Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with source flaws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Can; Sun, Shi-Hai; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Lin-Mei
2015-10-01
Compared with the traditional protocols of quantum key distribution (QKD), the reference-frame-independent (RFI)-QKD protocol has been generally proved to be very useful and practical, since its experimental implementation can be simplified without the alignment of a reference frame. In most RFI-QKD systems, the encoding states are always taken to be perfect, which, however, is not practical in realizations. In this paper, we consider the security of RFI QKD with source flaws based on the loss-tolerant method proposed by Tamaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 052314 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.052314]. As the six-state protocol can be realized with four states, we show that the RFI-QKD protocol can also be performed with only four encoding states instead of six encoding states in its standard version. Furthermore, the numerical simulation results show that the source flaws in the key-generation basis (Z basis) will reduce the key rate but are loss tolerant, while the ones in X and Y bases almost have no effect and the key rate remains almost the same even when they are very large. Hence, our method and results will have important significance in practical experiments, especially in earth-to-satellite or chip-to-chip quantum communications.
Quantum image coding with a reference-frame-independent scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Belin, Etienne
2016-07-01
For binary images, or bit planes of non-binary images, we investigate the possibility of a quantum coding decodable by a receiver in the absence of reference frames shared with the emitter. Direct image coding with one qubit per pixel and non-aligned frames leads to decoding errors equivalent to a quantum bit-flip noise increasing with the misalignment. We show the feasibility of frame-invariant coding by using for each pixel a qubit pair prepared in one of two controlled entangled states. With just one common axis shared between the emitter and receiver, exact decoding for each pixel can be obtained by means of two two-outcome projective measurements operating separately on each qubit of the pair. With strictly no alignment information between the emitter and receiver, exact decoding can be obtained by means of a two-outcome projective measurement operating jointly on the qubit pair. In addition, the frame-invariant coding is shown much more resistant to quantum bit-flip noise compared to the direct non-invariant coding. For a cost per pixel of two (entangled) qubits instead of one, complete frame-invariant image coding and enhanced noise resistance are thus obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Matthew J.
2014-02-01
The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.
Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-01-01
We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust. PMID:24402550
Frame independent cosmological perturbations
Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl
2013-09-01
We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.
Zhang, P; Aungskunsiri, K; Martín-López, E; Wabnig, J; Lobino, M; Nock, R W; Munns, J; Bonneau, D; Jiang, P; Li, H W; Laing, A; Rarity, J G; Niskanen, A O; Thompson, M G; O'Brien, J L
2014-04-01
We demonstrate a client-server quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme. Large resources such as laser and detectors are situated at the server side, which is accessible via telecom fiber to a client requiring only an on-chip polarization rotator, which may be integrated into a handheld device. The detrimental effects of unstable fiber birefringence are overcome by employing the reference-frame-independent QKD protocol for polarization qubits in polarization maintaining fiber, where standard QKD protocols fail, as we show for comparison. This opens the way for quantum enhanced secure communications between companies and members of the general public equipped with handheld mobile devices, via telecom-fiber tethering.
Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames
Wang Jieci; Jing Jiliang
2010-09-15
Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob's qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a 'critical point'.
Independent Study Unit on Accelerated Reference Frames
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poultney, S. K.
1973-01-01
Presents a list of topics, research areas, references, and laboratory equipment which is prepared to facilitate general-science students' understanding of physics aspects in accelerated reference frames after their study of circular motion and Galilean relativity in mechanics. (CC)
Time reversibility in the quantum frame
Masot-Conde, Fátima
2014-12-04
Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.
Harsij, Zeynab Mirza, Behrouz
2014-12-15
A helicity entangled tripartite state is considered in which the degree of entanglement is preserved in non-inertial frames. It is shown that Quantum Entanglement remains observer independent. As another measure of quantum correlation, Quantum Discord has been investigated. It is explicitly shown that acceleration has no effect on the degree of quantum correlation for the bipartite and tripartite helicity entangled states. Geometric Quantum Discord as a Hilbert–Schmidt distance is computed for helicity entangled states. It is shown that living in non-inertial frames does not make any influence on this distance, either. In addition, the analysis has been extended beyond single mode approximation to show that acceleration does not have any impact on the quantum features in the limit beyond the single mode. As an interesting result, while the density matrix depends on the right and left Unruh modes, the Negativity as a measure of Quantum Entanglement remains constant. Also, Quantum Discord does not change beyond single mode approximation. - Highlights: • The helicity entangled states here are observer independent in non-inertial frames. • It is explicitly shown that Quantum Discord for these states is observer independent. • Geometric Quantum Discord is also not affected by acceleration increase. • Extending to beyond single mode does not change the degree of entanglement. • Beyond single mode approximation the degree of Quantum Discord is also preserved.
Classical and quantum communication without a shared reference frame.
Bartlett, Stephen D; Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W
2003-07-11
We show that communication without a shared reference frame is possible using entangled states. Both classical and quantum information can be communicated with perfect fidelity without a shared reference frame at a rate that asymptotically approaches one classical bit or one encoded qubit per transmitted qubit. We present an optical scheme to communicate classical bits without a shared reference frame using entangled photon pairs and linear optical Bell state measurements.
Gauge- and frame-independent decomposition of nucleon spin
Wakamatsu, M.
2011-01-01
In a recent paper, we have shown that the way of gauge-invariant decomposition of the nucleon spin is not necessarily unique, but there still exists a preferable decomposition from the observational viewpoint. What was not complete in this argument is a fully satisfactory answer to the following questions. Does the proposed gauge-invariant decomposition, especially the decomposition of the gluon total angular momentum into its spin and orbital parts, correspond to observables which can be extracted from high-energy deep-inelastic-scattering measurements? Is this decomposition not only gauge invariant but also Lorentz frame independent, so that it is legitimately thought to reflect an intrinsic property of the nucleon? We show that we can answer both of these questions affirmatively by making full use of a gauge-invariant decomposition of the covariant angular-momentum tensor of QCD in an arbitrary Lorentz frame.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing
2012-03-30
How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing
2012-03-30
How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686
Mesoscopic mechanical resonators as quantum noninertial reference frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, B. N.; Blencowe, M. P.; Schwab, K. C.
2015-10-01
An atom attached to a micrometer-scale wire that is vibrating at a frequency ˜100 MHz and with displacement amplitude ˜1 nm experiences an acceleration magnitude ˜109ms -2 , approaching the surface gravity of a neutron star. As one application of such extreme noninertial forces in a mesoscopic setting, we consider a model two-path atom interferometer with one path consisting of the 100 MHz vibrating wire atom guide. The vibrating wire guide serves as a noninertial reference frame and induces an in principle measurable phase shift in the wave function of an atom traversing the wire frame. We furthermore consider the effect on the two-path atom wave interference when the vibrating wire is modeled as a quantum object, hence functioning as a quantum noninertial reference frame. We outline a possible realization of the vibrating wire, atom interferometer using a superfluid helium quantum interference setup.
Quantum key distribution based on quantum dimension and independent devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-03-01
In this paper, we propose a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on only a two-dimensional Hilbert space encoding a quantum system and independent devices between the equipment for state preparation and measurement. Our protocol is inspired by the fully device-independent quantum key distribution (FDI-QKD) protocol and the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol. Our protocol only requires the state to be prepared in the two-dimensional Hilbert space, which weakens the state preparation assumption in the original MDI-QKD protocol. More interestingly, our protocol can overcome the detection loophole problem in the FDI-QKD protocol, which greatly limits the application of FDI-QKD. Hence our protocol can be implemented with practical optical components.
Fully device-independent quantum key distribution.
Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas
2014-10-01
Quantum cryptography promises levels of security that are impossible to replicate in a classical world. Can this security be guaranteed even when the quantum devices on which the protocol relies are untrusted? This central question dates back to the early 1990s when the challenge of achieving device-independent quantum key distribution was first formulated. We answer this challenge by rigorously proving the device-independent security of a slight variant of Ekert's original entanglement-based protocol against the most general (coherent) attacks. The resulting protocol is robust: While assuming only that the devices can be modeled by the laws of quantum mechanics and are spatially isolated from each other and from any adversary's laboratory, it achieves a linear key rate and tolerates a constant noise rate in the devices. In particular, the devices may have quantum memory and share arbitrary quantum correlations with the eavesdropper. The proof of security is based on a new quantitative understanding of the monogamous nature of quantum correlations in the context of a multiparty protocol.
Fully device-independent quantum key distribution.
Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas
2014-10-01
Quantum cryptography promises levels of security that are impossible to replicate in a classical world. Can this security be guaranteed even when the quantum devices on which the protocol relies are untrusted? This central question dates back to the early 1990s when the challenge of achieving device-independent quantum key distribution was first formulated. We answer this challenge by rigorously proving the device-independent security of a slight variant of Ekert's original entanglement-based protocol against the most general (coherent) attacks. The resulting protocol is robust: While assuming only that the devices can be modeled by the laws of quantum mechanics and are spatially isolated from each other and from any adversary's laboratory, it achieves a linear key rate and tolerates a constant noise rate in the devices. In particular, the devices may have quantum memory and share arbitrary quantum correlations with the eavesdropper. The proof of security is based on a new quantitative understanding of the monogamous nature of quantum correlations in the context of a multiparty protocol. PMID:25325625
Frames, designs, and spherical codes in quantum information theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renes, Joseph M.
Frame theory offers a lens through which to view a large portion of quantum information theory, providing an organizational principle to those topics in its purview. In this thesis, I cut a trail from foundational questions to practical applications, from the origin of the quantum probability rule to quantum cryptography, by way of a standard quantum measurement helpful in quantum tomography and representation of quantum theory. Before embarking, preparations are undertaken by outlining the relevant aspects of frame theory, particularly the characterization of generalized orthonormal bases in terms of physical quantum measurements, as well as several aesthetically appealing families of measurements, each possessing a high degree of symmetry. Much more than just elegant, though, these quantum measurements are found to be useful in many aspects of quantum information theory. I first consider the foundational question of justifying the quantum probability rule, showing that putting a probability valuation on generalized quantum measurements leads directly to the Born rule. Moreover, for qubits, the case neglected in the traditional formulation of Gleason's theorem, a symmetric three-outcome measurement called the trine is sufficient to impel the desired form. Keeping with foundational questions, I then turn to the problem of establishing a symmetric measurement capable of effortlessly rendering quantum theory in terms of classical probability theory. Numerical results provide an almost utterly convincing amount of evidence for this, justifying the subsequent study of its use in quantum tomography and detailed account of the properties of the reduction to probabilistic terms. Saving perhaps the most exciting topic for last, I make use of these aesthetic ensembles in the applied field of quantum cryptography. A large class of streamlined key distribution protocols may be cut from the cloth of these ensembles, and their symmetry affords them improved tolerance to
Asynchronous reference frame agreement in a quantum network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Tanvirul; Wehner, Stephanie
2016-03-01
An efficient implementation of many multiparty protocols for quantum networks requires that all the nodes in the network share a common reference frame. Establishing such a reference frame from scratch is especially challenging in an asynchronous network where network links might have arbitrary delays and the nodes do not share synchronised clocks. In this work, we study the problem of establishing a common reference frame in an asynchronous network of n nodes of which at most t are affected by arbitrary unknown error, and the identities of the faulty nodes are not known. We present a protocol that allows all the correctly functioning nodes to agree on a common reference frame as long as the network graph is complete and not more than t\\lt n/4 nodes are faulty. As the protocol is asynchronous, it can be used with some assumptions to synchronise clocks over a network. Also, the protocol has the appealing property that it allows any existing two-node asynchronous protocol for reference frame agreement to be lifted to a robust protocol for an asynchronous quantum network.
Measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Curty, Marcos; Andersson, Erika
2016-08-01
Digital signatures play an important role in software distribution, modern communication, and financial transactions, where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. Signatures are a cryptographic technique for validating the authenticity and integrity of messages, software, or digital documents. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. Quantum digital signatures (QDS), on the other hand, provide information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum physics. Recent work on QDS Amiri et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032325 Yin, Fu, and Zeng-Bing, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032316 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032316 shows that such schemes do not require trusted quantum channels and are unconditionally secure against general coherent attacks. However, in practical QDS, just as in quantum key distribution (QKD), the detectors can be subjected to side-channel attacks, which can make the actual implementations insecure. Motivated by the idea of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), we present a measurement-device-independent QDS (MDI-QDS) scheme, which is secure against all detector side-channel attacks. Based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our MDI-QDS protocol could also be experimentally implemented, since it requires a similar experimental setup.
Conformal-frame (in)dependence of cosmological observations in scalar-tensor theory
Chiba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: gucci@phys.titech.ac.jp
2013-10-01
We provide the correspondence between the variables in the Jordan frame and those in the Einstein frame in scalar-tensor gravity and consider the frame-(in)dependence of the cosmological observables. In particular, we show that the cosmological observables/relations (redshift, luminosity distance, temperature anisotropies) are frame-independent. We also study the frame-dependence of curvature perturbations and find that the curvature perturbations are conformal invariant if the perturbation is adiabatic and the entropy perturbation between matter and the Brans-Dicke scalar is vanishing. The relation among various definitions of curvature perturbations in the both frames is also discussed, and the condition for the equivalence is clarified.
Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-01-01
Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .
Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2014-12-18
In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD, together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.
Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2014-12-18
In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD,more » together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.« less
Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution
Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Korzh, Boris; Martin, Anthony; Bussières, Félix; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo
2014-12-01
Recently, a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme based on entanglement swapping, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), was proposed to bypass all measurement side-channel attacks. While mdiQKD is conceptually elegant and offers a supreme level of security, the experimental complexity is challenging for practical systems. For instance, it requires interference between two widely separated independent single-photon sources, and the secret key rates are dependent on detecting two photons—one from each source. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment of a QKD scheme that removes the need for a two-photon system and instead uses the idea of a two-qubit single-photon to significantly simplify the implementation and improve the efficiency of mdiQKD in several aspects.
Completely device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar, Edgar A.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Kofler, Johannes; Pawłowski, Marcin
2016-08-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a provably secure way for two distant parties to establish a common secret key, which then can be used in a classical cryptographic scheme. Using quantum entanglement, one can reduce the necessary assumptions that the parties have to make about their devices, giving rise to device-independent QKD (DIQKD). However, in all existing protocols to date the parties need to have an initial (at least partially) random seed as a resource. In this work, we show that this requirement can be dropped. Using recent advances in the fields of randomness amplification and randomness expansion, we demonstrate that it is sufficient for the message the parties want to communicate to be (partially) unknown to the adversaries—an assumption without which any type of cryptography would be pointless to begin with. One party can use her secret message to locally generate a secret sequence of bits, which can then be openly used by herself and the other party in a DIQKD protocol. Hence our work reduces the requirements needed to perform secure DIQKD and establish safe communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhao; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-03-01
Multipartite quantum nonlocality is an important diagnostic tool and resource for both researches in fundamental quantum mechanics and applications in quantum information protocols. Shared reference frames among all parties are usually required for experimentally observing quantum nonlocality, which is not possible in many circumstances. Previous results have shown violations of bipartite Bell inequalities with approaching unit probability, without shared reference frames. Here we experimentally demonstrate genuine multipartite quantum nonlocality without shared reference frames, using the Svetlichny inequality. A significant violation probability of 0.58 is observed with a high-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Furthermore, when there is one shared axis among all the parties, which is the usual case in fiber-optic or earth-satellite links, the experimental results demonstrate the genuine three-partite nonlocality with certainty. Our experiment will be helpful for applications in multipartite quantum communication protocols.
Performance of device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhu; Zhao, Qi; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-07-01
Quantum key distribution provides information-theoretically-secure communication. In practice, device imperfections may jeopardise the system security. Device-independent quantum key distribution solves this problem by providing secure keys even when the quantum devices are untrusted and uncharacterized. Following a recent security proof of the device-independent quantum key distribution, we improve the key rate by tightening the parameter choice in the security proof. In practice where the system is lossy, we further improve the key rate by taking into account the loss position information. From our numerical simulation, our method can outperform existing results. Meanwhile, we outline clear experimental requirements for implementing device-independent quantum key distribution. The maximal tolerable error rate is 1.6%, the minimal required transmittance is 97.3%, and the minimal required visibility is 96.8 % .
Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks.
Acín, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Scarani, Valerio
2007-06-01
We present the optimal collective attack on a quantum key distribution protocol in the "device-independent" security scenario, where no assumptions are made about the way the quantum key distribution devices work or on what quantum system they operate. Our main result is a tight bound on the Holevo information between one of the authorized parties and the eavesdropper, as a function of the amount of violation of a Bell-type inequality.
Quantum interference of independently generated telecom-band single photons
Patel, Monika; Altepeter, Joseph B.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Oza, Neal N.; Kumar, Prem
2014-12-04
We report on high-visibility quantum interference of independently generated telecom O-band (1310 nm) single photons using standard single-mode fibers. The experimental data are shown to agree well with the results of simulations using a comprehensive quantum multimode theory without the need for any fitting parameter.
Long-distance measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication.
Fu, Yao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2015-03-01
The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement, originally introduced to uncover the extreme violation of local realism against quantum mechanics, is an important resource for multiparty quantum communication tasks. But the low intensity and fragility of the GHZ entanglement source in current conditions have made the practical applications of these multiparty tasks an experimental challenge. Here we propose a feasible scheme for practically distributing the postselected GHZ entanglement over a distance of more than 100 km for experimentally accessible parameter regimes. Combining the decoy-state and measurement-device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution, we anticipate that our proposal suggests an important avenue for practical multiparty quantum communication.
State-independent purity and fidelity of quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zong, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-04-01
The purity and fidelity of quantum operations are of great importance in characterizing the quality of quantum operations. The currently available definitions of the purity and fidelity of quantum operations are based on the average over all possible input pure quantum states, i.e. they are state-dependent (SD). In this paper, without resorting to quantum states, we define the state-independent (SI) purity and fidelity of a general quantum operation (evolution) in virtue of a new density matrix formalism for quantum operations, which is extended from the quantum state level to quantum operation level. The SI purity and fidelity gain more intrinsic physical properties of quantum operations than state-dependent ones, such as the purity of a one-qubit amplitude damping channel (with damping rate 1) is 1/2, which is in line with the fact that the channel is still a nonunitary operation described by two Kraus operators rather than a unitary one. But the state-dependent Haar average purity is 1 in this case. So the SI purity and fidelity proposed here can help the experimentalists to exactly quantify the implementation quality of an operation. As a byproduct, a new measure of the operator entanglement is proposed for a quantum evolution (unitary or nonunitary) in terms of the linear entropy of its density matrix on the orthonormal operator bases (OOBs) in Hilbert-Schmidt space.
Eavesdropping of quantum communication from a noninertial frame
Bradler, K.
2007-02-15
We introduce a relativistic version of the quantum encryption protocol by considering two inertial observers who wish to securely transmit quantum information encoded in a free scalar quantum field state forming Minkowski particles. In a nonrelativistic setting a certain amount of shared classical resources is necessary to perfectly encrypt the state. We show that in the case of a uniformly accelerated eavesdropper the communicating parties need to share (asymptotically in the limit of infinite acceleration) just half of the classical resources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshino, T.
The celestial and the terrestrial reference frames were improved with VLBI techniques. To extend VLBI network or to combine VLBI stations into a new network, the celestial and terrestrial reference frames should be unique and consistent. Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) can be used both to test the self-consistency of the data set through the intercomparison of the results with independent networks and to establish the IERS reference frame because ERP are conversion parameters between celestial and terrestrial reference frames.
Optimal Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution
Kamaruddin, S.; Shaari, J. S.
2016-01-01
We consider an optimal quantum key distribution setup based on minimal number of measurement bases with binary yields used by parties against an eavesdropper limited only by the no-signaling principle. We note that in general, the maximal key rate can be achieved by determining the optimal tradeoff between measurements that attain the maximal Bell violation and those that maximise the bit correlation between the parties. We show that higher correlation between shared raw keys at the expense of maximal Bell violation provide for better key rates for low channel disturbance. PMID:27485160
Optimal Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamaruddin, S.; Shaari, J. S.
2016-08-01
We consider an optimal quantum key distribution setup based on minimal number of measurement bases with binary yields used by parties against an eavesdropper limited only by the no-signaling principle. We note that in general, the maximal key rate can be achieved by determining the optimal tradeoff between measurements that attain the maximal Bell violation and those that maximise the bit correlation between the parties. We show that higher correlation between shared raw keys at the expense of maximal Bell violation provide for better key rates for low channel disturbance.
Optimal Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution.
Kamaruddin, S; Shaari, J S
2016-01-01
We consider an optimal quantum key distribution setup based on minimal number of measurement bases with binary yields used by parties against an eavesdropper limited only by the no-signaling principle. We note that in general, the maximal key rate can be achieved by determining the optimal tradeoff between measurements that attain the maximal Bell violation and those that maximise the bit correlation between the parties. We show that higher correlation between shared raw keys at the expense of maximal Bell violation provide for better key rates for low channel disturbance. PMID:27485160
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Andrey; Abanov, Alexander; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-03-01
While the classical Chern-Simons theory is topological, it's quantum version is not as it depends on the metric of the base manifold through the path integral measure. This phenomenon is known as the framing anomaly. It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions of fractional quantum Hall systems (FQH). In the lowest order in gradients the effective action includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and generates a ``finite size correction'' to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses of non-Abelian FQH states.
State-independent quantum contextuality with single photons.
Amselem, Elias; Rådmark, Magnus; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adán
2009-10-16
We present an experimental state-independent violation of an inequality for noncontextual theories on single particles. We show that 20 different single-photon states violate an inequality which involves correlations between results of sequential compatible measurements by at least 419 standard deviations. Our results show that, for any physical system, even for a single system, and independent of its state, there is a universal set of tests whose results do not admit a noncontextual interpretation. This sheds new light on the role of quantum mechanics in quantum information processing.
Quantum Holonomies from Spectral Networks and Framed BPS States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabella, Maxime
2016-08-01
We propose a method for determining the spins of BPS states supported on line defects in 4d {{N}=2} theories of class S. Via the 2d-4d correspondence, this translates to the construction of quantum holonomies on a punctured Riemann surface {{C}} . Our approach combines the technology of spectral networks, which decomposes flat {GL(K,{C})} -connections on {{C}} in terms of flat abelian connections on a K-fold cover of {{C}} , and the skein algebra in the 3-manifold {{C} × [0,1]} , which expresses the representation theory of the quantum group U q (gl K ). With any path on {{C}} , the quantum holonomy associates a positive Laurent polynomial in the quantized Fock-Goncharov coordinates of higher Teichmüller space. This confirms various positivity conjectures in physics and mathematics.
Graviton propagator from background-independent quantum gravity.
Rovelli, Carlo
2006-10-13
We study the graviton propagator in Euclidean loop quantum gravity. We use spin foam, boundary-amplitude, and group-field-theory techniques. We compute a component of the propagator to first order, under some approximations, obtaining the correct large-distance behavior. This indicates a way for deriving conventional spacetime quantities from a background-independent theory.
Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan
2016-05-01
We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.
Quantum mechanics in noninertial reference frames: Relativistic accelerations and fictitious forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klink, W. H.; Wickramasekara, S.
2016-06-01
One-particle systems in relativistically accelerating reference frames can be associated with a class of unitary representations of the group of arbitrary coordinate transformations, an extension of the Wigner-Bargmann definition of particles as the physical realization of unitary irreducible representations of the Poincaré group. Representations of the group of arbitrary coordinate transformations become necessary to define unitary operators implementing relativistic acceleration transformations in quantum theory because, unlike in the Galilean case, the relativistic acceleration transformations do not themselves form a group. The momentum operators that follow from these representations show how the fictitious forces in noninertial reference frames are generated in quantum theory.
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2014-04-01
A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.
Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klink, W. H.; Wickramasekara, S.
2013-09-01
This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics.
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G.; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-01
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Framing anomaly in the effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-01
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations
Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.
2013-09-15
This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is presented. •The Galilei group is generalized to infinite dimensional Galilean line group. •Loop prolongations of Galilean line group contain central extensions of Galilei group. •Unitary representations of the loops are constructed. •These representations lead to terms in the Hamiltonian corresponding to fictitious forces, including centrifugal and Coriolis
On a lattice-independent formulation of quantum holonomy theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aastrup, Johannes; Møller Grimstrup, Jesper
2016-11-01
Quantum holonomy theory is a candidate for a non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity coupled to fermions. The theory is based on the {{QHD}}(M)-algebra, which essentially encodes how matter degrees of freedom are moved on a three-dimensional manifold. In this paper we commence the development of a lattice-independent formulation. We first introduce a flow-dependent version of the {{QHD}}(M)-algebra and formulate necessary conditions for a state to exist hereon. We then use the GNS construction to build a kinematical Hilbert space. Finally, we find that operators, that correspond to the Dirac and gravitational Hamiltonians in a semi-classical limit, are background independent.
Quantum state-independent contextuality requires 13 rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabello, Adán; Kleinmann, Matthias; Portillo, José R.
2016-09-01
We show that, regardless of the dimension of the Hilbert space, there exists no set of rays revealing state-independent contextuality with less than 13 rays. This implies that the set proposed by Yu and Oh in dimension three (2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 030402) is actually the minimal set in quantum theory. This contrasts with the case of Kochen–Specker sets, where the smallest set occurs in dimension four.
Temperature independent quantum well FET with delta channel doping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, P. G.; Mena, R. A.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Haugland, E. J.
1992-01-01
A temperature independent device is presented which uses a quantum well structure and delta doping within the channel. The device requires a high delta doping concentration within the channel to achieve a constant Hall mobility and carrier concentration across the temperature range 300-1.4 K. Transistors were RF tested using on-wafer probing and a constant G sub max and F sub max were measured over the temperature range 300-70 K.
Local thermodynamical equilibrium and the frame for a quantum relativistic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becattini, Francesco; Bucciantini, Leda; Grossi, Eduardo; Tinti, Leonardo
2015-05-01
We discuss the concept of local thermodynamical equilibrium in relativistic hydrodynamics in flat spacetime in a quantum statistical framework without an underlying kinetic description, suitable for strongly interacting fluids. We show that the appropriate definition of local equilibrium naturally leads to the introduction of a relativistic hydrodynamical frame in which the four-velocity vector is the one of a relativistic thermometer at equilibrium with the fluid, parallel to the inverse temperature four-vector , which then becomes a primary quantity. We show that this frame is the most appropriate for the expansion of the stress-energy tensor from local thermodynamical equilibrium and that therein the local laws of thermodynamics take on their simplest form. We discuss the difference between the frame and Landau frame and present an instance where they differ.
Phase-Reference-Free Experiment of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution.
Wang, Chao; Song, Xiao-Tian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-10-16
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) is a substantial step toward practical information-theoretic security for key sharing between remote legitimate users (Alice and Bob). As with other standard device-dependent quantum key distribution protocols, such as BB84, MDI QKD assumes that the reference frames have been shared between Alice and Bob. In practice, a nontrivial alignment procedure is often necessary, which requires system resources and may significantly reduce the secure key generation rate. Here, we propose a phase-coding reference-frame-independent MDI QKD scheme that requires no phase alignment between the interferometers of two distant legitimate parties. As a demonstration, a proof-of-principle experiment using Faraday-Michelson interferometers is presented. The experimental system worked at 1 MHz, and an average secure key rate of 8.309 bps was obtained at a fiber length of 20 km between Alice and Bob. The system can maintain a positive key generation rate without phase compensation under normal conditions. The results exhibit the feasibility of our system for use in mature MDI QKD devices and its value for network scenarios. PMID:26550855
Phase-Reference-Free Experiment of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution.
Wang, Chao; Song, Xiao-Tian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-10-16
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) is a substantial step toward practical information-theoretic security for key sharing between remote legitimate users (Alice and Bob). As with other standard device-dependent quantum key distribution protocols, such as BB84, MDI QKD assumes that the reference frames have been shared between Alice and Bob. In practice, a nontrivial alignment procedure is often necessary, which requires system resources and may significantly reduce the secure key generation rate. Here, we propose a phase-coding reference-frame-independent MDI QKD scheme that requires no phase alignment between the interferometers of two distant legitimate parties. As a demonstration, a proof-of-principle experiment using Faraday-Michelson interferometers is presented. The experimental system worked at 1 MHz, and an average secure key rate of 8.309 bps was obtained at a fiber length of 20 km between Alice and Bob. The system can maintain a positive key generation rate without phase compensation under normal conditions. The results exhibit the feasibility of our system for use in mature MDI QKD devices and its value for network scenarios.
Benioff, Paul
2009-01-01
Tmore » his work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices.he frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stage j frame have images in a stage j - 1 (parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes the proposal that points of stage j frame lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames.he resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less
Memory Attacks on Device-Independent Quantum Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
2013-01-01
Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party).
Memory attacks on device-independent quantum cryptography.
Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
2013-01-01
Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party). PMID:23383767
Memory attacks on device-independent quantum cryptography.
Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
2013-01-01
Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Ray Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim
2014-03-01
Escape under the action of the external modulation constitutes a nontrivial generalization of an conventional Kramers rate because the system is away from thermal equilibrium. A derivation of this result from the point of view of Langevin dynamics in the frame of Floquet theorem in conjunction with the Kapitza-Landau time window (that leads to an attractive description of the time-dependent quantum dynamics in terms of time-independent one) has been provided. The quantum escape rate in the intermediate-to-high and very-high damping regime so obtained analytically using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner distribution and path-integral formalism bears a quantum correction that depends strongly on the barrier height. It is shown that an increase of (amplitude/frequency) ratio causes the system to decay faster, in general. The crossover temperature between tunneling and thermal activation increases in the presence of field so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Alexander R. H.; Piani, Marco; Mann, Robert B.
2016-07-01
Quantum communication without a shared reference frame or the construction of a relational quantum theory requires the notion of a quantum reference frame. We analyze aspects of quantum reference frames associated with noncompact groups, specifically, the group of spatial translations and Galilean boosts. We begin by demonstrating how the usually employed group average, used to dispense of the notion of an external reference frame, leads to unphysical states when applied to reference frames associated with noncompact groups. However, we show that this average does lead naturally to a reduced state on the relative degrees of freedom of a system, which was previously considered by Angelo et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 145304 (2011), 10.1088/1751-8113/44/14/145304]. We then study in detail the informational properties of this reduced state for systems of two and three particles in Gaussian states.
High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana; Weedbrook, Christian; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Lloyd, Seth; Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2015-06-01
Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task—the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction has been the introduction of measurement-device independence, where the secret key between two parties is established by the measurement of an untrusted relay. Unfortunately, although qubit-implemented protocols can reach long distances, their key rates are typically very low, unsuitable for the demands of a metropolitan network. Here we show, theoretically and experimentally, that a solution can come from the use of continuous-variable systems. We design a coherent-state network protocol able to achieve remarkably high key rates at metropolitan distances, in fact three orders of magnitude higher than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S; Fejer, M M; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-09-27
Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices. PMID:24116758
Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-09-01
Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.
PREFACE: Loops 11: Non-Perturbative / Background Independent Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Garay, Luis J.; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.; Olmedo, Javier
2012-05-01
Loops 11 The international conference LOOPS'11 took place in Madrid from the 23-28 May 2011. It was hosted by the Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM), which belongs to the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientĺficas (CSIC). Like previous editions of the LOOPS meetings, it dealt with a wealth of state-of-the-art topics on Quantum Gravity, with special emphasis on non-perturbative background-independent approaches to spacetime quantization. The main topics addressed at the conference ranged from the foundations of Quantum Gravity to its phenomenological aspects. They encompassed different approaches to Loop Quantum Gravity and Cosmology, Polymer Quantization, Quantum Field Theory, Black Holes, and discrete approaches such as Dynamical Triangulations, amongst others. In addition, this edition celebrated the 25th anniversary of the introduction of the now well-known Ashtekar variables and the Wednesday morning session was devoted to this silver jubilee. The structure of the conference was designed to reflect the current state and future prospects of research on the different topics mentioned above. Plenary lectures that provided general background and the 'big picture' took place during the mornings, and the more specialised talks were distributed in parallel sessions during the evenings. To be more specific, Monday evening was devoted to Shape Dynamics and Phenomenology Derived from Quantum Gravity in Parallel Session A, and to Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams in Parallel Session B. Tuesday's three Parallel Sessions dealt with Black Hole Physics and Dynamical Triangulations (Session A), the continuation of Monday's session on Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams (Session B) and Foundations of Quantum Gravity (Session C). Finally, Thursday and Friday evenings were devoted to Loop Quantum Cosmology (Session A) and to Hamiltonian Loop Quantum Gravity (Session B). The result of the conference was very satisfactory and enlightening. Not
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roddy, Troy Paul
2010-01-01
This study examined the self-perceived leadership orientations of headmasters of independent schools. This research expanded the current body of work that supports Bolman and Deal's (2003) multi-frame explanation that leaders use different orientations (frames) to understand their roles, clarify organizational situations, and make decisions. Using…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu
2015-10-01
Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.
Instructions, Independence and Uncertainty: Student Framing in Self-Regulated Project Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eklof, Anders; Nilsson, Lars-Erik; Ottosson, Torgny
2014-01-01
This study presents an approach to student interaction in self-regulated project work. By combining frame analysis and socio-cultural risk theory, the authors explore the importance of students' framing activities as a basis for their understanding of tasks. The increase in self-regulated work in Swedish schools can be seen as being in line…
PREFACE: Loops 11: Non-Perturbative / Background Independent Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Garay, Luis J.; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.; Olmedo, Javier
2012-05-01
Loops 11 The international conference LOOPS'11 took place in Madrid from the 23-28 May 2011. It was hosted by the Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM), which belongs to the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientĺficas (CSIC). Like previous editions of the LOOPS meetings, it dealt with a wealth of state-of-the-art topics on Quantum Gravity, with special emphasis on non-perturbative background-independent approaches to spacetime quantization. The main topics addressed at the conference ranged from the foundations of Quantum Gravity to its phenomenological aspects. They encompassed different approaches to Loop Quantum Gravity and Cosmology, Polymer Quantization, Quantum Field Theory, Black Holes, and discrete approaches such as Dynamical Triangulations, amongst others. In addition, this edition celebrated the 25th anniversary of the introduction of the now well-known Ashtekar variables and the Wednesday morning session was devoted to this silver jubilee. The structure of the conference was designed to reflect the current state and future prospects of research on the different topics mentioned above. Plenary lectures that provided general background and the 'big picture' took place during the mornings, and the more specialised talks were distributed in parallel sessions during the evenings. To be more specific, Monday evening was devoted to Shape Dynamics and Phenomenology Derived from Quantum Gravity in Parallel Session A, and to Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams in Parallel Session B. Tuesday's three Parallel Sessions dealt with Black Hole Physics and Dynamical Triangulations (Session A), the continuation of Monday's session on Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams (Session B) and Foundations of Quantum Gravity (Session C). Finally, Thursday and Friday evenings were devoted to Loop Quantum Cosmology (Session A) and to Hamiltonian Loop Quantum Gravity (Session B). The result of the conference was very satisfactory and enlightening. Not
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeown, Martin J.; Gadala, Marwa; Abu-Gharbieh, Rafeef
2005-04-01
Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has proved a powerful exploratory analysis method for fMRI. In the ICA model, the fMRI data at a given time point are modeled as the linear superposition of spatially independent (and spatially stationary) component maps. The ICA model has been recently applied to positron emission tomography (PET) data with some success (Human Brain Mapping 18:284-295(2003), IEEE Trans. BME, Naganawa et al, in press). However, in PET imaging each frame is, in fact, activity integrated over a relatively long period of time, making the assumption that the underlying component maps are spatially stationary (and hence no head movement has taken place during the frame collection) very tenuous. Here we extend the application of the ICA model to 11C-methylphenidate PET data by assuming that each frame is actually composed of the superposition of rigidly transformed underlying spatial components. We first determine the "noisy" initial spatially independent components of a data set under the erroneous assumption of no intra or inter-frame motion. Aspects of the initial components that reliably track spatial perturbations of the data are then determined to produce the motion-compensated components. Initial components included ring-like spatial distributions, indicating that movement corrupts the statistical properties of the data. The final intra-frame motion-compensated components included more plausible symmetric and robust activity in the striatum as would be expected compared to the raw data and the initial components. We conclude that 1) intra-frame motion is a serious confound in PET imaging which affects the statistical properties of the data and 2) our proposed procedure ameliorates such motion effects.
Alba, David; Crater, Horace W.; Lusanna, Luca
2011-06-15
A new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics is proposed in the framework of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics, where the world-lines of the particles are parametrized in terms of the Fokker-Pryce center of inertia and of Wigner-covariant relative 3-coordinates inside the instantaneous Wigner 3-spaces, and where there is a decoupled (non-covariant and non-local) canonical relativistic center of mass. This approach: (a) allows us to make a consistent quantization in every inertial frame; (b) leads to a description of both bound and scattering states; (c) offers new insights on the relativistic localization problem; (d) leads to a non-relativistic limit with a Hamilton-Jacobi treatment of the Newton center of mass; (e) clarifies non-local aspects (spatial non-separability) of relativistic entanglement connected with Lorentz signature and not present in its non-relativistic treatment.
Radix-independent, efficient arrays for multi-level n-qudit quantum and reversible computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, Majid
2015-08-01
Multiple-valued quantum logic allows the designers to reduce the number of cells while obtaining more functionality in the quantum circuits. Large r-valued reversible or quantum gates ( r stands for radix and is more than 2) cannot be directly realized in the current quantum technology. Therefore, we are interested in designing the large reversible and quantum controlled gates using the arrays of one-quantum digit (qudit) or two-qudit gates. In our previous work, we proposed quantum arrays to implement the r-valued quantum circuits. In this paper, we propose novel efficient structures and arrays, for r-valued quantum logic gates. The quantum costs of the developed quantum arrays are independent of the radix of calculations in the quantum circuit.
State-independent experimental test of quantum contextuality in an indivisible system.
Zu, C; Wang, Y-X; Deng, D-L; Chang, X-Y; Liu, K; Hou, P-Y; Yang, H-X; Duan, L-M
2012-10-12
We report the first state-independent experimental test of quantum contextuality on a single photonic qutrit (three-dimensional system), based on a recent theoretical proposal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 030402 (2012)]. Our experiment spotlights quantum contextuality in its most basic form, in a way that is independent of either the state or the tensor product structure of the system.
Time-independent quantum circuits with local interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seifnashri, Sahand; Kianvash, Farzad; Nobakht, Jahangir; Karimipour, Vahid
2016-06-01
Heisenberg spin chains can act as quantum wires transferring quantum states either perfectly or with high fidelity. Gaussian packets of excitations passing through dual rails can encode the two states of a logical qubit, depending on which rail is empty and which rail is carrying the packet. With extra interactions in one or between different chains, one can introduce interaction zones in arrays of such chains, where specific one- or two-qubit gates act on any qubit which passes through these interaction zones. Therefore, universal quantum computation is made possible in a static way where no external control is needed. This scheme will then pave the way for a scalable way of quantum computation where specific hardware can be connected to make large quantum circuits. Our scheme is an improvement of a recent scheme where we borrowed an idea from quantum electrodynamics to replace nonlocal interactions between spin chains with local interactions mediated by an ancillary chain.
Tesch, Carmen M; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina
2004-12-22
The phase of quantum gates is one key issue for the implementation of quantum algorithms. In this paper we first investigate the phase evolution of global molecular quantum gates, which are realized by optimally shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The specific laser fields are calculated using the multitarget optimal control algorithm, our modification of the optimal control theory relevant for application in quantum computing. As qubit system we use vibrational modes of polyatomic molecules, here the two IR-active modes of acetylene. Exemplarily, we present our results for a Pi gate, which shows a strong dependence on the phase, leading to a significant decrease in quantum yield. To correct for this unwanted behavior we include pressure on the quantum phase in our multitarget approach. In addition the accuracy of these phase corrected global quantum gates is enhanced. Furthermore we could show that in our molecular approach phase corrected quantum gates and basis set independence are directly linked. Basis set independence is also another property highly required for the performance of quantum algorithms. By realizing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in our two qubit molecular model system, we demonstrate the good performance of our phase corrected and basis set independent quantum gates.
Time independent universal computing with spin chains: quantum plinko machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, K. F.; Gokler, C.; Lloyd, S.; Shor, P. W.
2016-07-01
We present a scheme for universal quantum computing using XY Heisenberg spin chains. Information is encoded into packets propagating down these chains, and they interact with each other to perform universal quantum computation. A circuit using g gate blocks on m qubits can be encoded into chains of length O({g}3+δ {m}3+δ ) for all δ \\gt 0 with vanishingly small error.
Tommaso, Anne di; Hagen, Jussara; Tompkins, Van; Muniz, Viviane; Dudakovic, Amel; Kitzis, Alain; Ladeveze, Veronique; Quelle, Dawn E.
2009-04-15
The Alternative Reading Frame (ARF) protein suppresses tumorigenesis through p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. Most of ARF's anti-proliferative activity is conferred by sequences in its first exon. Previous work showed specific amino acid changes occurred in that region during primate evolution, so we programmed those changes into human p14ARF to assay their functional impact. Two human p14ARF residues (Ala{sup 14} and Thr{sup 31}) were found to destabilize the protein while two others (Val{sup 24} and Ala{sup 41}) promoted more efficient p53 stabilization and activation. Despite those effects, all modified p14ARF forms displayed robust p53-dependent anti-proliferative activity demonstrating there are no significant biological differences in p53-mediated growth suppression associated with simian versus human p14ARF residues. In contrast, p53-independent p14ARF function was considerably altered by several residue changes. Val{sup 24} was required for p53-independent growth suppression whereas multiple residues (Val{sup 24}, Thr{sup 31}, Ala{sup 41} and His{sup 60}) enabled p14ARF to block or reverse the inherent chromosomal instability of p53-null MEFs. Together, these data pinpoint specific residues outside of established p14ARF functional domains that influence its expression and signaling activities. Most intriguingly, this work reveals a novel and direct role for p14ARF in the p53-independent maintenance of genomic stability.
Bell nonlocality: a resource for device-independent quantum information protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acin, Antonio
2015-05-01
Bell nonlocality is not only one of the most fundamental properties of quantum physics, but has also recently acquired the status of an information resource for device-independent quantum information protocols. In the device-independent approach, protocols are designed so that their performance is independent of the internal working of the devices used in the implementation. We discuss all these ideas and argue that device-independent protocols are especially relevant or cryptographic applications, as they are insensitive to hacking attacks exploiting imperfections on the modelling of the devices.
Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qi-Chao; Mao, Ya-Li; Chen, Si-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yang-Fan; Zhang, Yan-Bao; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; You, Li-Xing; Chen, Xian-Feng; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-10-01
Quantum teleportation faithfully transfers a quantum state between distant nodes in a network, which enables revolutionary information-processing applications. This has motivated a tremendous amount of research activity. However, in the past not a single quantum-teleportation experiment has been realized with independent quantum sources, entanglement distribution prior to the Bell-state measurement (BSM) and feedforward operation simultaneously, even in the laboratory environment. We take the challenge and report the construction of a 30 km optical-fibre-based quantum network distributed over a 12.5 km area. This network is robust against noise in the real world with active stabilization strategies, which allows us to realize quantum teleportation with all the ingredients simultaneously. Both the quantum-state and process-tomography measurements and an independent statistical hypothesis test confirm the quantum nature of the quantum teleportation over this network. Our experiment marks a critical step towards the realization of a global ‘quantum internet’ in the real world.
State-independent experimental test of quantum contextuality with a single trapped ion.
Zhang, Xiang; Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; An, Shuoming; Wang, Ye; Deng, Dong-Ling; Shen, Chao; Duan, Lu-Ming; Kim, Kihwan
2013-02-15
Using a single trapped ion, we have experimentally demonstrated state-independent violation of a recent version of the Kochen-Specker inequality in a three-level system (qutrit) that is intrinsically indivisible. Three ground states of the (171)Yb(+) ion representing a qutrit are manipulated with high fidelity through microwaves and detected with high efficiency through a two-step quantum jump technique. Qutrits constitute the most fundamental system to show quantum contextuality and our experiment represents the first one that closes the detection efficiency loophole for experimental tests of quantum contextuality in such a system. PMID:25166352
Waterboer, Tim; Rahaus, Markus; Wolff, Manfred H
2002-01-01
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 17 (ORF 17) is the gene corresponding to Herpes simplex-virus (HSV) UL41. The UL41 gene encodes the virion host shutoff factor (vhs), a RNase that has been the object of detailed studies. In contrast to HSV, knowledge about VZV mediated shutoff effects and the role of ORF 17 is poor. We investigated the ORF 17 expression in infected cells and analyzed shutoff effects. ORF 17 expression could not be proven in infected human fibroblast cell lines and melanoma (MeWo) cells. Only after induction by Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate an ORF 17 expression became detectable in MeWo cells. Nevertheless, using stable expressed GAPDH mRNA as a marker for mRNA degradation, a VZV mediated shutoff, independent of ORF 17 expression, became measurable. Transfection experiments demonstrated that transient ORF 17 expression did not decrease the cellular GAPDH mRNA level. We examined whether the VZV shutoff factor is a tegument protein causing an early shutoff or whether it needs to be expressed (delayed shutoff). The GAPDH mRNA level in Actinomycin D pretreated and infected MeWo cells did not decrease even faster than the theoretical decay rate based on a half-life of 24 h. These findings lead to the conclusion that the VZV shutoff factor is not a mature protein localized in the virion and that VZV causes a delayed virion host shutoff effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Nan
2016-06-01
We introduce the concept of assemblage moment matrices, i.e., a collection of matrices of expectation values, each associated with a conditional quantum state obtained in a steering experiment. We demonstrate how it can be used for quantum states and measurements characterization in a device-independent manner, i.e., without invoking any assumption about the measurement or the preparation device. Specifically, we show how the method can be used to lower bound the steerability of an underlying quantum state directly from the observed correlation between measurement outcomes. Combining such device-independent quantifications with earlier results established by Piani and Watrous [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060404 (2015)], our approach immediately provides a device-independent lower bound on the generalized robustness of entanglement, as well as the usefulness of the underlying quantum state for a type of subchannel discrimination problem. In addition, by proving a quantitative relationship between steering robustness and the recently introduced incompatibility robustness, our approach also allows for a device-independent quantification of the incompatibility between various measurements performed in a Bell-type experiment. Explicit examples where such bounds provide a kind of self-testing of the performed measurements are provided.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-25
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
W-state Analyzer and Multi-party Measurement-device-independent Quantum Key Distribution
Zhu, Changhua; Xu, Feihu; Pei, Changxing
2015-01-01
W-state is an important resource for many quantum information processing tasks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on W-state. With linear optics, we design a W-state analyzer in order to distinguish the four-qubit W-state. This analyzer constructs the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Moreover, we derived a complete security proof of the four-party MDI-QKD, and performed a numerical simulation to study its performance. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 150 km standard telecom fiber with off-the-shelf single photon detectors. This work takes an important step towards multi-party quantum communication and a quantum network. PMID:26644289
Yeh, Te-Fu; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chung, Chung-Jen; Chiang, I-Ting; Chen, Liang-Che; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Su, Wu-Chou; Cheng, Ching; Chen, Shean-Jen; Teng, Hsisheng
2016-06-01
Investigating quantum confinement in graphene under ambient conditions remains a challenge. In this study, we present graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) that show excitation-wavelength-independent photoluminescence. The luminescence color varies from orange-red to blue as the GOQD size is reduced from 8 to 1 nm. The photoluminescence of each GOQD specimen is associated with electron transitions from the antibonding π (π*) to oxygen nonbonding (n-state) orbitals. The observed quantum confinement is ascribed to a size change in the sp(2) domains, which leads to a change in the π*-π gap; the n-state levels remain unaffected by the size change. The electronic properties and mechanisms involved in quantum-confined photoluminescence can serve as the foundation for the application of oxygenated graphene in electronics, photonics, and biology. PMID:27192445
Plug-and-play measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Yujun; Kwon, Osung; Woo, Minki; Oh, Kyunghwan; Han, Sang-Wook; Kim, Yong-Su; Moon, Sung
2016-03-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) guarantees unconditional communication security based on the laws of quantum physics. However, practical QKD suffers from a number of quantum hackings due to the device imperfections. From the security standpoint, measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is in the limelight since it eliminates all the possible loopholes in detection. Due to active control units for mode matching between the photons from remote parties, however, the implementation of MDI-QKD is highly impractical. In this paper, we propose a method to resolve the mode matching problem while minimizing the use of active control units. By introducing the plug-and-play (P&P) concept into MDI-QKD, the indistinguishability in spectral and polarization modes between photons can naturally be guaranteed. We show the feasibility of P&P MDI-QKD with a proof-of-principle experiment.
Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution
Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas
2011-07-15
By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.
Arbitrarily small amount of measurement independence is sufficient to manifest quantum nonlocality.
Pütz, Gilles; Rosset, Denis; Barnea, Tomer Jack; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Gisin, Nicolas
2014-11-01
The use of Bell's theorem in any application or experiment relies on the assumption of free choice or, more precisely, measurement independence, meaning that the measurements can be chosen freely. Here, we prove that even in the simplest Bell test-one involving 2 parties each performing 2 binary-outcome measurements-an arbitrarily small amount of measurement independence is sufficient to manifest quantum nonlocality. To this end, we introduce the notion of measurement dependent locality and show that the corresponding correlations form a convex polytope. These correlations can thus be characterized efficiently, e.g., using a finite set of Bell-like inequalities-an observation that enables the systematic study of quantum nonlocality and related applications under limited measurement independence. PMID:25415887
Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2014-01-01
We present a model on the simulation of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with phase randomized general sources. It can be used to predict experimental observations of a MDI-QKD with linear channel loss, simulating corresponding values for the gains, the error rates in different basis, and also the final key rates. Our model can be applicable to the MDI-QKDs with arbitrary probabilistic mixture of different photon states or using any coding schemes. Therefore, it is useful in characterizing and evaluating the performance of the MDI-QKD protocol, making it a valuable tool in studying the quantum key distributions. PMID:24728000
A sum-over-paths approach to one-dimensional time-independent quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna
2016-09-01
We present an alternative treatment for simple time-independent quantum systems in one dimension, which can be used in the context of an elementary introduction to quantum physics using the Feynman approach. The method is based on representation of the energy-dependent propagator (or Green function) as a sum of complex amplitudes over all possible paths, classical and non-classical, at fixed energy. We treat both confined and open systems with piecewise-constant potentials, obtaining exact results. We introduce an approximation scheme to extend the method to smooth potentials, recovering the Van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator. Finally, we discuss the educational application of the method.
Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B
2014-09-15
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case. PMID:26466295
Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over Untrustful Metropolitan Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hui; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Huang, Ming-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Zhang, Lu; You, Li-Xing; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Lu, Chao-Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) network in a star topology over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate 10 times larger than previous results. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds—security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.
Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi
2016-10-01
The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.
Heralded-qubit amplifiers for practical device-independent quantum key distribution
Curty, Marcos; Moroder, Tobias
2011-07-15
Device-independent quantum key distribution does not need a precise quantum mechanical model of employed devices to guarantee security. Despite its beauty, it is still a very challenging experimental task. We compare a recent proposal by Gisin et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)] to close the detection loophole problem with that of a simpler quantum relay based on entanglement swapping with linear optics. Our full-mode analysis for both schemes confirms that, in contrast to recent beliefs, the second scheme can indeed provide a positive key rate which is even considerably higher than that of the first alternative. The resulting key rates and required detection efficiencies of approximately 95% for both schemes, however, strongly depend on the underlying security proof.
Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi
2016-07-01
The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephenson, Margaret E.
2000-01-01
Discusses the four planes of development and the periods of creation and crystallization within each plane. Identifies the type of independence that should be achieved by the end of the first two planes of development. Maintains that it is through individual work on the environment that one achieves independence. (KB)
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
The enhanced measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with two-intensity decoy states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Feng; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Wang, Qin
2016-09-01
We put forward a new scheme for implementing the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) with weak coherent source, while using only two different intensities. In the new scheme, we insert a beam splitter and a local detector at both Alice's and Bob's side, and then all the triggering and non-triggering signals could be employed to process parameter estimations, resulting in very precise estimations for the two-single-photon contributions. Besides, we compare its behavior with two other often used methods, i.e., the conventional standard three-intensity decoy-state measurement-device-independent QKD and the passive measurement-device-independent QKD. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our new approach can exhibit outstanding characteristics not only in the secure transmission distance, but also in the final key generation rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seshavatharam, U. V. S.; Lakshminarayana, S.
If one is willing to consider the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole (universe that constitutes dynamic space-time and exhibits quantum behavior) automatically general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a `scale independent' true unified model of quantum gravity. By considering the `Planck mass' as the initial mass of the baby Hubble volume, past and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be understood. Current rate of cosmic black hole expansion is being stopped by the microscopic quantum mechanical lengths. In this new direction authors observed 5 important quantum mechanical methods for understanding the current cosmic deceleration. To understand the ground reality of current cosmic rate of expansion, sensitivity and accuracy of current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current CMBR temperature and current Hubble constant must be improved and alternative methods must be developed. If it is true that galaxy constitutes so many stars, each star constitutes so many hydrogen atoms and light is coming from the excited electron of galactic hydrogen atom, then considering redshift as an index of `whole galaxy' receding may not be reasonable. During cosmic evolution, at any time in the past, in hydrogen atom emitted photon energy was always inversely proportional to the CMBR temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy's excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference to the current laboratory data. As cosmic time passes, in future, the absolute rate of cosmic expansion can be understood by observing the rate of increase in the magnitude of photon energy emitted from laboratory hydrogen atom. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of high cosmic back ground temperature. Need of new mathematical methods & techniques, computer simulations, advanced engineering skills seem to be essential
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z Y; Chen, J F; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source. PMID:27419568
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z. Y.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z Y; Chen, J F; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.
Measurement-device-independent entanglement witnesses for all entangled quantum states.
Branciard, Cyril; Rosset, Denis; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Gisin, Nicolas
2013-02-01
The problem of demonstrating entanglement is central to quantum information processing applications. Resorting to standard entanglement witnesses requires one to perfectly trust the implementation of the measurements to be performed on the entangled state, which may be an unjustified assumption. Inspired by the recent work of F. Buscemi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 200401 (2012)], we introduce the concept of measurement-device-independent entanglement witnesses (MDI-EWs), which allow one to demonstrate entanglement of all entangled quantum states with untrusted measurement apparatuses. We show how to systematically obtain such MDI-EWs from standard entanglement witnesses. Our construction leads to MDI-EWs that are loss tolerant and can be implemented with current technology.
Experimental asymmetric plug-and-play measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Guang-Zhao; Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Chen, Huan; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2016-09-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all security loopholes on detection. Previous experiments on MDI-QKD required spatially separated signal lasers and complicated stabilization systems. In this paper, we perform a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of plug-and-play MDI-QKD over an asymmetric channel setting with a single signal laser in which the whole system is automatically stabilized in spectrum, polarization, arrival time, and phase reference. Both the signal laser and the single-photon detectors are in the possession of a common server. A passive timing-calibration technique is applied to ensure the precise and stable overlap of signal pulses. The results pave the way for the realization of a quantum network in which the users only need the encoding devices.
An enhanced proposal on decoy-state measurement device-independent quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Luo, Shunlong; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-09-01
By employing pulses involving three-intensity, we propose a scheme for the measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources. We make a comparative study of this scheme with the standard three-intensity decoy-state scheme using weak coherent sources or heralded single-photon sources. The advantage of this scheme is illustrated through numerical simulations: It can approach very closely the asymptotic case of using an infinite number of decoy-states and exhibits excellent behavior in both the secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate.
Pitkanen, David; Ma Xiongfeng; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Wickert, Ricardo; Loock, Peter van
2011-08-15
We present an efficient way of heralding photonic qubit signals using linear optics devices. First, we show that one can obtain asymptotically perfect heralding and unit success probability with growing resources. Second, we show that even using finite resources, we can improve qualitatively and quantitatively over earlier heralding results. In the latter scenario, we can obtain perfect heralded photonic qubits while maintaining a finite success probability. We demonstrate the advantage of our heralding scheme by predicting key rates for device-independent quantum key distribution, taking imperfections of sources and detectors into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagamatsu, Yuichi; Mizutani, Akihiro; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2016-04-01
Although quantum key distribution (QKD) is theoretically secure, there is a gap between the theory and practice. In fact, real-life QKD may not be secure because component devices in QKD systems may deviate from the theoretical models assumed in security proofs. To solve this problem, it is necessary to construct the security proof under realistic assumptions on the source and measurement unit. In this paper, we prove the security of a QKD protocol under practical assumptions on the source that accommodate fluctuation of the phase and intensity modulations. As long as our assumptions hold, it does not matter at all how the phase and intensity distribute or whether or not their distributions over different pulses are independently and identically distributed. Our work shows that practical sources can be safely employed in QKD experiments.
Note: A pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm with independent Metropolis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vrbik, Jan; Ospadov, Egor; Rothstein, Stuart M.
2016-07-01
Recently, Ospadov and Rothstein published a pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm (PSQMC) that features an auxiliary Path Z that connects the midpoints of the current and proposed Paths X and Y, respectively. When sufficiently long, Path Z provides statistical independence of Paths X and Y. Under those conditions, the Metropolis decision used in PSQMC is done without any approximation, i.e., not requiring microscopic reversibility and without having to introduce any G(x → x'; τ) factors into its decision function. This is a unique feature that contrasts with all competing reptation algorithms in the literature. An example illustrates that dependence of Paths X and Y has adverse consequences for pure sampling.
Long distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources
Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Liao, Zhongfa; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2013-08-05
We present a feasible method that can make quantum key distribution (QKD), both ultra-long-distance and immune, to all attacks in the detection system. This method is called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) with entangled photon sources in the middle. By proposing a model and simulating a QKD experiment, we find that MDI-QKD with one entangled photon source can tolerate 77 dB loss (367 km standard fiber) in the asymptotic limit and 60 dB loss (286 km standard fiber) in the finite-key case with state-of-the-art detectors. Our general model can also be applied to other non-QKD experiments involving entanglement and Bell state measurements.
Device-independent quantum key distribution with generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Curtis J.; Marshall, Kevin; Weedbrook, Christian; Howell, John C.
2015-11-01
We show how weak nonlinearities can be used in a device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol using generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states. The QKD protocol is therefore shown to be secure against collective attacks and for some coherent attacks. We derive analytical formulas for the optimal values of the Bell parameter, the quantum bit error rate, and the device-independent secret key rate in the noiseless lossy bosonic channel. Additionally, we give the filters and measurements which achieve these optimal values. We find that, over any distance in this channel, the quantum bit error rate is identically zero, in principle, and the states in the protocol are always able to violate a Bell inequality. The protocol is found to be superior in some regimes to a device-independent QKD protocol based on polarization entangled states in a depolarizing channel. Finally, we propose an implementation for the optimal filters and measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing
2012-04-01
In this paper, we study the unconditional security of the so-called measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the basis-dependent flaw in the context of phase encoding schemes. We propose two schemes for the phase encoding: The first one employs a phase locking technique with the use of non-phase-randomized coherent pulses, and the second one uses conversion of standard Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) phase encoding pulses into polarization modes. We prove the unconditional security of these schemes and we also simulate the key generation rate based on simple device models that accommodate imperfections. Our simulation results show the feasibility of these schemes with current technologies and highlight the importance of the state preparation with good fidelity between the density matrices in the two bases. Since the basis-dependent flaw is a problem not only for MDIQKD but also for standard quantum key distribution (QKD), our work highlights the importance of an accurate signal source in practical QKD systems.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with imperfect sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhiyuan; Wei, Kejin; Bedroya, Olinka; Qian, Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2016-04-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), which is immune to all detector side-channel attacks, is the most promising solution to the security issues in practical quantum key distribution systems. Although several experimental demonstrations of MDI-QKD have been reported, they all make one crucial but not yet verified assumption, that is, there are no flaws in state preparation. Such an assumption is unrealistic and security loopholes remain in the source. Here we present a MDI-QKD experiment with the modulation error taken into consideration. By applying the loss-tolerant security proof by Tamaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 052314 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.052314, we distribute secure keys over fiber links up to 40 km with imperfect sources, which would not have been possible under previous security proofs. By simultaneously closing loopholes at the detectors and a critical loophole—modulation error in the source, our work shows the feasibility of secure QKD with practical imperfect devices.
Guta, Madalin; Bowles, Peter; Adesso, Gerardo
2010-10-15
A successful state-transfer (or teleportation) experiment must perform better than the benchmark set by the 'best' measure and prepare procedure. We consider the benchmark problem for the following families of states: (i) displaced thermal equilibrium states of a given temperature; (ii) independent identically prepared qubits with a completely unknown state. For the first family we show that the optimal procedure is heterodyne measurement followed by the preparation of a coherent state. This procedure was known to be optimal for coherent states and for squeezed states with the 'overlap fidelity' as the figure of merit. Here, we prove its optimality with respect to the trace norm distance and supremum risk. For the second problem we consider n independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) spin-(1/2) systems in an arbitrary unknown state {rho} and look for the measurement-preparation pair (M{sub n},P{sub n}) for which the reconstructed state {omega}{sub n}:=P{sub n} circle M{sub n}({rho}{sup xn}) is as close as possible to the input state (i.e., parallel {omega}{sub n}-{rho}{sup xn} parallel {sub 1} is small). The figure of merit is based on the trace norm distance between the input and output states. We show that asymptotically with n this problem is equivalent to the first one. The proof and construction of (M{sub n},P{sub n}) uses the theory of local asymptotic normality developed for state estimation which shows that i.i.d. quantum models can be approximated in a strong sense by quantum Gaussian models. The measurement part is identical to 'optimal estimation', showing that 'benchmarking' and estimation are closely related problems in the asymptotic set up.
Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Houlmann, Raphael; Boso, Gianluca; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-08-01
One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant "time-reversal" QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. However, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) has been proposed to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. Here, we analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find that DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman
2015-01-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman
2015-10-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman
2015-01-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman
2015-10-30
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei; Li, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2016-09-01
We have proved that new randomness can be certified by partially free sources using 2 →1 quantum random access code (QRAC) in the framework of semi-device-independent (SDI) protocols [Y.-Q. Zhou, H.-W. Li, Y.-K. Wang, D.-D. Li, F. Gao, and Q.-Y. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 92, 022331 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.022331]. To improve the effectiveness of the randomness generation, here we propose the SDI randomness expansion using 3 →1 QRAC and obtain the corresponding classical and quantum bounds of the two-dimensional quantum witness. Moreover, we get the condition which should be satisfied by the partially free sources to successfully certify new randomness, and the analytic relationship between the certified randomness and the two-dimensional quantum witness violation.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution for Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 04 protocol.
Mizutani, Akihiro; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2014-01-01
The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) was proposed to make BB84 completely free from any side-channel in detectors. Like in prepare & measure QKD, the use of other protocols in MDI setting would be advantageous in some practical situations. In this paper, we consider SARG04 protocol in MDI setting. The prepare & measure SARG04 is proven to be able to generate a key up to two-photon emission events. In MDI setting we show that the key generation is possible from the event with single or two-photon emission by a party and single-photon emission by the other party, but the two-photon emission event by both parties cannot contribute to the key generation. On the contrary to prepare & measure SARG04 protocol where the experimental setup is exactly the same as BB84, the measurement setup for SARG04 in MDI setting cannot be the same as that for BB84 since the measurement setup for BB84 in MDI setting induces too many bit errors. To overcome this problem, we propose two alternative experimental setups, and we simulate the resulting key rate. Our study highlights the requirements that MDI QKD poses on us regarding with the implementation of a variety of QKD protocols. PMID:24913431
Wu, Feng; Ren, Yinghui; Bian, Wensheng
2016-08-21
The accurate time-independent quantum dynamics calculations on the ground-state tunneling splitting of malonaldehyde in full dimensionality are reported for the first time. This is achieved with an efficient method developed by us. In our method, the basis functions are customized for the hydrogen transfer process which has the effect of greatly reducing the size of the final Hamiltonian matrix, and the Lanczos method and parallel strategy are used to further overcome the memory and central processing unit time bottlenecks. The obtained ground-state tunneling splitting of 24.5 cm(-1) is in excellent agreement with the benchmark value of 23.8 cm(-1) computed with the full-dimensional, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach on the same potential energy surface, and we estimate that our reported value has an uncertainty of less than 0.5 cm(-1). Moreover, the role of various vibrational modes strongly coupled to the hydrogen transfer process is revealed. PMID:27544107
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Feng; Ren, Yinghui; Bian, Wensheng
2016-08-01
The accurate time-independent quantum dynamics calculations on the ground-state tunneling splitting of malonaldehyde in full dimensionality are reported for the first time. This is achieved with an efficient method developed by us. In our method, the basis functions are customized for the hydrogen transfer process which has the effect of greatly reducing the size of the final Hamiltonian matrix, and the Lanczos method and parallel strategy are used to further overcome the memory and central processing unit time bottlenecks. The obtained ground-state tunneling splitting of 24.5 cm-1 is in excellent agreement with the benchmark value of 23.8 cm-1 computed with the full-dimensional, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach on the same potential energy surface, and we estimate that our reported value has an uncertainty of less than 0.5 cm-1. Moreover, the role of various vibrational modes strongly coupled to the hydrogen transfer process is revealed.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution for Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 04 protocol
Mizutani, Akihiro; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2014-01-01
The measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) was proposed to make BB84 completely free from any side-channel in detectors. Like in prepare & measure QKD, the use of other protocols in MDI setting would be advantageous in some practical situations. In this paper, we consider SARG04 protocol in MDI setting. The prepare & measure SARG04 is proven to be able to generate a key up to two-photon emission events. In MDI setting we show that the key generation is possible from the event with single or two-photon emission by a party and single-photon emission by the other party, but the two-photon emission event by both parties cannot contribute to the key generation. On the contrary to prepare & measure SARG04 protocol where the experimental setup is exactly the same as BB84, the measurement setup for SARG04 in MDI setting cannot be the same as that for BB84 since the measurement setup for BB84 in MDI setting induces too many bit errors. To overcome this problem, we propose two alternative experimental setups, and we simulate the resulting key rate. Our study highlights the requirements that MDI QKD poses on us regarding with the implementation of a variety of QKD protocols. PMID:24913431
Discrete and continuous variables for measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-11-16
In a recent Article in Nature Photonics, Pirandola et al.1 claim that the achievable secret key rates of discrete-variable (DV) measurementdevice- independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD) (refs 2,3) are “typically very low, unsuitable for the demands of a metropolitan network” and introduce a continuous-variable (CV) MDI QKD protocol capable of providing key rates which, they claim, are “three orders of magnitude higher” than those of DV MDI QKD. We believe, however, that the claims regarding low key rates of DV MDI QKD made by Pirandola et al.1 are too pessimistic. Here in this paper, we show that the secretmore » key rate of DV MDI QKD with commercially available high-efficiency single-photon detectors (SPDs) (for example, see http://www.photonspot.com/detectors and http://www.singlequantum.com) and good system alignment is typically rather high and thus highly suitable for not only long-distance communication but also metropolitan networks.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2016-09-01
The decoy-state method could effectively enhance the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) with a practical phase randomized weak coherent source. Although active modulation of the source intensity is effective and has been implemented in many experiments, passive preparation of decoy states is also an important addition to the family of decoy-state QKD protocols. In this paper, following the theory of Curty et al. [Phys. Rev. A 81, 022310 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.022310], we experimentally demonstrate the phase-encoding passive-decoy-state QKD with only linear optical setups and threshold single-photon detectors. In our experiment, two homemade independent pulsed lasers, with visibility of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference 0.53 (±0.003 ) , have been implemented and used to passively generate the different decoy states. Finally, a secret key rate of 1.5 ×10-5 /pulse is obtained with 10-km commercial fiber between Alice and Bob.
Discrete and continuous variables for measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-11-16
In a recent Article in Nature Photonics, Pirandola et al.1 claim that the achievable secret key rates of discrete-variable (DV) measurementdevice- independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD) (refs 2,3) are “typically very low, unsuitable for the demands of a metropolitan network” and introduce a continuous-variable (CV) MDI QKD protocol capable of providing key rates which, they claim, are “three orders of magnitude higher” than those of DV MDI QKD. We believe, however, that the claims regarding low key rates of DV MDI QKD made by Pirandola et al.1 are too pessimistic. Here in this paper, we show that the secret key rate of DV MDI QKD with commercially available high-efficiency single-photon detectors (SPDs) (for example, see http://www.photonspot.com/detectors and http://www.singlequantum.com) and good system alignment is typically rather high and thus highly suitable for not only long-distance communication but also metropolitan networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the
Bowles, Joseph; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas
2014-04-11
We consider the problem of testing the dimension of uncharacterized classical and quantum systems in a prepare-and-measure setup. Here we assume the preparation and measurement devices to be independent, thereby making the problem nonconvex. We present a simple method for generating nonlinear dimension witnesses for systems of arbitrary dimension. The simplest of our witnesses is highly robust to technical imperfections, and can certify the use of qubits in the presence of arbitrary noise and arbitrarily low detection efficiency. Finally, we show that this witness can be used to certify the presence of randomness, suggesting applications in quantum information processing. PMID:24765929
Wang, Qin; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
In this paper, we put forward a new approach towards realizing measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with passive heralded single-photon sources. In this approach, both Alice and Bob prepare the parametric down-conversion source, where the heralding photons are labeled according to different types of clicks from the local detectors, and the heralded ones can correspondingly be marked with different tags at the receiver’s side. Then one can obtain four sets of data through using only one-intensity of pump light by observing different kinds of clicks of local detectors. By employing the newest formulae to do parameter estimation, we could achieve very precise prediction for the two-single-photon pulse contribution. Furthermore, by carrying out corresponding numerical simulations, we compare the new method with other practical schemes of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. We demonstrate that our new proposed passive scheme can exhibit remarkable improvement over the conventional three-intensity decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with either heralded single-photon sources or weak coherent sources. Besides, it does not need intensity modulation and can thus diminish source-error defects existing in several other active decoy-state methods. Therefore, if taking intensity modulating errors into account, our new method will show even more brilliant performance. PMID:27759085
Quantum-Classical Nonadiabatic Dynamics: Coupled- vs Independent-Trajectory Methods.
Agostini, Federica; Min, Seung Kyu; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E K U
2016-05-10
Trajectory-based mixed quantum-classical approaches to coupled electron-nuclear dynamics suffer from well-studied problems such as the lack of (or incorrect account for) decoherence in the trajectory surface hopping method and the inability of reproducing the spatial splitting of a nuclear wave packet in Ehrenfest-like dynamics. In the context of electronic nonadiabatic processes, these problems can result in wrong predictions for quantum populations and in unphysical outcomes for the nuclear dynamics. In this paper, we propose a solution to these issues by approximating the coupled electronic and nuclear equations within the framework of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function. We present a simple quantum-classical scheme based on coupled classical trajectories and test it against the full quantum mechanical solution from wave packet dynamics for some model situations which represent particularly challenging problems for the above-mentioned traditional methods. PMID:27030209
Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan
2016-01-01
Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198
Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan
2016-01-01
Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan
2016-06-01
Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources.
Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan
2016-06-06
Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources.
An improved scheme on decoy-state method for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Wang, Dong; Li, Mo; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin
2015-01-01
Quantum key distribution involving decoy-states is a significant application of quantum information. By using three-intensity decoy-states of single-photon-added coherent sources, we propose a practically realizable scheme on quantum key distribution which approaches very closely the ideal asymptotic case of an infinite number of decoy-states. We make a comparative study between this scheme and two other existing ones, i.e., two-intensity decoy-states with single-photon-added coherent sources, and three-intensity decoy-states with weak coherent sources. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the advantages of our scheme in secure transmission distance and the final key generation rate. PMID:26463580
Zhu, Qiangzhong; Zheng, Shupei; Lin, Shijie; Liu, Tian-Ran; Jin, Chongjun
2014-07-01
We have fabricated gold (Au) elliptical nanodisc (ND) arrays via three-beam interference lithography and electron beam deposition of gold. The enhanced photoluminescence intensity and emission rate of quantum dots (QDs) near to the Au elliptical NDs have been studied by tuning the nearest distance between quantum dots and Au elliptical NDs. We found that the photoluminescence intensity is polarization-dependent with the degree of polarization being equal to that of the light extinction of the Au elliptical NDs, while the emission rate is polarization-independent. This is resulted from the plasmon-coupled emission via the coupling between the QD dipole and the plasmon nano-antenna. Our experiments fully confirm the evidence of the plasmophore concept proposed recently in the interaction of the QDs with metal nanoparticles. PMID:24898688
Liu, Shihao; Liu, Wenbo; Ji, Wenyu; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Letian; Xie, Wenfa
2016-01-01
Recent breakthroughs in quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) show their promise in the development of next-generation displays. However, the QD-LED with conventional ITO-based bottom emission structure is difficult to realize the high aperture ratio, electricfield-independent emission and flexible full-color displays. Hence, we demonstrate top-emitting QD-LEDs with dry microcontact printing quantum dot films. The top-emitting structure is proved to be able to accelerate the excitons radiative transition rate, then contributing to stable electroluminescent efficiency with a very low roll-off, and preventing spectra from shifting and broadening with the electric field increases. The results suggest potential routes towards creating high aperture ratio, wide color gamut, color-stable and flexible QD-LED displays. PMID:26932521
Bouchard, A.M.
1994-07-27
This report discusses the following topics: Bloch oscillations and other dynamical phenomena of electrons in semiconductor superlattices; solvable dynamical model of an electron in a one-dimensional aperiodic lattice subject to a uniform electric field; and quantum dynamical phenomena of electrons in aperiodic semiconductor superlattices.
Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheufele, Dietram A.
1999-01-01
Systematizes the fragmented approaches to framing in political communication and integrates them into a comprehensive model. Classifies previous approaches to framing research along two dimensions: media frames versus audience frames; and the way frames are operationalized (independent variable or dependent variable). Identifies four key processes…
Trinh, M Tuan; Polak, Leo; Schins, Juleon M; Houtepen, Arjan J; Vaxenburg, Roman; Maikov, Georgy I; Grinbom, Gal; Midgett, Aaron G; Luther, Joseph M; Beard, Matthew C; Nozik, Arthur J; Bonn, Mischa; Lifshitz, Efrat; Siebbeles, Laurens D A
2011-04-13
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in PbSe quantum dots (QDs), PbSe(x)S(1-x) alloy QDs, PbSe/PbS core/shell QDs, and PbSe/PbSe(y)S(1-y) core/alloy-shell QDs was studied with time-resolved optical pump and probe spectroscopy. The optical absorption exhibits a red-shift upon the introduction of a shell around a PbSe core, which increases with the thickness of the shell. According to electronic structure calculations this can be attributed to charge delocalization into the shell. Remarkably, the measured quantum yield of MEG, the hot exciton cooling rate, and the Auger recombination rate of biexcitons are similar for pure PbSe QDs and core/shell QDs with the same core size and varying shell thickness. The higher density of states in the alloy and core/shell QDs provide a faster exciton cooling channel that likely competes with the fast MEG process due to a higher biexciton density of states. Calculations reveal only a minor asymmetric delocalization of holes and electrons over the entire core/shell volume, which may partially explain why the Auger recombination rate does not depend on the presence of a shell. PMID:21348493
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Qiangzhong; Zheng, Shupei; Lin, Shijie; Liu, Tian-Ran; Jin, Chongjun
2014-06-01
We have fabricated gold (Au) elliptical nanodisc (ND) arrays via three-beam interference lithography and electron beam deposition of gold. The enhanced photoluminescence intensity and emission rate of quantum dots (QDs) near to the Au elliptical NDs have been studied by tuning the nearest distance between quantum dots and Au elliptical NDs. We found that the photoluminescence intensity is polarization-dependent with the degree of polarization being equal to that of the light extinction of the Au elliptical NDs, while the emission rate is polarization-independent. This is resulted from the plasmon-coupled emission via the coupling between the QD dipole and the plasmon nano-antenna. Our experiments fully confirm the evidence of the plasmophore concept proposed recently in the interaction of the QDs with metal nanoparticles.We have fabricated gold (Au) elliptical nanodisc (ND) arrays via three-beam interference lithography and electron beam deposition of gold. The enhanced photoluminescence intensity and emission rate of quantum dots (QDs) near to the Au elliptical NDs have been studied by tuning the nearest distance between quantum dots and Au elliptical NDs. We found that the photoluminescence intensity is polarization-dependent with the degree of polarization being equal to that of the light extinction of the Au elliptical NDs, while the emission rate is polarization-independent. This is resulted from the plasmon-coupled emission via the coupling between the QD dipole and the plasmon nano-antenna. Our experiments fully confirm the evidence of the plasmophore concept proposed recently in the interaction of the QDs with metal nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The thickness of the Al2O3 layer with different cycle numbers; SEM image of the Au ND array covered with QDs; the electric field distribution of the Au elliptical ND at two LSPR wavelengths; the emission properties of the QD-ND hybrid system with the excitation light of
Extending quantum control of time-independent systems to time-dependent systems
Wang Zhenyu; Liu Renbao
2011-06-15
We establish that if a scheme can control a time-independent system arbitrarily coupled to a generic finite bath over a short period of time T with control precision O(T{sup N+1}), it can also realize the control with the same order of precision on smoothly time-dependent systems. This result extends the validity of various universal dynamical control schemes to arbitrary analytically time-dependent systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delben, G. J.; da Luz, M. G. E.
2016-05-01
Here we propose a tracking quantum control protocol for arbitrary N-level systems. The goal is to make the expected value of an observable O to follow a predetermined trajectory S( t). For so, we drive the quantum state |\\varPsi (t) rangle evolution through an external potential V which depends on M_V tunable parameters (e.g., the amplitude and phase (thus M_V = 2) of a laser field in the dipolar condition). At instants t_n, these parameters can be rapidly switched to specific values and then kept constant during time intervals Δ t. The method determines which sets of parameters values can result in < \\varPsi (t) | O |\\varPsi (t) rangle = S(t). It is numerically robust (no intrinsic divergences) and relatively fast since we need to solve only nonlinear algebraic (instead of a system of coupled nonlinear differential) equations to obtain the parameters at the successive Δ t's. For a given S( t), the required minimum M_V = M_min 'degrees of freedom' of V attaining the control is a good figure of merit of the problem difficulty. For instance, the control cannot be unconditionally realizable if M_{min } > 2 and V is due to a laser field (the usual context in real applications). As it is discussed and exemplified, in these cases a possible procedure is to relax the control in certain problematic (but short) time intervals. Finally, when existing the approach can systematically access distinct possible solutions, thereby allowing a relatively simple way to search for the best implementation conditions. Illustrations for 3-, 4-, and 5-level systems and some comparisons with calculations in the literature are presented.
Assaraf, Roland
2014-12-01
We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2013-11-07
We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct.
Experimental Quantum Error Detection
Jin, Xian-Min; Yi, Zhen-Huan; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi
2012-01-01
Faithful transmission of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication networks. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in a noisy channel, to date, many efforts have been made to transmit one state by consuming large numbers of time-synchronized ancilla states. However, such huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology and this restricts practical applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate quantum error detection, an economical approach to reliably protecting a qubit against bit-flip errors. Arbitrary unknown polarization states of single photons and entangled photons are converted into time bins deterministically via a modified Franson interferometer. Noise arising in both 10 m and 0.8 km fiber, which induces associated errors on the reference frame of time bins, is filtered when photons are detected. The demonstrated resource efficiency and state independence make this protocol a promising candidate for implementing a real-world quantum communication network. PMID:22953047
Shiri, Fereshteh; Pirhadi, Somayeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B.
2015-01-01
Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a promising novel cancer therapeutic target in many human cancers, because abnormal activation of Mer has been implicated in survival signaling and chemoresistance. 3D-QSAR analyses based on alignment independent descriptors were performed on a series of 81 Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The fractional factorial design (FFD) and the enhanced replacement method (ERM) were applied and tested as variable selection algorithms for the selection of optimal subsets of molecular descriptors from a much greater pool of such regression variables. The data set was split into 65 molecules as the training set and 16 compounds as the test set. All descriptors were generated by using the GRid INdependent descriptors (GRIND) approach. After variable selection, GRIND were correlated with activity values (pIC50) by PLS regression. Of the two applied variable selection methods, ERM had a noticeable improvement on the statistical parameters of PLS model, and yielded a q2 value of 0.77, an rpred2 of 0.94, and a low RMSEP value of 0.25. The GRIND information contents influencing the affinity on Mer specific tyrosine kinase were also confirmed by docking studies. In a quantum calculation study, the energy difference between HOMO and LUMO (gap) implied the high interaction of the most active molecule in the active site of the protein. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential energy at DFT level confirmed results obtained from the molecular docking. The identified key features obtained from the molecular modeling, enabled us to design novel kinase inhibitors. PMID:27013913
Reeder, Blaine; Meyer, Ellen; Lazar, Amanda; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George
2013-01-01
Introduction There is a critical need for public health interventions to support the independence of older adults as the world’s population ages. Health smart homes (HSH) and home-based consumer health (HCH) technologies may play a role in these interventions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of HSH and HCH literature from indexed repositories for health care and technology disciplines (e.g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, and IEEE Xplore) and classified included studies according to an evidence-based public health (EBPH) typology. Results One thousand, six hundred and thirty nine candidate articles were identified. Thirty-one studies from the years 1998–2011 were included. Twenty-one included studies were classified as emerging, 10 as promising and 3 as effective (first tier). Conclusion The majority of included studies were published in the period beginning in the year 2005. All 3 effective (first tier) studies and 9 of 10 of promising studies were published during this period. Almost all studies included an activity sensing component and most of these used passive infrared motion sensors. The three effective (first tier) studies all used a multicomponent technology approach that included activity sensing, reminders and other technologies tailored to individual preferences. Future research should explore the use of technology for self-management of health by older adults, social support and self-reported health measures incorporated into personal health records, electronic medical records, and community health registries. PMID:23639263
Pustiowski, Jens; Müller, Kai; Bichler, Max; Koblmüller, Gregor; Finley, Jonathan J.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.
2015-01-05
We demonstrate tuning of single quantum dot emission lines by the combined action of the dynamic acoustic field of a radio frequency surface acoustic wave and a static electric field. Both tuning parameters are set all-electrically in a LiNbO{sub 3}-GaAs hybrid device. The surface acoustic wave is excited directly on the strong piezoelectric LiNbO{sub 3} onto which a GaAs-based p-i-n photodiode containing a single layer of quantum dots was epitaxially transferred. We demonstrate dynamic spectral tuning with bandwidths exceeding 3 meV of single quantum dot emission lines due to deformation potential coupling. The center energy of the dynamic spectral oscillation can be independently programmed simply by setting the bias voltage applied to the diode.
Cruz, Hans; Schuch, Dieter; Castaños, Octavio; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar
2015-09-15
The sensitivity of the evolution of quantum uncertainties to the choice of the initial conditions is shown via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation leading to a reformulation of quantum dynamics. This sensitivity is demonstrated for systems with exact analytic solutions with the form of Gaussian wave packets. In particular, one-dimensional conservative systems with at most quadratic Hamiltonians are studied.
Optimal Frames for Polarization State Reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foreman, Matthew R.; Favaro, Alberto; Aiello, Andrea
2015-12-01
Complete determination of the polarization state of light requires at least four distinct projective measurements of the associated Stokes vector. Stability of state reconstruction, however, hinges on the condition number κ of the corresponding instrument matrix. Optimization of redundant measurement frames with an arbitrary number of analysis states, m , is considered in this Letter in the sense of minimization of κ . The minimum achievable κ is analytically found and shown to be independent of m , except for m =5 where this minimum is unachievable. Distribution of the optimal analysis states over the Poincaré sphere is found to be described by spherical 2 designs, including the Platonic solids as special cases. Higher order polarization properties also play a key role in nonlinear, stochastic, and quantum processes. Optimal measurement schemes for nonlinear measurands of degree t are hence also considered and found to correspond to spherical 2 t designs, thereby constituting a generalization of the concept of mutually unbiased bases.
93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF ...
93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF DOG EAR AND TRUSS (BRACKET) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames
Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh
2011-05-15
Research Highlights: > We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. > We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. > We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. > We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.
Non-minimal Higgs inflation and frame dependence in cosmology
Steinwachs, Christian F.; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.
2013-02-21
We investigate a very general class of cosmological models with scalar fields non-minimally coupled to gravity. A particular representative in this class is given by the non-minimal Higgs inflation model in which the Standard Model Higgs boson and the inflaton are described by one and the same scalar particle. While the predictions of the non-minimal Higgs inflation scenario come numerically remarkably close to the recently discovered mass of the Higgs boson, there remains a conceptual problem in this model that is associated with the choice of the cosmological frame. While the classical theory is independent of this choice, we find by an explicit calculation that already the first quantum corrections induce a frame dependence. We give a geometrical explanation of this frame dependence by embedding it into a more general field theoretical context. From this analysis, some conceptional points in the long lasting cosmological debate: 'Jordan frame vs. Einstein frame' become more transparent and in principle can be resolved in a natural way.
Reference Frames and Relativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swartz, Clifford
1989-01-01
Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)
A multi-frame, megahertz CCD imager
Mendez, Jacob A; Balzer, Stephen J; Watson, Scott A
2008-01-01
A high-efficiency, high-speed imager has been fabricated capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cmZ active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, gain, full-well capacity, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, and linearity. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.
Semenov, Alexander; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Babikov, Dmitri
2014-09-21
The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) for inelastic molecule-atom scattering developed recently [A. Semenov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174108 (2013)] is extended to treat a general case of an asymmetric-top-rotor molecule in the body-fixed reference frame. This complements a similar theory formulated in the space-fixed reference-frame [M. Ivanov, M.-L. Dubernet, and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 134301 (2014)]. Here, the goal was to develop an approximate computationally affordable treatment of the rotationally inelastic scattering and apply it to H{sub 2}O + He. We found that MQCT is somewhat less accurate at lower scattering energies. For example, below E = 1000 cm{sup −1} the typical errors in the values of inelastic scattering cross sections are on the order of 10%. However, at higher scattering energies MQCT method appears to be rather accurate. Thus, at scattering energies above 2000 cm{sup −1} the errors are consistently in the range of 1%–2%, which is basically our convergence criterion with respect to the number of trajectories. At these conditions our MQCT method remains computationally affordable. We found that computational cost of the fully-coupled MQCT calculations scales as n{sup 2}, where n is the number of channels. This is more favorable than the full-quantum inelastic scattering calculations that scale as n{sup 3}. Our conclusion is that for complex systems (heavy collision partners with many internal states) and at higher scattering energies MQCT may offer significant computational advantages.
Gleim, A V; Egorov, V I; Nazarov, Yu V; Smirnov, S V; Chistyakov, V V; Bannik, O I; Anisimov, A A; Kynev, S M; Ivanova, A E; Collins, R J; Kozlov, S A; Buller, G S
2016-02-01
A quantum key distribution system based on the subcarrier wave modulation method has been demonstrated which employs the BB84 protocol with a strong reference to generate secure bits at a rate of 16.5 kbit/s with an error of 0.5% over an optical channel of 10 dB loss, and 18 bits/s with an error of 0.75% over 25 dB of channel loss. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the highest channel loss reported for secure quantum key distribution using the subcarrier wave approach. A passive unidirectional scheme has been used to compensate for the polarization dependence of the phase modulators in the receiver module, which resulted in a high visibility of 98.8%. The system is thus fully insensitive to polarization fluctuations and robust to environmental changes, making the approach promising for use in optical telecommunication networks. Further improvements in secure key rate and transmission distance can be achieved by implementing the decoy states protocol or by optimizing the mean photon number used in line with experimental parameters. PMID:26906834
Deng, M. T.; Yu, C. L.; Huang, G. Y.; Larsson, M.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.
2014-01-01
We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system. PMID:25434375
Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Huang, G Y; Larsson, M; Caroff, P; Xu, H Q
2014-01-01
We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system.
Transfer of spatial reference frame using singlet states and classical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahder, Thomas B.
2016-03-01
A simple protocol is described for transferring spatial orientation from Alice to Bob (two spatially separated observers). The two observers are assumed to share quantum singlet states and classical communication. The protocol assumes that Alice and Bob have complete free will (measurement independence) and is based on maximizing the Shannon mutual information between Alice and Bob's measurement outcomes. Repeated use of this protocol for each spatial axis of Alice allows transfer of a complete three-dimensional reference frame, up to inversion of each of the axes. The technological complexity of this protocol is similar to that needed for BB84 quantum key distribution and hence is much simpler to implement than recently proposed schemes for transmission of reference frames. A second protocol based on a Bayesian formalism is also discussed.
Sarkar, Suprabhat; Gandla, Dayakar; Venkatesh, Yeduru; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan; Ghosh, Sutapa; Yang, Yang; Misra, Sunil
2016-08-21
Facile synthesis of 2-10 nm-sized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) from graphite powder by organic solvent-assisted liquid exfoliation using a sonochemical method is reported in this study. Synthesized GQDs are well dispersed in organic solvents like ethyl acetoacetate (EAA), dimethyl formamide (DMF) and also in water. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry reveals its selective mass fragmentation. Detailed characterizations by various techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirm the formation of disordered, functional GQDs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation confirms HOMO-LUMO energy gap variation with changing size and functionalities. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of as-prepared GQDs were studied in detail. The ensemble studies of GQDs showed excellent photoluminescence properties comprising normal and upconverted fluorescence, delayed fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence. PL decay dynamics of GQDs has been explored using time-correlated single-photon technique (TCSPC) as well as femtosecond fluorescence upconversion technique. In vitro cytotoxicity study reveals its biocompatibility and high cell viability (>91%) even at high concentration (400 μg mL(-1)) of GQDs in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. PMID:27302411
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelly, Bruce
2006-01-01
Analyzing real motion with frame-by-frame precision can be conducted using modestly priced digital-video camcorders. Although well below the 1,000 frames-per-second threshold of high-speed cameras, commercially available camcorders grab 30 frames per second. A replay dissected at this lower frequency is fun to watch, challenges students'…
Semiclassical framed BPS states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter
2016-07-01
We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].
Three-Party Quantum Network Communication Protocols Based on Quantum Teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Nan-Run; Cheng, Hu-Lai; Gong, Li-Hua; Li, Chi-Sheng
2014-04-01
By utilizing the delocalized correlation of entangled states in quantum information theory, a novel method on acknowledgments of quantum information among three-party is presented, and then two three-party quantum network communication protocols based on quantum teleportation are presented, namely, three-party stop-wait quantum communication protocol and three-party selective automatic repeat quantum communication protocol. In the two proposed protocols, the data frames composed of qubits are teleported via three-party quantum teleportation, the two receivers simultaneously receive quantum frames from the sender, and then return quantum acknowledgment frames or quantum negative acknowledgment frames via quantum entanglement channels. The sender simultaneously receives and deals with quantum acknowledgment frames and quantum negative acknowledgment frames from the two receivers, thus the processing delay on returning quantum frames is reduced. And due to the transience of transferring quantum information, the returning of quantum acknowledgment frames and quantum negative acknowledgment frames are completed instantaneously, the proposed protocols reduce the transmission delay and improve the communication efficiency. During the whole course of communications, the classical channels are only used to transmit the measurement message, so the burdens of classical channels are reduced.
Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrero-Valea, Mario
2016-05-01
We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.
Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam
2008-04-01
Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.
Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Honvault, Pascal; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Stoecklin, Thierry
2015-09-21
The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH(+), in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH(+) in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H2, and e(-). In this work, we address the destruction process of CH(+) by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH(+). The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K-800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation.
Bayse, Craig A; Merz, Kenneth M
2014-08-01
Understanding the mechanism of prenyltransferases is important to the design of engineered proteins capable of synthesizing derivatives of naturally occurring therapeutic agents. CloQ is a Mg(2+)-independent aromatic prenyltransferase (APTase) that transfers a dimethylallyl group to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in the biosynthetic pathway for clorobiocin. APTases consist of a common ABBA fold that defines a β-barrel containing the reaction cavity. Positively charged basic residues line the inside of the β-barrel of CloQ to activate the pyrophosphate leaving group to replace the function of the Mg(2+) cofactor in other APTases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of CloQ, its E281G and F68S mutants, and the related NovQ were used to explore the binding of the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (4HPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate substrates in the reactive cavity and the role of various conserved residues. Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential of mean force (PMF) calculations show that the effect of the replacement of the Mg(2+) cofactor with basic residues yields a similar activation barrier for prenylation to Mg(2+)-dependent APTases like NphB. The topology of the binding pocket for 4HPP is important for selective prenylation at the ortho position of the ring. Methylation at this position alters the conformation of the substrate for O-prenylation at the phenol group. Further, a two-dimensional PMF scan shows that a "reverse" prenylation product may be a possible target for protein engineering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2016-04-01
Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) guarantees unconditional security of a secret key without making assumptions about the internal workings of the devices used for distribution. It does so using the loophole-free violation of a Bell's inequality. The primary challenge in realizing DIQKD in practice is the detection loophole problem that is inherent to photonic tests of Bell' s inequalities over lossy channels. We revisit the proposal of Curty and Moroder [Phys. Rev. A 84, 010304(R) (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.010304] to use a linear optics-based entanglement-swapping relay (ESR) to counter this problem. We consider realistic models for the entanglement sources and photodetectors: more precisely, (a) polarization-entangled states based on pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources with infinitely higher-order multiphoton components and multimode spectral structure, and (b) on-off photodetectors with nonunit efficiencies and nonzero dark-count probabilities. We show that the ESR-based scheme is robust against the above imperfections and enables positive key rates at distances much larger than what is possible otherwise.
VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfe, T. L.
1994-01-01
Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.
A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsayed, Tarek A.
2014-09-01
The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.
Quantum entanglement from random measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Minh Cong; Dakić, Borivoje; Arnault, François; Laskowski, Wiesław; Paterek, Tomasz
2015-11-01
We show that the expectation value of squared correlations measured along random local directions is an identifier of quantum entanglement in pure states, which can be directly experimentally assessed if two copies of the state are available. Entanglement can therefore be detected by parties who do not share a common reference frame and whose local reference frames, such as polarizers or Stern-Gerlach magnets, remain unknown. Furthermore, we also show that in every experimental run, access to only one qubit from the macroscopic reference is sufficient to identify entanglement, violate a Bell inequality, and, in fact, observe all phenomena observable with macroscopic references. Finally, we provide a state-independent entanglement witness solely in terms of random correlations and emphasize how data gathered for a single random measurement setting per party reliably detects entanglement. This is only possible due to utilized randomness and should find practical applications in experimental confirmation of multiphoton entanglement or space experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryabov, V. A.
2015-08-01
Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.
Frame synchronization in PCM telemetry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peavey, B.
1971-01-01
The frame synchronization performance characteristics are defined that can be measured under actual operating conditions. The frame synchronization process is explained, and test data on the performance of frame synchronizers and frame synchronization codes are presented. The application of frame synchronization methods in specific cases is considered in the light of code selection, frame length, and data recovery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.
In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…
Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps
de Gosson, Maurice A.
2015-01-01
Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg–Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed – as the title suggests – as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames. PMID:25892903
Section at Frame 195, Section at Frame 154, Section at ...
Section at Frame 195, Section at Frame 154, Section at Midship, Section at Frame 45, Longitudinal Section at Reinforced Bow Structure - US Coast Guard Icebreaker Glacier, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks.
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks.
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks.
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks. PMID:26173556
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks. PMID:26173556
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blume-Kohout, Robin
2014-03-01
Quantum information technology is built on (1) physical qubits and (2) precise, accurate quantum logic gates that transform their states. Developing quantum logic gates requires good characterization - both in the development phase, where we need to identify a device's flaws so as to fix them, and in the production phase, where we need to make sure that the device works within specs and predict residual error rates and types. This task falls to quantum state and process tomography. But until recently, protocols for tomography relied on a pre-existing and perfectly calibrated reference frame comprising the measurements (and, for process tomography, input states) used to characterize the device. In practice, these measurements are neither independent nor perfectly known - they are usually implemented via exactly the same gates that we are trying to characterize! In the past year, several partial solutions to this self-consistency problem have been proposed. I will present a framework (gate set tomography, or GST) that addresses and resolves this problem, by self-consistently characterizing an entire set of quantum logic gates on a black-box quantum device. In particular, it contains an explicit closed-form protocol for linear-inversion gate set tomography (LGST), which is immune to both calibration error and technical pathologies like local maxima of the likelihood (which plagued earlier methods). GST also demonstrates significant (multiple orders of magnitude) improvements in efficiency over standard tomography by using data derived from long sequences of gates (much like randomized benchmarking). GST has now been applied to qubit devices in multiple technologies. I will present and discuss results of GST experiments in technologies including a single trapped-ion qubit and a silicon quantum dot qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Christopher S.
2013-03-01
Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Christopher S.
2013-09-01
Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for
Parallel information transfer in a multinode quantum information processor.
Borneman, T W; Granade, C E; Cory, D G
2012-04-01
We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.
Communication between inertial observers with partially correlated reference frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Smith, Alexander R. H.; Dragan, Andrzej
2015-12-01
In quantum communication protocols the existence of a shared reference frame between two spatially separated parties is normally presumed. However, in many practical situations we are faced with the problem of misaligned reference frames. In this paper, we study communication between two inertial observers who have partial knowledge about the Lorentz transformation that relates their frames of reference. Since every Lorentz transformation can be decomposed into a pure boost followed by a rotation, we begin by analyzing the effects on communication when the parties have partial knowledge about the transformation relating their frames, when the transformation is either a rotation or a pure boost. This then enables us to investigate how the efficiency of communication is affected due to partially correlated inertial reference frames related by an arbitrary Lorentz transformation. Furthermore, we show how the results of previous studies where reference frames are completely uncorrelated are recovered from our results in appropriate limits.
Perceptual frames in frequency estimation.
Zyłowska, Aleksandra; Kossek, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Małgorzata
2014-02-01
This study is an introductory investigation of cognitive frames, focused on perceptual frames divided into information and formal perceptual frames, which were studied based on sub-additivity of frequency estimations. It was postulated that different presentations of a response scale would result in different percentage estimates of time spent watching TV or using the Internet. The results supported the existence of perceptual frames that influence the perception process and indicated that information perceptual frames had a stronger effect than formal frames. The measures made possible the exploration of the operation of perceptual frames and also outlined the relations between heuristics and cognitive frames. PMID:24765715
Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamalov, Timur F.
2010-12-01
Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.
Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames
Kamalov, Timur F.
2010-12-22
Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.
Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Olivo, Alessandro; Speller, Robert D.
2011-12-15
Purpose: The x-ray performance evaluation of digital x-ray detectors is based on the calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the resultant detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The flat images used for the extraction of the NPS should not contain any fixed pattern noise (FPN) to avoid contamination from nonstochastic processes. The ''gold standard'' method used for the reduction of the FPN (i.e., the different gain between pixels) in linear x-ray detectors is based on normalization with an average reference flat-field. However, the noise in the corrected image depends on the number of flat frames used for the average flat image. The aim of this study is to modify the standard gain correction algorithm to make it independent on the used reference flat frames. Methods: Many publications suggest the use of 10-16 reference flat frames, while other studies use higher numbers (e.g., 48 frames) to reduce the propagated noise from the average flat image. This study quantifies experimentally the effect of the number of used reference flat frames on the NPS and DQE values and appropriately modifies the gain correction algorithm to compensate for this effect. Results: It is shown that using the suggested gain correction algorithm a minimum number of reference flat frames (i.e., down to one frame) can be used to eliminate the FPN from the raw flat image. This saves computer memory and time during the x-ray performance evaluation. Conclusions: The authors show that the method presented in the study (a) leads to the maximum DQE value that one would have by using the conventional method and very large number of frames and (b) has been compared to an independent gain correction method based on the subtraction of flat-field images, leading to identical DQE values. They believe this provides robust validation of the proposed method.
Aluminum space frame technology
Birch, S.
1994-01-01
This article examines the increased application of aluminum to the construction of automobile frames. The topics of the article include a joint venture between Audi and Alcoa, forms in which aluminum is used, new alloys and construction methods, meeting rigidity and safety levels, manufacturing techniques, the use of extrusions, die casting, joining techniques, and pollution control during manufacturing.
Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.
2011-01-01
This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DiLella, Carol Ann
This paper presents "popcorn story frames"--holistic outlines that facilitate comprehension when reading and writing stories, useful for outlining stories read and for creating outlines for original student stories--that are particularly useful for elementary and intermediate school students. "Popcorn" pops in a horizontal manner rather than in a…
Frame dragging and superenergy
Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.
2007-08-15
We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Fazio, Dario; de Castro-Vitores, Miguel; Aguado, Alfredo; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Cavalli, Simonetta
2012-12-01
In this work we critically revise several aspects of previous ab initio quantum chemistry studies [P. Palmieri et al., Mol. Phys. 98, 1835 (2000);, 10.1080/00268970009483387 C. N. Ramachandran et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 469, 26 (2009)], 10.1016/j.cplett.2008.12.035 of the HeH_2^+ system. New diatomic curves for the H_2^+ and HeH+ molecular ions, which provide vibrational frequencies at a near spectroscopic level of accuracy, have been generated to test the quality of the diatomic terms employed in the previous analytical fittings. The reliability of the global potential energy surfaces has also been tested performing benchmark quantum scattering calculations within the time-independent approach in an extended interval of energies. In particular, the total integral cross sections have been calculated in the total collision energy range 0.955-2.400 eV for the scattering of the He atom by the ortho- and para-hydrogen molecular ion. The energy profiles of the total integral cross sections for selected vibro-rotational states of H_2^+ (v = 0, …,5 and j = 1, …,7) show a strong rotational enhancement for the lower vibrational states which becomes weaker as the vibrational quantum number increases. Comparison with several available experimental data is presented and discussed.
Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames
Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.
2013-10-07
A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stickney, Sharon
This workbook is designed to help participants of the Independence Training Program (ITP) to achieve a definition of "independence." The program was developed for teenage girls. The process for developing the concept of independence consists of four steps. Step one instructs the participant to create an imaginary situation where she is completely…
Frank, A M; Wilkins, P R
2001-01-05
The advent of CCD cameras and computerized data recording has spurred the development of several new cameras and techniques for recording nanosecond images. We have made a side by side comparison of three nanosecond frame cameras, examining them for both performance and operational characteristics. The cameras include; Micro-Channel Plate/CCD, Image Diode/CCD and Image Diode/Film; combinations of gating/data recording. The advantages and disadvantages of each device will be discussed.
Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.
2008-03-04
A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.
Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene
2009-01-01
The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…
Quantum information causality.
Pitalúa-García, Damián
2013-05-24
How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs. PMID:23745844
Conformal frame dependence of inflation
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2015-04-01
Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.
Spin in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2010-03-24
A spin motion of particles in stationary spacetimes is investigated in the framework of the classical gravity and relativistic quantum mechanics. We bring the Dirac equation for relativistic particles in nonstatic spacetimes to the Hamiltonian form and perform the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show the importance of the choice of tetrads for description of spin dynamics in the classical gravity. We derive classical and quantum mechanical equations of motion of the spin for relativistic particles in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames and establish the full agreement between the classical and quantum mechanical approaches.
Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.
2011-11-17
We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.
2011-01-01
While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…
Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A
2016-06-01
Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853
Frame architecture for video servers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkatramani, Chitra; Kienzle, Martin G.
1999-11-01
Video is inherently frame-oriented and most applications such as commercial video processing require to manipulate video in terms of frames. However, typical video servers treat videos as byte streams and perform random access based on approximate byte offsets to be supplied by the client. They do not provide frame or timecode oriented API which is essential for many applications. This paper describes a frame-oriented architecture for video servers. It also describes the implementation in the context of IBM's VideoCharger server. The later part of the paper describes an application that uses the frame architecture and provides fast and slow-motion scanning capabilities to the server.
Identifying Issue Frames in Text
Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan
2013-01-01
Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909
Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malkin, Zinovy
2016-09-01
The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered. The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparison and the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) and the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3), obtained from VLBI observations. Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System) at micro-arcsecond level accuracy. Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial task due to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands. In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented. Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed. The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20^m rather than to 18^m as currently planned for the GCRF--ICRF link. In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarrell, Andrea
2009-01-01
St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, the Orchard School in Indiana, Chestnut Hill Academy in Pennsylvania, and Dana Hall School in Massachusetts are like most independent schools--they have qualities that are distinctive and extraordinary. Line up their mission statements, however, and the schools sound almost interchangeable. They're all on a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraser, Gordon
2009-01-01
In his kind review of my biography of the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam (December 2008 pp45-46), John W Moffat wrongly claims that Salam had "independently thought of the idea of parity violation in weak interactions".
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Upah-Bant, Marilyn
1978-01-01
Describes the over-all business and production operation of the "Daily Illini" at the University of Illinois to show how this college publication has assumed the burdens and responsibilities of true independence. (GW)
Image noise removal using Kalman-Filter on dark frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tao; Zhao, Ju-feng; Feng, Hua-jun; Xu, Zhi-hai; Chen, Hui-fang
2011-08-01
Dark frame is mixture of fixed pattern noise (FPN), multiplicative Gaussian noise and signal-independent noise, which appear in exposed image at the same time. Due to the increase of the operate temperature inside imaging system and the circuit parameters' minor drifts, FPN of each pixel varies from frame to frame slowly and non-uniformly. In this paper, the dark frame is modeled and then the equations of Kalman-filter is deduced to estimate the FPN level. We introduce the noise influence factor (NIF) to evaluate the influence of FPN noise on each pixel. The reasonable weight for each pixel can set adaptively by means of NIF. Denoised image can be got after weighted subtraction dark frame from the image data on pixels one by one.
A question mark on the equivalence of Einstein and Jordan frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Narayan; Majumder, Barun
2016-03-01
With an explicit example, we show that Jordan frame and the conformally transformed Einstein frames clearly lead to different physics for a non-minimally coupled theory of gravity, namely Brans-Dicke theory, at least at the quantum level. The example taken up is the spatially flat Friedmann cosmology in Brans-Dicke theory.
Determination of the inner planet frame tie using VLBI data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcelrath, Timothy P.; Bhat, Ramachandra S.
1988-01-01
The problem of connecting the independent reference frames formed by the planetary ephemeris and the radio source catalog is one of growing importance to spacecraft navigation. Using quasar-relative VLBI delay data collected by the Deep Space Network, and Soviet coherent data from the Venus flyby of the Soviet Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft, a self-consistent estimate of the frame tie offset has been found, along with its uncertainty.
Reference Frames in Earth Rotation Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrándiz, José M.; Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Getino, Juan; Schuh, Harald; Escapa, Alberto
2015-04-01
Nowadays the determination of the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and the different Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRF) are not independent. The available theories of Earth rotation aims at providing the orientation of a certain reference system linked somehow to the Earth with respect to a given celestial system, considered as inertial. In the past years a considerable effort has been dedicated to the improvement of the TRF realizations, following the lines set up in the 1980's. However, the reference systems used in the derivation of the theories have been rather considered as something fully established, not deserving a special attention. In this contribution we review the definitions of the frames used in the main theoretical approaches, focusing on those used in the construction of IAU2000, and the extent to which their underlying hypotheses hold. The results are useful to determine the level of consistency of the predicted and determined EOP.
Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfe, Thomas L.
1990-01-01
Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.
Picosecond (picoframe) framing camera evaluations.
Liu, Y; Sibbett, W; Walker, D R
1992-03-01
Detailed theoretical evaluations of picoframe-I- and II-type framing cameras are presented, and predicted performance characteristics are compared with experimental results. The methods of theoretical simulations are described, and a suite of computer programs was developed. The theoretical analyses indicate that the existence of fringe fields in the vicinity of the deflectors is the main factor that limits the dynamic spatial resolutions and frame times of these particular designs of framing camera, and possible refinements are outlined. PMID:20720702
Backreaction of frame dragging
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.
2009-10-15
The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, J{sup BH}=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j{sup 2}>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the 'gravitomagnetic clock effect', for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with J{sup BH}{ne}0.
Backreaction of frame dragging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.
2009-10-01
The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, JBH=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j2>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the “gravitomagnetic clock effect,” for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with JBH≠0.
Effect of relativistic acceleration on localized two-mode Gaussian quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Lorek, Krzysztof; Checińska, Agata; Smith, Alexander R. H.; Mann, Robert B.; Dragan, Andrzej
2016-06-01
We study how an arbitrary Gaussian state of two localized wave packets, prepared in an inertial frame of reference, is described by a pair of uniformly accelerated observers. We explicitly compute the resulting state for arbitrarily chosen proper accelerations of the observers and independently tuned distance between them. To do so, we introduce a generalized Rindler frame of reference and analytically derive the corresponding state transformation as a Gaussian channel. Our approach provides several new insights into the phenomenon of vacuum entanglement such as the highly nontrivial effect of spatial separation between the observers including sudden death of entanglement. We also calculate the fidelity of the two-mode channel for nonvacuum Gaussian states and obtain bounds on classical and quantum capacities of a single-mode channel. Our framework can be directly applied to any continuous variable quantum information protocol in which the effects of acceleration or gravity cannot be neglected.
Advanced Wall Framing; BTS Technology Fact Sheet
Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.
2000-11-07
Advanced framing techniques for home construction have been researched extensively and proven effective. Both builders and home owners can benefit from advanced framing. Advanced framing techniques create a structurally sound home that has lower material and labor costs than a conventionally framed house. This fact sheet describes advanced framing techniques, design considerations, and framing.
Theory of quantum gravity beyond Einstein and space-time dynamics with quantum inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2015-10-01
In this talk, I present a theory of quantum gravity beyond Einstein. The theory is established based on spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries by treating the gravitational force on the same footing as the electroweak and strong forces. A bi-frame space-time is initiated to describe the laws of nature. One frame space-time is a globally flat coordinate Minkowski space-time that acts as an inertial reference frame for the motions of fields, the other is a locally flat non-coordinate Gravifield space-time that functions as an interaction representation frame for the degrees of freedom of fields. The Gravifield is sided on both the globally flat coordinate space-time and locally flat non-coordinate space-time and characterizes the gravitational force. Instead of the principle of general coordinate invariance in Einstein theory of general relativity, some underlying principles with the postulates of coordinate independence and gauge invariance are motivated to establish the theory of quantum gravity. When transmuting the Gravifield basis into the coordinate basis in Minkowski space-time, it enables us to obtain equations of motion for all quantum fields and derive basic conservation laws for all symmetries. The gravity equation is found to be governed by the total energy-momentum tensor defined in the flat Minkowski space-time. When the spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries are broken down to a background structure that possesses the global Lorentz and scaling symmetries, we arrive at a Lorentz invariant and conformally flat background Gravifield space-time that is characterized by a cosmic vector with a non-zero cosmological mass scale. We also obtain the massless graviton and massive spinnon. The resulting universe is in general not isotropic in terms of conformal proper time and turns out to be inflationary in light of cosmic proper time. The conformal size of the universe has a singular at the cosmological horizon to which the cosmic proper time must be infinitely
Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry; Honvault, Pascal; Kerkeni, Boutheïna
2015-09-21
The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH{sup +}, in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH{sup +} in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H{sub 2}, and e{sup −}. In this work, we address the destruction process of CH{sup +} by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH{sup +}. The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K–800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.
1994-01-01
This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…
Interference of light from independent sources
Pegg, David T.
2006-12-15
We extend and generalize previous work on the interference of light from independent cavities that began with the suggestion of Pfleegor and Mandel [Phys. Rev. 159, 1084 (1967)] that their observed interference of laser beams should not be associated too closely with particular states of the beams but more with the detection process itself. In particular we examine how the detection of interference induces a nonrandom-phase difference between internal cavity states with initial random phases for a much broader range of such states than has previously been considered. We find that a subsequent interference measurement should give results consistent with the induced phase difference. The inclusion of more cavities in the interference measurements enables the construction in principle of a laboratory in the sense used by Aharonov and Susskind, made up of cavity fields that can serve as frames of phase reference. We also show reasonably simply how intrinsic phase coherence of a beam of light leaking from a single cavity arises for any internal cavity state, even a photon number state. Although the work presented here may have some implications for the current controversy over whether or not a typical laboratory laser produces a coherent state, it is not the purpose of this paper to enter this controversy; rather it is to examine the interesting quantum physics that arises for cavities with more general internal states.
Towards Quantum Plasmonic Networks
Holtfrerich, M.W.; Dowran, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin J; Pooser, Raphael C; Marino, Alberto
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the transduction of macroscopic quantum entanglement by independent, distant plasmonic structures embedded in separate thin silver films. In particular, we show that the plasmon-mediated transmission through each film conserves spatially dependent, entangled quantum images, opening the door for the implementation of parallel quantum protocols, super-resolution imaging, and quantum plasmonic sensing geometries at the nanoscale level. The conservation of quantum information by the transduction process shows that continuous variable multi-mode entanglement is momentarily transferred from entangled beams of light to the space-like separated, completely independent plasmonic structures, thus providing a first important step toward establishing a multichannel quantum networkmore » across separate solid-state substrates.« less
Towards Quantum Plasmonic Networks
Holtfrerich, M.W.; Dowran, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin J; Pooser, Raphael C; Marino, Alberto
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the transduction of macroscopic quantum entanglement by independent, distant plasmonic structures embedded in separate thin silver films. In particular, we show that the plasmon-mediated transmission through each film conserves spatially dependent, entangled quantum images, opening the door for the implementation of parallel quantum protocols, super-resolution imaging, and quantum plasmonic sensing geometries at the nanoscale level. The conservation of quantum information by the transduction process shows that continuous variable multi-mode entanglement is momentarily transferred from entangled beams of light to the space-like separated, completely independent plasmonic structures, thus providing a first important step toward establishing a multichannel quantum network across separate solid-state substrates.
Mizel, Ari
2004-07-01
Ground-state quantum computers mimic quantum-mechanical time evolution within the amplitudes of a time-independent quantum state. We explore the principles that constrain this mimicking. A no-cloning argument is found to impose strong restrictions. It is shown, however, that there is flexibility that can be exploited using quantum teleportation methods to improve ground-state quantum computer design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dexter, Robin R.; Berube, William B.; Perry, Suzanne M.; Stader, David L.
2005-01-01
Teachers are learning more about the theories that support conceptual frameworks as a learning tool. A literature review revealed that frame theory is an accepted principle used to describe how the brain organizes experiences and new information. Frame theory supports the understanding that individuals can organize their thoughts to better…
Calculating body frame size (image)
... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niswander, J. K.; Stattel, R. J.
1980-01-01
Frame synchronizer for serial telemetry is rapidly reconfigured for changing formats. Synchronizer generates signals marking data-word boundaries, beginning of each frame, and beginning of each paragraph. Also derived are search, check, and lock status signals. Existing unit is assembled from standard random-access memory elements and MOS and low-power-Schottky logic.
FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies
A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...
The Semantics of Syntactic Frames
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kako, Edward
2006-01-01
Research in psychology and in linguistics has converged to suggest that the syntactic frames in which verbs appear carry meanings of their own, apart from the meaning of the verbs themselves. To date, however, a gap has existed between these two lines of research: Research in psychology has inferred the meanings of frames only indirectly; research…
The Fate of Lorentz Frame in the Vicinity of Black Hole Singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Douglas G.; Satheeshkumar, V. H.
2013-07-01
General Relativity (GR) is known to break down at singularities. However, it is expected that quantum corrections become important when the curvature is of the order of Planck scale avoiding the singularity. By calculating the effect of tidal forces on a freely falling inertial frame, and assuming the least possible size of the frame to be of the Planck length, we show that the Lorentz frames cease to exist at a finite distance from the singularity. Within that characteristic radius, one cannot apply GR nor Quantum Field Theory (QFT) as we know them today. Additionally, we consider other quantum length scales and impose limits on the distances from the singularity at which those theories can conceivably be applied within a Lorentz frame.
The Fate of Lorentz Frame in the Vicinity of Black Hole Singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Douglas G.; Satheeshkumar, V. H.
2013-10-01
General Relativity (GR) is known to break down at singularities. However, it is expected that quantum corrections become important when the curvature is of the order of Planck scale avoiding the singularity. By calculating the effect of tidal forces on a freely falling inertial frame, and assuming the least possible size of the frame to be of the Planck length, we show that the Lorentz frames cease to exist at a finite distance from the singularity. Within that characteristic radius, one cannot apply GR nor Quantum Field Theory (QFT) as we know them today. Additionally, we consider other quantum length scales and impose limits on the distances from the singularity at which those theories can conceivably be applied within a Lorentz frame.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia
2016-04-01
In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.
Preliminary Theoretical Interpretation of the Tajmar Frame Dragging Effect Through the GEM Theory
Brandenburg, John
2009-03-16
A preliminary theoretical explanation for the large amplitude frame dragging effect seen by Tajmar et al.(2007) is proposed. A simple theory of quantum photon fields mediating electrodynamics is derived based on concepts from QED. These are then expressed as quantum wave functions for rotating EM systems. Based on the GEM theory, it is proposed that gravitational frame dragging relies on similar photon wave functions. The constructive interference of the frame dragging fields with co-rotating EM photon fields coupled to Bose-Einstein components in matter at low temperatures results in a large frame dragging term due to a mixed gravity-EM term that is larger by a factor of approximately 10{sup 20} than ordinary frame dragging.
Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Persson, Anders
2015-01-01
This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…
Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.
Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy
2016-01-01
Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts. PMID:26375052
Conditions for quantum interference in cognitive sciences.
Yukalov, Vyacheslav I; Sornette, Didier
2014-01-01
We present a general classification of the conditions under which cognitive science, concerned, e.g. with decision making, requires the use of quantum theoretical notions. The analysis is done in the frame of the mathematical approach based on the theory of quantum measurements. We stress that quantum effects in cognition can arise only when decisions are made under uncertainty. Conditions for the appearance of quantum interference in cognitive sciences and the conditions when interference cannot arise are formulated. PMID:24259280
Experimental verification of quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barz, Stefanie; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham; Walther, Philip
2013-11-01
Quantum computers are expected to offer substantial speed-ups over their classical counterparts and to solve problems intractable for classical computers. Beyond such practical significance, the concept of quantum computation opens up fundamental questions, among them the issue of whether quantum computations can be certified by entities that are inherently unable to compute the results themselves. Here we present the first experimental verification of quantum computation. We show, in theory and experiment, how a verifier with minimal quantum resources can test a significantly more powerful quantum computer. The new verification protocol introduced here uses the framework of blind quantum computing and is independent of the experimental quantum-computation platform used. In our scheme, the verifier is required only to generate single qubits and transmit them to the quantum computer. We experimentally demonstrate this protocol using four photonic qubits and show how the verifier can test the computer's ability to perform quantum computation.
Frames and counter-frames giving meaning to dementia: a framing analysis of media content.
Van Gorp, Baldwin; Vercruysse, Tom
2012-04-01
Media tend to reinforce the stigmatization of dementia as one of the most dreaded diseases in western society, which may have repercussions on the quality of life of those with the illness. The persons with dementia, but also those around them become imbued with the idea that life comes to an end as soon as the diagnosis is pronounced. The aim of this paper is to understand the dominant images related to dementia by means of an inductive framing analysis. The sample is composed of newspaper articles from six Belgian newspapers (2008-2010) and a convenience sample of popular images of the condition in movies, documentaries, literature and health care communications. The results demonstrate that the most dominant frame postulates that a human being is composed of two distinct parts: a material body and an immaterial mind. If this frame is used, the person with dementia ends up with no identity, which is in opposition to the Western ideals of personal self-fulfilment and individualism. For each dominant frame an alternative counter-frame is defined. It is concluded that the relative absence of counter-frames confirms the negative image of dementia. The inventory might be a help for caregivers and other professionals who want to evaluate their communication strategy. It is discussed that a more resolute use of counter-frames in communication about dementia might mitigate the stigma that surrounds dementia. PMID:22386639
Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.
1992-01-01
Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.
Hemispheric Correlates of the Rod-And-Frame Test.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berlin, Donna F.; Languis, Marlin L.
1981-01-01
Right-handed sixth graders were administered the WISC Block Design and verbal and nonverbal versions of the Rod-and-Frame Test (RFT), measuring field dependence/independence. Results seemed to reflect a right hemisphere processing for the nonverbal RFT and a possible sex bias against girls in its traditional verbal administration. (Author/SJL)
Indistinguishable Photons from Independent Semiconductor Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanaka, Kaoru; Pawlis, Alexander; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Lischka, Klaus; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2009-07-01
We demonstrate quantum interference between photons generated by the radiative decay processes of excitons that are bound to isolated fluorine donor impurities in ZnSe/ZnMgSe quantum-well nanostructures. The ability to generate single photons from these devices is confirmed by autocorrelation experiments, and the indistinguishability of photons emitted from two independent nanostructures is confirmed via a Hong-Ou-Mandel dip. These results indicate that donor impurities in appropriately engineered semiconductor structures can portray atomlike homogeneity and coherence properties, potentially enabling scalable technologies for future large-scale optical quantum computers and quantum communication networks.
Free-space quantum key distribution by rotation-invariant twisted photons.
Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Sponselli, Anna; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo
2014-08-01
"Twisted photons" are photons carrying a well-defined nonzero value of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The associated optical wave exhibits a helical shape of the wavefront (hence the name) and an optical vortex at the beam axis. The OAM of light is attracting a growing interest for its potential in photonic applications ranging from particle manipulation, microscopy, and nanotechnologies to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, classical data multiplexing, and quantum communication. Hitherto, however, all results obtained with optical OAM were limited to laboratory scale. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a link for free-space quantum communication with OAM operating over a distance of 210 m. Our method exploits OAM in combination with optical polarization to encode the information in rotation-invariant photonic states, so as to guarantee full independence of the communication from the local reference frames of the transmitting and receiving units. In particular, we implement quantum key distribution, a protocol exploiting the features of quantum mechanics to guarantee unconditional security in cryptographic communication, demonstrating error-rate performances that are fully compatible with real-world application requirements. Our results extend previous achievements of OAM-based quantum communication by over 2 orders of magnitude in the link scale, providing an important step forward in achieving the vision of a worldwide quantum network.
Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.
The quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in {N}=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, Marco S.; Griguolo, Luca; Leoni, Matias; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Seminara, Domenico
2016-09-01
In three dimensional {N}=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories two independent fermionic Wilson loop operators can be defined, which preserve half of the supersymmetry charges and are cohomologically equivalent at classical level. We compute their three-loop expectation value in a convenient color sector and prove that the degeneracy is uplifted by quantum corrections. We expand the matrix model prediction in the same regime and by comparison we conclude that the quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop is the average of the two operators. We provide an all-loop argument to support this claim at any order. As a by-product, we identify the localization result at three loops as a correction to the framing factor induced by matter interactions. Finally, we comment on the quantum properties of the non-1/2 BPS Wilson loop operator defined as the difference of the two fermionic ones.
The quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in N=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, Marco S.; Griguolo, Luca; Leoni, Matias; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Seminara, Domenico
2016-09-01
In three dimensional N=4 Chern-Simons-matter theories two independent fermionic Wilson loop operators can be defined, which preserve half of the supersymmetry charges and are cohomologically equivalent at classical level. We compute their three-loop expectation value in a convenient color sector and prove that the degeneracy is uplifted by quantum corrections. We expand the matrix model prediction in the same regime and by comparison we conclude that the quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop is the average of the two operators. We provide an all-loop argument to support this claim at any order. As a by-product, we identify the localization result at three loops as a correction to the framing factor induced by matter interactions. Finally, we comment on the quantum properties of the non-1/2 BPS Wilson loop operator defined as the difference of the two fermionic ones.
Toward quantum plasmonic networks
Holtfrerich, M. W.; Dowran, M.; Davidson, R.; Lawrie, B. J.; Pooser, R. C.; Marino, A. M.
2016-08-30
Here, we demonstrate the transduction of macroscopic quantum entanglement by independent, distant plasmonic structures embedded in separate thin silver films. In particular, we show that the plasmon-mediated transmission through each film conserves spatially dependent, entangled quantum images, opening the door for the implementation of parallel quantum protocols, super-resolution imaging, and quantum plasmonic sensing geometries at the nanoscale level. The conservation of quantum information by the transduction process shows that continuous variable multi-mode entanglement is momentarily transferred from entangled beams of light to the space-like separated, completely independent plasmonic structures, thus providing a first important step toward establishing a multichannel quantummore » network across separate solid-state substrates.« less
Turnbull, A P; Turnbull, H R
1985-03-01
The transition from living a life as others want (dependence) to living it as the adolescent wants to live it (independence) is extraordinarily difficult for most teen-agers and their families. The difficulty is compounded in the case of adolescents with disabilities. They are often denied access to the same opportunities of life that are accessible to the nondisabled. They face special problems in augmenting their inherent capacities so that they can take fuller advantage of the accommodations that society makes in an effort to grant them access. In particular, they need training designed to increase their capacities to make, communicate, implement, and evaluate their own life-choices. The recommendations made in this paper are grounded in the long-standing tradition of parens patriae and enlightened paternalism; they seek to be deliberately and cautiously careful about the lives of adolescents with disabilities and their families. We based them on the recent tradition of anti-institutionalism and they are also consistent with some of the major policy directions of the past 15-20 years. These include: normalization, integration, and least-restrictive alternatives; the unity and integrity of the family; the importance of opportunities for self-advocacy; the role of consumer consent and choice in consumer-professional relationships; the need for individualized services; the importance of the developmental model as a basis for service delivery; the value of economic productivity of people with disabilities; and the rights of habilitation, amelioration, and prevention. PMID:3156827
Turnbull, A P; Turnbull, H R
1985-03-01
The transition from living a life as others want (dependence) to living it as the adolescent wants to live it (independence) is extraordinarily difficult for most teen-agers and their families. The difficulty is compounded in the case of adolescents with disabilities. They are often denied access to the same opportunities of life that are accessible to the nondisabled. They face special problems in augmenting their inherent capacities so that they can take fuller advantage of the accommodations that society makes in an effort to grant them access. In particular, they need training designed to increase their capacities to make, communicate, implement, and evaluate their own life-choices. The recommendations made in this paper are grounded in the long-standing tradition of parens patriae and enlightened paternalism; they seek to be deliberately and cautiously careful about the lives of adolescents with disabilities and their families. We based them on the recent tradition of anti-institutionalism and they are also consistent with some of the major policy directions of the past 15-20 years. These include: normalization, integration, and least-restrictive alternatives; the unity and integrity of the family; the importance of opportunities for self-advocacy; the role of consumer consent and choice in consumer-professional relationships; the need for individualized services; the importance of the developmental model as a basis for service delivery; the value of economic productivity of people with disabilities; and the rights of habilitation, amelioration, and prevention.
Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epstein, Kenneth J.
2008-07-01
A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.
Free-fall frame black hole in gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2016-09-01
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. To incorporate DSR into general relativity, one could use "gravity's rainbow," where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. In this scenario, one could rewrite the rainbow metric gμ ν(E ) in terms of some orthonormal frame fields and use the modified equivalence principle to determine the energy dependence of gμ ν(E ) . Obviously, the form of gμ ν(E ) depends on the choice of the orthonormal frame. For a static black hole, there are two natural orthonormal frames: the static one hovering above it and the freely falling one along geodesics. The cases with the static orthonormal frame have been extensively studied by many authors. The aim of this paper is to investigate properties of rainbow black holes in the scenario with the free-fall orthonormal frame. We first derive the metric of rainbow black holes and their Hawking temperatures in this free-fall scenario. Then, the thermodynamics of a rainbow Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Finally, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a Schwarzschild rainbow black hole in this free-fall scenario.
Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, IBeam, Channel, Composite TieBeam, and Small ...
Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, I-Beam, Channel, Composite Tie-Beam, and Small and Large Phoenix Columns - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
The Bernoulli equation in a moving reference frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mungan, Carl E.
2011-03-01
Unlike other standard equations in introductory classical mechanics, the Bernoulli equation is not Galilean invariant. The explanation is that, in a reference frame moving with respect to constrictions or obstacles, those surfaces do work on the fluid, constituting an extra term that needs to be included in the work-energy calculation. A quantitative example is presented here for a horizontal tapered pipe. A frame-independent expression for the pressure drop in the pipe is obtained. The concepts discussed in this paper are accessible to introductory undergraduate physics majors.
Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-Lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi
2001-01-01
Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization. PMID:11562459
Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS
Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.
2006-02-13
Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Andrew B.
2012-01-01
To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.
Plasma physics in noninertial frames
Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.
2009-09-15
Equations describing the nonrelativistic motion of a charged particle in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame are derived from the relativistically invariant form of the particle action. It is shown that the equations of motion can be written in the same form in inertial and noninertial frames, with the effective electric and magnetic fields in the latter modified by inertial effects associated with centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. These modifications depend on the particle charge-to-mass ratio, and also the vorticity, specific kinetic energy, and compressibility of the frame flow. The Newton-Lorentz, Vlasov, and Fokker-Planck equations in such a frame are derived. Reduced models such as gyrokinetic, drift-kinetic, and fluid equations are then derivable from these equations in the appropriate limits, using standard averaging procedures. The results are applied to tokamak plasmas rotating about the machine symmetry axis with a nonrelativistic but otherwise arbitrary toroidal flow velocity. Astrophysical applications of the analysis are also possible since the power of the action principle is such that it can be used to describe relativistic flows in curved spacetime.
Epistemic Frames for Epistemic Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaffer, David W.
2006-01-01
This paper, develops the concept of "epistemic frames" as a mechanism through which students can use experiences in video games, computer games, and other interactive learning environments to help them deal more effectively with situations outside of the original context of learning. Building on ideas of "islands of expertise" [Crowley, K., &…
Handedness differences in information framing.
Jasper, John D; Fournier, Candice; Christman, Stephen D
2014-02-01
Previous research has shown that strength of handedness predicts differences in sensory illusions, Stroop interference, episodic memory, and beliefs about body image. Recent evidence also suggests handedness differences in the susceptibility to common decision biases such as anchoring and sunk cost. The present paper extends this line of work to attribute framing effects. Sixty-three undergraduates were asked to advise a friend concerning the use of a safe allergy medication during pregnancy. A third of the participants received negatively-framed information concerning the fetal risk of the drug (1-3% chance of having a malformed child); another third received positively-framed information (97-99% chance of having a normal child); and the final third received no counseling information and served as the control. Results indicated that, as predicted, inconsistent (mixed)-handers were more responsive than consistent (strong)-handers to information changes and readily update their beliefs. Although not significant, the data also suggested that only inconsistent handers were affected by information framing. Theoretical implications as well as ongoing work in holistic versus analytic processing, contextual sensitivity, and brain asymmetry will be discussed.
Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert
2004-01-01
The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.
Quantum defect analysis of HD photoionization
Du, N.Y.; Greene, C.H.
1986-11-15
A multichannel quantum defect calculation is shown to reproduce most observed features in several portions of the HD photoabsorption spectrum. The rovibrational frame transformation theory of Atabek, Dill, and Jungen is reformulated in terms of a quantum defect matrix. The calculation accounts for spectral regions far from dissociation thresholds despite its neglect of g--u mixing.
Quantum Games under Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen
2016-02-01
Quantum systems are easily influenced by ambient environments. Decoherence is generated by system interaction with external environment. In this paper, we analyse the effects of decoherence on quantum games with Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein (EWL) (Eisert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 3077 1999) and Marinatto-Weber (MW) (Marinatto and Weber, Phys. Lett. A 272, 291 2000) schemes. Firstly, referring to the analytical approach that was introduced by Eisert et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 3077 1999), we analyse the effects of decoherence on quantum Chicken game by considering different traditional noisy channels. We investigate the Nash equilibria and changes of payoff in specific two-parameter strategy set for maximally entangled initial states. We find that the Nash equilibria are different in different noisy channels. Since Unruh effect produces a decoherence-like effect and can be perceived as a quantum noise channel (Omkar et al., arXiv: 1408.1477v1), with the same two parameter strategy set, we investigate the influences of decoherence generated by the Unruh effect on three-player quantum Prisoners' Dilemma, the non-zero sum symmetric multiplayer quantum game both for unentangled and entangled initial states. We discuss the effect of the acceleration of noninertial frames on the the game's properties such as payoffs, symmetry, Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimal, dominant strategy, etc. Finally, we study the decoherent influences of correlated noise and Unruh effect on quantum Stackelberg duopoly for entangled and unentangled initial states with the depolarizing channel. Our investigations show that under the influence of correlated depolarizing channel and acceleration in noninertial frame, some critical points exist for an unentangled initial state at which firms get equal payoffs and the game becomes a follower advantage game. It is shown that the game is always a leader advantage game for a maximally entangled initial state and there appear some points at which
Video Encryption and Decryption on Quantum Computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Yang, Huamin
2015-08-01
A method for video encryption and decryption on quantum computers is proposed based on color information transformations on each frame encoding the content of the encoding the content of the video. The proposed method provides a flexible operation to encrypt quantum video by means of the quantum measurement in order to enhance the security of the video. To validate the proposed approach, a tetris tile-matching puzzle game video is utilized in the experimental simulations. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method enhances the security and speed of quantum video encryption and decryption, both properties required for secure transmission and sharing of video content in quantum communication.
Quantum chaos in nuclear physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunakov, V. E.
2016-07-01
A definition of classical and quantum chaos on the basis of the Liouville-Arnold theorem is proposed. According to this definition, a chaotic quantum system that has N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) that are determined by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian for the system being considered. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos are established. In the classical limit, they go over to the Lyapunov exponent or the classical stability parameter. The use of quantum-chaos parameters in nuclear physics is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arfi, Badredine
2007-02-01
Most game-theoretic studies of strategic interaction assume independent individual strategies as the basic unit of analysis. This paper explores the effects of non-independence on strategic interaction. Two types of non-independence effects are considered. First, the paper considers subjective non-independence at the level of the individual actor by looking at how choice ambivalence shapes the decision-making process. Specifically, how do alternative individual choices superpose with one another to “constructively/destructively” shape each other's role within an actor's decision-making process? This process is termed as quantum superposition of alternative choices. Second, the paper considers how inter-subjective non-independence across actors engenders collective strategies among two or more interacting actors. This is termed as quantum entanglement of strategies. Taking into account both types of non-independence effect makes possible the emergence of a new collective equilibrium, without assuming signaling, prior “contract” agreement or third-party moderation, or even “cheap talk”. I apply these ideas to analyze the equilibrium possibilities of a situation wherein N actors play a quantum social game of cooperation. I consider different configurations of large- N quantum entanglement using the approach of density operator. I specifically consider the following configurations: star-shaped, nearest-neighbors, and full entanglement.
Quantum defragmentation algorithm
Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2010-08-15
In this addendum to our paper [D. Burgarth and V. Giovannetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 100501 (2007)] we prove that during the transformation that allows one to enforce control by relaxation on a quantum system, the ancillary memory can be kept at a finite size, independently from the fidelity one wants to achieve. The result is obtained by introducing the quantum analog of defragmentation algorithms which are employed for efficiently reorganizing classical information in conventional hard disks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auletta, Gennaro; Fortunato, Mauro; Parisi, Giorgio
2014-01-01
Introduction; Part I. Basic Features of Quantum Mechanics: 1. From classical mechanics to quantum mechanics; 2. Quantum observable and states; 3. Quantum dynamics; 4. Examples of quantum dynamics; 5. Density matrix; Part II. More Advanced Topics: 6. Angular momentum and spin; 7. Identical particles; 8. Symmetries and conservation laws; 9. The measurement problem; Part III. Matter and Light: 10. Perturbations and approximation methods; 11. Hydrogen and helium atoms; 12. Hydrogen molecular ion; 13. Quantum optics; Part IV. Quantum Information: State and Correlations: 14. Quantum theory of open systems; 15. State measurement in quantum mechanics; 16. Entanglement: non-separability; 17. Entanglement: quantum information; References; Index.
Kilpatrick, W.
1982-01-01
While literal language is successfully being subjected to automatic analysis, metaphors remain intractable. Using Minsky's frame theory the metaphoric process is viewed as a copying of stereotypic terminal clusters from the frames of the 1 degrees and 2 degrees terms of the metaphor. Stereotypic values from the two original frames share equal status in this new frame, while non-stereotypic values from the two will be kept separate for possible use in metaphoric extension. The a-frame analysis is illustrated by application to non-literary novel metaphors. Frames provide the quantity of information needed for interpretation. Certain frame values are marked as stereotypic. Creativity is realized by the construction of a new a-frame, and the tension is realized by the presence in a single a-frame of both shared stereotypic and discrete non-stereotypic values. 10 references.
Ultra-fast framing camera tube
Kalibjian, Ralph
1981-01-01
An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.
The Quantum Steganography Protocol via Quantum Noisy Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian
2015-08-01
As a promising branch of quantum information hiding, Quantum steganography aims to transmit secret messages covertly in public quantum channels. But due to environment noise and decoherence, quantum states easily decay and change. Therefore, it is very meaningful to make a quantum information hiding protocol apply to quantum noisy channels. In this paper, we make the further research on a quantum steganography protocol for quantum noisy channels. The paper proved that the protocol can apply to transmit secret message covertly in quantum noisy channels, and explicity showed quantum steganography protocol. In the protocol, without publishing the cover data, legal receivers can extract the secret message with a certain probability, which make the protocol have a good secrecy. Moreover, our protocol owns the independent security, and can be used in general quantum communications. The communication, which happen in our protocol, do not need entangled states, so our protocol can be used without the limitation of entanglement resource. More importantly, the protocol apply to quantum noisy channels, and can be used widely in the future quantum communication.
Hierarchical classification as relational framing.
Slattery, Brian; Stewart, Ian
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to model hierarchical classification as contextually controlled, generalized relational responding or relational framing. In Experiment 1, a training procedure involving nonarbitrarily related multidimensional stimuli was used to establish two arbitrary shapes as contextual cues for 'member of' and 'includes' relational responding, respectively. Subsequently those cues were used to establish a network of arbitrary stimuli in particular hierarchical relations with each other, and then test for derivation of further untrained hierarchical relations as well as for transformation of functions. Resultant patterns of relational framing showed properties of transitive class containment, asymmetrical class containment, and unilateral property induction, consistent with conceptions of hierarchical classification as described within the cognitive developmental literature. Experiment 2 extended the basic model by using "fuzzy category" stimuli and providing a better controlled test of transformation of functions. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:24310480
Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2014-10-01
The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.
Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in accelerated frames
Khan, Salman
2014-09-15
The dynamics of tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames through linear contraction criterion when one or two observers are accelerated is investigated. In one observer accelerated case the entanglement measurement is not invariant with respect to the partial realignment of different subsystems and for two observers accelerated case it is invariant. It is shown that the acceleration of the frame does not generate entanglement in any bipartite subsystems. Unlike the bipartite states, the genuine tripartite entanglement does not completely vanish in both one observer accelerated and two observers accelerated cases even in the limit of infinite acceleration. The degradation of tripartite entanglement is fast when two observers are accelerated than when one observer is accelerated. It is shown that tripartite entanglement is a better resource for quantum information processing than the bipartite entanglement in noninertial frames. - Highlights: • Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames is studied. • Linear contraction criterion for quantifying tripartite entanglement is used. • Acceleration does not produce any bipartite entanglement. • The invariance of entanglement quantifier depends on accelerated observers. • The tripartite entanglement degrades against the acceleration, it never vanishes.
Experimental measurement-device-independent entanglement detection.
Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed
2015-01-01
Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664
Electromagnetic radiation produces frame dragging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, L.; Barreto, W.
2012-09-01
It is shown that for a generic electrovacuum spacetime, electromagnetic radiation produces vorticity of worldlines of observers in a Bondi-Sachs frame. Such an effect (and the ensuing gyroscope precession with respect to the lattice) which is a reminiscence of generation of vorticity by gravitational radiation, may be linked to the nonvanishing of components of the Poynting and the super-Poynting vectors on the planes othogonal to the vorticity vector. The possible observational relevance of such an effect is commented upon.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.
2010-01-01
NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiou, Dah-Wei
2015-12-01
This paper presents an "in-a-nutshell" yet self-contained introductory review on loop quantum gravity (LQG) — a background-independent, nonperturbative approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Instead of rigorous and systematic derivations, it aims to provide a general picture of LQG, placing emphasis on the fundamental ideas and their significance. The canonical formulation of LQG, as the central topic of the paper, is presented in a logically orderly fashion with moderate details, while the spin foam theory, black hole thermodynamics, and loop quantum cosmology are covered briefly. Current directions and open issues are also summarized.
Detection of gravitational frame dragging using orbiting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanzagorta, Marco; Salgado, Marcelo
2016-05-01
In this paper we propose information theoretic and interferometric techniques to detect the effect of gravitational frame dragging on orbiting qubits. In particular, we consider the Kerr spacetime geometry and spin-\\tfrac{1}{2} qubits moving in equatorial circular orbits. We ignore the { O }({\\hslash }) order effects due to spin-curvature coupling, which allows us to consider the motion of the spin-\\tfrac{1}{2} particles as Kerr geometry geodesics. We derive analytical expressions for the infinitesimal Wigner rotation and numerical results for their integration across the length of the particle’s trajectory. To this end, we consider the bounds on the finite Wigner rotation imposed by Penrose’s cosmic censorship hypothesis. Finally we propose how the Wigner rotation strictly due to frame dragging could be observed using interferometry and other quantum metrology techniques.
Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid
Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen
2016-06-21
A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.
Pylkkänen, Paavo
2015-12-01
The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoché (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to "phenomena" or "appearances", a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoché even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoché connected to phenomenological description, the "quantum epoché" nevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy.
Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio
2013-01-01
The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Yasunori
2012-10-01
We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. . By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static—in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, including the fact that we observe that time flows in a definite direction. Selecting the multiverse state ultimately boils down to finding normalizable solutions to certain zero-eigenvalue equations, analogous to the case of the hydrogen atom. Unambiguous physical predictions would then follow, according to the rules of quantum mechanics.
Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control.
Finn, Bridgid
2008-06-01
Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering or forgetting. In the remember frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would remember each pair on the upcoming test. In the forget frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would forget each pair. Confidence differed as a result of the frame. Forget frame JOLs, equated to the remember frame JOL scale by a 1-judgment conversion, were lower and demonstrated a smaller overconfidence bias than did remember frame JOLs. When judgments were made at a delay, framing effects did not occur. In Experiment 2, people chose to restudy more items when choices were made within a forget frame. In Experiment 3, people studied Spanish-English vocabulary pairs ranging in difficulty. The framing effect was replicated with judgments and choices. Moreover, forget frame participants included more easy and medium items to restudy. These results demonstrated the important consequences of framing effects on assessment and control of study.
Fabric panel clean change-out frame
Brown, Ronald M.
1995-01-31
A fabric panel clean change-out frame, for use on a containment structure having rigid walls, is formed of a compression frame and a closure panel. The frame is formed of elongated spacers, each carrying a plurality of closely spaced flat springs, and each having a hooked lip extending on the side of the spring facing the spacer. The closure panel is includes a perimeter frame formed of flexible, wedge-shaped frame members that are receivable under the springs to deflect the hooked lips. A groove on the flexible frame members engages the hooked lips and locks the frame members in place under the springs. A flexible fabric panel is connected to the flexible frame members and closes its center.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey
2012-06-01
Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The
Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghanbari, Saeed
2016-01-01
The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...
Frames of Reference in the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grossman, Joshua
2012-01-01
The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…
Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DiLella, Carol Ann
Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…
Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.
2006-01-01
Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton
Quantum entanglement lies at the heart of the new field of quantum communication and computation. For a long time, entanglement was seen just as one of those fancy features which make quantum mechanics so counterintuitive. But recently, quantum information theory has shown the tremendous importance of quantum correlations for the formulation of new methods of information transfer and for algorithms exploiting the capabilities of quantum computers.This chapter describes the first experimental realizations of quantum communication schemes using entangled photon pairs. We show how to make communication secure against eavesdropping using entanglement-based quantum cryptography, how to increase the information capacity of a quantum channel by quantum dense coding and, finally, how to communicate quantum information itself in the process of quantum teleportation.
Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum discord
Fanchini, F. F.; Caldeira, A. O.; Werlang, T.; Brasil, C. A.; Arruda, L. G. E.
2010-05-15
We evaluate the quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in independent and common non-Markovian environments. We compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. For independent reservoirs the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete instants whereas the entanglement can disappear during a finite time interval. For a common reservoir, quantum discord and entanglement can behave very differently with sudden birth of the former but not of the latter. Furthermore, in this case the quantum discord dynamics presents sudden changes in the derivative of its time evolution which is evidenced by the presence of kinks in its behavior at discrete instants of time.
Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations
Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2011-01-01
Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242
Quantum Cauchy surfaces in canonical quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chun-Yen
2016-09-01
For a Dirac theory of quantum gravity obtained from the refined algebraic quantization procedure, we propose a quantum notion of Cauchy surfaces. In such a theory, there is a kernel projector for the quantized scalar and momentum constraints, which maps the kinematic Hilbert space {{K}} into the physical Hilbert space {{H}}. Under this projection, a quantum Cauchy surface isomorphically represents a physical subspace {{D}}\\subset {{H}} with a kinematic subspace {{V}}\\subset {{K}}. The isomorphism induces the complete sets of Dirac observables in {{D}}, which faithfully represent the corresponding complete sets of self-adjoint operators in {{V}}. Due to the constraints, a specific subset of the observables would be ‘frozen’ as number operators, providing a background physical time for the rest of the observables. Therefore, a proper foliation with the quantum Cauchy surfaces may provide an observer frame describing the physical states of spacetimes in a Schrödinger picture, with the evolutions under a specific physical background. A simple model will be supplied as an initiative trial.
Indistinguishability of independent single photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, F. W.; Wong, C. W.
2009-01-01
The indistinguishability of independent single photons is presented by decomposing the single photon pulse into the mixed state of different transform-limited pulses. The entanglement between single photons and outer environment or other photons induces the distribution of the center frequencies of those transform-limited pulses and makes photons distinguishable. Only the single photons with the same transform-limited form are indistinguishable. In details, the indistinguishability of single photons from the solid-state quantum emitter and spontaneous parametric down-conversion is examined with two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Moreover, experimental methods to enhance the indistinguishability are discussed, where the usage of spectral filter is highlighted.
Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame
Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grotec, D. P.
2010-06-15
Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high-frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing the frame of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.
Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano
2014-11-07
Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper.
Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano
2014-01-01
Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231
Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography
Pirandola, Stefano
2014-01-01
Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231
Message framing in social networking sites.
Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei
2013-10-01
Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. PMID:23786169
A multi-frame, megahertz CCd imager
Mendez, Jacob; Balzer, Stephen; Watson, Scott; Reich, Robert
2010-01-01
To record high-speed, explosively driven, events, a high efficiency, high speed, imager has been fabricated which is capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cm{sup 2} active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform the most basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, full-well capacity, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, linearity and dynamic range. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.
Numeracy and framing bias in epilepsy.
Choi, Hyunmi; Wong, John B; Mendiratta, Anil; Heiman, Gary A; Hamberger, Marla J
2011-01-01
Patients with epilepsy are frequently confronted with complex treatment decisions. Communicating treatment risks is often difficult because patients may have difficulty with basic statistical concepts (i.e., low numeracy) or might misconceive the statistical information based on the way information is presented, a phenomenon known as "framing bias." We assessed numeracy and framing bias in 95 adults with chronic epilepsy and explored cognitive correlates of framing bias. Compared with normal controls, patients with epilepsy had significantly poorer performance on the Numeracy scale (P=0.02), despite a higher level of education than normal controls (P<0.001). Compared with patients with higher numeracy, patients with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to exhibit framing bias. Abstract problem solving performance correlated with the degree of framing bias (r=0.631, P<0.0001), suggesting a relationship between aspects of executive functioning and framing bias. Poor numeracy and susceptibility framing bias place patients with epilepsy at risk for uninformed decisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgescu, I. M.; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry, and cosmology. Quantum simulation could be implemented using quantum computers, but also with simpler, analog devices that would require less control, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar molecules, electrons in semiconductors, superconducting circuits, nuclear spins, and photons have been proposed as quantum simulators. This review outlines the main theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum simulation and emphasizes some of the challenges and promises of this fast-growing field.
Coherence susceptibility as a probe of quantum phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jin-Jun; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2016-08-01
We introduce a coherence susceptibility method, based on the fact that it signals quantum fluctuations, for identifying quantum phase transitions, which are induced by quantum fluctuations. This method requires no prior knowledge of order parameter, and there is no need for careful considerations concerning the choice of a bipartition of the system. It can identify different types of quantum phase transition points exactly. At finite temperatures, where quantum criticality is influenced by thermal fluctuations, our method can pinpoint the temperature frame of quantum criticality, which perfectly coincides with recent experiments.
Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.
Moving frames and prolongation algebras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estabrook, F. B.
1982-01-01
Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
2012-03-16
Independent Assessments: DOE's Systems Integrator convenes independent technical reviews to gauge progress toward meeting specific technical targets and to provide technical information necessary for key decisions.
Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim
2016-05-01
The Born rule, a foundational axiom used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr’s Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. However, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. A major family of derivations is based on envariance, a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Further, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.
Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule
Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim
2016-05-11
The Born rule, a foundational axiom used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. But, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. Moreover, a major family of derivations is based on envariance,more » a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Furthermore, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.« less
Inconstancy-theory/quantum-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murtaza, Faheem
1999-05-01
Inconstancy-theory is the union of "relativity" and "quantum" theories which rests upon the answers of the simple questions. 1) That if only the simple motion of a particle can not be observed without the "reference-frame" then how the whole universe can be expected to be observable without any "reference-frame". 2) Does not the inter-influence (Unity) of space-time-mass suggest that these are generated by common source and might not there be some invisible "flow" (dynamical-equilibrium) that is the cause of space-time-mass,as time itself is a flow. "Inconstancy" proposes, interalia, the principle that "relativity (generalised) is the universal law of nature in each and every respect". For that "inconstancy" admits only the light, being absolute, a real reference-frame and medium(mirror) for the display of relative "space-time-mass". Light as reference-frame in "Inconstancy" unifies "relativity" and "quantum" theories and establishes the inter-connection between "quantum-gravity" and strong-nuclear interactions, which offers the velocity of light in terms of physical and spatial-temporal components. "Inconstancy" introduces another "constant" operative in "quantum-gravity" and unveils the "graviton" location for its novel range as previously "relativity" escaped detection for v<<
Stapp, H.P.
1988-12-01
Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs.
Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?
Mandel, David R
2014-06-01
Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value. PMID:23978186
Dynamics of Super Quantum Correlations and Quantum Correlations for a System of Three Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siyouri, F.; El Baz, M.; Rfifi, S.; Hassouni, Y.
2016-04-01
The dynamics of quantum discord for two qubits independently interacting with dephasing reservoirs have been studied recently. The authors [Phys. Rev. A 88 (2013) 034304] found that for some Bell-diagonal states (BDS) which interact with their environments the calculation of quantum discord could experience a sudden transition in its dynamics, this phenomenon is known as the sudden change. Here in the present paper, we analyze the dynamics of normal quantum discord and super quantum discord for tripartite Bell-diagonal states independently interacting with dephasing reservoirs. Then, we find that basis change does not necessary mean sudden change of quantum correlations.
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program
Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.
1982-12-01
At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.
SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup
2016-05-01
Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.
Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame
Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.
2010-09-15
Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference [1] is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing theframe of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.
Testing of clay tile infilled frames
Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Burdette, E.G.; Goodpasture, D.W.
1992-08-21
Several large-scale static tests of clay tile infilled frames were recently conducted. For in-plane racking tests, the effects of cyclic loading, varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction were investigated. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Multiple loadings were performed to determine in-plane strength and stiffness degradation from both out-of-plane loadings. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.
Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbari, Saeed
2016-09-01
The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal and tension forces, the mechanical energy of a system can be conserved in S and not be conserved in S'. In this paper we find useful relations between the mechanical energy changes in two inertial frames of reference.
Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John
2009-01-01
A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.
Composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.
1984-01-01
This paper presents the results of analysis and testing of composite curved frames. A major frame was selected from the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and designed as a composite structure. The curved beam effects were expected to increase flange axial stresses and induce transverse bending. A NASTRAN finite element analysis was conducted and the results were used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Three specimens were fabricated and five static tests were conducted. The NASTRAN analysis and test results are compared for axial, transverse, and Web strains. Results show the curved beam effects are closely predicted by a NASTRAN analysis and the effects increase with loading on the composite frames.
Pyramidal space frame and associated methods
Clark, Ryan Michael; White, David; Farr, Jr, Adrian Lawrence
2016-07-19
A space frame having a high torsional strength comprising a first square bipyramid and two planar structures extending outward from an apex of the first square bipyramid to form a "V" shape is disclosed. Some embodiments comprise a plurality of edge-sharing square bipyramids configured linearly, where the two planar structures contact apexes of all the square bipyramids. A plurality of bridging struts, apex struts, corner struts and optional internal bracing struts increase the strength and rigidity of the space frame. In an embodiment, the space frame supports a solar reflector, such as a parabolic solar reflector. Methods of fabricating and using the space frames are also disclosed.
Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.
2016-01-01
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511
Pfeiffer, P; Egusquiza, I L; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E
2016-01-01
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511
Pfeiffer, P; Egusquiza, I L; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E
2016-07-06
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.
2016-07-01
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crease, Robert P.
2008-09-01
Its name is Quantum Cloud. Visitors to London cannot miss it when visiting the park next to the Millennium Dome or taking a cruise along the Thames. It rises 30 m above a platform on the banks of the river, and from a distance looks like a huge pile of steel wool. As you draw closer, you can make out the hazy, ghost-like shape of a human being in its centre. It is a sculpture, by the British artist Anthony Gormley, made from steel rods about a metre and a half long that are attached to each other in seemingly haphazard ways. Framed by the habitually grey London sky, it does indeed look cloud-like. But "quantum"?
Protection of Quantum Correlation Through the Quantum Erasing Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hui-Yun; Yang, Guo-Hui
2016-05-01
By taking into account the quantum erasing effect(QEE), the quantum discord (QD) behavior of a two-qubit system with different initial states are investigated in detail. We find that the quantum correlation can be saved under a scheme of two spatially separated atoms, each located in a leaky cavity through the quantum erasing method. It is shown that QEE can weaken the effects of decoherence, and preserve the maximum information of the coherent item. No matter whether the two atoms are in the mixted or pure state, one can robusty save their initial quantum correlation even the number of erasing events is finite. If one limit the erasing events N → ∞, the QEE can be used to protect the initial quantum correlation independently of the state in which it is stored, the values of QD is always nearly equal to the initial QD values, and it is nearly independent of the decoherence, which imply us more encourage strategy for protecting the quantum correlation properties in some quantum systems.
Human-competitive evolution of quantum computing artefacts by Genetic Programming.
Massey, Paul; Clark, John A; Stepney, Susan
2006-01-01
We show how Genetic Programming (GP) can be used to evolve useful quantum computing artefacts of increasing sophistication and usefulness: firstly specific quantum circuits, then quantum programs, and finally system-independent quantum algorithms. We conclude the paper by presenting a human-competitive Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) algorithm evolved by GP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzeziński, Tomasz; Fairfax, Simon A.
2012-11-01
Algebras of functions on quantum weighted projective spaces are introduced, and the structure of quantum weighted projective lines or quantum teardrops is described in detail. In particular the presentation of the coordinate algebra of the quantum teardrop in terms of generators and relations and classification of irreducible *-representations are derived. The algebras are then analysed from the point of view of Hopf-Galois theory or the theory of quantum principal bundles. Fredholm modules and associated traces are constructed. C*-algebras of continuous functions on quantum weighted projective lines are described and their K-groups computed.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.
2012-01-01
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034
Quasi-probability representations of quantum theory with applications to quantum information science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrie, Christopher
2011-11-01
This paper comprises a review of both the quasi-probability representations of infinite-dimensional quantum theory (including the Wigner function) and the more recently defined quasi-probability representations of finite-dimensional quantum theory. We focus on both the characteristics and applications of these representations with an emphasis toward quantum information theory. We discuss the recently proposed unification of the set of possible quasi-probability representations via frame theory and then discuss the practical relevance of negativity in such representations as a criteria for quantumness.
Frame Dominance in Infants with Hearing Loss
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Hapsburg, Deborah; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.
2008-01-01
Purpose: According to the frames then content (f/c) hypothesis (P. F. MacNeilage & B. L. Davis, 1990), the internal structure of syllables with consonant plus vowel structure (CV) during canonical babbling is determined primarily by production system properties related to rhythmic mandibular oscillations ("motor frames"). The purpose of this study…
A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nausieda, Ryan
2014-01-01
The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…
Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.
2013-01-01
Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…
A Relational Frame Theory Account of Empathy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vilardaga, Roger
2009-01-01
The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the…
Teaching the Dynamics of Framing Competitions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rinke, Eike Mark
2012-01-01
Framing theory is one of the most thriving and complex fields of communication theory, and as such it has grown to be an integral part of many political communication, public opinion, and communication theory courses. Part of the complexity stems from scholars' efforts to develop accounts of framing processes that are closer to the "real world" of…
Framing in the Field: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benjamin, Diane
2009-01-01
Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…
The vista paradox: Framing or contrast?
Daum, S Oliver; Both, Bernhard S; Bertamini, Marco; Hecht, Heiko
2015-12-01
The vista paradox is the illusion in which an object seen through a window appears to shrink in apparent size (and appears farther away) as the observer approaches the window. Paradoxically, the distal object appears smaller as its visual angle increases. We investigated the effect in four experiments varying object size, distance, point of fixation, and texture of the frame and of the object. In the first experiment, we tried to confirm the illusion and to test the robustness of the phenomenon. In the second experiment, we manipulated where subjects fixated (on the frame or on the object) as well as the texture of the object and the frame. Fixation was essential for the illusion: fixating the frame led to an apparent shrinking of the object, whereas fixation on the object did not. Texture of the frame intensified the apparent shrinking of the object. In a third experiment, we separated the point of fixation from the frame in a between-subjects design. Finally, in Experiment 4, we showed that the paradox does not require a frame, but it requires a fixation on a location different from the object. That is, the window or frame is dispensable for the vista paradox, but fixation is critical.
Entanglement-Based Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeilinger, Anton
2007-03-01
Quantum entanglement, to Erwin Schroedinger the essential feature of quantum mechanics, has become a central resource in various quantum communication protocols including quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. From a fundamental point of view what is exploited in these experiments is the very fact which led Schroedinger to his statement namely that in entangled states joint properties of the entangled systems may be well defined while the individual subsystems may carry no information at all. In entanglement-based quantum cryptography it leads to the most elegant possible solution of the classic key distribution problem. It implies that the key comes into existence at spatially distant location at the same time and does not need to be transported. A number recent developments include for example highly efficient, robust and stable sources of entangled photons with a broad bandwidth of desired features. Also, entanglement-based quantum cryptography is successfully joining other methods in the work towards demonstrating quantum key distribution networks. Along that line recently decoy-state quantum cryptography over a distance of 144 km between two Canary Islands was demonstrated successfully. Such experiments also open up the possibility of quantum communication on a really large scale using LEO satellites. Another important possible future branch of quantum communication involves quantum repeaters in order to cover larger distances with entangled states. Recently the connection of two fully independent lasers in an entanglement swapping experiment did demonstrate that the timing control of such systems on a femtosecond time scale is possible. A related development includes recent demonstrations of all-optical one-way quantum computation schemes with the extremely short cycle time of only 100 nanoseconds.
Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames
Ashby, N. ); Shahid-Saless, B. )
1990-08-15
In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism.
Integrated seat frame and back support
Martin, Leo
1999-01-01
An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.
Classical-Quantum Correspondence by Means of Probability Densities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vegas, Gabino Torres; Morales-Guzman, J. D.
1996-01-01
Within the frame of the recently introduced phase space representation of non relativistic quantum mechanics, we propose a Lagrangian from which the phase space Schrodinger equation can be derived. From that Lagrangian, the associated conservation equations, according to Noether's theorem, are obtained. This shows that one can analyze quantum systems completely in phase space as it is done in coordinate space, without additional complications.
Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny
2005-04-01
Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).
Zurek, Wojciech H
2008-01-01
Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.
Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.
2016-07-06
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantummore » regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. As a result, the proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.« less
Cosmological perturbation theory, instantaneous gauges, and local inertial frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bičák, Jiří; Katz, Joseph; Lynden-Bell, Donald
2007-09-01
Linear perturbations of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with any curvature and cosmological constant are studied in a general gauge without decomposition into harmonics. Desirable gauges are selected as those which embody best Mach’s principle: in these gauges local inertial frames can be determined instantaneously via the perturbed Einstein field equations from the distributions of energy and momentum in the universe. The inertial frames are identified by their “accelerations and rotations” with respect to the cosmological frames associated with the “Machian gauges.” In closed spherical universes, integral gauge conditions are imposed to eliminate motions generated by the conformal Killing vectors. The meaning of Traschen’s integral-constraint vectors is thus elucidated. For all three types of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes the Machian gauges admit much less residual freedom than the synchronous or generalized harmonic gauge. Mach’s principle is best exhibited in the Machian gauges in closed spherical universes. Independent of any Machian motivation, the general perturbation equations and discussion of gauges are useful for cosmological perturbation theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J.
2005-01-01
As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary - that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures.
Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni
2016-03-01
The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.
Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.
Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni
2016-03-18
The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.
Simulation of quantum dynamics with integrated photonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto
2012-12-01
In recent years, quantum walks have been proposed as promising resources for the simulation of physical quantum systems. In fact it is widely adopted to simulate quantum dynamics. Up to now single particle quantum walks have been experimentally demonstrated by different approaches, while only few experiments involving many-particle quantum walks have been realized. Here we simulate the 2-particle dynamics on a discrete time quantum walk, built on an array of integrated waveguide beam splitters. The polarization independence of the quantum walk circuit allowed us to exploit the polarization entanglement to encode the symmetry of the two-photon wavefunction, thus the bunching-antibunching behavior of non interacting bosons and fermions has been simulated. We have also characterized the possible distinguishability and decoherence effects arising in such a structure. This study is necessary in view of the realization of a quantum simulator based on an integrated optical array built on a large number of beam splitters.
Inertial nonvacuum states viewed from the Rindler frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T.
2015-02-01
The appearance of the inertial vacuum state in Rindler frame has been extensively studied in the literature, both from the point of view of quantum field theory developed using Rindler foliation and using the response of an Unruh-Dewitt detector. In comparison, less attention has been devoted to the study of inertial nonvacuum states when viewed from the Rindler frame. We provide a comprehensive study of this issue in this paper. We first present a general formalism describing the characterization of arbitrary inertial state (i) when described using an arbitrary foliation and (ii) using the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. This allows us to calculate the mean number of particles in an arbitrary inertial state, when the QFT is described using an arbitrary foliation of spacetime or when the state is probed by a detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. We use this formalism to explicitly compute the results for the Rindler frame and uniformly accelerated detectors. Any arbitrary inertial state will always have a thermal component in the Rindler frame with additional contributions arising from the nonvacuum nature. We classify the nature of the additional contributions in terms of functions characterizing the inertial state. We establish that for all physically well-behaved normalizable inertial states, the correction terms decrease rapidly with the energy of the Rindler mode so that the high frequency limit is dominated by the thermal noise in any normalizable inertial state. However, inertial states which are not strictly normalizable like, for example, the one-particle state with definite momentum, lead to a constant contribution at all high frequencies in the Rindler frame. We show that a similar behavior arises in the response of the Unruh-DeWitt detector as well. In the case of the detector response, we provide a physical interpretation for the constant contribution at high frequencies in terms of total detection
Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI.
Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo
2016-06-01
Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quantum gravity and charge renormalization
Toms, David J.
2007-08-15
We study the question of the gauge dependence of the quantum gravity contribution to the running gauge coupling constant for electromagnetism. The calculations are performed using dimensional regularization in a manifestly gauge-invariant and gauge-condition-independent formulation of the effective action. It is shown that there is no quantum gravity contribution to the running charge, and hence there is no alteration to asymptotic freedom at high energies as predicted by Robinson and Wilczek.
The Roles of a Quantum Channel on a Quantum State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin; Yu, Chang-shui
2013-10-01
When a quantum state undergoes a quantum channel, the state will be inevitably influenced. In general, the fidelity of the state is reduced, so is the entanglement if the subsystems go through the channel. However, the influence on the coherence of the state is quite different. Here we present some state-independent quantities to describe to what degree the fidelity, the entanglement and the coherence of the state are influenced. As applications, we consider some quantum channels on a qubit and find that the infidelity ability monotonically depends on the decay rate, but in usual the decoherence ability is not the case and strongly depends on the channel.
Entanglement and algebraic independence in fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto
2014-04-01
In the case of systems composed of identical particles, a typical instance in quantum statistical mechanics, the standard approach to separability and entanglement ought to be reformulated and rephrased in terms of correlations between operators from subalgebras localized in spatially disjoint regions. While this algebraic approach is straightforward for bosons, in the case of fermions it is subtler since one has to distinguish between micro-causality, that is the anti-commutativity of the basic creation and annihilation operators, and algebraic independence that is the commutativity of local observables. We argue that a consistent algebraic formulation of separability and entanglement should be compatible with micro-causality rather than with algebraic independence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-06-01
We propose the idea of a quantum cheque scheme, a cryptographic protocol in which any legitimate client of a trusted bank can issue a cheque, that cannot be counterfeited or altered in anyway, and can be verified by a bank or any of its branches. We formally define a quantum cheque and present the first unconditionally secure quantum cheque scheme and show it to be secure against any no-signalling adversary. The proposed quantum cheque scheme can been perceived as the quantum analog of Electronic Data Interchange, as an alternate for current e-Payment Gateways.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, Wojciech Hubert
2009-03-01
Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.
Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.
1985-01-01
A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.
2009-04-01
work done to date relates to point-to-point links. Another recent advance has been the development of trusted networks for QKD. This is important for further increasing the range of the technology, and for overcoming denial-of-service attacks on an individual link. It is interesting to see that the optimization of QKD devices differs for point-to-point and network applications. Network operation is essential for widespread adoption of the technology, as it can dramatically reduce the deployment costs and allow connection flexibility. Also important is the multiplexing of the quantum signals with conventional network traffic. For the future, quantum repeaters should be developed for longer range links. On the theoretical side, different approaches to security proofs have recently started to converge, offering several paradigms of the same basic idea. Our improved theoretical understanding places more stringent demands on the QKD devices. We are aware by now that finite size effects in key generation arise not only from parameter estimation. It will not be possible to generate a key from just a few hundred received signals. It is a stimulating challenge for the theory of security proofs to develop lean proof strategies that work with finite signal block sizes. As QKD advances to a real-world cryptographic solution, side channel attacks must be carefully analysed. Theoretical security proofs for QKD schemes are so far based on physical models of these devices. It is in the nature of models that any real implementation will deviate from this model, creating a potential weakness for an eavesdropper to exploit. There are two solutions to this problem: the traditional path of refining the models to reduce the deviations, or the radically different approach of device-independent security proofs, in which none or only a few well controlled assumptions about the devices are made. Clearly, it is desirable to find security proofs that require only minimal or fairly general model
Controlled Photon Switch Assisted by Coupled Quantum Dots.
Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun
2015-01-01
Quantum switch is a primitive element in quantum network communication. In contrast to previous switch schemes on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we consider controlled switches of photon system with two DOFs. These controlled photon switches are constructed by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. Several double controlled-NOT gate on different joint systems are greatly simplified with an auxiliary DOF of the controlling photon. The photon switches show that two DOFs of photons can be independently transmitted in quantum networks. This result reduces the quantum resources for quantum network communication.
Controlled Photon Switch Assisted by Coupled Quantum Dots.
Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun
2015-01-01
Quantum switch is a primitive element in quantum network communication. In contrast to previous switch schemes on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we consider controlled switches of photon system with two DOFs. These controlled photon switches are constructed by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. Several double controlled-NOT gate on different joint systems are greatly simplified with an auxiliary DOF of the controlling photon. The photon switches show that two DOFs of photons can be independently transmitted in quantum networks. This result reduces the quantum resources for quantum network communication. PMID:26095049
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fehr, Serge
2010-05-01
Quantum cryptography makes use of the quantum-mechanical behavior of nature for the design and analysis of cryptographic schemes. Optimally (but not always), quantum cryptography allows for the design of cryptographic schemes whose security is guaranteed solely by the laws of nature. This is in sharp contrast to standard cryptographic schemes, which can be broken in principle, i.e., when given sufficient computing power. From a theory point of view, quantum cryptography offers a beautiful interplay between the mathematics of adversarial behavior and quantum information theory. In this review article, we discuss the traditional application of quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution (QKD), from a modern perspective, and we discuss some recent developments in the context of quantum two-party cooperation (2PC). QKD allows two distant parties to communicate in a provably-secure way in the presence of an outside eavesdropper, whereas 2PC is concerned with protecting information against possibly malicious insiders. We show the basic idea of constructing quantum cryptographic schemes, but we also show some connections to quantum information theory as needed for the rigorous security analyses, and we discuss some of the relevant quantum-information-theoretic results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orvil Scully, Marlan; Zubairy, Muhammad Suhail
1997-09-01
Quantum optics has witnessed significant theoretical and experimental developments in recent years. This book provides an in-depth and wide-ranging introduction to the subject, emphasizing throughout the basic principles and their applications. The book begins by developing the basic tools of quantum optics, and goes on to show the application of these tools in a variety of quantum optical systems, including lasing without inversion, squeezed states, and atom optics. The final four chapters discuss quantum optical tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics, and particular aspects of measurement theory. Assuming only a background of standard quantum mechanics and electromagnetic theory, and containing many problems and references, this book will be invaluable to graduate students of quantum optics, as well as to researchers in this field.
Do spinors give rise to a frame-dragging effect?
Randono, Andrew
2010-01-15
We investigate the effect of the intrinsic spin of a fundamental spinor field on the surrounding spacetime geometry. We show that despite the lack of a rotating stress-energy source (and despite claims to the contrary) the intrinsic spin of a spin-half fermion gives rise to a frame-dragging effect analogous to that of orbital angular momentum, even in Einstein-Hilbert gravity where torsion is constrained to be zero. This resolves a paradox regarding the counter-force needed to restore Newton's third law in the well-known spin-orbit interaction. In addition, the frame-dragging effect gives rise to a long-range gravitationally mediated spin-spin dipole interaction coupling the internal spins of two sources. We argue that despite the weakness of the interaction, the spin-spin interaction will dominate over the ordinary inverse square Newtonian interaction in any process of sufficiently high energy for quantum field theoretical effects to be non-negligible.
Quantum cryptography with entangled photons
Jennewein; Simon; Weihs; Weinfurter; Zeilinger
2000-05-15
By realizing a quantum cryptography system based on polarization entangled photon pairs we establish highly secure keys, because a single photon source is approximated and the inherent randomness of quantum measurements is exploited. We implement a novel key distribution scheme using Wigner's inequality to test the security of the quantum channel, and, alternatively, realize a variant of the BB84 protocol. Our system has two completely independent users separated by 360 m, and generates raw keys at rates of 400-800 bits/s with bit error rates around 3%.
Quantum cryptography with entangled photons
Jennewein; Simon; Weihs; Weinfurter; Zeilinger
2000-05-15
By realizing a quantum cryptography system based on polarization entangled photon pairs we establish highly secure keys, because a single photon source is approximated and the inherent randomness of quantum measurements is exploited. We implement a novel key distribution scheme using Wigner's inequality to test the security of the quantum channel, and, alternatively, realize a variant of the BB84 protocol. Our system has two completely independent users separated by 360 m, and generates raw keys at rates of 400-800 bits/s with bit error rates around 3%. PMID:10990782
Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaniewski, Jędrzej; Wehner, Stephanie
2016-05-01
The goal of two-party cryptography is to enable two parties, Alice and Bob, to solve common tasks without the need for mutual trust. Examples of such tasks are private access to a database, and secure identification. Quantum communication enables security for all of these problems in the noisy-storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block known as weak string erasure and prove its security even if the devices used in the protocol are prepared by the dishonest party. DI two-party cryptography is made challenging by the fact that Alice and Bob do not trust each other, which requires new techniques to establish security. We fully analyse the case of memoryless devices (for which sequential attacks are optimal) and the case of sequential attacks for arbitrary devices. The key ingredient of the proof, which might be of independent interest, is an explicit (and tight) relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality observed by Alice and Bob and uncertainty generated by Alice against Bob who is forced to measure his system before finding out Alice’s setting (guessing with postmeasurement information). In particular, we show that security is possible for arbitrarily small violation.
General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Gui-Lu
2006-05-01
In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.
Disformal gravity theories: A Jordan frame analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakstein, Jeremy; Verner, Sarunas
2015-12-01
The Jordan frame action for general disformal theories is presented and studied for the first time, motivated by several unresolved mysteries that arise when working in the Einstein frame. We present the Friedmann equations and, specializing to exponential functions, study the late-time cosmology using both dynamical systems methods and by finding approximate solutions. Our analysis reveals that either the disformal effects are irrelevant or the Universe evolves towards a phantom phase where the equation of state of dark energy is -3 . There is a marginal case where the asymptotic state of the Universe depends on the model parameters and de Sitter solutions can be obtained. Our findings indicate that the metric singularity found using the Einstein frame construction corresponds to phantom behavior in the Jordan frame and we argue that this is the case for general disformal theories.
Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion.
Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J
2010-05-01
A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function.
Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estabrook, Frank B.
1987-01-01
This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.
Vibration of x-braced portal frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.
1987-09-01
Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Jennifer; Kneale, Pauline; Nicholson, Dawn; Waddington, Shelagh; Ray, Waverly
2011-01-01
This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for re-framing the purpose, process, product and assessment of final-year geography dissertations. It argues that the academic centralities of critical thinking, analysis, evaluation, effective communication and independence must be retained, but that the traditional format limits creativity and…
High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems
Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli
2010-01-31
A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial
Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, Neil; Shahid-Saless, Bahman
1989-01-01
In General Relativity, the Principle of General Covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. Here, it is shown that the geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, nonrotating mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect, in an appropriately chosen coordinate frame whose origin falls freely along with the gyroscope and whose spatial coordinate axes point in fixed directions.
Quantum gravity and renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
The properties of quantum gravity are reviewed from the point of view of renormalization. Various attempts to overcome the problem of non-renormalizability are presented, and the reasons why most of them fail for quantum gravity are discussed. Interesting possibilities come from relaxing the locality assumption, which also can inspire the investigation of a largely unexplored sector of quantum field theory. Another possibility is to work with infinitely many independent couplings, and search for physical quantities that only depend on a finite subset of them. In this spirit, it is useful to organize the classical action of quantum gravity, determined by renormalization, in a convenient way. Taking advantage of perturbative local field redefinitions, we write the action as the sum of the Hilbert term, the cosmological term, a peculiar scalar that is important only in higher dimensions, plus invariants constructed with at least three Weyl tensors. We show that the FRLW configurations, and many other locally conformally flat metrics, are exact solutions of the field equations in arbitrary dimensions d>3. If the metric is expanded around such configurations the quadratic part of the action is free of higher-time derivatives. Other well-known metrics, such as those of black holes, are instead affected in nontrivial ways by the classical corrections of quantum origin.
Tracking in high-frame-rate imaging.
Wu, Shih-Ying; Wang, Shun-Li; Li, Pai-Chi
2010-01-01
Speckle tracking has been used for motion estimation in ultrasound imaging. Unlike conventional Doppler techniques, which are angle-dependent, speckle tracking can be utilized to estimate velocity vectors. However, the accuracy of speckle-tracking methods is limited by speckle decorrelation, which is related to the displacement between two consecutive images, and, hence, combining high-frame-rate imaging and speckle tracking could potentially increase the accuracy of motion estimation. However, the lack of transmit focusing may also affect the tracking results and the high computational requirement may be problematic. This study therefore assessed the performance of high-frame-rate speckle tracking and compared it with conventional focusing. The effects of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bulk motion, and velocity gradients were investigated in both experiments and simulations. The results show that high-frame-rate speckle tracking can achieve high accuracy if the SNR is sufficiently high. In addition, its computational complexity is acceptable because smaller search windows can be used due to the displacements between frames generally being smaller during high-frame-rate imaging. Speckle decor-relation resulting from velocity gradients within a sample volume is also not as significant during high-frame-rate imaging. PMID:20690428
Celestial Reference Frames at Multiple Radio Wavelengths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, Christopher S.
2012-01-01
In 1997 the IAU adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from S/X VLBI data. In response to IAU resolutions encouraging the extension of the ICRF to additional frequency bands, VLBI frames have been made at 24, 32, and 43 gigahertz. Meanwhile, the 8.4 gigahertz work has been greatly improved with the 2009 release of the ICRF-2. This paper discusses the motivations for extending the ICRF to these higher radio bands. Results to date will be summarized including evidence that the high frequency frames are rapidly approaching the accuracy of the 8.4 gigahertz ICRF-2. We discuss current limiting errors and prospects for the future accuracy of radio reference frames. We note that comparison of multiple radio frames is characterizing the frequency dependent systematic noise floor from extended source morphology and core shift. Finally, given Gaia's potential for high accuracy optical astrometry, we have simulated the precision of a radio-optical frame tie to be approximately10-15 microarcseconds ((1-sigma) (1-standard deviation), per component).
Quantum entanglement, quantum communication and the limits of quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambainis, Andris
Quantum entanglement is a term describing the quantum correlations between different parts of a quantum system. Quantum information theory has developed sophisticated techniques to quantify and study quantum entanglement. In this thesis, we show how to apply those techniques to problems in quantum algorithms, complexity theory, communication and cryptography. The main results are: (1) quantum communication protocols that are exponentially more efficient that conventional (classical) communication protocols, (2) unconditionally secure quantum protocols for cryptographic problems, (3) a new "quantum adversary" method for proving lower bounds on quantum algorithms, (4) a study of "one clean qubit computation", a model related to the experimental implementation of quantum computers using NMR (nucleo-magnetic resonance) technology.
Field Dependence-Independence and Physical Activity Engagement among Middle School Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose
2009-01-01
Background: Field dependence-independence (FDI) is a tendency to rely on external frames (given situations and authoritative people) or internal frames (oneself, including one's own body) for one's information processing and behavior. Literature has constantly reported that field-dependent (FD) individuals, who are less autonomous in…
Gate fidelity fluctuations and quantum process invariants
Magesan, Easwar; Emerson, Joseph; Blume-Kohout, Robin
2011-07-15
We characterize the quantum gate fidelity in a state-independent manner by giving an explicit expression for its variance. The method we provide can be extended to calculate all higher order moments of the gate fidelity. Using these results, we obtain a simple expression for the variance of a single-qubit system and deduce the asymptotic behavior for large-dimensional quantum systems. Applications of these results to quantum chaos and randomized benchmarking are discussed.
Particle scattering in loop quantum gravity.
Modesto, Leonardo; Rovelli, Carlo
2005-11-01
We devise a technique for defining and computing -point functions in the context of a background-independent gravitational quantum field theory. We construct a tentative implementation of this technique in a perturbatively finite model defined using spin foam techniques in the context of loop quantum gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, Amikam; Diósi, Lajos; Kosloff, Ronnie
2016-05-01
In this work we present the concept of a quantum flywheel coupled to a quantum heat engine. The flywheel stores useful work in its energy levels, while additional power is extracted continuously from the device. Generally, the energy exchange between a quantum engine and a quantized work repository is accompanied by heat, which degrades the charging efficiency. Specifically when the quantum harmonic oscillator acts as a work repository, quantum and thermal fluctuations dominate the dynamics. Quantum monitoring and feedback control are applied to the flywheel in order to reach steady state and regulate its operation. To maximize the charging efficiency one needs a balance between the information gained by measuring the system and the information fed back to the system. The dynamics of the flywheel are described by a stochastic master equation that accounts for the engine, the external driving, the measurement, and the feedback operations.
Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.
1984-01-01
Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.
The Field Dependence-Independence Construct: Some, One, or None.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linn, Marcia C.; Kyllonen, Patrick
The field dependency/independency construct (FDI) was measured using tests of perception of the upright such as the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and tests of cognitive restructuring such as the Hidden Figures Test (HFT); relationships between cognitive restructing and perception of the upright were investigated. High school seniors received 34 tests…
Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J
2005-01-20
As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary--that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures. PMID:15662409
Quantum rewinding via phase estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabia, Gelo Noel
2015-03-01
In cryptography, the notion of a zero-knowledge proof was introduced by Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff. An interactive proof system is said to be zero-knowledge if any verifier interacting with an honest prover learns nothing beyond the validity of the statement being proven. With recent advances in quantum information technologies, it has become interesting to ask if classical zero-knowledge proof systems remain secure against adversaries with quantum computers. The standard approach to show the zero-knowledge property involves constructing a simulator for a malicious verifier that can be rewinded to a previous step when the simulation fails. In the quantum setting, the simulator can be described by a quantum circuit that takes an arbitrary quantum state as auxiliary input but rewinding becomes a nontrivial issue. Watrous proposed a quantum rewinding technique in the case where the simulation's success probability is independent of the auxiliary input. Here I present a more general quantum rewinding scheme that employs the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This work was funded by institutional research grant IUT2-1 from the Estonian Research Council and by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund.
Could space be considered as the inertial rest frame?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Ambroselli, Michael
2015-09-01
We take the postulate of Special Relativity, that the cosmic rules observable through physical phenomena, are the same for all stars in all galaxies. We have deliberately avoided using the phrase; "in all inertial frames of reference" to avoid conceptual mathematical debate in defining what such frames of references are [1-4]. Then, accepting the universal validity of light velocity defined by Maxwell's wave equation, c2 = 1 / (ɛ 0μ 0) ; we revive the old ether concept with physically descriptive phrase that space is a continuous Complex Tension Field (CTF). This is strengthened by the fact that all non-dissipative tension fields allow for perpetual propagation of waves when excited within its linear restoration capability. We accommodate the particles as localized self-phase-looped resonant oscillations of the same CTF; thus integrating particles as another kind of excited states of the same CTF [5]. Further, all tension fields allow co-propagation and cross-propagation of multiple waves (preservation of wave properties and the respective Poynting vectors) through the same physical volume (linear Superposition Principle) in the absence of perturbing resonant detectors within the volume of superposition. We have re-named this universal property of all waves as Non-Interaction of Waves [6,7]. Thus, Doppler shifted waves from different stars and galaxies can cross through each other unperturbed while bringing to us the signatures of the properties of their parent stars. Now, if these light signals are waving of CTF, the optical Doppler effects must also be, as for sound waves in air pressure tension field, discernable into two different frequency shifts: as due to (i) source velocity (distant stars) and (ii) detector velocity (that of the earth) [8,9]. In other words, we are proposing that CTF (modified old ether) is the stationary cosmic rest frame. Since we have been routinely assuming that quantum phenomena are same in all stars; we strengthen our position by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador
2016-05-01
A major scientific thrust from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to increase the performance of a wide variety of information processing devices. In particular, quantum radar has emerged as an intriguing theoretical concept that could revolutionize electromagnetic standoff sensing. In this paper we will discuss how the techniques developed for quantum radar could also be used towards the design of novel seismographs able to detect small ground vibrations., We use a hypothetical earthquake warning system in order to compare quantum seismography with traditional seismographic techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by
Robust bidirectional links for photonic quantum networks
Xu, Jin-Shi; Yung, Man-Hong; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
Optical fibers are widely used as one of the main tools for transmitting not only classical but also quantum information. We propose and report an experimental realization of a promising method for creating robust bidirectional quantum communication links through paired optical polarization-maintaining fibers. Many limitations of existing protocols can be avoided with the proposed method. In particular, the path and polarization degrees of freedom are combined to deterministically create a photonic decoherence-free subspace without the need for any ancillary photon. This method is input state–independent, robust against dephasing noise, postselection-free, and applicable bidirectionally. To rigorously quantify the amount of quantum information transferred, the optical fibers are analyzed with the tools developed in quantum communication theory. These results not only suggest a practical means for protecting quantum information sent through optical quantum networks but also potentially provide a new physical platform for enriching the structure of the quantum communication theory. PMID:26824069
Superadiabatic Controlled Evolutions and Universal Quantum Computation
Santos, Alan C.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2015-01-01
Adiabatic state engineering is a powerful technique in quantum information and quantum control. However, its performance is limited by the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics. In this scenario, shortcuts to adiabaticity, such as provided by the superadiabatic theory, constitute a valuable tool to speed up the adiabatic quantum behavior. Here, we propose a superadiabatic route to implement universal quantum computation. Our method is based on the realization of piecewise controlled superadiabatic evolutions. Remarkably, they can be obtained by simple time-independent counter-diabatic Hamiltonians. In particular, we discuss the implementation of fast rotation gates and arbitrary n-qubit controlled gates, which can be used to design different sets of universal quantum gates. Concerning the energy cost of the superadiabatic implementation, we show that it is dictated by the quantum speed limit, providing an upper bound for the corresponding adiabatic counterparts. PMID:26511064
Robust bidirectional links for photonic quantum networks.
Xu, Jin-Shi; Yung, Man-Hong; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
Optical fibers are widely used as one of the main tools for transmitting not only classical but also quantum information. We propose and report an experimental realization of a promising method for creating robust bidirectional quantum communication links through paired optical polarization-maintaining fibers. Many limitations of existing protocols can be avoided with the proposed method. In particular, the path and polarization degrees of freedom are combined to deterministically create a photonic decoherence-free subspace without the need for any ancillary photon. This method is input state-independent, robust against dephasing noise, postselection-free, and applicable bidirectionally. To rigorously quantify the amount of quantum information transferred, the optical fibers are analyzed with the tools developed in quantum communication theory. These results not only suggest a practical means for protecting quantum information sent through optical quantum networks but also potentially provide a new physical platform for enriching the structure of the quantum communication theory.
Continuous-variable quantum computing in optical time-frequency modes using quantum memories.
Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A
2014-09-26
We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.
The effect of message framing on self-management of chronic pain: a new perspective on intervention?
Janke, E Amy; Spring, Bonnie; Weaver, Frances
2011-07-01
This study examines framed messages as a novel approach to promote self-management of chronic pain. Primary care patients reporting chronic pain (pain rated ≥ 4 on 0-10 NRS-I for ≥3 months) were randomly assigned to receive a gain- or loss-framed message promoting self-management of pain. Impact of the framed message on behavioural self-management (including communicating with providers, relaxation, activity pacing, pleasant activities and healthy lifestyle) was assessed. Post-message, individuals in the loss-frame condition reported significantly greater interest in and more knowledge gained from the information presented in the message (p≤0.03). Loss-frame participants were significantly more likely to express confidence that they would practice relaxation (p≤0.03). Pain readiness to change, pain self-efficacy and message frame independently influenced motivation to engage in relaxation as a self-management strategy. Across all behaviours assessed, there were no observed interactions between message frame and either pain self-efficacy or pain readiness to change (p>0.05). Framing may be useful to promote pain self-management; larger trials are needed to fully evaluate its potential and to further assess the applicability of framed communication to impact a broader range of chronic conditions. PMID:21500104
The effect of message framing on self-management of chronic pain: a new perspective on intervention?
Janke, E Amy; Spring, Bonnie; Weaver, Frances
2011-07-01
This study examines framed messages as a novel approach to promote self-management of chronic pain. Primary care patients reporting chronic pain (pain rated ≥ 4 on 0-10 NRS-I for ≥3 months) were randomly assigned to receive a gain- or loss-framed message promoting self-management of pain. Impact of the framed message on behavioural self-management (including communicating with providers, relaxation, activity pacing, pleasant activities and healthy lifestyle) was assessed. Post-message, individuals in the loss-frame condition reported significantly greater interest in and more knowledge gained from the information presented in the message (p≤0.03). Loss-frame participants were significantly more likely to express confidence that they would practice relaxation (p≤0.03). Pain readiness to change, pain self-efficacy and message frame independently influenced motivation to engage in relaxation as a self-management strategy. Across all behaviours assessed, there were no observed interactions between message frame and either pain self-efficacy or pain readiness to change (p>0.05). Framing may be useful to promote pain self-management; larger trials are needed to fully evaluate its potential and to further assess the applicability of framed communication to impact a broader range of chronic conditions.
Fostering Musical Independence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shieh, Eric; Allsup, Randall Everett
2016-01-01
Musical independence has always been an essential aim of musical instruction. But this objective can refer to everything from high levels of musical expertise to more student choice in the classroom. While most conceptualizations of musical independence emphasize the demonstration of knowledge and skills within particular music traditions, this…
Independent vs. Laboratory Papers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Clint C., II
1981-01-01
Comparisons of independent and laboratory newspapers at selected California colleges indicated that (1) the independent newspapers were superior in editorial opinion and leadership characteristics; (2) the laboratory newspapers made better use of photography, art, and graphics; and (3) professional journalists highly rated their laboratory…
Independence of Internal Auditors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.
1993-01-01
A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…
American Independence. Fifth Grade.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crosby, Annette
This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…
Dissipative quantum computing with open quantum walks
Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-12-04
An open quantum walk approach to the implementation of a dissipative quantum computing scheme is presented. The formalism is demonstrated for the example of an open quantum walk implementation of a 3 qubit quantum circuit consisting of 10 gates.
Frame-Based Approach To Database Management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voros, Robert S.; Hillman, Donald J.; Decker, D. Richard; Blank, Glenn D.
1989-03-01
Practical knowledge-based systems need to reason in terms of knowledge that is already available in databases. This type of knowledge is usually represented as tables acquired from external databases and published reports. Knowledge based systems provide a means for reasoning about entities at a higher level of abstraction. What is needed in many of today's expert systems is a link between the knowledge base and external databases. One such approach is a frame-based database management system. Package Expert (PEx) designs packages for integrated circuits. The thrust of our work is to bring together diverse technologies, data and design knowledge in a coherent system. PEx uses design rules to reason about properties of chips and potential packages, including dimensions, possible materials and packaging requirements. This information is available in existing databases. PEx needs to deal with the following types of information consistently: material databases which are in several formats; technology databases, also in several formats; and parts files which contain dimensional information. It is inefficient and inelegant to have rules access the database directly. Instead, PEx uses a frame-based hierarchical knowledge management approach to databases. Frames serve as the interface between rule-based knowledge and databases. We describe PEx and the use of frames in database retrieval. We first give an overview and the design evolution of the expert system. Next, we describe the system implementation. Finally, we describe how the rules in the expert system access the databases via frames.
Evaluating Reanalysis - Independent Observations and Observation Independence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahl, S.; Bollmeyer, C.; Danek, C.; Friederichs, P.; Keller, J. D.; Ohlwein, C.
2014-12-01
Reanalyses on global to regional scales are widely used for validation of meteorological or hydrological models and for many climate applications. However, the evaluation of the reanalyses itself is still a crucial task. A major challenge is the lack of independent observations, since most of the available observational data is already included, e. g. by the data assimilation scheme. Here, we focus on the evaluation of dynamical reanalyses which are obtained by using numerical weather prediction models with a fixed data assimilation scheme. Precipitation is generally not assimilated in dynamical reanalyses (except for e.g. latent heat nudging) and thereby provides valuable data for the evaluation of reanalysis. Since precipitation results from the complex dynamical and microphysical atmospheric processes, an accurate representation of precipitation is often used as an indicator for a good model performance. Here, we use independent observations of daily precipitation accumulations from European rain gauges (E-OBS) of the years 2008 and 2009 for the intercomparison of various regional reanalyses products for the European CORDEX domain (Hirlam reanalysis at 0.2°, Metoffice UM reanalysis at 0.11°, COSMO reanalysis at 0.055°). This allows for assessing the benefits of increased horizontal resolution compared to global reanalyses. Furthermore, the effect of latent heat nudging (assimilation of radar-derived rain rates) is investigated using an experimental setup of the COSMO reanalysis with 6km and 2km resolution for summer 2011. Further, we present an observation independent evaluation based on kinetic energy spectra. Such spectra should follow a k-3 dependence of the wave number k for the larger scale, and a k-5/3 dependence on the mesoscale. We compare the spectra of the aforementioned regional reanalyses in order to investigate the general capability of the reanalyses to resolve events on the mesoscale (e.g. effective resolution). The intercomparison and
Microlens frames for laser diode arrays
Skidmore, Jay A.; Freitas, Barry L.
1999-01-01
Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter.
Microlens frames for laser diode arrays
Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.
1999-07-13
Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter. 12 figs.
Member end releases in framed structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stallings, J. M.
1993-02-01
Discontinuities such as internal hinges are commonly encountered in framed structures. A general method of including discontinuities in stiffness method analyses of planar frames by the release of member end forces is developed. Modifications are made to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector to account for the released end forces. A FORTRAN algorithm is given that makes the necessary modifications to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector for the standard planar frame member. The algorithm allows combinations of up to three member end forces to be released (specified at zero or nonzero values). An algorithm is also given that calculates the unknown member end displacements at the released member end forces. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the uses and capabilities of the algorithms.
Authentication of quantum messages.
Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan
2001-01-01
Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.
Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames
Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard
2015-11-15
Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, H.; Kok, P.; Dowling, J. P.
2002-01-01
This paper addresses the formal equivalence between the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Ramsey spectroscope, and a specific quantum logical gate. Based on this equivalence we introduce the quantum Rosetta Stone, and we describe a projective measurement scheme for generating the desired correlations between the interferometric input states in order to achieve Heisenberg-limited sensitivity.
Trevors, J T; Masson, L
2011-01-01
During his famous 1943 lecture series at Trinity College Dublin, the reknown physicist Erwin Schrodinger discussed the failure and challenges of interpreting life by classical physics alone and that a new approach, rooted in Quantum principles, must be involved. Quantum events are simply a level of organization below the molecular level. This includes the atomic and subatomic makeup of matter in microbial metabolism and structures, as well as the organic, genetic information code of DNA and RNA. Quantum events at this time do not elucidate, for example, how specific genetic instructions were first encoded in an organic genetic code in microbial cells capable of growth and division, and its subsequent evolution over 3.6 to 4 billion years. However, due to recent technological advances, biologists and physicists are starting to demonstrate linkages between various quantum principles like quantum tunneling, entanglement and coherence in biological processes illustrating that nature has exerted some level quantum control to optimize various processes in living organisms. In this article we explore the role of quantum events in microbial processes and endeavor to show that after nearly 67 years, Schrödinger was prophetic and visionary in his view of quantum theory and its connection with some of the fundamental mechanisms of life. PMID:21368338
Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun
2016-01-01
Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680
I've Been Framed! Designing a Library Web Site Within a Government Frame
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houghton, Sarah
2005-01-01
Often, because of political reasons, a library's site must be designed within the frame of another organization's. In this article, the author, the e-services librarian for the Marin County Free Library in San Rafael, California, details her experience of designing a library website within the frame--and within the rules and limitations--of the…
FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)
Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.
2009-06-17
The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.
Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun
2016-07-20
Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect.
BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dolbey, Andrew Eric
2009-01-01
In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…
Strategic Framing Study Circles: Toward a Gold Standard of Framing Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feinberg, Jane
2009-01-01
This article explains how communities of practice have been developed as part of FrameWorks' field-building efforts. Strategic Framing Study Circles, as they are known, have been conducted with four statewide coalitions, one group of national organizations, and an emerging regional coalition. The goal of each community of practice is to build…
Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun
2016-01-01
Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680
Probabilistic frames for non-Boolean phenomena.
Narens, Louis
2016-01-13
Classical probability theory, as axiomatized in 1933 by Andrey Kolmogorov, has provided a useful and almost universally accepted theory for describing and quantifying uncertainty in scientific applications outside quantum mechanics. Recently, cognitive psychologists and mathematical economists have provided examples where classical probability theory appears inadequate but the probability theory underlying quantum mechanics appears effective. Formally, quantum probability theory is a generalization of classical probability. This article explores relationships between generalized probability theories, in particular quantum-like probability theories and those that do not have full complementation operators (e.g. event spaces based on intuitionistic logic), and discusses how these generalizations bear on important issues in the foundations of probability and the development of non-classical probability theories for the behavioural sciences. PMID:26621992
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coecke, Bob
2010-01-01
Why did it take us 50 years since the birth of the quantum mechanical formalism to discover that unknown quantum states cannot be cloned? Yet, the proof of the 'no-cloning theorem' is easy, and its consequences and potential for applications are immense. Similarly, why did it take us 60 years to discover the conceptually intriguing and easily derivable physical phenomenon of 'quantum teleportation'? We claim that the quantum mechanical formalism doesn't support our intuition, nor does it elucidate the key concepts that govern the behaviour of the entities that are subject to the laws of quantum physics. The arrays of complex numbers are kin to the arrays of 0s and 1s of the early days of computer programming practice. Using a technical term from computer science, the quantum mechanical formalism is 'low-level'. In this review we present steps towards a diagrammatic 'high-level' alternative for the Hilbert space formalism, one which appeals to our intuition. The diagrammatic language as it currently stands allows for intuitive reasoning about interacting quantum systems, and trivialises many otherwise involved and tedious computations. It clearly exposes limitations such as the no-cloning theorem, and phenomena such as quantum teleportation. As a logic, it supports 'automation': it enables a (classical) computer to reason about interacting quantum systems, prove theorems, and design protocols. It allows for a wider variety of underlying theories, and can be easily modified, having the potential to provide the required step-stone towards a deeper conceptual understanding of quantum theory, as well as its unification with other physical theories. Specific applications discussed here are purely diagrammatic proofs of several quantum computational schemes, as well as an analysis of the structural origin of quantum non-locality. The underlying mathematical foundation of this high-level diagrammatic formalism relies on so-called monoidal categories, a product of a fairly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudreaux, Andrew
1999-05-01
The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been examining student understanding of relative motion in one and two dimensions. We have found that many students in introductory physics treat some vector quantities as being frame-independent or have difficulty in transforming these quantities from one frame to another. Evidence will be presented from results of interviews and written questions. * This work has been funded in part by NSF Grants DUE 9354501 and DUE 9727648, which include support from other Divisions of EHR and the Physics Division of MPS.
Magnetization patterns of permalloy square frames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Mei-Feng; Wei, Zung-Hang; Chang, Ching-Ray; Wu, J. C.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Usov, Nickolai A.; Lai, Jun-Yang; Yao, Y. D.
2003-05-01
Four different magnetization configurations of micron- and submicron-sized permalloy square frames are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. Beside the pure conventional 90° Neel type wall with zero net magnetic pole, we also obtain numerically another high energy domain wall with positive or negative net magnetic poles in the corner. These three kinds of domain walls constitute four different patterns in square frames. We compare the magnetic pole density distributions derived from the spin configurations of simulation results with the images taken by magnetic force microscopy, and find reasonable agreement between them.
Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation
Tencer, John
2016-05-01
The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.
Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)
1981-01-01
Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.
Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Yang, Bo; Iles, Irina
2015-01-01
This study examines the effectiveness of cigarette warning labels, with a specific focus on the impact of graphics, message framing (gain vs. loss), and temporal framing (present-oriented vs. future-oriented) among nonsmokers in the United States. A controlled experiment (N = 253) revealed that graphic warning labels were perceived as more effective, stronger in argument strength, and were generally liked more compared to text-only labels. In addition, loss-framed labels, compared to their gain-framed counterparts, were rated higher in perceived effectiveness, argument strength, and liking. No significant difference was observed between the present- and future-oriented frames on any of the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for antismoking communication efforts are discussed. PMID:24628288
Complementarity relations for quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Shuming; Hall, Michael J. W.
2015-10-01
Various measures have been suggested recently for quantifying the coherence of a quantum state with respect to a given basis. We first use two of these, the l1-norm and relative entropy measures, to investigate tradeoffs between the coherences of mutually unbiased bases. Results include relations between coherence, uncertainty, and purity; tight general bounds restricting the coherences of mutually unbiased bases; and an exact complementarity relation for qubit coherences. We further define the average coherence of a quantum state. For the l1-norm measure this is related to a natural "coherence radius" for the state and leads to a conjecture for an l2-norm measure of coherence. For relative entropy the average coherence is determined by the difference between the von Neumann entropy and the quantum subentropy of the state and leads to upper bounds for the latter quantity. Finally, we point out that the relative entropy of coherence is a special case of G-asymmetry, which immediately yields several operational interpretations in contexts as diverse as frame alignment, quantum communication, and metrology, and suggests generalizing the property of quantum coherence to arbitrary groups of physical transformations.
Entanglement and symmetry: A case study in superselection rules, reference frames, and beyond
Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Vaccaro, J. A.; Pope, D. T.; Bartlett, S. D.
2006-12-15
In recent years it has become apparent that constraints on possible quantum operations, such as those constraints imposed by superselection rules (SSRs), have a profound effect on quantum information theoretic concepts like bipartite entanglement. This paper concentrates on a particular example: the constraint that applies when the parties (Alice and Bob) cannot distinguish among certain quantum objects they have. This arises naturally in the context of ensemble quantum information processing such as in liquid NMR. We discuss how a SSR for the symmetric group can be applied, and show how the extractable entanglement can be calculated analytically in certain cases, with a maximum bipartite entanglement in an ensemble of N Bell-state pairs scaling as log(N) as N{yields}{infinity}. We discuss the apparent disparity with the asymptotic (N{yields}{infinity}) recovery of unconstrained entanglement for other sorts of superselection rules, and show that the disparity disappears when the correct notion of applying the symmetric group SSR to multiple copies is used. Next we discuss reference frames in the context of this SSR, showing the relation to the work of von Korff and Kempe [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 260502 (2004)]. The action of a reference frame can be regarded as the analog of activation in mixed-state entanglement. We also discuss the analog of distillation: there exist states such that one copy can act as an imperfect reference frame for another copy. Finally we present an example of a stronger operational constraint, that operations must be noncollective as well as symmetric. Even under this stronger constraint we, nevertheless, show that Bell nonlocality (and hence entanglement) can be demonstrated for an ensemble of N Bell-state pairs no matter how large N is. This last work is a generalization of that of Mermin [Phys. Rev. D 22, 356 (1980)].
Quantum hyperparallel algorithm for matrix multiplication.
Zhang, Xin-Ding; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Zheng-Yuan
2016-01-01
Hyperentangled states, entangled states with more than one degree of freedom, are considered as promising resource in quantum computation. Here we present a hyperparallel quantum algorithm for matrix multiplication with time complexity O(N(2)), which is better than the best known classical algorithm. In our scheme, an N dimensional vector is mapped to the state of a single source, which is separated to N paths. With the assistance of hyperentangled states, the inner product of two vectors can be calculated with a time complexity independent of dimension N. Our algorithm shows that hyperparallel quantum computation may provide a useful tool in quantum machine learning and "big data" analysis. PMID:27125586
Quantum hyperparallel algorithm for matrix multiplication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xin-Ding; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Zheng-Yuan
2016-04-01
Hyperentangled states, entangled states with more than one degree of freedom, are considered as promising resource in quantum computation. Here we present a hyperparallel quantum algorithm for matrix multiplication with time complexity O(N2), which is better than the best known classical algorithm. In our scheme, an N dimensional vector is mapped to the state of a single source, which is separated to N paths. With the assistance of hyperentangled states, the inner product of two vectors can be calculated with a time complexity independent of dimension N. Our algorithm shows that hyperparallel quantum computation may provide a useful tool in quantum machine learning and “big data” analysis.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
Zurek, W.H.; Paz, J.P.
1994-04-01
The key ideas of the environment-induced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan ``No information without representation.``
Quantum affine algebras and universal functional relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nirov, Kh S.; Razumov, A. V.
2016-01-01
By the universal integrability objects we mean certain monodromy-type and transfer- type operators, where the representation in the auxiliary space is properly fixed, while the representation in the quantum space is not. This notion is actually determined by the structure of the universal R-matrix. We call functional relations between such universal integrability objects, and so, being independent of the representation in the quantum space, the universal functional relations. We present a short review of the universal functional relations for the quantum integrable systems associated with the quantum groups of loop Lie algebras.
Scalable networks for discrete quantum random walks
Fujiwara, S.; Osaki, H.; Buluta, I.M.; Hasegawa, S.
2005-09-15
Recently, quantum random walks (QRWs) have been thoroughly studied in order to develop new quantum algorithms. In this paper we propose scalable quantum networks for discrete QRWs on circles, lines, and also in higher dimensions. In our method the information about the position of the walker is stored in a quantum register and the network consists of only one-qubit rotation and (controlled){sup n}-NOT gates, therefore it is purely computational and independent of the physical implementation. As an example, we describe the experimental realization in an ion-trap system.
Quantum Ontology in the Light of Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catren, Gabriel
2014-03-01
By using the conceptual framework provided by the theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems, we propose a quantum ontology based on two independent postulates, namely the phase postulate and the quantum postulate. The phase postulate generalizes the gauge correspondence between first-class constraints and gauge transformations to the observables of unconstrained Hamiltonian systems. The quantum postulate establishes a faithful correspondence between the observables that allow us to identify the states and the operators that act on these states. According to this quantum ontology, quantum states provide a complete description of all the objective properties of quantum systems.
1994-12-30
Data-machine independence achieved by using four technologies (ASN.1, XDR, SDS, and ZEBRA) has been evaluated by encoding two different applications in each of the above; and their results compared against the standard programming method using C.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.
Reformulating the Quantum Uncertainty Relation.
Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2015-01-01
Uncertainty principle is one of the cornerstones of quantum theory. In the literature, there are two types of uncertainty relations, the operator form concerning the variances of physical observables and the entropy form related to entropic quantities. Both these forms are inequalities involving pairwise observables, and are found to be nontrivial to incorporate multiple observables. In this work we introduce a new form of uncertainty relation which may give out complete trade-off relations for variances of observables in pure and mixed quantum systems. Unlike the prevailing uncertainty relations, which are either quantum state dependent or not directly measurable, our bounds for variances of observables are quantum state independent and immune from the "triviality" problem of having zero expectation values. Furthermore, the new uncertainty relation may provide a geometric explanation for the reason why there are limitations on the simultaneous determination of different observables in N-dimensional Hilbert space. PMID:26234197
Reformulating the Quantum Uncertainty Relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2015-08-01
Uncertainty principle is one of the cornerstones of quantum theory. In the literature, there are two types of uncertainty relations, the operator form concerning the variances of physical observables and the entropy form related to entropic quantities. Both these forms are inequalities involving pairwise observables, and are found to be nontrivial to incorporate multiple observables. In this work we introduce a new form of uncertainty relation which may give out complete trade-off relations for variances of observables in pure and mixed quantum systems. Unlike the prevailing uncertainty relations, which are either quantum state dependent or not directly measurable, our bounds for variances of observables are quantum state independent and immune from the “triviality” problem of having zero expectation values. Furthermore, the new uncertainty relation may provide a geometric explanation for the reason why there are limitations on the simultaneous determination of different observables in N-dimensional Hilbert space.
Reformulating the Quantum Uncertainty Relation.
Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2015-08-03
Uncertainty principle is one of the cornerstones of quantum theory. In the literature, there are two types of uncertainty relations, the operator form concerning the variances of physical observables and the entropy form related to entropic quantities. Both these forms are inequalities involving pairwise observables, and are found to be nontrivial to incorporate multiple observables. In this work we introduce a new form of uncertainty relation which may give out complete trade-off relations for variances of observables in pure and mixed quantum systems. Unlike the prevailing uncertainty relations, which are either quantum state dependent or not directly measurable, our bounds for variances of observables are quantum state independent and immune from the "triviality" problem of having zero expectation values. Furthermore, the new uncertainty relation may provide a geometric explanation for the reason why there are limitations on the simultaneous determination of different observables in N-dimensional Hilbert space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris
2006-11-01
Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris
1995-04-01
Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos
Long-term research in Inmetro on samples of quantum Hall resistance standards made by PTB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, H. R.; Briones, R. E. M.; Pierz, K.; Gotz, M.
2016-07-01
This paper shows up to date results of Inmetro's investigations on aging effects of quantum Hall samples fabricated by PTB in the frame of a mutual scientific agreement established between the Brazilian and German National Metrology Institutes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leon, R.; Swift, G.; Magness, B.; Taylor, W.; Tang, Y.; Wang, K.; Dowd, P.; Zhang, Y.
2000-01-01
Successful implementation of technology using self-forming semiconductor Quantum Dots (QDs) has already demonstrated that temperature independent Dirac-delta density of states can be exploited in low current threshold QD lasers and QD infrared photodetectors.
Quantum strategies of quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2001-03-01
In the classical Monty Hall problem, one player can always win with probability 2/3. We generalize the problem to the quantum domain and show that a fair two-party zero-sum game can be carried out if the other player is permitted to adopt quantum measurement strategy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Lewis A.; Stokes, Adam; Beige, Almut
2016-08-01
In this paper, we use the nonlinear generator of dynamics of the individual quantum trajectories of an optical cavity inside an instantaneous quantum feedback loop to measure the phase shift between two pathways of light with a precision above the standard quantum limit. The feedback laser provides a reference frame and constantly increases the dependence of the state of the resonator on the unknown phase. Since our quantum metrology scheme can be implemented with current technology and does not require highly efficient single photon detectors, it should be of practical interest until highly entangled many-photon states become more readily available.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...
49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...
49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...
Transitions in Students' Epistemic Framing along Two Axes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.
2013-01-01
We use epistemological framing to interpret participants' behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together…
Remarks on Viewing Situation in a Rotating Frame
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kobayashi, Yukio
2008-01-01
Representations of centrifugal forces are derived in a variety of rotating frames. Although the rotating angle of a point mass relative to an inertial frame is often confused with the rotating angle of a rotating frame relative to the inertial frame, they should be differentiated. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)
Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...
Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA
Quantum physics without quantum philosophy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Zanghì, Nino
Quantum philosophy, a peculiar twentieth-century malady, is responsible for most of the conceptual muddle plaguing the foundations of quantum physics. When this philosophy is eschewed, one naturally arrives at Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schrödinger's equation for a nonrelativistic system of particles when we merely insist that 'particles' means particles. While distinctly non-Newtonian, Bohmian mechanics is a fully deterministic theory of particles in motion, a motion choreographed by the wave function. The quantum formalism emerges when measurement situations are analyzed according to this theory. When the quantum formalism is regarded as arising in this way, the paradoxes and perplexities so often associated with quantum theory simply evaporate.
Entropy Transfer of Quantum Gravity Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2015-05-01
We introduce the term smooth entanglement entropy transfer, a phenomenon that is a consequence of the causality-cancellation property of the quantum gravity environment. The causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity space removes the causal dependencies of the local systems. We study the physical effects of the causality-cancellation and show that it stimulates entropy transfer between the quantum gravity environment and the independent local systems of the quantum gravity space. The entropy transfer reduces the entropies of the contributing local systems and increases the entropy of the quantum gravity environment. We discuss the space-time geometry structure of the quantum gravity environment and the local quantum systems. We propose the space-time geometry model of the smooth entropy transfer. We reveal on a smooth Cauchy slice that the space-time geometry of the quantum gravity environment dynamically adapts to the vanishing causality. We prove that the Cauchy area expansion, along with the dilation of the Rindler horizon area of the quantum gravity environment, is a corollary of the causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity environment. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 (Secure quantum key distribution between two units on optical fiber network) project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, and by the COST Action MP1006.
On Translators' Cultural Frame of Functionist Reference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fu, Zhiyi
2009-01-01
A deep cognition with translators' cultural frame of functionist reference can help instructors and teachers adjust and extend patterns and schemes of translation and generate the optimal classroom conditions for acquisition of the target language. The author of the paper, in the perspectives of motivational, cognitive and communicative…
Dynamic Frames in Java Dynamic Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattias; Weiß, Benjamin
In this paper we present a realisation of the concept of dynamic frames in a dynamic logic for verifying Java programs. This is achieved by treating sets of heap locations as first class citizens in the logic. Syntax and formal semantics of the logic are presented, along with sound proof rules for modularly reasoning about method calls and heap dependent symbols using specification contracts.
Fermionic entanglement ambiguity in noninertial frames
Montero, Miguel; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
2011-06-15
We analyze an ambiguity in previous works on entanglement of fermionic fields in noninertial frames. This ambiguity, related to the anticommutation properties of field operators, leads to nonunique results when computing entanglement measures for the same state. We show that the ambiguity disappears when we introduce detectors, which are in any case necessary as a means to probe the field entanglement.
21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle... patient to correct refractive errors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, subject to...
Boy Trouble: Rhetorical Framing of Boys' Underachievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Titus, Jordan J.
2004-01-01
This article examines discourse in the United States used to socially construct an "underachieving boys" moral panic. Employing discourse analysis I examine the adversarial rhetoric of claims-makers and the frames they deploy to undermine alternative and conflicting accounts (of females as disadvantaged) and to forestall any challenges to the…
21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... patient to correct refractive errors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... patient to correct refractive errors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard
2016-01-01
Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…
Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eddy, Pamela L.
2010-01-01
Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…
The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus
2014-01-01
Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…
Framing Learning Conditions in Geography Excursions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jonasson, Mikael
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate and frame some learning conditions involved in the practice of geographical excursions. The empirical material from this study comes from several excursions made by students in human geography and an ethnomethodological approach through participant observation is used. The study is informed by theories from…
FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Childre, Doc Lew
Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…
Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate
2013-01-01
Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…
Frames of Reference in the Classroom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, Joshua
2012-12-01
The classic film "Frames of Reference"1,2 effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating—all with respect to the Earth frame. The film is a classic for good reason, but today it does have a couple of drawbacks: 1) The film by nature only accommodates passive learning. It does not give students the opportunity to try any of the experiments themselves. 2) The dated style of the 50-year-old film can distract students from the physics content. I present here a simple setup that can recreate many of the movies demonstrations in the classroom. The demonstrations can be used to supplement the movie or in its place, if desired. All of the materials except perhaps the inexpensive web camera should likely be available already in most teaching laboratories. Unlike previously described activities, these experiments do not require travel to another location3 or an involved setup.4,5
Framing Bias among Expert and Novice Physicians.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christensen, Caryn; And Others
1991-01-01
A study explored the responses of medical students, resident physicians, and experienced physicians to 12 vignettes describing hypothetical patients to determine the relationship between clinical experience and susceptibility to bias in treatment decisions resulting from presentation of possible outcomes. Framing bias was most evident in the…
Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.
This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…
Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.
The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…
Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras
Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.
1997-06-01
Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.
Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity
Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter
2015-01-01
Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656
Productivity of Noun Slots in Verb Frames
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Theakston, Anna L.; Ibbotson, Paul; Freudenthal, Daniel; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael
2015-01-01
Productivity is a central concept in the study of language and language acquisition. As a test case for exploring the notion of productivity, we focus on the noun slots of verb frames, such as __"want"__, __"see"__, and __"get"__. We develop a novel combination of measures designed to assess both the flexibility and…
The framing effect and skin conductance responses
Ring, Patrick
2015-01-01
Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747
Framing the Future: People, Places, Projects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knapsey, Kath
This publication describes six Framing the Future (FTF) staff development projects that use work-based learning with different project teams and learning activities varying from general awareness to specific skills development in Australia. "The Center for Human Services--Working for Its People" describes a project that introduced a Community…
The framing effect and skin conductance responses.
Ring, Patrick
2015-01-01
Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747
Limit theorems for dilute quantum systems leading to quantum poisson processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alicki, Robert; Rudnicki, Sławomir; Sadowski, Sławomir
1993-12-01
The limit theorems for sums of independent or correlated operators representing observables of dilute quantum systems and leading to quantum Poisson processes are proved. Examples of systems of unstable particles and a Fermi lattice gas are discussed. For the latter, relations between low density limit and central limit are given.
Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna
2016-08-01
We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.
Base units of the SI, fundamental constants and modern quantum physics.
Bordé, Christian J
2005-09-15
Over the past 40 years, a number of discoveries in quantum physics have completely transformed our vision of fundamental metrology. This revolution starts with the frequency stabilization of lasers using saturation spectroscopy and the redefinition of the metre by fixing the velocity of light c. Today, the trend is to redefine all SI base units from fundamental constants and we discuss strategies to achieve this goal. We first consider a kinematical frame, in which fundamental constants with a dimension, such as the speed of light c, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k(B) or the electron mass m(e) can be used to connect and redefine base units. The various interaction forces of nature are then introduced in a dynamical frame, where they are completely characterized by dimensionless coupling constants such as the fine structure constant alpha or its gravitational analogue alpha(G). This point is discussed by rewriting the Maxwell and Dirac equations with new force fields and these coupling constants. We describe and stress the importance of various quantum effects leading to the advent of this new quantum metrology. In the second part of the paper, we present the status of the seven base units and the prospects of their possible redefinitions from fundamental constants in an experimental perspective. The two parts can be read independently and they point to these same conclusions concerning the redefinitions of base units. The concept of rest mass is directly related to the Compton frequency of a body, which is precisely what is measured by the watt balance. The conversion factor between mass and frequency is the Planck constant, which could therefore be fixed in a realistic and consistent new definition of the kilogram based on its Compton frequency. We discuss also how the Boltzmann constant could be better determined and fixed to replace the present definition of the kelvin.
RC Infilled Frame-RC Plane Frame Interactions for Seismic Resistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arulselvan, Suyamburaja; Subramanian, K.; Perumal Pillai, E. B.; Santhakumar, A. R.
Experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the influence of brick masonry infill in a reinforced cement concrete frame. The analytical methods available needs validation by comparison with experimental results and more accurate methods of analysis like finite element analysis has to be used for the above purpose. In this study, RC frame with middle bay brick infilled representing a five-stories, three bay building in quarter-scale has been taken for experimental investigation and the available methods of theoretical analysis and finite element analysis using ANSYS software for the frames have been carried out. Until the cracks developed in infills, the contribution of the infill to both lateral stiffness and strength was very significant. The change in lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and natural period of the framed structure due to the presence of infills change the behaviour of the building under seismic action. The object of this study was to investigate the behaviour of such infilled frames under seismic loads. For this purpose, five stories, three bay frames with central portion infilled with brick were tested under static cyclic loading simulating seismic action. Analytical works was done to understand the stiffness, strength and behaviour of these types of frames.
STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots
Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.
2015-01-01
The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ∼50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging. PMID:25980788
STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.
2015-05-01
The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ~50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.
STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots.
Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J; Hell, Stefan W
2015-05-18
The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ∼ 50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.
Frame-Based Immobilization and Targeting for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
Murray, Bryan C. . E-mail: bryan.murray@utsouthwestern.edu; Forster, Kenneth; Timmerman, Robert
2007-07-01
Frame-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), such as that conducted with Elekta's Stereotactic Body Frame, can provide an extra measure of precision in the delivery of radiation to extracranial targets, and facilitates secure patient immobilization. In this paper, we review the steps involved in optimal use of an extra-cranial immobilization device for SBRT treatments. Our approach to using frame-based SBRT consists of 4 steps: patient immobilization, tumor and organ motion control, treatment/planning correlation, and daily targeting with pretreatment quality assurance. Patient immobilization was achieved with the Vac-Loc bag, which uses styrofoam beads to conform to the patient's shape comfortably within the body frame. Organ and motion control was assessed under fluoroscopy and controlled via a frame-mounted abdominal pressure plate. The compression screw was tightened until the diaphragmatic excursion range was < 1 cm. Treatment planning was performed using the Philips Pinnacle 6.2b system. In this treatment process, a 20 to 30 noncoplanar beam arrangement was initially selected and an inverse beam weight optimization algorithm was applied. Those beams with low beam weights were removed, leaving a manageable number of beams for treatment delivery. After planning, daily targeting using computed tomography (CT) to verify x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the treatment isocenter were used as a measure of quality assurance. We found our daily setup variation typically averaged < 5 mm in all directions, which is comparable to other published studies on Stereotactic Body Frame. Treatment time ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. Results demonstrate that patients have experienced high rates of local control with acceptable rates of severe side effects-by virtue of the tightly constrained treatment fields. The body frame facilitated comfortable patient positioning and quality assurance checks of the tumor, in relation to another set of independent set of coordinates
Some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs.
Zhang, Wei; Li, Yun-Zhang
2016-01-01
This paper addresses continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs which are extensions of discrete fusion frames and continuous frames. The study of equalities and inequalities for various frames has seen great achievements. In this paper, using operator methods we establish some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs. Our results extend and improve ones obtained by Balan, Casazza and Găvruţa. PMID:27652173
Teaching "How?" mand-for-information frames to children with autism.
Lechago, Sarah A; Howell, Amber; Caccavale, Mia N; Peterson, Charles W
2013-12-01
The current study extends the mand-for-information literature by examining a method to teach mand-for-information frames, targeting 2 frames for the "How?" mand ("How do I?" and "How many?"). Using separate behavior chains to target the 2 frames, we taught 3 children with autism to emit mands for information with 1 behavior chain and assessed generalization with the remaining behavior chains. Behavior chains that the participants were unable to perform independently and that produced a desirable outcome for the participant (e.g., tornado water) were used to contrive the relevant motivating operation. For all 3 participants, mands for information generalized across motivating operations and response topographies. PMID:24114374
A dirty word or a dirty world?: Attribute framing, political affiliation, and query theory.
Hardisty, David J; Johnson, Eric J; Weber, Elke U
2010-01-01
We explored the effect of attribute framing on choice, labeling charges for environmental costs as either an earmarked tax or an offset. Eight hundred ninety-eight Americans chose between otherwise identical products or services, where one option included a surcharge for emitted carbon dioxide. The cost framing changed preferences for self-identified Republicans and Independents, but did not affect Democrats' preferences. We explain this interaction by means of query theory and show that attribute framing can change the order in which internal queries supporting one or another option are posed. The effect of attribute labeling on query order is shown to depend on the representations of either taxes or offsets held by people with different political affiliations.
A dirty word or a dirty world?: Attribute framing, political affiliation, and query theory.
Hardisty, David J; Johnson, Eric J; Weber, Elke U
2010-01-01
We explored the effect of attribute framing on choice, labeling charges for environmental costs as either an earmarked tax or an offset. Eight hundred ninety-eight Americans chose between otherwise identical products or services, where one option included a surcharge for emitted carbon dioxide. The cost framing changed preferences for self-identified Republicans and Independents, but did not affect Democrats' preferences. We explain this interaction by means of query theory and show that attribute framing can change the order in which internal queries supporting one or another option are posed. The effect of attribute labeling on query order is shown to depend on the representations of either taxes or offsets held by people with different political affiliations. PMID:20424028