Quercetin 3-0-beta-D-glucoside (I), quercetin and kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-galactosides (II, III), kaempferol 3-0-beta-L-arabinopyranoside (IV), kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside (tiliroside) (V) and methyl gallate (VI) were isolated from Rubus idaeus L. subspecies culture of Norna leaves and fully characterized.
Jones, C S; Iannetta, P P; Woodhead, M; Davies, H V; McNicol, R J; Taylor, M A
Previous attempts to extract high-quality, total RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. Even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of RNA from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded RNA (2). Here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total RNA from raspberry fruit. Using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded RNA were obtained from fruit at all stages of ripening. The RNA is of sufficient quality for northern analysis and cDNA library construction.
Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry). Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker d...
In 2008, mosaic leaf symptoms were detected on wild raspberry plants, Rubus idaeus L., in north central Alaska. They were growing on remnant patches within developing agricultural sites. Partially purified virus samples were obtained by differential centrifugation of homogenized leaves according to ...
Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Hałasa, R; Głód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orzeł, A
Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid.
Simpson, Ricardo R; Jiménez, Maite P; Carevic, Erica G; Grancelli, Romina M
Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were osmotically dehydrated by applying a conventional method under the supposition of a homogeneous solution, all in a 62% glucose solution at 50 degrees C. Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were also osmotically dehydrated by using ohmic heating in a 57% glucose solution at a variable voltage (to maintain temperature between 40 and 50 degrees C) and an electric field intensity <100 V/cm. When comparing the results from both experiments it was evident that processing time is reduced when ohmic heating technique was used. In some cases this reduction reached even 50%. This is explained by the additional effect to the thermal damage that is generated in an ohmic process, denominated electroporation.
Venskutonis, P R; Dvaranauskaite, A; Labokas, J
Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves, collected in different locations of Lithuania were extracted with ethanol and the extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity (AA) by using ABTS(.)(+) decolourisation and DPPH(.) scavenging methods. All extracts were active, with radical scavenging capacity at the used concentrations from 20.5 to 82.5% in DPPH(.) reaction system and from 8.0 to 42.7% in ABTS(.)(+) reaction. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the leaves varied from 4.8 to 12.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in 1 g of plant extract. Quercetin glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and rutin were identified in the extracts.
Root rot of raspberry (Rubus idaeus), thought to be primarily caused by Phytophthora rubi, is an economically important disease in the western United States. The objectives of this study were to determine which Phytophthora species are involved in root rot, examine the efficacy of different isolatio...
Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) production is a vital component of northwestern Washington’s agriculture. The main objectives of this study were to document the occurrence of soilborne pathogens Phytophthora rubi and Pratylenchus penetrans in early stage production fields, relate this information to so...
Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry). Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs) linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in R. idaeus, which
Ward, Judson A; Bhangoo, Jasbir; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Moore, Patrick; Swanson, J D; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Bassil, Nahla; Weber, Courtney A; Sargent, Daniel J
Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry). Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs) linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in R. idaeus, which may help to identify
The present work is concerned with the aroma of hybrids between raspberry (Rubus idaeus, L.) and arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus, L.). Analyses of the volatiles were performed in three stages. The carbonyl compounds were determined as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, the volatile acids and the neutral components separately in a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer components separately in a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer using glass capillary columns. Over 70 compounds were identified in the aroma concentrates of the hybrids. The major components included acetic and hexanoic acids, trans 3-penten-1-ol, 2-heptanol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and linalool. 2,5-Dimethyl-4-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-3-furanone together with alpha and beta-ionones, characteristic compounds of arctic bramble and raspberry, respectively, were found in the hybrids in much lower concentrations than in the parent berries. Percentage concentrations of the main components in the volatile oils, together with their approximate concentrations in the press juices, were determined. The contents of the corresponding compounds in arctic bramble and in raspberry are also given.
Tito, A; Bimonte, M; Carola, A; De Lucia, A; Barbulova, A; Tortora, A; Colucci, G; Apone, F
Raspberry plants, belonging to the species of Rubus idaeus, are known for their excellent therapeutic properties as they are particularly rich in compounds with strong antioxidant activity, which promote health and well-being of human cells. Besides their high content of phenolic compounds, Rubus plants are rich in oil-soluble compounds, which are also primary components of the hydrolipidic film barrier of the skin. As plant cell cultures represented a valuable system to produce interesting compounds and ingredients for cosmetic applications, we developed liquid suspension cultures from Rubus idaeus leaves and used them to obtain an active ingredient aimed at improving hydration and moisturization capacity in the skin. Rubus idaeus cells, grown in the laboratory under sterile and controlled conditions as liquid suspension cultures, were processed to obtain an oil-soluble (liposoluble) extract, containing phenolic compounds and a wide range of fatty acids. The extract was tested on cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts and then on the skin in vivo, to assess its cosmetic activities. When tested on skin cell cultures, the extract induced the genes responsible for skin hydration, such as aquaporin 3, filaggrin, involucrin and hyaluronic acid synthase, and stimulated the expression and the activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, involved in ceramide production. Moreover, the liposoluble extract increased the synthesis of the extracellular matrix components in cultured fibroblasts and showed a remarkable skin-hydrating capacity when tested on human skin in vivo. Thanks to these activities, the Rubus idaeus liposoluble extract has several potential applications in skin care cosmetics: it can be used as hydrating and moisturizing ingredient in face and body lotions, and as anti-ageing product in face creams specifically designed to fight wrinkle formation. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Kumar, Dhinesh; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean
Using Illumina sequencing technology, we have generated the large-scale transcriptome sequencing data containing abundant information on genes involved in the metabolic pathways in R. idaeus cv. Nova fruits. Rubus idaeus (Red raspberry) is one of the important economical crops that possess numerous nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals with essential health benefits to human. The molecular mechanism underlying the ripening process and phytochemical biosynthesis in red raspberry is attributed to the changes in gene expression, but very limited transcriptomic and genomic information in public databases is available. To address this issue, we generated more than 51 million sequencing reads from R. idaeus cv. Nova fruit using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. After de novo assembly, we obtained 42,604 unigenes with an average length of 812 bp. At the protein level, Nova fruit transcriptome showed 77 and 68 % sequence similarities with Rubus coreanus and Fragaria versa, respectively, indicating the evolutionary relationship between them. In addition, 69 % of assembled unigenes were annotated using public databases including NCBI non-redundant, Cluster of Orthologous Groups and Gene ontology database, suggesting that our transcriptome dataset provides a valuable resource for investigating metabolic processes in red raspberry. To analyze the relationship between several novel transcripts and the amounts of metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and anthocyanins, real-time PCR and target metabolite analysis were performed on two different ripening stages of Nova. This is the first attempt using Illumina sequencing platform for RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of Nova fruit without reference genome. Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource available for Rubus fruits, and will be useful for understanding the ripening process and for breeding R. idaeus cultivars with improved fruit quality.
Kula, Marta; Głód, Daniel; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława
In this study the application of two-dimensional LC (2D LC) for qualitative analysis of polyphenols and simple phenols in the shoots of Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' variety is presented. In the preliminary analysis, the methanol extract of the shoots was analyzed by one-dimensional LC. One-dimensional LC separation profiles of phenolics from R. idaeus 'Glen Ample' shoots were dependent on column type, mobile phase composition and gradient program used. Two-dimensional LC system was built from connecting an octadecyl C-18 silica column in the first dimension and pentafluorophenyl column in the second dimension, coupled with DAD and MS (ESI, APCI, DUIS ionization) detectors. A total of 34 phenolic compounds belonging to the groups of phenolic acids, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and ellagic acid conjugates were identified in the shoots of R. idaeus 'Glen Ample'. The established 2D LC method offers an effective tool for analysis of phenolics present in Rubus species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mazzitelli, Luca; Hancock, Robert D; Haupt, Sophie; Walker, Paul G; Pont, Simon D A; McNicol, Jim; Cardle, Linda; Morris, Jenny; Viola, Roberto; Brennan, Rex; Hedley, Peter E; Taylor, Mark A
Bud break in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is often poor and uneven, with many of the subapical buds remaining in a dormant state. In order to determine the dormancy status of raspberry buds, an empirical measure of bud burst in a growth-permissive environment following exposure to chilling (4 degrees C cold storage) was developed. For cv. Glen Ample, percentage bud burst in intact canes and isolated nodes was recorded after 14 d. Isolated nodes (a measure of endodormancy) achieved 100% bud burst after approximately 1500 h chilling whereas buds on intact plants (combined endo- and paradormancy) required an additional 1000 h chilling. A microarray approach was used to follow changes in gene expression that occurred during dormancy transition. The probes for the microarrays were obtained from endodormant and paradormant raspberry bud cDNA libraries. The expression profiles of 5300 clones from these libraries were subjected to principal component analysis to determine the most significant expression patterns. Sequence analysis of these clones, in many cases, enabled their functional categorization and the development of hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of bud dormancy release. Thus a set of novel candidates for key dormancy-related genes from raspberry buds have been identified. Bud dormancy is fundamental to the study of plant developmental processes and, in addition, its regulation is of significant economic importance to fruit and horticultural industries.
Zheng, D; Schröder, G; Schröder, J; Hrazdina, G
Three polyketide synthase genes (PKS1, PKS2, PKS3) from cell suspension cultures of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cv. Royalty) were characterized. They showed high similarity in both their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. All three proteins contain the amino acid residues identified in previous work as essential for chalcone synthase (CHS) function. Enzyme activities were investigated after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. RiPKS1 is a typical naringenin CHS that synthesizes the chalcone as the main reaction product, and p-coumaryltriacetic acid lactone (CTAL) as a minor by-product. RiPKS3 differed from RiPKS1 in four positions (K49R, M64R, P120L, V188A), and the products in vitro were predominantly CTAL and low levels of chalcone. RiPKS2 had the same four differences from RiPKS1 as RiPKS3, but in addition two further exchanges (R259H, F344L), and the protein had no detectable enzyme activity. Experiments with RiPKS1 containing either 259H or 344L showed that each of the exchanges was sufficient to completely eliminate enzyme activity. These experiments identify amino acid residues in CHS which are important for folding of the tetraketide intermediate to the chalcone (PKS3) and which are in general essential for CHS activity (PKS2). The possible functions of these residues are discussed.
Sparzak, B; Merino-Arevalo, M; Vander Heyden, Y; Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Fecka, I; Głód, D; Bączek, T
The separation of anthocyanins present in the fruits of 11 varieties of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode-array detector and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). The ELSD parameters--drift tube temperature, nebulising gas flow rate and gain value--were optimised to get the best detection and identification of the anthocyanins. The varieties Heritage and Willamette had the simplest anthocyanin sets consisting of only two predominant anthocyanins--cyanidin-3-O-sophoroside (1) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (3), while in the other varieties two other predominant compounds were also present, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (4) and cyanidin-3-O-(2(G)-O-glucosylrutinoside) (2). Moreover, using ELSD, simultaneous analysis of anthocyanins and sanguiin H-6 (5), an ellagitannin, was performed. The contents of anthocyanins and sanguiin H-6 (5) were estimated by HPLC with ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) light detection. The determined concentrations of anthocyanins varied from 76.22 to 277.06 mg per 100 g of dry weight (d.w.). The content of sanguiin H-6 (5) was in the range from 135.04 to 547.48 mg per 100 g of d.w.
Rojas-Vera, Janne; Patel, Asmita V; Dacke, Christopher G
Tea made from the leaves of Rubus idaeus L. (raspberry) has been used for centuries as a folk medicine to treat wounds, diarrhoea, colic pain and as a uterine relaxant. Extracts of dried raspberry leaves prepared with different solvents, (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol) were tested in vitro for relaxant activity on transmurally stimulated guinea-pig ileum. The methanol (MeOH) extract exhibited the largest response and also indicated that the active compounds are of a relatively polar nature. Hence the bulk of the leaves were extracted with methanol and the dried extract fractionated on a silica gel column, eluting with chloroform, mixtures of chloroform and methanol and finally methanol. Each fraction was examined by thin layer chromatography and tested for relaxant activity in an in vitro transmurally stimulated guinea-pig ileum preparation. The fractions eluted with chloroform (CHCl(3)) lacked relaxant activity. Samples eluted with CHCl(3)/MeOH (95:5) had moderate relaxant activity, while a second distinctive peak of activity eluted with a more polar solvent mixture (CHCl(3)/MeOH 50:50) provided strong dose dependent responses. Evidence was obtained that there are at least two components of raspberry leaf extract which exhibit relaxant activity in an in vitro gastrointestinal preparation. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio
Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Klewicka, Elżbieta; Sójka, Michał; Klewicki, Robert; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Lipińska, Lidia; Nowak, Adriana
The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum.
Ghalayini, Ibrahim F; Al-Ghazo, Mohammed A; Harfeil, Mohammad N A
To evaluate the prophylactic potential of herbal decoction from Rubus idaeus, a medicinal plant widely used in the Middle East to treat kidney stones, by assessing the effect of administration in experimentally induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis in mice. This study was based on administration of glyoxylate and/or herbal treatments simultaneously for 12 days, followed by histological and biochemical tests. Group I was used as a negative control. Group II was only given daily intra-abdominal injection of glyoxylate (80 mg/Kg). Group III and IV were given 100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day of aqueous extract of R. idaeus by gavage, respectively in addition to glyoxylate injection. To examine the effect of anti-oxidants on hyperoxaluria-induced changes in kidney, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant levels were assessed. Significant reductions were obtained in the urinary oxalate, calcium and phosphorus values in the herbal-treated groups relative to untreated animals while creatinine excretion increased. Serum oxalate, calcium and creatinine were significantly reduced, while phosphorus was not significantly changed. Kidney content of calcium was higher in the untreated group. Mice in treated groups at 12 days had significantly more superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase (GSH) and G6PD activities than the untreated group. Hyperoxaluria-induced generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls was significantly prevented in the treated groups. R. idaeus had a significantly high content of vitamin E in the herbal treated groups. The histology showed more CaOx deposition in the kidneys of untreated animals. Rubus idaeus has an impressive prophylactic effect on CaOx stones in nephrolithic mice. There is a possible role of lipid peroxidation in CaOx stone formation which may has a relationship with the major risk factors in urine including oxalate, calcium, phosphorus and MDA. Further experimental studies are required to elucidate the
The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...
Two synthetic tandem repetitive DNA probes were used to compare genetic variation at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci among Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. (Rosaceae) individuals sampled at eight sites contaminated by pollutants (N = 39) and eight adjacent...
Two synthetic tandem repetitive DNA probes were used to compare genetic variation at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci among Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. (Rosaceae) individuals sampled at eight sites contaminated by pollutants (N = 39) and eight adjacent...
Jones, C S; Davies, H V; Taylor, M A
Processes that contribute to the overall phenomenon of fruit ripening are not well understood for many soft fruit species, including raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Recent biochemical data implicate ethylene and a range of cell wall hydrolases in ripening processes. However, the genes encoding these activities, and others related to ripening, remain to be characterised. With the advent of high-throughput RNA-fingerprinting techniques it is possible to characterise rapidly the changes in gene expression during developmental processes. This paper describes the application of two RNA-fingerprinting techniques (cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) to the ripening fruit of Rubus idaeus. Copy-DNA tags were isolated representing 34 genes, up-regulated during fruit ripening. The expression profiles of these genes were determined by RNA-blot analysis and their sequences were compared with those in public databases. Potential roles for some of these gene products are considered, providing valuable insights into the processes that underpin fruit ripening. Many of the cDNAs isolated in this study provide tools for the biotechnological improvement of fruit quality.
Dudzinska, Dominika; Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Podsedek, Anna; Watala, Cezary
Many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus Rubus, but little is known of the role of Rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 μg/ml Rubus extracts on CD39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (ICAM-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The polyphenolic contents and antioxidative capacities of extracts from dewberry (R. caesius L.) and raspberry (R. idaeus L.) leaves were also investigated. The techniques applied were flow cytometry (endothelial surface membrane expression of ICAM-1 and CD39), malachite green assay (CD39 activity), HPLC-DAD (quantitative analysis of polyphenolic extract), ABTS, DPPH and FRAP spectrometric assays (antioxidant capacity), and the MTT test (cell viability). Significantly increased CD39 expressions and significantly decreased ATPDase activities were found in the cells treated with 15 μg/ml of either extract compared to the results for the controls. Neither of the extracts affected cell proliferation, but both significantly augmented endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression. The overall antioxidant capacities of the examined extracts remained relatively high and corresponded well to the determined total polyphenol contents. Overall, the results indicate that under in vitro conditions dewberry and raspberry leaf extracts have unfavorable impact on endothelial cells.
Richter, A; Jacobsen, H-J; de Kathen, A; de Lorenzo, G; Briviba, K; Hain, R; Ramsay, G; Kiesecker, H
The pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties Baroness (United Kingdome) and Baccara (France) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pGPTV binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) driven by a double 35S promoter, or the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. Transgenic lines were established and transgenes combined via conventional crossing. Resveratrol, produced by Vst1 transgenic plants, was detected using HPLC and the PGIP expression was determined in functional inhibition assays against fungal polygalacturonases. Stable inheritance of the antifungal genes in the transgenic plants was demonstrated.
Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Głód, Daniel; Kula, Marta; Majdan, Magdalena; Hałasa, Rafał; Matkowski, Adam; Kozłowska, Weronika; Kawiak, Anna
The young shoots of Rubus idaeus are traditionally used as a herbal remedy in common cold, fever and flu-like infections yet there is no research concerning this plant material. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of raspberry shoots from 11 cultivar varieties. The methanol extracts were subjected to chromatographic analysis using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, and two-dimensional 'comprehensive' LCxLC techniques. The biological activity of the shoot extract from the 'Willamette' cultivar variety was evaluated. Antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH and phosphomolybdenum assay. Antimicrobial activity was estimated towards 15 strains of human pathogenic bacteria using broth microdilution method. Cytotoxic activity was tested using MTT cell viability assay. The dominating compounds identified in the shoots of R. idaeus were ellagic acid (26.1 - 106.8 mg/100 g) and sanguiin H-6 (139.2 - 633.1 mg/100 g). The best separation of compounds present in the analysed polyphenol complex, was achieved by 'comprehensive' LCxLC method using Nucleodur Sphinx RP column in the first dimension and Chromolith Performance column in the second dimension. The shoot extract was found to be a strong antioxidant (EC50 19.4 μg/ml, AAE 427.94 mg/g) and displayed the strongest bactericidal properties towards Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The extract revealed higher cytotoxic activity towards the HL-60 cells (IC50 110 μg/ml) than HeLa (IC50 300 μg/ml). The shoots of R. idaeus stand out as a valuable source of sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid and possess a number of biological properties including antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic.
Graham, J; Smith, K; MacKenzie, K; Jorgenson, L; Hackett, C; Powell, W
Breeding in raspberry is time-consuming due to the highly heterozygous nature of this perennial fruit crop, coupled with relatively long periods of juvenility. The speed and precision of raspberry breeding can be improved by genetic linkage maps, thus facilitating the development of diagnostic markers for polygenic traits and the identification of genes controlling complex phenotypes. A genetic linkage map (789 cM) of the red raspberry Rubus idaeus has been constructed from a cross between two phenotypically different cultivars; the recent European cultivar Glen Moy and the older North American cultivar Latham. SSR markers were developed from both genomic and cDNA libraries from Glen Moy. These SSRs, together with AFLP markers, were utilised to create a linkage map. In order to test the utility of the genetic linkage map for QTL analysis, morphological data based on easily scoreable phenotypic traits were collected. The segregation of cane spininess, and the root sucker traits of density and spread from the mother plant, was quantified in two different environments. These traits were analysed for significant linkages to mapped markers using MapQTL and were found to be located on linkage group 2 for spines and group 8 for density and diameter. The availability of co-dominant markers allowed heterozygosities to be calculated for both cultivars.
Dudzinska, Dominika; Bednarska, Katarzyna; Boncler, Magdalena; Luzak, Boguslawa; Watala, Cezary
Recently, polyphenols have gained attention as potential natural cardioprotective therapeutics, due to their antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activity. Species belonging to the genus Rubus sp. have been reported to be a source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidative proprieties and beneficial biological activities. This study investigates the effects of leaf extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and European dewberry (Rubus caesius L.) on the reactivity of blood platelets. In ADP-stimulated blood, raspberry and dewberry extracts (15 µg/ml) markedly decreased platelet surface membrane expression of activated GPIIbIIIa receptor by 16% and 21%, respectively (P < 0.01) and significantly inhibited platelet aggregation (by 31-41% for raspberry and by 38-55% for dewberry, P < 0.01). In platelet-rich plasma (PRP), the extracts had no effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The effectiveness of the extracts in whole blood and the lack of their activity in PRP indicate that leukocytes are likely to participate in the platelet response to the extracts. Our experiments show that the extracts significantly reduced the amount of free radicals released by activated neutrophils in whole blood (P < 0.001), as well as in suspensions of isolated neutrophils (P < 0.05). Moreover, the reduced number of neutrophils leads to the decreased efficiency of the extracts in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. In summary, our findings show that the raspberry and dewberry leaf extracts considerably modulated blood platelet reactivity in whole blood: they influenced blood platelet aggregation, possibly via the modulation of the redox status dependent on the oxidative activity of neutrophils.
Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun
Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL−1. Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3 and 4, Compounds 6 and 7 and Compounds 15 and 16 were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8, 9 and 10 were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11 and 12 were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2, 8, 9 and 10 possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported in R. idaeus for the first time. PMID:26896347
Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun
Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL(-1) Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3: and 4: , Compounds 6: and 7: and Compounds 15: and 16: were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8: , 9: and 10: were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11: and 12: were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2: , 8: , 9: and 10: possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported inR. idaeus for the first time.
Kumar, Amrita; Ellis, Brian E
The enzyme 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) activates cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives by forming the corresponding CoA thioesters. These serve as substrates for biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived end-products that are important determinants of fruit quality in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). In higher plants, 4CL is typically encoded by a gene family. To investigate the participation of distinct 4CL genes in the process of fruit ripening, we have characterized this gene family in raspberry. By complementing a PCR-based homology search with low-stringency cDNA library screening, we have isolated three classes of raspberry 4CL cDNAs (Ri4CL1, Ri4CL2, and Ri4CL3). Phylogenetic analysis places the three raspberry 4CL gene family members into two distinct groups, a pattern consistent with an ancient divergence from an ancestral progenitor. Quantitative RT-PCR assay reveals a differential pattern of transcription of each of the three genes in various organs, as well as distinct temporal patterns of expression during flower and fruit development. The regulatory elements thus appear to have evolved independently of the genes themselves. Based on phylogenetic classification, expression patterns and recombinant protein activities the different Ri4CL genes are likely to participate in different biosynthetic pathways leading to the various phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites that help create flavor and color in raspberry fruit.
Zheng, Desen; Hrazdina, Geza
Two new members of the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene family (RiPKS4 and RiPKS5) were cloned from raspberry fruits (Rubus idaeus L., cv Royalty) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme products indicated that RiPKS4 is a bifunctional polyketide synthase producing both 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and naringenin chalcone. The recombinant RiPKS4 protein, like the native protein from raspberry fruits [W. Borejsza-Wysocki, G. Hrazdina, Plant Physiol. 1996;110: 791-799] accepted p-coumaryl-CoA and ferulyl-CoA as starter substrates and catalyzed the formation of both naringenin chalcone, 4-hydroxy-benzalacetone and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzalacetone. Although activity of RiPKS4 was higher with ferulyl-CoA than with p-coumaryl-CoA, the corresponding product, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy phenylbutanone could not be detected in raspberries to date. Sequence analysis of the genes and proteins suggested that this feature of RiPKS4 was created by variation in the C-terminus due to DNA recombination at the 3' region of its coding sequence. RiPKS5 is a typical chalcone synthase (CHS) that uses p-coumaryl-CoA only as starter substrate and produces naringenin chalcone exclusively as the reaction product.
Burgess, Kevin M N; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Sørensen, Dan; Sumarah, Mark W
A strain of Hypoxylon submonticulosum was isolated as an endophyte from a surface-sterilized leaf of a cultivated raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The liquid culture extract displayed growth inhibition activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a disc diffusion assay. The extract's major component was identified as a new natural product, trienylfuranol A (1S,2S,4R)-1-((1'E,3'E)-hexa-1',3',5'-trienyl)-tetrahydro-4-methylfuran-2-ol (1), by high-resolution LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Two additional new metabolites, trienylfuranones A (2) and B (3), were isolated as minor components of the extract and their structure elucidation revealed that they were biosynthetically related to 1. Absolute stereochemical configurations of compounds 1-3 were confirmed by NOE NMR experiments and by the preparation of Mosher esters. Complete hydrogenation of 1 yielded tetrahydrofuran 7 that was used for stereochemical characterization and assessment of antifungal activity.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 1 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.18.
Wang, Qiaochun; Laamanen, Jaana; Uosukainen, Marjatta; Valkonen, Jari P T
The first efficient cryopreservation procedure for in vitro-grown shoot tips of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) has been developed based on encapsulation-vitrification (EnVi) and encapsulation-dehydration (EnDe). EnVi resulted in higher survival (85%) and regrowth (75%) of cryopreserved shoot tips than EnDe (65 and 50%, respectively). In both cryogenic procedures, shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips without intermediary callus formation. Histological studies showed that a much larger number of meristematic cells survived following EnVi than EnDe. The EnVi procedure was applied to seven raspberry genotypes with an average survival and regrowth of 71 and 68%, respectively. Regenerated plants showed normal morphology. Results here indicate EnVi as a simple and efficient method for long-term preservation of R. idaeus germplasm.
Huang, Yi-Wen; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yang, Shun-Fa; Shih-Hsuan-Lin; Chen, Yang-Yu; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chang, Yu-Chao
Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) have been extensively studies worldwide because of their beneficial effects on health. Recently reports indicate that crude extracts of Rubus idaeus (RIE) have antioxidant and anticancer ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of its antimetastatic ability in oral cancer cells. In this study, SCC-9 and SAS oral cancer cells were subjected to a treatment with RIE and then analyzed the effect of RIE on migration and invasion. The addition of RIE inhibited the migration and invasion ability of oral cancer cells. Real time PCR, western blot and zymography analysis demonstrated that mRNA, protein expression and enzyme activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) were down-regulated by RIE. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), src, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were inhibited after RIE treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that RIE exerted an inhibitory effect of migration and invasion in oral cancer cells and alter metastasis by suppression of MMP-2 expression through FAK/Scr/ERK signaling pathway. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1037-1046, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E
The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.
Sargent, Daniel J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Rys, Alicja; Knight, Victoria H; Simpson, David W; Tobutt, Kenneth R
Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' x 'Malling Orion' (MJ x MO), which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1) and (dw) respectively. The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus.
Sargent, Daniel J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Rys, Alicja; Knight, Victoria H; Simpson, David W; Tobutt, Kenneth R
Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO), which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1) and (dw) respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus. PMID:17374159
Ghadakchiasl, Ali; Mozafari, Ali-Akbar; Ghaderi, Nasser
This study examined the changes brought about by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in the effects of salinity on the morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of Rubus idaeus var. Danehdrosht. Raspberry shoot-tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with a growth regulator that combined benzyleadenine (1 mg/l), indol-3-butyric acetic acid (0.2 mg/l), SNP (0, 50 and 100 µM) and sodium chloride (0, 50 and 100 mM). The results showed that salinity stress significantly decreased morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics such as RWC, MSI and total protein content in regenerated explants and significantly increased the total soluble sugar, proline contents, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity in compared to the control. However, SNP treatments mitigated the impacts of salinity on morphological and physiological characteristics in raspberry shoot-tip explants by increasing the accumulation of proline content, total protein content and total soluble sugar in line with increasing antioxidant enzyme activity under salinity conditions.
Hampel, Daniela; Swatski, Anna; Mosandl, Armin; Wüst, Matthias
The biosynthesis of the monoterpenes (-)-alpha-pinene, linalool, and the norisoprenoids alpha- and beta-ionone in raspberry fruits (rubus idaeus L.) was investigated by in vivo feeding experiments with [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose. The volatile compounds were extracted by stirbar sorptive extraction and analyzed using thermal desorption-multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-enantio-MDGC-MS). The feeding experiments demonstrate that (-)-alpha-pinene and (S)-linalool are exclusively synthesized via the cytosolic mevalonic acid pathway. In contrast, (2)H-labeled (R)-(E)-alpha-ionone and (2)H-labeled (E)-beta-ionone are detectable after application of d2-1-deoxy-D-xylulose and d2-mevalonic acid lactone, respectively. However, (R)-linalool reveals no incorporation of either one of the fed precursors, even though this enantiomer is detectable in the fruit tissue.
Kreander, Kari; Galkin, Anna; Vuorela, Satu; Tammela, Päivi; Laitinen, Leena; Heinonen, Marina; Vuorela, Pia
This study investigated the mutagenic, anti-mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of acetone extract of raspberry, Rubus idaeus L. (v. Ottawa) Rosaceae, and the isolated and characterized ellagitannin and anthocyanin fractions thereof, suitable for food applications. The studied raspberry extract and fractions did not show any mutagenic effects determined in the miniaturized Ames test and were not cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells at the used concentrations. However, the anti-mutagenic properties were changed (i.e. decreased mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene in strain TA98, and slightly increased mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene in strain TA100) with metabolic activation. Further, their influence on the permeability of co-administered common drugs (ketoprofen, paracetamol, metoprolol and verapamil) across Caco-2 monolayers was evaluated. The apical-to-basolateral permeability of highly permeable verapamil was mostly affected (decreased) during co-administration of the raspberry extract or the ellagitannin fraction. Ketoprofen permeability was decreased by the ellagitannin fraction. Consumption of food rich in phytochemicals, as demonstrated here with chemically characterized raspberry extract and fractions, with well-absorbing drugs would seem to affect the permeability of some of these drugs depending on the components. Thus their effects on the absorption of drugs in-vivo cannot be excluded.
Qiu, Changpeng; Ethier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André
The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (gm ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (Tleaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °C. Contrary to the great majority of gm temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of gm with increasing Tleaf irrespective of leaf chamber O2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0.75 to 1.5 kPa) and high (0.75 to 3.5 kPa) diurnal VPDL regimes, unlike stomatal conductance (gs ), which decreased in the afternoon. Consequently, the leaf water status remained largely isohydric throughout the day, and therefore cannot be evoked to explain the diurnal decrease of gm . However, the concerted diurnal reductions of gm and gs were well correlated with increases in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, thus suggesting that ABA can induce a significant depression of gm under favourable leaf water status. Our results challenge the view that the temperature dependence of gm can be explained solely from dynamic leaf anatomical adjustments and/or from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions and lipid membranes.. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T
Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.
Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Grodzicki, Przemysław
The field studies on the residue levels of the fungicides and insecticides used in commercial raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plantation have been performed. Starting on the first day of harvesting (on June 19), 20 laboratory samples of fruit, 10 laboratory samples of leaves and 4 samples of soil were analyzed and the residue levels were compared to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) and Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI). All analyses were carried out using extraction method and gas chromatography technique. Esfenwalerate (Sumi-alpha 050 EC) and beta-cyfluthrin (Bulldock 025 EC), the insecticides belonging to the group of synthetic pyrethroids, were not found in harvested ripe fruits, while cypermethrin residues (Cyperkill 25 EC) applied on May 24, 25 days later was still found on low levels in fruits (0.026 mg kg(-1)) and in leaves (2.58 mg kg(-1)). In turn, residues of chlorpyrifos (Dursban 480 EC), applied to the soil on May 15 against the cockchafers Melolontha melolontha and Otiorhynchus sp., were found at the level 0.004 mg kg(-1). The content of pesticides in ripe fruits depended mainly on the dose and on the time that has elapsed from the date of their application and were as follows: boscalid -0.950, pyrimethanil -0.917, pyraclostrobin -0.253 cypermethrin -0.026 and chlorpyrifos -0.004 mg kg(-1) while in leaves: boscalid -30.64, pyrimethanil -8.13, pyraclostrobin -15.82, cypermethrin -2.58 and chlorpyrifos -0.15 mg kg(-1). The highest average daily intake was in the case of boscalid, and in fruits and leaves reached the levels 0.205 and 6.63, in total 0.33% and 12.18% of ADI, respectively.
Gülçin, Ilhami; Topal, Fevzi; Çakmakçı, Ramazan; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet C; Erdogan, Ummugulsum
The raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically important berry crop that contains many phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. In this study, important pomological features, including nutrient content and antioxidant properties, of a domesticated and 3 wild (Yayla, Yavuzlar, and Yedigöl) raspberry fruits were evaluated. Also, the amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs) and quercetin equivalents (QE). The highest phenolic compounds were found in wild Yayla ecotype (26.66 ± 3.26 GAE/mg extract). Whilst, the highest flavonoids were determined in wild Yedigöl ecotype (6.09 ± 1.21 QA/mg extract). The antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were investigated as trolox equivalents using different in vitro assays including DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), DMPD(•+), and O(•-)(2) radical scavenging activities, H(2)O(2) scavenging activity, ferric (Fe(3+)) and cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing abilities, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, α-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results clearly show that p-coumaric acid is the main phenolic acid responsible for the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Wang, Ou; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping
This study aimed to investigate the liver protection effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (SC) lignans and its combination with Rubus idaeus (RI) on chronic alcohol-induced mice. A low level of SC lignans (SL) was prepared from the clear juice of sarcocarp. Lignans were further extracted from the SC seeds and added to the SL to form high-level SC lignans (SH). Moreover, RI clear juice lyophilized powder was mixed with SL (SR), and the liver protection effects of SL, SH and SR were investigated. Male ICR mice were administered with the corresponding samples and gastrically infused with 50% alcohol (1 h later) once per day for 60 d. In the in vitro study, the characteristic lignans in the SC clear juice and the seed extract were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capability of SL, SH, and SR were determined. The results of the in vivo study showed that SC lignans exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the regulation of hepatic antioxidant status, serum transaminases levels, hyperlipidemia and hepatic fat deposition in mice. However, hepatic lesions were observed in the SH mice, which indicated a potential side effect caused by long-term consumption of SH under chronic alcohol administration. By contrast, SR exhibited a similar hepatoprotective effect as SH without any abnormality found in the histological analysis. After analysis with HPLC, Schizandrol A and Schizandrol B were identified in the SC clear juice, and two more kinds of lignans, Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B, were identified in the seed extracts. The SR sample had the highest TPC and exhibited the best antioxidant capability. In conclusion, RI strengthened the liver protection effect of SC lignans effectively and safely, which was probably achieved by enhancing the antioxidant status and the positive effect of their combination was possibly attributed to both lignans and polyphenols. This study demonstrated that the
Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been developed from genomic and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenus Idaeobatus) and also in blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus). Recently, there has also been increased interest in the use of...
Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chu, Shu-Chen; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Yeh, Chia-Heng; Chen, Pei-Ni
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered essential for cancer metastasis, a multistep complicated process including local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. Herein we provided molecular evidence associated with the antimetastatic effect of Rubus idaeus L. extracts (RIE) by showing a nearly complete inhibition on the invasion (p<0.001) of highly metastatic A549 cells via reduced activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and urokinasetype plasminogen activator (u-PA). We performed Western blot to find that RIE could induce up-regulation of epithelial marker such as E-cadherin and α-catenin and inhibit the mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin, fibronectin, snail-1, and vimentin. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific-siRNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in A549 cells suggesting a possible involvement of snail-1 inhibition in RIE-caused increase in E-cadherin level. RIE also inhibited p-FAK, p-paxillin and AP-1 by Western blot analysis, indicating the anti-EMT effect of RIE in human lung carcinoma. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model showed that RIE treatment reduced tumor growth by oral gavage, and RIE represent promising candidates for future phytochemical-based mechanistic pathway-targeted cancer prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed worldwide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). An F1 population developed from a cross between an advanced breedi...
Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...
Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...
Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Ru...
Rubus stunt is a severe disease that naturally infects only plants in the genus Rubus, and no immune Rubus germplasm has been reported. Apium, Chrysanthemum, Fragaria, and Trifolium species have been used as experimental hosts for Rubus stunt phytoplasma. The disease occurs in wild and cultivated R...
The root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a production-limiting pest in red raspberry, Rubus idaeus, in the United States. Having resistance as a tool to manage P. penetrans in raspberries would reduce the impact of this nematode on raspberry productivity as well as reduce the need for pr...
Chu, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Chiang, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Ni
The metastasis of lung cancer is the most prevalent cause of patient death. Various treatment strategies have targeted the prevention of the occurrence of metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells is considered a prerequisite to acquire the invasive/migratory phenotype and to subsequently achieve metastasis. However, the effects ofRubus idaeuson cancer invasion and the EMT of the human lung carcinoma remain unclear. In this article, we test the hypothesis thatR idaeusethyl acetate (RIAE) possesses an antimetastatic effect and reverses the EMT potential of human lung A549 cells. We extract the raspberryR idaeuswith methanol (RIME), chloroform (RICE), ethyl acetate (RIAE),n-butanol (RIBE), and water (RIWE). The RIAE treatment obviously inhibits the invasive (P< .001), motility (P< .001), spreading, and migratory potential (P< .001) of highly metastatic human lung cancer A549 cells. The zymography and promoter luciferase analysis reveals that RIAE decreases the proteinase and transcription activities of MMP-2 and u-PA. Molecular analyses show that RIAE increases the E-cadherin level that is mainly localized at the cellular membrane. This result was also verified through confocal analyses. RIAE also induces the upregulation of an epithelial marker, such as α-catenin, and decreases mesenchymal markers, such as snail-1 and N-cadherin, that promote cell invasion and metastasis. RIAE inhibits MMP-2 and u-PA by attenuating the NF-κB and p-Akt expression. The inhibition of RIAE on the growth of A549 cells in vivo was also verified using a cancer cell xenograft nude mice model. Our results show the anti-invasive/antitumor effects of RIAE and associated mechanisms, which suggest that RIAE should be further tested in clinically relevant models to exploit its potential benefits against metastatic lung cancer cells.
Patel, A V; Rojas-Vera, J; Dacke, C G
Rubus species (family Rosaceae) have been cultivated for centuries for their fruits. These and other parts of the plants have been used traditionally for therapeutic purposes. This article highlights these and the potential they can offer. The constituents reported in the various species and those demonstrated to exhibit pharmacological properties have been reviewed. In the search for biologically active compounds, one of the most frequently documented species of the genus is the raspberry plant R. idaeus, the leaves of which have been used traditionally as a uterine relaxant and stimulant during confinement, for the treatment of diarrhoea and similar enteric disorders and as an astringent. Investigations of other Rubus species have been conducted in the last twenty-five years, and have shown possible application for a wide range of indications, including bacterial infections, anxiety, pain and inflammation.
The nitrogen components of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were significant factors for improved growth in our earlier study that modeled the effects of mineral nutrition on growth and development of micropropagated red raspberry(Rubus idaeus L.). In this study, a mixture component design was applie...
VanBuren, Robert; Bryant, Doug; Bushakra, Jill M; Vining, Kelly J; Edger, Patrick P; Rowley, Erik R; Priest, Henry D; Michael, Todd P; Lyons, Eric; Filichkin, Sergei A; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V; Mockler, Todd C
Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the US Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Rubus fruit crops (raspberry, blackberry, and their hybrids). The black raspberry genome is largely collinear to the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with a conserved karyotype and few notable structural rearrangements. Centromeric satellite repeats are widely dispersed across the black raspberry genome, in contrast to the tight association with the centromere observed in most plants. Among the 28 005 predicted protein-coding genes, we identified 290 very recent small-scale gene duplicates enriched for sugar metabolism, fruit development, and anthocyanin related genes which may be related to key agronomic traits during black raspberry domestication. This contrasts patterns of recent duplications in the wild woodland strawberry F. vesca, which show no patterns of enrichment, suggesting gene duplications contributed to domestication traits. Expression profiles from a fruit ripening series and roots exposed to Verticillium dahliae shed insight into fruit development and disease response, respectively. The resources presented here will expedite the development of improved black and red raspberry, blackberry and other Rubus cultivars.
Dujmović Purgar, Dubravka; Duralija, Boris; Voća, Sandra; Vokurka, Aleš; Ercisli, Sezai
The main focus of our study was to investigate differences in nutritional (dry matter, soluble solids content, total acidity and pH value) and bioactive values (ascorbic acid, total anthocyanins, total phenols, and non-flavonoids content) of wild grown raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackberry (Rubus discolor) genotypes harvested from native populations in Croatia. The average total acidity ranged from 0.93 to 1.72% in R. discolor and 1.57 to 1.91% in R. idaeus. Ascorbic acid was found between 22.34 mg and 45.00 mg 100 g⁻¹ in R. idaeus, while it was between 30.64 mg and 33.09 mg 100 g⁻¹ in R. discolor genotypes. A great variability in total anthocyanins was detected in roatian wild blackberry and raspberry genotypes, ranging from 2,226 to 2,367 mg kg⁻¹ for blackberries and 279 to 582 mg kg⁻¹ for raspberries, indicating wild blackberries are particularly rich in anthocyanins. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that investigated wild growing fruit species have a great potential in nutritive research, as well as in biodiversity research. It is necessary to carry out further investigation and evaluation of wild growing fruit species to utilize them in the most appropriate way, as well as conservation of interesting accessions in the gene banks.
Kumar, Amrita; Ellis, Brian E
Quality traits of raspberry fruits such as aroma and color derive in part from the polyketide derivatives, benzalacetone and dihydrochalcone, respectively. The formation of these metabolites during fruit ripening is the result of the activity of polyketide synthases (PKS), benzalcetone synthase and chalcone synthase (CHS), during fruit development. To gain an understanding of the regulation of these multiple PKSs during fruit ripening, we have characterized the repertoire of Rubus PKS genes and studied their expression patterns during fruit ripening. Using a PCR-based homology search, a family of ten PKS genes (Ripks1-10) sharing 82-98% nucleotide sequence identity was identified in the Rubus idaeus genome. Low stringency screening of a ripening fruit-specific cDNA library, identified three groups of PKS cDNAs. Group 1 and 2 cDNAs were also represented in the PCR amplified products, while group 3 represented a new class of Rubus PKS gene. The Rubus PKS gene-family thus consists of at least eleven members. The three cDNAs exhibit distinct tissue-specific and developmentally regulated patterns of expression. RiPKS5 has high constitutive levels of expression in all organs, including developing flowers and fruits, while RiPKS6 and RiPKS11 expression is consistent with developmental and tissue-specific regulation in various organs. The recombinant proteins encoded by the three RiPKS cDNAs showed a typical CHS-type PKS activity. While phylogenetic analysis placed the three Rubus PKSs in one cluster, suggesting a recent duplication event, their distinct expression patterns suggest that their regulation, and thus function(s), has evolved independently of the structural genes themselves.
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...
Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Mosier, Nola J; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R
Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the genus Badnavirus (family: Caulimoviridae). RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, a strain of RYNV was sequenced from a Rubus idaeus plant in Alberta, Canada, exhibiting such symptoms. The viral genome contained seven open reading frames (ORFs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyprotein. Here we describe a graft-transmissible strain of RYNV from Europe infecting cultivar 'Baumforth's Seedling A' (named RYNV-BS), which was sequenced using rolling circle amplification, enzymatic digestion, cloning and primer walking, and it was resequenced at a 5X coverage. This sequence was then compared with the RYNV-Ca genome and significant differences were observed. Genomic analysis identified differences in the arrangement of coding regions, promoter elements, and presence of motifs. The genomic organization of RYNV-BS consisted of five ORFs (four ORFs in the sense-strand and one ORF in the antisense-strand). ORFs 1, 2, and 3 showed a high degree of homology to RYNV-Ca, while ORFs 4 and 6 of RYNV-BS were quite distinct. Also, the predicted ORFs 5 and 7 in the RYNV-Ca were absent in the RYNV-BS sequence. These differences may account for the lack of aphid transmissibility of RYNV-BS.
Rafique, Muhammad Z; Carvalho, Elisabete; Stracke, Ralf; Palmieri, Luisa; Herrera, Lorena; Feller, Antje; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan
Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase (Ans) catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry ("Anne"). A 5 bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans(+5). The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild-type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect, i.e., nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans(+5) and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.
Bakuridze, A D; Nikolaev, S M; Tsurtsumiia, I G; Berashvili, D T
Composition and the technology of manufacturing of toothpaste from extract of blackberry with anti-inflammatory activity have been developed. Toothpaste contains the following ingredients (g): Blackberry extract - 3.0 5.0 7.0 Aluminum hydroxide - 30,0 Glycerin - 10,0 Sodim carboxymethylcellulose - 1,5 Sodium laurilsulfate - 2,0 Calcium glycerophosphate - 1,5 Sodium monofluorophosphate - 1.0 Titanium dioxide - 1,0 Perfume - 1,0 Sorbit - 1,0 Purified water to 100 ml. Toothpaste containing 3%, 5% and 7% of blackberry extract possesses higher antioedemic activity and has mild influence on alteration and proliferation processes. This allows us to recommend researched toothpaste for application.
Klesk, Keith; Qian, Michael; Martin, Robert R
The aromas of cultivar Meeker red raspberry from Oregon and Washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript T)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. Twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (E)-beta-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptaneT, 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-2-buten-1-one, ethanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexenalT, 3-methylmercaptopropionaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl formateT, 2,3-butanedione, heptanalT, thiacyclopentadieneT, cyclohexane carbaldehydeT, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-olT, and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone. Oregon Meeker had 14 odorants with higher flavor dilution (FD) factors than Washington Meeker: 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-oneT, 1-octanol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dieneT, 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadieneT, ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetateT, ethyl propanoate, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanoneT, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl cyclohexane carboxylateT, 2-methylthiacyclopentadieneT, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetateT, and 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-olT. Washington Meeker had 16 odorants with higher FD factors than Oregon Meeker: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5H)-furanoneT, dimethyl sulfideT, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanoneT, 1-hexanolT, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl acetateT, methyl hexanoate, phenyl ethanoic acidT, neo-allo-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 2-nonanoneT, 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-olT, phenylmethanolT, 5-octanolideT, 2-phenylethanol, 1-isopropyl-4-methylenebicyclo[3.1.0]hexaneT, and 2-undecanone.
Tosun, M; Ercisli, S; Karlidag, H; Sengul, M
The worldwide tendency for growing more small fruits, including raspberries, shows permanent increase because this group of fruits has a relatively higher content of bioactive nutrients. To study the health benefits of red raspberry fruits, 11 preselected wild-grown and 1 well-known cultivar, Heritage, were evaluated for some of their physicochemical properties such as fruit weight, total antioxidant capacity (measured by beta-carotene bleaching and FRAP assays), total phenolics, ascorbic acid, soluble solid content (SSC), and acidity. Fruit weight, SSC, and ascorbic acid contents were between 1.47 and 2.32 g, 10.87% and 13.60%, and 21 and 36 mg/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content varied among genotypes and the ERZ5 genotype had the highest antioxidant capacity as ascertained by both methods. This genotype also had the highest total phenolic (2031 microg GAE/g FW) content. There are linear relationships between antioxidant capacities and total phenols. The present study demonstrates the potential of certain wild genotypes, notably ERZ5, for improving the nutritional value through germplasm enhancement programs.
Yu, Zeyuan; Liu, Lu; Xu, Yaqin; Wang, Libo; Teng, Xin; Li, Xingguo; Dai, Jing
A water-soluble polysaccharide namely RCP-II from raspberry fruits was obtained by complex enzyme method followed by successive purification using macroporous resin D4020 and Sephadex G-100 columns. RCP-II was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and the characteristic structure of polysaccharide was determined. The carbohydrate of RCP-II was composed with galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:1.19:0.52:0.44:1.90 and the average molecular weight was estimated to be 4013 Da, based on dextran standards. RCP-II presented high scavenging activity toward DPPH•, HO•, O2(•-) in a concentration-dependent manner. The determination of the inhibitory activity on protein glycation showed that in 14 days of incubation the inhibitory ability of RCP-II was more effective on the development of non-enzymatic glycation reaction at early phase than that at the following two phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bononi, Monica; Andreoli, Giulio; Granelli, Giuseppe; Eccher, Tommaso; Tateo, Fernando
The object of this work is presented in a larger research project concerning 'New indexes to evidence the nutritional quality of small fruits' in progress at the Analytical Food Research Laboratories, University of Milan. The present paper contains data that contribute to the analytical characterization of 12 varieties of red raspberry through the high-performance liquid chromatography determination of the aglycon 'cyanidin' derived from chemical hydrolysis of berries. Even more interesting results are the proposal of the 'cyanidin volumetric index', by which it is possible to compare different red raspberry varieties with higher meaningfulness. A new possible correlation between the ratio of chromaticity coordinates 'a/b' and the cyanidin content of red raspberries has been identified.
Vicente, Ariel R; Ortugno, Claudia; Powell, Ann L T; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M
Raspberry fruits were harvested at five developmental stages, from green to red ripe, and the changes in cell wall composition, pectin and hemicellulose solubilization, and depolymerization were analyzed. Fruit softening at intermediate stages of ripening was associated with increased pectin solubilization, which occurred without depolymerization. Arabinose was found to be the most abundant noncellulosic neutral sugar in the cell wall and showed dramatic solubilization late in ripening. No changes in pectin molecular size were observed even at the 100% red stage. Subsequently, as fruit became fully ripe a dramatic depolymerization occurred. In contrast, the hemicellulosic fractions showed no significant changes in content or polymer size during ripening. The paper discusses the sequence of events leading to cell wall disassembly in raspberry fruit.
Pedapudi, S; Chin, C K; Pedersen, H
Production levels of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), p-hydroxyphenylbut-3-ene-2-one (benzalacetone), and p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone (raspberry ketone) were measured in raspberry cell suspension cultures to investigate metabolite dynamics in a short (two-step) pathway. Intracellular concentrations of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone fluctuated during the time course of a normal batch culture cycle but showed higher levels during periods of rapid growth. Cells elicited with the signal coupler methyl jasmonate yielded a 2- to 3-fold increase in metabolite concentrations after 24 h. The results suggest that raspberry ketone production is rapidly inducible during periods of high carbohydrate utilization. It is not an end product, however, and undergoes conversion to subsequent metabolites.
Bradish, Christine M; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Fernandez, Gina E; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei
Raspberry flavonoid compounds have significant antioxidant activities, and regular consumption may help prevent and/or moderate chronic diseases. Targeted metabolite profiling is useful to identify compounds contributing to these antioxidant properties and health benefits and for tailored breeding for functional foods. In this study, metabolomic variation was determined among three fall-fruiting red raspberry cultivars ('Autumn Britten', 'Caroline', 'Nantahala') grown at three North Carolina locations differing in elevation and average day/night temperatures. 'Nantahala' was specifically bred for the mountainous regions of the southern United States. Ten flavonoid compounds were detected by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Of those, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and quercetin-3-glucoside were quantified against external standards. Variation in flavonoid composition was primarily attributed to genotype and associated with night temperature and hours exposed to temperatures over 29 °C. 'Nantahala' had particularly high levels of cyanidin-3-sambubioside, indicative of its purple raspberry lineage. Quercetin-3-glucoside levels increased the most with elevated temperatures.
Rafique, Muhammad Z.; Carvalho, Elisabete; Stracke, Ralf; Palmieri, Luisa; Herrera, Lorena; Feller, Antje; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan
Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase (Ans) catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry (“Anne”). A 5 bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans+5. The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild-type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect, i.e., nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans+5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes. PMID:28066458
In Norway and other Nordic regions, the floricanes of red raspberries often suffer 20 to 30 percent injury from exposures to extremely low temperatures. We studied from 2011 to 2014 to determine the effect of bending the floricanes of ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Stiora’ and KV91-39-7 red raspberries close to th...
Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Jankowska, M; Rutkowska, E; Hrynko, I
The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of 140 pesticides in raspberries from north-eastern Poland (2005-2010). Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) was used. Among the 128 samples, 66 (51.6%) were found to detect residues: 14.1% contained one pesticide and around 38% multiple pesticide residues. The most frequently detected were pyrimethanil residues (36.0%). Twenty-seven (21.1%) raspberry samples exceeded the maximum residue limits. The estimated daily intakes ranged from 0.003% to 3.183% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for adults 0.008% and 9.7% for toddlers, respectively. The most critical case is procymidone, the acute risk was 180.9% of acute reference dose (ARfD) for toddlers and for adults (83% of ARfD) which is high.
Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Gil-Vicente, María; Gordillo, Belén; Heredia, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes
This work includes the evaluation of 168 samples of raspberries 'Glen Lyon', representing whole maturation period, by colorimetric and near infrared imaging techniques, as well as the quantification of total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by chemical methods. Samples showed significant differences depending on the maturation stage using CIELAB colour parameters and total anthocyanins content. The application of partial least squares regression allowed predicting the chemical features from image analysis data, with coefficients of determination (R(2)) up to 0.75. The best prediction for total anthocyanins including colorimetric data was observed. The proposed methodology can be used as a reference method for assessing important quality attributes of raspberries. Moreover, it is useful, rapid and accurate automatic inspection method.
Cetojević-Simin, Dragana D; Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Cetković, Gordana S; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna T; Vulić, Jelena J; Canadanović-Brunet, Jasna M; Djilas, Sonja M
Taking into account the substantial potential of raspberry processing by-products, pomace extracts from two raspberry cultivars, Meeker and Willamette, were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined. Willamette pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.042 mg/ml) demonstrated stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical-scavenging activity than did Meeker pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.072 mg/ml). The most pronounced cell growth inhibition effect was obtained in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line, reaching EC50 values of 34.8 and 60.3 μg/ml for Willamette and Meeker extracts, respectively. Both extracts demonstrated favourable non-tumor/tumor cell growth ratios and potently increased the apoptosis/necrosis ratio in breast adenocarcinoma and cervix carcinoma cells. In reference and wild bacterial strains, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were achieved in a concentration range from 0.29 to 0.59 mg/ml, and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in a range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/ml. The results indicate significant antioxidant, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and antibacterial activities of raspberry pomace and favour its use as a functional food ingredient.
Duarte, Whasley F; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, Disney R; Oliveira, José M; Teixeira, José A; Silva, João B Almeida E; Schwan, Rosane F
Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16° Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22 °C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Y(p/s)), biomass (Y(x/s)), glycerol (Y(g/s)) and acetic acid (Y(ac/s)), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Q(p)), the biomass productivity (P(x)), and the fermentation efficiency (E(f)) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the E(f), Y(p/s), Y(g/s), and Y(x/s) parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435 μg/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01 μg/L), VR-1 (67,573.99 μg/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32 μg/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33 μg/L, 440.33 μg/L and 438 μg/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67 μg/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33 μg/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters.
Mazur, Sebastian Piotr; Nes, Arnfinn; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Aaby, Kjersti
Colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in Nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. The main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). All quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. The genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'Veten' and 'RU984 06038' were characterised by high concentrations of flavonoids, i.e., anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides, and dark red colour. 'Octavia', 'Glen Magna', 'RU004 03067', 'Glen Ample' and 'RU974 07002' were characterised by light colour, high titratable acids and low flavonoid concentrations. 'Malling Hestia', 'RU024 01003' and 'RU004 04095' had high content of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and ellagic acid containing compounds, in addition to high hue and chroma values. All quality parameters, except ascorbic acid and lambertianin C, varied significantly between harvest seasons. The lowest seasonal variation in fruit quality was observed in 'RU024 01003' and 'Glen Ample' and the highest 'RU004 03067' and 'Glen Magna'.
Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M
Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p<0.1); most likely through enhancing glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in liver (4.3-fold of control), and in blood (2.1-fold of control). Other disease-risk biomarkers were similar between groups (p>0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress.
Kalischuk, Melanie L; Fusaro, Adriana F; Waterhouse, Peter M; Pappu, Hanu R; Kawchuk, Lawrence M
Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) was cloned and sequenced from a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plant exhibiting symptoms of mosaic and mottling in the leaves. Its genomic sequence indicates that it is a distinct member of the genus Badnavirus, with 7932bp and seven ORFs, the first three corresponding in size and location to the ORFs found in the type member Commelina yellow mottle virus. Bioinformatic analysis of the genomic sequence detected several features including nucleic acid binding motifs, multiple zinc finger-like sequences and domains associated with cellular signaling. Subsequent sequencing of the small RNAs (sRNAs) from RYNV-infected R. idaeus leaf tissue was used to determine any RYNV sequences targeted by RNA silencing and identified abundant virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs). The majority of the vsRNAs were 22-nt in length. We observed a highly uneven genome-wide distribution of vsRNAs with strong clustering to small defined regions distributed over both strands of the RYNV genome. Together, our data show that sequences of the aphid-transmitted pararetrovirus RYNV are targeted in red raspberry by the interfering RNA pathway, a predominant antiviral defense mechanism in plants. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Ávila, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Mardones, Claudia; von Baer, Dietrich; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo
The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...
It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...
There are several important virus diseases of raspberry and black raspberry in the Pacific Northwest. Pollen-borne viruses include Raspberry bushy dwarf virus and Strawberry necrotic shock virus (aka Tobacco streak virus –Rubus isolate or Black raspberry latent virus). Strawberry necrotic shock viru...
Lee, Gi-An; Song, Jae Young; Choi, Heh-Ran; Chung, Jong-Wook; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Jung-Ro; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Myung-Chul
The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3%) type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%). The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry). These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.
The genus Rubus L., indigenous to six continents, includes blackberries, raspberries and their hybrids, and is commonly referred to as brambles or briers. Rubus species were a food and medicinal source for native peoples soon after the ice age. Medicinal uses for brambles were documented in the writ...
Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...
Šaponjac, Vesna Tumbas; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Djilas, Sonja; Mena, Pedro; Cetković, Gordana; Moreno, Diego A; Canadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Vulić, Jelena; Stajčić, Slađana; Krunić, Milica
The global interest in natural food colours shows increasing attention towards new product development to replace synthetic colourants, because of the strengthening of legislative rules and consumer awareness of synthetic additives and chemicals in food. This study was designed to evaluate anthocyanin content and biological activities of press residues from four caneberries: two raspberry (Rubus idaeus, cv. 'Meeker' (RM) and 'Willamette' (RW)) and two blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, cv. 'Thornfree' (BT) and 'Čačanska bestrna' (BC)) cultivars. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified cyanidin glycosides in all press residues, cyanidin 3-glucoside being prevalent in BC (1360.6 mg kg(-1)) and BT (1397.7 mg kg(-1)), and cyanidin 3-sophoroside in RM (349.2 mg kg(-1) ) and RW (581.0 mg kg(-1)). Antioxidant capacity (AC), evaluated by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay, reducing power (RP) and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential (α-GIP) was higher in blackberry press residues. Total anthocyanin content was in good correlation with AC (r = 0.953; P < 0.05), RP (r = 0.993, P < 0.01) and α-GIP (r = 0.852, P < 0.15). This study has revealed the potential for valorization of juice production byproducts for further industrial use as a rich source of bioactive compounds and natural colourants (mainly anthocyanins). Also, they can provide health-promoting effects beyond their general organoleptic acceptance in food product development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bushakra, Jill M; Lewers, Kim S; Staton, Margaret E; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Saski, Christopher A
Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are a source of SSRs that can be used to develop markers to facilitate plant breeding and for more basic research across genera and higher plant orders. Leaf and meristem tissue from 'Heritage' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 'Bristol' black raspberry (R. occidentalis) were utilized for RNA extraction. After conversion to cDNA and library construction, ESTs were sequenced, quality verified, assembled and scanned for SSRs. Primers flanking the SSRs were designed and a subset tested for amplification, polymorphism and transferability across species. ESTs containing SSRs were functionally annotated using the GenBank non-redundant (nr) database and further classified using the gene ontology database. To accelerate development of EST-SSRs in the genus Rubus (Rosaceae), 1149 and 2358 cDNA sequences were generated from red raspberry and black raspberry, respectively. The cDNA sequences were screened using rigorous filtering criteria which resulted in the identification of 121 and 257 SSR loci for red and black raspberry, respectively. Primers were designed from the surrounding sequences resulting in 131 and 288 primer pairs, respectively, as some sequences contained more than one SSR locus. Sequence analysis revealed that the SSR-containing genes span a diversity of functions and share more sequence identity with strawberry genes than with other Rosaceous species. This resource of Rubus-specific, gene-derived markers will facilitate the construction of linkage maps composed of transferable markers for studying and manipulating important traits in this economically important genus.
The genus Rubus exhibits morphological diversity and a wide range of reproductive systems and habitats. Seeds of blackberry (subgenus Rubus) and raspberry (subg. Idaeobatus) have a deep dormancy caused by one or more mechanisms. Rubus seeds are normally enclosed in a hard schlerenchymatous endocar...
Sangiovanni, Enrico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Colombo, Elisa; Brunelli, Cecilia; Brembati, Laura; Trivulzio, Silvio; Gasperotti, Mattia; Mattivi, Fulvio; Bosisio, Enrica; Dell'Agli, Mario
Ellagitannins have shown anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori properties; however, their anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level was not previously investigated. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of ellagitannins from Rubus berries on gastric inflammation. Ellagitannin enriched extracts (ETs) were prepared from Rubus fruticosus L. (blackberry) and Rubus idaeus L. (raspberry). The anti-inflammatory activity was tested on gastric cell line AGS stimulated by TNF-α and IL-1β for evaluating the effect on NF-kB driven transcription, nuclear translocation and IL-8 secretion. In vivo the protective effect of ellagitannins was evaluated in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Rats were treated orally for ten days with 20 mg/kg/day of ETs, and ethanol was given one hour before the sacrifice. Gastric mucosa was isolated and used for the determination of IL-8 release, NF-kB nuclear translocation, Trolox equivalents, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In vitro, ETs inhibited TNF-α induced NF-kB driven transcription (IC₅₀: 0.67-1.73 µg/mL) and reduced TNF-α-induced NF-kB nuclear translocation (57%-67% at 2 µg/mL). ETs inhibited IL-8 secretion induced by TNF-α and IL-1β at low concentrations (IC₅₀ range of 0.7-4 µg/mL). Sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C, the major ETs present in the extracts, were found to be responsible, at least in part, for the effect of the mixtures. ETs of blackberry and raspberry decreased Ulcer Index by 88% and 75% respectively and protected from the ethanol induced oxidative stress in rats. CINC-1 (the rat homologue of IL-8) secretion in the gastric mucosa was reduced in the animals receiving blackberry and raspberry ETs. The effect of ETs on CINC-1 was associated to a decrease of NF-κB nuclear translocation in ETs treated animals. The results of the present study report for the first time the preventing effect of ETs in gastric inflammation and support for their use in dietary
Sangiovanni, Enrico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Colombo, Elisa; Brunelli, Cecilia; Brembati, Laura; Trivulzio, Silvio; Gasperotti, Mattia; Mattivi, Fulvio; Bosisio, Enrica; Dell'Agli, Mario
Ellagitannins have shown anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori properties; however, their anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level was not previously investigated. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of ellagitannins from Rubus berries on gastric inflammation. Ellagitannin enriched extracts (ETs) were prepared from Rubus fruticosus L. (blackberry) and Rubus idaeus L. (raspberry). The anti-inflammatory activity was tested on gastric cell line AGS stimulated by TNF-α and IL-1β for evaluating the effect on NF-kB driven transcription, nuclear translocation and IL-8 secretion. In vivo the protective effect of ellagitannins was evaluated in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Rats were treated orally for ten days with 20 mg/kg/day of ETs, and ethanol was given one hour before the sacrifice. Gastric mucosa was isolated and used for the determination of IL-8 release, NF-kB nuclear translocation, Trolox equivalents, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In vitro, ETs inhibited TNF-α induced NF-kB driven transcription (IC50: 0.67–1.73 µg/mL) and reduced TNF-α-induced NF-kB nuclear translocation (57%–67% at 2 µg/mL). ETs inhibited IL-8 secretion induced by TNF-α and IL-1β at low concentrations (IC50 range of 0.7–4 µg/mL). Sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C, the major ETs present in the extracts, were found to be responsible, at least in part, for the effect of the mixtures. ETs of blackberry and raspberry decreased Ulcer Index by 88% and 75% respectively and protected from the ethanol induced oxidative stress in rats. CINC-1 (the rat homologue of IL-8) secretion in the gastric mucosa was reduced in the animals receiving blackberry and raspberry ETs. The effect of ETs on CINC-1 was associated to a decrease of NF-κB nuclear translocation in ETs treated animals. The results of the present study report for the first time the preventing effect of ETs in gastric inflammation and support for their use in dietary regimens
Zafrilla, P; Ferreres, F; Tomás-Barberán, F A
From red raspberries, ellagic acid, its 4-arabinoside, its 4' (4' '-acetyl) arabinoside, and its 4' (4' '-acetyl)xyloside, as well as quercetin and kaempferol 3-glucosides, were identified. In addition, two unidentified ellagic acid derivatives were detected. The free radical scavenging activity of the ellagic acid derivatives was evaluated by using the DPPH method and compared to that of Trolox. All of the isolated compounds showed antioxidant activity. The effect of processing to obtain jams on raspberry phenolics was evaluated. The flavonol content decreased slightly with processing and more markedly during storage of the jams. The ellagic acid derivatives, with the exception of ellagic acid itself, remained quite stable with processing and during 6 months of jam storage. The content of free ellagic acid increased 3-fold during the storage period. The initial content (10 mg/kg of fresh weight of raspberries) increased 2-fold with processing, and it continued increasing up to 35 mg/kg after 1 month of storage of the jam. Then a slight decrease was observed until 6 months of storage had elapsed. The increase observed in ellagic acid could be explained by a release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins with the thermal treatment.
A virus induced crumbly fruit disease of considerable importance in 'Meeker' and other cultivars of red raspberry has been observed in northern Washington, USA, and British Columbia, Canada and to a lesser extent in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV), a pollen-borne ...
Nowak, Adriana; Sójka, Michał; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof
Ellagitannins possess several biological activities, including anticancer properties. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cyto- and genotoxic activities of a red raspberry ellagitannin preparation (REP) in the concentration range of 2.5-160 μg/mL, as well as that of the main individual raspberry ellagitannins, sanguiin H-6 (SH-6, 12.8-256 μM) and lambertianin C (LC, 9.3-378 μM), against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. The ellagitannin concentrations used in the study correspond to those found in foodstuffs containing raspberry fruit. REP, SH-6, and LC exhibited strong concentration-dependent genotoxic properties, inducing DNA damage ranging from 7.3 ± 1.3 to 56.8 ± 4.3%, causing double-strand breaks and oxidation of DNA bases. At IC50 (124 μg/mL) the REP affected the nuclear morphology and induced the apoptosis of Caco-2 cells. Because the REP has been found to possess chemopreventive activity, it can be used as a natural food additive to enhance the health benefits of foodstuffs.
Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Sønsteby, Anita; Aaby, Kjersti; Heide, Ola M
The effects of postflowering temperature on the fruit chemical composition of Glen Ample raspberries were studied under controlled environment conditions. The berry weight decreased significantly with increasing temperature (12, 18, and 24 °C) and with progress of the harvest period. Because the moisture content increased in parallel with the berry weight, the antioxidant capacity (AOC) and the concentration of a range of bioactive compounds decreased with decreasing temperature and progress of the harvest season when expressed on a fresh weight basis in the conventional way. Under those circumstances, dry weight units are therefore preferable. However, despite the dilution effect of large berries, the concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increased with decreasing temperature, even on a fresh weight basis. Berry AOC was closely correlated with total phenolic concentration (r = 0.958), predominantly anthocyanins and ellagitannins. While a total of 10 anthocyanins were detected, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside)-rutinoside accounted for 73% of the total, the former decreasing and the latter increasing with increasing growth temperature. By far, the most prevalent ellagitannins were lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6, both of which increased significantly with increasing temperature. It is concluded that the growth temperature has significant and contrasting effects on the concentration of a range of potentially bioactive compounds in raspberry.
Griffiths, D W; Robertson, G W; Shepherd, T; Birch, A N; Gordon, S C; Woodford, J A
Epicuticular waxes have been characterised from the flowers of raspberry and hawthorn, on both of which adult raspberry beetles (Byturus tomentosus) can feed. The flower wax from both species had similar alkane profiles and also contained long-chain alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids. The range of the carbon numbers detected for these classes of compounds was broadly similar in both but the relative amounts of each differed between species. Raspberry flower wax also contained fatty acid methyl esters, a group of compounds that has rarely been detected in plant epicuticular waxes, however, these were not observed in hawthorn flower wax. Long-chain alcohol-fatty acid esters with carbon numbers ranging from C36 to C48 were also detected in both plant species. However, an examination of their constituent acids indicated that in hawthorn the esters based on the C16 fatty acid predominated, whilst in raspberry flower wax, esters based on the C20 fatty acid were most abundant. Both species also contained pentacyclic triterpenoids, which accounted for, on average, over 16 and 48% of the total wax extracted from raspberry and hawthorn flowers respectively. In the former, ursolic and oleanolic acids accounted for over 90% of the pentacyclic triterpenes, whilst hawthorn flower wax, in addition to containing these acids, also contained high relative concentrations of both free and esterified alpha- and beta-amyrins.
Seeds of blackberry and raspberry have a deep dormancy caused by one or more mechanisms. Rubus seeds are normally enclosed in a hard endocarp that is a major constraint for their germination. To better define the germination requirements of wild species we examined the effect of two scarification ...
Shu, Jicheng; Huang, Yingzheng; Cui, Hangqing; Peng, Caiying; Liu, Jianqun; Huang, Huilian
The leaves of Rubus chingii were examined for their phytochemical composition and anti-yeast activity. In the process, seven diterpenoids (compounds 1-7), including a new natural compound (14β, 16-epoxy-7-pimarene-3α, 15β-diol, 1), were isolated and elucidated. Compound 1 exhibited moderate anti-Candida activity.
Aeschylus, Hippocrates, Krataeus, Dioscorides, and Galen; Romans: Cato, Ovid, and Pliny the Elder; Asian medicinal traditions, such as the Unani Tibb, traditional Chinese medicine, and the Ayurvedic tradition of India. Folk traditions of native peoples throughout the world have also applied Rubus fo...
Rubus images from late Antiquity to the Renaissance are described and assessed for botanical and horticultural information. The earliest surviving European blackberry (R. fruticosus L. sp. agg.) image is found on folio 83 in the Juliana Anicia Codex (Codex Vindobonensis) of 512 CE which contains cop...
Seed collections of the wild relatives of cultivated blackberry and raspberry (Rubus species) are maintained at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR. Seeds of Rubus species are orthodox and can be stored dry and remain viable for many years; however germination is often poor or er...
Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna
Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.
This proceedings book summarizes the latest internationial research concerning Rubus, Ribes and their wild relatives. This proceedings includes 82 scientific reports from international scientists concerning the genetics and germplasm, pests and diseases, physiology and production systems, post harve...
Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masood, Saima; Sultana, Shazia; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Bader, Ammar; Zafar, Muhammad
Nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of three edible wild berries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb, Rubus ulmifolius L.) from Lesser Himalayan Range (LHR) were evaluated. Their edible portion was assayed for moisture, fats, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, essential minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, S, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co, Ni) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was applied to determine the antioxidant potential. The fruit of Rubus ulmifolius L. (blackberry) possessed the highest values of energy (403.29 Kcal), total protein (6.56g/100 g), Nitrogen (N) content (1500mg/100g), K (860.17mg/100g), Ca (620.56mg/100g), Zn (17.509mg/100g) and the strongest antioxidant activity (98.89% inhibition). While the raspberries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb.) exhibited more significant contents of dietary fiber (5.90g/100g), carbohydrates (86.4 g/100 g) and Fe (4.249mg/100g). Significant variation was observed among the tested samples in all the investigated features. The combination of bio elements and active antioxidants clearly showed the applicability of these berries as a nutraceutical supplement.
Caidan, Rezeng; Cairang, Limao; Pengcuo, Jiumei; Tong, Li
Rubus amabilis, Rubus niveus Thunb., and Rubus sachalinensis are three Rubus species that are alternatively found in Manubzhithang, a Tibetan medicine, in different areas of China. The current study analyzed HPLC/UV chromatograms and it compared compounds of these three Rubus species in contrast to reference substances such as 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, procyanidin B4, and isovitexin-7-O-glucoside. The three Rubus species produced similar peaks in chromatograms. The antioxidant activity of the three Rubus species was determined using an assay for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Results indicated that the three Rubus species extracts had almost the same level of free radical scavenging activity. Thus, findings indicated the rationality of substituting these species for one another as an ingredient in Manubzhithang.
Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Yang, Wan-Qing; Su, Cong; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Jiao; Shi, She-Po; Tu, Peng-Fei
Two new oleanane-type triterpenoids, parvifolactone A (1) and rubuside P (2), together with 11 known triterpenoids, fupenzic acid (3), 18,19-seco,2α,3α-dihydroxyl-19-oxo-urs-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (4), euscaphic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 1β- hydroxyeuscaphic acid (7), 2α,3α,19α,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (8), 2α,3β,19α,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (9), glucosyl pinfaensate (10), rubuside J (11), 2α,3α,19α,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-24,28-dioic acid (12), and 2α,3β,19α- trihydroxyurs-12-en-23,28-dioic acid (13), were isolated from the roots of Rubus parvifolius. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A study was done to determine the effects of irrigation method and amount of water application on production and fruit quality in red raspberry. Two cultivars, 'Meeker' and 'Coho', were irrigated by overhead sprinkler or subsurface drip at 50, 100, and 150% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (...
A virus-induced crumbly fruit disease of considerable importance in ‘Meeker’ and other cultivars of red raspberry has been observed in northern Washington, United States and British Columbia, Canada. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV), a pollen-borne virus, has been attributed as the causal agent of...
Malowicki, Sarah M M; Martin, Robert; Qian, Michael C
Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) causes a significant reduction in yield and quality in raspberry and raspberry-blackberry hybrid. Genetic modifications were made to 'Meeker' red raspberries to impart RBDV resistance. The RBDV-resistant transgenic and wild type 'Meeker' plants were grown in Oregon and Washington, and the fruits were harvested in the 2004 and 2005 growing seasons. Year-to-year and site-to-site variations were observed for the degrees Brix and titratable acidity, with Oregon raspberries having slightly higher degrees Brix and lower titratable acidity than Washington raspberries. Twenty-nine volatile compounds were quantified using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) paired with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). There were very few differences in volatile concentrations between the transgenic varieties and the wild type 'Meeker'. Much larger variations were observed between sites and harvest seasons. Raspberries grown in Oregon appeared to have higher concentrations of delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, geraniol, and linalool. Chiral analysis of alpha-ionone, alpha-pinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, delta-octalactone, and delta-decalactone demonstrated a much higher percentage of one isomer over the other, particularly alpha-ionone, alpha-pinene, delta-octalactone, and delta-decalactone, with more than 90% of one isomer, while a racemic mixture was observed for linalool. The isomeric analysis revealed very little variation between varieties, locations, or years. The flavor compounds tested in this study did not show any difference between the transgenic lines and the wild type 'Meeker' raspberry.
Sójka, Michał; Macierzyński, Jakub; Zaweracz, Wojciech; Buczek, Maria
The putative health benefits of raspberries and raspberry-based products are potentially attributable to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols. Their content in the products of raspberry processing into juice may be affected by the fruit cultivar, technological process parameters, and the properties of the polyphenolics themselves. The objective of the study was to investigate the composition and quantity of the above polyphenolics in raspberries and the products of their processing (that is, juice and press cake, including its seed and seedless fractions). The study also examined the relationship between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. The average percentage contributions of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols to total polyphenolics in the fruits were 64.2%, 17.1%, 16.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. Analysis of raspberry products showed that the dominant compounds in juice were anthocyanins, with 65.1% contribution to total polyphenolics, while in raspberry press cake, they were tannins (98.0%, mainly ellagitannin including lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6). As shown by our mass-balance calculations, on average, 68.1% of ellagitannins and 87.7% of flavanols were retained in press cake, especially in its seedless fraction. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. An increase in molecular mass from 1568 to 2805 Da resulted in a more than 10-fold decrease in ellagitannin transfer.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka
In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.
Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L
Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries.
The interest in black raspberry products has been increasing due to its flavor and potential health benefits. While black raspberries grown in North America are Rubus occidentalis L., there has been some confusion regarding the identity of black raspberry grown in Korea (known as bokbunja; R. corean...
This chapter was written to target the research communities currently studying (misidentified) native bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel). Most Korean growers and researchers are cultivating or conducting work on R. occidentalis L. (American black raspberries), not R. coreanus. We summarized fruit, pla...
Phylogenetic analyses in Rubus L. have been challenging due to polyploidy, hybridization, and apomixis within the genus. Wide morphological diversity occurs within and between species, contributing to challenges at lower and higher systematic levels. Phylogenetic inferences to date have been based o...
Plants of Navaho and Apache blackberry cultivars were maintained at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 or 35 degrees C in growth chambers to determine optimum temperature for anthesis (fewest days to flowering). In a separate experiment, bloom dates were observed for a collection of 117 Rubus genotypes over four s...
In the U.S., there has been a recent surge in Korean black raspberry products available and in the number of reports about this species appearing in the scientific literature. Despite this, the majority of products sold and the work carried out has been on Rubus occidentalis L., not R. coreanus Miqu...
Gauci, R.; Otrysko, B.; Catford, J.-G.; Lapointe, L.
Background and Aims Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Methods Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, 14CO2 labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Key Results Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and 14C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Conclusions Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition. PMID:19520701
Gauci, R; Otrysko, B; Catford, J-G; Lapointe, L
Rubus chamaemorus (cloudberry) is a herbaceous clonal peatland plant that produces an extensive underground rhizome system with distant ramets. Most of these ramets are non-floral. The main objectives of this study were to determine: (a) if plant growth was source limited in cloudberry; (b) if the non-floral ramets translocated carbon (C) to the fruit; and (c) if there was competition between fruit, leaves and rhizomes for C during fruit development. Floral and non-floral ramet activities were monitored during the period of flower and fruit development using three approaches: gas exchange measurements, (14)CO(2) labelling and dry mass accumulation in the different organs. Source and sink activity were manipulated by eliminating leaves or flowers or by reducing rhizome length. Photosynthetic rates were lower in floral than in deflowered ramets. Autoradiographs and (14)C labelling data clearly indicated that fruit is a very strong sink for the floral ramet, whereas non-floral ramets translocated C toward the rhizome but not toward floral ramets. Nevertheless, rhizomes received some C from the floral ramet throughout the fruiting period. Ramets with shorter rhizomes produced smaller leaves and smaller fruits, and defoliated ramets produced very small fruits. Plant growth appears to be source-limited in cloudberry since a reduction in sink strength did not induce a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Non-floral ramets did not participate directly to fruit development. Developing leaves appear to compete with the developing fruit but the intensity of this competition could vary with the specific timing of the two organs. The rhizome appears to act both as a source but also potentially as a sink during fruit development. Further studies are needed to characterize better the complex role played by the rhizome in fruit C nutrition.
About 60 to70% of Rubus species are polyploids. Ploidy in this genus ranges from diploid through tetradecaploid , with aneuploids. The gametic chromosome number is x = 7. Taxa in Rubus Subgenera Micranthobatus and Comaropsis are endemic to the Southern Hemisphere in trans-Pacific Ocean environments ...
Guidelines for a National Certification Scheme for Rubus in the United States have been drafted and are being evaluated in states with a tradition of Rubus propagation. The major components of the guidelines describe the procedures for propagating, testing and maintaining plants at four successive s...
The North Carolina Rubus germplasm collection contains hundreds of diverse blackberry, raspberry, and black raspberry (Rubus L.)selections, among which intra- and interspecific crosses were made to achieve breeding goals for expanding commercial production in the Southeast. For over 50 years, the b...
Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus. RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, this virus was isolated and...
Rezzonico, Fabio; Braun-Kiewnick, Andrea; Mann, Rachel A; Rodoni, Brendan; Goesmann, Alexander; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M
Comparative genomic analysis revealed differences in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis gene cluster between the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 and the Spiraeoideae-infecting strain CFBP 1430 of Erwinia amylovora. These differences corroborate rpoB-based phylogenetic clustering of E. amylovora into four different groups and enable the discrimination of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains. The structure of the differences between the two groups supports the hypothesis that adaptation to Rubus spp. took place after species separation of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae that contrasts with a recently proposed scenario, based on CRISPR data, in which the shift to domesticated apple would have caused an evolutionary bottleneck in the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora which would be a much earlier event. In the core region of the LPS biosynthetic gene cluster, Spiraeoideae-infecting strains encode three glycosyltransferases and an LPS ligase (Spiraeoideae-type waaL), whereas Rubus-infecting strains encode two glycosyltransferases and a different LPS ligase (Rubus-type waaL). These coding domains share little to no homology at the amino acid level between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains, and this genotypic difference was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of the associated DNA region in 31 Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains. The LPS biosynthesis gene cluster may thus be used as a molecular marker to distinguish between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora using primers designed in this study.
Ali, Niaz; Shaoib, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Shuaib, Muhammad
As aerial parts of Rubus ulmifolius contains phytochemicals like flavonoids and tannins. And whereas flavonoids and tannins have antioxidant and antipyretic activity, hence, current work is carried out to screen crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of Rubus ulmifolius (Ru.Cr) and crude flavonoids rich extract of Rubus ulmifolius (Ru.F) for possible antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Ru.Cr and Ru.F are also tested for brine shrimps lethality bioassay. Ru.F is tested for the first time for possible antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Ru.Cr and Ru.F was performed as it provides rapid finger printing for targeting a pharmacological activity. Acute toxicity and Brine shrimps' cytotoxicity studies of Ru.Cr and Ru.F were performed to determine its safe dose range. Antioxidant and antipyretic studies were also performed as per reported procedures. Ru.Cr tested positive for presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids. Ru.Cr is safe up to 6 g/kg following oral doses for acute toxicity study. Ru.Cr is safe up to 75 μg/kg (p.o), LC50 for Ru.Cr and Ru.F are 16.7 ± 1.4 μg/ml 10.6 ± 1.8 μg/ml, respectively (n = 3). Both Ru.Cr and Ru.F demonstrated comparable antioxidant activity using vitamin C as standard (p ≤ 0.05). In test dose of 300 mg of Ru.Cr, rectal temperature was reduced by 74% (p ≤ 0.05) on 4(th) hour of the administration. More, Ru.F produced 72% reduction in pyrexia (p ≤ 0.05) on 4(th) hour of administration of paracetamol in Westar rats. The current work confirms that aerial parts of Rubus ulmifolius contain flavonoids that are safe up to 6 g/kg (p.o). Crude methanolic extract and flavonoids rich fraction of Rubus ulmifolius have significant antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Further work is required to isolate the pharmacologically active substances for relatively safe and effective antipyretics and antioxidants.
Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Sabanadzovic, Sead
Flexuous filaments, resembling flexivirus virions, were observed in partially purified blackberry preparations showing mild virus-like symptoms. Further tests revealed the presence of a novel betaflexivirus that is phylogenetically related to foveaviruses. The putative virus-encoded proteins shared limited similarity with orthologs of known members of the genus, indicating that the virus, provisionally named Rubus canadensis virus 1 (RuCV-1), represents a novel member of the taxon. Results of a survey in several U.S. states suggest that RuCV-1 is not widespread in the blackberry germplasm.
Ono, Masateru; Yasuda, Shin; Nishi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Fuchizaki, Satoshi; Higuchi, Satomi; Komatsu, Haruki; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro
Two new ursane-type triterpenoids (1, 2) attached to isopropylidenedioxy group were isolated from the seeds of blackberry (Rubus fructicosus L., Rosaceae) along with two known ursane-type triterpenoids, 2,3-O-isopropylidenyl-2α,3α,19α-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (3) and 1β-hydroxyeuscaphic acid (4). The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were determined to be 2,3-O-isopropylidene-1β,2β,3β,19α-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and 1,2-O-isopropylidene-1β,2α,3α,19α-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively, based on spectroscopic data. Additionally, their cytotoxic activity towards HL-60 human leukaemia cells was evaluated. Among them, 3 demonstrated a clear cytotoxic activity with 72.8 μM of IC50 value.
Lee, Jungmin; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E
In the U.S., there has been a recent surge in Korean black raspberry products available and in the number of reports about this species appearing in the scientific literature. Despite this, the majority of products sold and the work carried out has been on Rubus occidentalis L., not R. coreanus Miquel. The importance of accurate recognition of all starting material is multiplied for research downstream, including genetics/genomics, plant breeding, phenolic identification, food processing improvements and pharmacokinetic investigations. An overview of distinguishing characteristics separating R. coreanus from R. occidentalis will be presented. Research conducted on correctly identified fruit will also be summarized to aid future studies that might showcase the unique qualities that bokbunja can offer.
... loganbaccus (loganberry); Rubus idaeus (red and black raspberry); cultivars, varieties, and/or hybrids of... include canola and crambe.) Raspberry Rubus spp. (including bababerry; black raspberry; blackcap; caneberry; framboise; frambueso; himbeere; keriberry; mayberry; red raspberry; thimbleberry; tulameen...
... loganbaccus (loganberry); Rubus idaeus (red and black raspberry); cultivars, varieties, and/or hybrids of... include canola and crambe.) Raspberry Rubus spp. (including bababerry; black raspberry; blackcap; caneberry; framboise; frambueso; himbeere; keriberry; mayberry; red raspberry; thimbleberry; tulameen...
... loganbaccus (loganberry); Rubus idaeus (red and black raspberry); cultivars, varieties, and/or hybrids of... include canola and crambe.) Raspberry Rubus spp. (including bababerry; black raspberry; blackcap; caneberry; framboise; frambueso; himbeere; keriberry; mayberry; red raspberry; thimbleberry; tulameen...
Chen, Pan; Fang, Zhi-jian; Yan, Han-jing; Zhou, Hong-bo; Mei, Quan-xi
To investigate the chemical constituents of Rubus alceaefolius. Nine compounds were isolated and purified from the petroleum ether extract of 95% alcohol extract of Rubus alceaefolius by repeated column chromatography on silica, Sephadex LH-20 and structurally identified by spectral analysis. The compounds were identified as chrysophanol(1), physcion (2), β-sitosterol(3), 3-oxotirucalla-7, 24-dien-21-oic acid(4), myricadiol(5), 19-α-hydroxy-3-acetyl-ursolic acid(6), N-benzoylphenylalaninyl-N-benzoylphenylalaninate(7), aurantiamide acetate(8) and euscaphic acid(9). Compounds land 4~8 are isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 4 - 8 are found in plants of Rubus genus for the first time.
Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing; Chen, Tao; Tang, Haoru; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xiaorong
Rubus L. is a large and taxonomically complex genus, species of which exhibit apomixis, polyploidy, and frequent hybridization. Most of Chinese Rubus are assigned in two major sections, Idaeobatus and Malachobatus. To explore the phylogenetic relationships within Chinese Rubus, inferences upon three chloroplast DNA (rbcL, rpl20-rps12, and trnG-trnS), nuclear ribosomal ITS, and two low-copy nuclear markers (GBSSI-2 and PEPC) were deduced in 142 Rubus taxa from 17 subsections in 6 sections. nrITS and GBSSI-2 were the most informative among the six DNA regions assessed. Phylogenetic relationships within Rubus were well-resolved by combined nuclear datasets rather than chloroplast markers. The phylogenetic inferences strongly supported that section Idaeobatus was a polyphyletic group with four distant clades. All samples of sect. Malachobatus formed a monophyletic clade, in which R. tsangorum and R. amphidasys of sect. Dalibardastrum, and R. peltatus from subsection Peltati of sect. Idaeobatus were always nested. Rubus pentagonus (2n = 2x = 14) from subsect. Alpestres of sect. Idaeobatus was a sister group to the polyploid sect. Malachobatus, as well as the polytomy of three sect. Cyalctis members. This suggests that some polyploids of Malachobatus might originate from common ancestors, via polyploidization of hybrids between R. pentagonus and sect. Cylactis species. They had experienced species explosion in a short time. Section Dalibardastrum species have potential parental lineages from subsects. Moluccani and Stipulosi of sect. Malachobatus. Based on molecular phylogenies, we also provided recommendations for the taxonomic treatments of four taxa. In addition, our results showed certain incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear markers, which might be due to hybridization and introgression. PMID:27446191
Verma, Rameshwar; Gangrade, Tushar; Punasiya, Rakesh; Ghulaxe, Chetan
Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity. PMID:25125882
George, Blassan Plackal; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj; Kumar, Yamini T; Sajeesh, Thankarajan
The present investigation has been undertaken to study the antioxidant, antitumor, and wound healing properties of Rubus ellipticus. The R. ellipticus leaves were extracted using organic solvents in Soxhlet and were subjected to in vitro antioxidant assays. R. ellipticus leaf methanol (RELM) extract, which showed higher in vitro antioxidant activity, was taken for the evaluation of in vivo antioxidant, antitumor, and wound healing properties. Acute oral and dermal toxicity studies showed the safety of RELM up to a dose of 2 g/kg. A significant wound healing property was observed in incision, excision, and Staphylococcus aureus-induced infected wound models in the treatment groups compared to the control group. A complete epithelialization period was noticed during the 13(th) day and the 19(th) day. A 250-mg/kg treatment was found to prolong the life span of mice with Ehrlich ascite carcinoma (EAC; 46.76%) and to reduce the volume of Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA) solid tumors (2.56 cm(3)). The present study suggests that R. ellipticus is a valuable natural antioxidant and that it is immensely effective for treating skin diseases, wounds, and tumors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Xie, Pingyao; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xuebiao; Wei, Jinfeng; Kang, Wenyi
The compounds of Rubus spp. Blackberry (RSB) were isolated and identified by a bioassay-guided method, and their antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated with the acute blood stasis rat model. The RSB extract was evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (FIB) assays in vitro. Results indicated that RSB extract exhibited anticoagulant activity. In addition to compounds 1 and 6, the other compounds also exhibited anticoagulant activity in vitro. Therefore, the in vivo antithrombosis effects of RSB extract were investigated by measuring whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), APTT, PT, TT, and FIB. Meanwhile, the levels of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and ET-1 (endothelin-1) were measured. Results suggested that RSB extract had inhibitory effects on thrombus formation, and its antithrombotic effects were associated with the regulation of vascular endothelium active substance, activation of blood flow and an anticoagulation effect.
Verma, Rameshwar; Gangrade, Tushar; Punasiya, Rakesh; Ghulaxe, Chetan
Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity.
Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius
Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
Mathews, H; Wagoner, W; Cohen, C; Kellogg, J; Bestwick, R
We have developed an efficient transformation system for red raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.) using Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Using this system we have successfully introduced a gene that encodes an enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase), in raspberry cultivars Meeker (MK), Chilliwack (CH) and Canby (CY). Leaf and petiole expiants were inoculated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying either of two binary vectors, pAG1452 or pAG1552, encoding gene sequences for SAMase under the control of the wound and fruit specific tomato E4 promoter. Primary shoot regenerants on selection medium were chimeral containing both transformed and non-transformed cells. Non-chimeral transgenic clones were developed by iterative culture of petiole, node and leaf explants, on selection medium, from successive generations of shoots derived from the primary regenerants. Percent recovery of transformants was higher with the selection marker gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), than with neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII). Transformation frequencies of 49.6%, 0.9% and 8.1% were obtained in cultivars Meeker, Chilliwack and Canby respectively from petiole expiants using hygromycin selection. Genomic integration of transgenes was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Transgenic plants from a total of 218 independent transformation events (161 MK, 4 CH, 53 CY) have been successfully established in soil.
Asselin, J E; Bonasera, J M; Kim, J F; Oh, C-S; Beer, S V
Strains of Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium causing the disease fire blight of rosaceous plants, are separated into two groups based on host range: Spiraeoideae and Rubus strains. Spiraeoideae strains have wide host ranges, infecting plants in many rosaceous genera, including apple and pear. In the field, Rubus strains infect the genus Rubus exclusively, which includes raspberry and blackberry. Based on comparisons of limited sequence data from a Rubus and a Spiraeoideae strain, the gene eop1 was identified as unusually divergent, and it was selected as a possible host specificity factor. To test this, eop1 genes from a Rubus strain and a Spiraeoideae strain were cloned and mutated. Expression of the Rubus-strain eop1 reduced the virulence of E. amylovora in immature pear fruit and in apple shoots. Sequencing the orfA-eop1 regions of several strains of E. amylovora confirmed that forms of eop1 are conserved among strains with similar host ranges. This work provides evidence that eop1 from a Rubus-specific strain can function as a determinant of host specificity in E. amylovora.
Japanese raspberry, (Rubus parvifolius L.) is native to eastern Asia and Australia and has naturalized in several locations in Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Virginia. This species was introduced in North America for food and erosion control, but the authors are concerned that it is a ...
Japanese raspberry, (Rubus parvifolius L.) is native to eastern Asia and Australia and has naturalized in several locations in Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Ohio. This species was introduced in North America for food and erosion control, but the authors are concerned that it is becomi...
Christopher A. Walter; Devon T. Raiff; Mark B. Burnham; Frank S. Gilliam; Mary Beth Adams; William T. Peterjohn
Nitrogen additions have caused species composition changes in many ecosystems by facilitating the growth of nitrophilic species. After 24 years of nitrogen fertilization in a 40 year-old stand at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) in Central Appalachia, USA, the cover of Rubus spp. has increased from 1 to 19 % of total herbaceous-layer cover....
Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton
Throughout the southeastern United States, Rhus and Rubus species are common associates of the southern pines on a wide array of upland site and stand conditions. Because of their ability to overrun disturbed sites, these species are categorized as competitors to pine during stand regeneration. Since prescribed burning is often...
Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton
Air-dried blackbeny (Rubus spp.) fruits were placed at three depths in a reconstructed forest floor and subjected to a simulated prescribed summer bum. Within the forest floor, fruits were placed on the L layer, at the upper-F/lower-F interface, and at the lower-F/mineral-soil interface. Wind for a headfire was generated by electric boxfans....
Over the last 75 years, the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.)industry in the United States has undergone a steady contraction because of a lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars. Recent research supporting the health benefits of a diet rich in polyphenolics, and black raspberries in part...
The root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a production-limiting pest in red raspberry, Rubus ideaus, in the United States. Having resistance as a tool to manage P. penetrans in raspberries would reduce the impact of this nematode on raspberry productivity as well as reduce the need for p...
This is the first report of species adulteration in a collection of commercially available bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) products sold in Korea and the US (all originated from Korea). Seventeen bokbunja products were obtained for examination, though twelve samples contained R. occidentalis L. fru...
A blackberry (Rubus L.) expressed sequence tag (EST) library was produced for developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the tetraploid blackberry cultivar, Merton Thornless, the source of the thornless trait in commercial cultivars. RNA was extracted from young expanding leaves and used f...
Alaska’s domesticated and native Ribes and Rubus genera have virtually gone unchecked for pathogen detections. Cultivated Ribes species are predominantly found in home gardens and landscape areas along highways and in cities. In 2008, while surveying native plants for diseases in North Central Alask...
Diseased leaves of Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry) were discovered on October 11, 2013 in a small, 3x3 m, infestation at a sunny location along Indian Springs Rd., Frederick, MD (N 39.467634, W 77.461362). Although the proportion of diseased plants was estimated to be less than10 per cent of the po...
The black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)industry in the United States has declined over the past 75 years due to a lack of new cultivars to meet the needs of the growers and consumers. The health benefits of dark fruits, especially black raspberry, are well documented and this has led to renewed int...
A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...
Süntar, Ipek; Koca, Ufuk; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli
Young shoots of Rubus species have been used for healing of wounds, infected insect bites and pimples in folk medicine for ages. In order to evaluate the wound healing activity of Rubus sanctus, four different extracts were prepared from the whole aerial parts of the plant by using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Incision wound healing model by using tensiometer on rats and excision model on mice were employed to assess the activity. Remarkable wound healing activity was observed with the ointment formulation of the methanol extract at 1% concentration on the mentioned models. The results of histopathological examination also supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a reference ointment Madecassol. The experimental data confirmed the ethnobotanical usage of R. sanctus.
Marulanda, M; López, A M; Uribe, M
The species Rubus glaucus, also known as the Andean or "Castilla" blackberry, is one of nine edible species of this genus that grow naturally in Central and South America. In Colombia, this species is the most important of all Rubus species for agricultural and commercial purposes. We used 20 SSRs developed for other Rubus species to characterize 44 Colombian R. glaucus genotypes, collected from eight different departments, and to look for molecular differences between thornless and thorny cultivated blackberries. Eighty-two bands were obtained from 28 loci. The genotypes were classified into eight populations, corresponding to collection sites. The mean number of polymorphic alleles per locus in all populations and genotypes ranged from 1.857 to 2.393. Samples collected from Valle del Cauca, Quindío, Caldas, and Risaralda departments had the highest heterozygosity values. The finding of exclusive bands from R. glaucus genotypes from Valle del Cauca, Quindío, and Caldas demonstrates genetic and molecular differentiation between thorny and thornless Andean blackberries.
Elliot, Simon L; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Mumford, John D
Monitoring of a population of the phytophagous cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), and its natural enemies was undertaken in central Bahia, Brazil, in mid-1996. In spite of the presence of extremely high densities of the predatory phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma, the phytophagous mite population reached such high densities itself that there was total overexploitation of the cassava plants, leading to total leaf loss. Meanwhile, the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae Delalibera, Humber & Hajek did not affect the M. tanajoa population in its growth phase as there was no inoculum present, even though we predict from a simple regression model that there was the potential for epizootics at that time. Soon after the M. tanajoa population crashed due to defoliation, there could have been an epizootic but there were simply no mite hosts to infect. These data demonstrate the ineffectiveness of one natural enemy (the predator) in terms of prey population regulation and demonstrate the importance of timing in the possible effectiveness of the other (the pathogen). For the pathogen, this probably explains its sporadic effect on host populations as previously reported. We conclude that the fungus is likely to be most useful as an adjunct to biological control with predatory mites other than N. idaeus.
Sochor, Michal; Vašut, Radim J; Sharbel, Timothy F; Trávníček, Bohumil
New species are generated by many means, among which hybridization plays an important role. Interspecific hybrids can form isolated evolutionary units, especially when mechanisms increasing viability and fertility, like polyploidy and apomixis, are involved. A good model system to study reticulate evolution in plants is Rubus subgen. Rubus (brambles, blackberries), which only in Europe includes 748 accepted species, out of which only four are sexual diploids and all others are polyploid apomicts. We employed two molecular markers (ITS and cpDNA) to shed light on the evolutionary history of European bramble flora and main processes generating such high species diversity. We distinguished just six ancestral diploids (including two extinct ones) for both markers, which gave rise to all European polyploid accessions, and revealed an extreme reticulation in bramble evolution. We furthermore detected hybridogenous origins and identified putative parents for several taxa (e.g. ser. Nessenses), while in other groups (e.g. ser. Discolores) we could also infer the direction of hybridization. By comparing different cp haplotypes having clear geographic patterns, we hypothesize that the origin of European brambles can be attributed to both Holocene species range expansion and Pleistocene climate fluctuations.
Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ismail, Nur Amalina; Isha, Azizul; Mei Ling, Angelina Lee
Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume) were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays), antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25 ± 0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and carotenoid content [21.86 ± 0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17 ± 0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96 ± 0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE)/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23–26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity. PMID:27437023
Analysis of phenolic compounds in two blackberry species (Rubus glaucus and Rubus adenotrichus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.
Mertz, Christian; Cheynier, Veronique; Günata, Ziya; Brat, Pierre
High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array (LC-DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was used to analyze phenolic compounds of two blackberry species ( Rubus glaucus Benth. and Rubus adenotrichus Schlech.) growing in South America. UV-visible spectrophotometry was a valuable tool for identifying the class of phenolic compound, whereas MS and MS ( n ) fragmentation data were useful for their structural characterization. Ellagitannins were the major compounds, with sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C being the predominant ones. The anthocyanin composition as well as the presence or absence of kaempferol glycosides can be used to distinguish the Rubus species studied. Flavonol hexoside-malonates were identified in both berries. Hydroxycinnamic acids were minor compounds and found as ferulic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acid esters. Similar contents were obtained by analysis of soluble ellagitannins and ellagic acid glycosides as ellagic acid equivalents and by analysis of ellagic acid equivalents released after acid hydrolysis.
Red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., is the most economically important fruit crop in the highly diverse Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus. This subgenus also includes black raspberry R. occidentalis L. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Ore.), is responsible for preserving a Rubus col...
Alves, Ana Beatriz Costa Rodrigues; dos Santos, Rafaella Souza; Calil, Susana de Santana; Niero, Rivaldo; Lopes, Jhonny da Silva; Perazzo, Fábio F; Rosa, Paulo César Pires; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Maistro, Edson Luis
Rubus imperialis Cham. Schl. (Rosaceae) is frequently used in traditional medicine as hypoglycemic, antinociceptive and antiviral remedy. Swiss albino mice were distributed in eight groups for acute treatment with Rubus imperialis extract (24 h). The extract doses selected were 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or plus to CPA (50 mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. Control groups were treated in a similar way. Analyses were performed using the comet assay, on leukocytes (collected 4 and 24h after treatment) and liver (collected 24 h after treatment), and using the micronucleus test (MN) in bone marrow cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE/NCE ratio). The main compounds identified in the Rubus imperialis extract were saponins and steroidal compounds, with niga-ichigoside and tormentic acid being the major compounds. Tested doses of Rubus imperialis extract showed no genotoxic effects on leukocytes from peripheral blood or liver cells by the comet assay. However, the MN test showed an increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells at the two higher doses tested, indicating that this extract has clastogenic/aneugenic effects on bone marrow cells at higher doses. On the other hand, for all cells evaluated, the three tested doses of the Rubus imperialis extract promoted inhibition of DNA damage induced by CPA. Despite the chemoprevention observed, the clastogenicity/aneugenicity observed suggested caution about either continuous or high-dose usage of Rubus imperialis aerial parts extract by humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan
The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in functional morphological traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with morphology among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, functional morphological traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.
Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Choon Geun; Cha, Seon Woo; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Jin-Chul; Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Lee, Hyeon Yong
The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing the extract. Proliferation of B-, T- and NK cells was notably enhanced by Rubus coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles and in general ~2–3 times higher than control and on average ~2 times higher than ferulic acid. R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles induced cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-α) from B- and T-cells on average at a ~2–3 times higher rate compared with the extract and ferulic acid. In vivo immunomodulatory activity in mice fed with R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles at 1 mL/g body weight showed a ~5 times higher antibody production compared to control, a ~1.3 times higher production compared to the extract only, and a ~1.6 times higher production compared to ferulic acid. Overall, our results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles represent an excellent transport vehicle for Rubus coreanus extract and extracts from other plants generally used in traditional Asian medicine. Such nanoparticles ensure a high local concentration that results in enhancement of immune
Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Choon Geun; Cha, Seon Woo; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Jin-Chul; Drummen, Gregor P C; Lee, Hyeon Yong
The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing the extract. Proliferation of B-, T- and NK cells was notably enhanced by Rubus coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles and in general ~2-3 times higher than control and on average ~2 times higher than ferulic acid. R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles induced cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-α) from B- and T-cells on average at a ~2-3 times higher rate compared with the extract and ferulic acid. In vivo immunomodulatory activity in mice fed with R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles at 1 mL/g body weight showed a ~5 times higher antibody production compared to control, a ~1.3 times higher production compared to the extract only, and a ~1.6 times higher production compared to ferulic acid. Overall, our results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles represent an excellent transport vehicle for Rubus coreanus extract and extracts from other plants generally used in traditional Asian medicine. Such nanoparticles ensure a high local concentration that results in enhancement of immune cell
Plackal George, Blassan; Thangaraj, Parimelazhagan; Sulaiman, Cheruthazhakkatt; Piramanayagam, Shanmughavel; Ramaswamy, Sathish Kumar
The in vitro and in silico analysis of Rubus fairholmianus acetone extract for antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activity led to the isolation of six compounds. Amongst all the six isolated compounds tested, 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methylpentan-1-one (compound 1) and 2-[(3-methylbutoxy) carbonyl] benzoic acid (compound 2) were found to be more active in inhibiting BRCA and COX target proteins, which also showed the better results for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The promising results of this investigation emphasize the importance of using R. fairholmianus in the treatment of radical generated disorders mainly cancer and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25254204
Kula, Marta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława
Rubus occidentalis is a black-fruited raspberry originating from North America. Its popularity and demand has been growing over the years, as studies outline its high anthocyanin and ellagitannin content and significance for human health. Interaction between chemical composition and pharmacological activity, mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels are all active areas of study. The vast majority of research concerning black raspberries is focused on chemoprevention and anticancer effects. This review summarizes the data on chemical composition and anticancer activity of black raspberry fruits throughout the years.
The effects of preharvest methyl jasmonate (MJ) application on fruit quality, antioxidant activity and flavonoid content in blackberries (Rubus spp.) were determined. Anticancer activity against human lung A549 cells and HL-60 leukemia cells was also evaluated. Three blackberry cultivars (Chester T...
Chou, Guixin; Xu, Shun-Jun; Liu, Dong; Koh, Gar Yee; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Zhijun
Quality of botanical food is increasingly assessed by the content of multiple bioactive compounds. In this study we report, for the first time, an HPLC fingerprinting method for the quality evaluation of Rubus suavissimus leaves possessing multiple bioactivities. Five constituents, gallic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, rubusoside, and steviol monoside were quantified and used in developing qualitative chromatographic fingerprints. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.29 μg/mL to 37.86 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precisions were no more than 3.14% and 3.01%, respectively. The average recoveries were between 93.1% and 97.5%. The developed method was validated in analyzing fourteen leaf samples with satisfactory results. The contents of the five marker compounds accounted for an average of about 6% w/w with a variability of 16% among the fourteen samples collected from a single site and year. Gallic acid was the least whereas steviol monoside the most variable compounds among the fourteen leaf samples. The characteristic compound rubusoside that is responsible for the sweet taste accounted for 5% of leaf weight. The validated method can now be used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the quality of Rubus suavissimus leaves as traditional beverage or potential medicines. PMID:19138116
Gudej, Jan; Tomczyk, Michal
This paper describes the quantitative determination of flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in the leaves from wild and cultivated variations of Rubus L. species (Rosaceae): raspberry (2 wild and 13 cultivars) and blackberry (3 wild and 3 cultivars). The content of flavonoids was analyzed using spectrophotometric (the Christ-Mullers method) and HPLC analysis after acid hydrolysis. The content of tannins was determined by the weight method, with hide powder, described by German Pharmacopoeia 10 (DAB 10). Ellagic acid content was examined using the HPLC method after acid hydrolysis. Flavonoid content, determined using the Christ-Muller's method was higher for the blackberry leaves than for the raspberry leaves and varied between 0.46% and 1.05%. Quercetin and kaempferol were predominant in all samples analyzed using the HPLC method. The highest flavonoid content was found in the leaves of R. nessensis (1.06%); with results in all of the examined samples varying between 0.27% and 1.06%. The concentration of ellagic acid in all species was determined after acid hydrolysis and ranged from 2.06% to 6.89%. The leaves of raspberries are characterized by greater amounts of tannins (varying between 2.62% and 6.87%) than the leaves of other species. The results from this study indicate that the analyzed species are a rich source of flavonoids, ellagic acid and tannins, which may be used for the quality assessment of Rubus L. species leaves.
Lee, Jun Ho
To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358
Lee, Jun Ho
To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.
Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat
Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606
Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Melai, Bernardo; Cioni, Pierluigi; Flamini, Guido; Pistelli, Luisa
The chemical composition of spontaneous volatile emission from Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different stages of development was evaluated by HS-SPME-GC/MS. In total, 155 chemical compounds were identified accounting 84.6 - 99.4% of whole aroma profile of flowers samples and 92.4 - 96.6% for fruit samples. The main constituents were α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, 1,7-octadien-3-one,2-methyl-6-methylene, tridecane, (E)-2-hexenol acetate, (E)-3-hexenol acetate and cyperene. The results give a chemotaxonomic contribution to the characterization of the VOCs emitted from flowers and fruits during their ontogenic development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.
Choi, Mi-Ran; Lee, Min Young; Hong, Ji Eun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Chun, Jang Woo; Shin, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Eun Ji
The present study investigated the effect of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in ICR mice. Mice were orally administrated RCM for 4 weeks and scopolamine was intraperitoneally injected into mice to induce memory impairment. RCM improved the scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. The increase of acetylcholinesterase activity caused by scopolamine was significantly attenuated by RCM treatment. RCM increased the levels of acetylcholine in the brain and serum of mice. The expression of choline acetyltransferase, phospho-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly increased within the brain of mice treated with RCM. The brain antioxidant enzyme activity decreased by scopolamine was increased by RCM. These results demonstrate that RCM exerts a memory-enhancing effect via the improvement of cholinergic function and the potentiated antioxidant activity in memory-impaired mice. The results suggest that RCM may be a useful agent for improving memory impairment.
Liu, Chao; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Shi-Jun; Sun, Jin-Yue; Yao, Gui-Yang; Wang, Heng-Shan
Chemical investigations of the whole plant ethanol extract of Rubus phoenicolasius led to the isolation and identification of a new pregnane glycoside, 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl-3β,15β-dihydroxypregn-5-en-20-one (1), along with other nine known compounds (2-10). All the isolates were reported from this plant for the first time. The structure of compound 1 was determined by detailed analysis of its spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR. In vitro anti-proliferative activities of compounds 1-3 on MCF-7 and NCI-H460 tumour cell lines were evaluated, and compound 1 was active against the two cell lines with IC50 values of 15.6 and 13.5 μM, respectively.
Bautista-Rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-Montañez, Gabriela; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat
Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.
Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Tortoriello, Jaime; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana
Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant. PMID:22966243
Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Jung eun; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Jaehwi; Cho, SooMuk
Korean raspberry, Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM), contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which prevent oxidative stress. To determine the effect of RCM on antioxidant capacity in humans, we assessed in vivo lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities from plasma in 15 healthy men. The subjects ingested 30 g of freeze-dried RCM daily for 4 weeks. Blood was taken at baseline and at the end of the study to determine blood lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, liver function, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. RCM supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or fasting plasma glucose concentrations but decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. RCM supplementation increased glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05) but had no effect on lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that short-term RCM supplementation may offer health benefits by enhancing antioxidant capacity in a healthy population. PMID:22125680
Díaz, Dafne I; Beristain, Cesar I; Azuara, Ebner; Luna, Guadalupe; Jimenez, Maribel
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice possesses compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be protected by different biopolymers used in the microencapsulation. Therefore, the effects of cell wall material including maltodextrin (MD), Arabic gum (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of encapsulated blackberries using a spray-drying technique. Anthocyanin concentration, polymeric colour, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazil radical, reducing power and the stability at different storage conditions were evaluated. GA and MD conferred a similar protection to the antioxidant compounds when the microcapsules were stored at low water activities (aw < 0.515) in contrast to at a high moisture content (aw > 0.902), whereas WPC presented a high protection. Therefore, the selection of the best wall material for blackberry juice encapsulation depends of the conditions of storage of the powder.
Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun
Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zhao, Jinyan; Liu, Liya; Wan, Yun; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun
We evaluated the effects of total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and furthermore investigated the possible molecular mechanisms mediating its anticancer activity. We implanted nude mice with human HCC HepG2 cells and fed them with vehicle (physiological saline) or 3 g/kg/day dose of TARAP 5 days per week for 21 days. We determined the in vitro effect of TARAP on the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells by transwell assay. We evaluated SHH signaling components' (SHH, PTCH, SMO, and Gli1) expression levels by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in supernatants was analyzed by zymography. The expression of the MMPs and their specific tissue inhibitor (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, 2) in HCC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. We discovered that TARAP inhibited hepatocellular migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, TARAP decreased the expression of SHH, PTCH, SMO, and Gli1 in HCC mouse tumors at both transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, TARAP inhibited the activity of MMP2 and MMP9. We found that TARAP reduced the expression of MMP2 and MMP9, as well as the tissue inhibitor of MMPs. Our study showed that TARAP inhibits HCC migration and invasion likely through suppression of the hedgehog pathway. This may, in part, explain its anticancer properties. These results suggest that total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius may have potential as a novel antimetastasis drug in the treatment of HCC. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mimura, Makiko; Mishima, Misako; Lascoux, Martin; Yahara, Tetsukazu
The margins of a species' range might be located at the margins of a species' niche, and in such cases, can be highly vulnerable to climate changes. They, however, may also undergo significant evolutionary changes due to drastic population dynamics in response to climate changes, which may increase the chances of isolation and contact among species. Such species interactions induced by climate changes could then regulate or facilitate further responses to climatic changes. We hypothesized that climate changes lead to species contacts and subsequent genetic exchanges due to differences in population dynamics at the species boundaries. We sampled two closely related Rubus species, one temperate (Rubus palmatus) and the other subtropical (R. grayanus) near their joint species boundaries in southern Japan. Coalescent analysis, based on molecular data and ecological niche modelling during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), were used to infer past population dynamics. At the contact zones on Yakushima (Yaku Island), where the two species are parapatrically distributed, we tested hybridization along altitudinal gradients. Coalescent analysis suggested that the southernmost populations of R. palmatus predated the LGM (~20,000 ya). Conversely, populations at the current northern limit of R. grayanus diverged relatively recently and likely represent young outposts of a northbound range shift. These population dynamics were partly supported by the ensemble forecasting of six different species distribution models. Both past and ongoing hybridizations were detected near and on Yakushima. Backcrosses and advanced-generation hybrids likely generated the clinal hybrid zones along altitudinal gradients on the island where the two species are currently parapatrically distributed. Climate oscillations during the Quaternary Period and the response of a species in range shifts likely led to repeated contacts with the gene pools of ecologically distinct relatives. Such species interactions
Quave, Cassandra L.; Estévez-Carmona, Miriam; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hobby, Gerren; Hendrickson, Howard; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.
Background Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50–200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530–1040 µg/mL). This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:22242149
welve microsatellites were isolated from SSR-enriched genomic libraries of Rubus idaeus L.‘Meeker’ red raspberry (diploid) and R. loganobaccus L. H. Bailey ‘Marion’ blackberry-raspberry hybrid (hexaploid). These primer pairs, with the addition of one developed from a GenBank R. idaeus sequence, we...
Twelve microsatellites were isolated from SSR-enriched genomic libraries of Rubus idaeus L.‘Meeker’ red raspberry (diploid) and R. loganobaccus L. H. Bailey ‘Marion’ blackberry-raspberry hybrid (hexaploid). These primer pairs, with the addition of one developed from a GenBank R. idaeus sequence, w...
Raspberries are a delicate, high value crop with an extremely short shelf life exacerbated by postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. European red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is the most widely grown. Yellow (R. idaeus L.), black (R. occidentalis L.) and purple raspberries (R. ×neglectus ...
Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette
Rubus stunt is an economically important disease in the production of raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries. A fast, sensitive, and reliable diagnosis of phytoplasmas, the causal agent of the disease, is of prime importance to stop its spread by vegetative propagation and by insect vectors. Therefore, multiplex qPCR assays using TaqMan probes with different kinds of fluorophores in one reaction were developed, allowing the detection of phytoplasmas in general as well as a more specific detection of phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrV and host DNA (either plant or insect). This assay now provides a practical tool for the screening of motherplants and monitoring the presence and distribution of phytoplasmas in Rubus plants of different geographic origins, cultivars, and cultivation systems, as well as in putative insect vectors like leafhoppers. PMID:28545043
Linck, Holger; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette
Rubus stunt is an economically important disease in the production of raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries. A fast, sensitive, and reliable diagnosis of phytoplasmas, the causal agent of the disease, is of prime importance to stop its spread by vegetative propagation and by insect vectors. Therefore, multiplex qPCR assays using TaqMan probes with different kinds of fluorophores in one reaction were developed, allowing the detection of phytoplasmas in general as well as a more specific detection of phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrV and host DNA (either plant or insect). This assay now provides a practical tool for the screening of motherplants and monitoring the presence and distribution of phytoplasmas in Rubus plants of different geographic origins, cultivars, and cultivation systems, as well as in putative insect vectors like leafhoppers.
Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.
The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.
McGavin, W J; Macfarlane, S A
The complete nucleotide sequence of a new member of the unassigned genus Sobemovirus, isolated from raspberry and bramble plants in north east Scotland and given the name Rubus chlorotic mottle virus (RuCMV), was obtained. The virus has a single, positive-strand RNA genome of 3,983 nucleotides and, in common with other sobemoviruses, contains four open reading frames (ORFs) encoding, from 5' to 3', the P1 protein that is likely to be a suppressor of RNA silencing, ORF2a that has homology to serine-proteases, ORF2b that is the probable RNA dependent RNA polymerase, and ORF3 that is the coat protein. ORF2b protein is potentially expressed as a fusion with ORF2a protein by a -1 frameshift at the heptanucleotide sequence UUUAAAC. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RuCMV is a distinct virus not closely related to any of the other sequenced sobemoviruses. Based on the obtained sequence a full-length cDNA copy of RuCMV was cloned and in vitro transcripts derived from this clone were shown to be fully infectious.
da Silva, Luisa Mota; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; Barp, Cristiane; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni
This study investigated the effects of Rubus imperialis, a berry known as "amora-branca", in colitis dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in mice. Animals were treated orally with vehicle (water), 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or methanolic extract from leaves of R. imperialis (MERI, 100 mg/kg), once a day during seven days. The disease activity index (DAI) was observed daily. Colons were collected for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The administration of MERI exacerbated colitis, as indicated by DAI heightened weight loss and increased histological colonic injury. MERI also decreased the colon mucin levels and increased colonic TNF content. The colonic levels of reduced glutathione and the superoxide dismutase activity in colitic group treated with MERI were decreased. Despite the worsening of colitis, MERI not altered the intestinal transit, body weight, colon length or organs weight in normal mice. Tormentic acid (TA) and 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxyursolic acid (THA), compounds isolated from MERI, reduced the L929 cells viability. Thus, MERI may have aggravated the DSS-induced colitis through intense intestinal mucus barrier impairment, which would lead to inflammatory responses, TA and THA contribute to the intestinal damage verified suggesting caution about the use of R. imperialis preparations, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Chen, Zhenzhong; Tong, Ling; Feng, Yuanli; Wu, Jizhou; Zhao, Xiaoya; Ruan, Hanli; Pi, Huifang; Zhang, Peng
Two nortriterpenes (rubuminatus A and B), which contain a distinctive contracted a five-membered A-ring ursane-type skeleton, and six triterpenes along with 17 known triterpenes were isolated from the roots of Rubus innominatus S. Moore. These structures were determined to be 19α-hydroxy-2-oxo-nor- A(3)-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 1β,19α-dihydroxy-2-oxo-nor-A(3)-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 1β,2α,3α,19α-tetrahy droxyurs-12-en-23-formyl-28-oic acid, 1β,2α,3α,19α,23- pentahydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid, 1-oxo-siaresinolic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-19β,28-olide, 1β,2α,3α-trihydroxy-19-oxo- 18,19-seco-urs-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid, and 2-O-benzoyl alphitolic acid based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. In vitro anti-inflammatory abilities to modulate the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages of the compounds were determined. Rubuminatus A and B, as well as 1-oxo-siaresinolic acid and 2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-19β,28-olide, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on these cytokines.
Moreno-Alvarez, Mario José; Viloria Matos, Alfredo; López, Eliezer; Belén, Douglas
In this research the chemical stability of total anthocyanins in three pasteurized juices elaborated from 12% of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) pulp, and addition of ascorbic acid (Formulation A: 0.1%, Formulation B: 0.05% and Formulation C: 0.01%), was evaluated by means of absorption visible spectra (400-580 nm). Physicol-chemical characterization (acidity, soluble solids content in degree Brix, pH), and count of mesophilic microorganism, fungi, yeasts, fecal coliforms (PMN/mL) and Escherichia coli, were evaluated. Sensorial parameters (color, smell, flavor) were investigated by means of un-trained panel using a hedonic scale (Fridman, P < 0.05). The study was performed during storage for 9 days. The total anthocyanins were reported as pelargonidin-3-glycoside g/L, and no significant differences were founded among the evaluated in each formulation during storage (P > 0.05). Bactocromic effect due to oxidation as not observed. Acidity (6.0-7.2 mL NaOH 0.079 N), soluble solids content (9.0-9.8 degrees Brix) and pH (3.4) did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). The microbiological evaluation showed minimum values for pasturized products (fungi CFU/mL < 10, yeast CFU/mL < 10, fecal coliforms CFU/mL < 10 and mesophilic microorganism CFU/mL between 120-140 on first day in storage). Sensorial analysis did not show significant differences (Fridman, P > 0.05).
Lim, Hae-Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Rim; Do, Sun Hee
A substantial proportion of men with prostatic disease have an increased risk of bone loss. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) extracts on osteoporosis that occurs with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced prostatic hyperplasia. The rats used in this study were categorized into groups of healthy controls, rats treated with MNU, and rats treated with MNU and RCM. The rats were sacrificed after 10 weeks of RCM treatment, after which ultrasonography, serum biochemical tests, histopathological examinations, immunohistochemical analysis, and semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. There were no marked differences in body weight gain and the size and weight of the prostate gland between the MNU group and the MNU and RCM group. However, treatment with RCM inhibited osteoclastic osteolysis and reduced dysplastic progress in the prostate gland, as observed by histopathological evaluation and by analyzing changes in the levels of bone regulatory factors. In addition, the group treated with MNU and RCM had higher expression levels of cannabinoid receptors-1, -2, and osteoprotegerin. These results indicate that the anti-osteoporotic effect of RCM in prostatic hyperplasia is attributable to the cannabinoid receptor-related upregulation of osteoblastogenesis and inhibition of prostatic hyperplasia. The results of the present study suggest that treatment with RCM may benefit osteoporotic patients with prostatic disease by simultaneously altering the activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Zhang, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chuan-Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Min; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Wei
Polysaccharides of Rubus chingii Hu fruit and leaf were extracted to compare their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities against breast cancer cells MCF-7 and liver cancer cells Bel-7402. Results showed that all the tested bioactivities of polysaccharides from leaf (L-Ps) were better than those of polysaccharides from fruit (F-Ps). Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from leaf. Additionally, polysaccharides from fruit and leaf were characterized and their contents of total sugars, proteins and uronic acid were compared. It was found that polysaccharides from fruit and leaf were similar in IR and UV absorption, but significantly different in contents of total sugars, protein and uronic acid. Their elution profiles of DEAE-Sepharose fast flow column were different too. The main peak of polysaccharides from fruit was eluted with 0.3 mol/l NaCl solution and the main peak of polysaccharides from leaf was eluted with deionized water. The differences between the two polysaccharides may be responsible for their differences in bioactivities. Further studies are required to explore their complete structural characteristics, structure-activity relationship and the mechanism of their activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Bing; Chen, Jia; Yu, Yi-qun; Cao, Yong-bing; Jiang, Yuan-ying
This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Rubus chingii extract in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against FLC-resistant Candida albicans 100 in vitro. A R. chingii extract and FLC-resistant C. albicans fungus suspension were prepared. The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index of R. chingii extract combined with FLC against C. albicans were determined, after which growth curves for C. albicans treated with R. chingii extract, FLC alone and a combination of these preparations were constructed. Additionally, the mechanisms of drug combination against C. albicans were explored by flow cytometry, gas chromatographic mass spectrometry and drug efflux pump function detection. R. chingii extract combined with FLC showed significant synergy. Flow cytometry suggested that C. albicans cells mainly arrest in G1 and S phases when they have been treated with the drug combination. The drug combination resulted in a marked decrease in the ergosterol content of the cell membrane. Additionally, efflux of Rhodamine 6G decreased with increasing concentrations of R. chingii extract. R. chingii extract combined with FLC has antifungal activity against FLC-resistant C. albicans. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Grochowski, Daniel Mirosław; Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Dudek, Adrianna; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Tomczykowa, Monika; Granica, Sebastian; Polak, Paulina
The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of different extracts and subfractions from Rubus caesius leaves on two human colon cancer cell lines obtained from two stages of the disease progression lines HT29 and SW948. Tested samples inhibited the viability of cells, both HT29 and SW948 lines, in a concentration-dependent manner. The most active was the ethyl acetate fraction which, applied at the highest concentration (250 μg/mL), decreased the viability of cells (HT29 and SW948) below 66%. The extracts and subfractions were also investigated for antioxidant activities on DPPH and FRAP assays. All extracts, with the exception of water extract at a dose of 250 μg/mL, almost totally reduced DPPH. The highest Fe3+ ion reduction was shown for the diethyl and ethyl acetate fractions. It was more than 6.5 times higher (at a dose 250 μg/mL) as compared to the control. The LC-MS studies of the analysed preparations showed that all samples contain a wide variety of polyphenolics, among which ellagitannins turned out to be the main constituents with dominant ellagic acid, sanguiin H-6, and flavonol derivatives. PMID:28101119
Contreras, M; Loeza, P D; Villegas, J; Farias, R; Santoyo, G
The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of culturable bacterial communities residing in blackberry plants (Rubus fruticosus). Bacterial endophytes were isolated from plant roots, and their 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and sequenced. Our results show that the roots of R. fruticosus exhibit low colony forming units of bacterial endophytes per gram of fresh tissue (6 x 10(2) ± 0.5 x 10(2)). We identified 41 endophytic bacterial species in R. fruticosus by BLAST homology search and a subsequent phylogenetic analysis, belonging to the classes Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Alfaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Predominantly, genera belonging the Proteobacteria (Burkholderia, 29.4%; Herbaspirillum, 10.7%; Pseudomonas, 4.9%; and Dyella, 3.9%), Firmicutes (Bacillus, 42.1%), and Actinobacteria (two isolates showing high identity with the Streptomyces genus, 1.9%) divisions were identified. Fifty percent of the bacterial endophytes produced the phytohormone indole-acetic acid (IAA), eleven of which exhibited higher IAA production (>5.8 mg/mL) compared to the plant growth-promoting strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens UM270. Additionally, the endophytic isolates exhibited protease activity (22%), produced siderophores (26.4%), and demonstrated antagonistic action (>50% inhibition of mycelial growth) against the grey mold phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea (3.9%). These results suggested that field-grown R. fruticosus plants contain bacterial endophytes within their tissues with the potential to promote plant growth and display antagonism towards plant pathogens.
Zhang, Yaojie; Chen, Jiajing; Wang, Lizhi; Cao, Jingjing; Xu, Lishan
This paper presents a study on chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties of the essential oil from leaves of Rubus pungens var. oldhamii (REO). The major component of the REO is sesquiterpenes (36.04%), which consists of 1,5-Cyclooctadiene,3-(1-me thylallyl)-(8CI)(17.66%), 5,6-Diethenyl-1-methylcyclohexene (12%), (+) - γ-Elemene (10.48%) and β-Caryophyllene (8.39%).The REO is shown to be moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium glaucum, and has weak antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, tyrosinase inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (L-tyrosine). IC50 values of REO and arbutin were found 0.923 and 0.657 mg/mL, respectively. The REO exerted potential antityrosinase activity. Our test results indicated that the REO was rich in sesquiterpenes, and also exhibited good antityrosinase activity, and moderate antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms. The REO can be used as a natural source of promising antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibiting agent.
Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Kwon, Ji Wung; Kim, Beom Gyu; Choi, Yoo Shin; Cha, Young Joo; Ko, Jin Soo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of Rubus occidentalis extract (ROE) in a rat model of incisional pain. The involved mechanisms and proinflammatory cytokine response were also examined. To investigate the analgesic effect, rats were intraperitoneally administered with normal saline or various doses of ROE before or after a plantar incision. To evaluate the involved mechanism, rats were intraperitoneally administered yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, naloxone, atropine, or mecamylamine after a plantar incision; ROE was then administered intraperitoneally. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was tested with von Frey filaments at various time points. To determine the inflammatory response, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6 were measured. The MWTs significantly increased at 15 min after postincisional administration of 300 mg/kg ROE when compared with those in the control group. This elevation was observed for up to 45 min. Overall, MWTs increased in proportion to ROE dosage; however, ROEs administered before the incision produced no significant change in the MWT. The analgesic effect of ROE was significantly antagonized by mecamylamine, naloxone, and yohimbine, and agonized by dexmedetomidine. Administration of ROE inhibited the postincisional increase in serum IL-1β and IL-6. Intraperitoneal administration of ROE after surgery induces antinociceptive effects in a rat model of postoperative pain, and its effects on mechanical hyperalgesia may be associated with α2-adrenergic, nicotinic cholinergic, and opioid receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Jiyeon; An, Jinho; Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Choi, Hye Ran; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Shin, Daekeun; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae
Hyperlipidemia, which is closely associated with a fatty diet and aging, is commonly observed in the western and aged society. Therefore, a novel therapeutic approach for this disease is critical, and an immunological view has been suggested as a novel strategy, because hyperlipidemia is closely associated with inflammation and immune dysfunction. In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Rubus occidentalis (RO) in obese mice were investigated using immunological indexes. The mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce hyperlipidemia, which was confirmed by biochemical analysis and examination of the mouse physiology. Two different doses of RO and rosuvastatin, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor used as a control, were orally administered. Disturbances in immune cellularity as well as lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were significantly normalized by oral administration of RO, which also decreased the elevated serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and total cholesterol. The specific immune-related actions of RO comprised considerable improvement in cytotoxic T cell killing functions and regulation of antibody production to within the normal range. The immunological evidence confirms the significant cholesterol-lowering effect of RO, suggesting its potential as a novel therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia and associated immune decline. PMID:27737523
George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M
Rubus fairholmianus Gard. inhibits human melanoma (A375) and lung cancer (A549) cell growth by the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. Herbal products have a long history of clinical use and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. The plants and plant derived products became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years. The effects of R. fairholmianus root acetone extract (RFRA) on the proliferation of A375 and A549 cells was examined in this study. RFRA led to a decrease in cell viability, proliferation and an increase in cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner when compared with control and normal skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The morphology of treated cells supported apoptotic cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that RFRA induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells and the percentages of early and late apoptotic populations significantly increased. Moreover, the apoptotic inducing ability of RFRA when analysing effector caspase 3/7 activity, indicated a marked increase in treated cells. In summary, we have shown the anticancer effects of RFRA in A375 and A549 cancer cells via induction of caspase dependent apoptosis in vitro. The extract is more effective against melanoma; which may suggest the usefulness of RFRA-based anticancer therapies.
Zhao, Chen; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kim, Sung Zoo; Chae, Han Jung; Cui, Wan Shou; Lee, Sung Won; Jeon, Ju Hong; Park, Jong Kwan
The effect of unripe Rubus coreanus extract on rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated. Penises were obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg). The pre-contracted penis with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 μM) was treated with various concentrations of an extract of unripe R. coreanus (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/mL). The change in penile tension was recorded, cyclic nucleotides in the perfusate and the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the perfused PCC were measured by western blotting. The interaction between unripe R. coreanus and sildenafil was also evaluated. The PCC relaxation induced by the extracts of R. coreanus was in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. The perfusion of penile cavernous tissue with the unripe R. coreanus extract increased cGMP and cAMP in the tissue and in the perfusate and the expression of eNOS and nNOS in the tissue. The unripe R. coreanus extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP system and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun
Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:27275830
Sahragard, Neda; Jahanbin, Kambiz
An acidic heteropolysaccharide, RAPS-1, was isolated from the roots of Rubus anatolicus by water extraction (70°C) and purification using DEAE-cellulose A52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The total sugar content and specific optical rotation of RAPS-1 were 96.3% and +196°, respectively. RAPS-1 had a molecular weight of 7900Da, and was composed of glucose, galactose, and glucuronic acid with a relative molar ratio of 6.2: 1.0: 1.2. Structural features of RAPS-1 were elucidated by a combination of partial acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, methylation, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR ((13)C and (1)H) analysis. The results indicated that RAPS-1 had a backbone of →4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→ residues, with branches attached to O-6 by α-d-Galp-(1→ and by α-d-GlcAp-(1→. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ostrosky, Elissa Arantes; Marcondes, Elda Maria Cecilio; Nishikawa, Suzana de Oliveira; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Varca, Gustavo Henrique Costa; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli; Consiglieri, T Vladi Olga; Baby, Andre Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Kaneko, Telma Mary
Even though the synthetic preservatives may offer a high antimicrobial efficacy, they are commonly related to adverse reactions and regarded as having potentially harmful effects caused by chronic consumption. The development of natural preservatives provides a way of reducing the amount of synthetic preservatives normally used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In addition, these agents have less toxic effects and represent a possible natural and safer alternative of the preservatives. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the Rubus rosaefolius Smith extract efficiency as a natural preservative in base formulations. Of the extract, 0.2% (w/w) was assayed for its effectiveness of antimicrobial protection in two different base formulations (emulsion and gel). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standard procedures proposed by The United States Pharmacopoeia 33nd, European Pharmacopoeia 6th, Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th, and the Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrance Association using standardized microorganisms. The results demonstrated that R. rosaefolius extract at the studied concentration reduced the bacterial inocula, satisfying the criterion in all formulations, even though it was not able to present an effective preservative behavior against fungi. Thus, the investigation of new natural substances with preservative properties that could be applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products is relevant due to the possibility of substituting or decreasing the concentration of synthetic preservatives, providing a way for the development of safer formulas for the use of consumers.
Arozarena, Íñigo; Ortiz, Jacqueline; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Urretavizcaya, Inés; Salvatierra, Sara; Córdova, Inés; Marín-Arroyo, María Remedios; Noriega, María José; Navarro, Montserrat
Twenty-eight blackberry ( Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines elaborated under different processing conditions were analyzed for total phenolics, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, color, and antioxidant activity. Ellagitannins were the main phenolic compounds and the most determinant factor in the antioxidant capacity of wines (r = 0.980). The major anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-rutinoside (64 ± 6%) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (19 ± 4%), followed by several minor compounds (17 ± 4%). Two of them were native blackberry anthocyanins, namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside and cyanidin 3-xylorutinoside. The remaining seven compounds were anthocyanin-related pigments generated during and after the alcoholic fermentation, identified as A-type and B-type vitisins and hydroxyphenylpyranoanthocyanins. The presence of fruit solids in contact with the liquid fraction during fermentation and the ratio of water to fruit employed in the preparation of the musts had a great impact on the content of ellagitannins, total phenolics, and the antioxidant activity of wines and a minor impact on their color and anthocyanin composition.
Lewers, Kim S; Saski, Chris A; Cuthbertson, Brandon J; Henry, David C; Staton, Meg E; Main, Dorrie S; Dhanaraj, Anik L; Rowland, Lisa J; Tomkins, Jeff P
The recent development of novel repeat-fruiting types of blackberry (Rubus L.) cultivars, combined with a long history of morphological marker-assisted selection for thornlessness by blackberry breeders, has given rise to increased interest in using molecular markers to facilitate blackberry breeding. Yet no genetic maps, molecular markers, or even sequences exist specifically for cultivated blackberry. The purpose of this study is to begin development of these tools by generating and annotating the first blackberry expressed sequence tag (EST) library, designing primers from the ESTs to amplify regions containing simple sequence repeats (SSR), and testing the usefulness of a subset of the EST-SSRs with two blackberry cultivars. A cDNA library of 18,432 clones was generated from expanding leaf tissue of the cultivar Merton Thornless, a progenitor of many thornless commercial cultivars. Among the most abundantly expressed of the 3,000 genes annotated were those involved with energy, cell structure, and defense. From individual sequences containing SSRs, 673 primer pairs were designed. Of a randomly chosen set of 33 primer pairs tested with two blackberry cultivars, 10 detected an average of 1.9 polymorphic PCR products. This rate predicts that this library may yield as many as 940 SSR primer pairs detecting 1,786 polymorphisms. This may be sufficient to generate a genetic map that can be used to associate molecular markers with phenotypic traits, making possible molecular marker-assisted breeding to compliment existing morphological marker-assisted breeding in blackberry.
Martins, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Fernandes, Isabel P; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Rubus ulmifolius Schott (Rosaceae), known as wild blackberry, is a perennial shrub found in wild and cultivated habitats in Europe, Asia and North Africa. Traditionally, it is used for homemade remedies because of its medicinal properties, including antioxidant activity. In the present work, phenolic extracts of R. ulmifolius flower buds obtained by decoction and hydroalcoholic extraction were chemically and biologically characterized. Several phenolic compounds were identified in both decoction and hydroalcoholic extracts of flowers, ellagitannin derivatives being the most abundant ones, namely the sanguiin H-10 isomer and lambertianin. Additionally, comparing with the decoction form, the hydroalcoholic extract presented both higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The hydroalcoholic extract was thereafter microencapsulated in an alginate-based matrix and incorporated into a yogurt to achieve antioxidant benefits. In what concerns the performed incorporation tests, the obtained results pointed out that, among the tested samples, the yoghurt containing the microencapsulated extract presented a slightly higher antioxidant activity, and that both forms (free and microencapsulated extracts) gave rise to products with higher activity than the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the antioxidant potential of the R. ulmifolius hydroalcoholic extract and the effectiveness of the microencapsulation technique used for its preservation, thus opening new prospects for the exploitation of these natural phenolic extracts in food applications.
Ferreira de Araujo, P R; da Silva Santos, V; Rodrigues Machado, A; Gevehr Fernandes, C; Silva, J A; da Silva Rodrigues, R
In humans, the normal metabolic activity produces free radicals that constantly, along with other risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia may be responsible for the onset of degenerative diseases. Some bioactive compounds present in blackberry (Rubus spp.) have the ability to act as natural antioxidants can make the food to minimize effects on the body caused by reactive oxygen species. This study verified the benefits of blackberry nectar through the quantification of triglycerides, total and fraction cholesterol HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein), blood glucose and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Two groups were treated with hypercholesterolemic diets (0.1% cholesterol), one of them receiving an additional 5 mL of nectar daily, and a third (control group) treated only with a standard diet. In the blood the quantification of lipids, blood glucose and lipid peroxidation was performed. In the brain, liver and small intestine the lipid peroxidation was determined and in other organs, histopathological evaluations were carried out. The blackberry nectar reduced the triglycerides serum levels, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, without influencing the HDL and blood glucose concentrations. A decrease in the initiation of lipid peroxidation reactions in the blood, brain and small intestine was also observed. Only the liver showed histopathological changes (steatosis), due to excess cholesterol, with no positive influence from the nectar.
Romero J, Carlos A; Yépez V, Byron D
In this study, we evaluated the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment for convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). For this, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of ultrasound vibration amplitude (0-90μm), time of sonication (10-30min) and air temperature (40-60°C) on the retention of antioxidant compounds and on the kinetics of convective drying. The results showed that the antioxidant activity on fruit was reduced as the vibration amplitude and time of sonication increased, while was found that vibration amplitude ultrasound and air drying temperature were the variables that more affect the drying rate of blackberries. The drying rate increased by almost five times when samples were treated with ultrasound at 90μm for 20min. They were then dried using air at 60°C. It is concluded that the application of ultrasound in blackberry processing allows to obtain a dehydrated product with better functional quality and shows to be effective in reducing the time necessary to achieve a given value of moisture during convective drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hajaji, Soumaya; Jabri, Mohamed Amine; Sifaoui, Ines; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; B'chir, Fatma; Valladares, Basilio; Pinero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Akkari, Hafidh
The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of methanolic extract of Rubus ulmifolius Schott against the Acanthamoeba castellani Neff Strain as well as its antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. The tested extract has a good amoebicidal activity with low IC50 (61.785 ± 1.322 μg/ml) and also has significant activity against both Gram-positive (S. aureus, S. agalactiae) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. typhimurium) and against C. albicans. The inhibition zones diameters (IZD) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were in the range of 22.5-50 mm and 02.29-4.76 mg ml(-1), respectively. In the other hand, the in vitro ROS scavenging activity was evaluated, the tested extract exhibited a good effect on the ·OH radical (89.99% at a concentration of 100 μg/ml) when compared to the ascorbic acid (68.81%). Moreover, the inhibition percentage of superoxide generation by R. ulmifolius extract at 100 μg/ml was greater than ascorbic acid (79.55; 64.79%, respectively). Also, the tested extract showed a high percentage of H2O2 scavenging activity (99.95% at 100 μg/ml). Our findings suggest that R. ulmifolius could be a potential source of natural antioxidant in preventing many diseases associated with oxidative stress, amoebic and bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun
Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.
Jean, Donald; Lapointe, Line
Fruit abortion can be caused by a range of abiotic and biotic factors. To gain a better understanding of the causes of the high fruit abortion frequency in cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.), we manipulated different sources of carbon, that is, leaves and rhizome. We also manipulated flower number to see if competition between floral ramets explained fruit abortion in cloudberry. Reducing the number of flowers had no impact on fruit abortion frequency. In fact, the species forms an extensive rhizome network with only a few ramets per clone and competition between floral ramets is unlikely. Ramet defoliation had limited impact on fruit abortion, but successful fruit development was affected by rhizome length. The longer the rhizome, the higher the chances to mature a fruit. These results suggest that current photoassimilate production by the reproductive ramet alone is insufficient to insure fruit development. Carbon can come from other ramets but distances are usually high between ramets. Fruit production might thus depend on the use of stored carbohydrates in the rhizome to balance insufficient photosynthetic contribution during fruit production.
Brown, Adam O; McNeil, Jeremy N
In a 3-yr study, we examined the pollinator guild and intersexual floral characteristics of the dioecious, perennial cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), which flowers in early spring. The findings contribute to our general understanding of pollination ecology at high latitudes and provide important information for the commercialization of cloudberry. Female flowers were smaller than males but provided more nectar, although this resource was low in both sexes. Insects from 43 families visited cloudberry flowers, yet four families (Apidae, Halictidae, Muscidae, Syrphidae) represented ca. 87% of all visitors observed. Introduction experiments revealed that apids and muscids are significantly poorer pollinators (based on fruit production) than halictids and syrphids, but when fruit mass or seed set was considered, there were no significant differences between families. Pollinator importance, a product of flower visitation frequency and seed set effectiveness, revealed that the dipterans were of paramount importance to the pollination of cloudberry. Furthermore, they are limited to cloudberry because their lapping mouthparts exclude them from accessing the nutritional rewards of competing Ericaceae flowers. While the total number of pollinator families observed suggest a generalist pollination system, if one considers the dominant pollinators (flies) as a functional group, then this insect-flower relationship could be considered a specialized one.
Davies, J T; Allen, G R; Williams, M A
Specialised phytophagous arthropods often display high levels of specificity to particular sites on their host plant. In this paper we examine the occupation of microhabitats and aggregation patterns of the eriophyoid mite, Acalitus essigi (Hassan), on its host plant, European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate), a plant that undergoes significant seasonal changes in its morphology. A. essigi was found to be a refuge inhabiting species. It resided in bud and leaf axil microhabitats on both primocanes and fructocanes and also occupied berry and bract microhabitats on fructocanes. Population fluctuations within the different microhabitats were evident across seasons. From summer to winter, populations significantly declined in bract and leaf axil microhabitats, but significantly increased within bud microhabitats where overwintering took place as slowly reproducing colonies. Live fruit and young shoots were also identified as overwintering sites. A. essigi populations displayed an aggregated distribution both within and between individual blackberry canes. Within primocanes A. essigi were aggregated in the lower 20% of cane length. On fructocanes aggregation of A. essigi was in the lower 20% and especially in the upper 20% of cane length. In spring A. essigi was confirmed to emerge from bud overwintering sites and colonise shoots mainly in the lower third of the previous season's primocanes, suggesting limited dispersal away from overwintering sites. It is proposed that biotic factors such as tissue age, microhabitat morphology and limited ambulatory dispersal capabilities are responsible for the aggregation pattems of this mite.
Red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., is the most economically important fruit crop in the highly diverse Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus, which also includes black raspberry R. occidentalis L. Major world production occurs in Europe, South and North America including central highlands of Mexico, California (U...
The aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes is an important virus vector in red (Rubus idaeus L.) and black (Rubus occidentalis L.) raspberries in North America. Host plant resistance in the form of a single dominant gene named Ag1 has been relied upon to help control aphid-transmitted plant viruses; h...
...; namely: (i) Raspberry varieties conforming to the characteristics of Rubus idaeus L. or Rubus... 25 25 35 Huckleberries 15 15 20 20 25 25 35 Loganberries 14 14 19 19 24 24 35 Raspberries 11 15 15 20... and, in the case of raspberries other than red raspberries provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this...
The plant-parasitic nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a major constraint to red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) production. To determine the impact of P. penetrans on the establishment and productivity of eight raspberry cultivars, Rubus niveus, and R. leucodermis, plants were grown in fumigated and non...
Chen, Xuexiang; Gao, Zili; Song, Mingyue; Ouyang, Wen; Wu, Xian; Chen, Yunjiao; Zhou, Liping; William, Dixon; Cai, Xiaokun; Cao, Yong; Zhou, Shuangde; Tang, Zhonghai; Xiao, Hang
The leaves of Rubus corchorifolius L. f. have been consumed as a herbal tea for a long time. In this study, two novel (1 and 5) and four known (2, 3, 4 and 6) terpenoids were isolated from the leaves of Rubus corchorifolius L. f. Structural analysis was performed using various spectroscopic methods ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS) to identify the following six compounds: (16α)-16,17,18-trihydroxy-ent-kauran-18-O-β-d-glucoside (1), ent-16β,17-dialkyl-3-oxygen-kaurane (2), ent-kaurane-3α,16β,17-triol (3), ent-kaurane(5R,8S,9R,10R,13R,16R)-2-one-16α,17-diol (4), (16R)-16β,17,19-trihydroxy-ent-kaur-3-one (5) and ent-16α,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic-acid (6). These compounds showed different inhibitory effects on various human cancer cells. Compounds 3 and 6 exhibited stronger inhibitory effects on human colon cancer HCT116 cells than the other 4 compounds. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that both compounds 3 and 6 caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and induced cellular apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Compounds 3 and 6 modulated the expression levels of key signaling proteins closely related to cell proliferation and apoptosis, i.e., increasing the levels of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, p53, and p27, and decreasing the levels of EGFR, cyclin D1, CDK2 and CDK4. Overall, our findings provided insight into the anticancer components of Rubus corchorifolius L. f. leaves, which could facilitate their utilization as functional food ingredients.
Liu, Jianfeng; Ming, Yuetong; Cheng, Yunqing; Zhang, Yuchu; Xing, Jiyang; Sun, Yuqi
Raspberries (Rubus spp.) exhibit a unique rooting process that is initiated from the stem apex of primocane, conferring an unusual asexual mode of reproduction to this plant. However, the full complement of genes involved in this process has not been identified. To this end, the present study analyzed the transcriptomes of the Rubus primocane and floricane stem apex at three developmental stages by Digital Gene Expression profiling to identify genes that regulate rooting. Sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 26.82 Gb of nucleotides and 59,173 unigenes; 498, 7,346, 4,110, 7,900, 9,397, and 4,776 differently expressed genes were identified in paired comparisons of SAF1 (floricane at developmental stage 1) vs. SAP1 (primocane at developmental stage 1), SAF2 vs. SAP2, SAF3 vs. SAP3, SAP1 vs. SAP2, SAP1 vs. SAP3, and SAP2 vs. SAP3, respectively. SAP1 maintains an extension growth pattern; SAP2 then exhibits growth arrest and vertical (downward) gravitropic deflection; and finally, short roots begin to form on the apex of SAP3. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of SAP1 vs. SAP2 revealed 12 pathways that were activated in response to shoot growth arrest and root differentiation, including circadian rhythm—plant (ko04712) and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075). Our results indicate that genes related to circadian rhythm, ethylene and auxin signaling, shoot growth, and root development are potentially involved in the regulation of primocane apex rooting in Rubus. These findings provide a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of primocane apex rooting in this economically valuable crop. PMID:28659963
Nybom, H; Rogstad, S H; Schaal, B A
Recently, "DNA fingerprints" have been reported in a wide array of organisms. We used the M13 repeat probe on several genera and species in the angiosperm family Rosaceae. Four apple cultivars could be differentiated when any one of five restriction enzymes was used to analyze minisatellite DNA. Similarly, four individual trees of Prunus serotina (black cherry) exhibited different "fingerprints" with each of four enyzmes. A total of 14 Rubus (blackberries and raspberries) plants representing four species were investigated with two enzymes. Extensive inter-and intraspecific variation was found. However, some closely growing plants had identical "fingerprints", probably due to their being derived through vegetative propagation.
Clark, L V; Jasieniuk, M
Facultative asexual reproduction is a trait commonly found in invasive species. With a combination of sexual and asexual reproductive modes, such species may adapt to new environments via sexual recombination during range expansion, while at the same time having the benefits of asexuality such as the maintenance of fitness effects that depend upon heterozygosity. In the Western United States, native species of Rubus (Rosaceae) reproduce sexually whereas exotic naturalized Rubus species reproduce by pseudogamous apomixis. We hypothesized that new asexual lineages of Rubus could arise from hybridization in this range. To detect hybridization between native and exotic Rubus, we genotyped 579 individuals collected across California, Oregon and Washington with eight nuclear microsatellites and two chloroplast markers. Principal Coordinate Analysis and Bayesian clustering revealed a limited amount of hybridization of the native R. ursinus with the exotic R. armeniacus and R. pensilvanicus, as well as cultivated varieties. Genetic distances between these hybrids and their offspring indicated that both R. ursinus × R. armeniacus and R. ursinus × R. pensilvanicus produced a mix of apomictic and sexual seeds, with sexual seeds being more viable. Although neither of these hybrid types is currently considered invasive, they model the early stages of evolution of new invasive lineages, given the potential for fixed heterosis and the generation of novel genotypes. The hybrids also retain the ability to increase their fitness via sexual recombination and natural selection. Mixed reproductive systems such as those described here may be an important step in the evolution of asexual invasive species. PMID:22850699
Dr. Hugh Daubeny had a productive career as a strawberry and red raspberry breeder with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. As part of that career, he could be considered the “patron saint” of the Rubus-Ribes symposia as he was instrumental in the early development, hosted two symposia, attended all o...
Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing...
A new Raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate was found in commercial blackberry (Rubus glaucus) in Azuay, province of Ecuador and named RBDV-Ec-Az. The complete bipartite genome was sequenced using dsRNA as initial template. RNA 1 was 5449 nucleotides (nt) long and the normal RBDV RNA 2 was 2231 nt lon...
Clark, L V; Jasieniuk, M
Facultative asexual reproduction is a trait commonly found in invasive species. With a combination of sexual and asexual reproductive modes, such species may adapt to new environments via sexual recombination during range expansion, while at the same time having the benefits of asexuality such as the maintenance of fitness effects that depend upon heterozygosity. In the Western United States, native species of Rubus (Rosaceae) reproduce sexually whereas exotic naturalized Rubus species reproduce by pseudogamous apomixis. We hypothesized that new asexual lineages of Rubus could arise from hybridization in this range. To detect hybridization between native and exotic Rubus, we genotyped 579 individuals collected across California, Oregon and Washington with eight nuclear microsatellites and two chloroplast markers. Principal Coordinate Analysis and Bayesian clustering revealed a limited amount of hybridization of the native R. ursinus with the exotic R. armeniacus and R. pensilvanicus, as well as cultivated varieties. Genetic distances between these hybrids and their offspring indicated that both R. ursinus × R. armeniacus and R. ursinus × R. pensilvanicus produced a mix of apomictic and sexual seeds, with sexual seeds being more viable. Although neither of these hybrid types is currently considered invasive, they model the early stages of evolution of new invasive lineages, given the potential for fixed heterosis and the generation of novel genotypes. The hybrids also retain the ability to increase their fitness via sexual recombination and natural selection. Mixed reproductive systems such as those described here may be an important step in the evolution of asexual invasive species.
Kostamo, K.; Toljamo, A.; Antonius, K.; Kokko, H.; Kärenlampi, S. O.
Background and Aims Preservation of cultivar purity creates a particular challenge for plants that are self-incompatible, require insects for cross-pollination, and have easily germinating seeds and vigorously spreading rhizomes. As the fields must be planted with mixed populations, and a balance must be maintained between the cultivars to achieve effective pollination, methods for field monitoring of the relative density of different cultivars must be practical. Furthermore, a DNA-based method is needed for cultivar verification in the collections and outside of the growing season. The aim of this study was to develop both types of methods for Rubus arcticus (arctic bramble). Methods Morphological parameters were measured from six cultivars grown on three farms. Observations from the flowers and fruits included: petal and sepal number, flower diameter, arrangement of petals, size of calyx in relation to corolla, fruit weight, yield and soluble sugars. Observations from the leaves included: width and height of middle leaflet, shape of the base of terminal leaflet, shape of terminal leaflet, leaf margin serration and fingertip touch. The applicability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite DNA markers developed for red raspberry was tested on eight arctic bramble cultivars. Key Results and Conclusions Morphological and molecular identification methods were developed for R. arcticus. The best morphological characteristics were the length-to-width ratio of the middle leaflet and leaf margin serration. A particular characteristic, fingertip touch, was shown by electron microscopy to be related to the density and quality of the leaf hairs. Red raspberry SSR marker no. 126 proved to be applicable for differentiation of the eight arctic bramble cultivars tested. These identification methods are critical to secure the maintenance and management of R. arcticus. However, the challenges faced and approaches taken are equally applicable to other species with similar
Pérez-Gallardo, Alfonso; García-Almendárez, Blanca; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo; Pimentel-González, Diana; Reyes-González, L R; Regalado, Carlos
There is increased interest in berry fruits due to health benefits, and maintenance of fruit quality for longer periods of time has been a priority. We previously found that starch based coatings applied on raspberries was associated to volatile compounds production due to anoxic conditions. The objective of this work was to design more hydrophobic coatings with reduced thickness. A starch-beeswax dispersion containing 2 % (w/v) modified tapioca starch added with either 0.5 or 1.0 % (w/v) beeswax microparticles was produced, and used for spray coating freshly harvested blackberries (Rubus spp.). Coatings were air dried, packed in plastic trays and stored up to 16 days at 4 °C and 88 % relative humidity. Storage quality parameters such as hardness, respiration rate, anthocyanins content, total phenols, color changes and weight loss were evaluated. We did not find Interactions among coating ingredients, and incorporation of beeswax reduced moisture transfer rate. Coatings did not occlude the stomata and apparently did not over-hydrate the cuticle. This characteristic allowed appropriate gas exchange (O2 and CO2), and reduced accumulation of volatile compounds associated to fermentative metabolism. Respiration rates were 4.207 ± 0.157, 4.557 ± 0.220 and 4.780 ± 0.050 mmol CO2 kg(-1) h(-1) for control, 0.5 and 1 % of wax content in coatings, respectively. However, ethylene production increased throughout storage time along with beeswax concentration, indicating stressful conditions for the fruit. This trend appears to be related with changes in total phenols and anthocyanins during storage. Edible coatings based on starch and hydrophobic particles should be reformulated to maintain quality of stored berry fruits.
Lewers, Kim S; Saski, Chris A; Cuthbertson, Brandon J; Henry, David C; Staton, Meg E; Main, Dorrie S; Dhanaraj, Anik L; Rowland, Lisa J; Tomkins, Jeff P
Background The recent development of novel repeat-fruiting types of blackberry (Rubus L.) cultivars, combined with a long history of morphological marker-assisted selection for thornlessness by blackberry breeders, has given rise to increased interest in using molecular markers to facilitate blackberry breeding. Yet no genetic maps, molecular markers, or even sequences exist specifically for cultivated blackberry. The purpose of this study is to begin development of these tools by generating and annotating the first blackberry expressed sequence tag (EST) library, designing primers from the ESTs to amplify regions containing simple sequence repeats (SSR), and testing the usefulness of a subset of the EST-SSRs with two blackberry cultivars. Results A cDNA library of 18,432 clones was generated from expanding leaf tissue of the cultivar Merton Thornless, a progenitor of many thornless commercial cultivars. Among the most abundantly expressed of the 3,000 genes annotated were those involved with energy, cell structure, and defense. From individual sequences containing SSRs, 673 primer pairs were designed. Of a randomly chosen set of 33 primer pairs tested with two blackberry cultivars, 10 detected an average of 1.9 polymorphic PCR products. Conclusion This rate predicts that this library may yield as many as 940 SSR primer pairs detecting 1,786 polymorphisms. This may be sufficient to generate a genetic map that can be used to associate molecular markers with phenotypic traits, making possible molecular marker-assisted breeding to compliment existing morphological marker-assisted breeding in blackberry. PMID:18570660
Kostamo, K; Toljamo, A; Antonius, K; Kokko, H; Kärenlampi, S O
Preservation of cultivar purity creates a particular challenge for plants that are self-incompatible, require insects for cross-pollination, and have easily germinating seeds and vigorously spreading rhizomes. As the fields must be planted with mixed populations, and a balance must be maintained between the cultivars to achieve effective pollination, methods for field monitoring of the relative density of different cultivars must be practical. Furthermore, a DNA-based method is needed for cultivar verification in the collections and outside of the growing season. The aim of this study was to develop both types of methods for Rubus arcticus (arctic bramble). Morphological parameters were measured from six cultivars grown on three farms. Observations from the flowers and fruits included: petal and sepal number, flower diameter, arrangement of petals, size of calyx in relation to corolla, fruit weight, yield and soluble sugars. Observations from the leaves included: width and height of middle leaflet, shape of the base of terminal leaflet, shape of terminal leaflet, leaf margin serration and fingertip touch. The applicability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite DNA markers developed for red raspberry was tested on eight arctic bramble cultivars. Morphological and molecular identification methods were developed for R. arcticus. The best morphological characteristics were the length-to-width ratio of the middle leaflet and leaf margin serration. A particular characteristic, fingertip touch, was shown by electron microscopy to be related to the density and quality of the leaf hairs. Red raspberry SSR marker no. 126 proved to be applicable for differentiation of the eight arctic bramble cultivars tested. These identification methods are critical to secure the maintenance and management of R. arcticus. However, the challenges faced and approaches taken are equally applicable to other species with similar biology.
Diao, Yu-Lin; Shan, Jun-Jie; Ma, Hao; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Bin
A water-soluble polysaccharide (named RAP) was newly isolated from the stems of Rubus amabilis. Structural confirmation of the polysaccharide was provided by hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis, combined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). In vitro immunological enhancement activity was characterized using the proliferative activity of spleen lymphocytes and phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages in mice. The polysaccharide was mainly composed of xylose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, galactose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and galactocuronic acid in the molar ratio of 1.0:6.9:0.8:1.1:6.9:0.3:0.5:3.3, with the average molecular weight of 26.2 kDa. The linkage types of netural monosaccharides were as follows: the arabinose was →2) Ara (1→ and galactose were Gal (1→, →3) Gal (1→, →3,6) Gal (1→, →2,3,6) Gal (1→ and →2,3,6) Galf (1→. Xyl (1→, →6) Glc (1→, →2) Glc (1→, →3) Rha (1→, Rha (1→ and Man (1→ were also found in the structure. RAP-B-2 could improve the proliferative activity of spleen T cells and B cells and boost phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages at the concentration of 50 μg/ml (p < 0.05, p < 0.01).
Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Kwon, Ji Wung
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) fruit extract (ROE) in a rat model of chronic muscle pain and examine the mechanisms involved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and chronic muscle pain was induced by two injections of acidic saline into one gastrocnemius muscle. For the first experiment, 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups. After the development of hyperalgesia, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9 % saline or ROE (10, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg). For the second experiment, 70 rats were randomly assigned to seven groups. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline, yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, atropine, mecamylamine, or naloxone after the development of hyperalgesia. Ten minutes later, ROE (300 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. For both experiments, the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was evaluated with von Frey filaments before the first acidic saline injection, 24 h after the second injection, and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min, 24 and 48 h after the drug administration. Compared with the control group, the MWT significantly increased up to 45 min after injection of ROE 100 mg/kg and up to 60 min after injection of ROE 300 mg/kg, respectively. Injection of ROE together with yohimbine or mecamylamine significantly decreased the MWT compared with the effect of ROE alone, while ROE together with dexmedetomidine significantly increased the MWT. ROE showed antinociceptive activity against induced chronic muscle pain, which may be mediated by α2-adrenergic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.
González-Hernández, S; González-Ramírez, D; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Jimenez-Arellanez, A; Meckes-Fischer, M; Said-Fernández, S; Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I
Rubus coriifolius Focke is a wild plant from the Rosaceae family. It grows in both Guatemala and Mexico. The polar extract of the aerial parts of this plant has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-protozoal activities. These properties may explain the traditional use of this plant. In vivo and in vitro assays were used to assess the genotoxic and toxic effects of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of R. coriifolius. Three groups of rats were orally administered the R. coriifolius extract diluted in ethanol (5%) at doses of 1.89 mg/kg body weight (low dose), 4.72 mg/kg body weight (medium dose), and 9.44 mg/kg body weight (high dose) for 3 weeks. Genotoxic/cytotoxic effects induced by the R. coriifolius ethanol extract were evaluated in vivo by a micronuclei (MN) test in rat's bone marrow cells and in vitro by MN and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in human lymphocyte cultures. In vivo genotoxicity analyses revealed that the average number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and the polychromatic erythrocyte/red blood cell ratio at all doses were not significantly different from those of the negative control. In vitro genotoxicity analyses showed that MN, SCE, and proliferative index frequencies in a human lymphocyte cell culture were not significantly different from those of the negative control. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extract of R. coriifolius aerial parts is not toxic or mutagenic (in vitro and in vivo) and does not affect cell proliferation at the concentrations analyzed.
Chen, Jianhong; Wang, Xianfeng; Cai, Yongqing; Tang, Ming; Dai, Qing; Hu, Xiaogang; Huang, Mingchun; Sun, Fengjun; Liu, Yao; Xia, Peiyuan
Alleviation of fatigue has been emerging as a serious issue that requires urgent attention. Health professionals and sports physiologists have been looking for active natural products and synthetic compounds to overcome fatigue in humans. This study was designed to define the anti-fatigue property of Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL) by characterization of active constituents using a mouse forced swimming test model. Four RPL fractions with different polarities containing anti-fatigue activity were sequentially isolated from the n-butanol RPL extract, followed by elution of 50% ethanol-water fraction from D101 macroporous resin chromatography to obtain nigaichigoside F1, suavissimoside R1 and coreanoside F1. Active constituents of the 50% ethanol-water eluate of RPL were total saponins. The fractions were examined based on the effect on weight-loaded swimming capacity of mice. Serum levels of urea nitrogen (SUN), triglyceride fatty acids (TG), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactic acid (LA), ammonia and hepatic glycogen (HG) were also examined for potential mechanisms underlying the anti-fatigue effect of RPL extracts. During the experiment, two inflammatory markers, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in serum, were measured. We found that total saponins from RPL possess potent capabilities to alleviate mouse fatigue induced by forced swimming and that nigaichigoside F1 was responsible for the pharmacological effect. The underlying mechanisms include delays of SUN and LA accumulation, a decrease in TG level by increasing fat consumption, increases in HG and LDH so that lactic acid accumulation and ammonia in the muscle were reduced, and suppression of increased immune activation and inflammatory cytokine production. Our findings will be helpful for functional identification of novel anti-fatigue components from natural medicinal herbs.
Chae, Hyun-Jung; Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Ah
As well-being foods pursuing healthy life are becoming popular, interest in Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) fruit, a type of Korean blackberry, is increasing due to its medicinal actions including protecting the liver, brightening the eyes, and alleviating diabetes. This study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of RCM concentrates on liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. RCM, produced in June ~ July 2008 at Chunbook, Gochang (South Korea), was finely mashed. The seeds were removed and the juices were condensed. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: normal (eight rats), CCl4, 1% RCM, and 2% RCM. Experimental diets were provided to the experimental animals for 4 weeks. We measure total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. Part of the livers was isolated for histopathological evaluation, and analyzed for lipid peroxide (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and liver proteins. The activities of serum AST, ALT, and ALP were elevated following CCl4 administration. Levels of hepatic TBARS were also significantly increased in the CCl4 groups. However, hepatic TBARS levels and the activities of serum enzymes were markedly reduced by supplementation with the RCM concentrates (P < 0.05). Hepatic SOD activity increased in the RCM concentrates group versus CCl4 groups. Histopathological examination revealed massive necrosis in the centrilobular area and degenerative changes caused by CCl4 were ameliorated by dietary supplementation with RCM concentrates. These results suggest that RCM concentrates have hepatoprotective effects and may improve the symptoms of liver injuries. PMID:24611104
Schmidt-Durán, Alexander; Alvarado-Ulloa, Carlos; Chacón-Cerdas, Randall; Alvarado-Marchena, Luis Fernando; Flores-Mora, Dora
Blackberries are fruits produced worldwide, with 25 % of their production centered in Mexico, Central and South America. Tropical highland blackberry is a fruit that can potentially enhance human health, due to their high content in phenolic compounds, which include anthocyanins, phenolic acids, tannins (gallotannins and elagitannins) and flavonoids. Therefore, the overall aim of this study is the development of a callus induction protocol, the establishment of blackberry cell suspensions (Rubus adenotrichos Schltdl.) and their cell analysis through optical microscopy and TEM, for the potential production of phenolic compounds. In order to produce callogenesis, segments of blackberry leaves were disinfected and placed in different concentrations of 2,4-D and the control media (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5 and 3.0 mg/l of 2,4-D); obtaining the higher size of calli in the medium with 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D. After this determination, and for this specific treatment, a growth curve was performed through the use of fresh and dry weight parameters, in order to identify each of the growth stages. Furthermore, the calli obtained from the 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D treatment were placed in two different culture media (MS and MS supplemented with 1.5 mg/l of 2,4-D) in order to establish the cell suspensions and the growth curve. To the best treatment, the total polyphenols were also quantified. It was determined that the MS medium is ideal for the growth and disintegration of the cell suspensions, obtaining 0.0256 mg of gallic acid/g of fresh sample. Finally, a cell callus and cell suspension analysis was performed through OM and TEM, evidencing a higher hystological differentiation in the calli, as well as the observation of antioxidant storage in the plastids.
Oh, Mi; Bae, Seon Young; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Chung, Mi Sook
Abstract Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most frequent cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis, causing approximately 90% of non-bacterial epidemic outbreaks around the world. Rubus coreanus is a species of black raspberry, rich in polyphenols, and known to exert anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. In the present study, the antiviral effects of R. coreanus juice (black raspberry [BRB] juice) on foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9), were compared with those of cranberry juice, grape juice, and orange juice by plaque assays. Among the four juices tested, BRB juice was the most effective in reducing plaques formation of these viruses. Time-of-addition experiments were designed to determine the mechanism of action of BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9. The maximal antiviral effect of BRB juice against MNV-1 was observed when it was added to RAW 264.7 cells (mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line) simultaneously with the virus. Pre-treatment of either Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells or FCV-F9 with BRB juice exhibited significant antiviral activity. The inhibition of viral infection by BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9 probably occurs at the internalization of virions into the cell or the attachment of the viral surface protein to the cellular receptor. The polyphenol components in BRB (i.e., gallic acid and quercetin), however, did not show any activity against these viruses. Our data provide great promise for the utilization of BRB in the prevention of foodborne viral outbreaks.
Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract. Results LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is
George, Blassan P; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M
Herbal medicine is an important part of health care system in most of the countries. Rubus fairholmianus is an unexplored berry in folkloric medicine. In this study, we aimed to understand the importance of R. fairholmianus in pharmaceutical industry for the development of cost-effective cancer therapeutic drugs using in vivo and in vitro analysis. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties of R. fairholmianus root methanolic column subfraction (RFM) were investigated. The RFM displayed the presence of alpha-tocopherol, flavonol glycoside and apigenin in the chemical characterization. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging assays exhibited an activity of 7.56 μg/mL (IC50) and 20514.7 μM trolox equivalents/g respectively. The solid and ascites tumors in mice were reduced significantly upon 100 mg/kg RFM treatment by reducing the tumor volume (1.86 cm(3)), tumor weight (69%) and increasing life span (31.74 days). The morphological features of RFM treated MCF-7 cells showed the cell damage and decreased cell numbers. The viability of treated cells decreased with 67.73% at 20 μg/mL against 96.50% in untreated cells. The treated cells (20 μg/mL) resulted in a substantial decrease (p < 0.001) in cellular ATP proliferation, increased the LDH cytotoxicity, increased apoptotic cells population (33.92%) and reduced the population of viable cells (Annexin V-/PI-) (45.56%). Increased caspase 3/7 activity and cytochrome c release were also observed in treated cells. This is the first evidence about in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of R. fairholmianus phenolics. The major phenolics such as alpha-tocopherol, flavonol glycoside, and apigenin might be the reason behind the caspase-mediated apoptosis. Further work is warranted to study the individual effects of these bioactive compounds in the induction of cell death. Due
Garcia-Seco, Daniel; Zhang, Yang; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco J; Martin, Cathie; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz
There is an increasing interest in berries, especially blackberries in the diet, because of recent reports of their health benefits due to their high content of flavonoids. A broad range of genomic tools are available for other Rosaceae species but these tools are still lacking in the Rubus genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the breeding of improved varieties. De novo RNA-seq of ripe blackberries grown under field conditions was performed using Illumina Hiseq 2000. Almost 9 billion nucleotide bases were sequenced in total. Following assembly, 42,062 consensus sequences were detected. For functional annotation, 33,040 (NR), 32,762 (NT), 21,932 (Swiss-Prot), 20,134 (KEGG), 13,676 (COG), 24,168 (GO) consensus sequences were annotated using different databases; in total 34,552 annotated sequences were identified. For protein prediction analysis, the number of coding DNA sequences (CDS) that mapped to the protein database was 32,540. Non redundant (NR), annotation showed that 25,418 genes (73.5%) has the highest similarity with Fragaria vesca subspecies vesca. Reanalysis was undertaken by aligning the reads with this reference genome for a deeper analysis of the transcriptome. We demonstrated that de novo assembly, using Trinity and later annotation with Blast using different databases, were complementary to alignment to the reference sequence using SOAPaligner/SOAP2. The Fragaria reference genome belongs to a species in the same family as blackberry (Rosaceae) but to a different genus. Since blackberries are tetraploids, the possibility of artefactual gene chimeras resulting from mis-assembly was tested with one of the genes sequenced by RNAseq, Chalcone Synthase (CHS). cDNAs encoding this protein were cloned and sequenced. Primers designed to the assembled sequences accurately distinguished different contigs, at least for chalcone synthase genes. We prepared and analysed transcriptome data from ripe blackberries, for which prior genomic information was limited
Gardner, D.E.; Hodges, C.S.; Killgore, E.; Anderson, R.C.
The rust fungus Gymnoconia nitens infects blackberry (Rubus argutus) systemically in regions of the continental United States, producing bright yellow–orange masses of spores on newly developing floricanes during springtime. In tests to determine the suitability of this rust as a biological control agent for R. penetransin Hawaii, a species now thought to be conspecific with R. argutus,rooted cuttings of the Hawaiian plants were grown at North Carolina State University, inoculated, and observed. Other introduced weedy Rubus spp. in Hawaii, including R. ellipticus, R. rosifolius, and R. glaucus,as well as the two endemic species R. hawaiensis and R. macraei,also were inoculated. No species of Rubusare of commercial importance in Hawaii, but the protection of the native species, of which R. macraei is rare, was of utmost concern. The native Hawaiian species did not survive well in North Carolina in this study, however. Later availability of a plant pathogen containment laboratory in Hawaii enabled similar tests to be conducted at that facility. In addition to the above species, R. spectabilis (salmonberry), a species native to the Pacific Northwest with which the Hawaiian Rubus spp. are thought to share a common ancestor, was inoculated in Hawaii. Infection with G. nitens under natural field conditions becomes apparent only when sporulation occurs on floricanes the second year following infection. However, experimental inoculation led to early responses of chlorotic leaf flecking and puckering, leaf and stem contortion, and stem gall formation, indicating the sensitivity of R. penetrans (=R. argutus), R. hawaiensis, and R. macraei to this rust. Apparent systemic infection also resulted in sporulation on one plant of R. macraei. Ability to attack the endemic species suggests that G. nitens would not be suitable for release in Hawaii as a biological control agent, at least on the islands with populations of the native species.
Su, X H; Duan, R; Sun, Y Y; Wen, J F; Kang, D G; Lee, H S; Cho, K W; Jin, S N
Rubus chingii Hu (Rosaceae) is an important traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to improve function of the kidney and treat excessive polyuria. However, the effects of Rubus chingii on the cardiovascular system and its pharmacological mechanisms of action have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of ethanol extract of Rubus chingii (ERC) in rats. The changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate of rats and vascular tone of aortic rings in in vitro were measured using pressure transducer and force transducer, respectively, connected to a multichannel recording system. ERC decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate in a concentration-dependent manner. ERC induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. The ERC-induced vasorelaxation was not observed in the absence of the endothelium. The vasorelaxant effect of ERC was significantly attenuated by inhibition of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), or Ca(2+) entry from extracellular sources with L-NAME, ODQ, diltiazem, or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion, respectively. Similarly, an inhibition of Akt with wortmannin attenuated the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. Modulators of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, thapsigargin, Gd(3+), and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate markedly attenuated the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. Furthermore, 4-aminopyridine an inhibitor of voltage-dependent K(+) (KV) channel, significantly attenuated the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. However, tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide, had no significant effect on the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. Indomethacin, atropine, and propranolol had no effects on the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. The present study demonstrates that ERC induces vasorelaxation via endothelium-dependent two-step signaling: an activation of the Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling in the endothelial cells and then subsequent stimulation of the NO-sGC-cGMP-KV channel signaling in the vascular
Wang, Yuanyuan; Finn, Chad; Qian, Michael C
The aroma extract of Chickasaw blackberry (Rubus L.) was separated with silica gel normal phase chromatography into six fractions. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) was performed on each fraction to identify aroma active compounds. Aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was employed to characterize the aroma profile of Chickasaw blackberries from two growing regions of the United States: Oregon and Arkansas. Comparative AEDA analysis showed that the berries grown in the two regions had similar aroma compositions; however, those odorants had various aroma impacts in each region. The compounds with high flavor dilution factors in Oregon's Chickasaw were ethyl butanoate, linalool, methional, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, cis-1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, whereas in the Chickasaw grown in Arkansas, they were ethyl butanoate, linalool, methional, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, beta-damascenone, and geraniol.
Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R; Panetta, F Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J
Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target.
Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil
Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.
Rentería, Jorge Luis; Gardener, Mark R.; Panetta, F. Dane; Atkinson, Rachel; Crawley, Mick J.
Originally from Asia, Rubus niveus has become one of the most widespread invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands. It has invaded open vegetation, shrubland and forest alike. It forms dense thickets up to 4 m high, appearing to displace native vegetation, and threaten the integrity of several native communities. This study used correlation analysis between a R. niveus cover gradient and a number of biotic (vascular plant species richness, cover and vegetation structure) and abiotic (light and soil properties) parameters to help understand possible impacts in one of the last remaining fragments of the Scalesia forest in Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Higher cover of R. niveus was associated with significantly lower native species richness and cover, and a different forest structure. Results illustrated that 60% R. niveus cover could be considered a threshold for these impacts. We suggest that a maximum of 40% R. niveus cover could be a suitable management target. PMID:23118934
Zheng, Haiyin; Zhao, Jinyan; Zheng, Yuqing; Wu, Juan; Liu, Yan; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng
The plant Rubus alceaefolius Poir is used as a hepatic protectant in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The aim of the present study was to confirm the protective effect of the total alkaloids of Rubus alceaefolius Poir (TARAP) on the liver and to evaluate the potential molecular mechanisms associated with adipocytokines underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. To generate the NAFLD model, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a high‑fat diet and following 12 weeks of model construction, rats were orally treated with a positive control drug and different doses of TARAP daily for 28 days. The rats were then sacrificed and the livers were collected to evaluate the liver index (LI) and observe histological changes by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The secretion levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were examined by ELISA. Finally, the expression levels of leptin (LEP), resistin and adiponectin (APN) in liver tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results demonstrated that, in the group treated with methionine and choline bitartrate tablets and in the groups treated with different doses of TARAP, there was a significant reduction in the LI (P<0.05 or P<0.01), a downregulation of the secretion levels of ALT and AST, reduced levels of LEP and resistin and an increased expression of APN in the liver of NAFLD rats compared with the model group. Furthermore, the effect of TARAP treatment of NAFLD rats was dose dependent. In conclusion, TARAP is a potential agent for downregulating LEP and resistin and upregulating APN expression in rats with NAFLD. Furthermore, TARAP may be a potential candidate for improving treatment responses in patients with NAFLD.
Tolentino, Flora; Araújo, Priscila Alves de; Marques, Eduardo de Souza; Petreanu, Marcel; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni de; Niero, Rivaldo; Perazzo, Fábio F; Rosa, Paulo César Pires; Maistro, Edson Luis
Rubus niveus Thunb. plant belongs to Rosaceae family and have been used traditionally to treat wounds, burns, inflammation, dysentery, diarrhea and for curing excessive bleeding during menstrual cycle. The present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of Rubus niveus aerial parts extract and its possible chemoprotection on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage. In parallel, the main phytochemicals constituents in the extract were determined. The animals were exposed to the extract for 24 and 48 h, and the doses selected were 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or prior to DXR (30 mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. The endpoints analyzed were DNA damage in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells assessed by the alkaline alkaline (pH>13) comet assay and bone marrow micronucleus test. The results of chemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of tormentic acid, stigmasterol, quercitinglucoronide (miquelianin) and niga-ichigoside F1 as main compounds. Both cytogenetic endpoints analyzed showed that there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the negative control and the treated groups with the two higher doses of Rubus niveus extract alone, demonstrating absence of genotoxic and mutagenic effects. Aneugenic/clastogenic effect was observed only at 2000 mg/kg dose. On the other hand, in the both assays and all tested doses were observed a significant reduction of DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in all groups co-treated with DXR and extract compared to those which received only DXR. These results indicate that Rubus niveus aerial parts extract did not revealed any genotoxic effect, but presented some aneugenic/clastogenic effect at higher dose; and suggest that it could be a potential adjuvant against development of second malignant neoplasms caused by the cancer chemotherapic DXR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun
The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of non-active polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides. PMID:19419169
Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun
The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of nonactive polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of the sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides.
Tonin, Talita Dacroce; Thiesen, Liliani Carolini; de Oliveira Nunes, Maria Luisa; Broering, Milena Fronza; Donato, Marcos Paulo; Goss, Marina Jagielski; Petreanu, Marcel; Niero, Rivaldo; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto
Here, we evaluate the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects of methanolic crude extract obtained from aerial parts (leaves and branches) of Rubus imperialis Chum. Schl. (Rosaceae) and the pure compound niga-ichigoside F1. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in vivo and in vitro, and the healing effect was evaluated in surgical lesions in mice skin. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay and H2O2-induced oxidative stress were used to determine antioxidant activity. The efferocytosis activity was also determined. The data obtained show that the extract of R. imperialis promote reduction in the inflammatory process induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or carrageenan in the air pouch model; the effects could be reinforced by nitric oxide reduction in LPS-stimulated neutrophils, and an increase in the efferocytosis. The extract showed wound healing property in vitro and in vivo, scavenging activity for DPPH, and cytoprotection in the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in L929 cells. In addition, the compound niga-ichigoside F1 was able to reduce the NO secretion; however, it did not present wound-healing activity in vitro. Together, the data obtained point out the modulatory actions of R. imperialis extract on leukocyte migration to the inflamed tissue, the antioxidant, and the pro-resolutive activity. However, the R. imperialis anti-inflammatory activity may be mediated in parts by niga-ichigoside F1, and on wound healing do not correlated with niga-ichigoside F1.
Cai, Yongqing; Hu, Xiaogang; Huang, Mingchun; Sun, Fengjun; Yang, Bo; He, Juying; Wang, Xianfeng; Xia, Peiyuan; Chen, Jianhong
Rubus parvifolius L. (Rp) is a medicinal herb that possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, we extracted the volatile oil from the leaves of Rp to assess its antibacterial activity and analyze its chemical composition. A uniform distribution design was used to optimize the extraction procedure, which yielded 0.36% (w/w) of light yellowish oil from the water extract of Rp leaves. We found that the extracted oil effectively inhibited the growth of a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Bacillus cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We further analyzed the components contained in the hydro-distillated Rp volatile oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty nine compounds were identified, including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (66%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (10%) and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid (2%). Our results suggest that one or multiple constituents contained in Rp volatile oil may account for its antibacterial activity.
Baret, Stéphanie; Nicolini, Eric; Le Bourgeois, Thomas; Strasberg, Dominique
The aim of this study was to identify the developmental stages of Rubus alceifolius and to determine one or more characteristic morphological markers for each stage. The developmental reconstitution method used involved a detailed description of many individuals throughout the different stages of growth, from germination to the development of an adult shoot capable of fruiting. Results revealed that R. alceifolius passes through five developmental stages that can be distinguished by changes in several morphological markers such as internode length and diameter, pith diameter and plant shape. This analysis indicated that R. alceifolius has a heteroblastic developmental pattern, midway between that of a bush and a liana. Moreover, results showed that this species taps environmental resources early in its development, i.e. foliarization is high (the foliar component overrides the caulinary component) and an autotrophic stage is rapidly reached, whereas it 'explores' the environment during the adult stage, i.e. axialization is substantial (the caulinary component overrides the foliar component) and autotrophy occurs at a later stage. The morphological markers identified could benefit land-use managers attempting to control this species before it reaches its optimum developmental stage. Copyright 2003 Annals of Botany Company
Lee, Jung Eun; Cho, Soo-Muk; Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Yuri; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lim, Sohee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rubus Coreanus Miquel (RCM), used as a traditional Korean medicine, reduces chronic inflammatory diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we examine the anti-inflammatory effects of RCM and their possible mechanisms using RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Unripe RCM ethanol extract (UE), unripe RCM water extract (UH), ripe RCM ethanol extract (RE), and ripe RCM water extract (RH) were prepared. Inflammatory response was induced with LPS treatment, and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO and PGE2 productions were assessed. To determine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RCM, we measured NF-κB and MAPK activities. RESULTS UE and UH treatment significantly reduced NF-κB activation and JNK and p38 phosphorylation and reduced transcriptional activities decreased iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expressions, and NO and PGE2 productions. RE and RH treatments reduced IL-1β and IL-6 expressions through suppressions of JNK and p38 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS In this study, we showed that RCM had anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of pro-inflammatory mediator expressions. Especially, unripe RCM showed strong anti-inflammatory effects through suppression of NF-κB and MAPK activation. These findings suggest that unripe RCM might be used as a potential functional material to reduce chronic inflammatory responses. PMID:25324928
Lee, Mee Youn; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Singh, Digar; Yeo, Soo Hwan; Baek, Seong Yeol; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Choong Hwan
The study was aimed at exploring the curative effects of Rubus coreanus (RC) vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis by using ovariectomized rats as a model. The investigations were performed in five groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX) rats without treatment, low-dose RC vinegar (LRV)-treated OVX rats, high-dose RC vinegar (HRV)-treated OVX rats and alendronate (ALEN)-treated OVX rats. The efficacy of RC vinegar was evaluated using physical, biochemical, histological and metabolomic parameters. Compared to the OVX rats, the LRV and HRV groups showed positive effects on the aforementioned parameters, indicating estrogen regulation. Plasma metabolome analysis of the groups using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis revealed 19 and 16 metabolites, respectively. Notably, the levels of butyric acid, phenylalanine, glucose, tryptophan and some lysophosphatidylcholines were marginally increased in RC vinegar-treated groups compared to OVX. However, the pattern of metabolite levels in RC vinegar-treated groups was found similar to ALEN, but differed significantly from that in sham group. The results highlight the prophylactic and curative potential of dietary vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis. RC vinegar could be an effective natural alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Plackal Adimuriyil George, Blassan; Tynga, Ivan Mfouo
Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway. PMID:26078938
Tabarki, Sonia; Aouadhi, Chedia; Mechergui, Kaouther; Hammi, Khaoula Mkadmini; Ksouri, Riadh; Raies, Aly; Toumi, Lamjed
In the current study, the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts from Rubus ulmifolius Schott leaves harvested in four localities (Sejnen, Tabarka, Faija and Ain drahem) in Tunisia were investigated for the first time. Great differences were found for the chemical composition, total phenol contents and biological activities among the evaluated extracts. HPLC analysis of methanolic extracts showed that the dominant compounds were kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and naringenine. In addition, significant correlations were observed between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents. In fact, leaves collected from Sejnen presented higher total phenol content (53.32 mg GAE/g DW) and antioxidant activities (IC50 = 39.40 mg/l) than the others samples. All extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against six used bacteria with the inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitory concentration values were in the range of 8 - 16 mm and 6.25 - 25 mg/ml, respectively. The highest antimicrobial activities were recorded in Sejnen extract against Gram-positive bacteria. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.
Redan, Benjamin W; Albaugh, George P; Charron, Craig S; Novotny, Janet A; Ferruzzi, Mario G
As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure to phenolics may impact their absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary exposure to phenolics, Caco-2 cell monolayers were differentiated on Transwell inserts with 0-10 μM blackberry (Rubus sp.) total phenolics extracts rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. Following differentiation, apical to basolateral transport of phenolics was assessed from an acute treatment of 100 μM blackberry phenolics from 0 to 4 h. Additionally, differences in gene expression of transport and phase II metabolizing systems including ABC transporters, organic anion transporters (OATs), and uridine 5'-diphospho (UDP) glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) were probed. After 4 h, 1 μM pretreated monolayers showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the percentage of cumulative transport including less epicatechin (42.1 ± 0.53), kaempferol glucoside (23.5 ± 0.29), and dicaffeoylquinic acid (31.9 ± 0.20) compared to control. Finally, significant (P < 0.05) alterations in mRNA expression of key phase II metabolizing enzymes and transport proteins were observed with treatment. Therefore, adaptation to blackberry extract exposure may impact intestinal transport and metabolism of phenolics.
McNellis, Brandon; Howard, Ava R
Nighttime transpiration is a substantial portion of ecosystem water budgets, but few studies compare water use of closely related co-occurring species in a phylogenetic context. Nighttime transpiration can range up to 69% of daytime rates and vary between species, ecosystem, and functional type. We examined leaf-level daytime and nighttime gas exchange of five species of the genus Rubus co-occurring in the Pacific Northwest of western North America in a greenhouse common garden. Contrary to expectations, nighttime transpiration was not correlated to daytime water use. Nighttime transpiration showed pronounced phylogenetic signals, but the proportion of variation explained by different phylogenetic groupings varied across datasets. Leaf osmotic water potential, water potential at turgor loss point, stomatal size, and specific leaf area were correlated with phylogeny but did not readily explain variation in nighttime transpiration. Patterns in interspecific variation as well as a disconnect between rates of daytime and nighttime transpiration suggest that variation in nighttime water use may be at least partly driven by genetic factors independent of those that control daytime water use. Future work with co-occurring congeneric systems is needed to establish the generality of these results and may help determine the mechanism driving interspecific variation in nighttime water use. PMID:26380686
D'Agostino, M F; Sanz, J; Martínez-Castro, I; Giuffrè, A M; Sicari, V; Soria, A C
Statistical analysis has been used for the first time to evaluate the dispersion of quantitative data in the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott) volatiles with the aim of improving their precision. Experimental and randomly simulated data were compared using different statistical parameters (correlation coefficients, Principal Component Analysis loadings and eigenvalues). Non-random factors were shown to significantly contribute to total dispersion; groups of volatile compounds could be associated with these factors. A significant improvement of precision was achieved when considering percent concentration ratios, rather than percent values, among those blackberry volatiles with a similar dispersion behavior. As novelty over previous references, and to complement this main objective, the presence of non-random dispersion trends in data from simple blackberry model systems was evidenced. Although the influence of the type of matrix on data precision was proved, the possibility of a better understanding of the dispersion patterns in real samples was not possible from model systems. The approach here used was validated for the first time through the multicomponent characterization of Italian blackberries from different harvest years.
Zhang, Tian-Tian; Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo
Dried and unripe fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, known as "Fu-pen-zi" in Chinese, has been used as a food and tonic in China for a long time. In order to analyze its effective ingredients, polysaccharides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were extracted from the unripe fruits and their contents were determined. The in vitro antioxidant, anticomplementary and anticancer activities against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells of the four major constituents were investigated. Results showed that total flavonoids exhibited an obvious antioxidant activity, which was very close to ascorbic acid. The anticomplementary and anticancer activities of flavonoids were also the best among the four chemical compositions. Therefore, extraction process optimization of flavonoids was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.8 °C, ethanol concentration 30.67%, extraction time 2.66 h, and a liquid/solid ratio of 19.54 : 1. In addition, total flavonoids were subsequently separated by column chromatography and the major flavonoid was identified as tiliroside. Further experimental data revealed that tiliroside treatment could suppress the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells.
Kim, Yesl; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jung-Hyun
Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) is used to promote prostate health and has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, the effects and mechanisms of RCM on prostate cancer metastasis remain unclear. PC-3 and DU 145 cells were treated with ethanol or water extract of unripe or ripe RCM and examined for cell invasion, migration, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and expression. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt activities were examined. Unripe RCM extracts exerted significant inhibitory effects on cell migration, invasion, and MMPs activities. A significant reduction in MMPs activities by unripe RCM ethanol extract treatment (UE) was associated with reduction of MMPs expression and induction of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt activity was diminished by UE treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that UE decreased metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells by reducing MMPs expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, thereby decreasing MMP activity and enhancing TIMPs expression.
McNellis, Brandon; Howard, Ava R
Nighttime transpiration is a substantial portion of ecosystem water budgets, but few studies compare water use of closely related co-occurring species in a phylogenetic context. Nighttime transpiration can range up to 69% of daytime rates and vary between species, ecosystem, and functional type. We examined leaf-level daytime and nighttime gas exchange of five species of the genus Rubus co-occurring in the Pacific Northwest of western North America in a greenhouse common garden. Contrary to expectations, nighttime transpiration was not correlated to daytime water use. Nighttime transpiration showed pronounced phylogenetic signals, but the proportion of variation explained by different phylogenetic groupings varied across datasets. Leaf osmotic water potential, water potential at turgor loss point, stomatal size, and specific leaf area were correlated with phylogeny but did not readily explain variation in nighttime transpiration. Patterns in interspecific variation as well as a disconnect between rates of daytime and nighttime transpiration suggest that variation in nighttime water use may be at least partly driven by genetic factors independent of those that control daytime water use. Future work with co-occurring congeneric systems is needed to establish the generality of these results and may help determine the mechanism driving interspecific variation in nighttime water use.
The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the fruits of Rubus chingii was studied in vitro. Ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions from dried R. chingii fruits revealed strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC(50) values of 17.9, 3.4 and 4.0 μg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were further purified by a combination of silica gel chromatography, Lobar RP-8 chromatography, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nine compounds were isolated, where methyl (3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydroindol-3-yl)-acetate (2), vanillic acid (5), kaempferol (7), and tiliroside (9) showed stronger DPPH free radical scavenging activity than that of ascorbic acid (131.8 μM) with IC(50) values of 45.2, 34.9, 78.5, and 13.7 μM, respectively. In addition, rubusine (1) is a new compound discovered in the present study and methyl (3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydroindol-3-yl)-acetate (2), methyl dioxindole-3-acetate (3), and 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-4-carboxylic acid (4) were isolated from the fruits for the first time.
BARET, STÉPHANE; NICOLINI, ERIC; LE BOURGEOIS, THOMAS; STRASBERG, DOMINIQUE
The aim of this study was to identify the developmental stages of Rubus alceifolius and to determine one or more characteristic morphological markers for each stage. The developmental reconstitution method used involved a detailed description of many individuals throughout the different stages of growth, from germination to the development of an adult shoot capable of fruiting. Results revealed that R. alceifolius passes through five developmental stages that can be distinguished by changes in several morphological markers such as internode length and diameter, pith diameter and plant shape. This analysis indicated that R. alceifolius has a heteroblastic developmental pattern, midway between that of a bush and a liana. Moreover, results showed that this species taps environmental resources early in its development, i.e. foliarization is high (the foliar component overrides the caulinary component) and an autotrophic stage is rapidly reached, whereas it ‘explores’ the environment during the adult stage, i.e. axialization is substantial (the caulinary component overrides the foliar component) and autotrophy occurs at a later stage. The morphological markers identified could benefit land‐use managers attempting to control this species before it reaches its optimum developmental stage. PMID:12495918
Dehaan, Remy; Louis, John; Wilson, Andrea; Hall, Andrew; Rumbachs, Rod
Blackberry, Rubus fruticosus sp. agg., is a perennial, semi-deciduous shrub which forms dense thickets that infest approximately 8.8 million ha of land in Australia. It is highly invasive with a high potential for spread, and causes significant negative economic and environmental impacts. During 2004, HyMap hyperspectral imagery was acquired across the foreshores of Blowering Dam in Kosciuszko National Park, NSW, Australia to evaluate its utility for mapping the distribution of blackberry. Strategies for mapping image-derived blackberry spectra using hyperspectral imagery were assessed using Spectral Angle Mapper, Spectral Feature Fitting, Matched Filter, and Mixture-Tuned Matched Filter mapping algorithms. A Mixture-Tuned Matched Filter (MTMF) approach using the blackberry spectrum with a restricted wavelength range was adopted. MTMF distribution maps showed the highest agreement to the distribution of blackberry as assessed using an error matrix and independent groundtruth data. The MTMF distribution map generated a producer's accuracy of 91%, user's accuracy of 81%, overall accuracy of 92% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.715. This study has demonstrated that hyperspectral imagery can effectively quantify the distribution of blackberry in open canopies.
Melkadze, R G; Chichkovani, N Sh; Kakhniashvili, E Z
The composition of Caucasian blackberry (Rubus caucasicus L.) six-leaf shoot was studied. The weight of the stem reached 50% of the total weight of the shoot. The content of moisture, extractive substances, and phenolic compounds was minimal at the beginning and end of the vegetation season. Phenolic compounds were represented by catechins, leukoanthocyanidins, and flavonols. The most abundant phenolic compounds in all parts of the blackberry shoot were leukoanthocyanidins, which accounted for approximately 50% of all compounds of this class. Phenolic compounds accumulated most actively in July and August. The average content of free amino acids in the blackberry leaf during the vegetation season was 26.68 mg/g. Among the total free amino acids, eleven have been identified, five of which proved to be essential (His, Arg, Met, Leu, Val) and accounted for 40% of the total amount of amino acids. The oxidability of acetone extract of the blackberry leaf was compared to the oxidability of total phenolic compounds and tea tannin. The tea product obtained from the blackberry leaf had good organoleptic parameters and a saturated extractive complex.
Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Sánchez-Franco, José Antonio; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice), pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L), anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L); antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L) and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L) in comparison to the control and pasteurized samples. Oil extract from thermoultrasound juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L). The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice.
Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Y; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly S; Quintero-Lira, Aurora; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Cervantes-Elizarrarás, Alicia; Güemes-Vera, Norma; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther
Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X₁: 80%-90%) and extraction time (X₂: 10-15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.
Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee
Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.
Quito-Avila, D F; Ibarra, M A; Alvarez, R; Peralta, E L; Martin, R R
Sequencing of the complete genome of a raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Rubus glaucus in Ecuador revealed that its RNA-1 and RNA-2 were 5449 and 2231 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and phylogenetically closest to isolates from Sweden and Slovenia. In dsRNA analysis of infected plants, an additional band of 3 kbp was observed. Sequencing of this band revealed that it was 3279 nt long. BLAST searches revealed that this band contained a modified version of RNA-2, which consisted of RNA-2 (2231 nt) plus an additional 1048-nt fragment that was concatenated in a reverse-complement fashion to its 5' terminus.
Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E
The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.
Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris
It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph−Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality
Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913
Diskin, E; Proctor, H; Jebb, M; Sparks, T; Donnelly, A
To date, phenological research has provided evidence that climate warming is impacting both animals and plants, evidenced by the altered timing of phenophases. Much of the evidence supporting these findings has been provided by analysis of historic records and present-day fieldwork; herbaria have been identified recently as an alternative source of phenological data. Here, we used Rubus specimens to evaluate herbaria as potential sources of phenological data for use in climate change research and to develop the methodology for using herbaria specimens in phenological studies. Data relevant to phenology (collection date) were recorded from the information cards of over 600 herbarium specimens at Ireland's National Herbarium in Dublin. Each specimen was assigned a score (0-5) corresponding to its phenophase. Temperature data for the study period (1852 - 2007) were obtained from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU); relationships between temperature and the dates of first flower, full flower, first fruit and full fruit were assessed using weighted linear regression. Of the five species of Rubus examined in this study, specimens of only one (R. fruticosus) were sufficiently abundant to yield statistically significant relationships with temperature. The results revealed a trend towards earlier dates of first flower, full flower and first fruit phenophases with increasing temperature. Through its multi-phenophase approach, this research serves to extend the most recent work-which validated the use of herbaria through use of a single phenophase-to confirm herbarium-based research as a robust methodology for use in future phenological studies.
D'Agostino, M F; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Giuffrè, A M; Sicari, V; Soria, A C
A Solid-Phase Microextraction method for the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of blackberry (Rubus sp.) volatiles has been fully optimized by means of a Box-Behnken experimental design. The optimized operating conditions (Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating, 66°C, 20 min equilibrium time and 16 min extraction time) have been applied to the characterization for the first time of the volatile composition of Rubus ulmifolius Schott blackberries collected in Italy and Spain. A total of 74 volatiles of different functionality were identified; esters and aliphatic alcohols were the predominant classes in both sample types. Methylbutanal (2.02-25.70%), ethanol (9.84-68.21%), 2,3-butanedione (2.31-14.71%), trans-2-hexenal (0.49-17.49%), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (0.08-7.39%), 1-hexanol (0.56-16.39%), 1-octanol (0.49-10.86%) and methylbutanoic acid (0.53-21.48%) were the major compounds in most blackberries analyzed. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of semiquantitative data showed that only two variables (ethyl decanoate and ethyl acetate) were necessary for a successful differentiation of blackberries according to their harvest location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bae, Ji-Young; Lim, Soon Sung; Choi, Jung-Suk
Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to distinct changes in the skin connective tissues by degradation of collagen, which is a major structural component in the extracellular matrix. UV irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) capable of attacking native fibrillar collagen and responsible for inhibiting the construction of collagenous extracellular matrix. In this study, we attempted to investigate the protective actions of Rubus coreanus ethanol extract (RCE) on the MMP production and the consequent procollagen/collagen degradation in UV-B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. The analytical data showed that Rubus coreanus ethanol extract was mostly comprised of cyanidin 3-rutinoside. Pre-treatment of fibroblasts with this extract inhibited UV-B-induced production of MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13 in dose-dependent manners. In addition, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining assay revealed that RCE markedly augmented the cellular levels of procollagen/collagen declined in UV-B-exposed dermal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that RCE blocks UV-B-induced increase of the collagen degradation by inhibiting MMP production. Thus, RCE may act as an agent inhibiting excessive dermal collagen degradation leading to the skin photoaging. PMID:20368951
Lee, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Eun-Mi
To prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age, certain nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed. In the present study, the ethanol extract from the fruit of Rubus coreanus Miq. (RCE) was investigated for its effect on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. RCE (10approximately50 microg/ml) caused a significant elevation in cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen content, and osteocalcin secretion in the cells. The effect of RCE (50 microg/ml) in increasing cell viability, ALP activity, and collagen content was prevented by the presence of 10(-6) M cycloheximide and 10(-6) M tamoxifen, suggesting that RCE's effect results from a newly synthesized protein component and might be partly involved in estrogen action. We then examined the effect of RCE on the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and production of local factors in osteoblasts. Treatment with RCE (10approximately50 microg/ml) decreased the 0.2 mM H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO) in osteoblasts. Our data indicate that the enhancement of osteoblast function by Rubus coreanus Miq. may result in the prevention of osteoporosis and inflammatory bone diseases.
Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Cao, Zhiyun; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zheng, Liangpu; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng
Angiogenesis, which has a critical role in human tumor growth and development, is tightly regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. Total alkaloids are active components of the plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, which is used for the treatment of various types of cancer. A previous study by our group showed that the total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis through the activation of the mitochondria-dependent pathway in vitro and in vivo, as well as inhibited angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. In the present study, to further analyze the specific mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of TARAP, a HCC xenograft mouse model was used to assess the effect of TARAP on angiogenesis in vivo. TARAP was found to suppress the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and VEGF receptor-2 in tumor tissues, which resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, TARAP treatment was observed to inhibit the expression of Notch1, delta-like ligand 4 and jagged 1, which are key mediators of the Notch signaling pathway. The present study identified that the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis through the suppression of the Notch signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms through which TARAP may be effective in the treatment of cancer.
Mann, Rachel A; Blom, Jochen; Bühlmann, Andreas; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne E; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Rodoni, Brendan C; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M
The Hrp pathogenicity island (hrpPAI) of Erwinia amylovora not only encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) and other genes required for pathogenesis on host plants, but also includes the so-called island transfer (IT) region, a region that originates from an integrative conjugative element (ICE). Comparative genomic analysis of the IT regions of two Spiraeoideae- and three Rubus-infecting strains revealed that the regions in Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were syntenic and highly conserved in length and genetic information, but that the IT regions of the Rubus-infecting strains varied in gene content and length, showing a mosaic structure. None of the ICEs in E. amylovora strains were complete, as conserved ICE genes and the left border were missing, probably due to reductive genome evolution. Comparison of the hrpPAI region of E. amylovora strains to syntenic regions from other Erwinia spp. indicates that the hrpPAI and the IT regions are the result of several insertion and deletion events that have occurred within the ICE. It also suggests that the T3SS was present in a common ancestor of the pathoadapted Erwinia spp. and that insertion and deletion events in the IT region occurred during speciation.
Ortiz, Jacqueline; Marín-Arroyo, María-Remedios; Noriega-Domínguez, María-José; Navarro, Montserrat; Arozarena, Iñigo
Seventy wines were produced in Ecuador under different processing conditions with local fruits: Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.) and Golden Reinette apples. Wines were evaluated for antioxidant activity (AA) using the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) method, total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs) using the pH differential test, and color parameters using VIS-spectrophotometry. For blackberry wines, ellagitannins and anthocyanins were also analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Apples wines (n = 40) had the lowest TPC (608 ± 86 mg/L) and AA (2.1 ± 0.3 mM Trolox). Blueberry wines (n = 12) had high TPC (1086 ± 194 mg/L) and moderate AA (5.4 ± 0.8 mM) but very low TMA (8 ± 3 mg/L), with a color evolved toward yellow and blue shades. Blackberry wines (n = 10) had the highest TPC (1265 ± 91 mg/L) and AA (12 ± 1 mM). Ellagitannins were the major phenolics (1172 ± 115 mg/L) and correlated well with AA (r = 0.88). Within anthocyanins (TMA 73 ± 16 mg/L), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (62%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (15%) were predominant. Wines obtained by cofermentation of apples and blackberries (n = 8) showed intermediate characteristics (TPC 999 ± 83 mg/L, AA 6.2 ± 0.7 mM, TMA 35 ± 22 mg/L) between the blackberry and blueberry wines. The results suggest that the Andean berries, particularly R. glaucus, are suitable raw materials to produce wines with an in vitro antioxidant capacity that is comparable to red grape wines. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
iM---/nclucll!np ........... - .J (+•~.t/td; O•no~ ·•1111111-olltct; U• unkno..,-) + 0 . u 7. AIR INSTAU.ATION ~ PI \\ TliiLE USE ZONEAANO USE...petraea Traubeneiche Ses.~i le Oak rubus idaeus Himbeere Red Raspberry salix fragilis Bruchweidc Crack Willow sam bucus nigra Schwarz.~r Holw1der
dogwood Rubus idaeus L. -Red raspberry Rhus glabra L. -Smooth sumac Symphoricarpos albus L. - Snowberry Cirsium sp. - Thistle Parthenocissus inserta...century, the land located immediately south of the study area appears to have been occu- pied by member tribes of the Dakota Sioux, the Yanktonai people
The red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., is a valuable crop that has recently increased in production, generating a large interest in commercial ventures and in research. Traditionally, most of the crop has been sold to processors, for freezing, jam production, canning, juice, and flavorings for ice crea...
'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...
Brassicaceous seed meals are an alternative to synthetic chemical fumigation for the pre-plant soil management of soil borne organisms. Greenhouse, microplot, and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed meals on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) soil ...
The efficacy and phytotoxicity of post-plant treatments to control root lesion [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb), Chitwood & Otiefa] and dagger (Xiphinema bakeri Williams) nematodes in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) were evaluated in four field studies conducted over three years. Spring spray applicat...
‘Cascade Gold’ is a new gold fruited, floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). It has been evaluated at Puyallup, Wash. in plantings from 1988 to 2008. ...
This chapter provides introductory information concerning Rubus idaeus L., raspberries. It describes history, botany, and different types of raspberry fruits. History describes the interaction between brambles and humans over the course of several millennia. These plucky plants were described by the...
Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) occurs naturally worldwide in many Rubus species and cultivars. In North America, it naturally infects many red raspberry, black raspberry, blackberry and blackberry-raspberry hybrid cultivars. RBDV also occurs in wild R. idaeus L. var. strigosus, R. occidentali., ...
Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...
In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate (active ingredient oxamyl) to non-bearing raspberry for the suppression of the root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). This is a new use pattern of this nematicide f...
‘Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...
Plantings of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. strigosus) exhibited symptoms of a previously undocumented disease. Lesions were observable from both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. As disease progressed, lesions enlarged and coalesced, resulting in significant dark brown to black blighting of the ...
Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Reese, R Neil; Smiljanic, Danijela; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Rinaldi, Peter L
Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites potentially contributing to the antiproliferative bioactivity of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits were extracted in ethyl acetate and isolated by semipreparative and analytical HPLC and analyzed by NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS techniques. Here we present complete and partial structures of a variety of the chemical entities such as quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, myricetin glucoside, dihydrokaempferol glucoside, benzoic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaryl glucoside, p-coumaryl sugar ester, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid acetylpentose, methyl ellagic acid valerylpentose, trans-piceid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin), dihydrosinapic acid, salicylic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, a salicylic acid derivative without attached sugar, p-alkylphenyl glucoside, and a citric acid derivative. To our knowledge, 15 of these compounds were not previously reported in black raspberry fruits.
Bushakra, Jill M; Bryant, Douglas W; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Gilmore, Barbara S; Lee, Jungmin; Mockler, Todd C; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V
We have constructed a densely populated, saturated genetic linkage map of black raspberry and successfully placed a locus for aphid resistance. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing this crop. Contributing to its lack of improvement is low genetic diversity in elite cultivars and an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity from wild germplasm. In the Pacific Northwest, where most production is centered, the current standard commercial cultivar is highly susceptible to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes, which is a vector for the Raspberry mosaic virus complex. Infection with the virus complex leads to a rapid decline in plant health resulting in field replacement after only 3-4 growing seasons. Sources of aphid resistance have been identified in wild germplasm and are used to develop mapping populations to study the inheritance of these valuable traits. We have constructed a genetic linkage map using single-nucleotide polymorphism and transferable (primarily simple sequence repeat) markers for F1 population ORUS 4305 consisting of 115 progeny that segregate for aphid resistance. Our linkage map of seven linkage groups representing the seven haploid chromosomes of black raspberry consists of 274 markers on the maternal map and 292 markers on the paternal map including a morphological locus for aphid resistance. This is the first linkage map of black raspberry and will aid in developing markers for marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping with other Rubus species, and enhancing the black raspberry genome assembly.
Amsellem, L; Noyer, J L; Hossaert-McKey, M
We compared the reproductive system of Rubus alceifolius in its native range in Southeast Asia, in Madagascar, where the plant was introduced apparently some centuries ago, and in La Réunion, an Indian Ocean island onto which R. alceifolius was introduced (from Madagascan source populations) around 1850. While tetraploidy makes it impossible to analyze variation in R. alceifolius using classical methods of population genetics, both the patterns of genetic diversity (as revealed by AFLP [amplified fragment length polymorphism] markers) and differences between half-sib progeny and their maternal parents (revealed by microsatellite markers) show that in the plant's native range in southeast Asia, seeds are produced sexually. In contrast, in Madagascar sexual reproduction cannot alone account for the genetic patterns observed with microsatellite markers. Over 85% of the half-sib progeny resulting from open pollination gave multilocus genotypes identical to those of their respective maternal parents, despite the fact that the latter had alleles that were rare in the population. The other progeny differed in having an allele with one motif more or less than that of the maternal parent. Seeds thus appear to be produced mostly or exclusively by apomixis in Madagascar. We present findings suggesting that Madagascan populations result from hybridization of introduced R. alceifolius and native populations of R. roridus, a closely related species of Rubus subgenus Malachobatus, and suggest that apomixis was a consequence of this hybridization. In Reunionese populations of R. alceifolius (derived from Madagascan populations), seeds obtained in controlled pollination experiments were all genetically identical to maternal parents. While genetic variation (microsatellite markers) in Reunionese populations was low, it was sufficient to allow us to demonstrate that seeds could not have resulted from fertilization by the pollen donors chosen for controlled pollinations, or from
Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed
Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06 mg QE/g and 7.42 mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71 mg QE/g and 0.29 mg CE/g DW, respectively) (p<0.05). Both DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays showed that all tested extracts possess free radical scavenging activity, while the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) range values were similar for both assays (2.13-45.54 μg/mL and 1.2-43.82 μg/mL, respectively). All plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. Fruit methanolic (IC50=2.76mg/mL) and aqueous (IC50=2.08 mg/mL) extracts showed higher inhibitory effects than chloroformic (IC50=7.62 mg/mL) and hexanic (IC50=12.93 mg/mL) extracts on egg hatching (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation of total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0
Zhao, Jinyan; Chen, Xuzheng; Lin, Wei; Wu, Guangwen; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Rubus aleaefolius Poir total alkaloids (TARAP) against hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vivo and in vitro, and to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms mediating its biological activity. Nude mice were implanted with HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and fed with vehicle (physiological saline) or 3 g/kg/d dose of TARAP, 5 days per week, for 21 days. The in vivo efficacy of TARAP against tumor growth was investigated by evaluating its effect on tumor volume and tumor weight in mice with HCC xenografts and its adverse effect was determined by measuring the body weight gain. The in vitro effect of TARAP on the viability of HepG2 cells was determined by MTT assay. HepG2 cell morphology was observed via phase-contrast microscopy. Apoptosis in tumor tissues or in HepG2 cells was analyzed by TUNEL assay or FACS analysis with Annexin V/PI, respectively. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells was determined via JC-1 staining followed by FACS analysis. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 in HepG2 cells was examined by a colorimetric assay. The mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in tumor tissues were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. TARAP reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on the body weight gain in HCC mice. TARAP decreased the viability of HepG2 cells and induced cell morphological changes in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, TARAP induced apoptosis both in tumor tissues and in HepG2 cells. Moreover, TARAP treatment resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells, as well as the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, administration of TARAP increased the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in HCC mouse tumors, at both transcriptional and translational levels. TARAP inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth both in vivo and in vitro probably through the activation of mitochondrial
Calvo-Castro, Laura; Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean C.; Vilela, Fernanda M. P.; Pérez, Ana M.; Vaillant, Fabrice; Rojas, Miguel; Mukhtar, Hasan
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB (280–320 nm) spectrum, is the primary environmental stimulus leading to skin carcinogenesis. Several botanical species with antioxidant properties have shown photochemopreventive effects against UVB damage. Costa Rica’s tropical highland blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) contains important levels of phenolic compounds, mainly ellagitannins and anthocyanins, with strong antioxidant properties. In this study, we examined the photochemopreventive effect of R. adenotrichos blackberry juice (BBJ) on UVB-mediated responses in human epidermal keratinocytes and in a three-dimensional (3D) reconstituted normal human skin equivalent (SE). Pretreatment (2 h) and posttreatment (24 h) of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) with BBJ reduced UVB (25 mJ cm−2)-mediated (1) cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (2) 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation. Furthermore, treatment of NHEKs with BBJ increased UVB-mediated (1) poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and (2) activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9. Thus, BBJ seems to alleviate UVB-induced effects by reducing DNA damage and increasing apoptosis of damaged cells. To establish the in vivo significance of these findings to human skin, immunohistochemistry studies were performed in a 3D SE model, where BBJ was also found to decrease CPDs formation. These data suggest that BBJ may be developed as an agent to ameliorate UV-induced skin damage. PMID:23711186
Calvo-Castro, Laura; Syed, Deeba N; Chamcheu, Jean C; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Pérez, Ana M; Vaillant, Fabrice; Rojas, Miguel; Mukhtar, Hasan
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB (280-320 nm) spectrum, is the primary environmental stimulus leading to skin carcinogenesis. Several botanical species with antioxidant properties have shown photochemopreventive effects against UVB damage. Costa Rica's tropical highland blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) contains important levels of phenolic compounds, mainly ellagitannins and anthocyanins, with strong antioxidant properties. In this study, we examined the photochemopreventive effect of R. adenotrichos blackberry juice (BBJ) on UVB-mediated responses in human epidermal keratinocytes and in a three-dimensional (3D) reconstituted normal human skin equivalent (SE). Pretreatment (2 h) and posttreatment (24 h) of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) with BBJ reduced UVB (25 mJ cm(-2))-mediated (1) cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (2) 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation. Furthermore, treatment of NHEKs with BBJ increased UVB-mediated (1) poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and (2) activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9. Thus, BBJ seems to alleviate UVB-induced effects by reducing DNA damage and increasing apoptosis of damaged cells. To establish the in vivo significance of these findings to human skin, immunohistochemistry studies were performed in a 3D SE model, where BBJ was also found to decrease CPDs formation. These data suggest that BBJ may be developed as an agent to ameliorate UV-induced skin damage.
Oh, Dool-Ri; Kim, Yujin; Choi, Eun-jin; Hunmi-Lee; Jung, Myung-A; Bae, Donghyuck; Jo, Ara; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Sunoh
Background. The objective of the present study was to perform a bioguided fractionation of unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel (uRC) and evaluate the lipid accumulation system involvement in its antiobesity activity as well as study the uRC mechanism of action. Results. After the fractionation, the BuOH fraction of uRC (uRCB) was the most active fraction, suppressing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, after an oral administration for 8 weeks in HFD-induced obese mice, uRCB (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) produced a significant decrease in body weight, food efficiency ratio, adipose tissue weight and LDL-cholesterol, serum glucose, TC, and TG levels. Similarly, uRCB significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA levels of PPARγ in the adipose tissue in vivo. Next, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ellagic acid, erycibelline, 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol, m-hydroxyphenylglycine, and 4-hydroxycoumarin isolated from uRCB. Without affecting cell viability, five bioactive compounds decreased the lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells and the mRNA expression levels of key adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Conclusion. These results suggest that uRC and its five bioactive compounds may be a useful therapeutic agent for body weight control by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:26904142
Park, Jun Hong; Oh, Sun-Mee; Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Yeon Sil; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Oh, Yang-Seok; Choe, Nong-Hoon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jin-Kyung
Foods of plant origin, especially fruits and vegetables, draw increased attention because of their potential benefits to human health. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of four different extracts obtained from the fruits of Rubus coreanus (aqueous and ethanol extracts of unripe and ripe fruits). Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract of unripe fruits of R. coreanus (URCE) suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We also demonstrated that URCE by itself is a potent inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, suppressed the URCE-induced reductions in the production of NO and PGE(2) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Our data suggest that URCE exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages via activation of the HO-1 pathway and helps to elucidate the mechanism underlying the potential therapeutic value of R. coreanus extracts.
Zhong, Ruijian; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Guoping; Fu, Huizheng; Wan, Kaihua
Three new labdane-type diterpene glycosides, 15,18-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13(E)-ent-labda-7(8),13(14)-diene-3β,15,18-triol (1), 15,18-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13(E)-ent-labda-8(9),13(14)-diene-3β,15,18-triol (2), and 15-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-18-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13(E)-ent-labda-8(9),13(14)-diene-3β,15,18-triol (3), were isolated from the fruits of Rubus chingii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-3 were evaluated against five human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, BGC-823, A549, and A2780). Compounds 3 showed cytotoxic activity against A549 with an IC50 value of 2.32μM. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Om, Ae-Son; Song, Yu-Na; Noh, GeonMin; Kim, HaengRan; Choe, JeongSook
The leaves and stems of the plant Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCMLS) are rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals which have antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and anti-cancer effects. However, RCMLS is not included in the Korean Food Standards Codex due to the lack of safety assurance concerning RCMLS. We evaluated single and repeated oral dose toxicity of RCMLS in Sprague-Dawley rats. RCMLS did not induce any significant toxicological changes in both male and female rats at a single doses of 2500 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg/day. The LD50 and LOAEL of RCMLS might be over 2500 mg/kg body weight/day and no target organs were identified. Therefore, this study revealed that single and repeated oral doses of RCMLS are safe.
Chen, Xuexiang; Wu, Xian; Ouyang, Wen; Gu, Min; Gao, Zili; Song, Mingyue; Chen, Yunjiao; Lin, Yanyin; Cao, Yong; Xiao, Hang
The tender leaves of Rubus corchorifolius L. f. have been consumed as tea for drinking in China since ancient times. In this study, a novel ent-kaurane diterpenoid was isolated and identified from R. corchorifolius L. f. leaves as ent-kaur-2-one-16β,17-dihydroxy-acetone-ketal (DEK). DEK suppressed the growth of HCT116 human colon cancer cells with an IC50 value of 40 ± 0.21 μM, while it did not cause significant growth inhibition on CCD-18Co human colonic myofibroblasts at up to100 μM. Moreover, DEK induced extensive apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest in the colon cancer cells. Accordingly, DEK caused profound effects on multiple signaling proteins associated with cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. DEK significantly upregulated the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved PARP, p53, Bax, and tumor suppressor p21(Cip1/Waf1), downregulated the levels of cell cycle regulating proteins such as cyclinD1, CDK2, and CDK4 and carcinogenic proteins such as EGFR and COX-2, and suppressed the activation of Akt. Overall, our results provide a basis for using DEK as a potential chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis.
Amsellem, L; Noyer, J L; Le Bourgeois, T; Hossaert-McKey, M
Theory predicts that colonization of new areas will be associated with population bottlenecks that reduce within-population genetic diversity and increase genetic differentiation among populations. This should be especially true for weedy plant species, which are often characterized by self-compatible breeding systems and vegetative propagation. To test this prediction, and to evaluate alternative scenarios for the history of introduction, the genetic diversity of Rubus alceifolius was studied with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in its native range in southeast Asia and in several areas where this plant has been introduced and is now a serious weed (Indian Ocean islands, Australia). In its native range, R. alceifolius showed great genetic variability within populations and among geographically close populations (populations sampled ranging from northern Vietnam to Java). In Madagascar, genetic variability was somewhat lower than in its native range, but still considerable. Each population sampled in the other Indian Ocean islands (Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius) was characterized by a single different genotype of R. alceifolius for the markers studied, and closely related to individuals from Madagascar. Queensland populations also included only a single genotype, identical to that found in Mauritius. These results suggest that R. alceifolius was first introduced into Madagascar, perhaps on multiple occasions, and that Madagascan individuals were the immediate source of plants that colonized other areas of introduction. Successive nested founder events appear to have resulted in cumulative reduction in genetic diversity. Possible explanations for the monoclonality of R. alceifolius in many areas of introduction are discussed.
Estupiñan, D.C.; Schwartz, S.J.; Garzón, G.A.
The stability of anthocyanin (ACN) freeze-dried powders from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) as affected by storage, addition of maltodextrin as a carrier agent, and illumination was evaluated in isotonic model beverages. The ethanolic ACN extract was freeze dried with and without maltodextrin DE 20. Isotonic model beverages were colored with freeze-dried ACN powder (FDA), freeze-dried ACN powder with maltodextrin (MFDA), and red nr 40. Beverages were stored in the dark and under the effect of illumination. Half life of the ACNs, changes in color, total phenolics content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were analyzed for 71 d. Addition of maltodextrin and absence of light stabilized the color of beverages and improved ACN and TPC stability during storage. The antioxidant activity of the beverages was higher when they were colored with MFDA and highly correlated with ACN content. There was no correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC. It is concluded that addition of maltodextrin DE 20 as a carrier agent during freeze-drying improves the color and stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in Andes berry extract. This suggests a protective enclosing of ACNs within a maltodextrin matrix with a resulting powder that could serve as a supplement or additive to naturally color and to enhance the antioxidant capacity of isotonic beverages. PMID:21535712
Ono, Masateru; Yasuda, Shin; Komatsu, Haruki; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takeya, Motohiro; Nohara, Toshihiro
From the methanol extract of the fruits of the blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis Port.), four triterpenoids - pomolic acid (1), tormentic acid (2), euscaphic acid (3) and 1β-hydroxyeuscaphic acid (4) - were isolated, while six triterpenoids - 2, 3, myrianthic acid (5), ziyu glycoside II (6), sericic acid (7) and 19-hydroxy-2,3-secours-12-ene-2,3,28-trioic acid 3-methyl ester (8) - were obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of this plant. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data. Compounds 1-8 were examined for their inhibitory activities on foam cell formation in human monocyte-derived macrophages induced by acetylated low-density lipoproteins at a 50 μM concentration. Among the tested compounds, 1 showed the strongest activity, with the inhibitory effect being 90%. The inhibitory activities of 2-8 were evaluated to be 30%, 32%, 33%, 4%, 48%, 4% and 24%, respectively. Further, the structure-activity relationship of these compounds was investigated.
Nujkić, M M; Dimitrijević, M D; Alagić, S Č; Tošić, S B; Petrović, J V
The concentrations of the trace elements (TEs), Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Ni, were determined in parts of Rubus fruticosus L. and in topsoil, collected from eight different locations around the copper smelter in Bor, Serbia. Extremely high concentrations of Cu were determined in the soil and in R. fruticosus L., and for arsenic at some locations. The enrichment factors for TEs in soil showed enrichment with Cu, Zn, Pb, and As among which extremely high values were determined for Cu (EFsoil = 8.5-126.1) and As (EFsoil = 6.6-44.4). The enrichment factors for the parts of R. fruticosus L. showed enrichment with all TEs, except for nickel. The most extreme enrichment was found to occur in roots and stems for Cu (EFplant = 56.2 and 51.1) and leaves for Pb (EFplant = 45.68). The mean values of the three ratios of concentrations between plant parts for all TEs indicated pollution via the atmosphere while leaves appeared to be the best indicators for this kind of pollution. Numerous and very strong Pearson's correlations between TEs in the R. fruticosus L. parts confirmed these results. Principal Component Analysis showed that the major pollution source is the copper smelter that contaminates vegetation through soil and air.
Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean
The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3′H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant. PMID:24505466
Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean
The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.
Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Eu-Jin; Choi, Hye-Eun; Seo, Ji-Hyung; An, Hyo-Jin; Park, Hee-Juhn; Cho, Young-Wuk; Lee, Kyung-Tae
Rubus coreanus Miquel (Rosaceae), the Korean black raspberry, has traditionally been used to treat inflammatory diseases including diarrhea, asthma, stomach ailment, and cancer. Although previous studies showed that the 19α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoids isolated from Rubus coreanus exerted anti-inflammatory activities, their effects on ulcerative colitis and mode of action have not been explored. This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms involving19α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoid-rich fraction from Rubus coreanus (TFRC) on a mice model of colitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Experimental colitis was induced by DSS for 7 days in ICR mice. Disease activity indices (DAI) took into account body weight, stool consistency, and gross bleeding. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation were observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Pro-inflammatory markers were determined using immunoassays, RT-PCR, and real time PCR. Signaling pathway involving nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was determined by luciferase assay and Western blotting. In DSS-induced colitis mice, TFRC improved DAIs and pathological characteristics including colon shortening and colonic epithelium injury. TFRC suppressed tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced macrophage infiltration into colonic tissues. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, TFRC inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines by down-regulating the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling. The study demonstrates that TFRC has potent anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colonic injury and LPS-induced macrophage activation, and supports its possible therapeutic and preventive roles in colitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
As rivers age they can meander and occasionally these meanders get so pronounced that the river cuts off these curving loops at their narrow end leaving them as isolated as oxbow lakes. Image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun
Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is known for improving vascular function. However, there has been no study evaluating its effects on 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to examine those effects. Patients with prehypertension (N = 45) were prospectively randomized into a moderate-dose black raspberry group (n = 15, 1500 mg/d), a high-dose black raspberry group (n = 15, 2500 mg/d), or a placebo group (n = 15) during an 8-wk follow-up period. Raspberries were consumed in the form of a dried powder extract that was fashioned into capsules. The capsules contained 187.5 and 312.5 mg of raspberry powder, which was equivalent to 1500 and 2500 mg raspberries. Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure (BP); central BP; pulse-wave velocity; abdominal visceral fat; serum renin; angiotensin-converting enzyme; and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured at baseline and at 8-wk follow-up. High-dose black raspberry significantly reduced 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP; 3.3 ± 10 mm Hg versus -6.7 ± 11.8 mm Hg; P < 0.05) and nighttime SBP (5.4 ± 10.6 mm Hg versus -4.5 ± 11.3 mm Hg; P < 0.05) compared with controls during the 8-wk follow-up. Black raspberry powder did not produce any significant changes in most of the parameters other than BP. The use of black raspberry significantly lowered 24-h BP in prehypertensive patients during the 8-wk follow-up. Black raspberry used as a dietary supplement could be beneficial in reducing SBP in prehypertensive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Min Kyoung; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Cho, Sung-Gook; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu
Cancer cells can acquire an anticancer, drug-resistant phenotype following chemotherapy, which is tightly linked to cancer malignancy and patient survival rates. Therefore, the identification of options to treat chemotherapy‑resistant cancer cells is an urgent requirement. Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) has long been used as a source of food. In addition, it has been reported that RCM has effective functions against particular diseases, including cancer and inflammation. In the present study, it was demonstrated that RCM extract caused the apoptotic cell death of doxorubicin‑resistant NCI/ADR‑RES ovarian cancer cells by phosphorylating c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK). The RCM‑mediated reduction of cell viability showed no synergism with doxorubicin. In addition, ellagic acid and quercetin, which are phytochemicals found in RCM, also caused apoptosis of the NCI/ADR‑RES cells. In subsequent investigations of the RCM‑altered signaling pathway, RCM extract, ellagic acid and quercetin were found to commonly induce the phosphorylation of JNK and AKT. Additionally, the inhibition of JNK with SP600125 repressed the apoptotic cell death induced by RCM extract, ellagic acid and quercetin, and the inhibition of JNK appeared to switch apoptosis to necrosis. JNK inhibition also reduced the phosphorylation of AKT, which was induced by RCM extract, ellagic acid and quercetin, suggesting that the phosphorylation of JNK is required for AKT phosphorylation in RCM‑, ellagic acid‑ or quercetin‑induced apoptotic cell death. Therefore, the data obtained in the present study led to the conclusion that RCM caused apoptosis of doxorubicin‑resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cells via JNK phosphorylation, and suggested that RCM may be effective in the treatment of chemotherapy‑resistant cancer cells.
Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Bonikowski, Radosław; Krajewska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Magdalena; Kula, Józef
Large quantities of blackberry seeds are produced as a pomace during the processing of juice and jam production; this by-product is a very interesting raw material both for oil manufacturing and as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work the composition, yield and antioxidant activity of three types of Rubus fructicosus pomace extracts isolated by liquid extraction using solvents of different polarity, as well with supercritical CO2 fluid extraction have been compared. The highest extract yield was reported for Soxhlet extraction using ethanol as a solvent (14.2%). Supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extracts were characterised by the highest content of phytosterols (1445 and 1583 mg 100 g(-1) of extract, respectively) among which β-sitosterol was the main one, while the concentration of tocopherols, with predominant γ-isomer, was the highest for both hexane and ethanol extracts, being 2364 and 2334 mg 100 g(-1) , respectively. Using a GC-MS method 95 volatiles, in which non-saturated aldehydes were predominant, were identified in the essential oil of seed pomace and in the volatile oil isolated from supercritical extract. The ethanolic extract which is characterised by the highest phenolic content (9443 mg GAE 100 g(-1) ) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (according to the ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) assays). All pomace extracts examined were of high quality, rich in essential omega fatty acids and with a very high content of bioactive compounds, such as phytosterols and tocopherols. The high nutritional value of extracts from berry seed pomace could justify the commercialisation of specific extracts not only as food additives but also as cosmetic components. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Padilla, Flavio; Soria, Norman; Oleas, Abrahan; Rueda, Darwin; Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Kundapur, Rajesh R; Maddela, Naga Raju; Rajeswari, Bugude
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length. To study pollen morphology, pollens were extracted by hand pressure and was analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. The viable pollen grains were identified by staining with 1% acetocarmine. Even though Tree tomato and Blackberry pollen grains are morphologically similar, their exine shapes differ. We observed four times increase in pollen germination rate when suspended in nutrient solution (Sucrose with Boric acid) than control (water). Pollen grains under nutrient solution were subjected to different groups of pesticides for the period of 2, 4, and 6 h. With respect to pesticide affect, the Blackberry pollen grain germination followed the following order: Lecaniceb > Beauveb > Metazeb => Myceb > Control. However, the effect on Tree tomato pollen grains was as follows: Lecaniceb > Myceb > Cantus > Bacillus thuringiensis > Kripton > Control. As per as pollen grain germination is concerned, we observed that the chemical pesticides are more harmful than other pesticides. So, it is necessary to perform screening test for different pesticides and their effect on pollen grain germination before applying to the fields.
Mizuno, Kouichi; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko
β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry. In the present study, two wild raspberry species were studied-R. palmatus, which accumulates β-Cry in the fruit, and R. crataegifolius, which does not accumulate β-Cry. Four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes derived from these two species were analyzed-phytoene synthase (PSY), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb), β-carotene hydroxylase (HYb), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). Expression levels of their genes were also assessed to elucidate mechanism underlying β-Cry accumulation. Partial gene sequences of RubPSY, RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP, isolated from immature raspberry fruits of R. palmatus, were used as probes for Northern blot analysis. RubZEP expression ceased as the fruits matured, possibly because of reduced production of zeaxanthin. β-Cry is considered to be an intermediate compound that accumulates in the mature fruits of R. palmatus. High expression of RubPSY was detectable in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius, and the expression of RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP was detectable during all stages of fruit maturation. In contrast, β-Cry was absent in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius.
Yonekura, Syuji; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Yamasaki, Kazuki; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Matsune, Shoji; Kurono, Yuichi; Yamada, Takechiyo; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Okubo, Kimihiro
Self-care with ten-cha is the most common complementary alternative medicine for allergic rhinitis in Japan, but evidence for an actual therapeutic effect is lacking. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of ten-cha (Rubus suavissimus) on house dust mite allergic rhinitis. The study was performed in the otolaryngology departments of 5 facilities (Chiba University, Kagoshima University, Fukui University, Okayama University, and Nippon Medical School) from July to December 2009. A randomized double-blind study was performed with central enrollment and allocation. The subjects ingested 400mg of ten-cha extract or placebo (3 capsules/day) daily for 4 weeks as a food intervention. The number of subjects was chosen with anticipation of an effect equivalent to that of mast cell-stabilizing drugs. A nasal allergy diary-based symptom score and a QOL score were used for evaluation. The ten-cha and placebo groups included 47 and 42 subjects, respectively. The improvement rates for sneeze, nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, and symptom scores were greater in the ten-cha group than in the placebo group throughout the intervention period, and the effect tended to increase with time in the ten-cha group. However, the differences between the groups were not significant. QOL was not significantly improved in either group. Ingestion of ten-cha had an effect on allergic rhinitis, but the effect of Ten-Cha was limited and did not differ significantly from placebo. These results suggest that ten-cha does not exhibit an effect equivalent to mast cell-stabilizing drugs at the dose used in this study. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Dong-Lim; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon
Rubus occidentalis (RO) has beneficial effects on glucose and lipid profiles in vitro. The aim of the study was to investigate RO extract effect on metabolic parameters in prediabetic patients, adopting a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-four patients (age 59.0 ± 8.2 years, 70.5% females, HbA1c 5.8 ± 0.4%) were divided into placebo (n = 13), low-dose RO extract (LRE; n = 14), or high-dose RO extract (HRE; n = 17) groups. Either 900 or 1800 mg per day of RO extract was administered orally. Area under the curve for glucose obtained 2 h after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was significantly decreased in the HRE group, compared with the placebo group (-28.1 ± 42.4 vs. +13.4 ± 52.6 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Homoeostasis model assessment-B was increased (+17.11 ± 10.69, +5.24 ± 4.10, and +0.86 ± 6.01 in HRE, LRE, and placebo, respectively, p < 0.05). Serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased by treatment in a dose-dependent manner (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1: -35.0 ± 21.2, +8.4 ± 18.1, and +24.2 ± 14.5; oxidized low-density lipoprotein: -19.7 ± 8.5, -13.1 ± 7.2, and -2.2 ± 11.0 in the HRE, LRE, and placebo, respectively, p < 0.05). The results support the beneficial effects of RO extract on the control of glycemia and vascular inflammation in prediabetic patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01964703). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Meilleur, Alain; Véronneau, Hélène; Bouchard, André
The purpose of our research was to identify shrub species growing in southern Quebec that inhibit ecological succession in power-line corridors. Results are presented in three parts. First, clonal characteristics that allowed the establishment of stable communities were identified. Second, successional vector analysis identified those species that have the potential to inhibit succession. In poorly drained sites those species were Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, and Spiraea alba. In well-drained sites, those species were Zanthoxylum americanum, Rubus idaeus, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, and Thuja occidentalis. Third, analysis of variance showed that there is a significantly larger number of tree seedlings found in adjacent herbaceous communities than found under the dense cover of Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, Rubus idaeus, Thuya occidentalis, and Zanthoxylum americanum. These results indicate that the planting of selected shrub species could, through biological control, delay reforestation.
Holst, Lone; Haavik, Svein; Nordeng, Hedvig
This review evaluates the safety and efficacy of raspberry leaf (Rubus idaeus) in pregnancy. The electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, AMED, EMBASE, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and Cochrane Library were searched. Altogether 12 original publications with focus on safety or efficacy during pregnancy, pharmacology and in vitro tests explaining mode of action or constituents in Rubus idaeus were reviewed. Limited documentation exists and part of it is 50 years old or older. Only the latest animal study indicates an increased risk for the unborn child; however, all the studies are small and cannot rule out negative effects on pregnancy outcome. The efficacy of raspberry leaf is not convincingly documented. The use of raspberry leaf in pregnancy is a traditional herbal therapy and is recommended by some midwives. Due to the lack of evidence for safety and efficacy such recommendations are questionable. Suggestions for future work are given.
Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi
Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. PMID:27429636
Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele L; Carlen, Christoph; Ançay, André; Cerutti, Alessandro K; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bounous, Giancarlo
The raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., provides several plant parts (as buds) used for food supplements. The aim of this research was to establish a technique for chemical composition control of R. idaeus herbal preparations, using chromatographic methods. These methods allowed us to identify and quantify the main phytochemicals, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint (phytocomplex). Combined with two different chemometric methods - clustering analysis and principal component analysis - the raspberry bud extracts of the different cultivars were efficiently characterized. Rubus idaeus buds were identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: organic acids, vitamins and catechins were found to be the most discriminating variables by chemometric techniques to differentiate raspberry cultivars. In particular, catechins (13.25%) and flavonols (8.71%) were the most important polyphenolic classes, followed by cinnamic and benzoic acids. This study developed a useful tool for R. idaeus extract phytochemical characterization that could be applied also for differentiation and composition control of other herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), which is spread at a rate of about 6 ft a year in the row by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum) and possibly related species. It is common in red raspberry in the northern Willamette valley in Oregon and in Clark County in southern Washington. Many weeds also are ...
Hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice and High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method for analysis of the constituents of extract of Rubus crataegifolius.
Sun, Yongjiao; Jia, Lingyun; Huang, Zhanbo; Wang, Jing; Lu, Jincai; Li, Jing
This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Rubus Crataegifolius against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. 70% ethanolic, ethyl acetate and n-BuOH extract of R. crataegifolius were administered daily for 14 days in experimental animals before they were treated with CCl4. The hepatoprotective activity of the extracts in this study was compared with the reference drug silymarin. A high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometric (HPLC-EIS-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of the constituents of the extracts. According to the data of HPLC-EIS-MS/MS, the chemical structures of the largely 14 constituents of R. crataegifolius were identified online without time-consuming isolation. Ethyl acetate extracts of R. crataegifolius showed strong antioxidant activities and significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4. According to the data of HPLC-EIS-MS/MS, Oleanic acid, Phlorizin dehydrate and Quercetin-3-rhamnoside are considered as the main hepatoprotective factor in ethyl acetate extract.
de Souza, Priscila; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cechinel-Zanchett, Camile Cecconi; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Petreanu, Marcel; Niero, Rivaldo; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; da Silva, Luisa Mota; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni
Although diuretics have been widely used to treat hypertension along with others cardiovascular and renal disorders, no scientific data have been recorded to support the diuretic properties of Rubus rosaefolius Sm. (Rosaceae), a plant popularly used in Brazil to treat hypertension. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with: vehicle; hydrochlorothiazide; aqueous (AERR) and methanolic (MERR) extracts; dichloromethane (DCM), hexane (HEX) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions; and the isolated compounds 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (TUA) and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF). At the end of the experiment (after 8 or 24 h), urine volume and other urine or plasma parameters were measured. AERR and MERR, at 100 and 30 mg/kg, respectively, induced diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic effect. Additionally, the DCM and HEX, but not EA, at 10 mg/kg, also increased urine volume and Na(+) and K(+) excretion. Both active constituents, TUA and PMF, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, showed an augmented diuretic and natriuretic index. While TUA revealed a kaliuretic action, PMF did not interfere with potassium excretion. The compounds increased urinary creatinine, but not urea, levels. TUA was able to decrease calcium excretion, as well as HCTZ, while PMF effect was associated with increased urinary prostaglandin E2 levels. The non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) prevented TUA-induced diuresis. In addition, indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and atropine, exhibited the ability to block the diuretic effects prompted by PMF. Our study demonstrates the diuretic effect of extracts, fractions and two natural compounds obtained from R. rosaefolius leaves in rats.
Sanguiin H-6, a constituent of Rubus parvifolius L., inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro and prevents tumor necrosis factor-α-induced osteoclast formation in vivo.
Sakai, Eiko; Aoki, Yuri; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Iwatake, Mayumi; Fukuma, Yutaka; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Takashi; Tsukuba, Takayuki
Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that differentiate in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Enhanced osteoclastogenesis contributes to bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rubus parvifolius L. is traditionally used as an herbal medicine for rheumatism; however, its detailed chemical composition and the molecular mechanisms responsible for its biological action have not been elucidated. To investigate the mechanisms by which R. parvifolius L. extract and its major constituent sanguiin H-6, inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and bone resorption were detected in vitro. Inhibition of signaling pathways, marker protein expression, and protein nuclear translocation were evaluated by western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-mediated osteoclastogenesis was examined in vivo. R. parvifolius L. extract inhibited the bone-resorption activity of osteoclasts. In addition, sanguiin H-6 markedly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, reduced reactive oxygen species production, and inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Sanguiin H-6 also decreased the protein levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K, and c-Src. Moreover, sanguiin H-6 inhibited the nuclear translocation of NFATc1, c-Fos, and NF-κB in vitro, as well as TNF-α-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vivo. Our data revealed that R. parvifolius L. has anti-bone resorption activity and suggest that its constituent, sanguiin H-6, can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive osteoclast formation and subsequent bone destruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Seeram, Navindra P
An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of
de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Pereira, Patrícia Aparecida Pimenta; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pio, Rafael; Queiroz, Fabiana
Generally raspberry products as jams, jellies, and preserves are made with red raspberry, however, yellow raspberry and especially black raspberry are also fruits adapted in Brazil, presenting even better productivity and quality. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the processing potential of other varieties of raspberry, but the red, in the preparation of jellies through mixture design and response surface methodology (RSM). These techniques were used to optimize the following 3 variables: yellow (Golden Bliss cultivar, Rubus idaeus), black (Rubus niveus), and red raspberries (Batum cultivar, Rubus idaeus) to formulate a mixed raspberry fruit jelly through sensory evaluations. It was found that jelly formulated with a mix of colored raspberries grown in subtropical regions is a viable and alternative way to use yellow and black raspberries. The mixed raspberry jelly must have 0% to 30% yellow raspberries, 25% to 50% black raspberries, and 30% to 75% red raspberries. Within this region, the optimum formulation has ideal characteristics that are often not observed in formulations with 100% black or yellow raspberries. The black and yellow raspberries are little explored in fresh consumption and in the development of products such as jams and jellies. From these work, using mixture design and response surface methodology, has been verified that the production of a mixed raspberry jelly seems feasible and is an interesting alternative to use the yellow and black raspberries. The results serve as a guide to the production of jams and jellies from these types of raspberries. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Nesterova, Iu V; Povet'eva, T N; Aksinenko, S G; Suslov, N I; Gaĭdamovich, N N; Nagorniak, Iu G; Popova, E V; Kravtsova, S S; Andreeva, T I
Experimental investigations have shown that water-alcohol extracts from plants containing alkaloids (Aconitum baikalense, Aconitum septentrionale, Delphinium elatum L., Conium maculatum) and salicylic acid (Filipendula ulmaria, Salix viminalis, Fragaria vesca, Rubus idaeus) inhibited the development of main symptoms of inflammation, viz. exudation, pain, fever, to the same extent as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The substances studied in this work may be used to develop new efficient pharmacological preparations for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions associated with severe pain syndrome.
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Khan, Tonya
In 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in British Columbia, Canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. Twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. The plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (Rubus idaeus), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Uterine infections were treated with black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Most of the studies conducted on these plants have not been conducted on companion animals.
Rauha, J P; Remes, S; Heinonen, M; Hopia, A; Kähkönen, M; Kujala, T; Pihlaja, K; Vuorela, H; Vuorela, P
Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.
The US Pacific Northwest is the primary production region of black raspberry, and this high-value specialty crop has been underutilized for several decades. Black raspberries contain high levels of anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds, which has sparked a renewed interest in breeding programs ...
Many viruses have been found in blackberries in the Pacific Northwest. Blackberry calico virus (a carlavirus) is universally present in older commercial 'Thornless Loganberry' fields. Similar calico diseases occur in field-run 'Marion', 'Chehalem', 'Olallie', and 'Waldo' blackberries. Other virus di...
Longhi, Sara; Giongo, Lara; Buti, Matteo; Surbanovski, Nada; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Ward, Judson A; Sargent, Daniel J
The Rosoideae is a subfamily of the Rosaceae that contains a number of species of economic importance, including the soft fruit species strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), red (Rubus idaeus) and black (Rubus occidentalis) raspberries, blackberries (Rubus spp.) and one of the most economically important cut flower genera, the roses (Rosa spp.). Molecular genetics and genomics resources for the Rosoideae have developed rapidly over the past two decades, beginning with the development and application of a number of molecular marker types including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, amplified fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellites, and culminating in the recent publication of the genome sequence of the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, and the development of high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping resources for Fragaria, Rosa and Rubus. These tools have been used to identify genes and other functional elements that control traits of economic importance, to study the evolution of plant genome structure within the subfamily, and are beginning to facilitate genomic-assisted breeding through the development and deployment of markers linked to traits such as aspects of fruit quality, disease resistance and the timing of flowering. In this review, we report on the developments that have been made over the last 20 years in the field of molecular genetics and structural genomics within the Rosoideae, comment on how the knowledge gained will improve the efficiency of cultivar development and discuss how these advances will enhance our understanding of the biological processes determining agronomically important traits in all Rosoideae species.
Longhi, Sara; Giongo, Lara; Buti, Matteo; Surbanovski, Nada; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Ward, Judson A; Sargent, Daniel J
The Rosoideae is a subfamily of the Rosaceae that contains a number of species of economic importance, including the soft fruit species strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), red (Rubus idaeus) and black (Rubus occidentalis) raspberries, blackberries (Rubus spp.) and one of the most economically important cut flower genera, the roses (Rosa spp.). Molecular genetics and genomics resources for the Rosoideae have developed rapidly over the past two decades, beginning with the development and application of a number of molecular marker types including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, amplified fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellites, and culminating in the recent publication of the genome sequence of the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, and the development of high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping resources for Fragaria, Rosa and Rubus. These tools have been used to identify genes and other functional elements that control traits of economic importance, to study the evolution of plant genome structure within the subfamily, and are beginning to facilitate genomic-assisted breeding through the development and deployment of markers linked to traits such as aspects of fruit quality, disease resistance and the timing of flowering. In this review, we report on the developments that have been made over the last 20 years in the field of molecular genetics and structural genomics within the Rosoideae, comment on how the knowledge gained will improve the efficiency of cultivar development and discuss how these advances will enhance our understanding of the biological processes determining agronomically important traits in all Rosoideae species. PMID:26504527
Bennett, Alison E.; Johnson, Scott N.; Gange, Alan C.
Belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. For this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. To redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow growth, high mortality hypothesis. We investigated whether the differing performance of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in controlling the common pest black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus could be linked to differently resistant cultivars of the red raspberry Rubus idaeus. The O. sulcatus larvae recovered from R. idaeus plants showed significantly slower growth and higher mortality on the Glen Rosa cultivar, relative to the more commercially favored Glen Ample cultivar creating a convenient system for testing this hypothesis. Heterorhabditis megidis was found to be less effective at controlling O. sulcatus than Steinernema kraussei, but conformed to the hypothesis. However, S. kraussei maintained high levels of O. sulcatus mortality regardless of how larval growth was influenced by R. idaeus cultivar. We link this to direct effects that S. kraussei had on reducing O. sulcatus larval mass, indicating potential sub-lethal effects of S. kraussei, which the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis does not account for. Possible origins of these sub-lethal effects of EPN infection and how they may impact on a hypothesis designed and tested with aboveground predator and parasitoid systems are discussed. PMID:27571368
Hourston, James E; Bennett, Alison E; Johnson, Scott N; Gange, Alan C
Belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. For this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. To redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow growth, high mortality hypothesis. We investigated whether the differing performance of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in controlling the common pest black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus could be linked to differently resistant cultivars of the red raspberry Rubus idaeus. The O. sulcatus larvae recovered from R. idaeus plants showed significantly slower growth and higher mortality on the Glen Rosa cultivar, relative to the more commercially favored Glen Ample cultivar creating a convenient system for testing this hypothesis. Heterorhabditis megidis was found to be less effective at controlling O. sulcatus than Steinernema kraussei, but conformed to the hypothesis. However, S. kraussei maintained high levels of O. sulcatus mortality regardless of how larval growth was influenced by R. idaeus cultivar. We link this to direct effects that S. kraussei had on reducing O. sulcatus larval mass, indicating potential sub-lethal effects of S. kraussei, which the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis does not account for. Possible origins of these sub-lethal effects of EPN infection and how they may impact on a hypothesis designed and tested with aboveground predator and parasitoid systems are discussed.
Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N
Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a "health promoting food". The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model.
Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M.; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Santos, Cláudia N.
Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a “health promoting food”. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017
Kulmala, L.; Pumpanen, J.; Vesala, T.; Hari, P.
Heather (Calluna vulgaris), rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium), wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are typical species on boreal clear-cut sites. According to our study, they all had clear and species-specific annual cycles of photosynthetic activity (Pmax). The maxima of C. vulgaris and E. angustifolium occurred around June and July, while that of R. idaeus occurred as late as in August. The photosynthetic activity of C. vulgaris followed the temperature history closely when the soil moisture was high. Deciduous D. flexuosa also followed the temperature history, unlike E. angustifolium and R. idaeus. During a short drought, some shoots decreased their Pmax levels but none of the species showed congruent reactions within individuals. In general, we noticed that the comparison of Pmax or respiration of different shoots caused less discrepancy when based on ground area than on leaf mass. Using species composition and continuous temperature and light measurements, we upscaled the species-specific process rates and integrated fixed and respired CO2 of ground vegetation during an entire growing season 2005. The photosynthetic production of ground vegetation was 760 g C m-2 y-1 at the fertile site and 300 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. During the snow-free period (18 April-21 November), C. vulgaris respired 68 g C m-2 y-1 and E. angustifolium 7 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. At the fertile site, E. angustifolium and R. idaeus respired 22 and 12 g C m-2 y-1, respectively.
Kulmala, L.; Pumpanen, J.; Vesala, T.; Hari, P.
Heather (Calluna vulgaris), rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium), wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are typical species at boreal clear-cut sites. In this study, we measured their photosynthesis separately in the growing season of 2005 using a manual chamber. All measured species showed clear and species-specific seasonal cycles of photosynthetic activity (Pmax). The maxima of C. vulgaris and E. angustifolium occurred around June and July, while that of R. idaeus occurred as late as August. A simple model of photosynthetic activity is presented, addressing the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was mainly explained by temperature history when the soil moisture is high. The activity of deciduous D. flexuosa also followed the temperature history, unlike the activities of E. angustifolium and R. idaeus. During a short drought, some shoots decreased their Pmax levels but none of the species showed similar reactions between individuals. We also observed that the comparison of the whole-plant Pmax or respiration of different-sized individuals were less scattered than the results based on full-grown leaf mass, implying that species-specific rates of photosynthesis at ground level are rather similar regardless of the plant size. Using species composition and continuous temperature and light measurements, we upscaled the species-specific process rates and integrated fixed and respired CO2 of ground vegetation for the entire 2005 growing season. The photosynthetic production per surface area of soil was 760 g C m-2 y-1 at the fertile site and 300 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. During the snow-free period (18 April-21 November), the above ground parts of measured species released 75 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. At the fertile site, E. angustifolium and R. idaeus respired 22 and 12 g C m-2 y-1, respectively.
Kassim, Angzzas; Poette, Julie; Paterson, Alistair; Zait, Dzeti; McCallum, Susan; Woodhead, Mary; Smith, Kay; Hackett, Christine; Graham, Julie
Consumption of raspberries promotes human health through intake of pharmaceutically active antioxidants, including cyanidin and pelargonidin anthocyanins; products of flavonoid metabolism and also pigments conferring colour to fruit. Raspberry anthocyanin contents could be enhanced for nutritional health and quality benefits utilising DNA polymorphisms in modern marker assisted breeding. The objective was to elucidate factors determining anthocyanin production in these fruits. HPLC quantified eight anthocyanin cyanidin and pelargonidin glycosides: -3-sophoroside, -3-glucoside, -3-rutinoside and -3-glucosylrutinoside across two seasons and two environments in progeny from a cross between two Rubus subspecies, Rubus idaeus (cv. Glen Moy)xRubus strigosus (cv. Latham). Significant seasonal variation was detected across pigments less for different growing environments within seasons. Eight antioxidants mapped to the same chromosome region on linkage group (LG) 1, across both years and from fruits grown in field and under protected cultivation. Seven antioxidants also mapped to a region on LG 4 across years and for both growing sites. A chalcone synthase (PKS 1) gene sequence mapped to LG 7 but did not underlie the anthocyanin quantitative traits loci (QTL) identified. Other candidate genes including basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH), NAM/CUC2-like protein and bZIP transcription factor underlying the mapped anthocyanins were identified.
McKenzie, Scott W; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Johnson, Scott N
Interspecific interactions between insect herbivores predominantly involve asymmetric competition. By contrast, facilitation, whereby herbivory by one insect benefits another via induced plant susceptibility, is uncommon. Positive reciprocal interactions between insect herbivores are even rarer. Here, we reveal a novel case of reciprocal feeding facilitation between above-ground aphids (Amphorophora idaei) and root-feeding vine weevil larvae (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), attacking red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Using two raspberry cultivars with varying resistance to these herbivores, we further demonstrate that feeding facilitation occurred regardless of host plant resistance. This positive reciprocal interaction operates via an, as yet, unreported mechanism. Specifically, the aphid induces compensatory growth, possibly as a prelude to greater resistance/tolerance, whereas the root herbivore causes the plant to abandon this strategy. Both herbivores may ultimately benefit from this facilitative interaction.
Blanpied, G D
High ethylene levels were associated with flower abscission in apple (Malus sylvestris) and cherry (Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus), "June drop" of immature cherries, and harvest drop of apple and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). However, an increase in ethylene content was not associated with June drop of apples and harvest drop of cherries. During the period of fruit ripening on the plant, the largest increases in ethylene occurred in apple flesh and red raspberry receptacular tissue. Ethylene remained low throughout the period of sweet and tart cherry ripening. The data obtained indicated marked ethylene gradients between adjacent tissues. Increases of ethylene in some tissues may have resulted from ethylene diffusion from adjacent tissues containing high levels of ethylene.
Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia
Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. Two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and enantiomeric distributions of the volatile compounds investigated up to now in raspberry fruit. Studies on the development and evolution of volatile compounds during fruit formation, ripening and senescence, and genetic and environmental influences are also reviewed. Recent investigations showing the potential role of raspberry volatile compounds in cultivar differentiation and fruit resistance to mold disease are reported as well. Finally a summary of research done so far and our vision for future research lines are reported.
Hukkanen, Anne; Kokko, Harri; Buchala, Antony; Häyrinen, Jukka; Kärenlampi, Sirpa
Benzothiadiazole (BTH) induces resistance to the downy mildew pathogen, Peronospora sparsa, in arctic bramble, but the basis for the BTH-induced resistance is unknown. Arctic bramble cv. Mespi was treated with BTH to study the changes in leaf proteome and to identify proteins with a putative role in disease resistance. First, BTH induced strong expression of one PR-1 protein isoform, which was also induced by salicylic acid (SA). The PR-1 was responsive to BTH and exogenous SA despite a high endogenous SA content (20-25 microg/g fresh weight), which increased to an even higher level after treatment with BTH. Secondly, a total of 792 protein spots were detected in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, eight proteins being detected solely in the BTH-treated plants. BTH caused up- or down-regulation of 72 and 31 proteins, respectively, of which 18 were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry. The up-regulation of flavanone-3-hydroxylase, alanine aminotransferase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, PR-1 and PR-10 proteins may partly explain the BTH-induced resistance against P. sparsa. Other proteins with changes in intensity appear to be involved in, for example, energy metabolism and protein processing. The decline in ATP synthase, triosephosphate isomerase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase and glutamine synthetase suggests that BTH causes significant changes in primary metabolism, which provides one possible explanation for the decreased vegetative growth of foliage and rhizome observed in BTH-treated plants.
Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Juvonen, Riikka; Kössö, Tuija; Truchado, Pilar; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita; Leppänen, Tiina; Moilanen, Eeva; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja
Phenolic composition and bioactivity of cloudberry was modified by bioprocessing, and highly bioactive fractions were produced by dry fractionation of the press cake. During fermentation polymeric ellagitannins were partly degraded into ellagic acid derivatives. Phenolic compounds were differentially distributed in seed coarse and fine fractions after dry fractionation process. Tannins concentrated in fine fraction, and flavonol derivatives were mainly found in coarse fraction. Ellagic acid derivatives were equally distributed between the dry fractions. Fermentation and dry fractionation increased statistically significantly anti-adhesion and anti-inflammatory activity of cloudberry. The seed fine fraction showed significant inhibition of P fimbria-mediated haemagglutination assay of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The seed coarse fraction significantly reduced NO and IL-6 production and iNOS expression in activated macrophages. Fermentation did not affect antimicrobial activity, but slight increase in activity was detected in dry fractions. The results indicate the potential of cloudberry in pharma or health food applications.
Oliveira, Dalany Menezes; Kwiatkowski, Angela; Rosa, Cassia Ines Lourenzi Franco; Clemente, Edmar
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the conservation of blackberry, cv. Tupy, stored under refrigeration and coated with different edible coatings. Four treatments were carried out: control T1 (uncoated), T2 (chitosan 1.5 %), T3 (cassava starch 2.5 %) and T4 (kefir grains in water 20 %), stored at temperatures of 0 and 10 °C; 1.0 % (m/v) sorbitol/glycerol was added as plasticizers. Chemical and physical-chemical evaluations (weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and anthocyanins) were made, besides rot incidence. The results showed that cooling to 0 °C combined with T2 showed an effect in reducing the physiological loss of weight (4.41 %), in retaining fruit firmness (19.1 N) and presenting lower incidence of rot (6.19 %). Likewise, in physical and chemical parameters: SS did not alter significantly during the whole period of 18 days of storage.
Man in 't Veld, Willem A
Isozyme analysis and cytochrome oxidase sequences were used to examine whether differentiation of P. fragariae var. fragariae and P. fragariae var. rubi at the variety level is justified. In isozyme studies six strains of both P. fragariae varieties were analyzed with malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), aconitase (ACO), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), comprising altogether seven putative loci. Five unique alleles (Mdh-1(A), Mdh-2(B), Gpi(A), Aco(B) and Idh-1(B)) were found in strains of P. fragariae var. fragariae, whereas five unique alleles (Mdh-1(B), Mdh-2(A), Gpi(B), Aco(A) and Idh-1(A)) were present in strains of P. fragariae var. rubi. It was inferred from these data that there is no gene flow between the two P. fragariae varieties. Cytochrome oxidase I (Cox I) sequences showed consistent differences at 15 positions between strains of Fragaria and Rubus respectively. Based on isozyme data, cytochrome oxidase I sequences, and previously published differences in restyriction enzyme patterns of mitochondrial DNA, sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, AFLP patterns and pathogenicity, it was concluded that both specific pathogenic varieties of P. fragariae are reproductively isolated and constitute a distinct species. Consequently strains isolated from Rubus idaeus are assigned to Phytophthora rubi comb. nov.
Lightle, D M; Dossett, M; Backus, E A; Lee, J C
The aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important virus vector in red (Rubus idaeus L.) and black (Rubus occidentalis L.) raspberries in North America. Raspberry resistance to A. agathonica in the form of a single dominant gene named Ag1 has been relied upon to help control aphid-transmitted plant viruses; however, the mechanism of resistance to the insect is poorly understood. Aphid feeding was monitored using an electrical penetration graph on the resistant red raspberry 'Tulameen' and compared with a susceptible control, 'Vintage'. There were no differences in pathway feeding behaviors of aphids as they moved toward the phloem. Once in the phloem, however, aphids feeding on resistant plants spent significantly more time salivating than on susceptible plants, and ingested significantly less phloem sap. This suggests that a mechanism for resistance to A. agathonica is located in the phloem. Reduced ingestion of phloem may result in inefficient acquisition of viruses and is a likely explanation for the lack of aphid-transmitted viruses in plantings of resistant cultivars.
This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad. PMID:23941692
Zayova, Ely G; Stancheva, Ira V; Geneva, Maria P; Petrova, Maria I; Dimitrova, Ludmila I
Tayberry is a hybrid between Rubus fruticosus L. and Rubus idaeus L. These fruits contain valuable vitamins and antioxidants. An effective protocol for micropropagation of tayberry plants is here described. Different concentrations of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, zeatin, and 6-(γ,γ-dimethylallylamino)purine) were added in Murashige and Skoog, 1962 (MS) medium to micropropagation using stem tip and nodal explants. The highest propagation rate was recorded on MS medium containing 2 mg L(-1) zeatin, where the shoot formation resulted in 3.4 shoots per stem tip explant after 4 weeks of culture. It was found that half-strength MS medium with 0.1 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid was the best for plant rooting. For ex vitro acclimatization of plants, the mixture of peat, soil, and perlite (1:1:1 v/v/v) was the most suitable planting substrate for hardening. The micropropagation protocol described in this study might be useful for the production of healthy plant materials. Tayberry fruits from in vitro propagated plants and adapted to the field conditions possessed higher antioxidant capacity in comparison to traditionally cultivated plants. Fruit extracts of micropropagated tayberry plants and adapted to field conditions can be used as a rich source of natural antioxidants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet
This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.
Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Ongaro, Luca; Rivera, Diego; Obón de Castro, Concepción; Bruschi, Piero
Traditional alcoholic beverages (TABs) have only received marginal attention from researchers and ethnobotanists so far, especially in Italy. This work is focused on plant-based TABs in the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountainous area on the border between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions. The aims of our study were to document local knowledge about TABs and to analyze and discuss the distribution of related knowledge within the investigated communities. Field data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The relative importance of each plant species used to prepare TABs was assessed by calculating a general Use Value Index (UV general), a current UV (UV current) and a past UV (UV past). We also assessed personal experience of use by calculating effective and potential UV (UV effective, UV potential). A multivariate analysis was performed to compare ingredients in recipes recorded in the Alta Valle del Reno with those reported for neighboring areas. Forty-six plant species, belonging to 20 families, were recorded. Rosaceae was the most significant family (98 citations, 19 species), followed by Rutaceae (15, 3) and Lamiaceae (12, 4). The most important species was Prunus cerasus L. (UV general = 0.44), followed by Juglans regia L. (0.38), Rubus idaeus L. (0.27) and Prunus spinosa L. (0.22). Species with the highest UV current were Juglans regia (0.254), Prunus cerasus (0.238) and Citrus limon L. (0.159). The highest UV effective values were obtained by Prunus cerasus (0.413), Juglans regia (0.254), Rubus idaeus (0.222) and Citrus limon (0.206). We also discuss the results of the multivariate analysis. TABs proved to occupy an important place in the traditional culture and social life of the studied communities. Moreover, data highlight the local specificity and richness of this kind of tradition in the Alta Valle del Reno, compared to other Italian areas. Some plant ingredients used for TABs have potential nutraceutical and even therapeutic properties
Seeram, N P; Momin, R A; Nair, M G; Bourquin, L D
Anthocyanins from tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton and Montmorency; sweet cherries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae); bilberries, Vaccinum myrtillus L. (Ericaceae); blackberries, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae); blueberries var. Jersey, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae); cranberries var. Early Black, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae); elderberries, Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceae); raspberries, Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae); and strawberries var. Honeoye, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (Rosaceae), were investigated for cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The presence and levels of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside 1 and cyanidin-3-rutinoside 2 were determined in the fruits using HPLC. The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was comparable to the commercial antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, and superior to vitamin E, at a test concentration of 125 microg/ml. Anthocyanins from raspberries and sweet cherries demonstrated 45% and 47% cyclooxygenase-I and cyclooxygenase-II inhibitory activities, respectively, when assayed at 125 microg/ml. The cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from these fruits were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 microM concentrations. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberry. The yields of pure anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries, sweet cherries and raspberries were 21, 16.5; 11, 5; 4.95, 21; and 4.65, 13.5 mg, respectively. Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only anthocyanin 2 in yields of 24 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries.
Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Zwierzyńska, Marta; Stefańska, Joanna; Schopohl, Patrick; Melzig, Matthias F; Kiss, Anna K
Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are widely used in traditional medicine as effective, internally used anti-inflammatory agents. Due to the not well-established bioavailability of ellagitannins, the mechanisms of observed therapeutic effects following oral administration still remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate if selected ellagitannin-rich plant materials could be the source of bioavailable gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, together with determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of the metabolites produced on the THP-1 cell line derived macrophages model. The formation of urolithins was determined by ex vivo incubation of human fecal samples with aqueous extracts from selected plant materials. The anti-inflammatory activity study of metabolites was determined on PMA differentiated, IFN-γ and LPS stimulated, human THP-1 cell line-derived macrophages. The formation of urolithin A, B and C by human gut microbiota was established for aqueous extracts from Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. herb (Ph. Eur.), Geranium pratense L. herb, Geranium robertianum L. herb, Geum urbanum L. root and rhizome, Lythrum salicaria L. herb (Ph. Eur.), Potentilla anserina L. herb, Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch rhizome (Ph. Eur.), Quercus robur L. bark (Ph. Eur.), Rubus idaeus L. leaf, Rubus fruticosus L. and pure ellagitannin vescalagin. Significant inhibition of TNF-α production was determined for all urolithins, while for the most potent urolithin A inhibition was observed at nanomolar concentrations (at 0.625 μM 29.2±6.4% of inhibition). Urolithin C was the only compound inhibiting IL-6 production (at 0.625 μM 13.9±2.2% of inhibition). The data obtained clearly indicate that in the case of peroral use of the examined ellagitannin-rich plant materials the bioactivity of gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, has to be taken under consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa
Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Lebas, B S M; Veerakone, S; Liefting, L W; Tang, J; Perez-Egusquiza, Z; von Bargen, S; Ward, L
Some strains of Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) are considered as quarantine pests in New Zealand. CLRV was detected in seven plant host species: Actinidia chinensis, Hydrangea macrophylla, Malus domestica, Plantago major, Ribes rubrum, Rubus idaeus and Rumex sp. collected from New Zealand between 2005 and 2012. Biological, serological and molecular techniques were compared for the detection and differentiation of CLRV isolates. The biological analysis revealed differences in symptomatology and disease severity among the isolates. The five isolates tested by ELISA were serologically related to each other using polyclonal antisera with only one out of four commercially-available antisera successfully detecting all of them. The phylogenetic analysis of sequences obtained from parts of the coat protein, polymerase and 3'-untranslated regions revealed that the New Zealand CLRV isolates clustered into two closely related but distinct phylogenetic groups with some isolates grouping differently depending on the gene studied. The New Zealand CLRV isolates were clearly distinct to overseas isolates found in phylogenetic groups A, D and E. The conventional RT-PCR using primers targeting the CLRV coat protein coding region is recommended for determining sequence differences between strains. These findings will be useful in making regulatory decisions with regard to the testing requirements and the CLRV strains to be regulated in New Zealand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba
This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989.. Site Description - Amiro_et_al_2006, AFM/136:...The 1989 burn site (F89) was northeast of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, with the humancaused fire covering 13,500 ha. Parts of the area had been logged prior to the fire, and slash residues would have been burned in some locations. Parts of the area were aerially seeded with jack pine seeds in the winter of 1990. The present tree canopy was composed of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), jack pine, trembling aspen, and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and prior to the fire, the stand consisted of these same species aswell asblack spruce.Deadsnags of black spruce and jack pinewere still standing, althoughmost had fallen over and formed a leaningmix of dry, dead tree boles. The understory vegetation consisted mostly of black spruce saplings, saplings of the tree overstory species, bearberry, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), rose (Rosa acicularis Lindl.), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), and reed grass (Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt.).
Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H.; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried
Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F.×ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols. PMID:26884604
Dragišić Maksimović, Jelena J; Poledica, Milena M; Radivojević, Dragan D; Milivojević, Jasminka M
The influence of growth regulator prohexadione-Ca (ProCa) concurrently with young canes removal on the modification of photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; polyphenol oxidase, PPO; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities in leaves and fruits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar 'Willamette' was studied. ProCa increased while canes removal decreased chlorophylls and carotenoids content compared to control. POD, CAT, and PPO activities in leaves after removal of young canes were higher compared to control (2-4 times) which was visually confirmed for POD by isoelectrofocusing. Removal of young canes slithly increased, while ProCa significantly enhanced SOD activity in leaves compared to control (475.10 and 218.38 nkat mg(-1) prot, respectively). Pattern of SOD activity in fruit was similar as in leaf with substantial increase compared to control (about 15 times). Combination of implemented measures increased activity of all enzymes in the leaves and fruits. Our study could provide a better knowledge of the ProCa and canes removal influences on the action of enzymes in order to regulate their activities in fruit products.
Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran
The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.
Zasada, Inga A.; Walters, Thomas W.
In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate L® (active ingredient oxamyl) to nonbearing raspberry for the management of Pratylenchus penetrans. This is a new use pattern of this nematicide for raspberry growers; therefore, research was conducted to identify the optimum spring application timing of oxamyl for the suppression of P. penetrans. Three on-farm trials in each of 2012 and 2013 were established in Washington in newly planted raspberry trials on a range of varieties. Oxamyl was applied twice in April (2013 only), May, and June, and these treatments were compared to each other as well as a nontreated control. Population densities of P. penetrans were determined in the fall and spring postoxamyl applications for at least 1.5 years. Plant vigor was also evaluated in the trials. Combined results from 2012 and 2013 trials indicated that application timing in the spring was not critical. Oxamyl application reduced root P. penetrans population densities in all six trials. Reductions in P. penetrans population densities in roots of oxamyl-treated plants, regardless of application timing, ranged from 62% to 99% of densities in nontreated controls. Phytotoxicity to newly planted raspberry was never observed in any of the trials. A nonbearing application of oxamyl is an important addition to current control methods used to manage P. penetrans in raspberry in Washington. PMID:27765991
Zasada, Inga A; Walters, Thomas W
In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate L(®) (active ingredient oxamyl) to nonbearing raspberry for the management of Pratylenchus penetrans. This is a new use pattern of this nematicide for raspberry growers; therefore, research was conducted to identify the optimum spring application timing of oxamyl for the suppression of P. penetrans. Three on-farm trials in each of 2012 and 2013 were established in Washington in newly planted raspberry trials on a range of varieties. Oxamyl was applied twice in April (2013 only), May, and June, and these treatments were compared to each other as well as a nontreated control. Population densities of P. penetrans were determined in the fall and spring postoxamyl applications for at least 1.5 years. Plant vigor was also evaluated in the trials. Combined results from 2012 and 2013 trials indicated that application timing in the spring was not critical. Oxamyl application reduced root P. penetrans population densities in all six trials. Reductions in P. penetrans population densities in roots of oxamyl-treated plants, regardless of application timing, ranged from 62% to 99% of densities in nontreated controls. Phytotoxicity to newly planted raspberry was never observed in any of the trials. A nonbearing application of oxamyl is an important addition to current control methods used to manage P. penetrans in raspberry in Washington.
Kumar, Amrita; Ellis, Brian E.
In raspberry (Rubus idaeus), development of fruit color and flavor are critically dependent on products of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To determine how these metabolic functions are integrated with the fruit ripening program, we are examining the properties and expression of key genes in the pathway. Here, we report that l- phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is encoded in raspberry by a family of two genes (RiPAL1 and RiPAL2). RiPAL1 shares 88% amino acid sequence similarity to RiPAL2, but phylogenetic analysis places RiPAL1 and RiPAL2 in different clusters within the plant PAL gene family. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the two genes were investigated in various vegetative and floral tissues using the reverse transcriptase competitor polymerase chain reaction assay. Although expression of both genes was detected in all tissues examined, RiPAL1 was associated with early fruit ripening events, whereas expression of RiPAL2 correlated more with later stages of flower and fruit development. Determination of the absolute levels of the two transcripts in various tissues showed that RiPAL1 transcripts were 3- to 10-fold more abundant than those of RiPAL2 in leaves, shoots, roots, young fruits, and ripe fruits. The two RiPAL genes therefore appear to be controlled by different regulatory mechanisms. PMID:11553751
Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro
Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes.
Prive, J.P.; Sullivan, J.A.; Proctor, J.T.A. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Allen, O.B. . Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics)
Climatic elements (solar radiation, daylength, water supply, growing degree days (GDD), corn heat units (CHU), soil, and air temperatures) were monitored to determine which elements could account for the variability in yield of primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars. The climatic elements were classed as either having a major or minor influence on the vegetative and reproductive components, based on the frequency of the significance of the multiple regression coefficients. Soil temperature and water supply had a major influence, while daylength, solar radiation, and above ground temperature (i.e., air, GDD, or CHU) had a lesser influence on these components. Soil temperature had the largest influence during April and May, while water supply was equally influential at all times during the season. Air temperature and solar radiation had their largest influence during the period of flower initiation and development (i.e., June and July), while daylength was most influential from June to October. Berry count, weight, and yield had the highest frequency of associations among the climatic elements, indicating the complexity of the association between these yield components and climate. Total number of nodes/cane, length of the fruiting section/cane, and the harvest period showed the fewest number of associations. Not all cultivars responded similarly to changes in their yield components. Autumn Bliss' was less sensitive to climatic variation than either Heritage' or Redwing'. When Redwing' was the anomaly, it was usually related to air or soil temperatures.
Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos
The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Edirisinghe, Indika
Diet is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease. The potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. They possess several essential micronutrients, dietary fibers, and polyphenolic components, especially ellagitannins and anthocyanins, the latter of which give them their distinctive red coloring. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed various mechanisms through which anthocyanins and ellagitannins (via ellagic acid or their urolithin metabolites) and red raspberry extracts (or the entire fruit) could reduce the risk of or reverse metabolically associated pathophysiologies. To our knowledge, few studies in humans are available for evaluation. We review and summarize the available literature that assesses the health-promoting potential of red raspberries and select components in modulating metabolic disease risk, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease-all of which share critical metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory links. The body of research is growing and supports a potential role for red raspberries in reducing the risk of metabolically based chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Hamby, K A; Bolda, M P; Sheehan, M E; Zalom, F G
Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) prefer to oviposit on ripe fruit and have become an important pest of California raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) since their detection in Santa Cruz County, CA, in 2008. Preliminary management guidelines included D. suzukii monitoring recommendations, though there was little available information on seasonal occurrence and potential lures for use in raspberries. To address this issue, we trapped adult D. suzukii weekly for 2 yr (including both spring and fall harvests) in multiple raspberry varieties using apple cider vinegar and a yeast-sugar-water mixture as liquid lures, and measured fruit infestation when commercially ripe fruit were available. D. suzukii pressure as measured by larval infestation and adult trap captures was higher during the fall raspberry harvest season. The yeast lure captured significantly more D. suzukii during the fall harvest than the apple cider vinegar, and while both lures tended to capture more females than males, this varied by month of the year and was more pronounced for the yeast lure. Trap captures from each lure correlated well to one another, and often exhibited significant correlation to larval infestation. However, during all seasons and under both conventional and organic management, worrisome outliers were present (high larval infestation with low trap captures) that call into question the reliability of using the systems presented here as a basis for management decisions at this time.
Johansson, Senia; Göransson, Ulf; Luijendijk, Teus; Backlund, Anders; Claeson, Per; Bohlin, Lars
A multitarget functional bioassay was optimized as a method for detecting substances interacting with the inflammatory process of activated neutrophil granulocytes, mainly to release elastase detected by p-nitroanilide (pNA) formation. Using this bioassay, 100 fractionated extracts of 96 plants were screened, with results presented in a manner that links recorded biological activity to phylogenetic information. The plants were selected to represent a major part of the angiosperms, with emphasis on medicinal plants, Swedish anti-inflammatory plants, and plants known to contain peptides. Of the tested extracts, 41% inhibited pNA formation more than 60%, and 3% stimulated formation. The extract of Digitalis purpurea enhanced pNA formation, and digitoxin, the active compound, was isolated and identified. Plant extracts that exhibited potent nonselective inhibition (>80% inhibition) were evaluated further for direct inhibition of isolated elastase and trypsin enzyme. The inhibitory effect of most tested extracts on the isolated enzyme elastase was similar to that of PAF- and fMLP-induced pNA formation. Compared to trypsin, inhibition of elastase by extracts of Rubus idaeus and Tabernaemontana dichotoma was significantly higher (80% and 99%, respectively). Inhibition of trypsin by the extract of Reseda luteola was high (97%). Orders such as Lamiales and Brassicales were shown to include a comparably high proportion of plants with inhibitory extracts.
Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel
The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clark, K E; Hartley, S E; Brennan, R M; MacKenzie, K; Johnson, S N
The preference-performance hypothesis has principally considered insect herbivores with aboveground lifecycles, although the hypothesis could be equally relevant to insects with life stages occurring both aboveground and belowground. Moreover, most studies have focussed on either laboratory or field experiments, with little attempt to relate the two. In this study, the preference-performance hypothesis was examined in an aboveground-belowground context in the laboratory using the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.)) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and two cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), Glen Rosa and Glen Ample. A two-year field study (2008-2009) was also undertaken to characterise the population dynamics of adult weevils on the two raspberry cultivars. Larval performance (abundance and mass) differed significantly between Glen Rosa and Glen Ample, with Glen Rosa resulting in 26% larger but 56% fewer larvae compared to Glen Ample. Larval abundances were significantly and positively correlated with root nitrogen and magnesium concentrations, but negatively correlated with root iron. However, concentrations of these minerals were not significantly different in the two cultivars. Adult weevils did not preferentially select either of the two cultivars for egg laying (laying 3.08 and 2.80 eggs per day on Glen Ample and Glen Rosa, respectively), suggesting that there was no strong preference-performance relationship between adult vine weevils and their belowground offspring. Field populations of adult vine weevils were significantly higher on Glen Ample than Glen Rosa, which may reflect the higher larval survival on Glen Ample observed in laboratory experiments.
Jean-Gilles, Dinorah; Li, Liya; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Chichester, Clinton O.; Seeram, Navindra P.
The red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit contains bioactive polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins with reported anti-inflammatory properties. Here we sought to investigate the cartilage protecting and anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract (RRE; standardized to total polyphenol, anthocyanin, and ellagitannin contents) using: 1) an in vitro bovine nasal explant cell culture model and, 2) an in vivo adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. RRE contained 20% total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalents), 5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) and 9.25% ellagitannins (as ellagic acid equivalents). In the in vitro studies, bovine nasal explants were stimulated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β to induce the release of proteoglycan and type II collagen. On treatment with RRE (50 μg/mL), there was a decrease in the rate of degradation of both proteoglycan and type II collagen. In the in vivo antigen-induced arthritis rat model, animals were gavaged daily with RRE (at doses of 30 and 120 mg/Kg, respectively) for 30 days after adjuvant injection (750 μg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension in squalene). At the higher dose, animals treated with RRE had a lower incidence and severity of arthritis compared to control animals. Also, histological analyses revealed significant inhibition of inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage damage, and bone resorption by RRE. This study suggests that red raspberry polyphenols may afford cartilage protection and/or modulate the onset and severity of arthritis. PMID:22111586
Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Edirisinghe, Indika
Diet is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease. The potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. They possess several essential micronutrients, dietary fibers, and polyphenolic components, especially ellagitannins and anthocyanins, the latter of which give them their distinctive red coloring. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed various mechanisms through which anthocyanins and ellagitannins (via ellagic acid or their urolithin metabolites) and red raspberry extracts (or the entire fruit) could reduce the risk of or reverse metabolically associated pathophysiologies. To our knowledge, few studies in humans are available for evaluation. We review and summarize the available literature that assesses the health-promoting potential of red raspberries and select components in modulating metabolic disease risk, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease—all of which share critical metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory links. The body of research is growing and supports a potential role for red raspberries in reducing the risk of metabolically based chronic diseases. PMID:26773014
Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried
Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F. × ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols.
Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata
The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.
Viljanen, Kaarina; Kylli, Petri; Kivikari, Riitta; Heinonen, Marina
The antioxidant activity of berry phenolics (at concentrations of 1.4, 4.2, and 8.4 mug of purified extracts/mL of liposome sample) such as anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins from raspberry (Rubus idaeus), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and black currant (Ribes nigrum) was investigated in a lactalbumin-liposome system. The extent of protein oxidation was measured by determining the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and formation of protein carbonyl compounds and that of lipid oxidation by conjugated diene hydroperoxides and hexanal analyses. The antioxidant protection toward lipid oxidation was best provided by lingonberry and bilberry phenolics followed by black currant and raspberry phenolics. Bilberry and raspberry phenolics exhibited the best overall antioxidant activity toward protein oxidation. Proanthocyanidins, especially the dimeric and trimeric forms, in lingonberries were among the most active phenolic constituents toward both lipid and protein oxidation. In bilberries and black currants, anthocyanins contributed the most to the antioxidant effect by inhibiting the formation of both hexanal and protein carbonyls. In raspberries, ellagitannins were responsible for the antioxidant activity. While the antioxidant effect of berry proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins was dose-dependent, ellagitannins appeared to be equally active at all concentrations. In conclusion, berries are rich in monomeric and polymeric phenolic compounds providing protection toward both lipid and protein oxidation.
Łuczaj, Łukasz; Szymański, Wojciech M
Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora) has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack), 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea) and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves). The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary use of wild plants became
Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. Development of microsatellite primers through the identification of appropriate repeate...
Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. However, primer pairs designed from the regions that flank SSRs often generate fragment...
Jeong, M Y; Kim, H L; Park, J; Jung, Y; Youn, D H; Lee, J H; Jin, J S; So, H S; Park, R; Kim, S H; Kim, S J; Hong, S H; Um, J Y
To investigate the anti-obesity effect of Rubi Fructus (RF) extract using brown adipose tissue (BAT) and primary brown preadipocytes in vivo and in vitro. Male C57BL/6 J mice (n=5 per group) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks with or without RF. Brown preadipocytes from the interscapular BAT of mice (age, post-natal days 1-3) were cultured with differentiation media (DM) including isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, T3, indomethacin and insulin with or without RF. In HFD-induced obese C57BL/6 J mice, long-term RF treatment significantly reduced weight gain as well as the weights of the white adipose tissue, liver and spleen. Serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also reduced in the HFD group which received RF treatment. Furthermore, RF induced thermogenic-, adipogenic- and mitochondria-related gene expressions in BAT. In primary brown adipocytes, RF effectively stimulated the expressions of thermogenic- and mitochondria-related genes. In addition, to examine whether LIPIN1, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, is regulated by RF, Lipin1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and RF were pretreated in primary brown adipocytes. Pretreatment with Lipin1 siRNA and RF downregulated the DM-induced expression levels of thermogenic- and mitochondria-related genes. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated AMP-activated protein kinase. Our study shows that RF is capable of stimulating the differentiation of brown adipocytes through the modulation of thermogenic genes. This study demonstrates that RF prevents the development of obesity in mice fed with a HFD and that it is also capable of stimulating the differentiation of brown adipocytes through the modulation of thermogenic genes, which suggests that RF has potential as a therapeutic application for the treatment or prevention of obesity.
Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Hye-Lin; Park, Jinbong; An, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon
Rubi Fructus (RF) is known to exert several pharmacological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antiobesity effect has not been reported yet. This study was focused on the antidifferentiation effect of RF extract on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiating into adipocytes, 10-100 μ g/mL of RF was added. Next, the lipid contents were quantified by Oil Red O staining. RF significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), CCAAT0-enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2), resistin, and adiponectin in ways that were concentration dependent. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Interestingly, pretreatment with AMPK α siRNA and RF downregulated the expression of PPAR γ and C/EBP α protein as well as the adipocyte differentiation. Our study shows that RF is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the modulation of PPAR γ , C/EBP α , and AMPK, suggesting that it has a potential for therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity.
Over the last 75 years, the black raspberry industry in the United States has undergone a slow but steady contraction because of a lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars. Recent research about the health benefits of a diet rich in polyphenolics, and black raspberries in particular, has led to ...
Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Cebulak, Tomasz; Wolanin, Mateusz
Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially sanguiin H-6, ellagitannins, lambertianin C, and casuarinin. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. The highest level of phenolic compounds was measured for R. perrobustus, R. wimmerianus, R. pedemontanus and R. grabowskii. The study showed that wild blackberry leaves can be considered a good source of antioxidant compounds. There is clear potential for the utilization of blackberry leaves as a food additive, medicinal source or herbal tea.
Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Yousef, Gad G; García-Saucedo, Pedro A; López-Medina, José; Paredes-López, Octavio; Lila, Mary Ann
This study was designed to characterize and compare wild, commercial, and noncommercial cultivated blackberry genotypes grown in Michoacan, Mexico. Six genotypes, including WB-3, WB-7, WB-10, and WB-11 (all wild blackberry types), Tupy (a commercial cultivar), and UM-601 (a cultivated breeding line), were selected and profiled for anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins by separating extracts over Amberlite XAD-7 resin and Sephadex LH-20 columns. Subsequent high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analyses revealed that the major anthocyanin for all genotypes was cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. The proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) were present in mono- to hexamer forms. Also, hydrolyzable tannins, ellagitannins, were characterized in the blackberry fruits. The average anthocyanin concentration in Sephadex LH-20 fractions was 49.2 mg/g in the commercial cultivar Tupy, while in the wild genotypes and the breeding line, the range was 361.3-494.9 mg/g (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalent). The proanthocyanidin concentration varied widely among wild genotypes (417.5-1343.6 mg/g, catechin equivalent). This study demonstrated that the use of Amberlite XAD-7 followed by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, with subsequent HPLC and LC-ESI-MS analyses, was able to effectively separate and characterize the diverse polyphenolics in blackberry genotypes. These results suggest that recommendations for dietary intake of blackberries for human health benefits need to take into account the source, because of the wide inherent variation in bioactive polyphenolic content in different blackberry genotypes.
Talekar, Sharmila J.; Chochua, Sopio; Nelson, Katie; Klugman, Keith P.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Vidal, Jorge E.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC’s, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:24823499
Chen, Q; Yu, H W; Wang, X R; Xie, X L; Yue, X Y; Tang, H R
Isolation of high-quality RNA free of contaminants, such as polyphenols, proteins, plant secondary metabolites, and genomic DNA from plant tissues, is usually a challenging but crucial step for molecular analysis. We developed a novel protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method to isolate high-quality RNA from blackberry plant tissues, especially fruits. Most DNA was removed when acetic acid was utilized, before RNA precipitation. Thus, lithium chloride, a reagent widely used for RNA purification, was not needed. The isolation time was shortened to less than 3 h. The RNA was quite pure, with little DNA contamination. The quality of the RNA was assessed by spectrophotometric readings and electrophoresis on agarose gels. It was good enough for downstream enzymatic reactions, such as reverse transcription-PCR, cloning and real-time PCR assay. The method yielded an amount of total RNA comparable to previously described protocols.
Rigon, Renata Trindade; Zapata Noreña, Caciano P
Blackberry aqueous extract acidified with 2 % citric acid was spray-dried using gum Arabic (GA) and polydextrose (PD) as encapsulating agents at concentrations of 10 and 15 % and temperatures of 140 to 160 °C. All powders presented high solubility, ranging from 88.2 to 97.4 %, and the encapsulation conditions did not significantly affect the hygroscopicity. The powders produced with gum Arabic showed higher brightness than those with polydextrose. The anthocyanins retention in the microcapsules was 878.32 to 1300.83 mg/100 g, and the phenolics was 2106.56 to 2429.22 mg (GAE)/100 g. The antioxidant activity was quantified according to DDPH and ABTS methods, with values ranging from 31.28 to 40.26 % and 27 to 45.15 %, respectively. The microscopy showed spherical particles for both encapsulating agents, and smooth surface with some concavities with the gum Arabic, and smooth or slightly rough surface when using polydextrose. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a high correlation between the color parameters, L*, a*, b*, Hue, Chroma and browning index (BI), which were also strongly correlated with anthocyanins. Phenolic presented correlation with DPPH and ABTS values. The results showed that the best encapsulation condition was atomization at 140 °C and 15 % gum Arabic.
Blackberry production area has increased dramatically in the Southeast in recent years with the release of new cultivars suitable for the region and due to elevated customer demand for high quality fruit, which has led to high prices enjoyed by the growers. As in almost all cases where a crop is int...
Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun
Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.
Demand for raspberry continues to grow on the East Coast; however commercial production in the Southeast is difficult because cultivars are not well adapted to the warm climate, where average summer temperatures range from 30-35°C. Recent research about the health benefits of a polyphenolic-rich di...
Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun
The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood.
Saini, Ritu; Dangwal, Koushalya; Singh, Himani; Garg, Veena
Yellow Himalayan raspberry, a wild edible fruit, was analyzed for phenolic contents, and antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Phenolics were extracted using 80 % aqueous solvents containing methanol, acidic methanol, acetone and acidic acetone. Our analysis revealed that the acidic acetone extracts recovered the highest level of total phenolics (899 mg GAE/100 g FW) and flavonoids (433.5 mg CE/100 g FW). Free radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and linoleate hydroperoxide radicals) and ferric reducing activity were highest in the acetone and acidic acetone extracts. No metal chelating or antibacterial activity was detected in any of the extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed potent antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cells (C33A) with an EC50 of inhibition at 5.04 and 4. 9 mg/ml fruit concentration respectively, while showing no cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that the yellow Himalayan raspberry is a potent source of phytochemicals having super antioxidant and potent antiproliferative activities.
Lee, Dahae; Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Shibamoto, Takayuki
The effects of a red raspberry component, sanguiin H-6 (SH-6), on the induction of apoptosis and the related signaling pathways in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were investigated. SH-6 caused an antiproliferative effect and a severe morphological change resembling that of apoptotic cell death but no effect on the cancer cell cycle arrest. In addition, SH-6 induced an early apoptotic effect and activation of caspases as well as the cleavage of PARP, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. The early apoptotic percentages of A2780 cells exposed to 20 and 40 μM SH-6 were 35.39 and 41.76, respectively. Also, SH-6 caused the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially p38, and the increase of truncated p15/BID. These results in the present study suggest that the apoptosis of A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells by SH-6 is mediated by the MAPK p38 and a caspase-8-dependent BID cleavage pathway.
Teng, Hui; Lin, Qiyang; Li, Kang; Yuan, Benyao; Song, Hongbo; Yi, Lunzhao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Battino, Maurizio; Cespedes Acuña, Carlos L; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Jianbo
Raspberry seed is a massive byproduct of raspberry juice and wine but usually discarded. The present study employed a microwave-assisted method for extraction of raspberry seed oil (RSO). The results revealed that omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid) were the major constituents in RSO. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in HepG2 cells treated with RSO. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in H2O2-exposed HepG2 cells was found. RSO increased the enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx in H2O2-exposed HepG2. Furthermore, RSO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the possible mechanisms to increase antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 may through the suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Raspberry seed oil exhibited good effects on the activities of the intracellular antioxidant enzymes and seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the inhibition of MAPKs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McKenzie, Scott W.; Johnson, Scott N.; Jones, T. Hefin; Ostle, Nick J.; Hails, Rosemary S.; Vanbergen, Adam J.
Above- and belowground herbivory represents a major challenge to crop productivity and sustainable agriculture worldwide. How this threat from multiple herbivore pests will change under anthropogenic climate change, via altered trophic interactions and plant response traits, is key to understanding future crop resistance to herbivory. In this study, we hypothesized that atmospheric carbon enrichment would increase the amount (biomass) and quality (C:N ratio) of crop plant resources for above- and belowground herbivore species. In a controlled environment facility, we conducted a microcosm experiment using the large raspberry aphid (Amphorophora idaei), the root feeding larvae of the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), and the raspberry (Rubus idaeus) host-plant. There were four herbivore treatments (control, aphid only, weevil only and a combination of both herbivores) and an ambient (aCO2) or elevated (eCO2) CO2 treatment (390 versus 650 ± 50 μmol/mol) assigned to two raspberry cultivars (cv Glen Ample or Glen Clova) varying in resistance to aphid herbivory. Contrary to our predictions, eCO2 did not increase crop biomass or the C:N ratio of the plant tissues, nor affect herbivore abundance either directly or via the host-plant. Root herbivory reduced belowground crop biomass under aCO2 but not eCO2, suggesting that crops could tolerate attack in a CO2 enriched environment. Root herbivory also increased the C:N ratio in leaf tissue at eCO2, potentially due to decreased N uptake indicated by lower N concentrations found in the roots. Root herbivory greatly increased root C concentrations under both CO2 treatments. Our findings confirm that responses of crop biomass and biochemistry to climate change need examining within the context of herbivory, as biotic interactions appear as important as direct effects of eCO2 on crop productivity. PMID:27379129
Kalt, W; Forney, C F; Martin, A; Prior, R L
Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), raspberries (Rubus idaeus Michx.), highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) were stored at 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees C for up to 8 days to determine the effects of storage temperature on whole fruit antioxidant capacity (as measured by the oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay, Cao et al., Clin. Chem. 1995, 41, 1738-1744) and total phenolic, anthocyanin, and ascorbate content. The four fruit varied markedly in their total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant capacity was strongly correlated with the content of total phenolics (0.83) and anthocyanins (0.90). The antioxidant capacity of the two blueberry species was about 3-fold higher than either strawberries or raspberries. However, there was an increase in the antioxidant capacity of strawberries and raspberries during storage at temperatures >0 degrees C, which was accompanied by increases in anthocyanins in strawberries and increases in anthocyanins and total phenolics in raspberries. Ascorbate content differed more than 5-fold among the four fruit species; on average, strawberries and raspberries had almost 4-times more ascorbate than highbush and lowbush blueberries. There were no ascorbate losses in strawberries or highbush blueberries during 8 days of storage at the various temperatures, but there were losses in the other two fruit species. Ascorbate made only a small contribution (0.4-9.4%) to the total antioxidant capacity of the fruit. The increase observed in antioxidant capacity through postharvest phenolic synthesis and metabolism suggested that commercially feasible technologies may be developed to enhance the health functionality of small fruit crops.
Wallingford, Anna K; Connelly, Heather L; Dore Brind'Amour, Gabrielle; Boucher, Matthew T; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Loeb, Greg M
Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is a polyphagous, invasive pest of small fruits. Current management relies heavily on chemical insecticides, and an effective oviposition deterrent could contribute to alternative management approaches that reduce the need for these chemical insecticides. A novel deployment method for repelling Drosophila suzukii, thereby reducing D. suzukii oviposition in fall-bearing red raspberry, was evaluated in the field. Infestations occurring within 4 d after deployment were significantly lower in 2-m-long plots (Rubus idaeus 'Caroline') treated with the repellent (20% 1-octen-3-ol in specialized pheromone and lure application technology [SPLAT]) compared to control plots (blank SPLAT). Repellent-treated plots had roughly 28.8 and 49.5% fewer offspring reared per gram of fruit than control plots in two experiments, respectively. Nontarget effects were also evaluated in 2-m plot experiments as well as 5- by 5-m plot experiments. There were no differences in the number of parasitic hymenoptera trapped on yellow sticky cards hung in repellent compared to control plots. While there were no differences in the number of visits to raspberry flowers observed by honey bees in repellent versus control plots, the number of visits by bumble bees was greater in repellent plots compared to control plots. Challenges regarding evaporation rates and potential uses for repellents in an integrated pest management program for the control of D. suzukii are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji; Narimatsu, Noriko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Nakagata, Naomi
Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on activation. We recently reported that topical application of capsaicin increases facial skin elasticity and promotes hair growth by increasing dermal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production through activation of sensory neurons in mice and humans. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound contained in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), has a structure similar to that of capsaicin. Thus, it is possible that RK activates sensory neurons, thereby increasing skin elasticity and promoting hair growth by increasing dermal IGF-I production. In the present study, we examined this possibility in mice and humans. RK, at concentrations higher than 1 microM, significantly increased CGRP release from dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) isolated from wild-type (WT) mice and this increase was completely reversed by capsazepine, an inhibitor of vanilloid receptor-1 activation. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased dermal IGF-I levels at 30 min after application in WT mice, but not in CGRP-knockout mice. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I at dermal papillae in hair follicles and promoted hair re-growth in WT mice at 4 weeks after the application. When applied topically to the scalp and facial skin, 0.01% RK promoted hair growth in 50.0% of humans with alopecia (n=10) at 5 months after application and increased cheek skin elasticity at 2 weeks after application in 5 females (p<0.04). These observations strongly suggest that RK might increase dermal IGF-I production through sensory neuron activation, thereby promoting hair growth and increasing skin elasticity.
McKenzie, Scott W; Johnson, Scott N; Jones, T Hefin; Ostle, Nick J; Hails, Rosemary S; Vanbergen, Adam J
Above- and belowground herbivory represents a major challenge to crop productivity and sustainable agriculture worldwide. How this threat from multiple herbivore pests will change under anthropogenic climate change, via altered trophic interactions and plant response traits, is key to understanding future crop resistance to herbivory. In this study, we hypothesized that atmospheric carbon enrichment would increase the amount (biomass) and quality (C:N ratio) of crop plant resources for above- and belowground herbivore species. In a controlled environment facility, we conducted a microcosm experiment using the large raspberry aphid (Amphorophora idaei), the root feeding larvae of the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), and the raspberry (Rubus idaeus) host-plant. There were four herbivore treatments (control, aphid only, weevil only and a combination of both herbivores) and an ambient (aCO2) or elevated (eCO2) CO2 treatment (390 versus 650 ± 50 μmol/mol) assigned to two raspberry cultivars (cv Glen Ample or Glen Clova) varying in resistance to aphid herbivory. Contrary to our predictions, eCO2 did not increase crop biomass or the C:N ratio of the plant tissues, nor affect herbivore abundance either directly or via the host-plant. Root herbivory reduced belowground crop biomass under aCO2 but not eCO2, suggesting that crops could tolerate attack in a CO2 enriched environment. Root herbivory also increased the C:N ratio in leaf tissue at eCO2, potentially due to decreased N uptake indicated by lower N concentrations found in the roots. Root herbivory greatly increased root C concentrations under both CO2 treatments. Our findings confirm that responses of crop biomass and biochemistry to climate change need examining within the context of herbivory, as biotic interactions appear as important as direct effects of eCO2 on crop productivity.
Wang, Qiaochun; Cuellar, Wilmer J; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Hirata, Yukimasa; Valkonen, Jari P T
Accumulation of viruses in vegetatively propagated plants causes heavy yield losses. Therefore, supply of virus-free planting materials is pivotal to sustainable crop production. In previous studies, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) was difficult to eradicate from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) using the conventional means of meristem tip culture. As shown in the present study, it was probably because this pollen-transmitted virus efficiently invades leaf primordia and all meristematic tissues except the least differentiated cells of the apical dome. Subjecting plants to thermotherapy prior to meristem tip culture heavily reduced viral RNA2, RNA3 and the coat protein in the shoot tips, but no virus-free plants were obtained. Therefore, a novel method including thermotherapy followed by cryotherapy was developed for efficient virus eradication. Heat treatment caused subcellular alterations such as enlargement of vacuoles in the more developed, virus-infected cells, which were largely eliminated following subsequent cryotherapy. Using this protocol, 20-36% of the treated shoot tips survived, 30-40% regenerated and up to 35% of the regenerated plants were virus-free, as tested by ELISA and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Novel cellular and molecular insights into RBDV-host interactions and the factors influencing virus eradication were obtained, including invasion of shoot tips and meristematic tissues by RBDV, enhanced viral RNA degradation and increased sensitivity to freezing caused by thermotherapy, and subcellular changes and subsequent death of cells caused by cryotherapy. This novel procedure should be helpful with many virus-host combinations in which virus eradication by conventional means has proven difficult.
Mezzetti, Bruno; Landi, Lucia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo
Background The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. Results DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin) content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species. PMID:15113427
Bugmyrin, S V; Bespiatova, L A; Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P
Data of long-term investigations (1998-2004) on the abundance of the taiga tick larvae and nymphs in the cut-over lands of different age in the middle taiga subzone of Karelia (62 degrees 04'S; 33 degrees 55'W) are presented. The investigation was carried out on three model cut-over lands of different age: 1) "young" cut-over land; age of cut-over in the beginning of investigation is 7 years; Betula-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 2) "middle" cut-over land; age of cut-over is 12 years; Salix-Deschampsia cespitosa-Agrostis tenuis; 3) "old" cut-over land; age of cut-over 25 years; Alnus incana-Rubus idaeus-grass. The number of ticks was estimated by using common parasitological indices: prevalence, abundance, and index of feeding intensity (the tick abundance multiply by the number of small mammals per hundred traps-nights). In the beginning of investigation the "young" cut-over land was a typical meadow association. The lowest tick abundance was recorded here. That was a result of unfavorable abiotic conditions and low number of small mammals in the beginning of summer. "Middle" cut-over land is characterized by the highest number of the tick larvae, which is the evidence for high number of the hosts of tick imago. "Old" cut-over land has the optimum conditions for development of taiga ticks. High abundance of the ticks (larvae and nymphs) was recorded during the whole period of investigations. The number of preimaginal ticks is shown to be much higher in cut-over lands as compared with that in mixed and coniferous forests, due to the higher number of small mammals.
Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Mukova, Luchia; Nikolova, Nadya; Badjakov, Ilian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Kondakova, Violeta; Doumanova, Lyuba; Galabov, Angel S
Wild berry species are known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. They have long been traditionally applied for their antiseptic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study is to reveal the potential for selective antiviral activity of total methanol extracts, as well as that of the anthocyanins and the non-anthocyanins from the following wild berries picked in Bulgaria: strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) of the Rosaceae plant family, and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L) of the Ericaceae. The antiviral effect has been tested against viruses that are important human pathogens and for which chemotherapy and/or chemoprophylaxis is indicated, namely poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) from the Picornaviridae virus family, human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2) from the Paramyxoviridae and influenza virus A/H3N2 of Orthomyxoviridae. Wild berry fruits are freeze-dried and ground, then total methanol extracts are prepared. Further the extracts are fractioned by solid phase extraction and the non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin fractions are eluted. The in vitro antiviral effect is examined by the virus cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition test. The results reveal that the total extracts of all tested berry fruits inhibit the replication of CV-B1 and influenza A virus. CV-B1 is inhibited to the highest degree by both bilberry and strawberry, as well as by lingonberry total extracts, and influenza A by bilberry and strawberry extracts. Anthocyanin fractions of all wild berries strongly inhibit the replication of influenza virus A/H3N2. Given the obtained results it is concluded that wild berry species are a valuable resource of antiviral substances and the present study should serve as a basis for further detailed research on the matter.
Demand for fresh berry products continues to grow on the East Coast; however commercial raspberry production in the Southeast is difficult because cultivars are not well adapted to the warm climate and fluctuating winter temperatures, where heat degrades plant vigor and fruit quality, and chilling r...
Azofeifa, Gabriela; Quesada, Silvia; Boudard, Frederic; Morena, Marion; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Pérez, Ana M; Vaillant, Fabrice; Michel, Alain
This study evaluates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in a polyphenol extract from blackberries. The antioxidant activity measured via oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was higher for the blackberry extract (4339 ± 144 μM TE/g) than for quercetin and ellagic acid. The blackberry phenolic compounds protected liposomes and liver homogenates against lipid peroxidation; in both models, the antioxidant activity (IC₅₀ = 7.0 ± 0.5 and 20.3 ± 4.2 μg/mL, respectively) was greater than that found with Trolox. The extract inhibited superoxide production by NADPH oxidase in THP-1 cells and nitrite production in J774A.1 cells stimulated with LPS+IFNγ, with nitrite production decreasing after 4 h of incubation with the extract, mainly through a strong scavenging activity. However, 24 h of treatment reduced the amount of nitrites (IC₅₀ = 45.6 ± 1.2 μg/mL) because of a down-regulation of iNOS protein expression, as demonstrated by Western blotting. The inhibitory activities found in blackberry phenols suggest a potential beneficial effect against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes.
Background: Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed S...
Asnaashari, Maryam; Tajik, Raheleh; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad
Efficacy of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilizing sunflower oil during accelerated storage has been studied. Extracts of R. fruticosus were prepared in different solvents which methanolic extract yield with 15.43 % was higher than water and acetone ones (11.87 and 6.62 %, respectively). Methanolic extract was chosen to evaluate its thermal stability at 70 °C in sunflower oil, due to the highest yield, antioxidant and antiradical potential and also high content of phenolic compounds campared to other solvents. So, different concentrations of methanolic extract (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 ppm) were added to sunflower oil. BHA and BHT at 200 ppm served as standards besides the control. Peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Moreover, antioxidant activity index (AAI) of the extract at 120 °C at rancimat were conducted. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting the highest efficiency of 1,000 ppm of the extract followed by BHT, BHA and other concentrations of the extract. Results reveal the R. fruticosus leaves extract to be a potent antioxidant for stabilization of sunflower oil.
Most Rubus species exhibit delayed or poor germination because of a deep double dormancy. The objective of this study was to improve Rubus seed germination protocols by defining the seed characteristics of diverse Rubus species and determining scarification and germination requirements. Seeds of fie...
lackberries are members of Rubus subgenus Rubus, while raspberries, their close relatives, are grouped in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus. From a horticultural standpoint, each blackberry fruit is an aggregation of drupelets. Each drupelet is derived from one ovary that produces one hard coated seed (pyre...
Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L
There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41
Witters, J; De Bondt, G; Desamblanx, J; Casteels, H
During the period 2004-2006, 1691 samples of different origin were examined at the Diagnostic Centre for Plants. We received 1046 samples of imported plant material for detection and identification of quarantine organisms. More than 200 samples were checked on mites and insects to get a phytosanitary certificate for export and 391 samples were investigated for diagnostic reason. The Berlese-funnel and dissecting microscopy technique were used to separate mites from the samples. For identification, the mites were slide mounted in Berlese-Hoyer's medium and examined by using phase-contrast microscopy. In 3% of the samples examined on the presence of quarantine organisms, phytophagous mites belonging to the superfamily Tetranychoidea were found, but none with the quarantine status in accordance with the EPPO A1/A2 list. Besides Tetranychus urticae detected on different crops, the cassava green mite Mononychellus progresivus was found on cassava (import Cameroon) in 2006. Tenuipalpus elegans (Tenuipalpidae) was found on cut foliage (import South Africa) in 2004. In 19.9% of the investigated samples for diagnostic reason mites were found. In 47.7% of the infested samples mites were definitely the reason for the damage; in 15.9% mites were secondary and in 36.4% the occurrence of mites was not relevant for the injury. An overview of the determined mites will be given. During this 3 years diagnostic research a few new pest mites belonging to families Tetranychidae and Eriophyidae can be reported. In 2006 Panonychus citri was found on Prunus laurocerasus and later on Eleaegnus sp. and Skimmia sp.. Aceria silvicola was determined on Rubus idaeus in 2006 and Aculus ulae and Aceria carpini on Carpinus betulus in 2005. Besides new pest mites, never seen problems with the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Fam. Tarsonemidae) occurred in tree-nurseries in 2005 and 2006. Also 20 samples coming from private persons were investigated. The main problems indoor were caused by
Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong
Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside.
As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure may impact phenolic absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary e...
Lim, Jae Woong; Hwang, Hyun Joo; Shin, Chul Soo
Three types of Korean black raspberry wine were produced via alcoholic fermentation from juice, juice-pulp, and juice-pulp-seed, respectively. These wines were compared in terms of their anti-inflammatory activities and polyphenol contents. The total content of polyphenol compounds in wines was increased by 22.4% after supplementation with pulp and by 56.7% after supplementation with both pulp and seed. The reduction rate of NO evolution was highest in the order juice-pulp-seed wine, juice-pulp wine, and juice wine. Addition of the juice-pulp-seed wine at a level of 62.5-500 mg/L decreased the NO evolution rate by 40.5-94.2%. Eight fractions were obtained from juice-pulp-seed wine via ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography. Of these, the AF fraction, which exhibited the highest in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, exerted inhibitory effects on ear edema, writhing response, and vein membrane vascular permeability in mice. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid accounted for 37.6% of the total polyphenol content in the AF fraction.
Machado, Ana Paula Da Fonseca; Pereira, Ana Luiza Duarte; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Martínez, Julian
This work investigated the extraction efficiency of polyphenols (anthocyanins) from blackberry, blueberry and grumixama residues using combined ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (UAE+PLE). The performance of UAE+PLE was compared to those achieved by the isolated PLE and UAE methods and conventional Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the extraction methods and solvents (acidified water pH 2.0, ethanol+water 50% v/v and ethanol+water 70% ethanol v/v) on total phenolics content, anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of extracts were investigated by a full factorial design. The extraction efficiency for total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in decreasing order was: UAE+PLE>PLE≈Soxhlet>UAE, and for anthocyanins it was: Soxhlet≈UAE>UAE+PLE>PLE, using hydroethanolic mixtures as solvents. Extractions with acidified water and ultrasound were not effective to recover phenolics. Two, four and fourteen anthocyanins were identified in the extracts from grumixama, blackberry and blueberry, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koh, Gar Yee; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Dong; Cartwright, Carrie A; Martin, Roy; Yang, Peiying; Liu, Zhijun
Drinking an herbal tea to lose weight is a well-liked concept. This study was designed to examine the possible improvement of obesity phenotype by a new tea represented by its purified components, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and rubusoside (GER). Male obese-prone SD rats were given low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet plus GER at the dose of 0.22 g/kg of body weight for 9 weeks. GER significantly reduced body weight gain by 22% compared to the high-fat diet control group with 48% less abdominal fat gain. Food intake was not affected. Blood glucose was lowered in the GER-treated group, whereas serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly reduced by 50%. This improved obesity phenotype may be associated with the attenuated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Although other underlying, possibly multiple, mechanisms behind the improved phenotype are largely unknown, the observed improvement of multiple obesity-related parameters by the new tea warrants further investigations.
Dávila, Javier A; Rosenberg, Moshe; Cardona, Carlos A
This work investigated a model biorefinery for producing phenolic compounds extract, ethanol and xylitol from spent blackberry pulp (SBP). The biorefinery was investigated according to four potential scenarios including mass and heat integrations as well as cogeneration system for supplying part of the energy requirements in the biorefinery. The investigated SBP had 61.54% holocellulose; its total phenolic compounds was equivalent to 2700mg of gallic acid/100g SBP, its anthocyanins content was 126.41mg/kg of SBP and its total antioxidant activity was 174.8μmol TE/g of SBP. The economic analysis revealed that the level of integration in the biorefinery significantly affected the total production cost. The sale-to-total-production-cost ratio indicated that both, mass and heat integrations are of importance relevance. The cost of supplies (enzymes and reagents) had the most significant impact on the total production cost and accounted between 46.72 and 58.95% of the total cost of the biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
oak-hickory climax forest, reflecting the dry, excessively drained conditions. Beyond the valley proper, the land is flat and intensely cultivated . A...Common Name Sambucus racemosa elderberry sp. Rubus alleitheniensis blackberry sp. Rubus occidentalis blackberry sp. Rubus odoratus blackberry sp...indigenous fruit trees. These features may mark the location of possible former historic sites associated with the c-ccupation of the Buffalo Creek
‘Columbia Star’ is a new thornless, trailing blackberry (Rubus subg. Rubus Watson) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with the Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ...
The rotating cross-arm (RCA) technology (Fig. 1) combines a unique trellis design and cane training protocol. Developed over the last two decades, this technology is beginning to have an impact on the blackberry (Genus Rubus, subgenus Rubus) industry in the United States of America (USA). It has b...
Four blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) cultivars (‘Obsidian’, ‘Black Diamond’, ‘Metolius’, ‘Onyx’) and two advanced selections (ORUS 1939-4 and ORUS 2635-1) were evaluated during the establishment years of an organic production system for fresh market. The planting was established in sprin...
This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...
The effects of various production practices on biomass, C, and nutrient content, accumulation, and loss were assessed over 2 years in a mature organic trailing blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) production system. Treatments included two irrigation options (no irrigation after harvest and ...
Weed management, training time, and irrigation practices were evaluated from 2013-2014 in a mature field of trailing blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) established in western Oregon. The field was planted in 2010 and certified organic in 2012, before the first harvest season. Treatments inc...
Primocane management systems were compared for ‘Prime-Jan’® and ‘Prime-Jim’®, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson), grown in a field planting in Aurora, OR. Treatments studied were: 1) no manipulation of primocanes (un-tipped; no floricanes); 2) un-tipped primocanes growin...
The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) cultivars Prime-Jan® and Prime-Jim® were studied in 2005 and 2006 in Aurora, Ore. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes. In both ...
Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...
Once thought of as a berry consumed only from wild plants, blackberries (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) have now become a common fruit choice in marketing outlets, particularly in North America and the European Union. Termed the “fourth” berry by some, after the more common strawberry (Fragaria ×anana...
During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...
Mann, Rachel A.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Bühlmann, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E.; Plummer, Kim M.; Beer, Steven V.; Luck, Joanne; Duffy, Brion; Rodoni, Brendan
The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus) and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries). Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin) of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains), the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1Ea and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains. PMID:23409014
Bushakra, J M; Krieger, C; Deng, D; Stephens, M J; Allan, A C; Storey, R; Symonds, V V; Stevenson, D; McGhie, T; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E
Fruit from Rubus species are highly valued for their flavor and nutritive qualities. Anthocyanin content contributes to these qualities, and although many studies have been conducted to identify and quantify the major anthocyanin compounds from various Rubus species, the genetic control of the accumulation of these complex traits in Rubus is not yet well understood. The identification of the regions of the genome involved in the production of anthocyanins is an important first step in identifying the genes underlying their expression. In this study, ultra and high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC and HPLC) and two newly developed Rubus linkage maps were used to conduct QTL analyses to explore the presence of associations between concentrations of five anthocyanins in fruit and genotype. In total, 27 QTL were identified on the Rubus linkage maps, four of which are associated with molecular markers designed from transcription factors and three of which are associated with molecular markers designed from anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway candidate genes. The results of this study suggest that, while QTL for anthocyanin accumulation have been identified on six of seven Rubus linkage groups (RLG), the QTL on RLG2 and RLG7 may be very important for genetic control of cyanidin modification in Rubus.
Mann, Rachel A; Smits, Theo H M; Bühlmann, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne; Duffy, Brion; Rodoni, Brendan
The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus) and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries). Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin) of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains), the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea) and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.
Thomas A. Hanley; Bernard T. Bormann; Jeffrey C. Barnard; S. Mark. Nay
Aboveground growth rates of seedlings of bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), oval-leaf blueberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm.), salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis Pursh), devilsclub (Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) were...
black walnut (Juglans nigra), pecan (Carya illinoensis), blackberry (Rubus sp.), greenbriar (Smilax sp.), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), giant...illinoensis), Canada wildrye (Elymus candensis), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Urban
Liguidambar stvraciflua), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvania), bitter pecan (Carya aguatica), hackberry (Celtis laevigata ), water oak (Quercus nigra), nuttall...cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and black willow (Salix nigra). Shrubs include hawthorne ( Crataegus viridis) and blackberry (Rubus louisianus), while
Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...
woodland include poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), brambles (Rubus sp.), and bush honeysuckle (Lonicera sp). Two areas of cattails (Typha sp.) and...poison ivy, brambles, and bush honeysuckle . • Wetland areas included cattails and willows. • White-tail deer and several bird species (mallard...brambles (Rubus sp.), and bush honeysuckle (Lonicera sp). Two areas of cattails (Typha sp.) and willows (Salix sp.) are adjacent to the southern
8217ve(Di italis ur velvet-grass (Holcus lanatus), cattail (Tyha latifolah )Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor), evergreen blackberry (Rubus laciniatus...Crop/Pasture Areas of cultivated , mowed, or grazed land usually occurring on "flat to gently rolling slopes with good moisture regimes. Agri- cultural...horticultural purposes. Practically none of these areas are found in the Snohomish estuary. *221 Orchard Those lands supporting fruit or nut trees
Magalhães, S; Bakker, F M
Plant feeding by arthropod predators may strongly affect the dynamics of bi-and tri-trophic interactions. We tested whether a predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo, feeds upon its host plant, cassava. This predator species is an effective biological control agent of Monoychellus tanajoa (the cassava green mite or CGM) a herbivorous mite specific to cassava. We developed a technique to detect plant feeding, based on the use of a systemic insecticide. We found that T. aripo feeds upon plant-borne material, while other predatory mite species, Neoseiulus idaeus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, do not. Subsequently, we measured survival of juveniles and adult females of T. aripo and N. idaeus, both cassava-inhabiting predator species, on cassava leaf discs. Survival of T. aripo was higher than that of N. idaeus. Thus, T. aripo was able to withstand longer periods of prey scarcity. Because CGM populations fluctuate yearly and are heterogeneously distributed within plants, plant feeding may facilitate the persistence of populations of T. aripo in cassava fields and its control of CGM outbreaks.
There are currently few registered post-plant nematicides available to control root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans, RLN) in red raspberry (Rubus ideaus). The rate of raspberry decline due to RLN depends upon the nematode population density but usually occurs over a 3- to 4-year period. To ...
This manuscript summarizes the research career of Dr. Maxine M. Thompson, world renown horticulturist, plant breeder, and plant explorer. She became the first women professor at the Oregon State University, Deparment of Horticulture. She studied Rubus cytology and genetics and floral development in ...
U.S. blackberry (Rubus) growers need to find ways to expand the market share by entering specific niches. Production of blackberries in off-season is one desired approach. However, with the high investment for protected cultivation systems, yield in the first year of production is desirable to obt...
Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Salar, Pascal; Filippin, Luisa; Carle, Patricia; Angelini, Elisa; Foissac, Xavier
In addition to the grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasmas, other members of taxonomic group 16SrV phytoplasmas infect grapevines, alders and species of the genera Clematis and Rubus in Europe. In order to investigate which phytoplasmas constitute discrete, species-level taxa, several strains were analysed by comparing their 16S rRNA gene sequences and a set of five housekeeping genes. Whereas 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values were >97.5 %, the proposed threshold to distinguish two 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa, phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequences of the tuf, rplV-rpsC, rplF-rplR, map and uvrB-degV genetic loci showed that two discrete phylogenetic clusters could be clearly distinguished. The first cluster grouped flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasmas, alder yellows (AldY) phytoplasmas, Clematis (CL) phytoplasmas and the Palatinate grapevine yellows (PGY) phytoplasmas. The second cluster comprised Rubus stunt (RS) phytoplasmas. In addition to the specificity of the insect vector, the Rubus stunt phytoplasma contained specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene. Hence, the Rubus stunt phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene was sufficiently differentiated to represent a novel putative taxon: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'.
This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...
This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. Over the last eight years, we have analyzed the fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes, and found the ant...
virginiana FMS American elm Ulmus americana FF, FM C Prickly ash Zanthoxylum, americanum Fil C Willow Sai .FF C Hawthorn Crataegus sp. FF S ’a,. Sugar...C Smooth sumac Rhus alabra M C Frost grape Vitis riparia FM C Prickly Ribes cynosbati FF C gooseberry Black raspberry Rubus occidentalis FM C Willow
Propagation of 1- or 2-node hardwood cuttings from blackberry (Rubus sp.) floricanes can be an efficient and reliable source of rooted transplants but consistent rooting is needed. Floricanes were collected from 9-year-old ‘Triple Crown’ and ‘Siskiyou’ plants on 5 November 2009, 3 December 2009, an...
Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...
Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...
Field surveys in 2006 confirmed the rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum was widespread on Rubus armeniacus and R. laciniatus in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The origin, evidence of a founder effect and dispersal pattern of this obligate biotrophic pathogen in the United States were inve...
Red raspberries (Rubus ideaus) are a major crop in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, with this region producing over 90% of the nation’s processed raspberries. Pratylenchus penetrans is commonly found in raspberry plantings and has been shown to reduce raspberry vigor and yield. Currentl...
The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora agathonica Hottes, is an important vector of viruses in Rubus across North America. Although breeding for aphid resistance has long been recognized as an important tool for protecting red raspberries from viral infection, this is the first report of resistance...
The type and amount of anthocyanins in raspberries, and other small fruits, has recently received increased attention. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), in particular, has long been recognized as a rich source of anthocyanins and has been the focus of many recent studies examining their poten...
Because of its intense anthocyanin pigments, black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has a long history of use as a natural colorant and dye. Recent studies showing black raspberries to be a rich source of anthocyanins and other dietary phytochemicals has led to renewed interest in breeding new, bet...
Because of its intense anthocyanin pigments, black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has a long history of use as a natural colorant and dye. Recent studies showing black raspberries to be a rich source of anthocyanins and other dietary phytochemicals have led to renewed interest in breeding better ...
This study incorporates field and laboratory components to advance and streamline identification of a variety of traits of economic interest and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). A lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars has led t...
Verticillium dahliae Kleb., a cause of verticillium wilt, is a wide-spread, soil-borne fungal pathogen with a wide host range that includes many fruit and vegetable crops. Verticillium dahliae has been isolated from Rubus species showing symptoms of the disease. Very little is known about the intera...
This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...
Over the last century, the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) industry in the U.S. has undergone a slow contraction because of a lack of adapted and disease resistant cultivars. The Pacific Northwest is the major black raspberry production region in North America, with the value of $9.6 million pr...
Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) was first reported in the 1920s, is limited to the genus Rubus and is transmitted in a persistent manner by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. It is only reported from North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and i...
The US Pacific Northwest has a long history of blackberry production and research. The breeding program began in the 1920s with Darrow and later Waldo. They utilized the native Rubus ursinus along with ‘Logan’ in their breeding to develop the first commercial cultivars ‘Pacific’ and ‘Cascade’ in the...
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), readily utilizes wild ‘Himalaya’ blackberry (HB) Rubus armeniacus Focke, as a refuge, among other non-crop host plants, and is suspected of invading berry and stone fruit crops from adjacent field margins. Studies were c...
Rosette, or double blossom, is a serious disease of erect blackberries that is limited to the genus Rubus. Rosette may occur on trailing blackberries and dewberries, but rarely on red and black raspberries. In the United States, rosette occurs from New Jersey to Illinois and southwest to Texas and i...
Blackberries are in Rosaceae family, the Rubus genus and subgenus (formerly Eubatus).Commercially cultivars are a multispecies complex and generally do not have a species epitaph. The primary progenitor species for the cultivated blackberries are all perennial plants with biennial canes. In these s...
Imazapyr, metsulfuron methyl, imazapyr plus metsulfuron methyl, and hexazinone plus metsulfuron methyl were aerially applied over newly planted and 1-year-old loblolly pine seedlings for the control of blackberry (Rubus species), composites (Compositae), sumac (Rhus copallina L.), and trumpet vine [Campsis radicans...
David A. Marquis; Ted J. Grisez
In 6- to 10-year-old clearcuts that had failed to regenerate naturally, fencing was erected to protect seedlings from deer browsing. The fencing allowed the gradual recovery of the forest cover. Small seedlings that otherwise would have been browsed continued to grow, and ground cover species such as Rubus, which reduced ferns and grasses that...
Bispo, Kenia; Amusquivar, Encarnación; García-Seco, Daniel; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; Gutierrez-Mañero, Javier; Herrera, Emilio
Blackberry (Rubus sp.) fruit has a high content of anthocyanins, but its health benefits have not been sufficiently explored in healthy individuals. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the effects of blackberry extract on lipid and glucose variables in female and male rats. Sprague Dawley rats were given a standard pellet (SD) or cafeteria (CD) diet supplemented (SD+R and CD+R) or not with Rubus extract for 80 days. Female rats given SD+R had lower body and liver weights than SD females; both sexes given SD+R showed lower plasma glucose and insulin, higher plasma NEFA, glycerol and 3-hydroxybutyrate, and higher liver concentration of triacylglycerols than SD rats. The homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA) was lower in SD+R rats than in SD rats, but higher in CD rats. No effects of Rubus extract were observed in CD rats. In conclusion, Rubus extract, in rats given SD, decreased glycemia and increased insulin sensitivity. It also increased lipid breakdown in adipose tissue. The effects were greater in females than in males. No effect was seen in rats given CD, probably as a result of their high insulin resistance.
The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...
With the application of molecular tools for characterization of viruses in berry crops, it has become clear that many diseases previously attributed to a virus are actually caused by virus complexes. As a group, berry crops including; Fragaria, Rubus and Vaccinium, are known hosts of at least 30 gen...
The Rubus strain of TSV, now considered to be SNSV, was first reported in California in 1966 in several blackberry and blackberry-raspberry cultivars. It was later commonly found in the Pacific Northwest in cultivated black raspberry and wild and cultivated R. ursinus. The name of Strawberry necroti...
This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...
Cultivar improvement of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has been stagnant for the past 75 years, with only a handful of new releases to date. The most commonly grown elite cultivars are susceptible to aphid-transmitted viruses and soil-borne pathogens that lead to a rapid decline in plant he...
We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...
This project incorporates use of phenotypic, genotypic and genomic data to advance and streamline identification of traits of economic interest and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.). A lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars has...
This study incorporates field and laboratory components to advance and streamline identification of a variety of traits of economic interest and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). A lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars has led t...
Two of five species of European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. Aggregate) along the West Coast of the United States are invasive, and they are also similar in appearance. Biological control by Phragmidium violaceum, causal agent of a rust disease, was under consideration when rust-diseased blackber...
Raymond E. Graber; Donald F. Thompson
Forest floor samples were collected in northern hardwood stands 5, 38, 95, and 200+ years old. The seeds contained in these samples were germinated in a greenhouse. Thirty-five species of herbs, shrubs, and trees were identified. The largest number of species, 23, were from the 5-year-old stand. The oldest stand had the fewest species, 17. Rubus and...
‘Sweetie Pie’ is a new thornless blackberry (Rubus L. subg. Watson) cultivar developed and released by the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory. ‘Sweetie Pie’ is a vigorous, semi-erect blackberry that produces moderate yields of sweet high quality fruit having excellent flavor, ...
Breeding progress in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has been limited by a lack of genetic diversity in elite germplasm. Black raspberry cultivars have been noted for showing very few phenotypic differences and seedlings from crosses between cultivars for a lack of segregation for important ...
Yang, Yin; Battesti, Marie-José; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean
Melissopalynological, physicochemical, and volatile analyses of 29 samples of Corsican 'summer maquis' honey were performed. The pollen spectrum was characterized by a wide diversity of nectariferous and/or polleniferous taxa. The most important were Anthyllis hermanniae and Rubus sp., associated with some endemic taxa. Castanea sativa was also determined in these honeys with a great variation. The volatile fraction was characterized by 37 compounds and dominated by phenolic aldehydes and linear acids. The major compounds were phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and nonanoic acid. Statistical analysis of pollen and volatile data showed that 18 samples were characterized by a high abundance of phenylacetaldehyde, which might relate to the high amount of A. hermanniae and Rubus sp. Eleven other samples displayed a higher proportion of phenolic ketones and linear acids, which characterized the nectar contribution of C. sativa and Thymus herba-barona, respectively.
Shinohara, Akihiko; Hara, Hideho; Prous, Marko
New host plant records are given for six Empria species from Japan. They are Rosa multiflora [Rosaceae] for E. honshuana Prous & Heidemaa, 2011, Rubus sp. [Rosaceae] for E. japonica Heidemaa & Prous, 2011, Geum japonicum and G. calthifolium var. nipponicum [Rosaceae] for E. loktini Ermolenko, 1971, Rosa multiflora, Potentilla indica and probably Rubus parvifolius [Rosaceae] for E. quadrimaculata Takeuchi, 1952, Rhododendron molle subsp. japonicum [Ericaceae] for E. takeuchii Prous & Heidemaa, 2011, and Geum japonicum and Filipendula camtschatica [Rosaceae] for E. tridentis Lee & Ryu, 1996. This is the first record of Ericaceae as a host plant of Empria. The mode of host shifts in the evolution of Empria is inferred by using a phylogenetic hypothesis proposed by Prous et al. (2011a).
range from a high of 1080F to a low of -490F. Frost-free days, as observed at the University of Minnesota Experiment Station at Crookston, Minnesota...American plum, and black willow (Salix nigra). Further away from the river a shrub layer is present consisting of chokecherry, raspberry (Rubus strigosus...flood-prone areas or erection of emergency * flood protection. 6.04 The National Weather Service currently provides area officials and local news
Rubus sp.), and bush honeysuckle (Lonicera sp). Two areas of cattails (Typha sp.) and willows (Salix sp.) are adjacent to the southern woodland...silver maple, cottonwood, ash, and black walnut. Common understory plants noted are poison ivy, brambles, and bush honeysuckle . • Wetland areas...sp.), and bush honeysuckle (Lonicera sp). Two areas of cattails (Typha sp.) and willows (Salix sp.) are adjacent to the southern woodland area