on growth and antibody fragment production with Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Lüders, Svenja; David, Florian; Steinwand, Miriam; Jordan, Eva; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus megaterium was used for production of the lysozyme-specific recombinant scFv D1.3 antibody fragment. Key process parameters like the temperature and the hydromechanical stress play a very important role for significant product formation during process development or scale-up. In this study, the influence of these two variables on growth and recombinant antibody fragment production in a 2-L lab-scale bioreactor system was investigated using a central composite design. Especially a significant influence of the hydromechanical stress on antibody fragment production was detected in batch cultivations. While volumetric power inputs of about 0.5 kW/m(3) (agitation rates around 500 min(-1)) are usually employed in batch cultivations, in this work maximal product concentration was found at a volumetric power input of about 0.06 kW/m(3) (agitation rate around 250 min(-1)) and at a high cultivation temperature of 41 °C. The influence of the two process variables at single-cell level was estimated using flow cytometry too. The characterization was done by estimating the membrane potential giving a hint on bioprocess productivity and secretion capability: the best production was obtained through big cells with low specific membrane potential, which grew at low volumetric power inputs and high cultivation temperatures.

  4. Plasmodium gametocyte inhibition identified from a natural-product-based fragment library.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoan; Roullier, Catherine; Campitelli, Marc; Trenholme, Katharine R; Gardiner, Donald L; Andrews, Katherine T; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Crowther, Gregory J; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Quinn, Ronald J

    2013-12-20

    Fragment-based screening is commonly used to identify compounds with relatively weak but efficient localized binding to protein surfaces. We used mass spectrometry to study fragment-sized three-dimensional natural products. We identified seven securinine-related compounds binding to Plasmodium falciparum 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (PfdUTPase). Securinine bound allosterically to PfdUTPase, enhancing enzyme activity and inhibiting viability of both P. falciparum gametocyte (sexual) and blood (asexual) stage parasites. Our results provide a new insight into mechanisms that may be applicable to transmission-blocking agents.

  5. Neutron spectra due (13)N production in a PET cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Benavente, J A; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Lacerda, M A S; Fonseca, T C F; Faria, F P; da Silva, T A

    2015-05-01

    Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during (13)N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for (18)F production in a previous work.

  6. Sudden corneal edema due to retained lens nuclear fragment presenting 8.5 years after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Rahul T; Coburn, Amy G

    2011-06-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of sudden onset of decreased vision, pain, and redness in the right eye. Ocular history included uneventful cataract surgery in both eyes more than 8 years prior to presentation. Slitlamp examination revealed significant corneal edema and mild iritis. Gonioscopy revealed a retained lens nuclear fragment in the inferior angle. Surgical removal of the fragment improved the patient's condition. The retained nuclear fragment presumably lodged behind the iris at the time of the initial surgery and spontaneously moved forward more than 8 years later. To our knowledge, this is the longest reported delay between phacoemulsification and presentation of a retained nuclear fragment. Before this case, retained nuclear fragments had been associated with complications within a year of surgery only. We recommend gonioscopy in cases of sudden-onset corneal edema extending to the inferior limbus in patients with a history of phacoemulsification.

  7. Production and Characterization of Recombinant Light Chain and Carboxyterminal Heavy Chain Fragments of Tetanus Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mehdi; Khosravi-Eghbal, Roya; Hemmati, Azam; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Background Light chain (LC) and heavy chain carboxyterminal subdomain (HCC) fragments are the most important parts of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) which play key roles in toxicity and binding of TeNT, respectively. In the present study, these two fragments were cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system and their identity was confirmed using anti-TeNT specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Methods LC and HCC gene segments were amplified from Clostridium tetani genomic DNA by PCR, cloned into pET28b(+) cloning vector and transformed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) expression host. Recombinant proteins were then purified through His-tag using Nickel-based chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and ELISA techniques. Results Recombinant light chain and HCC fragments were successfully cloned and expressed in (E. coli) BL21 (DE3). Optimization of the induction protocol resulted in production of high levels of HCC (~35% of total bacterial protein) and to lesser extends of LC (~5%). Reactivity of the His-tag purified proteins with specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies confirmed their renatured structure and identity. Conclusion Our results indicate successful cloning and production of recombinant LC and HCC fragments of TeNT. These two recombinant proteins are potentially useful tools for screening and monitoring of anti-TeNT antibody response and vaccine production. PMID:24285996

  8. Promoter engineering to optimize recombinant periplasmic Fab' fragment production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Desmond M; Templar, Alex; Newton, Joseph; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-07-08

    Fab' fragments have become an established class of biotherapeutic over the last two decades. Likewise, developments in synthetic biology are providing ever more powerful techniques for designing bacterial genes, gene networks and entire genomes that can be used to improve industrial performance of cells used for production of biotherapeutics. We have previously observed significant leakage of an exogenous therapeutic Fab' fragment into the growth medium during high cell density cultivation of an Escherichia coli production strain. In this study we sought to apply a promoter engineering strategy to address the issue of Fab' fragment leakage and its consequent bioprocess challenges. We used site directed mutagenesis to convert the Ptac promoter, present in the plasmid, pTTOD-A33 Fab', to a Ptic promoter which has been shown by others to direct expression at a 35% reduced rate compared to Ptac . We characterized the resultant production trains in which either Ptic or Ptac promoters direct Fab' fragment expression. The Ptic promoter strain showed a 25-30% reduction in Fab' expression relative to the original Ptac strain. Reduced Fab' leakage and increased viability over the course of a fed-batch fermentation were also observed for the Ptic promoter strain. We conclude that cell design steps such as the Ptac to Ptic promoter conversion reported here, can yield significant process benefit and understanding with respect to periplasmic Fab' fragment production. It remains an open question as to whether the influence of transgene expression on periplasmic retention is mediated by global metabolic burden effects or periplasm overcapacity. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:840-847, 2016.

  9. Habitat fragmentation leads to reduced pollinator visitation, fruit production and recruitment in urban mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Tyge D; Minchinton, Todd E; Ayre, David J

    2017-09-08

    Mangrove forests worldwide undergo anthropogenic fragmentation that may threaten their existence, and yet there have been few tests of the effects of fragmentation on demographic processes critical for mangrove regeneration. Predicting the effects of habitat fragmentation on mangroves is problematic as pollinators may move more freely across water than terrestrial habitat, and propagules can be widely dispersed by water. Here, within each of two estuaries, we compared pollinator diversity and activity, reproductive effort and output, and rates of recruitment for sets of three large (>1500 trees), medium (300-500) and small (<50) stands. As predicted, most measures of reproductive activity and success were inversely related to stand size with large stands typically producing significantly more and larger fruit, and significantly more seedlings. Most strikingly, we found the effect of fragmentation on the abundance of pollinators (honeybees), the production and quality of fruit and the survival rate of seedlings to be similar, showing significant reduction of recruitment in small stands. This study provides the first rigorous evidence that recruitment of mangroves, like for many terrestrial plants, is negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation. From a management perspective, we argue that in the short term our data imply the importance of conserving the largest possible stands. However, additional work is needed to determine (1) the proportion of recruits within small stands that originate within large stands, (2) how seedling performance varies with fruit size and genotype, and (3) how seedling size and performance vary with the abundance and diversity of pollen.

  10. Improved microtitre plate production of single chain Fv fragments in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hust, Michael; Steinwand, Miriam; Al-Halabi, Laila; Helmsing, Saskia; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    The new era of functional genomics demands several antibodies as specific detection reagents for proteins, their complexes and post-translational modifications. Only in vitro antibody selection technologies are able to provide the required throughput to generate these large numbers. Phage display is the most widely used technology for in vitro selection of antibodies. The major bottleneck of a phage display selection pipeline is the production of monoclonal antibody fragments for screening and further analysis. In this study, we describe the development of improved protocols for the production of single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments in 96-well microtitre plates (MTPs) in Escherichia coli. Four scFvs were expressed using the antibody expression vector pOPE101-XP to analyse the influence of a set of different parameters on their production. Further, six scFvs were expressed using the phage display vector pHAL14 to investigate the effect on the production of functional scFvs using those parameters that improved production from pOPE101-XP. Yield in MTPs was influenced by a variety of conditions and was also strongly dependent on the individual scFv clone. Although it was not possible to deduce a single set of optimal parameters applicable to all the tested scFvs, a combined protocol was developed which improved the expression of scFv fragments over standard methods.

  11. Gordonia (nocardia) amarae foaming due to biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Pagilla, K R; Sood, A; Kim, H

    2002-01-01

    Gordonia amarae, a filamentous actinomycete, commonly found in foaming activated sludge wastewater treatment plants was investigated for its biosurfactant production capability. Soluble acetate and paringly soluble hexadecane were used as carbon sources for G. amarae growth and biosurfactant production in laboratory scale batch reactors. The lowest surface tension (critical micelle concentration, CMC) of the cell-free culture broth was 55 dynes/cm when 1,900 mg/L acetate was used as the sole carbon source. The lowest surface tension was less than 40 dynes/cm when either 1% (v/v) hexadecane or a mixture of 1% (v/v) hexadecane and 0.5% (w/v) acetate was used as the carbon source. The maximum biomass concentration (the stationary phase) was achieved after 4 days when acetate was used along with hexadecane, whereas it took about 8 days to achieve the stationary phase with hexadecane alone. The maximum biosurfactant production was 3 x CMC with hexadecane as the sole carbon source, and it was 5 x CMC with the mixture of hexadecane and acetate. Longer term growth studies (approximately 35 days of culture growth) indicated that G. amarae produces biosurfactant in order to solubilize hexadecane, and that adding acetate improves its biosurfactant production by providing readily degradable substrate for initial biomass growth. This research confirms that the foaming problems in activated sludge containing G. amarae in the activated sludge are due to the biosurfactant production by G. amarae when hydrophobic substrates such as hexadecane are present.

  12. Production of single chain Fab (scFab) fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Eva; Al-Halabi, Laila; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background The demand on antigen binding reagents in research, diagnostics and therapy raises questions for novel antibody formats as well as appropriate production systems. Recently, the novel single chain Fab (scFab) antibody format combining properties of single chain Fv (scFv) and Fab fragments was produced in the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. In this study we evaluated the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the recombinant production of scFab and scFvs in comparison to E. coli. Results The lysozyme specific D1.3 scFab was produced in B. megaterium and E. coli. The total yield of the scFab after purification obtained from the periplasmic fraction and culture supernatant of E. coli was slightly higher than that obtained from culture supernatant of B. megaterium. However, the yield of functional scFab determined by analyzing the antigen binding activity was equally in both production systems. Furthermore, a scFv fragment with specificity for the human C reactive protein was produced in B. megaterium. The total yield of the anti-CRP scFv produced in B. megaterium was slightly lower compared to E. coli, whereas the specific activity of the purified scFvs produced in B. megaterium was higher compared to E. coli. Conclusion B. megaterium allows the secretory production of antibody fragments including the novel scFab antibody format. The yield and quality of functional antibody fragment is comparable to the periplasmic production in E. coli. PMID:18042285

  13. Fragmented oxidation products define barrier disruptive endothelial cell response to OxPAPC

    PubMed Central

    Birukova, Anna A.; Starosta, Vitaliy; Tian, Xinyong; Higginbotham, Katherine; Koroniak, Lukas; Berliner, Judith A.; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive concentrations of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), the products of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC) oxidation have been detected in atherosclerosis, septic inflammation, and ALI; and have been shown to induce vascular barrier dysfunction. In contrast, oxidized PAPC (OxPAPC) at low concentrations exhibit potent barrier protective effects. The nature of such biphasic effects remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that barrier-disruptive effects of high OxPAPC doses on endothelial cell (EC) monolayer are defined by fragmented products of PAPC oxidation (lyso-PC, POVPC, PGPC), while barrier enhancing effects are mediated by full length oxidated PAPC products and may be reproduced by single compounds contained in the OxPAPC such as PEIPC. All three fragmented OxPAPC products increased EC permeability in a dose-dependent manner, while PEIPC decreased it and reversed barrier disruptive effects of lyso-PC, POVPC and PGPC monitored by measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis showed that PGPC mimicked the cytoskeletal remodeling and tyrosine phosphorylation of adherens junction (AJ) protein VE-cadherin leading to EC barrier dysfunction induced by high OxPAPC concentrations. Barrier-disruptive effects of PGPC were abrogated by ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl cysteine, or Src kinase inhibitor, PP-2. The results of this study show that barrier disruptive effects of fragmented OxPAPC constituents (lyso-PC, POVPC, PGPC) are balanced by barrier enhancing effects of full length oxygenated products (PEIPC). These data strongly suggest that barrier disruptive effects of OxPAPC at higher concentrations are dictated by predominant effects of fragmented phospholipids such as PGPC, which promote ROS-dependent activation of Src kinase and VE-cadherin phosphorylation at Tyr658 and Tyr731 leading to disruption of endothelial cell AJs. PMID:23305708

  14. Production of single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies in Escherichia coli using the LEX™ bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Miethe, Sebastian; Meyer, Torsten; Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2013-01-20

    For proteome research, antibodies against a growing number of antigens must be generated and characterized. The high throughput generation of antibody fragments, using in vitro selection, requires bacterial expression of antibody fragments. This created a need to establish an expression method to improve the parallel production of many antibody fragments. In this study, we describe the development of a high throughput bacterial production method for single chain fragment variables (scFvs) using shaking flasks or the LEX™ bioreactor. We compared the influence of a set of production parameters on Escherichia coli production of four different scFv. The results led to an optimized protocol for the parallel production of multiple antibody fragments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  16. Optical model methods of predicting nuclide production cross sections from heavy ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Ramsey, C. R.; Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Quantum mechanical optical potential methods for calculating inclusive isotope and element production cross sections from the fragmenting of heavy nuclei by intermediate- and high-energy protons and heavy ions are presented based upon a modified abrasion-ablation-FSI (frictional spectator interaction) collision model. The abrasion stage is treated as a quantum mechanical knockout process that leaves the residual prefragment in an excited state. Prefragment excitation energies are estimated using a combined liquid drop and FSI method. In ablation the prefragment deexcites by particle and photon emission to produce the final fragment. Contributions from electromagnetic dissociation to single nucleon removal cross sections are incorporated using a Weiszacker-Williams theory that includes electric dipole and electric quadrupole interactions. Estimates of elemental and isotopic production cross sections are in good agreement with published cross section measurements for a variety of projectile-target-beam energy combinations.

  17. Early Trends in Landcover Change and Forest Fragmentation Due to Shale-Gas Development in Pennsylvania: A Potential Outcome for the Northcentral Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drohan, P. J.; Brittingham, M.; Bishop, J.; Yoder, K.

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S., specifically the Allegheny Plateau in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, is experiencing rapid exploration. Using Pennsylvania as a proxy for regional development across the Plateau, we examine land cover change due to shale-gas exploration, with emphasis on forest fragmentation. Pennsylvania's shale-gas development is greatest on private land, and is dominated by pads with 1-2 wells; less than 10 % of pads have five wells or more. Approximately 45-62 % of pads occur on agricultural land and 38-54 % in forest land (many in core forest on private land). Development of permits granted as of June 3, 2011, would convert at least 644-1072 ha of agricultural land and 536-894 ha of forest land. Agricultural land conversion suggests that drilling is somewhat competing with food production. Accounting for existing pads and development of all permits would result in at least 649 km of new road, which, along with pipelines, would fragment forest cover. The Susquehanna River basin (feeding the Chesapeake Bay), is most developed, with 885 pads (26 % in core forest); permit data suggests the basin will experience continued heavy development. The intensity of core forest disturbance, where many headwater streams occur, suggests that such streams should become a focus of aquatic monitoring. Given the intense development on private lands, we believe a regional strategy is needed to help guide infrastructure development, so that habitat loss, farmland conversion, and the risk to waterways are better managed.

  18. Production of exotic nuclei in projectile fragmentation at relativistic and Fermi energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogul, R.; Ergun, A.; Buyukcizmeci, N.

    2017-02-01

    Isotopic distributions of projectile fragmentation in peripheral heavy ion collisions of 86Kr on 112Sn are calculated within the statistical multifragmentation model. Obtained data are compared to the experimental cross section measurements. We show the enhancement in the production of neutron-rich isotopes close to the projectile, observed in the experiments. Our results show the universality of the limitation of the excitation energy induced in the projectile residues.

  19. Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation on primary productivity and soil carbon storage in temperate mountain grasslands.

    PubMed

    Cojoc, Emilia Ionela; Postolache, Carmen; Olariu, Bogdan; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the most severe anthropogenic pressures exerted on ecosystem's biodiversity. Empirical studies to date focused with an overriding interest on the effects of habitat loss or habitat fragmentation per se on species richness patterns detrimental to biogeochemical processes. To account for changes in ecosystem fluxes, we investigated how anthropogenic fragmentation affects primary productivity and carbon storage in temperate mountain grasslands. A field study was conducted to assess the influence of grassland isolation on soil carbon stocks, N availability, species biomass, and plant functional groups distribution. We tested the hypothesis that increased isolation of grassland, within the land cover, decreases soil carbon stocks, and available N nutrient as well as aboveground biomass. Soil carbon concentration decreased with isolation but increased near the forest edge. We found significant differences in aboveground biomass distribution and relative contribution of plant functional groups between isolation conditions. The magnitude of edge effect on carbon stocks, N availability, and primary productivity intensified with increasing isolation as a consequence of the additive influence of edges. Our study reveals that the potential creation of artificially isolated patches diminished primary productivity, N availability, and C stocks. However, in highly managed landscapes, grazing pressure is an additional factor that changes biomass and nutrients patterns. We emphasize that spatial configuration of the landscape has a major role in modulating ecological flows and ecosystem service supply, in addition to changes in species richness.

  20. [Radioactive waste due to electric power and mineral fertiliser production].

    PubMed

    Marović, Gordana; Sencar, Jasminka; Bronzović, Maja; Franić, Zdenko; Kovac, Jadranka

    2006-09-01

    Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been conducting systematic investigations of radioactive contamination of the Croatian environment by anthropogenic fission products as well as by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) since 1963. Several critical sites in Croatia were identified for NORM, that is, for slag and ash repositories from coal-fired power plants and phosphogypsum repository from a mineral fertilizer production plant. As the coals and phosphate ores contain naturally occurring radionuclides, especially the members of the uranium and thorium radioactive chains, utilising these materials in various industries only enhances their natural radioactivity in residual waste. Consequently, the resulting activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in waste material could be several times higher than in the adjacent soil. These deposited materials pose permanent risk of radiation exposure due to the long physical half-life of natural radionuclides (e.g., T 1/2 = 1600 years for 226Ra). Results of scientific investigations related to natural radioactivity are used in the recovery of slag and ash repositories and landfills, as well as in establishing regulatory criteria targeting import of coal and phosphate ores. In consequence, recently measured activity concentrations of natural radioactivity in imported materials used nowadays in coal-fired power plants are significantly lower than in previously used raw materials. Therefore, slag and ash can be used as additive materials in cement production.

  1. Neutron production in coincidence with fragments from the 40Ca + H reaction at Elab=357A and 565A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuve, C.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Knott, C. N.; Insolia, A.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tricomi, A.; Tull, C. E.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron production, in coincidence with fragments emitted in the 40Ca+H reaction at Elab=357A and 565A MeV, has been measured using a 3-module version of the multifunctional neutron spectrometer MUFFINS. The mean neutron multiplicities for neutrons detected in the angular range covered by MUFFINS (0°-3.2°) have been estimated from the comparison between the neutron cross sections, in coincidence with the fragments, and the elemental cross sections. We have found evidence for a preequilibrium emission of prompt neutrons in superposition to a ``slower'' deexcitation of the equilibrated remnant by emission of nucleons and fragments, as already seen in inclusive rapidity distributions. The energy dependence of the inclusive neutron production cross sections, measured in a previous work, is here interpreted as due to the stronger neutron focusing in the forward direction at the higher energy. Comparison with a BNV+phase space coalescence model is discussed.

  2. Transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet functions with applications to quarkonium production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Reggie; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We introduce the transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet function (TMDFJF), which appears in factorization theorems for cross sections for jets with an identified hadron. These are functions of z, the hadron's longitudinal momentum fraction, and transverse momentum, p ⊥, relative to the jet axis. In the framework of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive the TMDFJF from both a factorized SCET cross section and the TMD fragmentation function defined in the literature. The TMDFJFs are factorized into distinct collinear and soft-collinear modes by matching onto SCET+. As TMD calculations contain rapidity divergences, both the renormalization group (RG) and rapidity renormalization group (RRG) must be used to provide resummed calculations with next-to-leading-logarithm prime (NLL') accuracy. We apply our formalism to the production of J/ψ within jets initiated by gluons. In this case the TMDFJF can be calculated in terms of NRQCD (Non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics) fragmentation functions. We find that when the J/ψ carries a significant fraction of the jet energy, the p T and z distributions differ for different NRQCD production mechanisms. Another observable with discriminating power is the average angle that the J/ψ makes with the jet axis.

  3. Stereochemical assignment of the C1-C6 fragment of psymberin by synthesis and natural product degradation.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael E; Rech, Jason C; Floreancig, Paul E

    2005-09-15

    [reaction: see text] Psymberin is a sponge-derived natural product that shows striking selectivity as a cytotoxic agent. Conformational mobility has precluded stereochemical assignment for the acyl fragment of this molecule (psymberic acid) by NMR. Herein we report stereoselective syntheses of all four stereoisomers of psymberic acid. A comparison of the acid-mediated cyclization products of these compounds to the product of psymberin's acidic methanolysis showed the stereochemical configuration of this fragment to be 4S,5S.

  4. Earth's 2006 Encounter with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann: Products of Nucleus Fragmentation Seen in Closeup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    The large numbers of nucleus fragments observed are a spectacular illustration of the process of cascading fragmentation in progress, a concept introduced to interpret the properties of the Kreutz system of sungrazers and comet D/1993 F2. The objective is to describe the fragmentation sequence and hierarchy of comet 73P, the nature of the fragmentation process and observed events, and the expected future evolution of this comet. The orbital arc populated by the fragments refers to an interval of 3.74 days in the perihelion time. This result suggests that they all could be products (but not necessarily first-generation fragments) of two 1995 events, in early September (involving an enormous outburst) and at the beginning of November. The interval of perihelion times is equivalent to a range of about 2.5 m/s in separation velocity or 0.00012 the Sun's attraction in nongravitational deceleration. Their combined effect suggests minor orbital momentum changes acquired during fragmentation and decelerations compatible with survival over two revolutions about the Sun. Fragment B is a likely first-generation product of one of the 1995 events. From the behavior of the primary fragment C, 73P is not a dying comet, even though fragment B and others were episodically breaking up into many pieces. Each episode began with the sudden appearance of a starlike nucleus condensation and a rapidly expanding outburst, followed by a development of jets, and a gradual tailward extension of the fading condensation, until the discrete masses embedded in it could be resolved. In April-May, this debris traveled first to the southwest, but models show their eventual motion toward the projected orbit. Fainter fragments were imaged over limited time, apparently because of their erratic activity (interspersed with periods of dormancy) rather than improptu disintegration. A dust trail joining the fragments and reminiscent of comet 141P/Machholz suggests that cascading fragmentation exerts itself

  5. Earth's 2006 Encounter with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann: Products of Nucleus Fragmentation Seen in Closeup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    The large numbers of nucleus fragments observed are a spectacular illustration of the process of cascading fragmentation in progress, a concept introduced to interpret the properties of the Kreutz system of sungrazers and comet D/1993 F2. The objective is to describe the fragmentation sequence and hierarchy of comet 73P, the nature of the fragmentation process and observed events, and the expected future evolution of this comet. The orbital arc populated by the fragments refers to an interval of 3.74 days in the perihelion time. This result suggests that they all could be products (but not necessarily first-generation fragments) of two 1995 events, in early September (involving an enormous outburst) and at the beginning of November. The interval of perihelion times is equivalent to a range of about 2.5 m/s in separation velocity or 0.00012 the Sun's attraction in nongravitational deceleration. Their combined effect suggests minor orbital momentum changes acquired during fragmentation and decelerations compatible with survival over two revolutions about the Sun. Fragment B is a likely first-generation product of one of the 1995 events. From the behavior of the primary fragment C, 73P is not a dying comet, even though fragment B and others were episodically breaking up into many pieces. Each episode began with the sudden appearance of a starlike nucleus condensation and a rapidly expanding outburst, followed by a development of jets, and a gradual tailward extension of the fading condensation, until the discrete masses embedded in it could be resolved. In April-May, this debris traveled first to the southwest, but models show their eventual motion toward the projected orbit. Fainter fragments were imaged over limited time, apparently because of their erratic activity (interspersed with periods of dormancy) rather than improptu disintegration. A dust trail joining the fragments and reminiscent of comet 141P/Machholz suggests that cascading fragmentation exerts itself

  6. Translocation of amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragment(s) to the nucleus precedes neuronal death due to thiamine deficiency-induced mild impairment of oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Xu, Hui; Pechman, David; Chen, Lian H; DeGiorgio, Lorraine A; Gibson, Gary E

    2008-07-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is a model of neurodegeneration induced by mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. TD produces time-dependent glial activation, inflammation, oxidative stress, altered metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP), exacerbation of plaque formation from APP, and finally, selective neuron death in specific brain regions. The sub-medial thalamic nucleus (SmTN) is the most sensitive region to TD. Alteration in APP metabolism and nuclear translocation of carboxy-terminal fragments (CTF) of APP has been implicated in neuron death in other models of neurodegeneration. These experiments tested whether TD causes translocation of CTF into the nucleus of neurons in the SmTN that are destined to die after 9 days of TD by examining overlapping immunoreactivity (IR) of antibody APP 369 with either Alz90, 6E10 or 4G8 epitopes in the nuclei of the neurons in the SmTN. TD caused the accumulation of the CTF of APP in nuclei of SmTN neurons within 3 days of TD. These changes did not occur in the cortex which is spared in TD. Western blot analysis of nuclear fractions revealed a significant (61%; P < 0.026) increase in CTF 12 levels in TD SmTN (2.08 +/- 0.56) compared to control SmTN (1.29 +/- 0.41). Although TD increased CTF 15 levels in TD SmTN (1.95 +/- 0.73) compared to control SmTN (0.62 +/- 0.52) by 214%; P < 0.665 and decreased the full-length holo-APP levels in TD SmTN (0.32 +/- 0.30) compared to control SmTN (0.47 +/- 0.18) by 34%; P < 0.753, the differences were statistically insignificant. TD did not alter CTF 15 or CTF 12 levels in cortex. These findings demonstrate that changes in APP metabolism occur in early stages of TD, and they may play an important role in TD-induced selective neuronal loss.

  7. Meson production and nuclear fragmentation of the nuclei in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Navia, C.E.; Pinto, H.V.; Pinto, F.A. ); Maldonado, R.H.; Portella, H.M. Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil )

    1989-11-01

    Propagation of primary and secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere is calculated analytically. Two different cases of primary-cosmic-ray composition are used: the first case assumes a mixed composition of very heavy, heavy, middle, and {alpha} nuclei and nucleons; the second case considers only nucleons in the primary-cosmic-ray flux. The mechanism of multiple meson production is formulated according to the wounded-nucleon model for a nucleus-nucleus interaction and the scaling model for a nucleon-nucleon interaction. The mechanism of nuclear fragmentation is formulated according to experimental values of the fragmentation parameters at low energy. The calculated results of the electromagnetic flux are compared with the results of mountain experiments with a large-scale emulsion chamber and experimental data at airplane altitudes. From these comparisons the model with heavy nuclei gives the best fit.

  8. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  9. Escherichia coli-based production of a tumor idiotype antibody fragment--tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein vaccine for B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kedar G; Ng, Patrick P; Levy, Shoshana; Levy, Ronald; Swartz, James R

    2011-01-01

    The unique immunoglobulin idiotype expressed on the surface of B lymphoma cells can be used as an effective antigen in tumor-specific vaccines when fused to immunostimulatory proteins and cytokines. A DNA vaccine encoding for an idiotype antibody single chain Fv (scFv) fragment fused to the Tetanus Toxin Fragment C (TTFrC) has been shown to induce protective anti-tumor responses. Protein-based strategies may be more desirable since they provide greater control over dosage, duration of exposure, and in vivo distribution of the vaccine. However, production of fusion protein vaccines containing complex disulfide bonded idiotype antibodies and antibody-derived fragments is challenging. We use an Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis platform as well as high-level expression of E. coli inclusion bodies followed by refolding for the rapid generation of an antibody fragment - TTFrC fusion protein vaccine. Vaccine proteins produced using both methods were shown to elicit anti-tumor humoral responses as well as protect from tumor challenge in an established B cell lymphoma mouse model. The development of technologies for the rapid production of effective patient-specific tumor idiotype-based fusion protein vaccines provides opportunities for clinical application. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. On the relationship between microbubble fragmentation, deflation, and broadband superharmonic signal production

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Rojas, Juan D.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic angiography imaging of microbubble contrast agents utilizes the superharmonic energy produced from excited microbubbles, and enables high-contrast, high-resolution imaging. However, the exact mechanism by which broadband harmonic energy is produced is not fully understood. In order to elucidate the role of microbubble shell fragmentation in superharmonic signal production, simultaneous optical and acoustic measurements were performed on individual microbubbles at transmit frequencies from 1.75 to 3.75 MHz and pressures near the shell fragmentation threshold for microbubbles of varying diameter. High-amplitude, broadband superharmonic signals were produced with shell fragmentation, while weaker signals (approximately 25% of peak amplitude) were observed in the presence of shrinking bubbles. Furthermore, when imaging populations of stationary microbubbles with a dual-frequency ultrasound imaging system, a sharper decline in image intensity with respect to frame number was observed for 1 μm bubbles than for 4 μm bubbles. Finally, in a study of two rodents, increasing frame rate from 4 to 7 Hz resulted in a decrease in mean steady-state image intensity of 27% at 1000 kPa and 29% at 1300 kPa. While the existence of superharmonic signals when bubbles shrink has the potential to prolong the imaging efficacy of microbubbles, parameters such as frame rate and peak pressure must be balanced with expected re-perfusion rate in order to maintain adequate contrast during in vivo imaging. PMID:25766572

  11. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; ...

    2015-11-11

    Here, we compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., View the MathML sourcep↑p→→hX, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑p→→hX. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑p→hX is dominatedmore » not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. As a result, given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.« less

  12. Fragmentation contributions to J/ψ production at the Tevatron and the LHC.

    PubMed

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T; Chung, Hee Sok; Kim, U-Rae; Lee, Jungil

    2014-07-11

    We compute leading-power fragmentation corrections to J/ψ production at the Tevatron and the LHC. We find that, when these corrections are combined with perturbative corrections through next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant α(s), we obtain a good fit to high-p(T) cross section data from the CDF and CMS Collaborations. The fitted long-distance matrix elements lead to predictions of near-zero J/ψ polarization in the helicity frame at large p(T).

  13. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (V(HH)s) by Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Vivi; Gouka, Robin J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Verrips, C Theo; Lokman, B Christien

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (V(HH)s) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding V(HH)s were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting V(HH) fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA levels and protein production. Functional V(HH)s were detected in the culture medium, indicating the feasibility of producing this type of protein in a fungal expression system. Secreted V(HH)s were subjected to (extracellular) degradation, which could be partially prevented by the addition of BSA to the culture medium.

  14. Rac1 is Required for Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Production by Chondrocytes in Response to Fibronectin Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Long, David L.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Loeser, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective Matrix fragments, including fibronectin fragments (Fnf), accumulate during the development of osteoarthritis (OA) stimulating chondrocyte matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the small GTPase Rac1 in chondrocyte signaling stimulated by Fnf that results in MMP-13 production. Methods Normal human cartilage was from tissue donors and OA cartilage from knee arthroplasty specimens. Rac1 activity was modulated with a chemical inhibitor, siRNA knock-down, constitutively active (CA)-Rac or dominant negative (DN)-Rac adenovirus. Cells were treated with Fnf or without known Rac activators, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transforming growth factorα (TGFα). Rac1 activity was measured with a colorometric activity ELISA, pulldown assay, and immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody against active Rac. Results Chemical inhibition of Rac1, as well as knockdown by siRNA and expression of DN-Rac blocked Fnf stimulated MMP-13 production while expression of CA-Rac increased MMP-13. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase had no effect. EGF and TGFα, but not Fnf, increased Rac1 activity and promoted the increase in MMP-13 above that stimulated by Fnf alone. Active Rac was detected by immunostaining in OA cartilage. Conclusion Rac1 is required for Fnf induced signaling that results in increased MMP-13 production. EGF receptor ligands, which activate Rac, can promote this effect. The presence of active Rac in OA cartilage and the ability of Rac to stimulate MMP-13 production suggests that it could play a role in the cartilage matrix destruction seen in OA. PMID:23460186

  15. Increased production of evoked and spontaneous K-complexes following a night of fragmented sleep.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M

    2002-12-01

    To determine whether K-complex production is better interpreted as being an arousal response or reflective of a sleep protective micro-state. A 3-night study--night 1 as a baseline night, night 2 as a sleep fragmentation night, followed immediately by night 3 as a recovery night. On nights 1 and 3, approximately 400 auditory stimuli were presented during nonREM sleep in the first two sleep cycles, using stimulus parameters previously found to be optimal for K-complex production. The sleep research laboratory at the University of Melbourne. Six young healthy subjects (3 female). One night of sleep fragmentation. Ten-second auditory tones of up to 110 dB were presented throughout the entire night at approximately 1-minute intervals. Sleep drive was increased on the recovery night, as indicated by increased amounts of slow wave sleep, increased sleep efficiency, and a reduction in stimulus-related alpha activity. The incidence of both evoked and spontaneous K-complexes increased significantly on the recovery night. When K-complex trials were averaged, neither N550 (Fz) amplitude nor latency differed between the 2 nights. When vertex sharp waves were averaged, N350 (Cz) amplitude was increased significantly on the recovery night. The increase in K-complex frequency together with the decrease seen in stimulus-related alpha activity supports the view that they reflect a sleep maintenance, rather than an arousal, response.

  16. Natural Product-Derived Spirooxindole Fragments Serve as Privileged Substructures for Discovery of New Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Zheng, Yi-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Ping-Ping; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The utility of natural products for identifying anticancer agents has been highly pursued in the last decades and over 100 drug molecules in clinic are natural products or natural product-derived compounds. Natural products are believed to be able to cover unexplored chemical space that is normally not occupied by commercially available molecule libraries. However, the low abundance and synthetic intractability of natural products have limited their applications in drug discovery. Recently, the identification of biologically relevant fragments derived from biologically validated natural products has been recognized as a powerful strategy in searching new biological probes and drugs. The spirocyclic oxindoles, as privileged structural scaffolds, have shown their potential in designing new drugs. Several anticancer drug candidates such as SAR405838, RO8994, CFI-400945 and their bioisosteres are undergoing clinical trials or preclinical studies. To highlight the significant progress, we focus on illustrating the discovery of SAR405838, RO8994, CFI-400945 and their bioisosteres for cancer therapy using substructure-based strategies and discussing modes of action, binding models and preclinical data.

  17. Increased receptor for advanced glycation end products in spermatozoa of diabetic men and its association with sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Karimi, J; Goodarzi, M T; Tavilani, H; Khodadadi, I; Amiri, I

    2012-05-01

    Although the majority of patients with diabetes have disorders in sexual function, associations between diabetes mellitus and sperm function at the molecular level are largely unknown. As receptor for advanced glycation end products plays a key role in many diabetic complications, we hypothesised that it may be involved in sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation. RAGE levels were determined using ELISA and western blot analysis in sperm samples from 32 diabetic and 35 nondiabetic men. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using TUNEL assay. Diabetic men had significantly higher mean levels of RAGE protein (P < 0.001) and DNA fragmentation (P < 0.001) in spermatozoa. Sperm RAGE was directly correlated to sperm DNA fragmentation in diabetic men (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). The high positive correlation between RAGE levels and nuclear DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of diabetic men suggests a central role of RAGE in disturbances in sexual function of diabetic men. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  19. Heat-Shocked Monocytes Are Resistant to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Apoptotic DNA Fragmentation due to Expression of HSP72

    PubMed Central

    Guzik, Krzysztof; Bzowska, Małgorzata; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Pryjma, Juliusz

    1999-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes became apoptotic following phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. The consequences of heat stress for monocytes were studied with regard to the effect on S. aureus-induced apoptosis. Exposure of monocytes to 41.5°C for 1 h resulted in HSP72 expression and had no influence on phagocytosis of bacteria; moreover, phagocytosis of S. aureus immediately or shortly after heat shock had no effect on the S. aureus-induced monocyte apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation assay. In contrast, cells which recovered from heat shock for 18 to 24 h, although active as phagocytes, were resistant to the S. aureus-induced apoptosis. The observed protective effect was related to the induction of HSP72, since blocking of HSP72 synthesis by an antisense oligomer abolished the protective effect of heat shock on bacterium-induced monocyte apoptosis. PMID:10417194

  20. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production.

    PubMed

    Poksay, Karen S; Sheffler, Douglas J; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E; Cosford, Nicholas D P; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds - identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP - in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  1. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production

    PubMed Central

    Poksay, Karen S.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds – identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP – in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. PMID:28261092

  2. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies.

  3. Isomer production ratios and the angular momentum distribution of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Jandel, M.

    2013-10-01

    Latest generation fission experiments provide an excellent testing ground for theoretical models. In this contribution we compare the measurements for 235U(nth,f), obtained with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) calorimeter at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), with our full-scale simulation of the primary fragment de-excitation, using the recently developed cgmf code, based on a Monte Carlo implementation of the Hauser-Feshbach theoretical model. We compute the isomer ratios as a function of the initial angular momentum of the fission fragments, for which no direct information exists. Comparison with the available experimental data allows us to determine the initial spin distribution. We also study the dependence of the isomer ratio on the knowledge of the low-lying discrete spectrum input for nuclear fission reactions, finding a high degree of sensitivity. Finally, in the same Hauser-Feshbach approach, we calculate the isomer production ratio for thermal neutron capture on stable isotopes, where the initial conditions (spin, excitation energy, etc.) are well understood. We find that with the current parameters involved in Hauser-Feshbach calculations, we obtain up to a factor of 2 deviation from the measured isomer ratios.

  4. Bag-breakup fragmentation as the dominant mechanism of sea-spray production in high winds.

    PubMed

    Troitskaya, Yu; Kandaurov, A; Ermakova, O; Kozlov, D; Sergeev, D; Zilitinkevich, S

    2017-05-09

    Showing the record strengths and growth-rates, recent hurricanes have highlighted needs for improving forecasts of tropical cyclone intensities most sensitive to models of the air-sea interaction. Especially challenging is the nature of sea-spray supposed to strongly affecting the momentum- and energy- air-sea fluxes at strong winds. Even the spray-generation mechanisms in extreme winds remained undetermined. Basing on high-speed video here we identify it as the bag-breakup mode of fragmentation of liquid in gaseous flows known in a different context. This regime is characterized by inflating and consequent bursting of the short-lived objects, bags, comprising sail-like water films surrounded by massive liquid rims then fragmented to giant droplets with sizes exceeding 500 micrometers. From first principles of statistical physics we develop statistical description of these phenomena and show that at extreme winds the bag-breakup is the dominant spray-production mechanism. These findings provide a new basis for understanding and modeling of the air-sea exchange processes at extreme winds.

  5. Droplet production due to a filming jet in crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedd, Timothy; Corn, May; Arienti, Marco; Soteriou, Marios

    2008-11-01

    This work presents the results of a study of a liquid jet atomized by a gas cross-flow in the vicinity of a plane wall normal to the liquid jet axis. Droplets and ligaments with sufficient momentum will impinge on the wall, forming a thin liquid film. A highly time-resolved fluorescent liquid film thickness measurement technique is used together with high speed video to correlate the temporal behavior of jet and droplet impingement with the film thickness. Results of time correlated PDPA and film thickness measurements are also presented, showing the relationship between droplet production and film thickness versus droplet production from the jet alone.

  6. Intensification of tropical Pacific biological productivity due to volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, M. O.; Timmermann, A.; Yoshimori, M.; Lehner, F.; Laurian, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Mouchet, A.; Joos, F.; Raible, C.; Cobb, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Major volcanic eruptions generate widespread ocean cooling and thus reduce upper ocean stratification. Through this ocean dynamic response, volcanic strong eruptions further have the potential to increase nutrient delivery into the euphotic zone and boost biological productivity. Using three climate/Earth System models (Model for Interdisciplinary Research On Climate (MIROC), Community Earth System Model (CESM), and LOch-Vecode-Ecbilt-CLio-agIsm Model (LOVECLIM)), we test the hypothesis whether large volcanic eruptions intensify nutrient-driven export production. In the historical last millennium simulations in CESM and LOVECLIM, strong volcanic radiative forcing enhances the likelihood of eastern Pacific El Nino-like warming, thereby reducing nutrients and export production in the eastern equatorial Pacific for the first two years. This initial response, however, reverses after about 3 years in associated with the following La Nina onset. The resulting delayed enhancement of biological production resembles the multiyear response in MIROC. In this study, volcanic impacts on tropical Pacific dynamics and biogeochemistry persist for several years, thus providing a new source for potential multiyear ecosystem predictability.

  7. Fragment Production and Survival in Irradiated Disks: A Comprehensive Cooling Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2011-10-01

    Accretion disks that become gravitationally unstable can fragment into stellar or substellar companions. The formation and survival of these fragments depends on the precarious balance between self-gravity, internal pressure, tidal shearing, and rotation. Disk fragmentation depends on two key factors: (1) whether the disk can get to the fragmentation boundary of Q = 1 and (2) whether fragments can survive for many orbital periods. Previous work suggests that to reach Q = 1, and have fragments survive, a disk must cool on an orbital timescale. Here we show that disks heated primarily by external irradiation always satisfy the standard cooling time criterion. Thus, even though irradiation heats disks and makes them more stable in general, once they reach the fragmentation boundary, they fragment more easily. We derive a new cooling criterion that determines fragment survival and calculate a pressure-modified Hill radius, which sets the maximum size of pressure-supported objects in a Keplerian disk. We conclude that fragmentation in protostellar disks might occur at slightly smaller radii than previously thought and recommend tests for future simulations that will better predict the outcome of fragmentation in real disks.

  8. Collision-induced dissociation products of the protonated dipeptide carnosine: structural elucidation, fragmentation pathways and potential energy surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Eslam M; Ritacco, Ida; Sicilia, Emilia; Russo, Nino; Shoeib, Tamer

    2015-05-21

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on protonated carnosine, [carnosine + H](+), with several collision energies were shown to yield eleven different fragment ions with the generation of product ions [carnosine-H2O + H](+) and [carnosine-NH3 + H](+) being the lowest energy processes. Energy-resolved CID showed that at slightly higher collision energies the ions [histidine + H](+) and [histidine-H2O-CO + H](+) are formed. At even higher energies four other product ions were observed, however, attained relatively lower abundances. Quantum chemistry calculations, carried out at different levels of theory, were employed to probe fragmentation mechanisms that account for all the experimental data. All the adopted computational protocols give similar energetic trends, and the range of the calculated free energy barrier values for the generation of all the observed product ions is in agreement with the fragmentation mechanisms offered here.

  9. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    PubMed

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  10. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  11. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  12. Production of the kringle fragments of human apolipoprotein(a) by continuous lactose induction strategy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyung-Kwon; Kim, Sung-Geun; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2004-03-18

    A novel lactose induction strategy for the production of rhLK68, the kringle fragments of human apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) as a novel anti-angiogenic protein, was investigated. A scale-up of the production was accompanied by a decrease in expression level, and severe aggregation occurred during the solubilization of rhLK68 from the inclusion body during a conventional single introduction of lactose. To overcome this problem, a continuous induction strategy was applied where lactose was mixed with glycerol and fed continuously in a dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat manner. With the sub-optimal feed medium consisted of 1:50 of lactose/glycerol (w/w), the expression level reached 16% of the total cellular protein, which was 1.6-fold higher than that obtained from the conventional lactose induction. Moreover, the solubilization yield of rhLK68 from the inclusion body increased from 30 +/- 5 to 85 +/- 3% compared to the conventional single introduction of lactose. This result suggests that the continuous lactose induction strategy beneficially influenced the expression level of rhLK68 and the quality of its inclusion body.

  13. Role of different parts of the nucleon-nucleon potential on fragment production in asymmetric collisions and their rapidity dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2017-08-01

    The role of different parts of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction potential on the production of light- and intermediate-mass fragments in different mass asymmetric reactions 120Sn+120Sn (η =0 ), 82Kr+158Gd (η =0.3 ), 56Fe+184W (η =0.5 ), and 35Cl+205Tl (η =0.7 ) (with Atotal=240 units) within different rapidity domains has been investigated using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular-dynamics model. The results indicate that the multiplicity of different fragments changes with the gradual addition of different parts of the NN interaction potential. The comparison between calculations and experimental data for the 120Sn+120Sn reaction reveals that both momentum dependent interactions (MDIs) and symmetry potential are indispensable to explain the charge distribution. The MDI plays a dominant role while the symmetry potential has minor influence on the fragment production, but both together lead to an increase in the multiplicity of light- and intermediate-mass fragments and hence show their significance in the fragment production at intermediate energies.

  14. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  15. Requirements on sealing measures due to gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Arens, G.; Hoeglund, L.; Wiborgh, M.

    1995-03-01

    Since 1981 the former rock salt mine Bartensleben near Morsleben (former GDR) ERAM has been in operation as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. As a result of the reunification and the changed licensing situation a new closure concept for the repository has to be developed. During the post-operational phase of a repository for radioactive waste gas may be produced by corrosion of metals, microbial degradation and radiolytic decomposition. In the process of developing the concept to be used for backfilling and sealing in ERAM it is important that gas formed in the repository will not disrupt the barrier against radionuclide escape or enhance the radionuclide release. To evaluate the performance and the properties for a bentonite plug as the main element of the sealings gas transport modelling with TOUGH were performed. Due to the lack of site-specific data literature data were used. Consequently, large uncertainties in data remain at present, which were taken into account by a great number of parameter variations. To handle this a course discretisation for the calculations were developed. Started with a two-dimensional grid at the end the calculations were performed with a coarse one-dimensional grid. The primary question to answer in these calculations is if there is a risk for excessive pressurization of the repository caverns as a result of gas generation. In the reference case a maximum pressure of approximately 10 Mpa inside a cavern is reached after 1000 years which seems not to jeopardize the integrity of the repository.

  16. Extraction and recovery of pectic fragments from citrus processing waste for co-production with ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Steam treatment of citrus processing waste (CPW) at 160°C followed by a rapid decompression (steam explosion) at either pH 2.8 or 4.5 provides an efficient and rapid fragmentation of protopectin in CPW and renders a large fraction of fragmented pectins, arabinans, galactans and arabinogalactans solu...

  17. 30 CFR 210.103 - When are my production reports due?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When are my production reports due? 210.103 Section 210.103 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 210.103 When are my production reports due? (a...

  18. Mining soil survey databases to explore lithologic, climatic and topographic controls on hillslope production of bedload-size rock fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Sklar, L. S.

    2007-12-01

    The grain size distribution of sediments supplied by hillslopes to channel networks may strongly influence landscape dynamics at both the long time scale of landscape evolution and the short time scale of channel response to changes in land use. Little is known, however, about how lithology, climate, and the processes and rates of sediment production and transport on hillslopes, control the grain size distribution supplied to channels. A wealth of soil size distribution measurements have been collected and archived by state and local agencies, which to our knowledge have not been systematically examined to uncover patterns in the mass fraction and size distribution of rock fragments large enough to move as bedload in rivers. Here we report results obtained from data mining soil survey archives in the western United States. To focus on hillslopes with active sediment production, we exclude data from soil pits dug in valley bottoms, terraces and other topographic settings where long-term net accumulation is likely. Among the many questions that can be explored with these data, we are interested in how the mass fraction of rock fragments (>2mm) and their size distribution, averaged over the soil column, varies with factors such as depth-to-bedrock, hillslope gradient, lithology, and mean annual temperature and precipitation. We are also looking for variations with depth within the soil column, that might provide insight into soil disturbance, transport, and weathering regimes. Several general patterns emerge from our work to-date. A large fraction of hillslope soil pedons do not contain any rock fragments, with lithology possibly the dominant control. Where the rock fragment mass fraction is greater than about 0.3, there is commonly an increase in rock fragment concentration with depth within the soil column. Pedons with lower depth-averaged rock fragment concentrations more commonly show no gradient in concentration with depth, suggesting that the disturbance

  19. The Effect of Erosion Rate on Hillslope Rock Fragment Production: Implications for Supply of Bedload Material to Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Attal, M.; Sklar, L. S.; Riebe, C. S.; Hurst, M. D.; Mudd, S. M.; Yoo, K.

    2009-12-01

    The size distribution, abundance and durability of coarse sediment supplied by hillslopes to channels fundamentally influences channel morphodynamics, including the rate of river incision into bedrock. However, little is known about how hillslope boundary conditions such as erosion rate, climate and lithology, affect the production of bedload-sized rock fragments (> 2mm) on soil-mantled hillslopes. We hypothesize that more rapidly eroding hillslopes should produce larger, more abundant and more durable rock fragments, all else equal, because soils should be thinner, residence times shorter, and soil-producing disturbances such as tree throw more likely to transport unweathered bedrock to the surface. Here we present measurements of soil grain size distributions from three climatically distinct sites in northern California, where erosion rates vary widely within each site. Two of our sites are in granitic terrain in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Fort Sage and Feather River), where rates of erosion and chemical weathering are constrained from previous measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides exposure ages and insoluble element enrichment. At the third site (Butano Ridge), an asymmetrical ridge underlain by massive sandstone in the Santa Cruz Mountains, we infer variable erosion rates from analysis of topographic curvature and hillslope gradient using a high-resolution LiDAR-derived DEM. We focus on the creep-dominated portion of the landscape to avoid sampling in landscape scars where the size distribution may not reflect long-term average production patterns. Bulk soil samples are taken from pits excavated to below the soil saprolite-bedrock boundary. We then sieve to obtain the full grain-size distribution in the soil column above the saprolite. We are also using laboratory tumbling mills to characterize rock fragment durability and assess the potential for fragment survival as bedload, once delivered to the channel. We find that rock fragment abundance generally

  20. Confronting fragmentation function universality with single hadron inclusive production at HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B. A.; Kramer, G.; Sandoval, C.

    2007-02-01

    Predictions for light charged hadron production data in the current fragmentation region of deeply inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS experiments are calculated using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, and using fragmentation functions obtained by fitting to similar data from e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. General good agreement is found when the magnitude Q{sup 2} of the hard photon's virtuality is sufficiently large. The discrepancy at low Q and small scaled momentum x{sub p} is reduced by incorporating mass effects of the detected hadron. By performing quark tagging, the contributions to the overall fragmentation from the various quark flavours in the ep reactions are studied and compared to the contributions in e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. The yields of the various hadron species are also calculated.

  1. Mitochondrial fragmentation and superoxide anion production in coronary endothelial cells from a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Makino, A.; Scott, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Mitochondria frequently change their shapes by fusion and fission and these morphological dynamics play important roles in mitochondrial function and development as well as programmed cell death. The goal of this study is to investigate whether: (1) mitochondria in mouse coronary endothelial cells (MCECs) isolated from diabetic mice exhibit increased fragmentation; and (2) chronic treatment with a superoxide anion (O2−) scavenger has a beneficial effect on mitochondrial fragmentation in MCECs. Methods MCECs were freshly isolated and lysed for protein measurement, or cultured to determine mitochondrial morphology and O2− production. For the ex vivo hyperglycaemia experiments, human coronary endothelial cells were used. Results Elongated mitochondrial tubules were observed in MCECs isolated from control mice, whereas mitochondria in MCECs from diabetic mice exhibited augmented fragmentation. The level of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) protein, which leads to mitochondrial fusion, was significantly decreased, while dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), which leads to mitochondrial fission, was significantly increased in MCECs from diabetic mice. Diabetic MCECs exhibited significantly higher O2− concentrations in cytosol and mitochondria than control MCECs. Administration of the O2− scavenger TEMPOL to diabetic mice for 4 weeks led to a significant decrease in mitochondrial fragmentation without altering the levels of OPA1 and DRP1 proteins in MCECs. High-glucose treatment for 24 h significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which was restored by TEMPOL treatment. In addition, excess O2− production, either in cytosol or in mitochondria, significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Conclusions/interpretation These data suggest that lowering the O2− concentration can restore the morphological change in mitochondria and may help improve mitochondrial function in diabetic MCECs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Malate Synthase Structures with Fragments Reveal a Portal for Substrate/Product Exchange*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Krieger, Inna V.; Parai, Maloy K.; Gawandi, Vijay B.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Fragment screening and high throughput screening are complementary approaches that combine with structural biology to explore the binding capabilities of an active site. We have used a fragment-based approach on malate synthase (GlcB) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and discovered several novel binding chemotypes. In addition, the crystal structures of GlcB in complex with these fragments indicated conformational changes in the active site that represent the enzyme conformations during catalysis. Additional structures of the complex with malate and of the apo form of GlcB supported that hypothesis. Comparative analysis of GlcB structures in complex with 18 fragments allowed us to characterize the preferred chemotypes and their binding modes. The fragment structures showed a hydrogen bond to the backbone carbonyl of Met-631. We successfully incorporated an indole group from a fragment into an existing phenyl-diketo acid series. The resulting indole-containing inhibitor was 100-fold more potent than the parent phenyl-diketo acid with an IC50 value of 20 nm. PMID:27738104

  3. [Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in household products].

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, Masa-aki

    2010-01-01

    Chemicals in household products have been paid much attention as the main cause of health damage in consumers, such as allergic contact dermatitis. Preventive measures against health damage due to chemicals in fabrics, plastics and rubber products for household use, are reviewed, focusing on 1) the incidence of health damage due to household products, 2) causative product-chemical investigation, and 3) case studies on skin damage.

  4. Chameleon fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  5. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths.

    PubMed

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales.

  6. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths

    PubMed Central

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  7. Production of Neutron-Unbound States in Intermediate - Fragments from Nitrogen + Silver Reactions at E/a = 35 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence Harvey

    The populations of neutron-unbound states and of bound states in intermediate-mass fragments have been measured at 15^circ, 31 ^circ, and 64^circ from the ^{14}N + Ag reaction at E/A = 35 MeV. The data are identified in terms of the reaction mechanism producing them, which is either a deep-inelastic mechanism or a quasielastic mechanism. In order to test the assumption that the deep -inelastic data are produced from a thermal source, the unbound-state/bound-state population ratios of deep-inelastic fragments are compared to the predictions of a thermal sequential decay model. Most, but not all, of the deep -inelastic population ratios are fitted with model calculations that assume a source temperature between 2.5 and 3.4 MeV. Three or more populations from the same isotope were measured for ^{13}C, ^ {12}B, and ^{10} Be. The deep-inelastic populations from ^{13}C and ^{10 }Be were fitted with a single temperature, while the deep-inelastic populations from ^ {12}B were not fitted. There is enough of the deep-inelastic data that is not fitted with the predictions of a thermal model that the assumption of a thermal source for the production of deep-inelastic fragments may be incorrect, or there may be other effects present which alter the thermal properties of the data. The dependence of the unbound-state/bound-state population ratio on the fragment kinetic energy shows a difference between the quasielastic and deep-inelastic data. For quasielastic fragments whose mass is near the mass of the beam, the ratio decreases towards zero as the fragment velocity approaches the beam velocity. In contrast, the ratio for half-beam mass quasielastic fragments is constant or only slightly decreasing as the kinetic energy increases. The ratio for deep-inelastic fragments is approximately constant as a function of kinetic energy, independent of fragment mass. The amount of feeding from several neutron-unbound channels into bound states is measured and compared to the sequential

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep disruption and sleep fragmentation are associated with increased orexin-A cerebrospinal-fluid levels in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Claudio; Nuccetelli, Marzia; Izzi, Francesca; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Romigi, Andrea; Martorana, Alessandro; Amoroso, Chiara; Bernardini, Sergio; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Placidi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The orexin system has been investigated in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by measuring orexin-A concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and correlated to subjective and objective sleep parameters, quantified by questionnaires and polysomnography, respectively. Twenty drug-naïve patients with MCI due to AD were studied and compared with a population of 26 age and/or sex matched controls, divided into subgroups on the basis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score. Increased CSF-orexin levels were detected in patients with MCI due to AD in comparison with controls (p < 0.05). In particular, CSF-orexin concentrations were higher in MCI patients suffering from sleep complaints (PSQI ≥5, n = 10) compared with MCI patients with a regular sleep-wake cycle (PSQI <5, n = 10, p < 0.001) and compared with both control groups (with sleep complaints, PSQI ≥5, n = 11, p < 0.001; without sleep complaints, PSQI <5, n = 15, p < 0.001). Moreover, REM sleep was reduced in MCI patients compared with controls (p < 0.01), and had a negative correlation coupled with a reciprocal influence at the multiple regression analysis with CSF-orexin levels (R = -0.65; β = -8.90). REM sleep disruption and sleep fragmentation are related to higher CSF-orexin levels in patients with MCI due to AD, thus suggesting that the orexin system may be involved even in the earliest stages of AD, resulting in prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, and REM sleep impairment.

  9. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 1202.550 How do I determine the royalty due on gas production? If you produce gas from an Indian lease subject... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I determine the royalty due on...

  10. Intermediate mass fragment production in central collisions of intermediate energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Bauer, W.; Craig, D.; Cronqvist, M.; Gualtieri, E.; Hannuschke, S.; Lacey, R.; Llope, W.J.; Reposeur, T.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Winfield, J.S.; Yee, J.; Yennello, S.J. ); Nadasen, A. ); Tickle, R.S. ); Norbeck, E. )

    1993-03-29

    We present [ital Z] distributions for fragments with 1[le][ital Z][le]12 from central collisions of [sup 40] Ar+[sup 45]Sc at incident energies ranging from 35 to 115 MeV/nucleon. We find that the [ital Z] distributions can be described by a power law or an exponential and steepen with increasing incident energy. Over the range of incident energies studied, the average number of intermediate mass fragments decreases while the average number of particles increases. When combined with previous results for the charge distributions, a minimum is observed in the extracted power-law parameter.

  11. SRP and Sec pathway leader peptides for antibody phage display and antibody fragment production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Thie, Holger; Schirrmann, Thomas; Paschke, Matthias; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Antibody phage display is a key technology for the generation of recombinant (human) antibodies for research, diagnostics and therapy. Most antibody fragments can only be folded correctly in the oxidizing environment of the periplasm of Escherichia coli. A multitude of leader peptides has been used for secretion of antibody::pIII fusion proteins into the periplasm, but a systematic study of their impact on the performance of antibody phage display systems has not been reported so far. In this work we have analysed the influence of various leader peptides on antibody phage display efficiency and production yields of soluble antibody fragments. Four leader peptides using the Sec pathway (PelB, OmpA, PhoA and pIII) and three using the SRP pathway (DsbA, TorT and TolB) were compared. Both pathways are compatible with antibody phage display and the production of soluble antibody fragments. The applicability of the SRP pathway to antibody phage display and the production of functional scFvs is shown here for the first time.

  12. Single chain Fab (scFab) fragment.

    PubMed

    Hust, Michael; Jostock, Thomas; Menzel, Christian; Voedisch, Bernd; Mohr, Anja; Brenneis, Mariam; Kirsch, Martina I; Meier, Doris; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-03-08

    The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH) and and the variable part of the light chain (VL) by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv) was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv) fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab) with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd) and the light chain (LC), resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab), can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabDeltaC) connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1) and the constant part of the light chain (CL) were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies) as well as multimers were characterised. A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of common standard sera for detection.

  13. Single chain Fab (scFab) fragment

    PubMed Central

    Hust, Michael; Jostock, Thomas; Menzel, Christian; Voedisch, Bernd; Mohr, Anja; Brenneis, Mariam; Kirsch, Martina I; Meier, Doris; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH) and and the variable part of the light chain (VL) by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv) was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv) fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab) with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd) and the light chain (LC), resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab), can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC) connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1) and the constant part of the light chain (CL) were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies) as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of common standard sera

  14. Production and characterization of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deoxynivalenol (DON)is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi that infest cereal grains worldwide. A hybridoma cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (Mab) recognizing DON was used as the starting point in the development of a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody. The scFv wa...

  15. Mechanism of production of troponin T fragments during postmortem aging of porcine muscle.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Shin-ichi; Muroya, Susumu; Tanabe, Soichi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Chikuni, Koichi; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2005-05-18

    Troponin T (TnT) is one of the myofibrillar proteins that is easily degraded during postmortem aging of pork. In this study, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT degradation fragments produced during postmortem aging and by m-calpain hydrolysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT fragments produced during postmortem aging were EVHEPEEKPRPKLTAP, EKPRPKLTAPKIPEG, and APKIPEGEKVDF. On the other hand, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT fragments produced by the action of m-calpain were APPPPAEV, EVHEPEEK, and APK. These sequences of degradation fragments could be mapped on fast type TnT isoform 2. The peptide bonds of His37-Glu38 and Thr51-Ala52 in fTnT2 were cleaved during postmortem aging as well as by the calpain hydrolysis; therefore, calpain was concluded to have an important role in TnT degradation during postmortem aging. It was also found that the sourness-suppressing peptide APPPPAEVHEVHEEVH (Okumura et al. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2004, 68, 1657-1662) derived from TnT degradation could be produced by the action of calpains on Glu21-Ala22 and His37-Glu38 sites.

  16. Aβ-induced Golgi fragmentation in Alzheimer’s disease enhances Aβ production

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gunjan; Chi, Youjian; Huang, Zheping; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2014-01-01

    Golgi fragmentation occurs in neurons of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the underlying molecular mechanism causing the defects and the subsequent effects on disease development remain unknown. In this study, we examined the Golgi structure in APPswe/PS1∆E9 transgenic mouse and tissue culture models. Our results show that accumulation of amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) leads to Golgi fragmentation. Further biochemistry and cell biology studies revealed that Golgi fragmentation in AD is caused by phosphorylation of Golgi structural proteins, such as GRASP65, which is induced by Aβ-triggered cyclin-dependent kinase-5 activation. Significantly, both inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and expression of nonphosphorylatable GRASP65 mutants rescued the Golgi structure and reduced Aβ secretion by elevating α-cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Our study demonstrates a molecular mechanism for Golgi fragmentation and its effects on amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing in AD, suggesting Golgi as a potential drug target for AD treatment. PMID:24639524

  17. [Serious product accidents due to the chemical substances used in household products in fiscal years 2007 and 2008].

    PubMed

    Isama, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The revised consumer product safety law was enforced in 2007. Then, the collection and publication system of the information of product accidents was newly included. Serious product accidents due to the chemical substances used in household products had 32 cases in fiscal years 2007 and 2008. These household products were a desk mat, a sectional bed, a spray-type adhesive, a paint and an adhesive for table tennis rackets. The safety measure of the household product was explained based on the law for the control of household products containing harmful substances.

  18. Design and construction of immune phage antibody library against Tetanus neurotoxin: Production of single chain antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Sadreddini, Sanam; Seifi-Najmi, Mehrnosh; Ghasemi, Babollah; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Alinejad, Vahideh; Sadreddini, Sevil; Younesi, Vahid; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-12-23

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is composed of a light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) polypeptides, released by anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani and can cause fatal life-threatening infectious disease. Toxin HC and LC modules represents receptor binding and zinc metalloprotease activity, respectively. The passive administration of animal-derived antibodies against tetanus toxin has been considered as the mainstay therapy for years. However, this treatment is associated with several adverse effects due to the presence of anti-isotype antibodies. In the present study, we have produced the fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) from two human antibody phage display libraries. Twenty-four different HuscFvs were isolated from two anti TeNT immune libraries. Our produced human ScFv (HuScFv) were converted to IgG platform and analyzed regarding their specific reactivity to TeNT. All of the selected scFvs have the same VL but different VH. Three HuscFvs from the first library (TTX15, 51, 75) and two HuscFvs from the second library (TTX16, 20) were chosen to convert to IgG1 using pOptiVEC and pcDNA3.3 systems. Production of IgG1 from transfected DG44 and binding capacity of them to tetanus toxin and toxoid were measured by ELISA. ELISA results showed no detectable production of TTX16 and TTX20 IgG1. Although, TTX51 and TTX75 were converted and produced as IgG1, no reactivity to tetanus toxin and toxoid was observed. However, TTX15 was successfully produced as whole IgG1 platform with reactivity to both tetanus toxin and toxoid. The latter would be an appropriate replacement for conventional polyclonal antibodies if would meet the further characterization including specificity determination, affinity measurement and toxin neutralizing assays. Our results demonstrated production of functional IgG1 derived from TTX15 scFv and might be an appropriate replacement for polyclonal Tetabulin but it needs further characterization.

  19. Competition between functionalization and fragmentation pathways in the OH-initiated oxidation of aqueous tartaric acid droplets: Reaction products and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. T.; Chow, C. Y.; Chan, M. N.; Zuend, A.; Berkemeier, T.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    To gain better insights into the competition between functionalization and fragmentation pathways for oxygenated organic compounds, we investigate the OH-radical initiated oxidation of aqueous tartaric acid (C4H6O6) droplets using an aerosol flow tube reactor. The molecular composition of reaction products is characterized by an atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART) coupled with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The reaction produces four major products: a functionalization product (C4H4O6) and three fragmentation products (C3H4O4, C3H2O4 and C3H2O5), with a predominance of the functionalization product which supports the literature result that only less than 10% of carbon loss was observed for the OH oxidation of tartaric acid. The formation of the functionalization product (2-hydroxy-3-oxosuccinic acid, C4H4O6) can be attributed to that the tertiary alkyl radical, formed after hydrogen abstraction, reacts with an O2 molecule to form a hydroxyperoxyl radical which tends to quickly undergo intramolecular HO2 elimination without fragmentation. The molecular transformation of aqueous tartaric acid droplets is stimulated using the kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP) and the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model in order to take into account the change in particle-phase water and activities of reaction products during the oxidation. Results suggest that aqueous tartaric acid droplets become slightly less hygroscopic after oxidation due to the formation of less polar products. The formation of products with different hygroscopicities and volatilities largely determine the amount of particle-phase water, which in turn governs the size of the aqueous droplets and the concentration of the reactants. Consideration of the variation in water content in response to the chemical evolution in the aerosol is needed to better understand

  20. Recombinant production of the antibody fragment D1.3 scFv with different Bacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Lakowitz, Antonia; Krull, Rainer; Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2017-01-23

    Different strains of the genus Bacillus are versatile candidates for the industrial production and secretion of heterologous proteins. They can be cultivated quite easily, show high growth rates and are usually non-pathogenic and free of endo- and exotoxins. They have the ability to secrete proteins with high efficiency into the growth medium, which allows cost-effective downstream purification processing. Some of the most interesting and challenging heterologous proteins are recombinant antibodies and antibody fragments. They are important and suitable tools in medical research for analytics, diagnostics and therapy. The smallest conventional antibody fragment with high-affinity binding to an antigen is the single-chain fragment variable (scFv). Here, different strains of the genus Bacillus were investigated using diverse cultivation systems for their suitability to produce and secret a recombinant scFv. Extracellular production of lysozyme-specific scFv D1.3 was realized by constructing a plasmid with a xylose-inducible promoter optimized for Bacillus megaterium and the D1.3scFv gene fused to the coding sequence of the LipA signal peptide from B. megaterium. Functional scFv was successfully secreted with B. megaterium MS941, Bacillus licheniformis MW3 and the three Bacillus subtilis strains 168, DB431 and WB800N differing in the number of produced proteases. Starting with shake flasks (150 mL), the bioprocess was scaled down to microtiter plates (1250 µL) as well as scaled up to laboratory-scale bioreactors (2 L). The highest extracellular concentration of D1.3 scFv (130 mg L(-1)) and highest space-time-yield (8 mg L(-1) h(-1)) were accomplished with B. subtilis WB800N, a strain deficient in eight proteases. These results were reproduced by the production and secretion of a recombinant penicillin G acylase (Pac). The genus Bacillus provides high potential microbial host systems for the secretion of challenging heterologous proteins like antibody

  1. Factors affecting the production of a single-chain antibody fragment by Aspergillus awamori in a stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadis, A; Keshavarz, T; Keshavarz-Moore, E

    2001-01-01

    A recombinant strain of Aspergillus awamori expressing anti-lysozyme single chain antibody fragments (scFv), under the control of a xylanase promoter, was studied in order to investigate the impact of medium, induction regime and protease production on the expression of the product. Experiments with the time of induction showed that the optimum results are achieved when induction is started in the late exponential phase (21 h after inoculation) improving the titer of the product from 14.5 mg L(-1), obtained in the early exponential phase (7 h after inoculation), to 16.2 mg L(-1). A 100% increase of the carbon (fructose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulfate) sources in the growth medium resulted in an increase in product concentration from 16.2 to 108.9 mg L(-1) and an increase in maximum dry cell weight from 7.5 to 11.5 g L(-1). A 50% reduction in the concentration of the inducer resulted in an increase in the product yield from 10 mg g(-1) dry cell weight to 12 mg g(-1). Proteolytic enzymes were produced during the fermentation up to concentrations equivalent to 1.4 g L(-1) trypsin, but they had no detrimental effect on the concentration of the antibody fragment.

  2. In-source fragmentation technique for the production of thermalized ions.

    PubMed

    Carl, Damon R; Moision, Robert M; Armentrout, P B

    2009-12-01

    Our electrospray ionization-ion funnel-rf hexapole (ESI-IF-6P) source is designed to produce ions for threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) studies in a guided ion beam mass spectrometer. This ion source forms an initial distribution of Ca2+(H2O)x ions where x is 6-9. A new in-source fragmentation technique within the hexapole ion guide of the source is described, which is easy to implement and of modest machining and electrical costs, and is able to generate smaller Ca2+(H2O)x complexes, where x = 2-5. Fragmentation is achieved by biasing an assembly of six 0.25 in. long electrodes that are inserted between the hexapole rods. The assembly is positioned in the high-pressure region of the source such that newly formed Ca2+(H2O)x ions undergo enough collisions to become thermalized, as verified by TCID studies. From the initial distribution of ions, fragmentation proceeds along the lowest energy pathway, which corresponds to sequential water loss for most complexes. However, the Ca2+(H2O) complex cannot be formed using this method because charge separation into CaOH+ and H3O+ becomes the lowest energy pathway from the Ca2+(H2O)2 complex. Therefore, this fragmentation technique can be used to identify the critical size complex for M2+(H2O)x systems, which we define as the complex size (x) at which charge separation becomes a lower energy pathway compared with simple ligand loss.

  3. Influence of growth temperature on the production of antibody Fab fragments in different microbes: a host comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragosits, Martin; Frascotti, Gianni; Bernard-Granger, Lise; Vázquez, Felícitas; Giuliani, Maria; Baumann, Kristin; Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata; Tokkanen, Jaana; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Kunert, Renate; Maurer, Michael; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Branduardi, Paola; Pakula, Tiina; Saloheimo, Markku; Penttilä, Merja; Ferrer, Pau; Luisa Tutino, Maria; Villaverde, Antonio; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms encounter diverse stress conditions in their native habitats but also during fermentation processes, which have an impact on industrial process performance. These environmental stresses and the physiological reactions they trigger, including changes in the protein folding/secretion machinery, are highly interrelated. Thus, the investigation of environmental factors, which influence protein expression and secretion is still of great importance. Among all the possible stresses, temperature appears particularly important for bioreactor cultivation of recombinant hosts, as reductions of growth temperature have been reported to increase recombinant protein production in various host organisms. Therefore, the impact of temperature on the secretion of proteins with therapeutic interest, exemplified by a model antibody Fab fragment, was analyzed in five different microbial protein production hosts growing under steady-state conditions in carbon-limited chemostat cultivations. Secretory expression of the heterodimeric antibody Fab fragment was successful in all five microbial host systems, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Trichoderma reesei, Escherichia coli and Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. In this comparative analysis we show that a reduction of cultivation temperature during growth at constant growth rate had a positive effect on Fab 3H6 production in three of four analyzed microorganisms, indicating common physiological responses, which favor recombinant protein production in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic microbes.

  4. Two routes for production and purification of Fab fragments in biopharmaceutical discovery research: Papain digestion of mAb and transient expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghong; Gutshall, Lester; Jiang, Haiyan; Baker, Audrey; Beil, Eric; Obmolova, Galina; Carton, Jill; Taudte, Susann; Amegadzie, Bernard

    2009-10-01

    Fab (fragment that having the antigen binding site) of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) is widely required in biopharmaceutical research and development. At Centocor, two routes of Fab production and purification were used to enable a variety of research and development efforts, particularly, crystallographic studies of antibody-antigen interactions. One route utilizes papain digestion of an intact monoclonal antibody for Fab fragment production. After digestion, separation of the Fab fragment from the Fc (fragment that crystallizes) and residual intact antibody was achieved using protein A affinity chromatography. In another route, His-tagged Fab fragments were obtained by transient expression of an appropriate construct in mammalian cells, and typical yields are 1-20mg of Fab fragment per liter of cell culture. The His-tagged Fab fragments were first captured using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). To provide high quality protein sample for crystallization, Fabs from either proteolytic digestion or from direct expression were further purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and/or ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). The purified Fab fragments were characterized by mass spectrometry, SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism. Crystallization experiments demonstrated that the Fab fragments are of high quality to produce diffraction quality crystals suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  5. Parton fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, A.; Vossen, A.

    2016-11-01

    The field of fragmentation functions of light quarks and gluons is reviewed. In addition to integrated fragmentation functions, attention is paid to the dependence of fragmentation functions on transverse momenta and on polarization degrees of freedom. Higher-twist and di-hadron fragmentation functions are considered as well. Moreover, the review covers both theoretical and experimental developments in hadron production in electron-positron annihilation, deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, and proton-proton collisions.

  6. 30 CFR 202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 202.550 Section 202.550 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 202.550 How do I determine...

  7. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section 1202.550 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 1202.550 How do...

  8. Analyzing fragment production in mass-asymmetric reactions as a function of density dependent part of symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Amandeep; Deepshikha; Vinayak, Karan Singh; Kumar, Suneel

    2016-07-15

    We performed a theoretical investigation of different mass-asymmetric reactions to access the direct impact of the density-dependent part of symmetry energy on multifragmentation. The simulations are performed for a specific set of reactions having same system mass and N/Z content, using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model to estimate the quantitative dependence of fragment production on themass-asymmetry factor (τ) for various symmetry energy forms. The dynamics associated with different mass-asymmetric reactions is explored and the direct role of symmetry energy is checked. Also a comparison with the experimental data (asymmetric reaction) is presented for a different equation of states (symmetry energy forms).

  9. Conditions for collection of serum samples for the measurement of fibrin(ogen) degradation products by radioimmunoassay of fragment E.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M J; Gordon, Y B; Ratky, S M; Baker, L R; Chard, T

    1976-01-01

    A number of conditions have been assessed for the collection of serum samples for the measurement of fibrin(ogen) degradation products using a radioimmunoassay for degradation fragment E, which permits precise quantitation of differences. Blood should be collected using minimal venous occlusion into glass tubes containing 10 mg/ml of epsilon amino caproic acid and allowed to clot at 4 to 20 degrees C for at least 4 hours before centrifugation. The serum may be stored at 4 or -20 degrees C. Samples from patients receiving anticoagulant therapy should be treated with 10 IU of thrombin per ml. PMID:932225

  10. Combining Higher-Energy Collision Dissociation and Electron-Transfer/Higher-Energy Collision Dissociation Fragmentation in a Product-Dependent Manner Confidently Assigns Proteomewide ADP-Ribose Acceptor Sites.

    PubMed

    Bilan, Vera; Leutert, Mario; Nanni, Paolo; Panse, Christian; Hottiger, Michael O

    2017-02-07

    Protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a physiologically and pathologically important post-translational modification. Recent technological advances have improved analysis of this complex modification and have led to the discovery of hundreds of ADP-ribosylated proteins in both cultured cells and mouse tissues. Nevertheless, accurate assignment of the ADP-ribose acceptor site(s) within the modified proteins identified has remained a challenging task. This is mainly due to poor fragmentation of modified peptides. Here, using an Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer, we present an optimized methodology that not only drastically improves the overall localization scores for ADP-ribosylation acceptor sites but also boosts ADP-ribosylated peptide identifications. First, we systematically compared the efficacy of higher-energy collision dissociation (HCD), electron-transfer dissociation with supplemental collisional activation (ETcaD), and electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD) fragmentation methods when determining ADP-ribose acceptor sites within complex cellular samples. We then tested the combination of HCD and EThcD fragmentation, which were employed in a product-dependent manner, and the unique fragmentation properties of the ADP-ribose moiety were used to trigger targeted fragmentation of only the modified peptides. The best results were obtained with a workflow that included initial fast, high-energy HCD (Orbitrap, FT) scans, which produced intense ADP-ribose fragmentation ions. These potentially ADP-ribosylated precursors were then selected and analyzed via subsequent high-resolution HCD and EThcD fragmentation. Using these resulting high-quality spectra, we identified a xxxxxxKSxxxxx modification motif where lysine can serve as an ADP-ribose acceptor site. Due to the appearance of serine within this motif and its close presence to the lysine, further analysis revealed that serine serves as a new ADP-ribose acceptor site

  11. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  12. Lost productivity due to premature mortality in developed and emerging countries: an application to smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers and policy makers have determined that accounting for productivity costs, or “indirect costs,” may be as important as including direct medical expenditures when evaluating the societal value of health interventions. These costs are also important when estimating the global burden of disease. The estimation of indirect costs is commonly done on a country-specific basis. However, there are few studies that evaluate indirect costs across countries using a consistent methodology. Methods Using the human capital approach, we developed a model that estimates productivity costs as the present value of lifetime earnings (PVLE) lost due to premature mortality. Applying this methodology, the model estimates productivity costs for 29 selected countries, both developed and emerging. We also provide an illustration of how the inclusion of productivity costs contributes to an analysis of the societal burden of smoking. A sensitivity analysis is undertaken to assess productivity costs on the basis of the friction cost approach. Results PVLE estimates were higher for certain subpopulations, such as men, younger people, and people in developed countries. In the case study, productivity cost estimates from our model showed that productivity loss was a substantial share of the total cost burden of premature mortality due to smoking, accounting for over 75 % of total lifetime costs in the United States and 67 % of total lifetime costs in Brazil. Productivity costs were much lower using the friction cost approach among those of working age. Conclusions Our PVLE model is a novel tool allowing researchers to incorporate the value of lost productivity due to premature mortality into economic analyses of treatments for diseases or health interventions. We provide PVLE estimates for a number of emerging and developed countries. Including productivity costs in a health economics study allows for a more comprehensive analysis, and, as demonstrated by our

  13. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2015-04-01

    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  14. [Labor productivity losses attributable to premature deaths due to traffic injuries between 2002 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Cubí-Mollá, Patricia; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Casal, Bruno; Rivera, Berta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the years of potential life lost, years of potential productive life lost and the labor productivity losses attributable to premature deaths due to traffic injuries between 2002 and 2012 in Spain. Several statistical sources were combined (Spanish Registry of Deaths, Labor Force Survey and Wage Structure Survey) to develop a simulation model based on the human capital approach. This model allowed us to estimate the loss of labor productivity caused by premature deaths following traffic injuries from 2002 to 2012. In addition, mortality tables with life expectancy estimates were used to compute years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. The estimated loss of labour productivity caused by fatal traffic injuries between 2002 and 2012 in Spain amounted to 9,521 million euros (baseline year 2012). The aggregate number of years of potential life lost in the period amounted to 1,433,103, whereas the years of potential productive life lost amounted to 875,729. Throughout the period analyzed, labor productivity losses and years of life lost diminished substantially. Labor productivity losses due to fatal traffic injuries decreased throughout the period analyzed. Nevertheless, the cumulative loss was alarmingly high. Estimation of the economic impact of health problems can complement conventional indicators of distinct dimensions and be used to support public policy making. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase analysis in single-chain variable fragment production by recombinant Pichia pastoris based on proteomics combined with multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yuya; Kumada, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2015-08-01

    The proteomics technique, which consists of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF), gel image analysis, and multivariate statistics, was applied to the phase analysis of a fed-batch culture for the production of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of an anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody by Pichia pastoris. The time courses of the fed-batch culture were separated into three distinct phases: the growth phase of the batch process, the growth phase of the fed-batch process, and the production phase of the fed-batch process. Multivariate statistical analysis using 2-DE gel image analysis data clearly showed the change in the culture phase and provided information concerning the protein expression, which suggested a metabolic change related to cell growth and production during the fed-batch culture. Furthermore, specific proteins, such as alcohol oxidase, which is strongly related to scFv expression, and proteinase A, which could biodegrade scFv in the latter phases of production, were identified via the PMF method. The proteomics technique provided valuable information about the effect of the methanol concentration on scFv production.

  16. The preventable burden of productivity loss due to suboptimal asthma control: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Rousseau, Roxanne; Chen, Wenjia; Zhang, Wei; Lynd, Larry; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2014-04-01

    Productivity loss is an overlooked aspect of the burden of chronic health conditions. While modern guidelines emphasize achieving clinical control in asthma management, few studies have reported on the relationship between asthma control and productivity loss. We calculated the productivity loss that can be avoided by achieving and maintaining clinical control in employed adults with asthma. We prospectively recruited a population-based random sample of adults with asthma in British Columbia, Canada. We measured productivity loss due to absenteeism and presenteeism using validated instruments, and ascertained asthma control according to the GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) classification. We estimated the average gain in productivity for each individual if the individual’s asthma was controlled in the past week, by fitting two-part regression models associating asthma control and productivity loss, controlling for potential confounding variables. The final sample included 300 employed adults (mean age, 47.9 years [SD 12.0]; 67.3% women). Of these, 49 (16.3%) reported absenteeism, and 137 (45.7%) reported presenteeism. Productivity loss due to presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with asthma control. A person with uncontrolled asthma would avoid $184.80 (Canadian dollars [CAD]) in productivity loss by achieving clinical control during a week, CAD$167.50 (90.6%) of which would be due to presenteeism. The corresponding value was CAD$34.20 for partially controlled asthma and was not statistically significant. Our results indicate that substantial gain in productivity can be obtained by achieving asthma control. Presenteeism is more responsive than absenteeism to asthma control, and, thus, is a more important source of preventable burden.

  17. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  18. Propagation of the threatened staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: methods to minimize the impacts of fragment collection and maximize production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirman, D.; Thyberg, T.; Herlan, J.; Hill, C.; Young-Lahiff, C.; Schopmeyer, S.; Huntington, B.; Santos, R.; Drury, C.

    2010-09-01

    Coral reef restoration methods such as coral gardening are becoming increasingly considered as viable options to mitigate reef degradation and enhance recovery of depleted coral populations. In this study, we describe several aspects of the coral gardening approach that demonstrate this methodology is an effective way of propagating the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: (1) the growth of colonies within the nursery exceeded the growth rates of wild staghorn colonies in the same region; (2) the collection of branch tips did not result in any further mortality to the donor colonies beyond the coral removed for transplantation; (3) decreases in linear extension of the donor branches were only temporary and donor branches grew faster than control branches after an initial recovery period of approximately 3-6 weeks; (4) fragmentation did not affect the growth rates of non-donor branches within the same colony; (5) small branch tips experienced initial mortality due to handling and transportation but surviving tips grew well over time; and (6) when the growth of the branch tips is added to the regrowth of the fragmented donor branches, the new coral produced was 1.4-1.8 times more than new growth in undisturbed colonies. Based on these results, the collection of small (2.5-3.5 cm) branch tips was an effective propagation method for this branching coral species resulting in increased biomass accumulation and limited damage to parental stocks.

  19. Development of a high yielding E. coli periplasmic expression system for the production of humanized Fab' fragments.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark; Patel, Pareshkumar; Edon, Marjory; Ramage, Walter; Dickinson, Robert; Humphreys, David P

    2017-01-01

    Humanized Fab' fragments may be produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli but can be subject to degradation by host cell proteases. In order to increase Fab' yield and reduce proteolysis we developed periplasmic protease deficient strains of E. coli. These strains lacked the protease activity of Tsp, protease III and DegP. High cell density fermentations indicated Tsp deficient strains increased productivity two fold but this increase was accompanied by premature cell lysis soon after the induction of Fab' expression. To overcome the reduction in cell viability we introduced suppressor mutations into the spr gene. The mutations partially restored the wild type phenotype of the cells. Furthermore, we coexpressed a range of periplasmic chaperone proteins with the Fab', DsbC had the most significant impact, increasing humanized Fab' production during high cell density fermentation. When DsbC coexpression was combined with a Tsp deficient spr strain we observed an increase in yield and essentially restored "wild type" cell viability. We achieved a final periplasmic yield of over 2.4g/L (final cell density OD600 105), 40 h post Fab' induction with minimal cell lysis.The data suggests that proteolysis, periplasm integrity, protein folding and disulphide bond formation are all potential limiting steps in the production of Fab' fragments in the periplasm of E. coli. In this body of work, we have addressed these limiting steps by utilizing stabilized protease deficient strains and chaperone coexpression. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:212-220, 2017.

  20. Production of energetic light fragments in extensions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6 [Production of energetic light fragments in CEM, LAQGSM, and MCNP6

    DOE PAGES

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie; Gudima, Konstantin K.; ...

    2017-03-23

    We extend the cascade-exciton model (CEM), and the Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM), event generators of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code version 6 (MCNP6), to describe production of energetic light fragments (LF) heavier than 4He from various nuclear reactions induced by particles and nuclei at energies up to about 1 TeV/nucleon. In these models, energetic LF can be produced via Fermi breakup, preequilibrium emission, and coalescence of cascade particles. Initially, we study several variations of the Fermi breakup model and choose the best option for these models. Then, we extend the modified exciton model (MEM)more » used by these codes to account for a possibility of multiple emission of up to 66 types of particles and LF (up to 28Mg) at the preequilibrium stage of reactions. Then, we expand the coalescence model to allow coalescence of LF from nucleons emitted at the intranuclear cascade stage of reactions and from lighter clusters, up to fragments with mass numbers A ≤ 7, in the case of CEM, and A ≤ 12, in the case of LAQGSM. Next, we modify MCNP6 to allow calculating and outputting spectra of LF and heavier products with arbitrary mass and charge numbers. The improved version of CEM is implemented into MCNP6. Lastly, we test the improved versions of CEM, LAQGSM, and MCNP6 on a variety of measured nuclear reactions. The modified codes give an improved description of energetic LF from particle- and nucleus-induced reactions; showing a good agreement with a variety of available experimental data. They have an improved predictive power compared to the previous versions and can be used as reliable tools in simulating applications involving such types of reactions.« less

  1. Intracellular fragmentation of bone resorption products by reactive oxygen species generated by osteoclastic tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Halleen, J M; Räisänen, S; Salo, J J; Reddy, S V; Roodman, G D; Hentunen, T A; Lehenkari, P P; Kaija, H; Vihko, P; Väänänen, H K

    1999-08-13

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is highly expressed in bone-resorbing osteoclasts and activated macrophages. It has been suggested that a redox-active iron in the binuclear iron center of TRAP could have the capacity to react with hydrogen peroxide to produce highly destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that TRAP can generate ROS in vitro and that cells over-expressing TRAP produce higher amounts of intracellular ROS than their parent cells. We further demonstrate that these ROS can be targeted to destroy collagen and other proteins. In resorbing osteoclasts, TRAP was found in transcytotic vesicles transporting matrix degradation products through the cell, suggesting that TRAP-facilitated fragmentation of endocytosed material takes place in a specific cellular compartment. These results suggest that bone matrix degradation occurs not only extracellularly in the resorption lacunae but also intracellularly in the transcytotic vesicles. We propose that proteins containing redox-active iron could represent a novel mechanism of physiological fragmentation of organic molecules. This mechanism could be important in tissue remodeling and as a defense mechanism of phagocytosing cells.

  2. Productivity of the spruce grouse in fragmented habitat at the edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, S.D.; O'Connell, A.F.; Servello, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    We measured productivity of the Spruce Grouse (Dendragapusc anadensicsa nadensis) in patchy black spruce (Picea mariana) habitat along the southeastern limit of its range in mid-coastal Maine. We captured grouse and attached necklace-mounted radio transmitters to hens prior to nesting. Of 19 females monitored, only 26% raised chicks to the late brood-rearing period. Predation was high on hens (37%) and five were killed before hatching eggs. Six (55%) entire broods were lost and only 30% of chicks survived to late summer. Production ( No. of chicks/female), an index of productivity, was < 1 and lower in Maine and Minnesota study areas in black spruce than areas dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana) or a mixture of jack pine and spruce with dense undergrowth. Where Spruce Grouse breed in patchy black spruce communities, immigration from neighboring populations or inter-patch movement by local individuals may be required to maintain viable populations.

  3. A minimalist fragment approach for the design of natural-product-like synthetic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Genis, Dmitry; Kirpichenok, Mikhail; Kombarov, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Chemistry groups involved in drug discovery continue to devote their efforts to improving compound design with the aim of identifying new drug candidates. Many crucial factors must be considered, including: chemical stability, synthetic difficulty, chemical complexity and diversity, ADMET properties, cost, chemical novelty and intellectual property issues, and 'biological appropriateness'. With regard to the latter point, natural products offer an outstanding source of biologically active molecules that provide many useful features that enable us to design innovative, biologically biased, synthetic compounds. This article outlines the recent approaches in this area and suggests a simple metric to assess synthetic compounds for natural product likeness.

  4. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  5. Unusual Water Production Activity of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): Outbursts and Continuous Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 1028 s-1, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 1030 s-1 from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  6. UNUSUAL WATER PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON): OUTBURSTS AND CONTINUOUS FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.

    2014-06-10

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 10{sup 30} s{sup –1} from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  7. Synthesis and Photooxidation of the Trisubstituted Oxazole Fragment of the Marine Natural Product Salarin C.

    PubMed

    Schäckermann, Jan-Niklas; Lindel, Thomas

    2017-05-05

    The eastern section of the macrocyclic marine natural product salarin C from the sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. was synthesized employing a halogen dance reaction to assemble the trisubstituted oxazole moiety. The synthesis was inspired by Kashman's hypothesis on the biomimetic oxidation of salarin C to salarin A. Clean conversion to the triacylamine partial structure of salarin A occurred on treatment with photochemically generated singlet oxygen. Thus, a Wasserman-type oxidative rearrangement is chemically possible in this case.

  8. Degradation process of grease due to SF/sub 6/ gas dissociation products

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Koyama, A.; Tomimuro, S.; Yoshiba, H.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that some insulating materials are degraded due to dissociation products of SF/sub 6/ gas. Many studies related to the degradation of insulating materials have been accomplished. But no studies related to sealing materials, for instance (lubricating) grease and rubber have been made. This paper presents the degradation process of grease as follows. Properties of Lithium grease easily change in SF/sub 6/ gas including dissociation products owing to the degradation of Lithium soap used as thickner of grease. However, in the case of Bentonite grease and Urea grease, any changes of properties are not observed.

  9. Neutron production in coincidence with fragments from the 4Ca+H reactions at Elab=357 and 565 A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuvà, C.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C. N.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tricomi, A.; Tull, C. E.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    2000-04-01

    In the frame of the Transport Collaboration neutrons in coincidence with charged fragments produced in the 40Ca+H reaction at Elab=357 and 565 A MeV have been measured at the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, using the multifunctional neutron spectrometer MUFFINS. The detector covered a narrow angular range about the beam in the forward direction (0°-3.2°). In this contribution we report absolute neutron production cross sections in coincidence with charged fragments (10⩽Z⩽20). The neutron multiplicities have been estimated from the comparison between the neutron cross sections, in coincidence with the fragments, and the elemental cross sections. We have found evidence for a pre-equilibrium emission of prompt neutrons in superposition to a `slower' deexcitation of the equilibrated remnant by emission of nucleons and fragments, as already seen in the inclusive rapidity distributions.

  10. Neutron Production in Coincidence with Fragments from the {sup 40}Ca + H Reactions at E{sub lab} = 357 and 565 A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tuve, C.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T.G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C.N.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G.V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tricomi, A.; Tull, C.E.; Waddington, C.J.; Webber, W.R.; Wefel, J.P.

    2000-12-31

    In the frame of the Transport Collaboration neutrons in coincidence with charged fragments produced in the {sup 40}Ca + H reaction at E{sub lab} = 357 and 565 AMeV have been measured at the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, using the multifunctional neutron spectrometer MUFFINS. The detector covered a narrow angular range about the beam in the forward direction (0? - 3.2?). In this contribution we report absolute neutron production cross sections in coincidence with charged fragments (10 {<=} Z {<=} 20). The neutron multiplicities have been estimated from the comparison between the neutron cross sections, in coincidence with the fragments, and the elemental cross sections. We have found evidence for a pre-equilibrium emission of prompt neutrons in superposition to a 'slower' deexcitation of the equilibrated remnant by emission of nucleons and fragments, as already seen in the inclusive rapidity distributions.

  11. Role of angular momentum in the production of complex fragments in fusion and quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2011-05-15

    The influence of angular momentum on the competition between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels is treated within the dinuclear system model. The charge distributions of the products in the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 96}Zr, {sup 4}He+{sup 130}Te, and {sup 40}Ca+{sup 82}Kr are predicted at bombarding energies above the Coulomb barrier. The results of calculations for the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 9}Be,{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; {sup 84}Kr+{sup 27}Al; {sup 86}Kr+{sup 63}Cu; {sup 139}La+{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; and {sup 45}Sc+{sup 65}Cu are compared with the available experimental data.

  12. Assembly of highly standardized gene fragments for high-level production of porphyrins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten T; Madsen, Karina M; Seppälä, Susanna; Christensen, Ulla; Riisberg, Lone; Harrison, Scott J; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2015-03-20

    Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering.

  13. Time Series Analysis of Energy Production and Associated Landscape Fragmentation in the Eagle Ford Shale Play.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Jon Paul; Young, Michael H; Wolaver, Brad D; Andrews, John R; Breton, Caroline L

    2017-08-30

    Spatio-temporal trends in infrastructure footprints, energy production, and landscape alteration were assessed for the Eagle Ford Shale of Texas. The period of analysis was over four 2-year periods (2006-2014). Analyses used high-resolution imagery, as well as pipeline data to map EF infrastructure. Landscape conditions from 2006 were used as baseline. Results indicate that infrastructure footprints varied from 94.5 km(2) in 2008 to 225.0 km(2) in 2014. By 2014, decreased land-use intensities (ratio of land alteration to energy production) were noted play-wide. Core-area alteration by period was highest (3331.6 km(2)) in 2008 at the onset of play development, and increased from 582.3 to 3913.9 km(2) by 2014, though substantial revegetation of localized core areas was observed throughout the study (i.e., alteration improved in some areas and worsened in others). Land-use intensity in the eastern portion of the play was consistently lower than that in the western portion, while core alteration remained relatively constant east to west. Land alteration from pipeline construction was ~65 km(2) for all time periods, except in 2010 when alteration was recorded at 47 km(2). Percent of total alteration from well-pad construction increased from 27.3% in 2008 to 71.5% in 2014. The average number of wells per pad across all 27 counties increased from 1.15 to 1.7. This study presents a framework for mapping landscape alteration from oil and gas infrastructure development. However, the framework could be applied to other energy development programs, such as wind or solar fields, or any other regional infrastructure development program. Landscape alteration caused by hydrocarbon pipeline installation in Val Verde County, Texas.

  14. The Productivity Costs of Premature Mortality Due to Cancer in Australia: Evidence from a Microsimulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Deborah J.; Shrestha, Rupendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim To estimate the productivity costs of premature mortality due to cancer in Australia, in aggregate and for the 26 most prevalent cancer sites. Methods A human capital approach was adopted to estimate the long term impacts of Australian cancer deaths in 2003. Using population mortality data, the labour force participation and the present value of lifetime income (PVLI) forgone due to premature mortality was estimated based on individual characteristics at the time of death including age, sex and socioeconomic status. Outcomes were modelled to the year 2030 using economic data from a national microsimulation model. A discount rate of 3% was applied and costs were reported in 2016 Australian dollars. Results Premature deaths from cancer in 2003 resulted in 88,000 working years lost and a cost of $4.2 billion in the PVLI forgone. Costs were close to three times higher in males than females due to the higher number of premature deaths in men, combined with higher levels of workforce participation and income. Lung, colorectal and brain cancers accounted for the highest proportion of costs, while testicular cancer was the most costly cancer site per death. Conclusions The productivity costs of premature mortality due to cancer are significant. These results provide an economic measure of the cancer burden which may assist decision makers in allocating scare resources amongst competing priorities. PMID:27942032

  15. Entropy Production of Entirely Diffusional Laplacian Transfer and the Possible Role of Fragmentation of the Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanos, K.; Mistakidis, S. I.; Massart, T. J.; Mistakidis, I. S.

    2015-06-01

    The entropy production and the variational functional of a Laplacian diffusional field around the first four fractal iterations of a linear self-similar tree (von Koch curve) is studied analytically and detailed predictions are stated. In a next stage, these predictions are confronted with results from numerical resolution of the Laplace equation by means of Finite Elements computations. After a brief review of the existing results, the range of distances near the geometric irregularity, the so-called "Near Field", a situation never studied in the past, is treated exhaustively. We notice here that in the Near Field, the usual notion of the active zone approximation introduced by Sapoval et al. [M. Filoche and B. Sapoval, Transfer across random versus deterministic fractal interfaces, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(25) (2000) 5776;1 B. Sapoval, M. Filoche, K. Karamanos and R. Brizzi, Can one hear the shape of an electrode? I. Numerical study of the active zone in Laplacian transfer, Eur. Phys. J. B. Condens. Matter Complex Syst. 9(4) (1999) 739-753.]2 is strictly inapplicable. The basic new result is that the validity of the active-zone approximation based on irreversible thermodynamics is confirmed in this limit, and this implies a new interpretation of this notion for Laplacian diffusional fields.

  16. Highly efficient production of VHH antibody fragments in Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Makoto; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Onishi, Hiromasa; Ueno, Yohei; Hanagata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Ito, Yuji; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Akira; Tokunaga, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Anti-IZUMO1PFF VHH (variable domain of camelid heavy chain antibody) clones, N6 and N15, from immunized alpaca (Lama pacos) phage library were efficiently expressed and their VHH products were secreted into the culture medium of Brevibacillus choshinensis HPD31-SP3, e.g., at a level of 26-95mg in 100ml conventional flask culture. With a 3-L scale fed-batch culture for 65h, the N15 VHH protein with C-terminal His-tag was produced at ∼3g/l culture medium. The N6 and N15 proteins were easily purified to apparent homogeneity by cation exchange and Ni-affinity chromatographies. Both proteins showed specific antigen-binding activity by ELISA and high antigen binding affinity, KD=6.0-8.6nM, by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering analysis revealed that N6 and N15 proteins purified were exclusively monomeric form in phosphate buffered saline. CD spectrum showed beta-sheet rich structure, consistent with a typical antibody structure and also suggested aromatic-aromatic interactions, as indicated by a positive peak at 232nm. Thermal melting analysis of the N15 protein with C-terminal His-tag demonstrated a clear thermal transition with a Tm at 67°C. The heat-denatured sample recovered antigen binding activity upon cooling, indicating a reversible denaturation.

  17. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  18. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  19. Improved phytase production by a thermophilic mould Sporotrichum thermophile in submerged fermentation due to statistical optimization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2008-03-01

    Culture variables affecting phytase production by a thermophilic mould Sporotrichum thermophile in submerged fermentation were optimized. Soluble starch, peptone, Tween-80 and sodium phytate were identified by Plackett-Burman design as the most significant factors to affect phytase production. The 2(4) full factorial central composite design of response surface methodology was applied for optimizing the concentrations of the significant variables and to delineate their interactions. Starch, Tween-80, peptone and sodium phytate at 0.4%, 1.0%, 0.3% and 0.3% supported maximum enzyme titres, respectively. An overall 3.73-fold improvement in phytase production was achieved due to optimization. When sodium phytate was substituted with wheat bran (3%), the phytase titre in the former was comparable with that in the latter.

  20. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section 94.18... importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1) Bovine... as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, milk, and milk products) from ruminants that have...

  1. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section 94.18... importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1) Bovine... as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, milk, and milk products) from ruminants that have...

  2. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section 94.18... importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1) Bovine... as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, milk, and milk products) from ruminants that have...

  3. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section 94.18... importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1) Bovine... as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, milk, and milk products) from ruminants that have...

  4. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    PubMed

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account.

  5. Slope Evolution by Stochastic Soil Production and Transport due to Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Bellugi, D.

    2006-05-01

    To explore the role of variability in prediction of landscape form and evolution we need transport expressions that explicitly account for mechanisms linking a process to a stochastic driver or variable state. Recent work has begun the important task of exploring how stochastic rainfall events (rather than steady runoff) may affect landscape development. Another source of variability, bedrock characteristics, has long been discussed and noted, but predictions, using testable mechanistic expressions of processes, of how, say, bedrock fractures direct streams, or lithology determines hillslope gradients are lacking. A third source of stochasticity is the action of biota, and, here, even less is known. For hillslope processes, the role of biota is swept into parameters that set rates or controls strength or resistance in physical transport laws. While these parameters can be determined from field studies, they are usually evaluated for geomorphically significant periods in which the stochastic nature of biotic activity is ignored. Some aspects of stochasticity due to periodic fires have been explored. On hillslopes, rates of soil production from bedrock is often treated as an inverse function of soil depth, with the explanation being that biotic disruption of underlying weathered bedrock is less likely the thicker the soil. Transport downslope is modeled with linear and non-linear slope dependent expressions, with the rate constant parameters often assumed to be driven by dilational activity of biota in the soil. Here we explore the evolution of soil thickness and hillslope form caused by stochastic soil production and transport due to tree throw. For soil production the average recurrence interval of production is specified, and production occurrence at any cell is an independent random event at each time step. The amount of bedrock converted to soil at a production event is specified by the empirical soil production function. All disrupted bedrock and overlying soil

  6. Changes in thermodynamic conditions of the Ahuachapan reservoir due to production and injection

    SciTech Connect

    Steingrimsson, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S. ); Cuellar, G.; Escobar, C. )

    1989-01-01

    Since large-scale exploitation of the Ahuachanpan reservoir began in 1975 with the commencement of the first 30 MW{sub e} unit, large changes in the reservoir thermodynamic condition have occurred. Drawdowns up to 15 bars have developed in the production field and significant temperature changes have been observed. In most cases temperatures have declined due to boiling in the reservoir stimulated by the pressure drawdown; cooling due to reinjection of spent geothermal fluids has also been observed. There are indications of a cold fluid recharge to the reservoir from the west and north. Increasing temperatures in the southeast corner of the wellfield show that significant recharge of hot fluids to the wellfield comes from the southeast; they also indicate that the recharge rate has increased with time as the pressure declines in the reservoir. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Middle atmosphere NO/x/ production due to ion propulsion induced radiation belt proton precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Jackman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion that keV Ar(+) resulting from ion propulsion operations during solar power satellite construction could cause energetic proton precipitation from the inner radiation belt is examined to determine if such precipitation could cause significant increases in middle atmosphere nitric oxide concentrations thereby adversely affecting stratospheric ozone. It is found that the initial production rate of NO (mole/cu cm-sec) at 50 km is 130 times that due to nitrous oxide reacting with excited oxygen. However, since the time required to empty the inner belt of protons is about 1 sec and short compared to the replenishment time due to neutron decay, precipitation of inner radiation belt protons will have no adverse atmospheric environmental effect.

  8. Temporal stability in forest productivity increases with tree diversity due to asynchrony in species dynamics.

    PubMed

    Morin, Xavier; Fahse, Lorenz; de Mazancourt, Claire; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-12-01

    Theory predicts a positive relationship between biodiversity and stability in ecosystem properties, while diversity is expected to have a negative impact on stability at the species level. We used virtual experiments based on a dynamic simulation model to test for the diversity-stability relationship and its underlying mechanisms in Central European forests. First our results show that variability in productivity between stands differing in species composition decreases as species richness and functional diversity increase. Second we show temporal stability increases with increasing diversity due to compensatory dynamics across species, supporting the biodiversity insurance hypothesis. We demonstrate that this pattern is mainly driven by the asynchrony of species responses to small disturbances rather than to environmental fluctuations, and is only weakly affected by the net biodiversity effect on productivity. Furthermore, our results suggest that compensatory dynamics between species may enhance ecosystem stability through an optimisation of canopy occupancy by coexisting species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. SimPLE.ca: Simulator of Productivity Loss due to Erosion for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Eric; Greer, Ken J.; Black, Malcolm; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Malhi, S. S.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Larney, F. J.

    2008-05-01

    Robust and practical estimates of the impact of soil erosion on crop productivity are essential for developing and implementing appropriate solutions for soil erosion on agricultural land. The objective of this study was to develop a simple model which captured the most important relationships between topsoil erosion and productivity loss for major agricultural regions of Canada. The model was developed for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Using annual time steps, maximum crop yields were reduced by soil erosion due to losses in available water-holding capacity, N-mineralization potential and available P. Using minimal input data, the model accounted for 56% of the variation in relative yields (fraction of non-eroded controls) determined in field studies using desurfacing or comparison plot methods.

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae in biofilms are unable to cause invasive disease due to altered virulence determinant production.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos J; Kumar, Nikhil; Lizcano, Anel; Shivshankar, Pooja; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Jorgensen, James H; Tettelin, Hervé; Orihuela, Carlos J

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear whether Streptococcus pneumoniae in biofilms are virulent and contribute to development of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Using electron microscopy we confirmed the development of mature pneumococcal biofilms in a continuous-flow-through line model and determined that biofilm formation occurred in discrete stages with mature biofilms composed primarily of dead pneumococci. Challenge of mice with equal colony forming units of biofilm and planktonic pneumococci determined that biofilm bacteria were highly attenuated for invasive disease but not nasopharyngeal colonization. Biofilm pneumococci of numerous serotypes were hyper-adhesive and bound to A549 type II pneumocytes and Detroit 562 pharyngeal epithelial cells at levels 2 to 11-fold greater than planktonic counterparts. Using genomic microarrays we examined the pneumococcal transcriptome and determined that during biofilm formation S. pneumoniae down-regulated genes involved in protein synthesis, energy production, metabolism, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production, and virulence. We confirmed these changes by measuring CPS by ELISA and immunoblotting for the toxin pneumolysin and the bacterial adhesins phosphorylcholine (ChoP), choline-binding protein A (CbpA), and Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP). We conclude that biofilm pneumococci were avirulent due to reduced CPS and pneumolysin production along with increased ChoP, which is known to bind C-reactive protein and is opsonizing. Likewise, biofilm pneumococci were hyper-adhesive due to selection for the transparent phase variant, reduced CPS, and enhanced production of PsrP, CbpA, and ChoP. These studies suggest that biofilms do not directly contribute to development of IPD and may instead confer a quiescent mode of growth during colonization.

  11. Differences in response to heat stress due to production level and breed of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen

    2017-05-06

    The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of heat stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of heat stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for heat stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to heat stress due to production level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk production and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to heat stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk production in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate production level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the heat resistance?

  12. Differences in response to heat stress due to production level and breed of dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen

    2017-05-01

    The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of heat stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of heat stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for heat stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to heat stress due to production level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk production and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to heat stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk production in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate production level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the heat resistance?

  13. Mesospheric NO2 production due to relativistic electron precipitation from 2007 till 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, Felix; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Funke, Bernd; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Orphal, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Electrons of the radiation belts and the aurora can precipitate into the Earth's atmosphere. Depending on their energy they intrude into different altitudes and can excitate, ionize, and dissociate molecular nitrogen. Subsequent (ion-)chemical reactions result in an effective NOx-production (NOx=NO+NO2). NOx is produced mostly by auroral electrons in the thermosphere at ca. 110 km altitude. But relativistic electrons from the radiation belts can also reach the stratosphere. However, in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, no direct NOx-production due to electron precipitation has been detected yet. We use NO2 observations from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the altitude range from 40 km to 60 km in order to search for direct NOx-production. We show that the AP index correlates with the nighttime NO2 abundance between 44 km and 54 km altitude at 65±5°N geomagnetic latitude. At these altitudes the NO2 ratio of nighttime NOx is between 80 % and 100 %. Because of the correlation between AP index and nighttime NO2, we conclude, that there is direct NOx-production caused by relativistic electrons about 0.5 ppb at the most.

  14. Production of human antibody fragments binding to melittin and phospholipase A2 in Africanised bee venom: minimising venom toxicity.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Jaqueline C; Pucca, Manuela B; Roncolato, Eduardo C; Bertolini, Thaís B; Campos, Lucas B; Barbosa, José E

    2012-03-01

    The hybrid created from the crossbreeding of European and African bees, known as the Africanised bee, has provided numerous advantages for current beekeeping. However, this new species exhibits undesirable behaviours, such as colony defence instinct and a propensity to attack en masse, which can result in serious accidents. To date, there is no effective treatment for cases of Africanised bee envenomation. One promising technique for developing an efficient antivenom is the use of phage display technology, which enables the production of human antibodies, thus avoiding the complications of serum therapy, such as anaphylaxis and serum sickness. The aim of this study was to produce human monoclonal single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments capable of inhibiting the toxic effects of Africanised bee venom. We conducted four rounds of selection of antibodies against the venom and three rounds of selection of antibodies against purified melittin. Three clones were selected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to verify their specificity for melittin and phospholipase A2. Two clones (C5 and C12) were specific for melittin, and one (A7) was specific for phospholipase A2. In a kinetic haemolytic assay, these clones were evaluated individually and in pairs. The A7-C12 combination had the best synergistic effect and was chosen to be used in the assays of myotoxicity inhibition and lethality. The A7-C12 combination inhibited the in vivo myotoxic effect of the venom and increased the survival of treated animals.

  15. High production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to various reader proteins by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to four different reader proteins was produced and secreted in culture medium by Aspergillus oryzae. These fusion proteins consisted of N-terminal reader proteins, VHH, and a C-terminal his-tag sequence which facilitated purification using one-step his-tag affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis of the deglycosylated purified fusion proteins confirmed that the molecular weight of each corresponded to the expected sum of VHH and the respective reader proteins. The apparent high molecular weight reader protein glucoamylase (GlaB) was found to be suitable for efficient VHH production. The GlaB-VHH-His protein bound its antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and was detectable by a new ELISA-based method using a coupled assay with glucoamylase, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, maltose, and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrates. Addition of potassium phosphate to the culture medium induced secretion of 0.61 mg GlaB-VHH-His protein/ml culture medium in 5 days.

  16. Crop production and economic loss due to wind erosion in hot arid ecosystem of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Priyabrata; Moharana, P. C.; Kumar, Mahesh; Soni, M. L.; Pandey, C. B.; Chaudhari, S. K.; Sikka, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Wind erosion is a severe land degradation process in hot arid western India and affects the agricultural production system. It affects crop yield directly by damaging the crops through abrasion, burial, dust deposition etc. and indirectly by reducing soil fertility. In this study, an attempt was made to quantify the indirect impact of wind erosion process on crop production loss and associated economic loss in hot arid ecosystem of India. It has been observed that soil loss due to wind erosion varies from minimum 1.3 t ha-1 to maximum 83.3 t ha-1 as per the severity. Yield loss due to wind erosion was found maximum for groundnut (Arachis hypogea) (5-331 kg ha-1 yr-1), whereas minimum for moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (1-93 kg ha-1 yr-1). For pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), which covers a major portion of arable lands in western Rajasthan, the yield loss was found 3-195 kg ha-1 yr-1. Economic loss was found higher for groundnut and clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) than rest crops, which are about

  17. Fragmentation Pathways in the Uracil Radical Cation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Congyi; Matsika, Spiridoula; Kotur, Marija; Weinacht, Thomas C.

    2012-08-24

    We investigate pathways for fragmentation in the uracil radical cation using ab initio electronic structure calculations. We focus on the main fragments produced in pump–probe dissociative ionization experiments. These are fragments with mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 69, 28, 41, and 42. Barriers to dissociation along the ground ionic surface are reported, which provide an estimate of the energetic requirements for the production of the main fragments. Finally, direct and sequential fragmentation mechanisms have been analyzed, and it is concluded that sequential fragmentation after production of fragment with m/z 69 is the dominant mechanism for the production of the smaller fragments.

  18. Double differential cross section for light mass fragment production on tens of MeV proton, deuteron, helium and carbon induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Uozumi, Yusuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Koba, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    Double differential cross sections (DDXs) of light mass fragment (LMFs - Li,Be,B,C,N and O) productions were measured for tens of MeV proton, deuteron helium and carbon induced reactions on Be, C, Al, Ti and Cu targets. The incident energies for the measurements were chosen to allow us to compare DDXs with same incident energy but different projectiles on various targets. Systematic data were obtained to see the differences between projectile energies, particles, targets and emitted particles. From the comparison, reaction processes of not only evaporation from complete fusion nucleus, but also scattering, pickup, stripping and projectile fragmentation were observed.

  19. Effects on carbon and nitrogen emissions due to swine manure removal for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kim H; Harper, Lowry A; Brown, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) are emitted from swine-manure processing lagoons, contributing to global climate change and reducing air quality. Manure diverted to biofuel production is proposed as a means to reduce CH emissions. At a swine confined animal feeding operation in the U.S. Central Great Basin, animal manure was diverted from 12 farms to a biofuel facility and converted to methanol. Ammonia emissions were determined using the De Visscher Model from measured data of dissolved lagoon ammoniacal N concentrations, pH, temperature, and wind speed at the lagoon sites. Other lagoon gas emissions were measured with subsurface gas collection devices and gas chromatography analysis. During 2 yr of study, CO and CH emissions from the primary lagoons decreased 11 and 12%, respectfully, as a result of the biofuel process, compared with concurrently measured control lagoon emissions. Ammonia emissions increased 47% compared with control lagoons. The reduction of CH and increase in NH emissions agrees with a short-term study measured at this location by Lagrangian inverse dispersion analysis. The increase in NH emissions was primarily due to an increase in lagoon solution pH attributable to decreased methanogenesis. Also observed due to biofuel production was a 20% decrease in conversion of total ammoniacal N to N, a secondary process for the removal of N in anaerobic waste lagoons. The increase in NH emissions can be partially attributed to the decrease in N production by a proposed NH conversion to N mechanism. This mechanism predicts that a decrease in NH conversion to N increases ammoniacal N pH. Both effects increase NH emissions. It is unknown whether the decrease in NH conversion to N is a direct or physical result of the decrease in methanogenesis. Procedures and practices intended to reduce emissions of one pollutant can have an unintended consequence on the emissions of another pollutant. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society

  20. Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Malina, Robert; Staples, Mark D.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Lifecycle analysis is a tool widely used to evaluate the climate impact of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the production and use of biofuels. In this paper we employ an augmented lifecycle framework that includes climate impacts from changes in surface albedo due to land use change. We consider eleven land-use change scenarios for the cultivation of biomass for middle distillate fuel production, and compare our results to previous estimates of lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for the same set of land-use change scenarios in terms of CO2e per unit of fuel energy. We find that two of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a warming effect due to changes in surface albedo, compared to conventional fuel, the largest of which is for replacement of desert land with salicornia cultivation. This corresponds to 222 gCO2e/MJ, equivalent to 3890% and 247% of the lifecycle GHG emissions of fuels derived from salicornia and crude oil, respectively. Nine of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a cooling effect, the largest of which is for the replacement of tropical rainforests with soybean cultivation. This corresponds to - 161 gCO2e/MJ, or - 28% and - 178% of the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of fuels derived from soybean and crude oil, respectively. These results indicate that changes in surface albedo have the potential to dominate the climate impact of biofuels, and we conclude that accounting for changes in surface albedo is necessary for a complete assessment of the aggregate climate impacts of biofuel production and use.

  1. Fragmentation of Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittel, F.; Kun, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Kröplin, B. H.

    2004-07-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the fragmentation of closed thin shells made of a disordered brittle material. Experiments were performed on brown and white hen egg shells under two different loading conditions: impact with a hard wall and explosion by a combustible mixture. Both give rise to power law fragment size distributions. A three-dimensional discrete element model of shells is worked out. Based on simulations of the model, we give evidence that power law fragment mass distributions arise due to an underlying phase transition which proved to be abrupt for explosion and continuous for impact. We demonstrate that the fragmentation of closed shells defines a new universality class of fragmentation phenomena.

  2. Heavy fragment production cross sections from 1.05 GeV/nucleon{sup 56}Fe in C, Al, Cu, Pb and CH{sub 2} targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Rademacher, S.; Borak,T.; Carter, T.; Frankel, K.; Schimmerling, W.; Stronach, C.

    1997-04-14

    We have obtained charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for fragmentation of 1.05 GeV/nucleon Fe projectiles incident on H, C, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei. The energy region covered by this experiment is critical for an understanding of galactic cosmic ray propagation and space radiation biophysics. Surviving primary beam particles and fragments with charges from 12 to 25 produced within a forward cone of half-angle 61 milliradians were detected using a silicon detector telescope to identify their charge, and the cross sections were calculated after correction of the measured yields for finite target thickness effects. The cross sections are compared to model calculations and to previous measurements. Cross sections for the production of fragments with even-numbered nuclear charges are seen to be enhanced in almost all cases.

  3. Heavy fragment production cross sections from 1.05 GeV/nucleon 56Fe in C, Al, Cu, Pb, and CH2 targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Rademacher, S. E.; Borak, T.; Carter, T. R.; Frankel, K. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Stronach, C. E.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for fragmentation of 1.05 GeV/nucleon Fe projectiles incident on H, C, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei. The energy region covered by this experiment is critical for an understanding of galactic cosmic ray propagation and space radiation biophysics. Surviving primary beam particles and fragments with charges from 12 to 25 produced within a forward cone of half-angle 61 mrad were detected using a silicon detector telescope to identify their charge and the cross sections were calculated after correction of the measured yields for finite target thickness effects. The cross sections are compared to model calculations and to previous measurements. Cross sections for the production of fragments with even-numbered nuclear charges are seen to be enhanced in almost all cases.

  4. Heavy fragment production cross sections from 1.05 GeV/nucleon 56Fe in C, Al, Cu, Pb, and CH2 targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Rademacher, S. E.; Borak, T.; Carter, T. R.; Frankel, K. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Stronach, C. E.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for fragmentation of 1.05 GeV/nucleon Fe projectiles incident on H, C, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei. The energy region covered by this experiment is critical for an understanding of galactic cosmic ray propagation and space radiation biophysics. Surviving primary beam particles and fragments with charges from 12 to 25 produced within a forward cone of half-angle 61 mrad were detected using a silicon detector telescope to identify their charge and the cross sections were calculated after correction of the measured yields for finite target thickness effects. The cross sections are compared to model calculations and to previous measurements. Cross sections for the production of fragments with even-numbered nuclear charges are seen to be enhanced in almost all cases.

  5. Intranuclear cascade-percolation approach for protons and light fragments production in neon-niobium reactions at 400 and 800 MeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Montarou, G.; Marroncle, J.; Alard, J.P.; Augerat, J.; Bastid, N.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Parizet, M.J.; Rahmani, A. ); Babinet, R.; Cavata, C.; Demoulins, M.; Fanet, H.; Gosset, J.; L'Hote, D.; Lemaire, M.C.; Lucas, B.; Poitou, J.; Valette, O. ); Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Racca, C. ); Cugnon, J. )

    1993-06-01

    The results of intranuclear cascade calculations (ideal gas with two-body collisions and no mean field), complemented by a simple percolation procedure, are compared with experimental data on protons and light nuclear fragments ([ital d], [ital t], [sup 3]He, and [sup 4]He) measured in 400 and 800 MeV/nucleon Ne+Nb collisions using a large solid angle detector. The model reproduces quite well global experimental observables like nuclear fragment multiplicity distributions or production cross sections, and nuclear fragment to proton ratios. For rapidity distributions the best agreement occurs for peripheral reactions. Transverse momentum analysis confirms once again that the cascade, although being a microscopic approach, gives too small a collective flow, the best agreement being reached for [ital Z]=2 nuclear fragments. Nevertheless these comparisons are encouraging for further improvements of the model. Moreover, such an approach is easy to extend to any other models that could calculate the nucleon phase space distribution after the compression stage of the reaction, when light nuclear fragments emitted at large angles are constructed from percolation.

  6. Measurement of HOxproduction rate due to radon decay in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huiling

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce (•OH and HO2 •) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HOxproduction rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HOxproduction rate was found to be (4.31±0.07) x 105 HOx• per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G(HOx•)-value, 7.86±0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HOx•] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HOx• produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HOxproduction rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for •OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial •OH produced from the photolysis of O3/H2O.

  7. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section 94.18... § 94.18 Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform... ruminants that have been in any of the regions listed in paragraph (a) of this section is prohibited....

  8. Production of new neutron-rich isotopes of heavy elements in fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at 1A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Pereira, J.; Audouin, L.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Junghans, A. R.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2010-10-15

    The production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei has been investigated using cold-fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at relativistic energies. The experiment performed at the high-resolving-power magnetic spectrometer Fragment Separator at GSI made it possible to identify 40 new heavy neutron-rich nuclei: {sup 205}Pt, {sup 207-210}Au, {sup 211-216}Hg, {sup 214-217}Tl, {sup 215-220}Pb, {sup 219-224}Bi, {sup 223-227}Po, {sup 225-229}At, {sup 230,231}Rn, and {sup 233}Fr. The production cross sections of these nuclei were also determined and used to benchmark reaction codes that predict the production of nuclei far from stability.

  9. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Kristin J; Tallam, Sai Sandeep; Shatova, Tatyana; Joo, Koh Kang; Scarlata, Christopher J; Humbird, David; Wolfrum, Edward J; Beckham, Gregg T

    2012-04-17

    Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic (TE) model, which calculates biofuel production costs using a process model and an economic model. The process model solves mass and energy balances for each unit, and the economic model estimates capital and operating costs from the process model based on economic assumptions. The process model inputs include experimental data on the feedstock composition and intermediate product yields for each unit. These experimental yield data are calculated from primary measurements. Uncertainty in these primary measurements is propagated to the calculated yields, to the process model, and ultimately to the economic model. Thus, outputs of the TE model have a minimum uncertainty associated with the uncertainty in the primary measurements. We calculate the uncertainty in the Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) estimate for lignocellulosic ethanol production via a biochemical conversion process: dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and co-fermentation of the resulting sugars to ethanol. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the TE model and identify the feedstock composition and conversion yields from three unit operations (xylose from pretreatment, glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanol from fermentation) as the most important variables. The uncertainty in the pretreatment xylose yield arises from multiple measurements, whereas the glucose and ethanol yields from enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively, are dominated by a single measurement: the fraction of insoluble solids (fIS) in the biomass slurries. We calculate a $0.15/gal uncertainty in MESP from the TE model due to uncertainties in primary measurements. This result sets a lower bound on the error bars of the TE model predictions. This analysis highlights the

  10. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic (TE) model, which calculates biofuel production costs using a process model and an economic model. The process model solves mass and energy balances for each unit, and the economic model estimates capital and operating costs from the process model based on economic assumptions. The process model inputs include experimental data on the feedstock composition and intermediate product yields for each unit. These experimental yield data are calculated from primary measurements. Uncertainty in these primary measurements is propagated to the calculated yields, to the process model, and ultimately to the economic model. Thus, outputs of the TE model have a minimum uncertainty associated with the uncertainty in the primary measurements. Results We calculate the uncertainty in the Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) estimate for lignocellulosic ethanol production via a biochemical conversion process: dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and co-fermentation of the resulting sugars to ethanol. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the TE model and identify the feedstock composition and conversion yields from three unit operations (xylose from pretreatment, glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanol from fermentation) as the most important variables. The uncertainty in the pretreatment xylose yield arises from multiple measurements, whereas the glucose and ethanol yields from enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively, are dominated by a single measurement: the fraction of insoluble solids (fIS) in the biomass slurries. Conclusions We calculate a $0.15/gal uncertainty in MESP from the TE model due to uncertainties in primary measurements. This result sets a lower bound on the error bars of the TE model predictions

  11. Salmonella enterica in Swine Production: Assessing the Association between Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Epidemiological Units of Concern▿†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Wang, Chong; McKean, James D.; Logue, Catherine M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Tivendale, Kelly A.; O'Connor, Annette M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the ability of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to differentiate Salmonella isolates from different units of swine production and to demonstrate the relatedness of Salmonella between farms and abattoirs by AFLP. Twenty-four farms in the midwestern United States were visited four times from 2006 to 2009. At each farm or abattoir visit, 30 fecal samples or 30 mesenteric lymph nodes were collected, respectively. A total of 220 Salmonella isolates were obtained, serotyped, and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and AFLP. These 220 isolates clustered into 21 serotypes, 18 MLST types, and 14 predominant AFLP clusters based on a genetic similarity threshold level of 60%. To assess genetic differentiation between farms, harvest cohorts, and pigs, analysis of molecular variance was conducted using AFLP data. The results showed 65.62% of overall genetic variation was attributed to variance among pigs, 27.21% to farms, and 7.17% to harvest cohorts. Variance components at the farm (P = 0.003) and pig (P = 0.001) levels were significant, but not at the harvest cohort level (P = 0.079). A second analysis, a permutation test using AFLP data, indicated that on-farm and at-abattoir Salmonella from pigs of the same farms were more related than from different farms. Therefore, among the three subtyping methods, serotyping, MLST, and AFLP, AFLP was the method that was able to differentiate among Salmonella isolates from different farms and link contamination at the abattoir to the farm of origin. PMID:21948822

  12. Human health risks due to consumption of chemically contaminated fishery products.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, F E; Hattis, D; Wolke, R E; Steinman, D

    1993-01-01

    A small proportion of fishery products contaminated with appreciable amounts of potentially hazardous inorganic and organic contaminants from natural and environmental sources seem to pose the greatest potential for toxicity to consumers of fishery products in the United States. Health risks due to chemicals (e.g., modest changes in the overall risk of cancer, subtle deficits of neurological development in fetuses and children) are difficult to measure directly in people exposed to low levels. Immunocompetence may increase cancer risk. Inferences about the potential magnitude of these problems must be based on the levels of specific chemical present, observations of human populations and experimental animals exposed to relatively high doses, and theories about the likely mechanisms of action of specific intoxicants and the population distribution of sensitivity of human exposure. Lognormal distributions were found to provide good descriptions of the pattern of variation of contaminant concentrations among different species and geographic areas; this variability offers a solution for reduction of exposure through restricting harvest of aquatic animals from certain sites and by excluding certain species. Available information suggest that risks are not generally of high magnitude; nevertheless, their control will significantly improve public health.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8143635

  13. Extensive dry ball milling of wheat and rye bran leads to in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides through nanoscale fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Holopainen, Ulla; Selinheimo, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2009-09-23

    This study investigated the potential of ball milling as a dry process for in situ production of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) in arabinoxylan (AX)-rich wheat and rye bran. An extensive lab-scale ball mill treatment (120 h, 50% jar volume capacity) increased the wheat bran water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) level from 4% (untreated bran) to 61% of the wheat bran AX. Extractable AX fragments had an arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X ratio) of 0.72 and a molecular mass (MM) of 15 kDa. Ball milling of rye bran gave rise to similar results, with the A/X ratio of the extractable AX being considerably lower (0.51). Optimization of the ball mill treatment by varying the degree of filling of the milling jar permitted us to obtain equally high WE-AX levels (>70%) in wheat and rye bran within a 24 h ball-milling period. Ball milling at optimal conditions (24 h, 16% jar volume capacity) yielded wheat bran AXOS, with an A/X ratio of 0.65 and a MM of 6 kDa. Ball milling (24 h, 50% jar volume capacity) of pericarp-enriched wheat bran increased the WE-AX level from 1% (untreated pericarp) to 63%. The extractable material had a high A/X ratio (0.97) and a low MM (5 kDa). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the extensive ball mill treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of discernible tissue structures in the ball-milled material, indicating bran particle size reductions down to the nanoscale level. It further visualized the aggregation of the treated material. These results show that AXOS can be produced in situ from wheat or rye bran in a single-stage dry milling process, rendering a wet extraction step redundant. The higher A/X ratio of the obtained AXOS than of enzymically produced wheat bran-derived AXOS offers perspectives for the production of a wide range of AXOS structures. Moreover, ball milling makes upgrading of the low-value pericarp layer feasible.

  14. [Production of recombinant fragments of the Clostridium tetani neurotoxin for the development of new immune-prophylaxis preparations against tetanus].

    PubMed

    Varfolomeeva, N A; Makhotina, O A; Sergeeva, T I; Belyĭ, Iu F

    2003-01-01

    Tetanus belongs to dangerous infection diseases, whose effective prevention can be ensured by vaccines. The acting substance of tetanus vaccines, presently in use, is a partially purified and deprived-of-lethal-action Clostridium tetani neurotoxin. The construction of a subunit preparation on the basis of toxin fragments obtained through gene engineering could be a method aimed at promoting the quality of the used tetanus vaccines. With this goal in mind, we built, within the present case study, the expressing genetic constructions and obtained, in the pure form, an extensive tetanus-vaccine chain with its C-terminal (Hc) fragment, hydride peptides, containing the Hc-fragment and C-terminal fragment of toxin B C. difficile, as well as Hc-fragment and S3 collagen-binding domain of collagenase C. histolyticum. The thus obtained proteins can be used in testing their immunogenic and protective properties, while the conducted study could be a basis for further research of a new-generation vaccine against tetanus and other human infection diseases.

  15. Production of a single-chain fragment of the murine anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125 as phage-displayed and soluble antibody by recombinant phage antibody technique.

    PubMed

    Schlebusch, H; Reinartz, S; Kaiser, R; Grünn, U; Wagner, U

    1997-02-01

    The F(ab')2 fragment of the murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125 mimicking the tumor-associated antigen CA125 is used as a vaccine for the induction of an anti-tumoral immunity in patients with ovarian carcinoma. We tried to generate a single-chain fragment (ScFv) composed of ACA125 heavy- and light-chain variable domains connected by a polypeptide linker as an alternative to the corresponding F(ab')2 fragment. Heavy- and light-chain genes of antibody-producing mouse hybridoma cell line were amplified separately and assembled into a ScFv gene with linker DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv gene was ligated into the phagemid vector pCANTAB5E, which allows the production of both phage-displayed and soluble ScFv. Transformed Escherichia coli TG1 cells were infected with M13K07 helper phage to yield recombinant phage, which display ScFv fragments as a g3p fusion protein on the surface of the filamentous phage M13. Recombinant phages could be selected by binding to the idiotypic antibody OC125 after one round of panning and directly used to reinfect E. coli TG1 cells. The E. coli nonsuppressor strain HB2151 was infected with an antigen-positive phage clone, previously screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to express soluble ScFv fragments. Functional soluble ScFv binding to the idiotypic antibody OC125 F(ab')2 could be detected in the bacterial periplasm by Western blot and ELISA. The variable heavy- and light-chain genes of the ACA125 ScFv fragment were further sequenced and compared with known antibody sequences.

  16. Physics of Galactic Metals: Evolutionary Effects due to Production, Distribution, Feedback, and Interaction with Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Somerville, Rachel S.; Hirschmann, Michaela; Núñez, Alejandro; Hu, Chia-Yu; Oser, Ludwig

    2017-07-01

    We ask how the inclusion of various physical heating processes due to the metal content of gas affects the evolution of central massive galaxies and compute a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that follow these systems and their supermassive black holes. We use a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code with a pressure-entropy formulation and a more accurate treatment of the metal production, turbulent diffusion, and cooling rate based on individual element abundances. The feedback models include (1) active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback via high-velocity broad absorption line winds and Compton/photoionization heating; (2) stellar feedback from multiple processes, including powerful winds from supernovae, stellar winds from young massive stars, and AGB stars, as well as radiative heating within Str\\ddot{{{o}}}mgren spheres; and (3) additional heating effects due to the presence of metals, including grain photoelectric heating and metallicity-dependent X-ray heating by nearby accreting black holes and from the cosmic X-ray background. With a suite of zoom-in simulations of 30 halos with {M}{vir}∼ {10}12.0-13.4, we show that energy and momentum budgeted from all feedback effects generate realistic galaxy properties. We explore the detailed role of each feedback model with three additional sets of simulations with varying input physics. We show that the metal-induced heating reduces the fraction of accreted stellar material but overall has a relatively minor effect on the massive central galaxies. The inclusion of AGN feedback significantly improves the ability of our simulations to yield realistic gas and stellar properties of massive galaxies with a reasonable accreted star fraction from other galaxies.

  17. Production in yeast of pseudotype virus-like particles harboring functionally active antibody fragments neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin.

    PubMed

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Sezaite, Indre; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2011-12-15

    Recombinant antibodies can be produced in different formats and different expression systems. Single chain variable fragments (scFvs) represent an attractive alternative to full-length antibodies and they can be easily produced in bacteria or yeast. However, the scFvs exhibit monovalent antigen-binding properties and short serum half-lives. The stability and avidity of the scFvs can be improved by their multimerization or fusion with IgG Fc domain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibilities to produce in yeast high-affinity scFv-Fc proteins neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin (VLY), the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis. The scFv protein derived from hybridoma cell line producing high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against VLY was fused with human IgG1 Fc domain. Four different variants of anti-VLY scFv-Fc fusion proteins were constructed and produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-tagged scFv-Fc and hexahistidine-tagged scFv-Fc proteins were found predominantly as insoluble aggregates and therefore were not suitable for further purification and activity testing. The addition of yeast α-factor signal sequence did not support secretion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc but increased the amount of its intracellular soluble form. However, the purified protein showed a weak VLY-neutralizing capability. In contrast, the fusion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc molecules with hamster polyomavirus-derived VP2 protein and its co-expression with VP1 protein resulted in an effective production of pseudotype virus-like particles (VLPs) that exhibited strong VLY-binding activity. Recombinant scFv-Fc molecules displayed on the surface of VLPs neutralized VLY-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and HeLa cells with high potency comparable to that of full-length antibody. Recombinant scFv-Fc proteins were expressed in yeast with low efficiency. New approach to display the scFv-Fc molecules on the surface of pseudotype VLPs was successful and

  18. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5′-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441

  19. In situ inhibition of primary production due to ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Helbling, E.W.; Villafane, V.E.; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1994-12-31

    Inhibition of photosynthesis due to ultra radiation (UVR) in antarctic phytoplankton has been documented by many authors. Most of these studies have used temperature-controlled incubators in which phytoplankton are exposed to either solar radiation or to UV-visible radiation provided by lamps. Although such experiments are invaluable for determining the effects of solar radiation on the metabolic activity of phytoplankton, they suffer from the fact that the cells will not be exposed to the same spectral irradiance that they would experience at various depths in the water column. The use of in situ incubations of natural phytoplankton assemblages provides the most direct and most realistic procedure to determine the effect of solar UVR on rates of primary production. In this paper, preliminary data obtained from such in situ incubations carried out from October through December 1993 at Palmer Station (64.7{degrees}S 64.1{degrees}W) on Anvers Island, Antarctica is reported. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Preventing phage lysis of Lactococcus lactis in cheese production using a neutralizing heavy-chain antibody fragment from llama.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, A M; Bezemer, S; de Hiaard, J J W; Schaffers, I M; Verrips, C T; van Vliet, C; Düsterhöft, E M; Zoon, P; Moineau, S; Frenken, L G J

    2002-06-01

    Bacteriophage infection is still a persistent problem in large dairy processes despite extensive studies over the last decades. Consequently, new methods are constantly sought to prevent phage infection. In this paper, we show that phage neutralizing heavy-chain antibody fragments, obtained from Camelidae and produced at a large scale in the generally regarded as safe microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can effectively be used to impede phage induced lysis during a cheese process. The growth inhibition of the cheese starter culture by 10(5) pfu/ml cheese-milk of the small isometric-headed 936-type phage p2 was prevented by the addition of only 0.1 microg/ml (7 nM) of the neutralizing antibody fragment. The use of such antibody fragments in cheese manufacturing are a realistic and interesting option because of the small amount of antibody fragments that are needed. Moreover the antibodies are produced in a food grade microorganism and can easily be isolated from the fermentation liquid in a pure and DNA free form.

  1. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling.

  2. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling. PMID:25821419

  3. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  4. Can Wet Rocky Granular Flows Become Debris Flows Due to Fine Sediment Production by Abrasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Bianchi, G.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are rapid mass movements in which elevated pore pressures are sustained by a viscous fluid matrix with high concentrations of fine sediments. Debris flows may form from coarse-grained wet granular flows as fine sediments are entrained from hillslope and channel material. Here we investigate whether abrasion of the rocks within a granular flow can produce sufficient fine sediments to create debris flows. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we used a set of 4 rotating drums ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 m diameter. Each drum has vanes along the boundary ensure shearing within the flow. Shear rate was varied by changing drum rotational velocity to maintain a constant Froude Number across drums. Initial runs used angular clasts of granodiorite with a tensile strength of 7.6 MPa, with well-sorted coarse particle size distributions linearly scaled with drum radius. The fluid was initially clear water, which rapidly acquired fine-grained wear products. After each 250 m tangential distance, we measured the particle size distributions, and then returned all water and sediment to the drums for subsequent runs. We calculate particle wear rates using statistics of size and mass distributions, and by fitting the Sternberg equation to the rate of mass loss from the size fraction > 2mm. Abundant fine sediments were produced in the experiments, but very little change in the median grain size was detected. This appears to be due to clast rounding, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of stable equilibrium resting points. We find that the growth in the fine sediment concentration in the fluid scales with unit drum power. This relationship can be used to estimate fine sediment production rates in the field. We explore this approach at Inyo Creek, a steep catchment in the Sierra Nevada, California. There, a significant debris flow occurred in July 2013, which originated as a coarse-grained wet granular flow. We use surveys to estimate flow depth and velocity where super

  5. Numerical analysis of temperature distribution due to basement radiogenic heat production, St. Lawrence Lowlands, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hejuan; Giroux, Bernard; Harris, Lyal B.; Mansour, John

    2017-04-01

    Although eastern Canada is considered as having a low potential for high-temperature geothermal resources, the possibility for additional localized radioactive heat sources in Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement to parts of the Palaeozoic St. Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, suggests that this potential should be reassessed. However, such a task remains hard to achieve due to scarcity of heat flow data and ambiguity about the nature of the basement. To get an appraisal, the impact of radiogenic heat production for different Grenville Province crystalline basement units on temperature distribution at depth was simulated using the Underworld Geothermal numerical modelling code. The region south of Trois-Rivières was selected as representative for the St. Lawrence Lowlands. An existing 3D geological model based on well log data, seismic profiles and surface geology was used to build a catalogue of plausible thermal models. Statistical analyses of radiogenic element (U, Th, K) concentrations from neighbouring outcropping Grenville domains indicate that the radiogenic heat production of rocks in the modelled region is in the range of 0.34-3.24 μW/m3, with variations in the range of 0.94-5.83 μW/m3 for the Portneuf-Mauricie (PM) Domain, 0.02-4.13 μW/m3 for the Shawinigan Domain (Morin Terrane), and 0.34-1.96 μW/m3 for the Parc des Laurentides (PDL) Domain. Various scenarios considering basement characteristics similar to the PM domain, Morin Terrane and PDL Domain were modelled. The results show that the temperature difference between the scenarios can be as much as 12 °C at a depth of 5 km. The results also show that the temperature distribution is strongly affected by both the concentration of radiogenic elements and the thermal conductivity of the basement rocks. The thermal conductivity in the basement affects the trend of temperature change between two different geological units, and the spatial extent of thermal anomalies. The validity of the results was

  6. Valuing productivity loss due to absenteeism: firm-level evidence from a Canadian linked employer-employee survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam H

    2017-12-01

    In health economic evaluation studies, to value productivity loss due to absenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy value for marginal productivity. This study is the first to test the equality between wage and marginal productivity losses due to absenteeism separately for team workers and non-team workers. Our estimates are based on linked employer-employee data from Canada. Results indicate that team workers are more productive and earn higher wages than non-team workers. However, the productivity gap between these two groups is considerably larger than the wage gap. In small firms, employee absenteeism results in lower productivity and wages, and the marginal productivity loss due to team worker absenteeism is significantly higher than the wage loss. No similar wage-productivity gap exists for large firms. Our findings suggest that productivity loss or gain is most likely to be underestimated when valued according to wages for team workers. The findings help to value the burden of illness-related absenteeism. This is important for economic evaluations that seek to measure the productivity gain or loss of a health care technology or intervention, which in turn can impact policy makers' funding decisions.

  7. Investigation of the electrochemical oxidation products of zotepine and their fragmentation using on-line electrochemistry/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Kazuyoshi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kimura, Sumihisa; Kagayama, Akira; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2006-05-01

    When zotepine, an antipsychotic drug, was electrochemically oxidized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled with a microflow electrolytic cell, [M + 16 + H]+ (m/z 348), [M-H]+ (m/z 330) and [M-14 + H]+ (m/z 318) were observed as electrochemical oxidation product ions (M represents the zotepine molecule). Although a major fragment ion that was derived from the dimethyl aminoethyl moiety was observed only at m/z 72 in the collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of zotepine, new fragments such as m/z 315 and 286 ions could be generated in the CID spectrum by combining electrochemical oxidation and CID. Since these fragments were relatively specific with high ion strength, it was thought that they would be useful for developing a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay. The S-oxide and N-demethylated products were detected by electrolysis assuring that a portion of P450 metabolites of zotepine could be mimicked by the electrochemistry/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EC/ESI-MS) system.

  8. Bacterial production and structure-functional validation of a recombinant antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of an anti-cancer therapeutic antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hun; Sim, Dae-Won; Park, Dongsun; Jung, Tai-Geun; Lee, Seonghwan; Oh, Taeheun; Ha, Jong-Ryul; Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Seo, Min-Duk; Kang, Ho Chul; Kim, Young Pil; Won, Hyung-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Fragment engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as an excellent paradigm to develop highly efficient therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. Engineered mAb fragments can be economically produced in bacterial systems using recombinant DNA technologies. In this work, we established recombinant production in Escherichia coli for monovalent antigen-binding fragment (Fab) adopted from a clinically used anticancer mAB drug cetuximab targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Recombinant DNA constructs were designed to express both polypeptide chains comprising Fab in a single vector and to secrete them to bacterial periplasmic space for efficient folding. Particularly, a C-terminal engineering to confer an interchain disulfide bond appeared to be able to enhance its heterodimeric integrity and EGFR-binding activity. Conformational relevance of the purified final product was validated by mass spectrometry and crystal structure at 1.9 Å resolution. Finally, our recombinant cetuximab-Fab was found to have strong binding affinity to EGFR overexpressed in human squamous carcinoma model (A431) cells. Its binding ability was comparable to that of cetuximab. Its EGFR-binding affinity was estimated at approximately 0.7 nM of Kd in vitro, which was quite stronger than the binding affinity of natural ligand EGF. Hence, the results validate that our construction could serve as an efficient platform to produce a recombinant cetuximab-Fab with a retained antigen-binding functionality.

  9. Avoiding Misannotation of In-Source Fragmentation Products as Cellular Metabolites in Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Lu, Wenyun; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2015-01-15

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology allows for rapid quantitation of cellular metabolites, with metabolites identified by mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. Recently, with the development of rapid scanning high-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometers and the desire for high throughput screening, minimal or no chromatographic separation has become increasingly popular. Furthermore, when analyzing complex cellular extracts, however, the lack of chromatographic separation could potentially result in misannotation of structurally related metabolites. Here, we show that, even using electrospray ionization, a soft ionization method, in-source fragmentation generates unwanted byproducts of identical mass to common metabolites. For example, nucleotide-triphosphates generate nucleotide-diphosphates, and hexose-phosphates generate triose-phosphates. We also evaluated yeast intracellular metabolite extracts and found more than 20 cases of in-source fragments that mimic common metabolites. Finally and accordingly, chromatographic separation is required for accurate quantitation of many common cellular metabolites.

  10. Avoiding Misannotation of In-Source Fragmentation Products as Cellular Metabolites in Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Lu, Wenyun; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2015-01-15

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology allows for rapid quantitation of cellular metabolites, with metabolites identified by mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. Recently, with the development of rapid scanning high-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometers and the desire for high throughput screening, minimal or no chromatographic separation has become increasingly popular. Furthermore, when analyzing complex cellular extracts, however, the lack of chromatographic separation could potentially result in misannotation of structurally related metabolites. Here, we show that, even using electrospray ionization, a soft ionization method, in-source fragmentation generates unwanted byproducts of identical mass to common metabolites. For example, nucleotide-triphosphates generate nucleotide-diphosphates, andmore » hexose-phosphates generate triose-phosphates. We also evaluated yeast intracellular metabolite extracts and found more than 20 cases of in-source fragments that mimic common metabolites. Finally and accordingly, chromatographic separation is required for accurate quantitation of many common cellular metabolites.« less

  11. Avoiding Misannotation of In-Source Fragmentation Products as Cellular Metabolites in Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi-Fan; Lu, Wenyun; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology allows for rapid quantitation of cellular metabolites, with metabolites identified by mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. Recently, with the development of rapid scanning high-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometers and the desire for high throughput screening, minimal or no chromatographic separation has become increasingly popular. When analyzing complex cellular extracts, however, the lack of chromatographic separation could potentially result in misannotation of structurally related metabolites. Here, we show that, even using electrospray ionization, a soft ionization method, in-source fragmentation generates unwanted byproducts of identical mass to common metabolites. For example, nucleotide-triphosphates generate nucleotide-diphosphates, and hexose-phosphates generate triose-phosphates. We evaluated yeast intracellular metabolite extracts and found more than 20 cases of in-source fragments that mimic common metabolites. Accordingly, chromatographic separation is required for accurate quantitation of many common cellular metabolites. PMID:25591916

  12. Fragmentation of methane molecules by antiproton impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh, Arash; Kirchner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Extending previous work for proton impact, we have investigated the fragmentation of methane molecules due to collisions with antiprotons in the 25 keV to 5 MeV impact energy range. The multi-center nature of the problem is addressed by using a spectral representation of the molecular Hartree-Fock-level Hamiltonian and a single-center expansion of the initially populated molecular orbitals. The two-center basis generator method (TC-BGM) is used for orbital propagation. Electron-removal cross sections obtained from the TC-BGM solutions are complemented with a dynamical decay-route fragmentation model to calculate cross sections for the production of fragment ions. Good agreement with the available experimental data is observed for CH4+,CH3+,CH2+and CH+. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.

  13. An update on the measurement of productivity losses due to rheumatoid diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chiu, Judy A; Bansback, Nick; Anis, Aslam H

    2012-10-01

    Many health systems are interested in the impact of disease and interventions on non-health outcomes. Over the last 10 years, work productivity has become one of the most important topics. This study was conducted to review guidelines for economic evaluations worldwide to identify how views on the types of productivity costs to be included differ across jurisdictions and to review recent trials that have measured productivity losses to identify trends and compare consistency with guidelines from different jurisdictions. The guidelines from 28 countries were evaluated and only 12 required productivity costs to be included in the main analysis or the base case analysis. Little specific guidance was provided around the types of productivity costs to be included. Correspondingly, we identified only 10 trials that explicitly measured productivity outcomes and all were conducted after the year 2001. While there was a growth in the proportion of trials evaluating biologics to measure this outcome, it showed that fewer than 50% of even recent studies failed to measure or report productivity. Furthermore, most trials did not use a standard and validated questionnaire to measure all productivity loss components. In conclusion, whether the rationale for the exclusion of productivity impacts is that healthcare budgets should only be concerned with health impacts and ignore general social welfare impacts or whether productivity impacts should be ignored to maintain generational equity or whether the methodology of productivity measurement leads to imprecise estimates, the reality is that productivity impacts are real and to ignore them is tantamount to not being fully accountable to our citizenry.

  14. Separation of fission products based on ionic liquids: Task-specific ionic liquids containing an aza-crown ether fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bonnesen, Peter V; Buchanan III, A C

    2005-01-01

    A new class of task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) based on the covalent attachment of imidazolium cations to a monoaza-crown ether fragment has been synthesized and characterized. The efficacy of these TSILs for the biphasic extraction of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) from aqueous solutions has been evaluated. The extraction properties of these TSILs can be influenced by the structures of the covalently attached imidazolium cations, which highlight the possibilities to enhance or tune the selectivities of crown ethers toward target ionic species through the covalent coupling with the imidazolium cations. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the transfer of risk due to transportation of agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Chiun; Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Health risk assessment (HRA) is the process used to estimate adverse health effects on humans. The importance and sensitivity of food chains to HRA have been observed, but the impact of the transportation of food has generally been ignored. This study developed an exposure assessment to demonstrate the significance of the transportation of agricultural products in HRA. The associated case study estimated the health risks derived from various sources of arsenic emissions in Taiwan. Two assessment scenarios, self-sufficiency and transportation of agricultural products, were compared to calculate risk transfer ratios that show the impact of agriculture transportation. The risk transfer ratios found by the study range from 0.22 to 42.10, indicating that the quantity of transportation of agricultural products is the critical factor. High air deposition and high agricultural production are the two main contributors to the effect of the transportation of agricultural products on HRA. Risk reduction measures could be applied to high-pollution areas as well as to areas with high agricultural productivity to reduce ingestion risks to residents. Certain areas that are sensitive to the transportation of agricultural products may incur more risks if emissions increase in agriculturally productive counties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex Determination from Fragmented and Degenerated DNA by Amplified Product-Length Polymorphism Bidirectional SNP Analysis of Amelogenin and SRY Genes.

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Kotoka; Shojo, Hideki; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Inokuchi, Shota; Adachi, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination. Amplicon size was designed to be less than 60 bp to make the method more useful for analyzing degraded DNA samples. All DNA samples collected from eight Japanese individuals (four male, four female) were evaluated correctly using our method. The detection limit for accurate sex determination was determined to be 20 pg of DNA. We compared our new method with commercial short tandem repeat analysis kits using DNA samples artificially fragmented by ultraviolet irradiation. Our novel method was the most robust for highly fragmented DNA samples. To deal with allelic dropout resulting from deamination, we adopted "bidirectional analysis," which analyzed samples from both sense and antisense strands. This new method was applied to 14 Jomon individuals (3500-year-old bone samples) whose sex had been identified morphologically. We could correctly identify the sex of 11 out of 14 individuals. These results show that our method is reliable for the sex determination of highly degenerated samples.

  17. Sex Determination from Fragmented and Degenerated DNA by Amplified Product-Length Polymorphism Bidirectional SNP Analysis of Amelogenin and SRY Genes

    PubMed Central

    Masuyama, Kotoka; Shojo, Hideki; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Inokuchi, Shota; Adachi, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination. Amplicon size was designed to be less than 60 bp to make the method more useful for analyzing degraded DNA samples. All DNA samples collected from eight Japanese individuals (four male, four female) were evaluated correctly using our method. The detection limit for accurate sex determination was determined to be 20 pg of DNA. We compared our new method with commercial short tandem repeat analysis kits using DNA samples artificially fragmented by ultraviolet irradiation. Our novel method was the most robust for highly fragmented DNA samples. To deal with allelic dropout resulting from deamination, we adopted “bidirectional analysis,” which analyzed samples from both sense and antisense strands. This new method was applied to 14 Jomon individuals (3500-year-old bone samples) whose sex had been identified morphologically. We could correctly identify the sex of 11 out of 14 individuals. These results show that our method is reliable for the sex determination of highly degenerated samples. PMID:28052096

  18. Optimal conditions for the papain digestion of polyclonal ovine IgG for the production of bio-therapeutic Fab fragments.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Chrissie; Newcombe, Anthony R; Davies, Susannah; Macpherson, Ian; Nelson, Paul; O'Donovan, Kieran; Francis, Richard

    2005-10-01

    In the present paper, we describe a rapid method for the determination of optimum conditions for papain digestion of polyclonal ovine IgG (purified by Na(2)SO(4) precipitation) for the production of bio-therapeutic Fabs (antigen-binding fragments). To determine the optimum conditions for digestion, a factorial approach to the design of experiments was undertaken. The resulting experimental data were used to construct the mathematical models using Design Expert 6.06(R) (Stat-Ease, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A.) to predict the optimum conditions for a robust IgG digestion step. Optimum conditions were evaluated experimentally, and the applicability of the conditions for large-scale manufacture of bio-therapeutic Fab fragments was assessed. The results and methods described in the present paper suggest that, provided the time and temperature are maintained at the high settings evaluated (24 h, 40 degrees C), the modelled data predict IgG digestion close to 100% for all the papain concentrations used. Provided papain is used at >2.5% (w/w), either time and/or temperature may be reduced. The results and methods described in the present paper may also be applicable to the generation of therapeutic Fab fragments from other immunoglobulins, including monoclonal antibodies purified from mammalian cell culture.

  19. Fragmentation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Colm T.

    2012-12-01

    Preface; 1. Direct and resonant double-photoionization: from atoms to solids L. Avaldi and G. Stefani; 2. The application of propagation exterior complex scaling to atomic collisions P. L. Bartlett and A. T. Stelbovics; 3. Fragmentation of molecular-ion beams in intense ultra-short laser pulses I. Ben-Itzhak; 4. Atoms with one and two active electrons in strong laser fields I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets; 5. Experimental aspects of ionization studies by positron and positronium impact G. Laricchia, D. A. Cooke, Á. Kövér and S. J. Brawley; 6. (e,2e) spectroscopy using fragmentation processes J. Lower, M. Yamazaki and M. Takahashi; 7. A coupled pseudostate approach to the calculation of ion-atom fragmentation processes M. McGovern, H. R. J. Walters and C. T. Whelan; 8. Electron Impact Ionization using (e,2e) coincidence techniques from threshold to intermediate energies A. J. Murray; 9. (e,2e) processes on atomic inner shells C. T. Whelan; 10. Spin resolved atomic (e,2e) processes J. Lower and C. T. Whelan; Index.

  20. Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-uninfected patients in Vietnam are due to a distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism-defined cluster of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VN1.

    PubMed

    Day, Jeremy N; Hoang, Thu N; Duong, Anh V; Hong, Chau T T; Diep, Pham T; Campbell, James I; Sieu, Tran P M; Hien, Tran T; Bui, Tien; Boni, Maciej F; Lalloo, David G; Carter, Dee; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J

    2011-02-01

    Cryptococcal disease most commonly occurs in patients with an underlying immune deficit, most commonly HIV infection, and is due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Occasionally disease due to this variety occurs in apparently immunocompetent patients. The relationship between strains infecting immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients is not clear. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to characterize the relationship between strains infecting HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Isolates from 51 HIV-uninfected patients and 100 HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis were compared. C. neoformans var. grubii VNI was responsible for infections in 73% of HIV-uninfected and 100% of HIV-infected patients. AFLP analysis defined two distinct clusters, VNIγ and VNIδ. The majority (84%) of isolates from HIV-uninfected patients were VNIγ, compared with only 38% of isolates from HIV-infected patients (odds ratio, 8.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04 to 26.6; P < 0.0001). In HIV-uninfected patients, underlying disease was less frequent in those with VNIγ infections. Two clusters of C. neoformans var. grubii VN1 are responsible for the majority of cases of cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam. The distribution of these clusters differs according to the immune status of the host.

  1. Data of rational process optimization for the production of a full IgG and its Fab fragment from hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Röhm, Martina; Handl, Alina; König, Maria; Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Handrick, René; Schindowski, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This data article focuses on the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and their fragments Fab and F(ab')2. Here, we present the data of an optimization protocol to improve the product yield of a hybridoma cell process using a Design of Experiment (DoE) strategy. Furthermore, the data of the evaluated conditions were used to test feeding strategies in shake flasks. They were verified in controlled 2 L fed-batch bioreactor processes. Supplementing the culture medium with human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and Pluronic F-68, as well as a nutrient rich additive for fed-batch, resulted in improved cell growth correlating with a 7 day elongated process time and a 4.5 fold higher product titer. Finally, a rapid Fab generation protocol and the respective data are presented using different papain digestion and a camelid anti-kappa light chain VHH affinity ligand.

  2. Parasitic production of slow RI-beam from a projectile fragment separator by ion guide Laser Ion Source (PALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Tetsu

    2009-10-01

    The projectile fragment separator BigRIPS of RIBF at RIKEN provides a wide variety of short-lived radioactive isotope (RI) ions without restrictions on their lifetime or chemical properties. A universal slow RI-beam facility (SLOWRI) to decelerate the beams from BigRIPS using an RF-carpet ion guide has been proposed as a principal facility of RIBF. However, beam time at such a modern accelerator facility is always limited and operational costs are high. We therefore propose an additional scheme as a complementary option to SLOWRI to drastically enhance the usability of such an expensive facility. In BigRIPS, a single primary beam produces thousands of isotopes but only one isotope is used for an experiment while the other >99.99% of isotopes are simply dumped in the slits or elsewhere in the fragment separator. We plan to locate a compact gas cell with 1 bar Ar at the slits. The thermalized ions in the cell will be quickly neutralized and transported to the exit by gas flow and resonantly re-ionized by lasers. Such low energy RI-beams will always be provided without any restriction to the main experiment. It will allow us to run parasitic experiments for precision atomic or decay spectroscopy, mass measurements. Furthermore, the resonance ionization in the cell itself can be used for high-sensitive laser spectroscopy, which will expand our knowledge of the ground state property of unstable nuclei.

  3. A thermodynamic theory of dynamic fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yew, Ching H.; Taylor, P.A.

    1993-08-01

    We present a theory of dynamic fragmentation of brittle materials based on thermodynamic arguments. We recover the expressions for average fragment size and number as originally derived by Grady. We extend the previous work by obtaining descriptions of fragment size distribution and compressibility change due to the fragmentation process. The size distribution is assumed to be proportional to the spectral power of the strain history and a sample distribution is presented for a fragmentation process corresponding to a constant rate strain history. The description of compressibility change should be useful in computational studies of fragmentation. These results should provide insight into the process of fragmentation of brittle materials from hypervelocity impact.

  4. Medical costs and productivity losses due to interpersonal and self-directed violence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Corso, Phaedra S; Mercy, James A; Simon, Thomas R; Finkelstein, Eric A; Miller, Ted R

    2007-06-01

    Violence-related injuries, including suicide, adversely affect the health and welfare of all Americans through premature death, disability, medical costs, and lost productivity. Estimating the magnitude of the economic burden of violence is critical for understanding the potential amount of resources that can be saved if cost-effective violence prevention efforts can be broadly applied. From 2003 to 2005, the lifetime medical costs and productivity losses associated with medically treated injuries due to interpersonal and self-directed violence occurring in the United States in 2000 were assessed. Several nationally representative data sets were combined to estimate the incidence of fatal and nonfatal injuries due to violence. Unit medical and productivity costs were computed and then multiplied by corresponding incidence estimates to yield total lifetime costs of violence-related injuries occurring in 2000. The total costs associated with nonfatal injuries and deaths due to violence in 2000 were more than $64.8 [corrected] billion. Most of this cost ($64.4 billion or 92%) was due to lost productivity. However, an estimated $5.6 billion was spent on medical care for the more than 2.5 million injuries due to interpersonal and self-directed violence. The burden estimates reported here provide evidence of the large health and economic burden of violence-related injuries in the U.S. But the true burden is likely far greater and the need for more research on violence surveillance and prevention are discussed.

  5. Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

    2012-04-03

    Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed.

  6. Factors associated with recovery of meat products following recalls due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seys, S A; Sampedro, F; Hedberg, C W

    2016-10-01

    Food-product recall data for recalls due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from 2000 to 2012 were obtained for establishments regulated by the United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Statistical tests were used to assess the factors associated with recovery of product following STEC recalls along with the relationship between cluster detection and jurisdictions. Our results indicated that the percentage of recalled product recovered following a recall action due to STEC was dependent on the complexity of distribution, type of distribution, amount of time between production and recall dates, and the number of pounds of product recalled. Illness-related STEC recalls were associated with a lower percentage of product recovery which was probably impacted by larger amounts of product recalled, broader production scope, and delays from epidemiological and traceback investigations. Further, detection of illnesses related to STEC recalls seemed to be enhanced in states with additional resources and a history of successful foodborne investigations. This makes an argument for additional resources dedicated to public health agencies specifically for the surveillance of foodborne illnesses.

  7. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-07-20

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f{sub p} to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f{sub p} and 2 f{sub p} radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f{sub p} than 2 f{sub p} emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  8. Possible Increase in Nitric Oxide Production by Lightning Discharges Due to Catalytic Effects of Ice Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Harold; Beasley, William

    2011-01-01

    We address the question of whether ice crystals with habits typically encountered by lightning discharges may serve as catalysts for the production of NOx by lightning. If so, and if the effect is sufficiently large, it would need to be taken into account in estimates of global NOx production by lightning. In this study, we make a series of plausible assumptions about the temperatures and concentrations of reactant species in the environment of discharges and we postulate a mechanism by which ice crystals could adsorb nitrogen atoms. We then compare production rates between uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions at 2000 K, 3000 K, and 4000 K, temperatures observed in lightning channels during the cool-down period after a return stroke. Catalyzed NO production rates are greater at 2000 K, whereas uncatalyzed production occurs most rapidly at 4000 K. The channel temperature stays around 2000 K for a longer period of time than at 4000 K. The longer residence time at 2000 K is sufficient to allow fresh reactants to participate in the mix in. Therefore, our results suggest that nearly three times as much NO per flash is produced by ice-catalyzed reactions as compared with uncatalyzed reactions.

  9. Medical costs and economic production losses due to injuries in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Beeck, E F; van Roijen, L; Mackenbach, J P

    1997-06-01

    To support injury control, we assessed the direct medical costs and indirect costs of injuries in the Netherlands, making use of recent advances in health economics. We estimated the direct medical costs with the help of available data on health care utilization as a consequence of injuries. In our calculations of indirect costs, we used two alternative approaches. We used the traditional human-capital approach, which estimates the potential economic production losses caused by diseases or injuries. In addition, we applied the friction-costs method, which was recently developed as an attempt to measure the actual economic production losses to society. Injuries are an important source of medical costs and economic production losses. Almost two-thirds of the medical costs are the result of injuries among females (mainly domestic injuries of elderly women). On the contrary, independent of the method used, more than 80% of the indirect costs are the result of injuries among males (mainly caused by a high frequency of traffic injuries, occupational injuries, and sports injuries among young males). The application of the friction-costs method confirms the importance of injuries as a source of production losses in comparison with other diseases, showing that they belong to the main three causes of indirect costs to society. Estimates of the medical costs and both the potential and actual economic production losses to society clearly demonstrate that injuries should be a major concern for health policy makers and the medical profession.

  10. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization increases reactive oxygen species production and decreases mean sperm velocity but is not associated with DNA fragmentation in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Treulen, F; Uribe, P; Boguen, R; Villegas, J V

    2016-02-01

    Does induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in vitro affect specific functional parameters of human spermatozoa? Our findings show that MOMP induction increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases mean sperm velocity but does not alter DNA integrity. MOMP in somatic cells is related to a variety of apoptotic traits, such as alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and increase in ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Although the presence of these apoptotic features has been reported in spermatozoa, to date the effects of MOMP on sperm function and DNA integrity have not been analysed. The study included spermatozoa from fertile donors. Motile sperm were obtained using the swim-up method. The highly motile sperm were collected and diluted with human tubal fluid to a final cell concentration of 5 × 10(6) ml(-1). To induce MOMP, selected sperm were treated at 37°C for 4 h with a mimetic of a Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic protein, ABT-737. MOMP was evaluated by relocating of cytochrome c. In addition, the effect of ABT-737 on mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization was assessed using the calcein-AM/cobalt chloride method. In turn, ΔΨm was evaluated with JC-1 staining, intracellular ROS production with dihydroethidium, sperm motility was analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Measurements were performed by flow cytometry. MOMP was associated with ΔΨm dissipation (P < 0.05), increased ROS production (P < 0.05) and decreased mean sperm velocity (P < 0.05), but it was not associated with DNA fragmentation. MOMP did not induce a large increase in ROS, which could explain the negligible effect of MOMP on sperm DNA fragmentation under our experimental conditions. The study was carried out in vitro using highly motile sperm, selected by swim-up, from healthy donors. The results obtained in this

  11. Chemical potential and symmetry energy for intermediate-mass fragment production in heavy ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lin, W.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Wang, J.; Bonasera, A.; Zheng, H.; Chen, Z.; Kowalski, S.; Keutgen, T.; Hagel, K.; Qin, L.; Natowitz, J. B.; Materna, T.; Sahu, P. K.; Barbui, M.; Bottosso, C.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.

    2017-04-01

    Ratios of differential chemical potential values relative to the temperature, (μn-μp)/T , extracted from isotope yields of 13 reaction systems at 40 MeV/nucleon are compared to those of a quantum statistical model to determine the temperature and symmetry energy values of the fragmenting system. The experimental (μn-μp)/T values are extracted based on the modified Fisher model. Using the density value of ρ /ρ0=0.56 from the previous analysis, the temperature and symmetry energy values of T =4.6 ±0.4 MeV and asym=23.6 ±2.1 MeV are extracted in a framework of a quantum statistical model. These values agree well with those of the previous work, in which a self-consistent method was utilized with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics simulations. The extracted temperature and symmetry energies are discussed together with other experimental values published in literature.

  12. Low-energy mass-selected ion beam production of fragments produced from hexamethyldisilane for SiC film formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Satoru Sugimoto, Satoshi; Kiuchi, Masato

    2016-03-14

    We have proposed an experimental methodology which makes it possible to deposit silicon carbide (SiC) films on Si substrates with a low-energy mass-selected ion beam system using hexamethyldisilane (HMD) as a gas source. In this study, one of the fragment ions produced from HMD, SiCH{sub 4}{sup +}, was mass-selected. The ion energy was approximately 100 eV. Then, the SiCH{sub 4}{sup +} ions were irradiated to a Si(100) substrate. When the temperature of the Si substrate was set at 800 °C during the ion irradiation, the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of the substrate following the completion of ion irradiation experiment demonstrated the occurrence of 3C-SiC deposition.

  13. Dynamical regimes due to technological change in a microeconomical model of production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, K.

    2012-09-01

    We develop a microeconomical model to investigate the impact of technological change onto production decisions of suppliers—modeling an effective feedback mechanism of the market. An important property—the time horizon of production planning—is related to the Kolmogorov entropy of the one-dimensional maps describing price dynamics. We simulate this price dynamics in an ensemble representing the whole macroeconomy. We show how this model can be used to support ongoing research in economic growth and incorporate the obtained microeconomic findings into the discussion about appropriate macroeconomic quantities such as the production function—thus effectively underpinning macroeconomics with microeconomical dynamics. From there we can show that the model exhibits different dynamical regimes (suggesting "phase transitions") with respect to an order parameter. The non-linear feedback under technological change was found to be the crucial mechanism. The implications of the obtained regimes are finally discussed.

  14. Dynamical regimes due to technological change in a microeconomical model of production.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, K

    2012-09-01

    We develop a microeconomical model to investigate the impact of technological change onto production decisions of suppliers-modeling an effective feedback mechanism of the market. An important property-the time horizon of production planning-is related to the Kolmogorov entropy of the one-dimensional maps describing price dynamics. We simulate this price dynamics in an ensemble representing the whole macroeconomy. We show how this model can be used to support ongoing research in economic growth and incorporate the obtained microeconomic findings into the discussion about appropriate macroeconomic quantities such as the production function-thus effectively underpinning macroeconomics with microeconomical dynamics. From there we can show that the model exhibits different dynamical regimes (suggesting "phase transitions") with respect to an order parameter. The non-linear feedback under technological change was found to be the crucial mechanism. The implications of the obtained regimes are finally discussed.

  15. Production and characterization of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment antibody for detection of parathion-methyl.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huimin; Zhao, Fengchun; Han, Xiao; Yang, Zhengyou

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we reported the development of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) for parathion-methyl (PM) detection. Firstly, a phage display library was generated using a pre-immunized BALB/C mouse against a specific hapten of PM. After four rounds of panning, the scFv gene fragments were transferred into a secreted expression vector. Then, the scFv antibodies were secreted expressed and screened by IC-ELISA against PM. The selected scFv antibody was fused with a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) and inserted into pET-28a(+) vector for high-level expression in Escherichia coli BL2 (DE3). After optimizing expression conditions, the scFv-BAD antibody was expressed as a soluble protein and biotinylated in vitro by the E. coli biotin ligase (BirA). Subsequently, the biotinylated scFv-BAD antibody was purified with a high yield of 59.2 ± 3.7 mg/L of culture, and was characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Finally, based on the biotinylated scFv-BAD, a sensitive IC-ELISA for detection of PM was developed, and the 50% inhibition value (IC50) of PM was determined as 14.5 ng/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD, IC10) of 0.9 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity (CR) studies revealed that the scFv antibody showed desirable specificity for PM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross sections for the production of fragments with Z greater than or equal to 8 by fragmentation of Z greater than or equal to 9 and less than or equal to 26 nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, W.; Drechsel, H.; Brechtmann, C.; Beer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Charge changing nuclear collisions in plastic nuclear track detectors were studied using a new experimental technique of automatic track measurement for etched tracks in plastic detectors. Partial cross sections for the production of fragments of charge Z approximately 8 were measured for projectile nuclei of charge 9 approximately Z approximately 26 in the detector material CR39 and in silver. for this purpose three independent experiments were performed using Bevalac beams. The first one was an exposure of a stack of CR39 plastic plates to 1.8 GeV/nucl. Ar-40 nuclei. The second one was an exposure of another CR39 stack of 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 projectiles. In the third experiment a mixed stack of CR39 plates and silver foils was irradiated with 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 nuclei. Thus the measurement of nuclear cross sections in a light target (CR39 = C12H18O7) and as well in a heavy target (silver) was possible.

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  18. Changes in the TRMM Version-5 and Version-6 Precipitation Radar Products Due to Orbit Boost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the version-5 and version-6 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) products before and after the satellite orbit boost is assessed through a series of comparisons with Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR)-88D ground-based radar in Melbourne, Florida. Analysis of the comparisons of radar reflectivity near the storm top from the ground radar and both versions of the PR indicates that the PR bias relative to the WSR radar at Melbourne is on the order of 1dB for both pre- and post-boost periods, indicating that the PR products maintain accurate calibration after the orbit boost. Comparisons with the WSR-88D near-surface reflectivity factors indicate that both versions of the PR products accurately correct for attenuation in stratiform rain. However, in convective rain, both versions exhibit negative biases in the near-surface radar reflectivity with version-6 products having larger negative biases than version-5. Rain rate comparisons between the ground and space radars show similar characteristics

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  20. Genome changes due to forty years of artificial selection associated with divergent dairy production and reproduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificial selection in dairy cattle since 1964 has achieved steady increase in milk production that was accompanied by unintended declines in fertility. Direct comparison of 45,878 SNPs between a group of Holstein cattle unselected since 1964 and the contemporary Holsteins was conducted to identify...

  1. Changes in thermodynamic conditions of the Ahuachapán reservoir due to production and injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingrimsson, B.; Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Truesdell, A.; Cuellar, G.; Escobar, C.; Quintanilla, A.

    1991-01-01

    Since large-scale exploitation of the Ahuachapán reservoir began in 1975 large changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions have occurred. Drawdown of up to 15 bars and significant temperature changes have been observed in the wellfield. Temperatures have declined due to boiling in the reservoir in response to the pressure drawdown; localized and minor cooling due to reinjection of spent geothermal fluids have also been observed. There are indications of cold fluid influx deep into the reservoir from the west and north. Reservoir temperatures show that a significant amount of hot fluid recharge comes to the wellfield from the southeast, and temperatures also indicate that the recharge rate has increased with time as pressure declines in the reservoir. Chemical analyses of the produced fluids show that most wells are fed by a mixture of geothermal fluids and cooler, less-saline waters. The cold water inflow has increased due to exploitation, as demonstrated by decreased salinity of the produced fluids.

  2. Contact dermatitis due to 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride: an outbreak in production workers.

    PubMed

    Takiwaki, H; Arase, S; Nakayama, H

    1998-07-01

    2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) is an azo compound which has been used as a radical chain initiator. The purpose of this study was to confirm contact sensitivity to AAPH in individuals who were engaged in the production of AAPH, and presented with prolonged eczematous eruptions mainly on exposed areas. Patch testing was carried out with AAPH (1 and 5% aq.) on 8 patients and 6 healthy volunteers who had never been exposed to this chemical. All patients showed a strong positive patch test reaction to this agent, while all control subjects showed negative results. Because this chemical has recently been used for studies on the oxidation of biological materials, not only production workers in the chemical industry but also medical researchers should avoid prolonged exposure to this agent.

  3. Drug-induced liver injury due to "natural products" used for weight loss: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Martina Gilda; di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Milone, Francesco; Pezzullo, Luigi Sossio; Milone, Marco; Capone, Domenico

    2009-05-21

    Taking herbal-extracts to lose weight is an underestimated health hazard. Often, these products contain active agents that can cause acute liver damage. In this case report, a 22-year-old female patient, who presented with a feature of cholestatic syndrome, was so sure that the "natural products" were not dangerous that she did not inform her physicians that she had taken them, making their task that much more challenging. Clinical presentation mimicked acute cholecystitis and the patient underwent a cholecystectomy. Surgery was without any consequences and complications, although it did not completely cure the illness. She later admitted to having taken herbal remedies and this led to the correct diagnosis of phytotherapy-related hepatotoxicity and a successful therapeutic approach. The true incidence of phytotherapy-related hepatotoxicity and its pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. It is important to increase the awareness of both clinicians and patients about the potential dangers of herbal remedies.

  4. Investigation of sulphur isotope variation due to different processes applied during uranium ore concentrate production.

    PubMed

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Konings, Rudy

    The applicability and limitations of sulphur isotope ratio as a nuclear forensic signature have been studied. The typically applied leaching methods in uranium mining processes were simulated for five uranium ore samples and the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratios were measured. The sulphur isotope ratio variation during uranium ore concentrate (UOC) production was also followed using two real-life sample sets obtained from industrial UOC production facilities. Once the major source of sulphur is revealed, its appropriate application for origin assessment can be established. Our results confirm the previous assumption that process reagents have a significant effect on the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratio, thus the sulphur isotope ratio is in most cases a process-related signature.

  5. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2016-12-06

    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  6. Unfolding properties of recombinant human serum albumin products are due to bioprocessing steps.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian E; Cole, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    We have used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the unfolding properties of commercial products of human serum albumin (HSA) prepared from pooled human blood, transgenic yeast, and transgenic rice. The initial melting temperatures (Tm1 ) for the unfolding transitions of the HSA products varied from 62°C to 75°C. We characterized the samples for purity, fatty acid content, and molecular weight. The effects of adding fatty acids, heat pasteurization, and a low pH defatting technique on the transition temperatures were measured. Defatted HSA has a structure with the lowest stability (Tm of ∼62°C). When fatty acids are bound to HSA, the structure is stabilized (Tm of ∼64-72°C), and prolonged heating (pasteurization at 60°C) results in a heat-stabilized structural form containing fatty acids (Tm of ∼75-80°C). This process was shown to be reversible by a low pH defatting step. This study shows that the fatty acid composition and bioprocessing history of the HSA commercial products results in the large differences in the thermal stability.

  7. Acute hepatitis due to shen-min: a herbal product derived from Polygonum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Andrés; Restrepo, Juan Carlos; Sierra, Fernando; Correa, Gonzalo

    2006-08-01

    Shen-Min is a herbal product sold as a supplement for women to enhance hair growth. It is widely available across Asia, Europe, and the United States and sold without prescription as a hair nutritional supplement. We describe a case of acute liver injury in a 28-year-old white woman who developed symptomatic hepatitis 8 weeks after starting Shen-Min. All other potential causes of acute hepatitis including viral, hypoxic/ischemic, metabolic, and autoimmune etiologies were excluded. The liver injury slowly resolved over 3 weeks after discontinuing the herbal product. Although the mechanism of Shen-Min hepatotoxicity is unknown, we suspect an idiosyncratic reaction because the patient developed a fine maculopapular rash, mild eosinophilia, and did not overdose. Shen-Min is a Chinese herbal product with a mixture of several plants and vitamins including Polygonum multiflorum, a root that has been previously associated with hepatotoxicity. Nonetheless to our knowledge this is the first reported case of herbal-induced hepatotoxicity in a patient taking Shen-Min per se. Clinicians taking care of patients with acute hepatitis of unclear etiology should be aware that the consumption of Shen-Min, a hair supplement widely available in the United States and Western countries might cause acute hepatitis.

  8. Lung edema due to hydrogen peroxide is independent of cyclooxygenase products

    SciTech Connect

    Burghuber, O.; Mathias, M.M.; McMurtry, I.F.; Reeves, J.T.; Voelkel, N.F.

    1984-01-01

    Active oxygen species can cause lung injury. Although a direct action on endothelial cells is proposed, the possibility exists that they might cause injury via mediators. We considered that active oxygen species would stimulate the generation of cyclooxygenase metabolites, which then alter pulmonary vasoreactivity and cause edema. We chemically produced hydrogen peroxide by adding glucose oxidase to a plasma- and cell-free, but ..beta..-D-glucose-containing, solution, which perfused isolated rat lungs. Addition of glucose oxidase to the perfusate caused a marked decrease in pulmonary vasoreactivity, accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of prostacyclin, thromboxane A/sub 2/, and prostaglandin F/sub 2..cap alpha../. Pretreatment with catalase, a specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, preserved pulomonary vasoreactivity, inhibited the increase of the concentration of the measured prostaglandins, and prevented edema formation. Indomethacin effectively blocked lung prostaglandin production but neither prevented the decrease in vasoreactivity nor inhibited edema formation. From these data we conclude the hydrogen peroxide impaired pulmonary vasoreactivity and subsequently caused edema. Depsite the fact that hydrogen peroxide stimulated lung prostaglandin production, cyclooxygenase-derived products neither caused the decrease in vasoreactivity nor the development of edema.

  9. ESA DUE GlobTemperature project: Infrared-based LST Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermida, Sofia; Pires, Ana; Ghent, Darren; Trigo, Isabel; DaCamara, Carlos; Remedios, John

    2016-04-01

    One of the purposes of the GlobTemperature project is to provide a product of global Land Surface Temperature (LST) based on Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth polar Orbit (LEO) satellite data. The objective is to use existing LST products, which are obtained from different sensors/platforms, combining them into a harmonized product for a reference view angle. In a first approach, only infra-red based retrievals are considered, and LEO LSTs will be used as a common denominator among geostationary sensors. LST data is provided by a wide range of sensors to optimize spatial coverage, namely: (i) 2 LEO sensors - the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) series of instruments on-board ESA's Envisat, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board NASA's TERRA and AQUA; and (ii) 3 GEO sensors - the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), the Japanese Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on-board the Japanese Meteorological Association (JMA) Multifunction Transport SATellite (MTSAT-2), and NASA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The merged LST product is generated in two steps: 1) calibration between each LEO and each GEO that consists in the removal of systematic differences (associated to sensor type and LST algorithms, including calibration, atmospheric and surface emissivity corrections, amongst others) represented by linear regressions; 2) angular correction that consists in bringing all LST data to reference (nadir) view. Angular effects on LST are estimated by means of a kernel model of the surface thermal emission, which describes the angular dependence of LST as function of viewing and illumination geometry. The model is adjusted to MODIS and SEVIRI/MSG LST estimates and validated against LST retrievals from those sensors obtained for other years (not used in the calibration). It is shown that the model leads to a reduction of LST

  10. Determination of degradation products and pathways of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea (ETU) in solutions due to ozone and chlorine dioxide treatments.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Cash, Jerry N; Zabik, Matthew J

    2003-02-26

    The objective of the present study was to determine the degradation products of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea (ETU) and elucidate the possible degradation pathways in solution as a result of chemical oxidation using ozone and chlorine dioxide. This study was developed in a solution at 100 ppm of mancozeb and ETU concentration over the course of 60 min. Two different oxidizing agents used in this study were (1) ozone at 3 ppm and (2) chlorine dioxide at 20 ppm. Ozone was continuously provided throughout the course of the reaction. Degradation products were detected with high-resolution GC-MS. The total analysis time was 4 min per sample combined with rapid GC separation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Hydrolysis of mancozeb led to m/z 144 ion fragmentation, which is 5-imidazoledithiocarboxylic acid, as a major degradation product. ETU showed M(+) 102, which corresponds to its mass, indicating this compound was stable in distilled water and did not undergo hydrolysis during 60 min. The average retention times of mancozeb and ETU were approximately 181-189 and 210-230 s, respectively. Ozonation of mancozeb produced ETU as a major product. Treatment of ETU with ozone produced several degradation compounds. From prolonged ozonation, the CS(2) or CS group was removed. Overall, several byproducts identified were M(+) 60, M(+) 84, M(+) 163, M(+) 117, and M(+) 267 by ozone and M(+) 117, M(+) 86, and M(+) 163 by chlorine dioxide treatment. Several of these have been reported, but others have never been reported previously.

  11. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. METHODS We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321–580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG321–580His) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG321–580His as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. RESULTS In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG321–580His-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. CONCLUSION The study indicates that gG321–580His has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans. PMID:25532518

  12. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321-580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG(321-580His)) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG(321-580His) as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG(321-580His)-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. The study indicates that gG(321-580His) has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans.

  13. Productivity losses due to illness, disability and premature death in different occupational groups in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vinni, K

    1983-01-01

    In this study losses due to illness, disability and premature death for the economically active population in Finland in 1975 were examined. Total losses of the employed population due to premature death, disability and illness were 503,000 workyears. In monetary terms the losses were 7.91 billion Finnish marks. Age standardized losses per 1000 economically active males were 266 years and per 1000 economically active females 233 years. Losses for males in agriculture and in industry were almost three times higher than in administration. Among females the losses in agriculture were 3.3 times greater and in industry and in services 2.5 times greater than in administration. The main reason for the differences between the total losses was the uneven distribution of invalidity pensions. Losses associated with occupation were calculated assuming that the morbidity, disability and mortality rates in all occupational groups were the same as in healthiest group (administration). If the extra mortality, disability and illnesses of occupational groups were eliminated, the savings would be 255,000 workyears or about 3.9 billion Finnish marks per year e.g. the total losses would decrease to below half of the present level.

  14. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Dai, Qinghua; Ekizoglu, Melike

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities. PMID:23396341

  15. Monitoring the perturbation of soil and groundwater microbial communities due to pig production activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, Anthony C; Dai, Qinghua; Ekizoglu, Melike; Mackie, Roderick I

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 10(9) copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  16. Ionic liquid effects on a multistep process. Increased product formation due to enhancement of all steps.

    PubMed

    Keaveney, Sinead T; Haines, Ronald S; Harper, Jason B

    2015-09-07

    The reaction of a series of substituted benzaldehydes with hexylamine was examined in acetonitrile and an ionic liquid. In acetonitrile, as the electron withdrawing nature of the substituent increases, the overall addition-elimination process becomes faster as does the build-up of the aminol intermediate. Under equivalent conditions in an ionic liquid, less intermediate build up is observed, and the effect on the rate on varying the substituent is different to that in acetonitrile. Extensive kinetic analysis shows that the ionic liquid solvent increases the rate constant of all steps of the reaction, resulting in faster product formation relative to acetonitrile; these effects increase with the proportion of ionic liquid in the reaction mixture. Differences in the equilibrium position of the addition step in the ionic liquid were found to account for both the decrease in intermediate build up relative to acetonitrile, as well as the differing trend in the overall rate of product formation as the substituent was changed. The microscopic origins of these ionic liquid effects were probed through temperature dependent analyses, highlighting the subtle balance of interactions between the ionic liquid and species along the reaction coordinate, particularly the importance of charge development in the transition state.

  17. Long-term management of severe ocular surface injury due to methamphetamine production accidents.

    PubMed

    Movahedan, Asadolah; Genereux, Brad M; Darvish-Zargar, Mahshad; Shah, Kevin J; Holland, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the clinical features and management of patients with ocular surface damage during methamphetamine production accidents. This is a retrospective noncomparative interventional case series of 5 patients with methamphetamine production-related ocular injuries referred to the Cincinnati Eye Institute between 1999 and 2014. Four of 5 cases were white young men with severe bilateral ocular injury and extremely poor vision. All except 1 eye (9 of 10) were diagnosed with total or near-total ocular surface failure. Limbal stem cell transplantation was performed in 8 of 10 eyes. Keratolimbal allograft was followed by penetrating keratoplasty in 7 of 10 eyes. Ocular surface stability was achieved in 7 of 10 eyes after keratolimabl allograft. Postoperative visual acuity was better than 20/200 in 4 of 10 of eyes. Keratolimbal graft rejection occurred in 3 of 10 eyes; the rate of rejection of penetrating keratoplasty was also 3 out of 10 eyes. Methamphetamine-related accidents can lead to severe bilateral ocular injuries. Although stem cell transplantation procedure success is guarded in most of these patients because of severe conjunctival inflammation and accompanying ocular comorbidities, as well as personality issues, compliant patients can achieve good visual function with ocular surface transplantation and subsequent keratoplasty.

  18. Enhanced Southern Ocean marine productivity due to fertilization by giant icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Luis P. A. M.; Bigg, Grant R.; Wilton, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Primary productivity is enhanced within a few kilometres of icebergs in the Weddell Sea owing to the input of terrigeneous nutrients and trace elements during iceberg melting. However, the influence of giant icebergs, over 18 km in length, on marine primary production in the Southern Ocean is less well studied. Here we present an analysis of 175 satellite images of open ocean colour before and after the passage of 17 giant icebergs between 2003 and 2013. We detect substantially enhanced chlorophyll levels, typically over a radius of at least 4-10 times the iceberg's length, that can persist for more than a month following passage of a giant iceberg. This area of influence is more than an order of magnitude larger than that found for sub-kilometre scale icebergs or in ship-based surveys of giant icebergs. Assuming that carbon export increases by a factor of 5-10 over the area of influence, we estimate that up to a fifth of the Southern Ocean's downward carbon flux originates with giant iceberg fertilization. We suggest that, if giant iceberg calving increases this century as expected, this negative feedback on the carbon cycle may become more important.

  19. Modelling of labour productivity loss due to climate change: HEAT-SHIELD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Daanen, Hein

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will bring higher heat levels (temperature and humidity combined) to large parts of the world. When these levels reach above thresholds well defined by human physiology, the ability to maintain physical activity levels decrease and labour productivity is reduced. This impact is of particular importance in work situations in areas with long high intensity hot seasons, but also affects cooler areas during heat waves. Our modelling of labour productivity loss includes climate model data of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP), calculations of heat stress indexes during different months, estimations of work capacity loss and its annual impacts in different parts of the world. Different climate models will be compared for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the outcomes of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) agreements. The validation includes comparisons of modelling outputs with actual field studies using historical heat data. These modelling approaches are a first stage contribution to the European Commission funded HEAT-SHIELD project.

  20. Spacecraft self-contamination due to back-scattering of outgas products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The back-scattering of outgas contamination near an orbiting spacecraft due to intermolecular collisions was analyzed. Analytical tools were developed for making reasonably accurate quantitative estimates of the outgas contamination return flux, given a knowledge of the pertinent spacecraft and orbit conditions. Two basic collision mechanisms were considered: (1) collisions involving only outgas molecules (self-scattering) and (2) collisions between outgas molecules and molecules in the ambient atmosphere (ambient-scattering). For simplicity, the geometry was idealized to a uniformly outgassing sphere and to a disk oriented normal to the freestream. The method of solution involved an integration of an approximation of the Boltzmann kinetic equation known as the BGK (or Krook) model equation. Results were obtained in the form of simple equations relating outgas return flux to spacecraft and orbit parameters. Results were compared with previous analyses based on more simplistic models of the collision processes.

  1. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  2. Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.

    PubMed

    Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2008-01-01

    In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum.

  3. Years of potential life lost and productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Soheila; Rezaei, Satar; Rashidian, Hamideh; Daroudi, Rajabali

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is recently one of the major concerns of the public health both in the world and Iran. To inform priorities for cancer control, this study estimated years of potential life lost (YPLL) and productivity losses due to cancer-related premature mortality in Iran in 2012. The number of cancer deaths by sex for all cancers and the ten leading causes of cancer deaths in Iran in 2012 were obtained from the GLOBOCAN database. The life expectancy method and the human capital approach were used to estimate the YPLL and the value of productivity lost due to cancer-related premature mortality. There were 53,350 cancer-related deaths in Iran. We estimated that these cancer deaths resulted in 1,112,680 YPLL in total, 563,332 (50.6%) in males and 549,348 (49.4%) in females. The top 10 ranked cancers accounted for 75% of total death and 70% of total YPLL in the males and 69% for both death and YPLL in the females. The largest contributors for YPLL in the two genders were stomach and breast cancers, respectively. The total cost of lost productivity due to cancer-related premature mortality discounted at 3% rate in Iran, was US$ 1.93 billion. The most costly cancer for the males was stomach, while for the females it was breast cancer. The percentage of the total costs that were attributable to the top 10 cancers was 67% in the males and 71% in the females. The YPLL and productivity losses due to cancer-related premature mortality are substantial in Iran. Setting resource allocation priorities to cancers that occur in younger working-age individuals (such as brain and central nervous system) and/or cancers with high incidence and mortality rates (such as stomach and breast) could potentially decrease the productivity losses and the YPLL to a great extent in Iran.

  4. Fourier transform infrared matrix-isolation analysis of acetaldehyde fragmentation products after charge exchange with Ar•+ under varied ionization density conditions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew G K; White, Matthew R; Linford, Bryan D; King, Kaitlynn A; Robinson, Mark M; Parnis, J Mark

    2011-10-01

    The products of the Ar(•+) charge exchange ionization of acetaldehyde have been isolated and compared with related photoionization results and computational work. Acetaldehyde has been used to assess the effect of varied ion density in the ionization region of the electron bombardment matrix isolation apparatus. The amount of acetaldehyde destruction has been measured for constant gas-sample composition and constant ionization current for two anode geometries: a pin anode and a plate anode. For the same ionization current, a pin-shaped anode demonstrates higher precursor molecule destruction efficiency (85%) than the plate-shaped anode (30%), resulting in substantial effect on the yield and quantity of isolated products. When the plate anode is used, the observed infrared products correspond to matrix-isolated carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH(4)), ketene (CH(2)CO), ethynyloxy radical (HCCO), formyl radical (HCO(•)), acetyl radical (CH(3)CO(•)), vinyl alcohol (H(2)C = CH-OH), and cationic proton-bound dimer, Ar(2)H(+). When the pin anode is used, the same products are observed with different relative proportions and new absorption features corresponding to dicarbon monoxide (CCO) and methyl radical (CH(3)(•)) are observed. The surprising observation of infrared absorptions corresponding to vinyl alcohol along with low yield of products anticipated through the analysis of photoelectron-photoionization coincidence measurements suggests that the initially formed fragmentation products are able to further react within the matrix-isolation environment to influence observed product yields. Related experiments, using the isotopomer CD(3)CHO, suggest that the observed products are formed via radical-radical reactions that occur under the high pressure conditions of the matrix isolation environment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Gas production due to alpha particle degradation of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Okajima, S.; Krause, T.

    1998-07-01

    Alpha particle degradation experiments were performed on polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic samples typical of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) transuranic (TRU) waste. This was done to evaluate the effects of sealing TRU waste during shipment. Experiments were conducted at three temperatures using low dose rates. Predominant products from both plastics were hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and various organic species, with the addition of hydrochloric acid from PVC. In all experiments, the total pressure decreased. Irradiation at 30 and 60 C and at various dose rates caused small changes for both plastics, but at 100 C coupled thermal-radiolytic effects included discoloration of the material as well as large differences in the gas phase composition.

  6. Entanglement production due to quench dynamics of an anisotropic XY chain in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2009-09-01

    We compute concurrence and negativity as measures of two-spin entanglement generated by a power-law quench (characterized by a rate τ-1 and an exponent α ) which takes an anisotropic XY chain in a transverse field through a quantum critical point (QCP). We show that only spins separated by an even number of lattice spacings get entangled in such a process. Moreover, there is a critical rate of quench, τc-1 , above which no two-spin entanglement is generated; the entire entanglement is multipartite. The ratio of the entanglements between consecutive even neighbors can be tuned by changing the quench rate. We also show that for large τ , the concurrence (negativity) scales as α/τ (α/τ) , and we relate this scaling behavior to defect production by the quench through a QCP.

  7. Detection of Salmonella spp. Isolates from specimens due to pork production Chains in Hue City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Koichi; Itoh, Shigeru; Hosono, Hiromi; Kono, Hiroichi; Tin, Vo Trung; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Bich; Kawamoto, Keiko; Makino, Sou-Ichi

    2009-04-01

    From August 2007 until March 2008, we perfomed a detection and epidemiological analysis for Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from pork production chains to improve the quality of meat hygiene conditions in Hue, Vietnam. A total of 306 specimens were examined for Salmonella spp., aerobic bacterial counts and coliform. Seven serovars of Salmonella spp. were detected in retail pork, slaughterhouse carcasses and environmental specimens with the following detection rates: 32.8% of retail pork, 15.5% of slaughterhouse carcasses, 47.4% of floors, 38.1% of weighing bowls, 28.6% of cooking boards and 16.7% of tank water samples. Based on these results, we recommend that exhaustive sterilization, washing, routine bacteriological examinations and treatments at low temperature are performed in slaughterhouses, transportation facilities and retail stores.

  8. Hollow Atom Production Due to High Intensity X-ray Sources Irradiating Clusters And Its Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2009-07-25

    This paper shows the production of hollow atoms and the proposal of the measurement by using x-ray flux irradiating clusters by continuing work from our previous papers left braceK. Moribayashi, J.Phys.B, 41 085602 (2008)right brace. The x-ray emissions from hollow atoms produced by high intensity x-ray sources are employed for this measurement. This measurement is useful for the application of laser-driven x-ray sources and x-ray free electron lasers to the measurement of diffraction patterns of bio-molecules, which is indispensable for the study of their three-dimensional structure. This paper develops the methods and discussions of our previous paper. Namely, the electron impact ionization processes are added to our calculation model. Further, the size effects of the targets are shown.

  9. Production of a soluble single-chain variable fragment antibody against okadaic acid and exploration of its specific binding.

    PubMed

    He, Kuo; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Lixia; Du, Xinjun; Wei, Dong

    2016-06-15

    Okadaic acid is a lipophilic marine algal toxin commonly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Outbreaks of DSP have been increasing and are of worldwide public health concern; therefore, there is a growing demand for more rapid, reliable, and economical analytical methods for the detection of this toxin. In this study, anti-okadaic acid single-chain variable fragment (scFv) genes were prepared by cloning heavy and light chain genes from hybridoma cells, followed by fusion of the chains via a linker peptide. An scFv-pLIP6/GN recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli for expression, and the target scFv was identified with IC-CLEIA (chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay). The IC15 was 0.012 ± 0.02 μg/L, and the IC50 was 0.25 ± 0.03 μg/L. The three-dimensional structure of the scFv was simulated with computer modeling, and okadaic acid was docked to the scFv model to obtain a putative structure of the binding complex. Two predicted critical amino acids, Ser32 and Thr187, were then mutated to verify this theoretical model. Both mutants exhibited significant loss of binding activity. These results help us to understand this specific scFv-antigen binding mechanism and provide guidance for affinity maturation of the antibody in vitro. The high-affinity scFv developed here also has potential for okadaic acid toxin detection.

  10. Productivity loss due to premature mortality caused by blood cancer: a study based on patients undergoing stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ortega, Marta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Jiménez-Aguilera, Juan de Dios; Romero-Aguilar, Antonio; Espigado-Tocino, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation has been used for many years to treat haematological malignancies that could not be cured by other treatments. Despite this medical breakthrough, mortality rates remain high. Our purpose was to evaluate labour productivity losses associated with premature mortality due to blood cancer in recipients of stem cell transplantations. We collected primary data from the clinical histories of blood cancer patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation between 2006 and 2011 in two Spanish hospitals. We carried out a descriptive analysis and calculated the years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. Labour productivity losses due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital method. An alternative approach, the Friction Cost method, was used as part of the sensitivity analysis. Our findings suggest that, in a population of 179 transplanted and deceased patients, males and people who die between the ages of 30 and 49 years generate higher labour productivity losses. The estimated loss amounts to over €31.4 million using the Human Capital method (€480,152 using the Friction Cost method), which means an average of €185,855 per death. The highest labour productivity losses are produced by leukaemia. However, lymphoma generates the highest loss per death. Further efforts are needed to reduce premature mortality in blood cancer patients undergoing transplantations and reduce economic losses. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Teachers and Teaching: Speech Production Accommodations Due to Changes in the Acoustic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Leishman, Timothy W.; Berardi, Mark L.; Eyring, Nathan G.; Jensen, Zachary R.; Rolins, Michael K.; Whiting, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    School teachers have an elevated risk of voice problems due to the vocal demands in the workplace. This manuscript presents the results of three studies investigating teachers’ voice use at work. In the first study, 57 teachers were observed for 2 weeks (waking hours) to compare how they used their voice in the school environment and in non-school environments. In a second study, 45 participants performed a short vocal task in two different rooms: a variable acoustic room and an anechoic chamber. Subjects were taken back and forth between the two rooms. Each time they entered the variable acoustics room, the reverberation time and/or the background noise condition had been modified. In this latter study, subjects responded to questions about their vocal comfort and their perception of changes in the acoustic environment. In a third study, 20 untrained vocalists performed a simple vocal task in the following conditions: with and without background babble and with and without transparent plexiglass shields to increase the first reflection. Relationships were examined between [1] the results for the room acoustic parameters; [2] the subjects’ perception of the room; and [3] the recorded speech acoustic. Several differences between male and female subjects were found; some of those differences held for each room condition (at school vs. not at school, reverberation level, noise level, and early reflection). PMID:26949426

  12. Identification of Salmonella serotypes isolated from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems in Mexico by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Robles, Miguel A; Morales-Loredo, Alberto; Alvarez-Ojeda, Genoveva; Vega-P, Adrián; Chew-M, Yazmín; Velarde, Sixto; Fratamico, Pina

    2008-11-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on three cantaloupe farms in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico, and on one farm that cultivates chile peppers var. Bell in Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Samples from cantaloupe farms consisted of cantaloupe rinses, irrigation water, water from furrows in the field, and workers' hands. Samples from the chile pepper farm consisted of rinses of chile peppers obtained at the field, pepper rinses obtained at the packing house, and irrigation water from the field. A total of 55 samples were obtained from both production systems. Twelve and 10 samples from the cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems, respectively, tested positive for Salmonella according to a traditional culture method. The difference between the proportion of Salmonella-positive samples from the cantaloupe production system (12 of 28 = 0.43) and the chile pepper production system (10 of 27 = 0.37) was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method based on the fliC gene was used to determine the serotype of the isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium was the only serotype found associated with the cantaloupe production system, whereas both Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis serotypes were found associated with the chile pepper production system. Results showed that 91% (20 of 22) and 9% (2 of 22) of the isolates from both agricultural systems matched with the Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis reference strain restriction profiles, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of the PCR-RFLP technique for determining the serotypes of Salmonella isolates obtained from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems.

  13. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    that was necessary not only to make fluid injections safe, but an economic asset, DOE organized a series of workshops. The first workshop was held on February 4, 2010, at Stanford University. A second workshop will be held in mid-2010 to address the critical elements of a 'best practices/protocol' that industry could use as a guide to move forward with safe implementation of fluid injections/production for energy-related applications, i.e., a risk mitigation plan, and specific recommendations for industry to follow. The objectives of the first workshop were to identify critical technology and research needs/approaches to advance the understanding of induced seismicity associated with energy related fluid injection/production, such that: (1) The risk associated with induced seismicity can be reduced to a level that is acceptable to the public, policy makers, and regulators; and (2) Seismicity can be utilized/controlled to monitor, manage, and optimize the desired fluid behavior in a cost effective fashion. There were two primary goals during the workshop: (1) Identify the critical roadblocks preventing the necessary understanding of human-induced seismicity. These roadblocks could be technology related (better imaging of faults and fractures, more accurate fluid tracking, improved stress measurements, etc.), research related (fundamental understanding of rock physical properties and geochemical fluid/rock interactions, development of improved constitutive relations, improved understanding of rock failure, improved data processing and modeling, etc.), or a combination of both. (2) After laying out the roadblocks the second goal was to identify technology development and research needs that could be implemented in the near future to address the above objectives.

  14. Modeling Hydrodynamic Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Power Production: Community Outreach and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. C.; Jones, C.; Roberts, J.

    2013-12-01

    Power generation with marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is receiving growing global interest. Because of reasonable investment, maintenance, reliability, and environmental friendliness, this technology can contribute to national (and global) energy markets and is worthy of research investment. Furthermore, in remote areas, small-scale MHK energy from river, tidal, or ocean currents can provide a local power supply. The power-generating capacity of MHK turbines will depend, among other factors, upon the turbine type and number and the local flow velocities. There is an urgent need for deployment of practical, accessible tools and techniques to help the industry optimize MHK array layouts while establishing best sitting and design practices that minimize environmental impacts. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has modified the open-source flow and transport Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) to include the capability of simulating the effects of MHK power production. Upon removing energy (momentum) from the system, changes to the local and far-field flow dynamics can be estimated (e.g., flow speeds, tidal ranges, flushing rates, etc.). The effects of these changes on sediment dynamics and water quality can also be simulated using this model. Moreover, the model can be used to optimize MHK array layout to maximize power capture and minimize environmental impacts. Both a self-paced tutorial and in-depth training course have been developed as part of an outreach program to train academics, technology developers, and regulators in the use and application of this software. This work outlines SNL's outreach efforts using this modeling framework as applied to two specific sites where MHK turbines have been deployed.

  15. Toxic acrolein production due to Ca(2+) influx by the NMDA receptor during stroke.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mizuho; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Park, Hyerim; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Terui, Yusuke; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2016-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have a high permeability to Ca(2+), contributing to neuronal cell death after stroke. We recently found that acrolein produced from polyamines is a major toxic compound during stroke. Thus, it was determined whether over-accumulation of Ca(2+) increases the production of acrolein from polyamines in a photochemically-induced thrombosis mouse model of stroke and in cell culture systems. A unilateral infarction was induced in mouse brain by photoinduction after injection of Rose Bengal. The volume of the infarction was analyzed using the public domain National Institutes of Health image program. Protein-conjugated acrolein levels at the locus of infarction and in cells were measured by Western blotting. Levels of polyamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. When the size of brain infarction was decreased by N(1), N(4), N(8)-tribenzylspermidine, a channel blocker of the NMDA receptors, levels of Ca(2+) and protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) were reduced, while levels of polyamines were increased at the locus of infarction. When cell growth of mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells and neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells was inhibited by Ca(2+), the level of polyamines decreased, while that of PC-Acro increased. It was also shown that Ca(2+) toxicity was decreased in an acrolein toxicity decreasing FM3A mutant cells recently isolated. In addition, 20-40 μM Ca(2+) caused the release of polyamines from ribosomes. The results indicate that acrolein is produced from polyamines released from ribosomes through Ca(2+) increase. The results indicate that toxicity of Ca(2+) during brain infarction is correlated with the increase of acrolein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced Ozone Production at Low Temperatures due to Ethanol (E85)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Livingstone, P. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of ethanol in transportation fuels warrants an investigation of its consequences. An important component of such an investigation is the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry. We use the near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, LEEDS University) with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate explicit chemistry to examine such effects. The MCM has over 13,500 organic reactions and 4,600 species. SMVGEAR II is a sparse-matrix Gear solver that reduces the computation time significantly while maintaining any specified accuracy. Although for this study we use a box model, we determined that the speed of the MCM with the SMVGEAR solver will allow the MCM to be modeled in 3-dimensions. We also verified the accuracy of the model with comparisons to smog chamber data. We use species-resolved tailpipe emissions data for E85 (15% gasoline, 85% ethanol fuel blend) and gasoline vehicles to compare the impact of each on ozone and carcinogenic organic gases as a function of ambient temperature and background concentrations, using Los Angeles in 2020 as a base case. We use two different emissions sets - one is a compilation of data taken at near 24 C and the other from data taken at -7 C - to determine how atmospheric chemistry and emissions are affected by temperature. We include diurnal effects by examining 2 day and 5 day scenarios. We find that for both emission data sets, the average ozone concentrations through the range of temperatures tested are higher with E85 than with gasoline by 8 parts per billion volume (ppbv) at higher temperatures to 55 ppbv at low temperatures and low sunlight (winter conditions) for an area with a high nitrogen oxides (NOx) to non-methane organic gases (NMOG) ratio. The results suggest that E85's effect on health through ozone formation becomes increasingly more significant relative to gasoline as temperatures decreased due to the

  17. Plumes, orogenesis, and supercontinental fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.; Lawver, L. A.; Murphy, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    A time-space relationship between large igneous provinces (LIPS), present day hot spots, and the fragmentation of Pangea has been documented over several decades, but the cause of fragmentation has remained elusive. LIPS are regarded either as the result of impingement of a mantle plume on the base of the lithosphere, or as the initial products of adiabatic decompression melting of anomalously hot mantle. Do LIPS therefore constitute evidence of an active role for plumes from the deep mantle in supercontinental fragmentation, or are they merely the first indications of a large-scale but near-surface tectonic process? Two long recognized and enigmatic orogenic events may offer a solution to this geologically important 'chicken or egg' conundrum. The reconstructed early Mesozoic Gondwanide fold belt of South America, southern Africa, and Antarctica, could have resulted from 'plume-modified orogeny', flattening of a downgoing lithospheric slab due to the buoyancy of a plume rising beneath a continental margin subduction zone. If so, the ˜180 Ma Karroo and Ferrar LIPS associated with the opening of the ocean basin between East and West Gondwanaland at ˜165 Ma resulted from impingement of this plume and are unrelated to the thermal insulation of the shallow mantle beneath Gondwanaland. It would then follow that the plume itself played an active, possibly critical, role in the initial breakup of the supercontinent. The Late Paleozoic 'Ancestral Rockies' deformation in the southwestern United States could be yet another example of orogeny driven by a plume that initiated the break-up of Pangea approximately 15 Myr earlier in the Central Atlantic region.

  18. Mapping the reduction in gross primary productivity in subarctic birch forests due to insect outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Per-Ola; Heliasz, Michal; Jin, Hongxiao; Eklundh, Lars

    2017-03-01

    It is projected that forest disturbances, such as insect outbreaks, will have an increasingly negative impact on forests with a warmer climate. These disturbance events can have a substantial impact on forests' ability to absorb atmospheric CO2, and may even turn forests from carbon sinks into carbon sources; hence, it is important to develop methods both to monitor forest disturbances and to quantify the impact of these disturbance events on the carbon balance. In this study we present a method to monitor insect-induced defoliation in a subarctic birch forest in northern Sweden, and to quantify the impact of these outbreaks on gross primary productivity (GPP). Since frequent cloud cover in the study area requires data with high temporal resolution and limits the use of finer spatial resolution sensors such as Landsat, defoliation was mapped with remote sensing data from the MODIS sensor with 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution. The impact on GPP was estimated with a light use efficiency (LUE) model that was calibrated with GPP data obtained from eddy covariance (EC) measurements from 5 years with undisturbed birch forest and 1 year with insect-induced defoliation. Two methods were applied to estimate the impact on GPP: (1) applying a GPP reduction factor derived from EC measured GPP to estimate GPP loss, and (2) running a LUE model for both undisturbed and defoliated forest and deriving the differences in modelled GPP. In the study area of 100 km2 the results suggested a substantial setback to the carbon uptake: an average decrease in regional GPP over the three outbreak years (2004, 2012, and 2013) was estimated to 15 ± 5 Gg C yr-1, compared to the mean regional GPP of 40 ± 12 Gg C yr-1 for the 5 years without defoliation, i.e. 38 %. In the most severe outbreak year (2012), 76 % of the birch forests were defoliated, and annual regional GPP was merely 50 % of GPP for years without disturbances. The study has generated valuable data on GPP reduction, and

  19. Reduction of DNA fragmentation and hydroxyl radical production by hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate in iron plus ascorbate-induced oxidative stress in fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Campo, Salvatore; D'Ascola, Angela; Ferlazzo, Alida M; Calatroni, Alberto

    2004-06-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), components of extracellular matrix, are thought to play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in the repair process of injured tissue. Oxidative stress is one of the most frequent causes of tissue and cell injury and the consequent lipid peroxidation is the main manifestation of free radical damage. It has been found to play an important role in the evolution of cell death. Since several reports have shown that hyaluronic acid (HYA) and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) are able to inhibit lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, We investigated the antioxidant capacity of these GAGs in reducing oxidative damage in fibroblast cultures. Free radicals production was induced by the oxidizing system employing iron (Fe2+) plus ascorbate. We evaluated cell death, membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, protein oxidation, hydroxyl radical (OH*) generation and endogenous antioxidant depletion in human skin fibroblast cultures. The exposition of fibroblasts to FeSO4 and ascorbate caused inhibition of cell growth and cell death, increased OH* production determined by the aromatic trap method; furthermore it caused DNA strand breaks and protein oxidation as shown by the DNA fragments analysis and protein carbonyl content, respectively. Moreover, it enhanced lipid peroxidation evaluated by the analysis of conjugated dienes (CD) and decreased antioxidant defenses assayed by means of measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. When fibroblasts were treated with two different doses of HYA or C4S a protective effect, following oxidative stress induction, was shown. In fact these GAGs were able to limit cell death, reduced DNA fragmentation and protein oxidation, decreased OH* generation, inhibited lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant defenses. Our results confirm the antioxidant activity of HYA and C4S and this could represent a useful step in the understanding of the exact role played by GAGs in

  20. Overexpression of ryanodine receptor type 1 enhances mitochondrial fragmentation and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    O-Uchi, Jin; Jhun, Bong Sook; Hurst, Stephen; Bisetto, Sara; Gross, Polina; Chen, Ming; Kettlewell, Sarah; Park, Jongsun; Oyamada, Hideto; Smith, Godfrey L; Murayama, Takashi; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2013-12-01

    Ca(+) influx to mitochondria is an important trigger for both mitochondrial dynamics and ATP generation in various cell types, including cardiac cells. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Growing evidence also indicates that mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanisms are regulated not solely by MCU but also by multiple channels/transporters. We have previously reported that skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) type 1 (RyR1), which expressed at the mitochondrial inner membrane, serves as an additional Ca(2+) uptake pathway in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear which mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanism is the dominant regulator of mitochondrial morphology/dynamics and energetics in cardiomyocytes. To investigate the role of mitochondrial RyR1 in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology/function in cardiac cells, RyR1 was transiently or stably overexpressed in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. We found that overexpressed RyR1 was partially localized in mitochondria as observed using both immunoblots of mitochondrial fractionation and confocal microscopy, whereas RyR2, the main RyR isoform in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, did not show any expression at mitochondria. Interestingly, overexpression of RyR1 but not MCU or RyR2 resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. These fragmented mitochondria showed bigger and sustained mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients compared with basal tubular mitochondria. In addition, RyR1-overexpressing cells had a higher mitochondrial ATP concentration under basal conditions and showed more ATP production in response to cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation compared with nontransfected cells as observed by a matrix-targeted ATP biosensor. These results indicate that RyR1 possesses a mitochondrial targeting/retention signal and modulates mitochondrial morphology and Ca(2+)-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

  1. Production of energetic light fragments in extensions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashnik, Stepan G.; Kerby, Leslie M.; Gudima, Konstantin K.; Sierk, Arnold J.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; James, Michael R.

    2017-03-01

    We extend the cascade-exciton model (CEM), and the Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM), event generators of the Monte Carlo N -particle transport code version 6 (MCNP6), to describe production of energetic light fragments (LF) heavier than 4He from various nuclear reactions induced by particles and nuclei at energies up to about 1 TeV/nucleon. In these models, energetic LF can be produced via Fermi breakup, preequilibrium emission, and coalescence of cascade particles. Initially, we study several variations of the Fermi breakup model and choose the best option for these models. Then, we extend the modified exciton model (MEM) used by these codes to account for a possibility of multiple emission of up to 66 types of particles and LF (up to 28Mg) at the preequilibrium stage of reactions. Then, we expand the coalescence model to allow coalescence of LF from nucleons emitted at the intranuclear cascade stage of reactions and from lighter clusters, up to fragments with mass numbers A ≤7 , in the case of CEM, and A ≤12 , in the case of LAQGSM. Next, we modify MCNP6 to allow calculating and outputting spectra of LF and heavier products with arbitrary mass and charge numbers. The improved version of CEM is implemented into MCNP6. Finally, we test the improved versions of CEM, LAQGSM, and MCNP6 on a variety of measured nuclear reactions. The modified codes give an improved description of energetic LF from particle- and nucleus-induced reactions; showing a good agreement with a variety of available experimental data. They have an improved predictive power compared to the previous versions and can be used as reliable tools in simulating applications involving such types of reactions.

  2. The significance of nitrous oxide emission due to cropping of grain for biofuel production: a Swedish perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Å.; Smith, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    The current regulations governing production of biofuels in the European Union require that they have to mitigate climate change, by producing >35% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than fossil fuels. There is a risk that this may not be achievable, since land use for crop production inevitably emits the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O), due to nitrogen fertilisation and cycling in the environment. We analyse first-generation biofuel production on agricultural land and conclude that efficient agricultural crop production resulting in a good harvest and low N2O emission can fulfil the EU standard, and is possible under certain conditions for the Swedish agricultural and bioethanol production systems. However, in years having low crop yields, and where cropping is on organic soils, total GHG emissions per unit of fuel produced can be even higher than those released by burning of fossil fuels. In general, the N2O emission size in Sweden and elsewhere in northern Europe is such that there is a >50% chance that the 35% saving requirement will not be met. Thus ecosystem N2O emissions have to be convincingly assessed. Here we compare Swedish emission data with values estimated by means of statistical models and by a global, top-down, approach; the measurements and the predictions often show higher values that would fail to meet the EU standard and thus prevent biofuel production development.

  3. Fragmentation functions in nuclear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassot, Rodolfo; Stratmann, Marco; Zurita, Pia

    2010-03-01

    We perform a detailed phenomenological analysis of how well hadronization in nuclear environments can be described in terms of effective fragmentation functions. The medium modified fragmentation functions are assumed to factorize from the partonic scattering cross sections and evolve in the hard scale in the same way as the standard or vacuum fragmentation functions. Based on precise data on semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering off nuclei and hadron production in deuteron-gold collisions, we extract sets of effective fragmentation functions for pions and kaons at next-to-leading order accuracy. The obtained sets provide a rather accurate description of the kinematical dependence of the analyzed cross sections and are found to differ significantly from standard fragmentation functions both in shape and magnitude. Our results support the notion of factorization and universality in the studied nuclear environments, at least in an effective way and within the precision of the available data.

  4. Structural elucidation of monoterpene oxidation products by ion trap fragmentation using on-line atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode.

    PubMed

    Warscheid, B; Hoffmann, T

    2001-01-01

    Based on ion trap mass spectrometry, an on-line method is described which provides valuable information on the molecular composition of structurally complex organic aerosols. The investigated aerosols were generated from the gas-phase ozonolysis of various C(10)H(16)-terpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, sabinene, limonene), and directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. Negative ion chemical ionisation at atmospheric pressure (APCI(-)) enabled the detection of multifunctional carboxylic acid products by combining inherent sensitivity and molecular weight information. Sequential low-energy collision-induced product ion fragmentation experiments (MS(n)) were performed in order to elucidate characteristic decomposition pathways of the compounds. Dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and hydroxyketocarboxylic acid products could be clearly distinguished by multistage on-line MS. Furthermore, sabinonic acid and two C(9)-ether compounds were tentatively identified for the first time by applying on-line APCI(-)-MS(n). Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Neutron productions in the fragmentation of relativistic heavy nuclei and formation of a beam of high-energy neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yurevich, V. I.

    2016-03-15

    The production of quasimonoenergetic high-energy neutrons at zero angle (0°) in the spallation of relativistic heavy nuclei is discussed by considering the example of the interaction of lead nuclei with light target nuclei. It is shown that this process can be used to generate a beam of high-energy neutrons at existing heavy ion accelerators. At the same time, itmay lead to the appearance of a parasitic neutron beam because of the interaction of the heavy-ion beam used with beam line and experimental setup materials.

  6. Fragmentation of cosmic-string loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The fragmentation of cosmic string loops is discussed, and the results of a simulation of this process are presented. The simulation can evolve any of a large class of loops essentially exactly, including allowing fragments that collide to join together. Such reconnection enhances the production of small fragments, but not drastically. With or without reconnections, the fragmentation process produces a collection of nonself-intersecting loops whose typical length is on the order of the persistence length of the initial loop.

  7. Beta-nodavirus B2 protein induces hydrogen peroxide production, leading to Drp1-recruited mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death via mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu C; Chiu, Hsuan W; Hung, Jo C; Hong, Jiann R

    2014-10-01

    Because the role of the viral B2 protein in the pathogenesis of nervous necrosis virus infection remains unknown, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of B2 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated cell death via mitochondrial targeting. Using a B2 deletion mutant, the B2 mitochondrial targeting signal sequence ((41)RTFVISAHAA(50)) correlated with mitochondrial free radical production and cell death in fish cells, embryonic zebrafish, and human cancer cells. After treatment of grouper fin cells (GF-1) overexpressing B2 protein with the anti-oxidant drug, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and overexpression of the antioxidant enzymes, zfCu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and zfCatalase, decreased H2O2 production and cell death were observed. To investigate the correlation between B2 cytotoxicity and H2O2 production in vivo, B2 was injected into zebrafish embryos. Cell damage, as assessed by the acridine orange assay, gradually increased over 24 h post-fertilization, and was accompanied by marked increases in H2O2 production and embryonic death. Increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by the up-regulation of Mn SOD, catalase, and Nrf2, was also observed during this period. Finally, B2-induced dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death could be reversed by NAC and inhibitors of Drp1 and Mdivi in GF-1 cells. Taken together, betanodavirus B2 induces H2O2 production via targeting the mitochondria, where it inhibits complex II function. H2O2 activates Drp1, resulting in its association with the mitochondria, mitochondrial fission and cell death in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Measuring the societal burden of cancer: the cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Paul; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Sharp, Linda

    2015-02-15

    Every cancer-related death in someone of working age represents an economic loss to society. To inform priorities for cancer control, we estimated costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality across Europe, for all cancers and by site, gender, region and country. Cancer deaths in 2008 were obtained from GLOBOCAN for 30 European countries across four regions. Costs were valued using the human capital approach. Years of productive life lost (YPLL) were computed by multiplying deaths between 15 and 64 years by working-life expectancy, then by country-, age- and gender-specific annual wages, corrected for workforce participation and unemployment. Lost productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe in 2008 were €75 billion. Male costs (€49 billion) were almost twice female costs (€26 billion). The most costly sites were lung (€17 billion; 23% of total costs), breast (€7 billion; 9%) and colorectum (€6 billion; 8%). Stomach cancer (in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe) and pancreatic cancer (in Northern and Western Europe) were also among the most costly sites. The average lost productivity cost per cancer death was €219,241. Melanoma had the highest cost per death (€312,798), followed by Hodgkin disease (€306,628) and brain and CNS cancer (€288,850). Premature mortality costs were 0.58% of 2008 European gross domestic product, highest in Central-Eastern Europe (0.81%) and lowest in Northern Europe (0.51%). Premature cancer-related mortality costs in Europe are significant. These results provide a novel perspective on the societal cancer burden and may be used to inform priority setting for cancer control.

  9. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  10. Production and delivery batch scheduling with a common due date and multiple vehicles to minimize total cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyaningsih, E.; Suprayogi; Samadhi, TMAA; Halim, AH

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies production and delivery batch scheduling problems for a single- supplier-to-a-single-manufacturer case, with multiple capacitated vehicles wherein different holding costs between in-process and completed parts are allowed. In the problem, the parts of a single item are first batched,then the resulting batches are processed on a single machine. All completed batches are transported in a number of deliveries in order to be received at a common due date. The objective is to find the integrated schedule of production and delivery batches so as to satisfy its due date and to minimize the total cost of associated in-process parts inventory, completed parts inventory and delivery. It should be noted that both holding costs constitute a derivation of the so-called actual flow time, and the delivery cost is proportional to the required number of deliveries. The problem can be formulated as an integer non-linier programming and it is solved optimally by Lingo 11.0 software. Numerical experiences show that there are two patterns of batch sizes affected by the ratio of holding costs of in-process and completed parts. It can be used by practitioners to solve the realistic integrated production and delivery batch scheduling problem.

  11. Supravital energy production in early post-mortem phase - estimate based on heat loss due to radiation and natural convection.

    PubMed

    Mall, Gita; Hubig, Michael; Beier, Gundolf; Büttner, Andreas; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    The temperature-based determination of the time since death in the early post-mortem (pm) period plays an important role in medico-legal practice. In contrast to the common opinion according to which convection and conduction are mainly responsible for post-mortem heat loss, a considerable part of energy is emitted by thermal radiation. The present paper concentrates on the heat loss due to radiation and natural convection. Since both heat transfer mechanisms depend on the temperature gradient between skin and environment, the skin temperature was measured in corpses of different constitution (lean, medium and obese) and its decrease fitted by a single-exponential model. Heat loss due to radiation was calculated according to the non-linearized form of the law of Stefan and Boltzmann, heat loss due to natural convection according to the semi-empirical thermodynamic laws; the shape of the body in supine position was approximated to a semi-cylinder of finite length. The power due to radiation ranged between 386kJ/h (lean) and 550kJ/h (obese), that due to natural convection between 307kJ/h (lean) and 429kJ/h (obese) initially. Cumulative energy loss amounted to 2167kJ (lean) and 4239kJ (obese) by radiation and 1485kJ (lean) and 2922kJ (obese) by natural convection up to 20h pm. The energy loss due to radiation plus natural convection initially exceeded the energy loss due the decrease of the energy content of the body (mass x heat capacity x temperature decrease). This surplus can be explained only by exothermal processes in the phase of intermediary life and directly provides lower bounds for supravital energy production. Cumulative supravital energy ranges between 1139kJ up to 5h pm in the lean and 2516kJ up to 10h pm in the obese corpses. The courses of supravital energies and powers are presented as functions of time. Under standard conditions like still air (no forced convection) and insulating ground (little conductive heat transfer), the lower bounds represent

  12. LC–MS/MS quantification of a neuropeptide fragment kisspeptin-10 (NSC 741805) and characterization of its decomposition product and pharmacokinetics in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongfa; Ren, Chen; Jones, William; Chen, Ping; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Chan, Yee-Ming; Smith, Nicola F.; Covey, Joseph M.; Wang, Jeffrey; Chan, Kenneth K.

    2014-01-01

    The kisspeptins are critical regulators of mammalian reproduction. Kisspeptin-10 (45YNWNSFGLRF-NH254, kisspeptin-112–121 or metastin 45–54, NSC 741805), an active fragment of kisspeptin, has been shown to be a potent stimulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and secretion of luteinizing hormone in both rodents and primates. This shorter peptide fragment may have clinical utility potential and it is important to characterize its pharmacokinetic property. Recently, the pharmacokinetics of both kisspeptin-54 and kisspeptin-10 were characterized in humans using a radioimmunoassay (RIA), which measures only the immunoreactive kisspeptin (kisspeptin-IR). In this study, a highly sensitive and specific LC–MS/MS assay was developed to quantify kisspeptin-10 levels in rat plasma. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL, the within-day and between-day coefficient of variations (CVs) ranged from 5.2 to 15.4% and 1.3 to 14.2%, and the accuracy values ranged from 98 to 114% and 99 to 105%, respectively. With this method, stability studies demonstrated that kisspeptin-10 degraded rapidly with decomposition half-lives of 6.8 min, 2.9 min and 1.7 min at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 37 °C, respectively. The principal decomposition product was characterized as the N-terminal tyrosine deleted kisspeptin-10 46NWDSFGLRF-NH254. Pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that low ng/mL kisspeptin-10 was detected in the first few minutes, and eliminated rapidly and became undetectable 30 min after intravenous (i.v.) bolus administration of 1.0 mg/kg kisspeptin-10. PMID:23524040

  13. Development of production and purification processes of recombinant fragment of pneumococcal surface protein A in Escherichia coli using different carbon sources and chromatography sequences.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rimenys Junior; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin; Tanizaki, Martha Massako; Gonçalves, Viviane Maimoni

    2012-05-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence and its use either as a novel pneumococcal vaccine or as carrier in a conjugate vaccine would improve the protection and the coverage of the vaccine. Within this context, the development of scalable production and purification processes of His-tagged recombinant fragment of PspA from clade 3 (rfPspA3) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was proposed. Fed-batch production was performed using chemically defined medium with glucose or glycerol as carbon source. Although the use of glycerol led to lower acetate production, the concentration of cells were similar at the end of both fed-batches, reaching high cell density of E. coli (62 g dry cell weight/L), and the rfPspA3 production was higher with glucose (3.48 g/L) than with glycerol (2.97 g/L). A study of downstream process was also carried out, including cell disruption and clarification steps. Normally, the first chromatography step for purification of His-tagged proteins is metal affinity. However, the purification design using anion exchange followed by metal affinity gave better results for rfPspA3 than the opposite sequence. Performing this new design of chromatography steps, rfPspA3 was obtained with 95.5% and 75.9% purity, respectively, from glucose and glycerol culture. Finally, after cation exchange chromatography, rfPspA3 purity reached 96.5% and 90.6%, respectively, from glucose and glycerol culture, and the protein was shown to have the expected alpha-helix secondary structure.

  14. Evaluation of the productivity decrease risk due to a future increase in tropical cyclone intensity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Miguel; Longarte-Galnares, Gorka

    2010-12-01

    A number of scientists have recently conducted research that shows that tropical cyclone intensity is likely to increase in the future. This would result in an increase in the damage along with a decrease in economic productivity due to precautionary cessation of the economic activity of the affected areas during the passage of the cyclone. The economic effect of this stop in economic activity is a phenomenon that has not received much attention in the past, and the cumulative effect that it can have on the Japanese economy over the next 75 years has never been evaluated. The starting point for the evaluation of the economic risks is the change in the patterns of tropical cyclone intensity suggested by Knutson and Tuleya. The results obtained show how a significant decrease in the overall productivity of the country could be expected, which could lower GDP by between 6% and 13% by 2085. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Authentication of whisky due to its botanical origin and way of production by instrumental analysis and multivariate classification methods.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Boqué, Ricard; Borràs, Eva; Busto, Olga; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek; Dymerski, Tomasz

    2017-02-15

    Headspace mass-spectrometry (HS-MS), mid infrared (MIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to authenticate whisky samples from different origins and ways of production ((Irish, Spanish, Bourbon, Tennessee Whisky and Scotch). The collected spectra were processed with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to build the classification models. In all cases the five groups of whiskies were distinguished, but the best results were obtained by HS-MS, which indicates that the biggest differences between different types of whisky are due to their aroma. Differences were also found inside groups, showing that not only raw material is important to discriminate samples but also the way of their production. The methodology is quick, easy and does not require sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Authentication of whisky due to its botanical origin and way of production by instrumental analysis and multivariate classification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Boqué, Ricard; Borràs, Eva; Busto, Olga; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek; Dymerski, Tomasz

    2017-02-01

    Headspace mass-spectrometry (HS-MS), mid infrared (MIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to authenticate whisky samples from different origins and ways of production ((Irish, Spanish, Bourbon, Tennessee Whisky and Scotch). The collected spectra were processed with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to build the classification models. In all cases the five groups of whiskies were distinguished, but the best results were obtained by HS-MS, which indicates that the biggest differences between different types of whisky are due to their aroma. Differences were also found inside groups, showing that not only raw material is important to discriminate samples but also the way of their production. The methodology is quick, easy and does not require sample preparation.

  17. Enhanced production of functional extracellular single chain variable fragment against HIV-1 matrix protein from Escherichia coli by sequential simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Intachai, Kannaporn; Singboottra, Panthong; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2015-01-01

    The optimal culture condition for extracellular recombinant single chain variable fragment anti HIV-1 p17 protein (scFv anti-p17) production in Escherichia coli HB2151 was investigated by the sequential simplex optimization (SS) method. Five variable parameters were submitted in the fermentation process. The most favorable condition obtained from 19 independent experiments was as followed: 58 µM of IPTG induction to 1.7 OD600 nm at 25.5°C for 16 h with 202 rpm agitation rate. The amount of secreted scFv anti-p17 at the optimal condition was 38% higher than under the control condition. The binding activity of soluble extracellular scFv anti-p17 protein increased 95.5% and 73.2% in comparison with the control condition and non-optimized condition respectively. The soluble scFv anti-p17 from crude HB2151 lysated was subsequently purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with His-tag. The purified scFv anti-p17 was intact and retained its antigen-binding affinity against HIV-1 p17. We demonstrated that the sequential simplex optimization method was a key for exertion of high yield with fewer experimental requirements for acquiring of large scale secretory protein production.

  18. Double Gene Targeting Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay Discriminates Beef, Buffalo, and Pork Substitution in Frankfurter Products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Asing; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-08-17

    Beef, buffalo, and pork adulteration in the food chain is an emerging and sensitive issue. Current molecular techniques to authenticate these species depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays involving long and single targets which break down under natural decomposition and/or processing treatments. This novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeted two different gene sites for each of the bovine, buffalo, and porcine materials. This authentication ensured better security, first through a complementation approach because it is highly unlikely that both sites will be missing under compromised states, and second through molecular fingerprints. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND5 genes were targeted, and all targets (73, 90, 106, 120, 138, and 146 bp) were stable under extreme boiling and autoclaving treatments. Target specificity and authenticity were ensured through cross-amplification reaction and restriction digestion of PCR products with AluI, EciI, FatI, and CviKI-1 enzymes. A survey of Malaysian frankfurter products revealed rampant substitution of beef with buffalo but purity in porcine materials.

  19. Decreasing net primary production due to drought and slight decreases in solar radiation in China from 2000 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Dong, J.; Yi, Y.; Lu, G.; Oyler, J.; Smith, W. K.; Zhao, M.; Liu, J.; Running, S.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have continued to provide the critical service of slowing the atmospheric CO2 growth rate. Terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) is thought to be a major contributing factor to this trend. Yet our ability to estimate NPP at the regional scale remains limited due to large uncertainties in the response of NPP to multiple interacting climate factors and uncertainties in the driver data sets needed to estimate NPP. In this study, we introduced an improved NPP algorithm that used local driver data sets and parameters in China. We found that bias decreased by 30% for gross primary production (GPP) and 17% for NPP compared with the widely used global GPP and NPP products, respectively. From 2000 to 2012, a pixel-level analysis of our improved NPP for the region of China showed an overall decreasing NPP trend of 4.65 Tg C a-1. Reductions in NPP were largest for the southern forests of China (-5.38 Tg C a-1), whereas minor increases in NPP were found for North China (0.65 Tg C a-1). Surprisingly, reductions in NPP were largely due to decreases in solar radiation (82%), rather than the more commonly expected effects of drought (18%). This was because for southern China, the interannual variability of NPP was more sensitive to solar radiation (R2 in 0.29-0.59) relative to precipitation (R2 < 0.13). These findings update our previous knowledge of carbon uptake responses to climate change in terrestrial ecosystems of China and highlight the importance of shortwave radiation in driving vegetation productivity for the region, especially for tropical forests.

  20. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  1. Forest edge disturbance increases rattan abundance in tropical rain forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Mason J; Edwards, Will; Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, Susan G; Alamgir, Mohammed; Porolak, Gabriel; Laurance, William F

    2017-07-20

    Human-induced forest fragmentation poses one of the largest threats to global diversity yet its impact on rattans (climbing palms) has remained virtually unexplored. Rattan is arguably the world's most valuable non-timber forest product though current levels of harvesting and land-use change place wild populations at risk. To assess rattan response to fragmentation exclusive of harvesting impacts we examined rattan abundance, demography and ecology within the forests of northeastern, Australia. We assessed the community abundance of rattans, and component adult (>3 m) and juvenile (≤3 m) abundance in five intact forests and five fragments (23-58 ha) to determine their response to a range of environmental and ecological parameters. Fragmented forests supported higher abundances of rattans than intact forests. Fragment size and edge degradation significantly increased adult rattan abundance, with more in smaller fragments and near edges. Our findings suggest that rattan increase within fragments is due to canopy disturbance of forest edges resulting in preferential, high-light habitat. However, adult and juvenile rattans may respond inconsistently to fragmentation. In managed forest fragments, a rattan abundance increase may provide economic benefits through sustainable harvesting practices. However, rattan increases in protected area forest fragments could negatively impact conservation outcomes.

  2. Driven fragmentation of granular gases.

    PubMed

    Cruz Hidalgo, Raúl; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of homogeneously heated granular gases which fragment due to particle collisions is analyzed. We introduce a kinetic model which accounts for correlations induced at the grain collisions and analyze both the kinetics and relevant distribution functions these systems develop. The work combines analytical and numerical studies based on direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. A broad family of fragmentation probabilities is considered, and its implications for the system kinetics are discussed. We show that generically these driven materials evolve asymptotically into a dynamical scaling regime. If the fragmentation probability tends to a constant, the grain number diverges at a finite time, leading to a shattering singularity. If the fragmentation probability vanishes, then the number of grains grows monotonously as a power law. We consider different homogeneous thermostats and show that the kinetics of these systems depends weakly on both the grain inelasticity and driving. We observe that fragmentation plays a relevant role in the shape of the velocity distribution of the particles. When the fragmentation is driven by local stochastic events, the long velocity tail is essentially exponential independently of the heating frequency and the breaking rule. However, for a Lowe-Andersen thermostat, numerical evidence strongly supports the conjecture that the scaled velocity distribution follows a generalized exponential behavior f(c) approximately exp(-cn) , with n approximately 1.2 , regarding less the fragmentation mechanisms.

  3. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (P<0.05, ANOVA). A seasonal response to chilling was observed in the coral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (P<0.05, ANOVA). However, in the late spring, coral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P<0.05, ANOVA). When a cryoprotectant (1M dimethyl sulfoxide) was used in concert with chilling it protected the coral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (P<0.05, ANOVA). The zooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  5. Laser lithotripsy with the Ho:YAG laser: fragmentation process revealed by time-resolved imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Beghuin, Didier; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Rink, Klaus; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1998-07-01

    Improvements of endoscopic techniques have renewed the interest of urologists in laser lithotripsy in recent years. Laser energy can be easily transmitted through flexible fibers thereby enabling different surgical procedures such as cutting, coagulating and lithotripsy. The Ho:YAG laser offers multiple medical applications in Urology, among them stone fragmentation. However, the present knowledge of its fragmentation mechanism is incomplete. The objective was therefore to analyze the fragmentation process and to discuss the clinical implications related to the underlying fragmentation mechanism. The stone fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF-needle hydrophone. Fragmentation was performed on artificial and cystine kidney stones in water. We observed that though the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has only a minimal effect on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to direct laser stone heating leading to vaporization of organic stone constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. Stone fragmentation with the Holmium laser is the result of vaporization of interstitial (stone) water and organic stone constituents. It is not due to the acoustic effects of a cavitation bubble or plasma formation. The fragmentation process is strongly related with heat production thereby harboring the risk of undesired thermal damage. Therefore, a solid comprehension of the fragmentation process is needed when using the different clinically available laser types of lithotripsy.

  6. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for feed products and four amplification methods for the 5'-junction fragment of Roundup Ready soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

    2012-05-09

    Three methods of DNA extraction from feed products and four detection methods for the 5'-junction fragment of genetically modified (GM) Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) were compared and evaluated. The DNA extraction methods, including cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and guanidine hydrochloride (Kit), were assessed for their yields and purity of DNA, extraction time, and reagent cost. The DNA yields of CTAB, SDS, and Kit were 52-694, 164-1750 and 23-105 ng/mg sample, and their extraction time was 2.5-3, 2-2.5, and 1.5-2 h with reagent cost about US dollar 0.24, 0.13, and 1.9 per extraction, respectively. The SDS method was generally well suited to all kinds of feed matrices tested. The limits of detection for the four amplification protocols, including loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR, were 48.5, 4.85, 485, and 9 copies of the pTLH10 plasmid, respectively. The ranked results of the four detection methods were based on multiattribute utility theory as follows (from best to worse): HRCA, LAMP, PCR, and real-time PCR. This comparative evaluation was specifically useful for selection of a highly efficient DNA extraction or amplification method for detecting different GM ingredients.

  7. Utility of the Clostridial Site-Specific Recombinase TnpX To Clone Toxic-Product-Encoding Genes and Selectively Remove Genomic DNA Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vicki; Bantwal, Radhika; Stevenson, Lauren; Cheung, Jackie K.; Awad, Milena M.; Nicholson, Joel; Carter, Glen P.; Mackin, Kate E.; Rood, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    TnpX is a site-specific recombinase responsible for the excision and insertion of the transposons Tn4451 and Tn4453 in Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile, respectively. Here, we exploit phenotypic features of TnpX to facilitate genetic mutagenesis and complementation studies. Genetic manipulation of bacteria often relies on the use of antibiotic resistance genes; however, a limited number are available for use in the clostridia. The ability of TnpX to recognize and excise specific DNA fragments was exploited here as the basis of an antibiotic resistance marker recycling system, specifically to remove antibiotic resistance genes from plasmids in Escherichia coli and from marked chromosomal C. perfringens mutants. This methodology enabled the construction of a C. perfringens plc virR double mutant by allowing the removal and subsequent reuse of the same resistance gene to construct a second mutation. Genetic complementation can be challenging when the gene of interest encodes a product toxic to E. coli. We show that TnpX represses expression from its own promoter, PattCI, which can be exploited to facilitate the cloning of recalcitrant genes in E. coli for subsequent expression in the heterologous host C. perfringens. Importantly, this technology expands the repertoire of tools available for the genetic manipulation of the clostridia. PMID:24682304

  8. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    rotary hearth furnace . 15 Photo...Operation Equipment All mults processed during this project were heated to temperature in a Surface Combustion direct-fired rotary hearth furnace (figures...bottom) of rotary hearth furnace . 28 :■ ■.:-:.:._ o 4-) IH O •H u a. u o >, Q) > c o o 4-1 •H X OJ (U o 03 C u 3

  9. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    shall receive metallurgical evaluation by the contractor. As a minimum, these evaluations shall include chemistry, cleanliness (as per ASTM -E-45...all six ingots, previously mentioned from each heat, shall have a minimum of three Jominy End Quench specimens machined and tested as per ASTM -A-255...evaluated in accordance with ASTM -E-381. For this heat, the macro etch was taken from the top, middle, and bottom of each first, middle and last ingot

  10. Procaryotic Expression of Single-Chain Variable-Fragment (scFv) Antibodies: Secretion in L-Form Cells of Proteus mirabilis Leads to Active Product and Overcomes the Limitations of Periplasmic Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rippmann, Jörg F.; Klein, Michaela; Hoischen, Christian; Brocks, Bodo; Rettig, Wolfgang J.; Gumpert, Johannes; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Mattes, Ralf; Moosmayer, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that L-form cells of Proteus mirabilis (L VI), which lack a periplasmic compartment, can be efficiently used in the production and secretion of heterologous proteins. In search of novel expression systems for recombinant antibodies, we compared levels of single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) production in Escherichia coli JM109 and P. mirabilis L VI, which express four distinct scFvs of potential clinical interest that show differences in levels of expression and in their tendencies to form aggregates upon periplasmic expression. Production of all analyzed scFvs in E. coli was limited by the severe toxic effect of the heterologous product as indicated by inhibition of culture growth and the formation of insoluble aggregates in the periplasmic space, limiting the yield of active product. In contrast, the L-form cells exhibited nearly unlimited growth under the tested production conditions for all scFvs examined. Moreover, expression experiments with P. mirabilis L VI led to scFv concentrations in the range of 40 to 200 mg per liter of culture medium (corresponding to volume yields 33- to 160-fold higher than those with E. coli JM109), depending on the expressed antibody. In a translocation inhibition experiment the secretion of the scFv constructs was shown to be an active transport coupled to the signal cleavage. We suppose that this direct release of the newly synthesized product into a large volume of the growth medium favors folding into the native active structure. The limited aggregation of scFv observed in the P. mirabilis L VI supernatant (occurring in a first-order-kinetics manner) was found to be due to intrinsic features of the scFv and not related to the expression process of the host cells. The P. mirabilis L VI supernatant was found to be advantageous for scFv purification. A two-step chromatography procedure led to homogeneous scFv with high antigen binding activity as revealed from binding experiments with eukaryotic

  11. Impaired nitric oxide production in coronary endothelial cells of the spontaneously diabetic BB rat is due to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Meininger, C J; Marinos, R S; Hatakeyama, K; Martinez-Zaguilan, R; Rojas, J D; Kelly, K A; Wu, G

    2000-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) from diabetic BioBreeding (BB) rats have an impaired ability to produce NO. This deficiency is not due to a defect in the constitutive isoform of NO synthase in EC (ecNOS) or alterations in intracellular calcium, calmodulin, NADPH or arginine levels. Instead, ecNOS cannot produce sufficient NO because of a deficiency in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor necessary for enzyme activity. EC from diabetic rats exhibited only 12% of the BH(4) levels found in EC from normal animals or diabetes-prone animals which did not develop disease. As a result, NO synthesis by EC of diabetic rats was only 18% of that for normal animals. Increasing BH(4) levels with sepiapterin increased NO production, suggesting that BH(4) deficiency is a metabolic basis for impaired endothelial NO synthesis in diabetic BB rats. This deficiency is due to decreased activity of GTP-cyclohydrolase I, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of BH(4). GTP-cyclohydrolase activity was low because of a decreased expression of the protein in the diabetic cells. PMID:10861247

  12. Oxidizing Impact Induced by Mackinawite (FeS) Nanoparticles at Oxic Conditions due to Production of Hydroxyl Radicals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dong; Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Mackinawite (FeS) nanoparticles have been extensively tested for reducing contaminants under anoxic conditions, while the oxidizing impact induced by FeS under oxic conditions has been largely underestimated. In light of previous findings that hydroxyl radicals (·OH) can be produced from oxygenation of sediment Fe(II), herein we revealed that ·OH can be produced efficiently from FeS oxygenation at circumneutral conditions, yielding 84.7 μmol ·OH per g FeS. Much more ·OH was produced from the oxygenation of FeS compared with siderite, pyrite, and zerovalent iron nanoparticles under the same conditions. The oxidation of FeS was a surface-mediated process, in which O2 was transformed by the structural Fe(II) on FeS surface to ·OH with the generation of H2O2 intermediate. A small proportion of Fe(II) was regenerated from the reduction of Fe(III) by FeS and S(-II), but this proportion did not significantly contribute to ·OH production. We further validated that the ·OH produced from FeS oxygenation considerably contributed to the oxidation of arsenic. As the change of redox conditions from anoxic to oxic is common in both natural and artificial processes, our findings suggest that the oxidizing impact induced by FeS at oxic conditions should be concerned due to ·OH production.

  13. Multiparameter optimization method and enhanced production of secreted recombinant single-chain variable fragment against the HIV-1 P17 protein from Escherichia coli by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Paopang, Porntip; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2016-01-01

    The single-chain fragment variable (scFv) was used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advancements in antibody engineering have simplified the method of producing Fv fragments and made it more efficient and generally relevant. In a previous study, the scFv anti HIV-1 P17 protein was produced by a batch production system, optimized by the sequential simplex optimization method. This study continued that work in order to enhance secreted scFv production by fed-batch cultivation, which supported high volumetric productivity and provided a large amount of scFvs for diagnostic and therapeutic research. The developments in cell culture media and process parameter settings were required to realize the maximum production of cells. This study investigated the combined optimization methods, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and sequential simplex optimization, with the aim of optimize feed medium. Fed-batch cultivation with an optimal feeding rate was determined. The result demonstrated that a 20-mL/hr feeding rate of the optimized medium can increase cell growth, total protein production, and scFv anti-p17 activity by 4.43, 1.48, and 6.5 times more than batch cultivation, respectively. The combined optimization method demonstrated novel power tools for the optimization strategy of multiparameter experiments.

  14. Microbial gardening in the ocean's twilight zone: detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus: fragmentation of refractory detritus by zooplankton beneath the euphotic zone stimulates the harvestable production of labile and nutritious microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard; Giering, Sarah L C; Anderson, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Sinking organic particles transfer ∼10 gigatonnes of carbon into the deep ocean each year, keeping the atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly lower than would otherwise be the case. The exact size of this effect is strongly influenced by biological activity in the ocean's twilight zone (∼50-1,000 m beneath the surface). Recent work suggests that the resident zooplankton fragment, rather than ingest, the majority of encountered organic particles, thereby stimulating bacterial proliferation and the deep-ocean microbial food web. Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of 'microbial gardening', a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the 'gardener's' access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life. We demonstrate the potential gains that zooplankton stand to make from microbial gardening using a simple steady state model, and we suggest avenues for future research.

  15. Simulation of geospatial production changes of barley due to the impacts of climate change in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Seungtaek, J.

    2016-12-01

    Determining effective measures to alleviate or adjust the changing climate for crops is a prominent issue to be delivered in the upcoming years. Impacts of global change on crops are considered to appear geographically different aspects from region to region and area to area. The objectives of this study are to apply a grid crop simulation modeling (GCSM) system for geospatial projection of the climate change impacts on barley (Hordeum vulgare) in order to determine likely current and future remedial measures using the developed simulation design for South Korea. The barley GCSM scheme was formulated using the Decision Support System for Agricultural Technology (DSSAT) crop model package version 4.6, in which crop models can be used to conduct grid data runs based on shell scripting in a Linux operating system. We used twelve years (1999-2011) climate data with a 3 km pixel resolution as the baseline climate and projected data of the specific future climate changes for the climate change scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 according to the IPCC's fifth assessment report. Four soil layers containing different soil physical and chemical properties for the corresponding region were aggregated in order to use as the model input data as well. We will further report the current projection outcomes and discuss potential remedial measures that can be used to adjust the future impacts of climate change on barley production of South Korea. We assume that the current GCSM system could be used as a promising tool to simulate geospatial production changes of crops due to the climate change impacts and to search for likely solutions to the forthcoming food insecurity.

  16. Neopterin, inflammation-associated product, prolongs erythropoiesis suppression in aged SAMP1 mice due to senescent stromal-cell impairment.

    PubMed

    Aisaki, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Isao; Harada, Tomonori; Oshima, Hideki; Yamashita, Akiko; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Kanno, Jun; Inoue, Tohru; Aizawa, Shin

    2012-03-01

    Anemia induced by inflammation is well known to be more serious in the elderly than in non-elderly adults; however, the reason why this is so remains unclear. Neopterin produced by monocytes during inflammation promotes myelopoiesis but suppresses B-lymphopoiesis and erythropoiesis, by activating stromal cells in mice. Here, age-related changes in the erythropoietic response to neopterin were determined using senescence accelerated mice (SAMP1) with senescence stromal-cell impairment. Intravenous injection of neopterin into young mice (8-12 weeks old) resulted in a decrease in erythroid progenitor cell number in the bone marrow (BM), concomitant with an increase in myeloid progenitor cell number over one week. Intravenous injection of neopterin into aged mice (30-36 weeks old) resulted in a prolonged decrease in erythroid progenitor cell number in the BM over three weeks and a limited increase in myeloid progenitor cell number over one day. Neopterin treatment induced a decrease in serum erythropoietin concentrations in young mice but not in aged mice. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a negative regulator of erythropoiesis, was up-regulated in the BM of both young and aged mice, and the degree of TNF-α up-regulation was the same in both groups. The gene expression of interleukin (IL)-11, a positive regulator of erythropoiesis, was also up-regulated over one day in both young and aged mice. However, IL-11 gene expression remained up-regulated thereafter in young mice, whereas it was rapidly down-regulated in aged mice. These data suggest that prolonged suppression of erythropoiesis in aged mice may be due to a decrease in the production of positive regulators rather than to an increase in the production of negative regulators. Our combined data suggest that age-related impairment of stromal cells induces serious anemia in the elderly during inflammation.

  17. Seasonal variability of estuarine dynamics due to freshwater discharge and its influence on biological productivity in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Hong, Seongjin; Song, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Hae-Cheol; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Chang-Hee; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-08-01

    In order to evaluate water quality and biological productivity, observation data sets were collected and analyzed in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea. We also set up a numerical model to resolve hydrodynamics and fate of water quality variables in the system. Results show that most of nutrients loading are trapped in the lake and higher concentrations of nutrients and organic matters (OM) are present only inside of the artificial sea dike. There exist episodial discharges at the dam, which coincide mostly with rainfall events during summer monsoon periods. During this discharge event, lower salinity and higher suspended solids, nutrients, and OM are observed in surface layer of the estuarine section. Hydrodynamic model results show that circulation in the estuarine section is governed by freshwater discharge from the lake, resulting in an enhanced two-layer estuarine circulation being dominated, during and after the freshwater is discharged. Such two-layer estuarine circulation combined with higher concentration of nutrients in the surface layer results in that outfluxes of nutrients in the surface layer dominate over the influxes in the bottom layer during summer high precipitation periods. Meanwhile, numerical dye experiment results show that the discharged water with elevated nutrients levels have a short residence time (∼5-10 days) in the estuarine section. Due to this fast flushing rate, excessive nutrient loadings are not used to produce biological matters in the estuarine section. This limited biological productivity, characterized by seaward side of the artificial sea dike, makes Yeongsan estuarine system excluded from acting as an active carbon sink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Merging, spinning and bouncing in catastrophic collisions: Consequences for final fragment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Benz, W.; Tanga, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2001-11-01

    We present new simulations of collisions between asteroids which take into account the production of gravitationally reaccumulated spinning bodies, using a procedure which divides the process into two phases. Using a 3D SPH hydrocode, the fragmentation of the solid target through crack propagation is first computed. Then the simulation of the gravitational evolution and possible reaccumulation of the resulting new fragments is performed using the parallel N-body code pkdgrav. Our first simulations succeeded in reproducing fundamental properties of some well-identified asteroid families. We have now included the possibility of fragments bouncing (instead of strictly merging) when collisions occur at high speed during the gravitational phase. We present comparisons of simulations in three different impact regimes, from highly catastrophic to barely disruptive, using different values of the coefficient of restitution. The largest fragment mass resulting from the reaccumulation of smaller fragments and the ejection velocities of these fragments remain statistically similar for each regime despite the different values of the coefficient of restitution. The final fragment size distribution is also unchanged in the barely disruptive regime, whereas fewer fragments at intermediate sizes seem to be produced at higher impact energy, due to high-speed collisions between fragments during the gravitational phase which prevent merging. Distributions of fragment spins have been analyzed and results are consistent with observations, which supports the idea that disruptive impacts destroy the memory of initial spin. We also observe the natural production of satellite systems around some fragments. We plan to continue our investigations using this procedure and to improve upon the modelling of fundamental physical effects during collisions.

  19. Searching for recursively defined generic chemical patterns in nonenumerated fragment spaces.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Hans-Christian; Henzler, Angela M; Rarey, Matthias

    2013-07-22

    Retrieving molecules with specific structural features is a fundamental requirement of today's molecular database technologies. Estimates claim the chemical space relevant for drug discovery to be around 10⁶⁰ molecules. This figure is many orders of magnitude larger than the amount of molecules conventional databases retain today and will store in the future. An elegant description of such a large chemical space is provided by the concept of fragment spaces. A fragment space comprises fragments that are molecules with open valences and describes rules how to connect these fragments to products. Due to the combinatorial nature of fragment spaces, a complete enumeration of its products is intractable. We present an algorithm to search fragment spaces for generic chemical patterns as present in the SMARTS chemical pattern language. Our method allows specification of the chemical surrounding of an atom in a query and, therefore, enables a chemically intuitive search. During the search, the costly enumeration of products is avoided. The result is a fragment space that exactly describes all possible molecules that contain the user-defined pattern. We evaluated the algorithm in three different drug development use-cases and performed a large scale statistical analysis with 738 SMARTS patterns on three public available fragment spaces. Our results show the ability of the algorithm to explore the chemical space around known active molecules, to analyze fragment spaces for the presence of likely toxic molecules, and to identify complex macromolecular structures under additional structural constraints. By searching the fragment space in its nonenumerated form, spaces covering up to 10¹⁹ molecules can be examined in times ranging between 47 s and 19 min depending on the complexity of the query pattern.

  20. Coordination of copper(II) ions by the fragments of neuropeptide gamma containing D1, H9, H12 residues and products of copper-catalyzed oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Elżbieta; Pietruszka, Marta; Kowalik-Jankowska, Teresa

    2012-02-14

    A potentiometric, spectroscopic (UV-Vis, CD and EPR) and mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) study of Cu(II) binding to the (1-2,7-21)NPG, Asp(1)-Ala-Ile(7)-Ser-His(9)-Lys-Arg-His(12)-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met(21)-NH(2), and Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG, Ac-Asp(1)-Ala-Ile(7)-Ser-His(9)-Lys-Arg-His(12)-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met(21)-NH(2), fragments of neuropeptide gamma were carried out. The results clearly indicate the stabilization of the 1 N {NH(2), β-COO(-)}, 2 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), N(Im)} and 3 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), 2N(Im)} complexes by the coordination of the β-carboxylate group of the D(1) residue. For the (1-2,7-21)NPG the CuH(2)L complex with 3 N {NH(2), β-COO(-), 2N(Im)}, the binding mode dominates in a wide pH range of 4-8.5. With the sequential increase of pH, deprotonated amide nitrogens are involved in copper coordination. For the Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG peptide the imidazole nitrogen atoms are the primary metal binding sites forming macrochelates in the pH range 4 to 7. The CuHL complex with 4 N {N(Im), N(-), N(-), N(Im)} coordination mode is formed in pH range 6-9. Deprotonation and co-ordination of the third amide nitrogen were detected at pH ∼8.6. Metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) of proteins is mainly a site-specific process in which one or a few amino acids at metal-binding sites on the protein are preferentially oxidized. To elucidate the products of the copper(II)-catalyzed oxidation of the (1-2,7-21)NPG and Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG, the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method and Cu(II)/hydrogen peroxide as a model oxidizing system were employed. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide with 1 : 4 peptide-H(2)O(2) molar ratio for the Ac-(1-2,7-21)NPG peptide the oxidation of the methionine residue to methionine sulfoxide and for (1-2,7-21)NPG to sulfone was observed. For the Cu(II)-peptide-hydrogen peroxide in 1 : 1 : 4 molar ratio systems, oxidation of the histidine residues to 2-oxohistidines was detected. Under experimental

  1. Fragmentation Analysis - Fundamental Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Wausau quartzite and anorthosite of 3.0 to 3.5 inch size were fragmented in this device. An analysis of the fragment distribution results of the drop...disc-shaped specimens of Wausau quartzite, anorthosite , and Felch marble were then fragmented with the impact pendulum device. Computer programs were

  2. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  3. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post

  4. The Zero-Degree Detector System for Fragmentation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Howell, L. W.; Kuznetsov, E.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross sections requires the detection and identification of individual projectile fragments. If light and heavy fragments are recorded in 'ne same detector, it may be impossible distinguish the signal from the light fragment. To overcome this problem, we have developed the Zero-Degree Detector System. The ZDDS enables the measurement of cross sections for light fragment production by using pixelated detectors to separately measure the signals of each fragment. The system has been used to measure the fragmentation of beams as heavy as Fe at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan.

  5. Attenuation of urban agricultural production potential and crop water footprint due to shading from buildings and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Tooke, Thoreau R.; Coops, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    Urban agriculture requires local water to replace ‘hydrologic externalities’ associated with food produced outside of the local area, with an accompanying shift of the water footprint (WF) for agricultural production from rural to urban areas. Water requirements of urban agriculture have been difficult to estimate due to the heterogeneity of shading from trees and buildings within urban areas. We developed CityCrop, a plant growth and evapotranspiration (ET) model that couples a 3D model of tree canopies and buildings derived from LiDAR with a ray-casting approach to estimate spatially-explicit solar inputs in combination with local climate data. Evaluating CityCrop over a 1 km2 mixed use, residential neighborhood of Vancouver Canada, we estimated median light attenuation to result in 12% reductions in both reference ET (ETo) and crop ET (ETc). However, median crop yields were reduced by only 3.5% relative to potential yield modeled without any light attenuation, while the median crop WF was 9% less than the WF for areas unimpeded by shading. Over the 75 day cropping cycle, median crop water requirements as ETc were 17% less than that required for a well-watered grass (as ETo). If all lawns in our modeled area were replaced with crops, we estimate that about 37% of the resident population could obtain the vegetable portion of their diet from within the local area over a 150 day growing season. However doing so would result in augmented water demand if watering restrictions apply to lawns only. The CityCrop model can therefore be useful to evaluate trade-offs related to urban agriculture and to inform municipal water policy development.

  6. Postmortem endogenous ethanol production and diffusion from the lung due to aspiration of wood chip dust in the work place.

    PubMed

    Furumiya, Junichi; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-07-01

    We report an autopsy case of postmortem ethanol diffusion into the cardiac blood after aspiration of wood chips, although antemortem ethanol consumption was not evident. A man in his twenties, who was loading a truck with small wood chips in a hot, humid storehouse, was accidentally buried in a heap of chips. At the time the body was discovered, 20 h after the accident, rectal temperature was 36°C. Autopsy showed the cause of death to be asphyxia due to obstruction of the airway by aspiration of wood chips. The ethanol and n-propanol levels were significantly higher in the lungs (left, 0.603 and 0.009 mg/g; right, 0.571 and 0.006 mg/g) than in other tissues. A significant difference in ethanol concentration was observed between the left cardiac blood (0.243 mg/g) and the right femoral blood (0.042 mg/g). Low levels of ethanol and n-propanol were detected in the stomach contents (0.105 and 0.001 mg/g, respectively). In order to determine whether aspiration of wood chips affects postmortem ethanol production in the lung, we measured the ethanol and n-propanol levels of homogenized rabbit lung tissue incubated with autoclaved or non-autoclaved wood chips. Levels of ethanol and n-propanol were significantly higher in the homogenates incubated with non-autoclaved chips for 24h. The results of this animal experiment suggested that the ethanol detected in the lung was produced by putrefactive bacteria within the wood chips. After death, the ethanol produced endogenously in the lung appears to have diffused and affected the ethanol concentration of the left cardiac blood.

  7. Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure: 1. Year 2000 crop production losses and economic damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Liu, Junfeng; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to elevated concentrations of surface ozone (O 3) causes substantial reductions in the agricultural yields of many crops. As emissions of O 3 precursors rise in many parts of the world over the next few decades, yield reductions from O 3 exposure appear likely to increase the challenges of feeding a global population projected to grow from 6 to 9 billion between 2000 and 2050. This study estimates year 2000 global yield reductions of three key staple crops (soybean, maize, and wheat) due to surface ozone exposure using hourly O 3 concentrations simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 2.4 (MOZART-2). We calculate crop losses according to two metrics of ozone exposure - seasonal daytime (08:00-19:59) mean O 3 (M12) and accumulated O 3 above a threshold of 40 ppbv (AOT40) - and predict crop yield losses using crop-specific O 3 concentration:response functions established by field studies. Our results indicate that year 2000 O 3-induced global yield reductions ranged, depending on the metric used, from 8.5-14% for soybean, 3.9-15% for wheat, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. Global crop production losses totaled 79-121 million metric tons, worth $11-18 billion annually (USD 2000). Our calculated yield reductions agree well with previous estimates, providing further evidence that yields of major crops across the globe are already being substantially reduced by exposure to surface ozone - a risk that will grow unless O 3-precursor emissions are curbed in the future or crop cultivars are developed and utilized that are resistant to O 3.

  8. Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Silvia; Radici, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest access to the poorly known twist-3 parton distribution e( x) , which is intimately related to the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. When sensitive to details of transverse-momentum dynamics of partons, the di-hadron fragmentation functions for a longitudinally polarized quark can be connected to the longitudinal jet handedness to explore possible effects due to CP -violation of the QCD vacuum. In this review, we outline the formalism of di-hadron fragmentation functions, we discuss different observables where they appear and we present measurements and future worldwide plans.

  9. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  10. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Courtney S.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Montoya, Nelson I.; Stahl, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A selectable fragmentation warhead capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  11. Severe von Willebrand disease due to a defect at the level of von Willebrand factor mRNA expression: Detection by exonic PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, W.C.; Lyons, S.E.; Harrison, J.S.; Cody, R.L.; Ginsburg, D. )

    1991-05-01

    von Willebrand disease (vWD), the most common inherited bleeding disorder in humans, results from abnormalities in the plasma clotting protein von Willebrand factor (vWF). Severe (type III) vWD is autosomal recessive in inheritance and is associated with extremely low or undetectable vWF levels. The authors report a method designed to distinguish mRNA expression from the two vWF alleles by PCR analysis of peripheral blood platelet RNA using DNA sequence polymorphisms located within exons of the vWF gene. This approach was applied to a severe-vWD pedigree in which three of eight siblings are affected and the parents and additional siblings are clinically normal. Each parent was shown to carry a vWF allele that is silent at the mRNA level. Family members inheriting both abnormal alleles are affected with severe vWD, whereas individuals with only one abnormal allele are asymptomatic. Given the frequencies of the two exon polymorphisms reported here, this analysis should be applicable to {approx}70% of type I and type III vWD patients. This comparative DNA and RNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach may also prove useful in identifying defects at the level of gene expression associated with other genetic disorders.

  12. Selective Production of Electrostatically-Bound Adducts of Alkyl Cations/Polyoxoanions by the Collision-Induced Fragmentations of Their Quaternary Ammonium Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Xu, Chong; Fan, YanXuan; Fan, LinYuan; Zhang, XiuHui; Hu, ChangWen

    2013-06-01

    Solutions of the quaternary ammonium salts of a set of classic polyoxometalates (POMs) (Keggin [XM12O40]n-, Dawson [P2W18O62]6-, and Lindqvist [M6O19]2- (X = P, Si; M = W, Mo) were characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry. The gas-phase fragmentations of a series of quaternary ammonium-associated clusters were investigated by their collision-induced dissociations to elucidate their fragmentation mechanisms. It was found that the quaternary ammonium-associated clusters had distinctive dissociation characteristics. Moreover, the mono-quaternary ammonium-associated clusters, {NR4[POMs]}(n-1)-, shared a common fragmentation feature, that is, they decomposed exclusively into their respective alkyl cation-bound clusters irrespective of the different cation sizes and the different natures of the polyoxoanions. The optimized geometries and the binding energies of the mono cation-bound Lindqvist POM-based clusters were obtained by calculations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation of the gas-phase fragmentations of these noncovalent complexes between organic amines and inorganic POM anions by a combination of theory and mass spectrometry.

  13. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, Geoffrey Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of

  14. 75 FR 64314 - Product Development Program for Interventions in Patients With Severe Bleeding Due to Trauma or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... With Severe Bleeding Due to Trauma or Other Causes; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... Bleeding Due to Trauma or Other Causes.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss possible... resulting from trauma, has been complicated by the lack of a consensus definition of severe bleeding as...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal... electricity, then the royalty on the geothermal resources is the gross proceeds accruing to you from the...

  18. 30 CFR 206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 206.352 Section 206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  20. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  1. Tailored stakeholder products help provide a vulnerability and adaptation assessment of Greek forests due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, Christos; Karali, Anna; Roussos, Anargyros

    2014-05-01

    Greece, being part of the eastern Mediterranean basin, is an area particularly vulnerable to climate change and associated forest fire risk. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of Greek forests to fire risk occurrence and identify potential adaptation options within the context of climate change through continuous interaction with local stakeholders. To address their needs, the following tools for the provision of climate information services were developed: 1. An application providing fire risk forecasts for the following 3 days (http://cirrus.meteo.noa.gr/forecast/bolam/index.htm) was developed from NOA to address the needs of short term fire planners. 2. A web-based application providing long term fire risk and other fire related indices changes due to climate change (time horizon up to 2050 and 2100) was developed in collaboration with the WWF Greece office to address the needs of long term fire policy makers (http://www.oikoskopio.gr/map/). 3. An educational tool was built in order to complement the two web-based tools and to further expand knowledge in fire risk modeling to address the needs for in-depth training. In particular, the second product provided the necessary information to assess the exposure to forest fires. To this aim, maps depicting the days with elevated fire risk (FWI>30) both for the control (1961-1990) and the near future period (2021-2050) were created by the web-application. FWI is a daily index that provides numerical ratings of relative fire potential based solely on weather observations. The meteorological inputs to the FWI System are daily noon values of temperature, air relative humidity, 10m wind speed and precipitation during the previous 24 hours. It was found that eastern lowlands are more exposed to fire risk followed by eastern high elevation areas, for both the control and near future period. The next step towards vulnerability assessment was to address sensitivity, ie the human-environmental conditions that

  2. Ion cyclotron emission due to collective instability of fusion products and beam ions in TFTR and JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, R. O.; McClements, K. G.; Lashmore-Davies, C. N.; Cottrell, G. A.; Majeski, R.; Cauffman, S.

    1995-12-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed from neutral beam heated TFTR, and JET tritium experiments at sequential cyclotron harmonics of both fusion products and beam ions. The emission originates from the outer midplane plasma, where fusion products and beam ions are likely to have a drifting ring-type velocity-space distribution that is anisotropic and sharply peaked. Fusion product driven ICE in both TFTR and JET can be attributed to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, which involves the excitation of obliquely propagating waves on the fast Alfven/ion Bernstein branch at cyclotron harmonics of the fusion products. Differences between ICE observations in JET and TFTR appear to reflect the sensitivity of the instability growth rate to the ratio vbirth/cA where vbirth is the fusion product birth speed and cA is the local Alfven speed for fusion products in the outer midplane edge of TFTR supershots, vbirth < cA for alpha particles in the outer midplane edge of JET, the opposite inequality applies. If sub-Alfvenic fusion products are isotropic or have undergone even a moderate degree of thermalization, the magnetoacoustic instability cannot occur. In contrast, the super-Alfvenic alpha particles that are present in the outer midplane of JET can drive the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability even if they are isotropic or have a relatively broad distribution of speeds. These conclusions may account for the observation that fusion product driven ICE in JET persists for longer than fusion product driven ICE in TFTR. Moreover, the time evolution of the maximum growth rate, obtained using the Sigmar model for the alpha particle distribution and TFTR data for the fusion product source rate, closely follows the observed time evolution of the ICE amplitude in TFTR supershot discharges. Other observed features of fusion product driven ICE that match the linear instability include the scaling with fusion product density, doublet splitting of spectral peaks, the

  3. Dimensional effects in dynamic fragmentation of brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linna, R. P.; Åström, J. A.; Timonen, J.

    2005-07-01

    It has been shown previously that dynamic fragmentation of brittle D -dimensional objects in a D -dimensional space gives rise to a power-law contribution to the fragment-size distribution with a universal scaling exponent 2-1/D . We demonstrate that in fragmentation of two-dimensional brittle objects in three-dimensional space, an additional fragmentation mechanism appears, which causes scale-invariant secondary breaking of existing fragments. Due to this mechanism, the power law in the fragment-size distribution has now a scaling exponent of ˜1.17 .

  4. Fragment Hazard Investigation Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    53 Ballistic Density (k) ............................................. 53 Ejection A ngle (a...54 Ejection Velocity (V) ................................................. 54 DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRICAL RELATION...5S 54 Fragment Weight Versus Gamma for Test QD-155-08 ......................... 56 55 Fragment Range Versus Ejection Angle as a Function of

  5. Fragments and Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Can teachers contact the inner coherence of mathematics while working in a context fragmented by always-new objectives, criteria, and initiatives? How, more importantly, can learners experience the inner coherence of mathematics while working in a context fragmented by testing, modular curricular, short-term learning objectives, and lessons that…

  6. Fragmentation of fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancey, Ryan T.; Oddershede, Lene; Harris, Frank E.; Sabin, John R.

    2003-04-01

    We have performed classical molecular-dynamics simulations of the fragmentation collisions of neutral fullerenes (C24, C60, C100, and C240) with a hard wall. The interactions between the carbon atoms are modeled by a Tersoff potential and the position of each carbon atom at each time step is calculated using a sixth-order predictor-corrector method. The statistical distribution of the fragments depends on impact energy. At low energies, the fragment distribution appears symmetric, with both the large and small fragment distributions well fitted by an exponential function of the same exponent, the value of which decreases with impact energy. At intermediate energies, the distribution of the smallest fragments can be fitted equally well by a power law or an exponential function. At high impact energies, the entire fragmentation pattern is well described by a single exponential function, the exponent increasing with energy. The observed tendencies in fragment distributions as well as the obtained exponents are in agreement with experimental observations. The fragmentation behavior of the four investigated fullerenes is very similar, and it is noted that C60 appears to be the most stable.

  7. Altered Large-Ring Cyclodextrin Product Profile Due to a Mutation at Tyr-172 in the Amylomaltase of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Srisimarat, Wiraya; Kaulpiboon, Jarunee; Krusong, Kuakarun; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum amylomaltase (CgAM) catalyzes the formation of large-ring cyclodextrins (LR-CDs) with a degree of polymerization of 19 and higher. The cloned CgAM gene was ligated into the pET-17b vector and used to transform Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Site-directed mutagenesis of Tyr-172 in CgAM to alanine (Y172A) was performed to determine its role in the control of LR-CD production. Both the recombinant wild-type (WT) and Y172A enzymes were purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The Y172A enzyme exhibited lower disproportionation, cyclization, and hydrolysis activities than the WT. The kcat/Km of the disproportionation reaction of the Y172A enzyme was 2.8-fold lower than that of the WT enzyme. The LR-CD product profile from enzyme catalysis depended on the incubation time and the enzyme concentration. Interestingly, the Y172A enzyme showed a product pattern different from that of the WT CgAM at a long incubation time. The principal LR-CD products of the Y172A mutated enzyme were a cycloamylose mixture with a degree of polymerization of 28 or 29 (CD28 or CD29), while the principal LR-CD product of the WT enzyme was CD25 at 0.05 U of amylomaltase. These results suggest that Tyr-172 plays an important role in determining the LR-CD product profile of this novel CgAM. PMID:22865069

  8. Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Kojouharova, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented.

  9. Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 causes discoloration and pitting of mushroom caps due to the production of antifungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Henkels, Marcella D; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Shaffer, Brenda T; Goebel, Neal C; Burlinson, Peter; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Bentley, Michael A; Rangel, Lorena I; Davis, Edward W; Thomashow, Linda S; Zabriskie, T Mark; Preston, Gail M; Loper, Joyce E

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria in the diverse Pseudomonas fluorescens group include rhizosphere inhabitants known for their antifungal metabolite production and biological control of plant disease, such as Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, and mushroom pathogens, such as Pseudomonas tolaasii. Here, we report that strain Pf-5 causes brown, sunken lesions on peeled caps of the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) that resemble brown blotch symptoms caused by P. tolaasii. Strain Pf-5 produces six known antifungal metabolites under the control of the GacS/GacA signal transduction system. A gacA mutant produces none of these metabolites and did not cause lesions on mushroom caps. Mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of the antifungal metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin caused less-severe symptoms than wild-type Pf-5 on peeled mushroom caps, whereas mutants deficient in the production of lipopeptide orfamide A caused similar symptoms to wild-type Pf-5. Purified pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol mimicked the symptoms caused by Pf-5. Both compounds were isolated from mushroom tissue inoculated with Pf-5, providing direct evidence for their in situ production by the bacterium. Although the lipopeptide tolaasin is responsible for brown blotch of mushroom caused by P. tolaasii, P. protegens Pf-5 caused brown blotch-like symptoms on peeled mushroom caps through a lipopeptide-independent mechanism involving the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin.

  10. Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 causes discoloration and pitting of mushroom caps due to the production of antifungal metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteria in the diverse P. fluorescens group include mushroom pathogens, such as Pseudomonas tolaasii, and rhizosphere inhabitants known for their antifungal metabolite production and biological control of plant disease, such as Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5. Here, we report that strain Pf-5 causes bro...

  11. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  12. CDP-choline reduces pro-caspase and cleaved caspase-3 expression, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and specific PARP-cleaved products of caspase activation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, J; Ferrer, I; Barrachina, M; Secades, J J; Mercadal, J; Lozano, R

    2002-05-01

    Citicoline has been demonstrated to be beneficial in several models of cerebral ischaemia. We tested the hypothesis that citicoline may provide apoptotic pathways following focal cerebral ischaemia. Focal cerebral ischaemia was produced by distal, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomised into four groups: (B+A) Citicoline 500 mg/kg IP 24 and 1 h before MCAO, and 23 h after MCAO; (A) citicoline 500 mg/kg IP, within 30 min after MCAO, and 23 h after MCAO; (C) vehicle IP; and (D) sham-operated. The animals were sacrificed at 12 h (n=8 per group) and 24 h (n=8 per group) after MCAO. Immunohistochemistry was performed on free-floating tissue sections with goat polyclonal antibodies to procaspase-1, -2, -3, -6 and -8, and in paraffin-embedded sections processed for cleaved caspase-3 (17 kDa) immunohistochemistry. Finally, some sections were stained with the method of in situ end-labelling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. For gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, antibodies to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) products of 89 kDa were used to reveal specific cleavage substrates of caspases. MCAO induced the expression of all procaspases and the expression of PARP products of 89 kDa, as well as cells with nuclear DNA fragmentation, at 12 and 24 h, in the infarcted core and penumbra. Citicoline reduced the expression of all procaspases at 12 and 24 h after MCAO, as well as the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in cells in the penumbra area. This was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells bearing nuclear DNA fragments. The expression of caspase-cleaved products of PARP (PARP 89 kDa) was reduced in citicoline-treated ischaemic rats. These results show that citicoline inhibits the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis following MCAO.

  13. Implications of promiscuous Pim-1 kinase fragment inhibitor hydrophobic interactions for fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Good, Andrew C; Liu, Jinyu; Hirth, Bradford; Asmussen, Gary; Xiang, Yibin; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Bishop, Kimberly A; Fremgen, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Maria; Gladysheva, Tatiana; Jain, Annuradha; Jancsics, Katherine; Metz, Markus; Papoulis, Andrew; Skerlj, Renato; Stepp, J David; Wei, Ronnie R

    2012-03-22

    We have studied the subtleties of fragment docking and binding using data generated in a Pim-1 kinase inhibitor program. Crystallographic and docking data analyses have been undertaken using inhibitor complexes derived from an in-house surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fragment screen, a virtual needle screen, and a de novo designed fragment inhibitor hybrid. These investigations highlight that fragments that do not fill their binding pocket can exhibit promiscuous hydrophobic interactions due to the lack of steric constraints imposed on them by the boundaries of said pocket. As a result, docking modes that disagree with an observed crystal structure but maintain key crystallographically observed hydrogen bonds still have potential value in ligand design and optimization. This observation runs counter to the lore in fragment-based drug design that all fragment elaboration must be based on the parent crystal structure alone.

  14. Production of A=16, 20 and 24 in alpha-induced fragmentation of ^28Si at 102.7 (cm) MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Mohammad S.; Bary Malik, F.

    2004-10-01

    The emission probabilities of particles of mass numbers 16, 20 and 24 in 102.7 (cm) MeV alpha-induced fragmentation of ^28Si have been calculated using the statistical model of [1]. This model is distinct from the usual evaporation model in the sense that it takes into account the final state interaction between two emerging fragments. Calculated emission probabilities indicate that particles are emitted in all possible excited states commensurate with energy conservation law. The emission spectra as a function of excitation energy and the most probable kinetic energy associated with it will be presented. Calculated differential cross sections at 30^o for these masses are in agreement with the data of [2]. The final state interaction is obtained by a scaling procedure. The emission probabilities of different isotopes of these masses will also be presented. 1. B. Compani-Tabrizi and F. B. Malik, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 8, 1447 (1982). 2. L. W. Woo et al. Phys. Rev. C 47, 267 (1993).

  15. Estimating Damage Cost of Net Primary Production due to Climate Change and Ozone(O3) Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Sung, S.; Kim, H. G.; Mo, Y.; Kim, S.; Kil, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forests are absorbing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis. The forests are not only preventing global warming but also influencing temperature, precipitation and humidity (Costanza et al., 1997; de Groot et al., 2002). Also the forests are recognized as a carbon sink internationally (van Kooten, 2009). The Korean Government supports the economic activity such as carbon offset projects in accordance with 'ACT ON THE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF CARBON SINK' Article27 (Korea Forest Service, 2013) and aims to make a policy which improves the CO2 capacity of forest for Paris Agreement discussed in UNFCCC COP21, December 2015 (Korea Forest Service, 2015). However, the social-economic activities make to increase aerosols as well as greenhouse gases significantly since the industrial revolution, as a result, the chemical composition of the atmosphere has changed significantly. According to the resent studies, not only CO2 but atmospheric chemistries such as ozone (O3), aerosol and black carbon can be an important factor causing climate change (Hansen et al., 2007; IPCC, 2007). In the past, acid rain affected on forest, but in these days, O3, nitrogen oxide (NOX) and sulfur oxide (SOX) are the most threatening factors on forest ecosystem (Lee et al, 2011). In particular, O3accounts for most of the photochemical products and causes a direct significant impact or damage on the plant because of high toxicity (Han et al., 2006). The research questions of this study are "How does O3 effects on forest productivity in the present and future? " What is the damage cost by the O3 effect in the future? In this study, we developed a statistical model using the parameters which effect on the forest productivity. We estimated the forest productivity using on the derived model in the present and future on a SSP scenarios. Lastly, we evaluated the economic effect or damage cost of O3effect by introducing the concept of climate insurance. The average forest

  16. Secondary fragmentation routes of glycine in ice under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, A.; Pilme, J.; Ellinger, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The question of the relative stability of the complex organic molecules (COM) under the interstellar radiation field is a crucial question, especially in the context of the panspermia hypothesis for which their survival during the transfer from space to the Earth is a necessary condition for the appearance of life (Ehrenfreund et al 2001, 2002). Assuming that these species are originally embedded in interstellar grains, their resistance to the solar UV radiation in ice is a key issue. The case of glycine, H2NCH2COOH, has been considered recently in irradiation experiments carried out at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. It appeared that glycine is partially protected by ice but also suffers some fragmentation leading in the end to CO2 and to CN containing species. Quantum chemical simulations have been performed in parallel for all the possible fragmentations of neutral, ionized, doubly ionized, protonated and zwitterionic glycine (Lattelais et al. 2010). This study has shown that the primary decomposition routes leading to fragments CH2COOH, H2NCH2, H2NCH2+, CH2COOH+, H2NCH3, and CO2 are energetically valid. The experiments have also shown that the role of water is mainly to increase the production of the end products in the photoreactions, most probably due to the reactions with the OH radicals formed during the irradiation of the ice. We present a theoretical study of the secondary fragmentation channels initiated by the OH radical by means of quantum chemical calculations using DFT and ab initio correlated methods (MP2,CCSD(T)). We have examined all the possible secondary fragmentations starting from the primary fragments mentioned above. We considered all species embedded in the dielectric continuum simulating an icy environment (comparison with the gas phase situation serves as reference). Thermodynamic stabilities as well as activation barriers have been determined. This study shows that the formation of the HCN molecule as end product is energetically

  17. Anammox brings WWTP closer to energy autarky due to increased biogas production and reduced aeration energy for N-removal.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, H; Salzgeber, D; Eugster, J; Joss, A

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago when only BOD was removed at municipal WWTPs primary clarifiers were designed with 2-3 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT). This changed with the introduction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge treatment that needed more BOD for denitrification. The HRT of primary clarification was reduced to less than one hour for dry weather flow with the consequence that secondary sludge had to be separately thickened and biogas production was reduced. Only recently the ammonia rich digester liquid (15-20% of the inlet ammonia load) could be treated with the very economic autotrophic nitritation/anammox process requiring half of the aeration energy and no organic carbon source compared to nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification. With the introduction of this new innovative digester liquid treatment the situation reverts, allowing us to increase HRT of the primary clarifier to improve biogas production and reduce aeration energy for BOD removal and nitrification at similar overall N-removal.

  18. Root growth inhibition by aluminum is probably caused by cell death due to peroxidase-mediated hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Simonovicová, M; Huttová, J; Mistrík, I; Siroká, B; Tamás, L

    2004-10-01

    The effect of aluminum on hydrogen peroxide production and peroxidase-catalyzed NADH oxidation was studied in barley roots germinated and grown between two layers of moistened filter paper. Guaiacol peroxidase activity significantly increased after 48 h and was approximately two times higher after 72 h in Al-treated roots. The oxidation of NADH was also significantly increased and, like guaiacol peroxidase activity, it was two times higher in A1-treated roots than in controls. Elevated H2O2 production was observed both 48 and 72 h after the onset of imbibition in the presence of A1. Separation on a cation exchange column allowed the detection of two peaks with NADH peroxidase and H2O2 production activity. However, a difference between control and Al-treated plants was found only in one fraction, in which four times higher guaiacol peroxidase activity and five times higher NADH peroxidase activity were expressed and about three times more H2O2 was produced. One anionic peroxidase and three cationic peroxidases were detected in this fraction by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The anionic peroxidase was activated in the Al-treated root tips and also oxidized NADH but was detectable only after a long incubation time. Two of the cationic peroxidases were capable of oxidizing NADH and producing a significant amount of H2O2, but only one of these was activated by A1 stress. The role of these peroxidases during A1 stress in barley root tips is discussed.

  19. Modeling the (Sub)surface Deformation Field Evolution Due to Production from a Hydrocarbon Reservoir Overlain by Rocksalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marketos, G.; Govers, R. M. A.; Spiers, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rocksalt is an important caprock for sealing or trapping hydrocarbons. Given its relatively low viscosity, it may flow during and after production and result in time-dependent surface deformation. To predict the consequences of alternative production strategies, we seek to understand the primary controls on stress-driven flow and surface deformation of hydrocarbon extraction from a reservoir topped by rocksalt. The mechanical properties of rock salt are a key influence, but complicated. Depending on grain size, temperature, and stress, salt can deform mainly elastically, by power law viscous creep, and/or by linear viscous diffusion creep. In this study, we evaluate the evolution of production induced deformation using generic geo-mechanical models. Our strategy is to start with simplified geometries, rheologies, and forcing, and to increase model complexity slowly. Our results show that there are two distinctly different time scales that dominate the evolution of the models: short term subsidence and longer term partial rebound. The shortest time scale corresponds to stress-driven flow in the vicinity of the reservoir. The longest time scale is controlled by resistance to viscous flow and stress relaxation within a wider region of the rocksalt layer. We discuss the sensitivity to the thickness of the rocksalt seal, the geometry of the reservoir, and the distance between the source and the seal.

  20. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  1. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    PubMed

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  2. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse

  3. Golgi fragmentation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gunjan; Bekier, Michael E.; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an essential cellular organelle for post-translational modifications, sorting, and trafficking of membrane and secretory proteins. Proper functionality of the Golgi requires the formation of its unique cisternal-stacking morphology. The Golgi structure is disrupted in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a common mechanism and contribution of Golgi defects in neurodegenerative disorders. A recent study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) revealed that phosphorylation of the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 disrupts its function in Golgi structure formation, resulting in Golgi fragmentation. Inhibiting GRASP65 phosphorylation restores the Golgi morphology from Aβ-induced fragmentation and reduces Aβ production. Perturbing Golgi structure and function in neurons may directly impact trafficking, processing, and sorting of a variety of proteins essential for synaptic and dendritic integrity. Therefore, Golgi defects may ultimately promote the development of AD. In the current review, we focus on the cellular impact of impaired Golgi morphology and its potential relationship to AD disease development. PMID:26441511

  4. Universality in Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Holian, B. L.; Timonen, J.

    2000-04-01

    Fragmentation of a two-dimensional brittle solid by impact and ``explosion,'' and a fluid by ``explosion'' are all shown to become critical. The critical points appear at a nonzero impact velocity, and at infinite explosion duration, respectively. Within the critical regimes, the fragment-size distributions satisfy a scaling form qualitatively similar to that of the cluster-size distribution of percolation, but they belong to another universality class. Energy balance arguments give a correlation length exponent that is exactly one-half of its percolation value. A single crack dominates fragmentation in the slow-fracture limit, as expected.

  5. Recovery of Uranium Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. R.; McElrue, D. H.; Winter, R. E.

    2002-07-01

    We describe a theory for calculating the penetration of fragments into foam. Comparisons with regular projectiles show that the drag term is similar in value to the analogous term in aerodynamics. This, plus the simple model used to describe porosity, enables the theory to be used in predicting the levels of stress present when uranium fragments are arrested in foam catchers. Consequently the theory can be used to assist in the design of catchers which will not distort uranium fragments travelling at 1-3 km/s. The theory is tested against experiments using some current designs.

  6. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  7. A Simple Method for Estimating the Economic Cost of Productivity Loss Due to Blindness and Moderate to Severe Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Kristen A; Carter, Marissa J; Lansingh, Van C; Wilson, David A; Furtado, João M; Frick, Kevin D; Resnikoff, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the annual loss of productivity from blindness and moderate to severe visual impairment (MSVI) using simple models (analogous to how a rapid assessment model relates to a comprehensive model) based on minimum wage (MW) and gross national income (GNI) per capita (US$, 2011). Cost of blindness (COB) was calculated for the age group ≥50 years in nine sample countries by assuming the loss of current MW and loss of GNI per capita. It was assumed that all individuals work until 65 years old and that half of visual impairment prevalent in the ≥50 years age group is prevalent in the 50-64 years age group. For cost of MSVI (COMSVI), individual wage and GNI loss of 30% was assumed. Results were compared with the values of the uncorrected refractive error (URE) model of productivity loss. COB (MW method) ranged from $0.1 billion in Honduras to $2.5 billion in the United States, and COMSVI ranged from $0.1 billion in Honduras to $5.3 billion in the US. COB (GNI method) ranged from $0.1 million in Honduras to $7.8 billion in the US, and COMSVI ranged from $0.1 billion in Honduras to $16.5 billion in the US. Most GNI method values were near equivalent to those of the URE model. Although most people with blindness and MSVI live in developing countries, the highest productivity losses are in high income countries. The global economy could improve if eye care were made more accessible and more affordable to all.

  8. Ion cyclotron emission due to the newly-born fusion products induced fast Alfven wave radiative instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-08-01

    The velocity distribution functions of the newly born (t = 0) charged fusion products of tokamak discharges can be approximated by a monoenergetic ring distribution with a finite v{sub {parallel}} such that v{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} v{sub {parallel}} {approx} v{sub j} where (M{sub j}V{sub j}{sup 2}/2) = E{sub j}, the directed birth energy of the charged fusion product species j of mass M{sub j}. As the time t progresses these distribution functions will evolve into a Gaussian in velocity with thermal spreadings given by the perpendicular and parallel temperatures T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t) with T{sub j}(t) increasing as t increases and finally reaches an isotropic saturation value of T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) {approx} [M{sub j}T{sub d}E{sub j}/(M{sub j} + M)]{sup 1/2}, where T{sub d} is the temperature of the background deuterium plasma ions, M is the mass of a triton or a neutron for j = protons and alpha particles, respectively, and {tau}{sub j} {approx} {tau}{sub sj}/4 is the thermalization time of the fusion product species j in the background deuterium plasma and {tau}{sub sj} is the slowing-down time. For times t of the order of {tau}{sub j} their distributions can be approximated by a Gaussian in their total energy. Then for times t {ge} {tau}{sub sj} the velocity distributions of these fusion products will relax towards their appropriate slowing-down distributions. Here the authors will examine the radiative stability of all these distributions. The ion cyclotron emission from energetic ion produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  9. d-2,3-Butanediol Production Due to Heterologous Expression of an Acetoin Reductase in Clostridium acetobutylicum ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Siemerink, Marco A. J.; Kuit, Wouter; López Contreras, Ana M.; Eggink, Gerrit; van der Oost, John; Kengen, Servé W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Acetoin reductase (ACR) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Under certain conditions, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (and strains derived from it) generates both d- and l-stereoisomers of acetoin, but because of the absence of an ACR enzyme, it does not produce 2,3-butanediol. A gene encoding ACR from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 was functionally expressed in C. acetobutylicum under the control of two strong promoters, the constitutive thl promoter and the late exponential adc promoter. Both ACR-overproducing strains were grown in batch cultures, during which 89 to 90% of the natively produced acetoin was converted to 20 to 22 mM d-2,3-butanediol. The addition of a racemic mixture of acetoin led to the production of both d-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol. A metabolic network that is in agreement with the experimental data is proposed. Native 2,3-butanediol production is a first step toward a potential homofermentative 2-butanol-producing strain of C. acetobutylicum. PMID:21335380

  10. D-2,3-butanediol production due to heterologous expression of an acetoin reductase in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Siemerink, Marco A J; Kuit, Wouter; López Contreras, Ana M; Eggink, Gerrit; van der Oost, John; Kengen, Servé W M

    2011-04-01

    Acetoin reductase (ACR) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Under certain conditions, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (and strains derived from it) generates both d- and l-stereoisomers of acetoin, but because of the absence of an ACR enzyme, it does not produce 2,3-butanediol. A gene encoding ACR from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 was functionally expressed in C. acetobutylicum under the control of two strong promoters, the constitutive thl promoter and the late exponential adc promoter. Both ACR-overproducing strains were grown in batch cultures, during which 89 to 90% of the natively produced acetoin was converted to 20 to 22 mM d-2,3-butanediol. The addition of a racemic mixture of acetoin led to the production of both d-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol. A metabolic network that is in agreement with the experimental data is proposed. Native 2,3-butanediol production is a first step toward a potential homofermentative 2-butanol-producing strain of C. acetobutylicum.

  11. Stochastic simulation of fission product activity in primary coolant due to fuel rod failures in typical PWRs under power transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Javed; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mirza, Sikander M.

    2008-01-01

    During normal operation of PWRs, routine fuel rods failures result in release of radioactive fission products (RFPs) in the primary coolant of PWRs. In this work, a stochastic model has been developed for simulation of failure time sequences and release rates for the estimation of fission product activity in primary coolant of a typical PWR under power perturbations. In the first part, a stochastic approach is developed, based on generation of fuel failure event sequences by sampling the time dependent intensity functions. Then a three-stage model based deterministic methodology of the FPCART code has been extended to include failure sequences and random release rates in a computer code FPCART-ST, which uses state-of-the-art LEOPARD and ODMUG codes as its subroutines. The value of the 131I activity in primary coolant predicted by FPCART-ST code has been found in good agreement with the corresponding values measured at ANGRA-1 nuclear power plant. The predictions of FPCART-ST code with constant release option have also been found to have good agreement with corresponding experimental values for time dependent 135I, 135Xe and 89Kr concentrations in primary coolant measured during EDITHMOX-1 experiments.

  12. Probabilistic approach for assessing infants' health risks due to ingestion of nanoscale silver released from consumer products.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chengfang; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Pizzol, Lisa; Tsang, Michael P; Sayre, Phil; Marcomini, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (n-Ag) are widely used in consumer products and many medical applications because of their unique antibacterial properties. Their use is raising concern about potential human exposures and health effects. Therefore, it is informative to assess the potential human health risks of n-Ag in order to ensure that nanotechnology-based consumer products are deployed in a safe and sustainable way. Even though toxicity studies clearly show the potential hazard of n-Ag, there have been few attempts to integrate hazard and exposure assessments to evaluate risks. The underlying reason for this is the difficulty in characterizing exposure and the lack of toxicity studies essential for human health risk assessment (HHRA). Such data gaps introduce significant uncertainty into the risk assessment process. This study uses probabilistic methods to assess the relative uncertainty and potential risks of n-Ag exposure to infants. In this paper, we estimate the risks for infants potentially exposed to n-Ag through drinking juice or milk from sippy cups or licking baby blankets containing n-Ag. We explicitly evaluate uncertainty and variability contained in available dose-response and exposure data in order to make the risk characterization process transparent. Our results showed that individual margin of exposures for oral exposure to sippy cups and baby blankets containing n-Ag exhibited minimal risk.

  13. Reversal of global atmospheric ethane and propane trends largely due to US oil and natural gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, Detlev; Rossabi, Samuel; Hueber, Jacques; Tans, Pieter; Montzka, Stephen A.; Masarie, Ken; Thoning, Kirk; Plass-Duelmer, Christian; Claude, Anja; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Punjabi, Shalini; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Hannigan, James W.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Franco, Bruno; Smale, Dan; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons such as ethane are important precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Using data from a global surface network and atmospheric column observations we show that the steady decline in the ethane mole fraction that began in the 1970s halted between 2005 and 2010 in most of the Northern Hemisphere and has since reversed. We calculate a yearly increase in ethane emissions in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.42 (+/-0.19) Tg yr-1 between mid-2009 and mid-2014. The largest increases in ethane and the shorter-lived propane are seen over the central and eastern USA, with a spatial distribution that suggests North American oil and natural gas development as the primary source of increasing emissions. By including other co-emitted oil and natural gas non-methane hydrocarbons, we estimate a Northern Hemisphere total non-methane hydrocarbon yearly emission increase of 1.2 (+/-0.8) Tg yr-1. Atmospheric chemical transport modelling suggests that these emissions could augment summertime mean surface ozone by several nanomoles per mole near oil and natural gas production regions. Methane/ethane oil and natural gas emission ratios could suggest a significant increase in associated methane emissions; however, this increase is inconsistent with observed leak rates in production regions and changes in methane's global isotopic ratio.

  14. Carbon emissions due to deforestation for the production of charcoal used in Brazil’s steel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonter, Laura J.; Barrett, Damian J.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2015-04-01

    Steel produced using coal generates 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions annually. Opportunities exist to substitute this coal with carbon-neutral charcoal sourced from plantation forests to mitigate project-scale emissions and obtain certified emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. This mitigation strategy has been implemented in Brazil and is one mechanism among many used globally to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions; however, its potential adverse impacts have been overlooked to date. Here, we report that total CO2 emitted from Brazilian steel production doubled (91 to 182 MtCO2) and specific emissions increased (3.3 to 5.2 MtCO2 per Mt steel) between 2000 and 2007, even though the proportion of coal used declined. Infrastructure upgrades and a national plantation shortage increased industry reliance on charcoal sourced from native forests, which emits up to nine times more CO2 per tonne of steel than coal. Preventing use of native forest charcoal could have avoided 79% of the CO2 emitted from steel production between 2000 and 2007; however, doing so by increasing plantation charcoal supply is limited by socio-economic costs and risks further indirect deforestation pressures and emissions. Effective climate change mitigation in Brazil’s steel industry must therefore minimize all direct and indirect carbon emissions generated from steel manufacture.

  15. Healthcare utilization and lost productivity due to infectious gastroenteritis, results from a national cross-sectional survey Australia 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Ford, L; Hall, G; Dobbins, T; Kirk, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the healthcare usage and loss of productivity due to gastroenteritis in Australia using the National Gastroenteritis Survey II. In 2008-2009, 7578 participants across Australia were surveyed about infectious gastroenteritis by telephone interview. A gastroenteritis case was defined as a person experiencing ⩾ 3 loose stools and/or ⩾ 2 vomits in a 24-h period, excluding cases with a non-infectious cause for their symptoms, such as pregnancy or consumption of alcohol. Lost productivity was considered any lost time from full- or part-time paid work due to having gastroenteritis or caring for someone with the illness. Interference with other daily activities was also examined along with predictors of healthcare-seeking practices using multivariable regression. Results were weighted to obtain nationally representative estimates using Stata v. 13·1. Of the 341 cases, 52 visited a doctor due to gastroenteritis, 126 reported taking at least one medication for their symptoms and 79 cases reported missing ⩾ 1 days' paid work due to gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis results in a total of 13·1 million (95% confidence interval 6·7-19·5) days of missed paid work each year in Australia. The indirect costs of gastroenteritis are significant, particularly from lost productivity.

  16. A Monte Carlo study of the radiation quality dependence of DNA fragmentation spectra.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Campa, A; Belli, M; Esposito, G; Facoetti, A; Friedland, W; Liotta, M; Mariotti, L; Paretzke, H G; Ottolenghi, A

    2010-03-01

    We simulated the irradiation of human fibroblasts with gamma rays, protons and helium, carbon and iron ions at a fixed dose of 5 Gy. The simulations were performed with the biophysical Monte Carlo code PARTRAC. From the output of the code, containing in particular the genomic positions of the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), we obtained the DNA fragmentation spectra. Very small fragments, in particular those related to "complex lesions" (few tens of base pairs), are probably very important for the late cellular consequences, but their detection is not possible with the common experimental techniques. We paid special attention to the differences among the various ions in the production of these very small fragments; in particular, we compared the fragmentation spectra for ions of the same specific energy and for ions of the same LET (linear energy transfer). As found previously for iron ions, we found that the RBE (relative biological effectiveness) for DSB production was considerably higher than 1 for all high-LET radiations considered. This is at variance with the results obtainable from experimental data, and it is due to the ability to count the contribution of small fragments. It should be noted that for a given LET this RBE decreases with increasing ion charge, due mainly to the increasing mean energy of secondary electrons. A precise quantification of the DNA initial damage can be of great importance for both radiation protection, particularly in open-space long-term manned missions, and hadrontherapy.

  17. Sequential extraction analyses of Hg speciation in northern lake sediments undergoing primary production increases due to recent warming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outridge, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The "algal scavenging" hypothesis has been proposed to account for the discrepancy between increasing Hg fluxes in northern Canadian lake sediments while atmospheric Hg concentrations over recent decades have been declining. We propose that increased algal scavenging, due to higher phytoplankton growth caused by a change in lake ice regimes, can increase the sedimentation rate of available Hg from the water column. One consequence would be that sediment Hg fluxes are disconnected from the rate of atmospheric Hg deposition in northern regions. A prediction which flows from this hypothesis is that higher Hg concentrations would be found in the organic-bound fraction in sediments deposited during recent and medieval warm periods, compared to sediments deposited during cooler periods. Here, we present sequential fractionation data on sediment Hg, from recent decades in three Arctic lakes and from the Medieval Warm Period in one of these lakes. The veracity of the hypothesis will be evaluated in the light of these data.

  18. Fragmentation in Biaxial Tension

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G H; Archbold, G C; Hurricane, O A; Miller, P L

    2006-06-13

    We have carried out an experiment that places a ductile stainless steel in a state of biaxial tension at a high rate of strain. The loading of the ductile metal spherical cap is performed by the detonation of a high explosive layer with a conforming geometry to expand the metal radially outwards. Simulations of the loading and expansion of the metal predict strain rates that compare well with experimental observations. A high percentage of the HE loaded material was recovered through a soft capture process and characterization of the recovered fragments provided high quality data, including uniform strain prior to failure and fragment size. These data were used with a modified fragmentation model to determine a fragmentation energy.

  19. Systemic Sclerosis Dermal Fibroblasts Suppress Th1 Cytokine Production via Galectin-9 Overproduction due to Fli1 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Ryosuke; Asano, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Kouki; Hirabayashi, Megumi; Miura, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Takashi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ichimura, Yohei; Takahashi, Takehiro; Yoshizaki, Ayumi; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Sugaya, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi

    2017-09-01

    Dermal fibroblasts promote skin-localized transdifferentiation of regulatory T cells to T helper (Th) type 2-like cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the entire effect of SSc dermal fibroblasts on immune cells still remains unknown. Because galectin-9 induces Th2 cytokine-predominant immune imbalance by negatively regulating Th1/Th17 cells in inflammatory diseases, we investigated the contribution of galectin-9 to Th immune balance in SSc lesional skin. We used human clinical samples and Fli1(+/-) mice because Fli1 deficiency induces SSc-like phenotypes in various cell types. Galectin-9 was overexpressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts in vivo and in vitro. Serum galectin-9 levels were significantly elevated in SSc patients and positively correlated with skin score. Galectin-9 was up-regulated by autocrine endothelin stimulation and Fli1 deficiency, and Fli1 occupied the LGALS9 promoter in dermal fibroblasts. Co-culture of splenic CD4(+) T cells with Fli1(+/-) dermal fibroblasts significantly increased IL-4-producing cell proportion, and this effect was cancelled in parallel with the increased interferon-γ production when Fli1(+/-) dermal fibroblasts were transfected with Lgals9 small interfering RNA. Furthermore, Lgals9 small interfering RNA suppressed dermal collagen deposition by increasing interferon-γ production of skin-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells in bleomycin-treated mice. These results suggest that SSc dermal fibroblasts suppress interferon-γ expression of skin-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells through galectin-9 overproduction, promoting skin fibrosis development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling land subsidence due to shallow-water hydrocarbon production: A case study in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, G.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Janna, C.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    One major environmental concern of subsurface fluid withdrawal is land subsidence. The issue of a reliable estimate and prediction of the expected anthropogenic land subsidence is particularly important whenever the production of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) occurs from large reservoirs located close to deltaic zones (e.g., Mississippi, Po, Nile, Niger, Yellow rivers) or shallow-water with low-lying coastlands (e.g., Northern Caspian sea, Dutch Wadden Sea). In such cases even a small reduction of the ground elevation relative to the mean sea level may impact seriously on human settlements and natural environment. The monitoring of the ongoing land subsidence has been significantly improved over the last decade by SAR-based interferometry. These measurements can be quite effectively used to map the process and calibrate geomechanical models for predicting the future event. However, this powerful methodology cannot be implemented off-shore. Although permanent GPS stations can be established to monitor the movement of the production facilities usually installed above the gravity center of a reservoir, an accurate characterization of the settlement bowl affecting the sea bottom, with a possible migration toward the shore, is a challenge still today. In the present communication the case study of the Riccione gas reservoir is discussed. The field is located in the near-shore northern Adriatic Sea, approximately 15 km far from the coastline, where the seawater height is about 20 m. The gas-bearing strata are 1100 m deep and are hydraulically connected to a relatively weak aquifer. Production of 70% of the cumulative reserves as of 2006 yielded a pore pressure decrease of 60 bars. Reliable geometry and geomechanical properties of the depleted formations were detected with the aid of a 3D seismic survey and a borehole equipped with radioactive markers, respectively. The latter pointed out that the Riccione formations are characterized by an unusually high oedometer

  1. Using ground data of the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) for the evaluation of ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost remote sensing derived products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elger, K.; Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, Ch.; Duguay, C.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A.; Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Lantuit, H.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost is one of the essential climate variables addressed by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GCOS). Remote sensing data provide area-wide monitoring of e.g. surface temperatures or soil surface status (frozen or thawed state) in the Arctic and Subarctic, where ground data collection is difficult and restricted to local measurements at few monitoring sites. The task of the ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project is to build-up an Earth observation service for northern high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the international permafrost research community (www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost). The satellite-derived DUE Permafrost products are Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, Surface Frozen and Thawed State, Digital Elevation Model (locally as remote sensing product and circumpolar as non-remote sensing product) and Subsidence, and Land Cover. Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, and Surface Frozen and Thawed State will be provided for the circumpolar permafrost area north of 55° N with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution were developed for five case study regions in different permafrost zones of the tundra and taiga (Laptev Sea [RU], Central Yakutia [RU], Western Siberia [RU], Alaska N-S transect, [US] Mackenzie River and Valley [CA]). This study shows the evaluation of two DUE Permafrost regional products, Land Surface Temperature and Surface Frozen and Thawed State, using freely available ground truth data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) and monitoring data from the Russian-German Samoylov research station in the Lena River Delta (Central Siberia, RU). The GTN-P permafrost monitoring sites with their position in different permafrost zones are highly qualified for the validation of DUE Permafrost remote sensing products. Air and surface temperatures with high-temporal resolution from eleven GTN-P sites in Alaska

  2. Hydrogen Cyanide Production due to Mid-Size Impacts in a Redox-Neutral N2-Rich Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kosuke; Sugita, Seiji; Ishibashi, Ko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sekine, Yasuhito; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Kadono, Toshihiko; Ohno, Sohsuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Nagaoka, Yoichi; Matsui, Takafumi

    2013-06-01

    Cyanide compounds are amongst the most important molecules of the origin of life. Here, we demonstrate the importance of mid-size (0.1-1 km in diameter) hence frequent meteoritic impacts to the cyanide inventory on the early Earth. Subsequent aerodynamic ablation and chemical reactions with the ambient atmosphere after oblique impacts were investigated by both impact and laser experiments. A polycarbonate projectile and graphite were used as laboratory analogs of meteoritic organic matter. Spectroscopic observations of impact-generated ablation vapors show that laser irradiation to graphite within an N2-rich gas can produce a thermodynamic environment similar to that produced by oblique impacts. Thus, laser ablation was used to investigate the final chemical products after this aerodynamic process. We found that a significant fraction (>0.1 mol%) of the vaporized carbon is converted to HCN and cyanide condensates, even when the ambient gas contains as much as a few hundred mbar of CO2. As such, the column density of cyanides after carbon-rich meteoritic impacts with diameters of 600 m would reach ~10 mol/m2 over ~102 km2 under early Earth conditions. Such a temporally and spatially concentrated supply of cyanides may have played an important role in the origin of life.

  3. Hydrogen cyanide production due to mid-size impacts in a redox-neutral N2-rich atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Kosuke; Sugita, Seiji; Ishibashi, Ko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sekine, Yasuhito; Ogawa, Nanako O; Kadono, Toshihiko; Ohno, Sohsuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Nagaoka, Yoichi; Matsui, Takafumi

    2013-06-01

    Cyanide compounds are amongst the most important molecules of the origin of life. Here, we demonstrate the importance of mid-size (0.1-1 km in diameter) hence frequent meteoritic impacts to the cyanide inventory on the early Earth. Subsequent aerodynamic ablation and chemical reactions with the ambient atmosphere after oblique impacts were investigated by both impact and laser experiments. A polycarbonate projectile and graphite were used as laboratory analogs of meteoritic organic matter. Spectroscopic observations of impact-generated ablation vapors show that laser irradiation to graphite within an N2-rich gas can produce a thermodynamic environment similar to that produced by oblique impacts. Thus, laser ablation was used to investigate the final chemical products after this aerodynamic process. We found that a significant fraction (>0.1 mol%) of the vaporized carbon is converted to HCN and cyanide condensates, even when the ambient gas contains as much as a few hundred mbar of CO2. As such, the column density of cyanides after carbon-rich meteoritic impacts with diameters of 600 m would reach ~10 mol/m(2) over ~10(2) km(2) under early Earth conditions. Such a temporally and spatially concentrated supply of cyanides may have played an important role in the origin of life.

  4. ESA DUE Permafrost: Evaluation of remote sensing derived products using ground data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elger, K. K.; Heim, B.; Lantuit, H.; Boike, J.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, C.; Duguay, C. R.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The task of the ESA DUE Permafrost project is to build up an Earth observation service for high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the permafrost research community. The DUE Permafrost products derived from remote sensing are land surface temperature (LST), surface soil moisture (SSM), surface frozen and thawed state (freeze/ thaw), terrain, land cover, and surface waters. Weekly and monthly averages for most of the DUE Permafrost products will be made available for the years 2007-2010. The DUE Permafrost products are provided for the circumpolar permafrost area (north of 55°N) with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution (300-1000 m/ pixel) were developed for five case study regions. These regions are: (1) the Laptev Sea and Eastern Siberian Sea Region (RU, continuous very cold permafrost/ tundra), (2) the Yakutsk Region (RU, continuous cold permafrost/ taiga), (3) the Western Siberian transect including Yamal Peninsula and Ob Region (RU, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra), (4) the Alaska Highway Transect (US, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra), and (5) the Mackenzie Delta and Valley Transect (CA, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra). The challenge of the programme is to adapt remote sensing products that are well established and tested in agricultural low and mid-latitudinal areas for highly heterogeneous taiga/ tundra permafrost landscapes in arctic regions. Ground data is essential for the evaluation of DUE Permafrost products and is provided by user groups and global networks. A major part of the DUE Permafrost core user group is contributing to GTN-P, the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost. Its main programmes, the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) have been thoroughly overhauled during the last International Polar Year (2007-2008). Their spatial coverage has been extended to provide a true circumpolar

  5. Particle Size Reduction in Geophysical Granular Flows: The Role of Rock Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, G.; Sklar, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Particle size reduction in geophysical granular flows is caused by abrasion and fragmentation, and can affect transport dynamics by altering the particle size distribution. While the Sternberg equation is commonly used to predict the mean abrasion rate in the fluvial environment, and can also be applied to geophysical granular flows, predicting the evolution of the particle size distribution requires a better understanding the controls on the rate of fragmentation and the size distribution of resulting particle fragments. To address this knowledge gap we are using single-particle free-fall experiments to test for the influence of particle size, impact velocity, and rock properties on fragmentation and abrasion rates. Rock types tested include granodiorite, basalt, and serpentinite. Initial particle masses and drop heights range from 20 to 1000 grams and 0.1 to 3.0 meters respectively. Preliminary results of free-fall experiments suggest that the probability of fragmentation varies as a power function of kinetic energy on impact. The resulting size distributions of rock fragments can be collapsed by normalizing by initial particle mass, and can be fit with a generalized Pareto distribution. We apply the free-fall results to understand the evolution of granodiorite particle-size distributions in granular flow experiments using rotating drums ranging in diameter from 0.2 to 4.0 meters. In the drums, we find that the rates of silt production by abrasion and gravel production by fragmentation scale with drum size. To compare these rates with free-fall results we estimate the particle impact frequency and velocity. We then use population balance equations to model the evolution of particle size distributions due to the combined effects of abrasion and fragmentation. Finally, we use the free-fall and drum experimental results to model particle size evolution in Inyo Creek, a steep, debris-flow dominated catchment, and compare model results to field measurements.

  6. Impacts of B-factory measurements on determination of fragmentation functions from electron-positron annihilation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kumano, S.; Saito, K.

    2016-11-01

    Fragmentation functions are determined for the pion and kaon by global analyses of charged-hadron production data in electron-positron annihilation. Accurate measurements were reported by the Belle and BaBar collaborations for the fragmentation functions at the center-of-mass energies of 10.52 and 10.54 GeV, respectively, at the KEK and SLAC B factories, whereas other available ee measurements were mostly done at higher energies, mainly at the Z mass of 91.2 GeV. There is a possibility that gluon fragmentation functions, as well as quark fragmentation functions, are accurately determined by scaling violation. We report our global analysis of the fragmentation functions especially to show impacts of the B-factory measurements on the fragmentation function determination. Our results indicate that the fragmentation functions are determined more accurately not only by the scaling violation but also by the high-statistical nature of the Belle and BaBar data. However, there are some tensions between the Belle and BaBar data in comparison with previous measurements. We also explain how the flavor dependence of quark fragmentation functions and the gluon function are separated by using measurements at different Q values. In particular, the electric and weak charges are different depending on the quark type, so that a light-quark flavor separation also became possible in principle due to the precise data at both √s ≃10.5 and 91.2 GeV.

  7. A methodology for the evaluation of the turbine jet engine fragment threat to generic air transportable containers

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D.C.; Pierce, J.D.

    1993-06-01

    Uncontained, high-energy gas turbine engine fragments are a potential threat to air-transportable containers carried aboard jet aircraft. The threat to a generic example container is evaluated by probability analyses and penetration testing to demonstrate the methodology to be used in the evaluation of a specific container/aircraft/engine combination. Fragment/container impact probability is the product of the uncontained fragment release rate and the geometric probability that a container is in the path of this fragment. The probability of a high-energy rotor burst fragment from four generic aircraft engines striking one of the containment vessels aboard a transport aircraft is approximately 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} strikes/hour. Finite element penetration analyses and tests can be performed to identify specific fragments which have the potential to penetrate a generic or specific containment vessel. The relatively low probability of engine fragment/container impacts is primarily due to the low release rate of uncontained, hazardous jet engine fragments.

  8. Production, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray analysis of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin complex consisting of troponin C and fragment (1-47) of troponin I.

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Y.; Takeda, S.; Scherer, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Maéda, Y.; Taniguchi, H.; Yao, M.; Wakatsuki, S.

    1997-01-01

    Troponin is a ternary protein complex consisting of subunits TnC. TnI, and TnT, and plays a key role in calcium regulation of the skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. In the present study, a partial complex (CI47) was prepared from Escherichia coli-expressed rabbit skeletal muscle TnC and fragment 1-47 of TnI, which is obtained by chemical cleavage of an E. coli-expressed mutant of rabbit skeletal muscle TnI. Within the ternary troponin complex, CI47 is thought to form a core that is resistant to proteolytic digestion, and the interaction within CI47 likely maintains the integrity of the troponin complex. Complex CI47 was crystallized in the presence of sodium citrate. The addition of trehalose improved the diffraction pattern of the crystals substantially. The crystal lattice belongs to the space group P3(1)(2)21, with unit cell dimensions a = b = 48.2 A, c = 162 A. The asymmetric unit presumably contains one CI47 complex. Soaking with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (PCMBS) resulted in loss of isomorphism, but enhanced the quality of the crystals. The crystals diffracted up to 2.3 A resolution, with completeness of 91% and R(merge) = 6.4%. The crystals of PCMBS-derivative should be suitable for X-ray studies using the multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction technique. This is the first step for elucidating the structure of the full troponin complex. PMID:9098903

  9. Production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a complex between a fragment of the TssM T6SS protein and a camelid nanobody

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van Son; Spinelli, Silvia; Desmyter, Aline; Le, Thi Thu Hang; Kellenberger, Christine; Cascales, Eric; Cambillau, Christian; Roussel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a machine evolved by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxin effectors into target bacterial or eukaryotic cells. The T6SS is functionally and structurally similar to the contractile tail of the Myoviridae family of bacteriophages and can be viewed as a syringe anchored to the bacterial membrane by a transenvelope complex. The membrane complex is composed of three proteins: the TssM and TssL inner membrane components and the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. The TssM protein is central as it interacts with both TssL and TssJ, therefore linking the membranes. Using controlled trypsinolysis, a 32.4 kDa C-terminal fragment of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli TssM (TssM32Ct) was purified. A nanobody obtained from llama immunization, nb25, exhibited subnanomolar affinity for TssM32Ct. Crystals of the TssM32Ct–nb25 complex were obtained and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P64, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.23, c = 172.95 Å. Molecular replacement with a model nanobody indicated the presence of a dimer of TssM32Ct–nb25 in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25760699

  10. Filamentary fragmentation in a turbulent medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hubber, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations investigating the evolution and fragmentation of filaments that are accreting from a turbulent medium. We show that the presence of turbulence and the resulting inhomogeneities in the accretion flow play a significant role in the fragmentation process. Filaments that experience a weakly turbulent accretion flow fragment in a two-tier hierarchical fashion, similar to the fragmentation pattern seen in the Orion Integral Shaped Filament. Increasing the energy in the turbulent velocity field results in more sub-structure within the filaments, and one sees a shift from gravity-dominated fragmentation to turbulence-dominated fragmentation. The sub-structure formed in the filaments is elongated and roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the filament, similar to the fibres seen in observations of Taurus, and suggests that the fray and fragment scenario is a possible mechanism for the production of fibres. We show that the formation of these fibre-like structures is linked to the vorticity of the velocity field inside the filament and the filament's accretion from an inhomogeneous medium. Moreover, we find that accretion is able to drive and sustain roughly sonic levels of turbulence inside the filaments, but is not able to prevent radial collapse once the filaments become supercritical. However, the supercritical filaments that contain fibre-like structures do not collapse radially, suggesting that fibrous filaments may not necessarily become radially unstable once they reach the critical line-density.

  11. Syntaxin 5 interacts with presenilin holoproteins, but not with their N- or C-terminal fragments, and affects β-amyloid peptide production

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in presenilins 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) account for the majority of cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. However, the trafficking and interaction of PSs with other proteins in the early secretory pathways are poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that PS bound to Syx5 (syntaxin 5), which is a target-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi vesicular transport in vivo. Syx5 interacted only with the full-length PS holoproteins and not with the naturally occurring N- or C-terminal fragments. The PS holoproteins co-immunoprecipitated with the mutant Syx5, which localized to the ER and Golgi compartments, despite the substitution of the transmembrane region with that of syntaxin 1A. In contrast, the transmembrane deletion mutant that localized to the cytosol, but not to the ER or Golgi compartments, did not co-immunoprecipitate the PS holoproteins. The PS1 variant linked to familial Alzheimer's disease (PS1ΔE9), lacking the region that contains the endoproteolytic cleavage site in the cytoplasmic loop, showed markedly decreased binding to Syx5. Immunofluorescence and sucrose-density-gradient fractionation analyses showed that the full-length PS holoproteins co-localized with Syx5 to the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Furthermore, Syx5 overexpression resulted in the accumulation of PS holoproteins and the β-amyloid precursor protein, and reduced the secretion of the Aβ (amyloid β) peptide in COS-7 cells. In summary, these results indicate that Syx5 binds to full-length PSs and affects the processing and trafficking of β-amyloid precursor protein in the early secretory compartments. PMID:15109302

  12. In silico protein fragmentation reveals the importance of critical nuclei on domain reassembly.

    PubMed

    Contreras Martínez, Lydia M; Borrero Quintana, Ernesto E; Escobedo, Fernando A; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2008-03-01

    Protein complementation assays (PCAs) based on split protein fragments have become powerful tools that facilitate the study and engineering of intracellular protein-protein interactions. These assays are based on the observation that a given protein can be split into two inactive fragments and these fragments can reassemble into the original properly folded and functional structure. However, one experimentally observed limitation of PCA systems is that the folding of a protein from its fragments is dramatically slower relative to that of the unsplit parent protein. This is due in part to a poor understanding of how PCA design parameters such as split site position in the primary sequence and size of the resulting fragments contribute to the efficiency of protein reassembly. We used a minimalist on-lattice model to analyze how the dynamics of the reassembly process for two model proteins was affected by the location of the split site. Our results demonstrate that the balanced distribution of the "folding nucleus," a subset of residues that are critical to the formation of the transition state leading to productive folding, between protein fragments is key to their reassembly.

  13. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  14. Soybean-fragmented proteoglycans against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Sánchez, Isabel; Suñer, Elisa; Sáez-Martín, L C; Coderch, Luisa

    2017-08-01

    The majority of age-dependent skin changes happen in the dermis layer inducing changes in skin collagen and in the proteoglycans. The main aim of this work is to study the efficacy of a Proteum serum, containing soybean-fragmented proteoglycans, against skin aging. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the Proteum serum ability on activating the production of collagen and proteoglycans. An in vivo long-term study was performed to determine the efficacy of the Proteum serum when applied on skin. Protection of healthy skin against detergent-induced dermatitis and the antioxidant properties of the applied Proteum serum were also studied. The in vitro tests demonstrated that the Proteum serum was able to elevate the production of molecules which are essential for supporting the dermal extracellular matrix organization. These results were correlated by the in vivo measurements where a clear trend on improving the measured skin parameters due to the Proteum serum application was found. A beneficial effect of the Proteum serum was demonstrated with an improvement in the skin roughness and a reinforcement of the skin barrier function. Moreover, a significant protector effect on human stratum corneum against lipids peroxides (LPO) was demonstrated.

  15. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks.

    PubMed

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  16. Quantum control of molecular fragmentation in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    Present advances in laser technology allow the production of ultrashort (<˜5 fs, approaching single cycle at 800 nm), intense tabletop laser pulses. At these high intensities laser-matter interactions cannot be described with perturbation theory since multiphoton processes are involved. This is in contrast to photodissociation by the absorption of a single photon, which is well described by perturbation theory. For example, at high intensities (<˜5x1013 W/cm2) the fragmentation of molecular hydrogen ions has been observed via the absorption of three or more photons. In another example, an intriguing dissociation mechanism has been observed where molecular hydrogen ions seem to fragment by apparently absorbing no photons. This is actually a two photon process, photoabsorption followed by stimulated emission, resulting in low energy fragments. We are interested in exploring these kinds of multiphoton processes. Our research group has studied the dynamics and control of fragmentation induced by strong laser fields in a variety of molecular targets. The main goal is to provide a basic understanding of fragmentation mechanisms and possible control schemes of benchmark systems such as H2+. This knowledge is further extended to more complex systems like the benchmark H3+ polyatomic and other molecules. In this dissertation, we report research based on two types of experiments. In the first part, we describe laser-induced fragmentation of molecular ion-beam targets. In the latter part, we discuss the formation of highly-excited neutral fragments from hydrogen molecules using ultrashort laser pulses. In carrying out these experiments, we have also extended experimental techniques beyond their previous capabilities. We have performed a few experiments to advance our understanding of laser-induced fragmentation of molecular-ion beams. For instance, we explored vibrationally resolved spectra of O2+ dissociation using various wavelengths. We observed a vibrational suppression

  17. The acoustic excitation of air bubbles fragmenting in sheared flow.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale

    2008-12-01

    An analysis of the acoustic emissions of air bubbles fragmenting in sheared fluid flow is presented. The fragmentation of bubbles into two products only is considered. While the measured pressure amplitude is highly variable, the partition of energy between fragmentation products is highly correlated. The partition of energy between products is, on average, approximately equal irrespective of the relative sizes of the bubble products. This observation suggests that the acoustic excitation mechanism is common to both bubbles immediately prior to fragmentation. A model for the excitation mechanism based on symmetric collapse of the neck of air joining fragmentation products is proposed and found to be sufficient to explain the range of observed bubble pulse amplitudes and the equal partition of energy.

  18. Fates of the dense cores formed by fragmentation of filaments: do they fragment again or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Yurina; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2017-08-01

    Fragmentation of filaments into dense cores is thought to be an important step in forming stars. The bar-mode instability of spherically collapsing cores found in previous linear analysis invokes a possibility of refragmentation of the cores due to their ellipsoidal (prolate or oblate) deformation. To investigate this possibility, here we perform three-dimensional self-gravitational hydrodynamics simulations that follow all the way from filament fragmentation to subsequent core collapse. We assume that the gas is polytropic with index γ, which determines the stability of the bar mode. For the case that the fragmentation of isolated hydrostatic filaments is triggered by the most unstable fragmentation mode, we find that the bar mode grows as collapse proceeds if γ < 1.1, in agreement with the linear analysis. However, it takes more than 10 orders-of-magnitude increase in the central density for the distortion to become non-linear. In addition to this fiducial case, we also study non-fiducial ones such as the fragmentation is triggered by a fragmentation mode with a longer wavelength and it occurs during radial collapse of filaments and find that the distortion rapidly grows. In most of astrophysical applications, the effective polytropic index of collapsing gas exceeds 1.1 before 10 orders-of-magnitude increase in the central density. Thus, supposing the fiducial case of filament fragmentation, refragmentation of dense cores would not be likely and their final mass would be determined when the filaments fragment.

  19. String Fragmentation Model in Space Radiation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Alfred; Johnson, Eloise (Editor); Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    String fragmentation models such as the Lund Model fit experimental particle production cross sections very well in the high-energy limit. This paper gives an introduction of the massless relativistic string in the Lund Model and shows how it can be modified with a simple assumption to produce formulas for meson production cross sections for space radiation research. The results of the string model are compared with inclusive pion production data from proton-proton collision experiments.

  20. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Treesearch

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  1. Enhanced Fragmentation Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Hardware Front Hardware Top Figure 8 Front View Top View The figure 8 shows a Lagrangian mesh from Ls- Dyna3D of this...predictions. Ls- Dyna3D has been shown to be extremely useful in predicting the trajectories of each fragment. Figure 11 shows this control and predictive

  2. Comment on diquark fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fredriksson, S.; Larsson, T.

    1983-07-01

    We discuss diquark fragmentation and suggest that a spectator uu system in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering has a larger breakup probability than a ud system. The reason for this is argued to be that half of the leftover ud systems are in bound (ud)/sub 0/ diquark configurations, while no such bound uu diquarks exist.

  3. Target fragmentation in radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Shinn, J.L.; Townsend, L.W.

    1993-02-01

    Nuclear reactions in biological systems produce low-energy fragments of the target nuclei seen as local high events of linear energy transfer (LET). A nuclear-reaction formalism is used to evaluate the nuclear-induced fields within biosystems and their effects within several biological models. On the basis of direct ionization interaction, one anticipates high-energy protons to have a quality factor and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of unity. Target fragmentation contributions raise the effective quality factor of 10 GeV protons to 3.3 in reasonable agreement with RBE values for induced micronuclei in bean sprouts. Application of the Katz model indicates that the relative increase in RBE with decreasing exposure observed in cell survival experiments with 160 MeV protons is related solely to target fragmentation events. Target fragment contributions to lens opacity given an RBE of 1.4 for 2 GeV protons in agreement with the work of Lett and Cox. Predictions are made for the effective RBE for Harderian gland tumors induced by high-energy protons. An exposure model for lifetime cancer risk is derived from NCRP 98 risk tables, and protraction effects are examined for proton and helium ion exposures. The implications of dose rate enhancement effects on space radiation protection are considered.

  4. Target fragmentation in radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear reactions in biological systems produce low-energy fragments of the target nuclei seen as local high events of linear energy transfer (LET). A nuclear-reaction formalism is used to evaluate the nuclear-induced fields within biosystems and their effects within several biological models. On the basis of direct ionization interaction, one anticipates high-energy protons to have a quality factor and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of unity. Target fragmentation contributions raise the effective quality factor of 10 GeV protons to 3.3 in reasonable agreement with RBE values for induced micronuclei in bean sprouts. Application of the Katz model indicates that the relative increase in RBE with decreasing exposure observed in cell survival experiments with 160 MeV protons is related solely to target fragmentation events. Target fragment contributions to lens opacity given an RBE of 1.4 for 2 GeV protons in agreement with the work of Lett and Cox. Predictions are made for the effective RBE for Harderian gland tumors induced by high-energy protons. An exposure model for lifetime cancer risk is derived from NCRP 98 risk tables, and protraction effects are examined for proton and helium ion exposures. The implications of dose rate enhancement effects on space radiation protection are considered.

  5. The Fragmentation of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have vastly increased access to information and educational opportunities. Steadily increasing consumer demand is driving the development of online educational materials. The end result may be a "fragmentation" of learning involving multiple learning providers and delivery modes,…

  6. A Novel Triethylphosphonium Charge Tag on Peptides: Synthesis, Derivatization, and Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Ward, Sarah A.; Reilly, James P.

    2017-09-01

    Charge tagging is a peptide derivatization process that commonly localizes a positive charge on the N-terminus. Upon low energy activation (e.g., collision-induced dissociation or post-source decay) of charge tagged peptides, relatively few fragment ions are produced due to the absence of mobile protons. In contrast, high energy fragmentation, such as 157 nm photodissociation, typically leads to a series of a-type ions. Disadvantages of existing charge tags are that they can produce mobile protons or that they are undesirably large and bulky. Here, we investigate a small triethylphosphonium charge tag with two different linkages: amide (158 Da) and amidine bonds (157 Da). Activation of peptides labeled with a triethylphosphonium charge tag through an amide bond can lead to loss of the charge tag and the production of protonated peptides. This enables low intensity fragment ions from both the protonated and charge tagged peptides to be observed. Triethylphosphonium charge tagged peptides linked through an amidine bond are more stable. Post-source decay and photodissociation yield product ions that primarily contain the charge tag. Certain amidine induced fragments are also observed. The previously reported tris(trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium acetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester charge tag shows a similar fragment ion distribution, but the mass of the triethylphosphonium tag label is 415 Da smaller. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Dissociation of CH4 and CD4 by electron impact - Production of metastable and high-Rydberg hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Wells, W. C.; Zipf, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and carbon atoms in metastable and high-lying Rydberg states by electron-impact dissociation of methane and deuterated methane is investigated for incident electron energies ranging from threshold values to 300 eV. Threshold energies for five different processes resulting in metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms are determined in the energy range from 20 to 70 eV, and it is shown that metastable hydrogen atoms are produced in four of these collisional processes while metastable carbon atoms are produced in the other. The nature of each collisional process is described, differential cross sections are derived for the dissociative excitation of both types of atoms to metastable and high-Rydberg states at 100 eV, and the onset energy for UV photon production is measured. Much of the data is interpreted in terms of the ion core model suggested by Kupriyanov (1968) and developed by Freund (1971).

  8. Fragmentation patterns of 4(5)-nitroimidazole and 1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole - the effect of the methylation.

    PubMed

    Itälä, Eero; Tanzer, Katrin; Granroth, Sari; Kooser, Kuno; Denifl, Stephan Paul; Kukk, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    We present here the photofragmentation patterns of doubly ionized 4(5)-nitroimidazole and 1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole. The doubly ionized state was created by core ionizing the C 1s orbitals of the samples, rapidly followed by Auger decay. Due to the recent development of nitroimidazole-based radiosensitizing drugs, core ionization was selected as it represents the very same processes taking place under the irradiation with medical X-rays. In addition to the fragmentation patterns of the sample, we study the effects of methylation on the fragmentation patterns of nitroimidazoles. We found that methylation alters the fragmentation significantly, especially the charge distribution between the final fragments. The most characteristic feature of the methylation is that it effectively quenches the production of NO and NO(+) , widely regarded as key radicals in the chemistry of radiosensitization by the nitroimidazoles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation.

  10. Site-specific fab fragment biotinylation at the conserved nucleotide binding site for enhanced Ebola detection.

    PubMed

    Mustafaoglu, Nur; Alves, Nathan J; Bilgicer, Basar

    2015-07-01

    The nucleotide binding site (NBS) is a highly conserved region between the variable light and heavy chains at the Fab domains of all antibodies, and a small molecule that we identified, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), binds specifically to this site. Fab fragment, with its small size and simple production methods compared to intact antibody, is good candidate for use in miniaturized diagnostic devices and targeted therapeutic applications. However, commonly used modification techniques are not well suited for Fab fragments as they are often more delicate than intact antibodies. Fab fragments are of particular interest for sensor surface functionalization but immobilization results in damage to the antigen binding site and greatly reduced activity due to their truncated size that allows only a small area that can bind to surfaces without impeding antigen binding. In this study, we describe an NBS-UV photocrosslinking functionalization method (UV-NBS(Biotin) in which a Fab fragment is site-specifically biotinylated with an IBA-EG11-Biotin linker via UV energy exposure (1 J/cm(2)) without affecting its antigen binding activity. This study demonstrates successful immobilization of biotinylated Ebola detecting Fab fragment (KZ52 Fab fragment) via the UV-NBS(Biotin) method yielding 1031-fold and 2-fold better antigen detection sensitivity compared to commonly used immobilization methods: direct physical adsorption and NHS-Biotin functionalization, respectively. Utilization of the UV-NBS(Biotin) method for site-specific conjugation to Fab fragment represents a proof of concept use of Fab fragment for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications with numerous fluorescent probes, affinity molecules and peptides.

  11. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-03-15

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  12. Unusual intraocular foreign bodies after an explosion: patient's hand bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Murat; Duzgun, E; Yildirim, Y; Ayata, A; Unal, M H

    2016-04-01

    A 26-year-old Turkish Army soldier underwent full ophthalmoscopic examination after a penetrating ocular injury in the left eye due to the accidental explosion of a detonating fuse during handling. Visual acuity of the left eye was hand motion level. Funduscopy revealed foreign bodies suspended in the vitreous gel and accompanying vitreous haemorrhage. B-scan ultrasonography, CT of the orbits and microscopic examination of the intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) were performed prior to removal of bone fragments and pars plana vitrectomy. The IOFBs were fragments of the patients' bone tissue. Bone fragments from victim's body may cause IOFBs after an explosion in military personnel. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Future change in global fisheries biomass and harvest due to changes in temperature and primary production: A study with a simple global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, D.; Carozza, D. A.; Galbraith, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    The overharvesting of living marine resources and the global-scale environmental alterations due to climate change are expected to have significant negative impacts on fish biomass over the 21st century. We use the BiOeconomic mArine Trophic Size-spectrum (BOATS) model, together with future scenarios from global climate models to examine the interactive effects of ocean warming and net primary production changes on global fish biomass, with and without economic harvest. In an unharvested world, we find that a reduction of net primary production and a rise in temperature have important negative impacts, reducing biomass by approximately 30% under the RCP8.5 scenario by year 2100. In BOATS, the biomass decrease is dominated by a large increase of fish mortality due to the increase in temperature, which shrinks the standing stock of biomass despite more rapid growth rates. However, under harvest, climate change plays a less important role. With harvest, net primary production becomes less important in limiting fish growth since there is more food available per fish. Moreover, harvest replaces natural fish mortality and limits the ability of temperature to affect mortality rates, thereby mitigating the effects of warming. The negative impact of climate warming is entirely eliminated in a future scenario in which rapid increases in fishing technology and weak management lead to a catastrophic decrease of fish biomass. It is important to point out that BOATS does not attempt to resolve the effects of ocean acidification or deoxygenation, or the impacts that harvesting and climate change can have on ecosystem structure and habitat quality, all of which may exacerbate future fish biomass decreases. Nonetheless, our results suggest that the future of global fisheries will be mostly determined by fisheries management strategies, with the effects of climate change on net primary production and metabolic rates playing a secondary role.

  14. Radiation hardening and -embrittlement due to He production in F82H steel irradiated at 250 °C in JMTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakai, E.; Jitsukawa, S.; Tomita, H.; Furuya, K.; Sato, M.; Oka, K.; Tanaka, T.; Takada, F.; Yamamoto, T.; Kato, Y.; Tayama, Y.; Shiba, K.; Ohnuki, S.

    2005-08-01

    The dependence of helium production on radiation hardening and -embrittlement has been examined in a reduced-activation martensitic F82H steel (8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.04Ta-0.1C) irradiated at 250 °C to 2.3 dpa. In this study, 10B and 11B-doped specimens were irradiated to minimize the errors from the effect of B on mechanical properties by comparing the results. The specimens used were 10B-doped, 10B + 11B-doped and 11B-doped F82H steels. The total amounts of doping boron were about 60 mass ppm. The range of helium concentration produced in the specimens was from about 5 to about 330 appm. Tensile and fracture toughness tests were performed after neutron irradiation. 50 MeV-He 2+ irradiation was also performed to implant about 85 appm He atoms at 120 °C by AVF cyclotron to 0.03 dpa, and small punch testing was performed to obtain ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT). Radiation hardening of the neutron-irradiated specimens increased slightly with increasing helium production. The 100 MPa m 1/2 DBTT for the F82H + 11B, F82H + 10B + 11B, and F82H + 10B specimens were 40, 110, and 155 °C, respectively. The shifts of DBTT due to helium production were evaluated as about 70 °C by 190 appm He and 115 °C by 330 appm He. In cyclotron experiment using standard F82H, a similar DBTT shift due to He was measured. These results suggest that helium production can increase the DBTT.

  15. Assessment of Fragmentation Performance of Blast-enhanced Explosive Fragmentation Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    aluminized blast-enhanced PAX-Al composition. The experimental assessment of the fragmentation performance of tested charges was accomplished using...charges, rapid expansion of high pressure detonation products results in high-strain high-strain-rate dilation of the hardened steel shell, which...eventually ruptures generating a “spray” of high-velocity steel fragments. Defining the longitudinal axis of the munition as the polar axis z, the

  16. Statistical models of brittle fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    Recent developments in statistical models for fragmentation of brittle material are reviewed. The generic objective of these models is understanding the origin of the fragment size distributions (FSDs) that result from fracturing brittle material. Brittle fragmentation can be divided into two categories: (1) Instantaneous fragmentation for which breakup generations are not distinguishable and (2) continuous fragmentation for which generations of chronological fragment breakups can be identified. This categorization becomes obvious in mining industry applications where instantaneous fragmentation refers to blasting of rock and continuous fragmentation to the consequent crushing and grinding of the blasted rock fragments. A model of unstable cracks and crack-branch merging contains both of the FSDs usually related to instantaneous fragmentation: the scale invariant FSD with the power exponent (2-1/D) and the double exponential FSD which relates to Poisson process fragmentation. The FSDs commonly related to continuous fragmentation are: the lognormal FSD originating from uncorrelated breakup and the power-law FSD which can be modeled as a cascade of breakups. Various solutions to the generic rate equation of continuous fragmentation are briefly listed. Simulations of crushing experiments reveal that both cascade and uncorrelated fragmentations are possible, but that also a mechanism of maximizing packing density related to Apollonian packing may be relevant for slow compressive crushing.

  17. Analysis of the main optical mechanisms responsible for fragmentation of gold nanoparticles by femtosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Videla, F. A.; Schinca, D. C.; Scaffardi, L. B.; Torchia, G. A.; Moreno, P.; Roso, L.

    2010-06-15

    Studies of fragmentation process of gold nanoparticles (Nps) in deionized water after generation by femtosecond laser ablation were performed. To analyze the fragmentation process, direct IR ultrafast pulses or super-continuum (SC) radiation focused in the colloidal solution were used in separate steps. IR pulses and SC generated externally in a sapphire crystal or directly inside the water were applied under low fluence regime. In the latter cases, to evaluate the effect on fragmentation of the different spectral bands present in the SC, we have determined different efficiency regions characterized by means of the product between the spectral response and the optical extinction spectrum corresponding to the initial Nps solution. From the analysis of this product function, we can conclude that the main fragmentation mechanism is due to linear absorption in the visible region. Likewise, the SC generated in water resulted more efficient than the SC obtained externally by a sapphire crystal. This fact may be attributed to the blue broadening of the water SC spectrum (as compared with the sapphire SC) due to the large intensity used for its generation. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering measurements support the results found from optical extinction spectroscopy.

  18. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  19. Active immunization with a synthetic fragment of pig inhibin alpha-subunit increases ovulation rate and embryo production in superovulated ewes but season affects its efficiency.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Martemucci, G; Iaffaldano, N

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the effects of active immunization against one of two synthetic peptides from humans (inhibin-like peptide) or pigs (inhibin alpha-subunit) on antibody titres, ovulation rate and embryo production in ewes superovulated with 16 U ovine FSH. In Expt 1, during the breeding season, 30 ewes were subdivided into three groups: group I served as the non-immunized control; group II was immunized against inhibin-like peptide (100 micrograms inhibin-like peptide equivalent, followed by three booster injections); group III was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit conjugated to human serum albumin (96 micrograms for the primary administration and 46 micrograms for the booster). In Expt 2, the efficiency of immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit on ovarian response and embryo production was evaluated during the non-breeding season in two groups of ewes (n = 12): group IV was a non-immunized control; Group V was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit. During the breeding season, the ewes immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit showed higher antibody titres compared with the group immunized against inhibin-like peptide (P < 0.01) and a significant increase in ovulation rate (12.1) compared with both the control (5.0; P < 0.05) and the inhibin-like peptide-immunized group (3.1; P < 0.01). Immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit increased transferable embryo yield 4.5-fold (6.7 versus 1.5; P < 0.01) and improved embryo quality (94.6 versus 40.6%; P < 0.01). During the non-breeding season, immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit enhanced ovulation rate from 2.6 in the controls to 9.4 (P < 0.01) but did not affect transferable embryo production (3.9 versus 2.1; P > 0.05) and significantly lowered their quality (54.1 versus 100%; P < 0.01). In conclusion, active immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit can improve superovulatory response during the breeding season, while it appears to be unable to

  20. Research on the photoelectric measuring method of warhead fragment velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji; Yu, Lixia; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-09-01

    The velocity of warhead fragment is the key criteria to determine its mutilation efficiency. But owing to the small size, larger quantity, irregular shape, high speed, arbitrary direction, large dispersion of warhead fragment and adverse environment, the test of fragment velocity parameter is very difficult. The paper designed an optoelectronic system to measure the average velocity of warhead fragments accurately. The apparatus included two parallel laser screens spaced apart at a known fixed distance for providing time measurement between start and stop signals. The large effective screen area was composed of laser source, retro-reflector and large area photo-diode. Whenever a moving fragment interrupted two optical screens, the system would generate a target signal. Due to partial obscuration of the incident energy and the poor test condition of the explosion, fragment target signal is easily disturbed. Therefore, fragments signal processing technology has become a key technology of the system. The noise of signal was reduced by employing wavelet decomposition and reconstruction. The time of fragment passing though the target was obtained by adopting peak detection algorithm. Based on the method of search peak in different width scale and waveform trend by using optima wavelet, the problem of rolling waveform was solved. Lots of fragments experiments of the different types of the warheads were conducted. Experimental results show that: warhead fragments capture rate of system is better than 98%, which can give velocity of each fragment in the density of less than 20 pieces per m2.

  1. Fragmentation of Fractal Random Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elçi, Eren Metin; Weigel, Martin; Fytas, Nikolaos G.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the fragmentation behavior of random clusters on the lattice under a process where bonds between neighboring sites are successively broken. Modeling such structures by configurations of a generalized Potts or random-cluster model allows us to discuss a wide range of systems with fractal properties including trees as well as dense clusters. We present exact results for the densities of fragmenting edges and the distribution of fragment sizes for critical clusters in two dimensions. Dynamical fragmentation with a size cutoff leads to broad distributions of fragment sizes. The resulting power laws are shown to encode characteristic fingerprints of the fragmented objects.

  2. Production of an anti-Aβ antibody fragment in Pichia pastoris and in vitro and in vivo validation of its therapeutic effect.

    PubMed

    Montoliu-Gaya, Laia; Esquerda-Canals, Gisela; Bronsoms, Silvia; Villegas, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    ScFv-h3D6 has been shown as an efficient therapy in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease. Because one of the major bottlenecks for the therapeutic uses of proteins produced in Escherichia coli is their potential contamination with endotoxins, LPS were extensively removed by a rather low-efficient, expensive, and time-consuming purification step. In addition, disulfide scrambling is favored in the reducing bacterial cytoplasm albeit the use of reductase deficient strains. To overcome these hurdles, as well as to improve the yield, the yeast Pichia pastoris, an endotoxin-free host system for recombinant protein production, has been used to produce scFv-h3D6, both in flask and in a fed-batch bioreactor. Comparison of the thermal stability of the obtained protein with that from E. coli showed no differences. Opposite to the case of the protein obtained from E. coli, no disulfide scrambled conformations or LPS traces were detected in that produced in P. pastoris. Cytotoxicity assays in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell-cultures demonstrated that proteins from both expression systems were similarly efficient in precluding Aβ-induced toxicity. Finally, the 3xTg-AD mouse model was used to test the therapeutic effect of both proteins. Quantification of Aβ levels from cortex and hippocampus protein extracts by ELISA, and Aβ-immunohistochemistry, showed that both proteins reduced Aβ burden. This work demonstrates that scFv-h3D6 obtained from P. pastoris shows the same benefits as those already known for that obtained from E. coli, with multiple advantages in terms of recombinant production and safety.

  3. Production of an anti-Aβ antibody fragment in Pichia pastoris and in vitro and in vivo validation of its therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Montoliu-Gaya, Laia; Esquerda-Canals, Gisela; Bronsoms, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    ScFv-h3D6 has been shown as an efficient therapy in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Because one of the major bottlenecks for the therapeutic uses of proteins produced in Escherichia coli is their potential contamination with endotoxins, LPS were extensively removed by a rather low-efficient, expensive, and time-consuming purification step. In addition, disulfide scrambling is favored in the reducing bacterial cytoplasm albeit the use of reductase deficient strains. To overcome these hurdles, as well as to improve the yield, the yeast Pichia pastoris, an endotoxin-free host system for recombinant protein production, has been used to produce scFv-h3D6, both in flask and in a fed-batch bioreactor. Comparison of the thermal stability of the obtained protein with that from E. coli showed no differences. Opposite to the case of the protein obtained from E. coli, no disulfide scrambled conformations or LPS traces were detected in that produced in P. pastoris. Cytotoxicity assays in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell-cultures demonstrated that proteins from both expression systems were similarly efficient in precluding Aβ-induced toxicity. Finally, the 3xTg-AD mouse model was used to test the therapeutic effect of both proteins. Quantification of Aβ levels from cortex and hippocampus protein extracts by ELISA, and Aβ-immunohistochemistry, showed that both proteins reduced Aβ burden. This work demonstrates that scFv-h3D6 obtained from P. pastoris shows the same benefits as those already known for that obtained from E. coli, with multiple advantages in terms of recombinant production and safety. PMID:28771492

  4. Electroeluting DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Zarzosa-Alvarez, Ana L; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Torres-Huerta, Ana L; Bermudez-Cruz, Rosa M

    2010-09-05

    Purified DNA fragments are used for different purposes in Molecular Biology and they can be prepared by several procedures. Most of them require a previous electrophoresis of the DNA fragments in order to separate the band of interest. Then, this band is excised out from an agarose or acrylamide gel and purified by using either: binding and elution from glass or silica particles, DEAE-cellulose membranes, "crush and soak method", electroelution or very often expensive commercial purification kits. Thus, selecting a method will depend mostly of what is available in the laboratory. The electroelution procedure allows one to purify very clean DNA to be used in a large number of applications (sequencing, radiolabeling, enzymatic restriction, enzymatic modification, cloning etc). This procedure consists in placing DNA band-containing agarose or acrylamide slices into sample wells of the electroeluter, then applying current will make the DNA fragment to leave the agarose and thus be trapped in a cushion salt to be recovered later by ethanol precipitation.

  5. Heterologous production, isolation, characterization and crystallization of a soluble fragment of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Kohlstädt, Markus; Dörner, Katerina; Labatzke, Ramona; Koç, Cengiz; Heilscher, Ruth; Schiltz, Emile; Einsle, Oliver; Hellwig, Petra; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2008-12-09

    The proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the first enzyme complex of the respiratory chains in many bacteria and most eukaryotes. It is the least understood of all, due to its enormous size and unique energy conversion mechanism. The bacterial complex is in general made up of 14 different subunits named NuoA-N. Subunits NuoE, -F, and -G comprise the electron input part of the complex. We have cloned these genes from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus and expressed them heterologously in Escherichia coli. A soluble subcomplex made up of NuoE and NuoF and containing the NADH binding site, the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide (FMN), the binuclear iron-sulfur cluster N1a, and the tetranuclear iron-sulfur cluster N3 was isolated by chromatographic methods. The proteins were identified by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry; the cofactors were characterized by UV/vis and EPR spectroscopy. Subunit NuoG was not produced in this strain. The preparation was thermostable and exhibited maximum NADH/ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity at 85 degrees C. Analytical size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed the homogeneity of the preparation. First attempts to crystallize the preparation led to crystals diffracting more than 2 A.

  6. Production of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in acute phase of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection: a case report of a child.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Keiko; Okuno, Keisuke; Ochi, Marika; Kumata, Keisuke; Sano, Hitoshi; Yoneda, Naohiro; Ueyama, Jun-Ichi; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Kanzaki, Susumu; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Various autoantibodies have been reported to be detected during the progression of infectious mononucleosis. We observed a case of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection for 2 months, and noticed the transiently increased titer of thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies detected at the acute phase on the 3rd day after admission. At that time, real-time quantitative PCR also revealed the mRNA expressions of an immediate early lytic gene, BZLF1, and a latent gene, EBNA2. The expression of BZLF1 mRNA means that Epstein-Barr virus infects lytically, and EBNA2 protein has an important role in antibody production as well as the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus latency. These results suggest that Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection is relevant to thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies stimulate thyroid follicular cells to produce excessive thyroid hormones and cause Graves' disease. Recently, we reported the thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production from thyrotropin receptor autoantibody-predisposed Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells by the induction of Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection in vitro. This case showed in vivo findings consistent with our previous reports, and is important to consider the pathophysiology of Graves' disease and one of the mechanisms of autoimmunity.

  7. Caprine and ovine Greek dairy products: The official German method generates false-positive results due to κ-casein gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Tsartsianidou, V; Triantafillidou, D; Karaiskou, N; Tarantili, P; Triantafillidis, G; Georgakis, E; Triantafyllidis, A

    2017-03-16

    Caseins are widely used for species identification of dairy products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of para-κ-casein peptide is used as the official German method for the differentiation between caprine (isoform A) and ovine (isoform B) dairy products, based on their different isoelectric points. The discrimination between Greek goat and ewe dairy products using IEF has, however, been shown to be problematic because of the existence of the ewe isoform in milk from Greek indigenous dairy goats. This could be due to nucleotide polymorphisms within the goat κ-casein gene of Greek indigenous breeds, which alter the isoelectric point of the para-κ-casein peptide and lead to false positive results. Previous DNA analysis of the goat κ-casein gene has shown high levels of polymorphism; however, no such information is available for Greek indigenous dairy goats. Therefore, 87 indigenous dairy goats were sequenced at exon IV of κ-casein gene. In total, 9 polymorphic sites were detected. Three nonsynonymous point mutations were identified, which change the isoelectric point of the goat para-κ-casein peptide so that it appears identical to that of the ewe peptide. Ten composite genotypes were reconstructed and 6 of them included the problematic point mutations. For the verification of genetic results, IEF was carried out. Both goat and ewe patterns appeared in the problematic genotypes. The frequency of these genotypes could be characterized as moderate (0.23) to high (0.60) within Greek indigenous breeds. However, this is not an issue restricted to Greece, as such genotypes have been detected in various non-Greek goat breeds. In conclusion, IEF based on the official German method is certainly inappropriate for ovine and caprine discrimination concerning Greek dairy goat products, and consequently a new method should be established.

  8. Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D'Enterria, Valeria Muccifora

    2009-12-01

    We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.

  9. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  10. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  11. Fragmentation of Kozai-Lidov Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wen; Lubow, Stephen H.; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the gravitational instability (GI) of a locally isothermal inclined disk around one component of a binary system. Such a disk can undergo global Kozai-Lidov (KL) cycles if the initial disk tilt is above the critical KL angle (of about 40◦). During these cycles, an initially circular disk exchanges its inclination for eccentricity, and vice versa. Self-gravity may suppress the cycles under some circumstances. However, with hydrodynamic simulations that include self-gravity, we show that for a sufficiently high initial disk tilts and for certain disk masses, disks can undergo KL oscillations and fragment due to GI, even when the Toomre Q value for an equivalent undisturbed disk is well within the stable regime (Q> 2). We suggest that KL triggered disk fragmentation provides a mechanism for the efficient formation of giant planets in binary systems and may enhance the fragmentation of disks in massive black hole binaries.

  12. Fragmented-condensate solid of dipolar excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    We discuss a possible link between the recently observed macroscopic ordering of ultracold dipolar excitons (MOES) and the phenomenon of supersolidity. In the dilute limit we predict a stable supersolid state for a quasi-one-dimensional system of bosonic dipoles characterized by two- and three-body contact repulsion. We phenomenologically extend our theory to the strongly-correlated regime and find a critical value of the contact interaction parameter at which the supersolid exhibits a quantum phase transition to a fragmented state. The wavelength of the fragmented-condensate solid is defined by the balance between the quantum pressure and the entropy due to fluctuations of the relative phases between the fragments. Our model appears to be in good agreement with the relevant experimental data, including the very recent results on commensurability effect and wavelength of the MOES.

  13. Micromachined fragment capturer for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2011-11-01

    Due to changes in modern diet, a form of heart disease called chronic total occlusion has become a serious disease to be treated as an emergency. In this study, we propose a micromachined capturer that is designed and fabricated to collect plaque fragments generated during surgery to remove the thrombus. The fragment capturer consists of a plastic body made by rapid prototyping, SU-8 mesh structures using MEMS techniques, and ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators. An array of IPMC actuators combined with the SU-8 net structure was optimized to effectively collect plaque fragments. The evaporation of solvent through the actuator's surface was prevented using a coating of SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane thin film on the actuator. This approach improved the available operating time of the IPMC, which primarily depends on solvent loss. Our preliminary results demonstrate the possibility of using the capturer for biomedical applications.

  14. Micromachined fragment capturer for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2011-11-01

    Due to changes in modern diet, a form of heart disease called chronic total occlusion has become a serious disease to be treated as an emergency. In this study, we propose a micromachined capturer that is designed and fabricated to collect plaque fragments generated during surgery to remove the thrombus. The fragment capturer consists of a plastic body made by rapid prototyping, SU-8 mesh structures using MEMS techniques, and ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators. An array of IPMC actuators combined with the SU-8 net structure was optimized to effectively collect plaque fragments. The evaporation of solvent through the actuator's surface was prevented using a coating of SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane thin film on the actuator. This approach improved the available operating time of the IPMC, which primarily depends on solvent loss. Our preliminary results demonstrate the possibility of using the capturer for biomedical applications.

  15. Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure: 2. Year 2030 potential crop production losses and economic damage under two scenarios of O 3 pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Liu, Junfeng; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2011-04-01

    We examine the potential global risk of increasing surface ozone (O 3) exposure to three key staple crops (soybean, maize, and wheat) in the near future (year 2030) according to two trajectories of O 3 pollution: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A2 and B1 storylines, which represent upper- and lower-boundary projections, respectively, of most O 3 precursor emissions in 2030. We use simulated hourly O 3 concentrations from the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 2.4 (MOZART-2), satellite-derived datasets of agricultural production, and field-based concentration:response relationships to calculate crop yield reductions resulting from O 3 exposure. We then calculate the associated crop production losses and their economic value. We compare our results to the estimated impact of O 3 on global agriculture in the year 2000, which we assessed in our companion paper [Avnery et al., 2011]. In the A2 scenario we find global year 2030 yield loss of wheat due to O 3 exposure ranges from 5.4 to 26% (a further reduction in yield of +1.5-10% from year 2000 values), 15-19% for soybean (reduction of +0.9-11%), and 4.4-8.7% for maize (reduction of +2.1-3.2%) depending on the metric used, with total global agricultural losses worth 17-35 billion USD 2000 annually (an increase of +6-17 billion in losses from 2000). Under the B1 scenario, we project less severe but still substantial reductions in yields in 2030: 4.0-17% for wheat (a further decrease in yield of +0.1-1.8% from 2000), 9.5-15% for soybean (decrease of +0.7-1.0%), and 2.5-6.0% for maize (decrease of + 0.3-0.5%), with total losses worth 12-21 billion annually (an increase of +1-3 billion in losses from 2000). Because our analysis uses crop data from the year 2000, which likely underestimates agricultural production in 2030 due to the need to feed a population increasing from approximately 6 to 8 billion people between 2000 and 2030, our

  16. History of on-orbit satellite fragmentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauer, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in Jun. 1961, and instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400 percent, the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970's and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980's served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Plans for large, manned space stations in the next decade and beyond demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population. The contribution of satellite fragmentations to the growth of the Earth satellite population is complex and varied. The majority of detectable fragmentation debris have already fallen out of orbit, and the effects of 40 percent of all fragmentations have completely disappeared. In this volume, satellite fragmentations are categorized by their assessed nature and to a lesser degree by their effect on the near-Earth space environment. A satellite breakup is the usually destructive disassociation of an orbital payload, rocket body, or structure, often with a wide range of ejecta velocities. A satellite breakup may be accidental or the result of intentional actions, e.g., due to a propulsion system malfunction or a space weapons test, respectively. An anomalous event is the unplanned separation, usually at low velocity, of one or more detectable objects from a satellite which remains essentially intact. Anomalous events can be caused by material deterioration of items such as thermal blankets, protective shields, or solar panels. As a general rule, a satellite breakup will produce considerably more debris, both trackable and non-trackable, than an anomalous event. From one perspective, satellite breakups may be viewed as a measure of the effects of man's activity on the environment, while anomalous

  17. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, M; Rap, A; Reddington, C L; Spracklen, D V; Gloor, M; Buermann, W

    2016-08-16

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998-2010. Hereby, the substantial increases in fossil fuel aerosol emissions and plant carbon uptake over East Asia were effectively canceled by opposing trends across Europe and North America. This suggests that if the recent increase in the land carbon sink would be causally linked to fossil fuel emissions, it is unlikely via the effect of aerosols but due to other factors such as nitrogen deposition or nitrogen-carbon interactions.

  18. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, M.; Rap, A.; Reddington, C. L.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, M.; Buermann, W.

    2016-08-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998-2010. Hereby, the substantial increases in fossil fuel aerosol emissions and plant carbon uptake over East Asia were effectively canceled by opposing trends across Europe and North America. This suggests that if the recent increase in the land carbon sink would be causally linked to fossil fuel emissions, it is unlikely via the effect of aerosols but due to other factors such as nitrogen deposition or nitrogen-carbon interactions.

  19. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century

    PubMed Central

    Rap, A.; Reddington, C. L.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, M.; Buermann, W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998–2010. Hereby, the substantial increases in fossil fuel aerosol emissions and plant carbon uptake over East Asia were effectively canceled by opposing trends across Europe and North America. This suggests that if the recent increase in the land carbon sink would be causally linked to fossil fuel emissions, it is unlikely via the effect of aerosols but due to other factors such as nitrogen deposition or nitrogen‐carbon interactions. PMID:27773953

  20. Fragmentation Cross Sections of 290 and 400 MeV/nucleon 12C Beamson Elemental Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, C.; Guetersloh, S.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Fukumura,A.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.

    2007-03-17

    Charge-changing and fragment production cross sections at 0circ have been obtained for interactions of 290 MeV/nucleon and 400MeV/nucleon carbon beams with C, CH2, Al, Cu, Sn, and Pb targets. Thesebeams are relevant to cancer therapy, space radiation, and the productionof radioactive beams. We compare to previously published results using Cand CH2 targets at similar beam energies. Due to ambiguities arising fromthe presence of multiple fragments on many events, previous publicationshave reported only cross sections for B and Be fragments. In this work wehave extracted cross sections for all fragment species, using dataobtained at three distinct values of angular acceptance, supplemented bydata taken with the detector stack placed off the beam axis. A simulationof the experiment with the PHITS Monte Carlo code shows fair agreementwith the data obtained with the large acceptance detectors, but agreementis poor at small acceptance. The measured cross sections are alsocompared to the predictions of the one-dimensional cross section modelsEPAX2 and NUCFRG2; the latter is presently used in NASA's space radiationtransport calculations. Though PHITS and NUCFRG2 reproduce thecharge-changing cross sections with reasonable accuracy, none of themodels is able to accurately predict the fragment cross sections for allfragment species and target materials.

  1. Emission angle dependence of fission fragment spin: Effects of single particle spin and tilting mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, T.; Naik, H.; Dange, S. P.

    1995-06-01

    The high-spin yield fraction (HSF) for the fission product 132Im,g has been measured as a function of fragment emission angle (90° >=Θ>=10°) in the 237Np(α29 MeV,f) system. It was seen that the HSF for 132I or corresponding fragment (~=134I) spin initially decreases as emission angle decreases from 90° to ~=45° and then steadily increases at lower angles (Θ<45°). Contrary to the present observation in odd-Z 241Am fission, earlier we had observed that fragment spin continuously decreases to a limit with decrease in emission angle from 90° to 20° in even-even 242Pu fission. These data have been analyzed in the framework of the collective mode model invoking the effect of single particle spin. It is seen that for an odd-Z or A fissioning nucleus, angular variation of fragment spin could be accounted for on the basis of coupling between the odd nucleon spin (j>=k~=4ħ) projections and spin due to the collective rotational (tilting) degrees. Collective rotational degrees govern fragment spin for even-even fissioning nucleus.

  2. Modelling of the Pele Fragmentation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verreault, Jimmy

    2013-06-01

    The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a large Poisson's ratio. Upon an impact with a target, the axial compression causes the filling to expand in the radial direction. However, due to the brittleness of the jacket material, very little radial deformation can occur which creates a radial stress between the two materials and a hoop stress in the jacket. Fragmentation of the jacket occurs if the hoop stress exceeds the material's ultimate stress. The PELE fragmentation dynamics is explored via Finite-Element Method (FEM) simulations using the AUTODYN explicit dynamics hydrocode. The numerical results are compared with an analytical model based on wave interactions, as well as with the experimental investigation of Paulus and Schirm (1996). The comparison is based on the mechanical stress in the filling, the resulting radial velocity of the fragments, the number of fragments generated and their mass distribution.

  3. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-30

    The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30 - 50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3 - 4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large.

  4. Simvastatin inhibits CD44 fragmentation in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Terabe, Kenya; Takahashi, Nobunori; Takemoto, Toki; Knudson, Warren; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    In human osteoarthritic chondrocytes, the hyaluronan receptor CD44 undergoes proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface. CD44 cleavage is thought to require transit of CD44 into cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statins exert a protective effect on articular chondrocytes due to diminution of cholesterol. Three model systems of chondrocytes were examined including human HCS-2/8 chondrosarcoma cells, human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and normal bovine articular chondrocytes. Treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M resulted in a substantial increase in CD44 fragmentation in each of the three chondrocyte models. Pre-incubation with simvastatin prior to treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M decreased the level of CD44 fragmentation, decreased the proportion of CD44 that transits into the lipid raft fractions, decreased ADAM10 activity and diminished the interaction between CD44 and ADAM10. In HCS-2/8 cells and bovine articular chondrocytes, fragmentation of CD44 was blocked by the knockdown of ADAM10. Inhibition of CD44 fragmentation by simvastatin also resulted in improved retention of pericellular matrix. Addition of cholesterol and farnesyl-pyrophosphate reversed the protective effects of simvastatin. Thus, the addition of simvastatin exerts positive effects on chondrocytes including reduced CD44 fragmentation and enhanced the retention of pericellular matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gas-Phase Fragmentation Analysis of Nitro-Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Bonacci, Gustavo; Asciutto, Eliana K.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in increased amounts during inflammation by nitric oxide and nitrite-dependent redox reactions. A more rigorous characterization of endogenously-generated species requires additional understanding of their gas-phase induced fragmentation. Thus, collision induced dissociation (CID) of nitroalkane and nitroalkene groups in fatty acids were studied in the negative ion mode to provide mass spectrometric tools for their structural characterization. Fragmentation of nitroalkanes occurred mainly through loss of the NO2− anion or neutral loss of HNO2. The CID of nitroalkenes proceeds via a more complex cyclization, followed by fragmentation to nitrile and aldehyde products. Gas-phase fragmentation of nitroalkene functional groups with additional γ or δ unsaturation occurred through a multiple step cyclization reaction process, leading to 5 and 6 member ring heterocyclic products and carbon chain fragmentation. Cyclization products were not obtained during nitroalkane fragmentation, highlighting the role of double bond π electrons during NO2− rearrangements, stabilization and heterocycle formation. The proposed structures, mechanisms and products of fragmentation are supported by analysis of 13C and 15N labeled parent molecules, 6 different nitroalkene positional isomers, 6 nitroalkane positional isomers, accurate mass determinations at high resolution and quantum mechanics calculations. Multiple key diagnostic ion fragments were obtained through this analysis, allowing for the precise placement of double bonds and sites of fatty acid nitration, thus supporting an ability to predict nitro positions in biological samples. PMID:21953257

  6. Transversity from two pion interference fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    She Jun; Huang Yang; Barone, Vincenzo; Ma Boqiang

    2008-01-01

    We present calculation on the azimuthal spin asymmetries for pion pair production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) process at both HERMES and COMPASS kinematics, with transversely polarized proton, deuteron, and neutron targets. We calculate the asymmetry by adopting a set of parametrization of the interference fragmentation functions and two different models for the transversity. We find that the result for the proton target is insensitive to the approaches of the transversity but more helpful to understand the interference fragmentation functions. However, for the neutron target, which can be obtained through using deuteron and {sup 3}He targets, we find different predictions for different approaches to the transversity. Thus probing the two pion interference fragmentation from the neutron can provide us more interesting information on the transversity.

  7. Heterogeneous fragmentation of metallic liquid microsheet with high velocity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An-Min, He; Pei, Wang; Jian-Li, Shao

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of metallic liquid sheets with high velocity gradient. Dynamic fragmentation of the system involves the formation of a network of fragments due to the growth and coalescence of holes, decomposition of the network into filaments, and further breakup of the filaments into spherical clusters. The final size distribution of the fragmented clusters in the large volume limit is found to obey a bilinear exponential form, which is resulted from the heterogeneous breakup of quasi-cylindrical filaments. The main factors contributing to fragmentation heterogeneity are introduced, including strain rate inhomogeneity and matter distribution nonuniformity of fragments produced during decomposition of the network structure. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013A0201010 and 2015B0201039) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402032).

  8. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Due to Achromobacter spp. in a Geriatric Ward in China: Clinical Characteristic, Genome Variability, Biofilm Production, Antibiotic Resistance and Integron in Isolated Strains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Pan, Fei; Guo, Jun; Yan, Weifeng; Jin, Yi; Liu, Changting; Qin, Long; Fang, Xiangqun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) due to Achromobacter has become a substantial concern in recent years. However, HAP due to Achromobacter in the elderly is rare. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 15 elderly patients with HAP due to Achromobacter spp., in which the sequence types (STs), integrons, biofilm production and antibiotic resistance of the Achromobacter spp. were examined. Results: The mean age of the 15 elderly patients was 88.8 ± 5.4 years. All patients had at least three underlying diseases and catheters. Clinical outcomes improved in 10 of the 15 patients after antibiotic and/or mechanical ventilation treatment, but three patients had chronic infections lasting more than 1 year. The mortality rate was 33.3% (5/15). All strains were resistant to aminoglycosides, aztreonam, nitrofurantoin, and third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (except ceftazidime and cefoperazone). Six new STs were detected. The most frequent ST was ST306. ST5 was identified in two separate buildings of the hospital. ST313 showed higher MIC in cephalosporins, quinolones and carbapenems, which should be more closely considered in clinical practice. All strains produced biofilm and had integron I and blaOXA-114-like. The main type was blaOXA-114q. The variable region of integron I was different among strains, and the resistance gene of the aminoglycosides was most commonly inserted in integron I. Additionally, blaPSE-1 was first reported in this isolate. Conclusion: Achromobacter spp. infection often occurs in severely ill elders with underlying diseases. The variable region of integrons differs, suggesting that Achromobacter spp. is a reservoir of various resistance genes. PMID:27242678

  9. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Due to Achromobacter spp. in a Geriatric Ward in China: Clinical Characteristic, Genome Variability, Biofilm Production, Antibiotic Resistance and Integron in Isolated Strains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Pan, Fei; Guo, Jun; Yan, Weifeng; Jin, Yi; Liu, Changting; Qin, Long; Fang, Xiangqun

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) due to Achromobacter has become a substantial concern in recent years. However, HAP due to Achromobacter in the elderly is rare. A retrospective analysis was performed on 15 elderly patients with HAP due to Achromobacter spp., in which the sequence types (STs), integrons, biofilm production and antibiotic resistance of the Achromobacter spp. were examined. The mean age of the 15 elderly patients was 88.8 ± 5.4 years. All patients had at least three underlying diseases and catheters. Clinical outcomes improved in 10 of the 15 patients after antibiotic and/or mechanical ventilation treatment, but three patients had chronic infections lasting more than 1 year. The mortality rate was 33.3% (5/15). All strains were resistant to aminoglycosides, aztreonam, nitrofurantoin, and third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (except ceftazidime and cefoperazone). Six new STs were detected. The most frequent ST was ST306. ST5 was identified in two separate buildings of the hospital. ST313 showed higher MIC in cephalosporins, quinolones and carbapenems, which should be more closely considered in clinical practice. All strains produced biofilm and had integron I and blaOXA-114-like . The main type was blaOXA-114q . The variable region of integron I was different among strains, and the resistance gene of the aminoglycosides was most commonly inserted in integron I. Additionally, blaPSE-1 was first reported in this isolate. Achromobacter spp. infection often occurs in severely ill elders with underlying diseases. The variable region of integrons differs, suggesting that Achromobacter spp. is a reservoir of various resistance genes.

  10. Photoelectrical properties of indandione fragment containing azobenzene compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latvels, Janis; Grzibovskis, Raitis; Pudzs, Kaspars; Vembris, Aivars; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2014-05-01

    Organic materials are becoming more popular due to their potential application in electronics. Low molecular weight materials possible produce from solution are in special consideration. It gives the possibility to avoid both thermal evaporation in vacuum, and use of polymers in thin film preparation process. Indandione fragment containing azobenzene compounds are one of such materials. These compounds are good candidates for use in design of novel molecular electronic devices due to their possibility to form amorphous structure from solution thus allowing developing flexible, small size systems with low production costs. In this work three indandione fragment containing azobenzene compounds were investigated. Difference between these compounds is bulky groups which assist formation of amorphous thin film. Absorption spectra of the investigated compounds are similar to P3HT but with higher absorption coefficient. Molecule ionization and electron affinity levels of these compounds are around -5.45eV and -3.80eV, respectively. Combining PCBM with investigated compounds could lead to difference between electron affinity levels maximum of 0.15eV. It is several times less compared to ~1eV for P3HT:PCBM system. Higher difference between the donor ionization level and the acceptor affinity level could also be obtained which should lead to the higher open circuit voltage.

  11. Tube Fragmentation of Multiple Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, T. F.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Vogler, T. J.

    2006-07-01

    In the current study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. This test method allows the study of fracture fragmentation in a reproducible laboratory environment under well-controlled loading conditions. Motion and fragmentation of the specimen are diagnosed using framing camera, VISAR and soft recovery methods. Fragmentation properties of several steels, nitinol, tungsten alloy, copper, aluminum, and titanium have been obtained to date. The values for fragmentation toughness, and failure threshold will be reported, as well as effects in these values as the material strain-rate is varied through changes in wall thickness and impact conditions.

  12. New Scalings in Nuclear Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, E.; Bougault, R.; Galichet, E.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Marini, P.; Parlog, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4-10 MeV per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed.

  13. Ultrafast ionization and fragmentation of molecular silane

    SciTech Connect

    Sayres, Scott G.; Ross, Matt W.; Castleman, A. W. Jr.

    2010-09-15

    The ionization and fragmentation of molecular silane is examined here with laser intensities ranging between 7x10{sup 12} and 1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} at 624 nm. The ionization potential of silane determined using both multiphoton ionization (MPI) and tunneling ionization (TI) models agrees with the vertical ionization potential of the molecule. In addition, the application of the tunneling ionization model is extended here to the fragments of silane to determine their appearance potentials. MPI values for SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, SiH{sub 2}{sup +}, SiH{sup +}, Si{sup +}, as well as H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sup +} are consistent with vertical potentials, whereas the TI measurements are found to be in accord with adiabatic potentials. The tunneling appearance potentials observed for the fragments H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sup +} are lower than reported for other techniques. In fact, the appearance potential measurements for these species resulting from silane are lower than their ionization potentials. The fragmentation rate of silane is determined to be nearly 20 times larger than the ionization rate. The main precursor for producing amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films, SiH{sub 3}{sup +} is the dominant fragmentation product making up roughly a third of the total ion yield, a substantial increase from other techniques.

  14. Fragmentation of Chitosan by Acids

    PubMed Central

    Arul, Joseph; Charlet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of chitosan in aqueous solution by hydrochloric acid was investigated. The kinetics of fragmentation, the number of chain scissions, and polydispersity of the fragments were followed by viscometry and size exclusion chromatography. The chemical structure and the degree of N-acetylation (DA) of the original chitosan and its fragments were examined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The kinetic data indicates that the reaction was of first order. The results of polydispersity and the DA suggest that the selected experimental conditions (temperature and concentration of acid) were appropriate to obtain the fragments having the polydispersity and the DA similar to or slightly different from those of the original one. A procedure to estimate molecular weight of fragments as well as the number of chain scissions of the fragments under the experimental conditions was also proposed. PMID:24302858

  15. Scaling behavior of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Kun, F; Wittel, F K; Herrmann, H J; Kröplin, B H; Måløy, K J

    2006-01-20

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the shape of fragments generated by explosive and impact loading of closed shells. Based on high speed imaging, we have determined the fragmentation mechanism of shells. Experiments have shown that the fragments vary from completely isotropic to highly anisotropic elongated shapes, depending on the microscopic cracking mechanism of the shell. Anisotropic fragments proved to have a self-affine character described by a scaling exponent. The distribution of fragment shapes exhibits a power-law decay. The robustness of the scaling laws is illustrated by a stochastic hierarchical model of fragmentation. Our results provide a possible improvement of the representation of fragment shapes in models of space debris.

  16. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Z.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N\\to ∞ . We obtain analytically the size density {{φ }s} of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail {{φ }s}˜ {{s}-α } with exponent α =1+\\frac{1}{m}. Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees.

  17. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya; Ben-Naim, Eli

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the fragmentation of a random recursive tree by repeated removal of nodes, resulting in a forest of disjoint trees. The initial tree is generated by sequentially attaching new nodes to randomly chosen existing nodes until the tree contains N nodes. As nodes are removed, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely a forest. We study the statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest. In the limit N --> ∞ , we find that the system is characterized by a single parameter: the fraction of remaining nodes m. We obtain analytically the size density ϕs of trees of size s, which has a power-law tail ϕs ~s-α , with exponent α = 1 + 1 / m . Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, producing an unusual scaling exponent that increases continuously with time. Furthermore, we investigate the fragment size distribution in a growing tree, where nodes are added as well as removed, and find that the distribution for this case is much narrower.

  18. Fracture, failure, and fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dienes, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    A general approach is required for describing matter of behavior when the failure is likely to involve growth and coalescence of a large number of fractures. Failures of this kind appear frequently in rapid dynamic processes, particularly in the formation of spall fragments. An approach to formulating constitutive relations that accounts for the opening, shear and growth of an ensemble of cracks is discussed. The approach accounts for plastic flow accompanying fragmentation. The resulting constitutive relations were incorporated into a Lagrangian computer program. A theoretical approach to coalescence is described. The simplest formulation uses a linear Liouville equation, with crack growth limited by the mean free path of cracks, assumed constant. This approach allows for an anisotropic distribution of cracks. An alternative approach in which the decrease of the mean free path with increasing crack size is accounted for, but the crack distribution is assumed isotropic is described. A reduction of the governing Liouville equation to an ordinary differential equation of third order is possible, and the result can be used to determine how mean free path decreases with increasing crack size.

  19. CATABOLIC ORIGIN OF A BENCE JONES PROTEIN FRAGMENT

    PubMed Central

    Cioli, D.; Baglioni, C.

    1968-01-01

    Gel filtration analysis of the urinary proteins of some patients with myeloma has shown the presence of "fragments" of Bence Jones proteins which correspond to the variable half of these proteins. Experiments have been carried out to establish the origin of a "fragment" observed in a patient who excreted a large amount of this protein. Labeled homologous Bence Jones protein has been injected into this and other control patients. Excretion of labeled "fragment" has been observed in all. Analysis by peptide mapping and radio-autography of this labeled "fragment" isolated from the urine showed that the invariable half of the Bence Jones protein was not excreted; it seemed thus likely that the invariable half was metabolized to small peptides and free amino acids. A labeled Bence Jones protein which was excreted without any accompanying "fragment" was injected into the patient who excreted large amounts of "fragment." No excretion of labeled "fragment" was observed. It was thus concluded that the property of being degraded to "fragment" is characteristic of some "fragile" Bence Jones proteins and is not determined by the patient. Incubation with serum or urine of the "fragile" Bence Jones protein failed to produce any "fragment." "Fragments" of Bence Jones proteins are thus most likely formed during excretion of these proteins through the kidney and are products of the catabolism of Bence Jones proteins. PMID:5666962

  20. [Fragmented QRS. Relevance in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Steger, Alexander; Sinnecker, Daniel; Berkefeld, Anna; Müller, Alexander; Gebhardt, Josef; Dommasch, Michael; Huster, Katharina M; Barthel, Petra; Schmidt, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The QRS complex represents the electrical depolarization of ventricular myocardium. In the case of an undisturbed depolarization, the QRS complex has a normal configuration and duration, but abnormal electrical conduction leads to widening of the QRS complex. The block of one of the Tawara branches results in a typical bundle branch block pattern. A QRS complex that cannot be classified as bundle branch block due to an atypical configuration and contains notched R or S waves is called a fragmented QRS. The underlying pathophysiologies are manifold and include myocardial scars induced by ischemic heart disease, myocardial fibrosis