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Sample records for france hors tva

  1. [Investigation into "Hor Mongolian Moxibustion"].

    PubMed

    Baoyintu; Hugejilebatu; Bao, Ying-chun

    2006-04-01

    Hor, a tribe name, is a general denomination for the nomad lived north to the Great Wall, including Hun (Xiongnu), eastern Tartars (Donghu), and Xianbei, people. Hor Mongolian moxibustion is a therapeutic method discovered by those Hor people. Many types of treatments formed during its coming into being and developments, but the treatment principles came down in one continuous line.

  2. TVA fertilizer patents

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.J.; Aldridge, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Fertilizer research has been an important function of the Tennessee Valley Authority from the time it was established in 1933 to the present. During this period there have been extensive changes in the fertilizer industry. New and improved products have been developed and more efficient manufacturing methods have emerged. Products and processes developed by TVA are in widespread use today in the fertilizer industry. This bulletin is a collection of abstracts of patents granted to TVA on fertilizer technology and related topics over about 45 years. It contains 200 abstracts of patents. The abstracts have been divided into 13 major sections. Each section reflects the improved technology through this period of time. Abstracts of some of the patents issued to TVA since 1968 have already appeared in Fertilizer Abstracts, a journal published monthly since 1968. Inventor and subject indexes are provided in this bulletin.

  3. TVA and regional development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Although TVA is best known as a producer of electric power, its mission, in the words of Franklin D. Roosevelt, called for a program that touches and gives life to all forms of human concerns. This booklet provides general information about the scores of ways - beyond the electric power generation - in which the agency serves the region and nation.

  4. Student history of TVA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority was created in 1933 as part of the New Deal effort to lift the nation out of the depths of the Great Depression. Just 37 days after he took office, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to create TVA. Instead of many agencies dealing with a variety of public needs, one unified development program would serve the entire region. And it would be located not in Washington but in the Valley, among the people it served. On May 18, 1933 - little more than a month after his request - Congress approved Roosevelt's proposal, and TVA was born. Its assignments were many. They included fertilizer research and agricultural development, and river development to provide flood control, navigation, and electric power, plus natural resource conservation, forestry, economic development, and planning for a better life for the people.

  5. TVA and restructuring: Will more competitive markets put TVA on the ropes. [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.G. )

    1991-06-01

    This article examines the financial standing of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA),its recent restructuring and the competitive pressures that may undermine its share of the power generation market. Topics reviewed are TVA's stable rate goals, competitive position, what if TVA can not compete, be the first to bail out, two arguments for optimism, contingency planning, selling power outside the Tennessee Valley Region, and the Rural Electrification Administration model.

  6. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  7. France.

    PubMed

    1993-02-10

    Taxes on cigarettes in France have been increased by 15 per cent, the first of an overall rise of 30 per cent. Part of the revenue raised will help subsidise motor racing which lost its sponsors following a recent national ban on cigarette advertising. The remainder will go to the social security service.

  8. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  9. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem.

  10. ColorHOR--novel graphical algorithm for fast scan of alpha satellite higher-order repeats and HOR annotation for GenBank sequence of human genome.

    PubMed

    Paar, Vladimir; Pavin, Nenad; Rosandic, Marija; Gluncic, Matko; Basar, Ivan; Pezer, Robert; Zinic, Sonja Durajlija

    2005-04-01

    GenBank data are at present lacking alpha satellite higher-order repeat (HOR) annotation. Furthermore, exact HOR consensus lengths have not been reported so far. Given the fast growth of sequence databases in the centromeric region, it is of increasing interest to have efficient tools for computational identification and analysis of HORs from known sequences. We develop a graphical user interface method, ColorHOR, for fast computational identification of HORs in a given genomic sequence, without requiring a priori information on the composition of the genomic sequence. ColorHOR is based on an extension of the key-string algorithm and provides a color representation of the order and orientation of HORs. For the key string, we use a robust 6 bp string from a consensus alpha satellite and its representative nature is tested. ColorHOR algorithm provides a direct visual identification of HORs (direct and/or reverse complement). In more detail, we first illustrate the ColorHOR results for human chromosome 1. Using ColorHOR we determine for the first time the HOR annotation of the GenBank sequence of the whole human genome. In addition to some HORs, corresponding to those determined previously biochemically, we find new HORs in chromosomes 4, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 19. For the first time, we determine exact consensus lengths of HORs in 10 chromosomes. We propose that the HOR assignment obtained by using ColorHOR be included into the GenBank database.

  11. Operation of TVA reservoirs. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    This report describes the operation of TVA, ALCOA, and Cumberland Basin reservoirs that were scheduled daily by Reservoir Operations Branch personnel during calendar year 1981. These include all TVA reservoirs, eight reservoirs in the Cumberland River Basin owned by the US Army, Corps of Engineers, and six reservoirs in the Tennessee River Basin owned by ALCOA. In addition, storage and flow computations include Walters Reservoir, operated by Carolina Power and Light Company; and Woods Reservoir, operated by the US Air Force. Plates are included in this report tabulating daily elevations, storage volumes, and/or average discharges for 48 reservoirs for 1981. Additional plates are included for the daily average flow in Barkley Canal, monthly and annual emptyings and water use at each lock in the Tennessee River Basin, monthly and annual capacity factors at each TVA scheduled hydro plant, combined monthly and annual storage and flows (in inches) for reservoirs above Chickamauga and Kentucky Dams, and a summary of Reservoir Operations. Tables of monthly and annual storages and flows (in inches) for the principal Tennessee River Basin tributary projects are included at the end of their respective annual operations summary. Individual plotting of midnight reservoir elevations during calendar year 1981 are included for the principal tributary storage reservoirs and Normandy Reservoir. Group charts are included showing midnight reservoir elevations for other tributary reservoirs, the Tennessee River reservoirs, and the principal Cumberland Basin reservoirs.

  12. Operation of TVA reservoirs: annual 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the operation of TVA, ALCOA, and Cumberland Basin reservoirs that were scheduled daily by Reservoir Operations Branch personnel during calendar year 1980. These include all TVA reservoirs, eight reservoirs in the Cumberland River Basin owned by the US Army, Corps of Engineers, and six reservoirs in the Tennessee River Basin owned by ALCOA. In addition, storage and flow computations include Walters Reservoir, operated by Carolina Power and Light Company; and Woods Reservoir, operated by the US Air Force. Plates are included in this report tabulating daily elevations, storage volumes, and/or average discharges for 48 reservoirs for 1980. Additional plates are included for the daily average flow in Barkley Canal, monthly and annual emptyings and water use at each lock in the Tennessee River Basin, monthly and annual capacity factors at each TVA scheduled hydro plant, combined monthly and annual storage and flows (in inches) for reservoirs above Chickamauga and Kentucky Dams, and a summary of Reservoir Operations. Tables of monthly and annual storage and flows (in inches) for the principal Tennessee River Basin tributary projects are included at the end of their respective annual operations summary. Individual plottings of midnight reservoir elevations are included for the principal tributary storage reservoirs and Normandy Reservoir. Group charts are included showing midnight reservoir elevations for other tributary reservoirs, the Tennessee River reservoirs, and the principal Cumberland Basin reservoirs.

  13. Trophic status evaluation of TVA reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Placke, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    TVA tributary and mainstem reservoirs show generalized differences in morphometry, hydraulics, nutrient loads, and response to nutrient concentrations. Neither type of reservoir is strictly comparable to the natural lakes on which classical eutrophication studies have been based. The majority of published trophic state indices and standards (e.g., hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen depletion, Secchi depth, areas nutrient loading rates, in-reservoir phosphorus concentrations) are inappropriate for evaluation of some or all TVA reservoirs. No single trophic potential or trophic response variable summarizes the mechanisms and manifestations of eutrophication sufficiently to be used as a sole criterion for judging or regulating TVA reservoir water quality. Relative multivariate trophic state indices were developed for mainstem and tributary reservoirs. Ranking of the mainstem reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, macrophyte coverage, hydraulic retention time, reservoir area less than five feet deep, annual pool elevation drawdown, and Secchi depth. Based on available data, the rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Pickwick, Kentucky, Chickamauga, Nickajack, Wilson, Fort Loudoun, Watts Bar, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. Ranking of the tributary reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, total phosphorus and total nitrogen weighted by the N:P ratio, and bio-available inorganic carbon levels. The rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Hiwassee, Blue Ridge, Chatuge, Norris and Fontana, Watauga, South Holston, Tims Ford, Cherokee, Douglas, and Boone Reservoirs. 130 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  14. HorC, a hop-resistance related protein, presumably functions in homodimer form.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Kazumaru; Suzuki, Koji; Asano, Shizuka; Ogata, Tomoo; Kitagawa, Yasushi

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether two HorC molecules coordinately form a single unit, the functional properties of covalently linked dimers of HorC encoded by tandemly fused horC genes were studied. Lactobacillus brevis introduced with the fused horC genes and a single horC gene exhibited same degree of resistance to hop compounds and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. This suggests that HorC functions as a homodimer.

  15. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the costs for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the BRAVO system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amount, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply joints, demand points and product movement costs. In addition, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles.

  16. New directions at TVA with special reference to agricultural research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.J.; Rylant, K.E.

    1994-03-01

    Public Support for the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) fertilizer research and development program in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, ended in fiscal year 1993. TVA`s research center at Muscle Shoals, formerly known as the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, is now the TVA Environmental Research Center. Efforts at the Center have diversified to include research and support areas of Agricultural Research and Practices, Atmospheric Sciences, Biotechnology, Waste Management, and Remediation, Environmental Site Remediation, Support Services, Environmental Management, and Technology Transfer. ``We`re building on the expertise and success of our earlier research and focusing our new projects on emerging problems of the 21st century,`` TVA`s Chairman Craven Crowell said in prepared remarks to Congress on March 2, 1994. Agricultural Research in TVA has been aligned with corporate objectives to develop solutions to environmental problems of regional, national and international significance because the agency`s business incorporates a broad mix of responsibilities, including power generation, navigation, flood control, shoreline management, recreation, environmental research, and economic development. Agricultural strategies for watershed protection lie at the core of TVA`s new agricultural research agenda. The major influences for this agenda are TVA`s direct stewardship responsibilities for the 60,000 miles of streams that feed the 652-mile-long Tennessee River; the 11,000 miles of shoreline; and 470,000 acres of TVA-managed public land.

  17. 18 CFR 1308.14 - Request for relief by TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for relief by... CONTRACT DISPUTES Contracting Officers § 1308.14 Request for relief by TVA. When TVA believes it is due relief under a contract, the Contracting Officer shall make a request for relief against the Contractor...

  18. 18 CFR 1311.7 - How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and activities? 1311.7 Section 1311.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF...

  19. Photometric study of a marginal contact binary SY Hor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Muhammed Faruk; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present light curve analysis of a southern contact binary SY Hor. Photometric parameters of the system and its components are derived using the Wilson and Devinney code based on the data taken from the SuperWASP public data archive. Photometric solutions indicate that SY Hor is a marginal contact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 1.59 and a contact degree of f = 6%.

  20. TVA: fifty years of grass-roots bureaucracy

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, E.C.; Conkin, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    This book is based on papers presented at a December 1981 symposium at Vanderbilt University. Thirteen historians and political scientists contributed to this examination of TVA at age 50. The book covers TVA's history from 1933 to 1983; its role in regional development; its electric power program; the Tellico project and the snail darter episode; and the conflict between TVA and the environmentalists. Conclude the editors: the central theme of TVA's first half-century is the tension between a strong, autonomous bureaucracy ng, autonomous bureaucracy and the shifting tides of public opinion. The strong, autonomous bureaucracy has the authority to operate pretty much as it wishes. But if the bureaucracy ignores, or toys with, the views of the people of the region, it runs the risk of falling short of its goals. As to the next half-century the editors say: This book says nothing about the future of TVA because that future is very much in question. The power company will stay in business. Congress will provide modest appropriations for resource conservation and development. A new era of creativity could occur if the capacities of TVA match new national needs, but that union is not yet apparent.

  1. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method's most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  2. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    PubMed Central

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top–down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research. PMID:25852607

  3. TVA's experience with the SUNYA lightning detection network

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.; Driggans, R. )

    1990-10-01

    Since 1987 the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has had access to real-time data on cloud-to-ground lightning strikes in its service area through the Lightning Detection Network (LDN) operated by the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA). Lightning data are displayed in real-time on personal computer workstations connected to SUNYA via satellite link and are recorded for later analysis. TVA is using these data to analyze transmission line outages (real-time and historical), provide warning of approaching lightning to line crews, develop ground flash density maps to replace isokeraunic maps previously used in designing transmission lines for lightning protection, and to learn more about lightning and its effect on TVA's transmission system. Lightning flashes that cause particular line outages have been identified and their current and multiplicity characteristics studied. This information may be used to allow more cost-effective transmission line design in the future.

  4. 18 CFR 1314.6 - Obligations of TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of TVA. 1314.6 Section 1314.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... the Person exclusively entitled to issue a transfer message, to receive interest and other...

  5. 18 CFR 1308.14 - Request for relief by TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Request for relief by TVA. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... reasonable time, the Contracting Officer shall issue a decision which complies with the requirements...

  6. 18 CFR 1308.14 - Request for relief by TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Request for relief by TVA. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... reasonable time, the Contracting Officer shall issue a decision which complies with the requirements...

  7. 18 CFR 1314.6 - Obligations of TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Obligations of TVA. 1314.6 Section 1314.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... the Person exclusively entitled to issue a transfer message, to receive interest and other...

  8. 18 CFR 1308.14 - Request for relief by TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Request for relief by TVA. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... reasonable time, the Contracting Officer shall issue a decision which complies with the requirements...

  9. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General conduct...

  10. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General conduct...

  11. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General conduct...

  12. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General conduct...

  13. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General conduct...

  14. Coal gasification tests at TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, M.C.; Williamson, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results obtained from the EPRI cofunded tests conducted at TVA's 200 tpd Texaco coal gasification facility equipped with a water quench gasifier. Four US coals were tested at TVA: (1) Utah coal from the SUFCO mine, (2) Illinois No. 6 coal from the Amax Delta mine, (3) Pittsburgh No. 8 coal from the Blacksville No. 2 mine and (4) a high ash-fusion Maryland coal. The TVA tests were of short term duration totaling approximately 10 to 20 days of cumulative operation on each coal. The gasification behavior of each coal was tested under a wide range of process conditions and feed characteristics. All four coals produced carbon conversion of 92% or higher. Utah and Illinois No. 6 coals achieved carbon conversions of 95 to 97%. The high heating value Pittsburgh No. 8 coal had lower carbon conversion because the maximum allowable gasifier temperature was reached at relatively low O/C ratios. The high-ash fusion Maryland coal was gasified with a fluxing agent at temperatures within the design limit of the TVA gasifier. The gasification behavior of the coals was similar to that observed from tests at other Texaco gasifiers. However, earlier experiments at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratories showed higher values for both carbon conversion and coal gas efficiency. 27 figs., 35 tabs.

  15. 18 CFR 1311.7 - How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does TVA... 1311.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF... official state process, as early in a program planning cycle as is reasonably feasible to explain...

  16. 18 CFR 1311.7 - How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does TVA... 1311.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF... official state process, as early in a program planning cycle as is reasonably feasible to explain...

  17. 18 CFR 1311.7 - How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How does TVA communicate....7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF... official state process, as early in a program planning cycle as is reasonably feasible to explain...

  18. It`s time to sell the TVA

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, W.F.

    1996-03-01

    The electric power functions of the Tennessee Valley Authority should be sold now, in total, says a former top TVA executive - not because the agency can`t survive as is, but because doing so would produce a better result for TVA`s customers and employees, as well as U.S. taxpayers. It seems ironic to the author that while the U.S. generally encourages the spread of free enterprise, and as we are witnessing an unprecedented privatization of many formerly government-owned utility systems around the world, the U.S. government retains ownership of one of the largest electric companies in the U.S. and the world in the Tennessee Valley Authority. In many areas of the globe, privatization is moving with strong investment from U.S. firms and quasi-governmental institutions like the World Bank, yet our government won`t seriously consider selling the TVA. The author believes such a sale would be beneficial in many ways. It would generate big savings for the U.S. taxpayer. It would reduce the federal debt, and build on massive operating and financial progress made at TVA in the last seven years. It might also provide a model of how and why to privatize other parts of the federal government. At the same time it would move one of the largest electric companies in America out from under the burden of federal bureaucracy into the private sector, where the author believes it could compete effectively, without excuses or alibis.

  19. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    PubMed

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account.

  20. Maintaining hydrothermal compliance at TVA's nuclear and fossil plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hopping, P.; Montgomery, C.; Shiao, M.; Bodine, D.

    1998-07-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) currently operates three nuclear plants and eleven fossil plants, all of which rely on nearby rivers to dissipate waste heat. To avoid permit violations of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), TVA is required to curtail generation at a given facility if the temperature of the plant discharge exceeds allowable limits. To minimize the threat of NPDES violations and, consequently, reduce generation losses, TVA has developed a number of innovative techniques to monitor, forecast, optimize, and control instream water temperature. This paper highlights those for the Widows Creek Fossil Plant. The Widows Creek Fossil Plant (WCF) is located on the northern shore of the Tennessee River, 58.9 miles upstream of Guntersville Dam and 17.2 miles downstream of Nickajack Dam. Hydroplants located at the upstream and downstream dams are operated in the summer to provide generation solely for peaking. This operation, however, creates reverse flow in the river causing heated water from the WCF discharge to migrate upstream and enter the plant intake. This recirculation occurs within several hours after cessation of operations at the upstream and downstream hydroplants. To avoid NPDES temperature violations, generation curtailment occasionally is necessary at WCF during these events. For example, in August 1995, excess water temperatures caused a loss of about 230 unit-hours of generation, valued at over $250,000. To minimize reverse flow at WCG, alternative generation schedules were simulated for the upstream and downstream hydroplants. This was accomplished using a water quality model. The results show that the hydro releases could be effectively altered to reduce the peak water temperature, and consequently, the amount of generation curtailment at WCF. In all cases, however, modifying the hydroplant schedule reduces the available capacity to provide peaking.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism variants within tva and tvb receptor genes in Chinese chickens.

    PubMed

    Liao, C T; Chen, S Y; Chen, W G; Liu, Y; Sun, B L; Li, H X; Zhang, H M; Qu, H; Wang, J; Shu, D M; Xie, Q M

    2014-10-01

    Avian leukosis is an immunosuppressive neoplastic disease caused by avian leukosis viruses (ALV), which causes tremendous economic losses in the worldwide poultry industry. The susceptibility or resistance of chicken cells to subgroup A ALV and subgroup B, D, and E ALV are determined by the receptor genes tumor virus locus A (tva) and tumor virus locus B (tvb), respectively. Four genetic resistant loci (tva(r1), tva(r2), tva(r3), and tva(r4)) in tva receptor gene and a genetic resistant locus tvb(r) in the tvb receptor gene have been identified in inbred lines of White Leghorn. To evaluate the genetic resistance to subgroup A, B, D, and E ALV, genetic variations within resistant loci in tva and tvb genes were screened in Chinese local chicken breeds and commercial broiler lines. Here, the heterozygote tva(s1/r1) and the resistant genotype tva(r2/r2), tva(r3/r3), and tva(r4/r4) were detected in Chinese chickens by direct sequencing. The heterozygote tva(s1/r1) was detected in Huiyang Bearded chicken (HYBC), Rizhaoma chicken, and commercial broiler line 13 to 15 (CB13 to CB15), with the frequencies at 0.08, 0.18, 0.17, 0.25, and 0.15, respectively. The resistant genotype tva(r2/r2) was detected in Jiningbairi chicken (JNBRC), HYBC, and CB15, with the frequencies at 0.03, 0.08, and 0.06, respectively, whereas tva(r3/r3) and tva(r4/r4) were detected in 19 and 17 of the 25 Chinese chickens tested, with the average frequencies at 0.13 and 0.20, respectively. Furthermore, the resistant genotype tvb(r/r) was detected in JNBRC, CB07, CB12, CB14, and CB15 by pyrosequencing assay, with the frequencies at 0.03, 0.03, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.15, respectively. These results demonstrated that the potential for genetic improvement of resistance to subgroup A, B, D, and E ALV were great both in Chinese local chickens and commercial broilers. This study provides valuable insight into the selective breeding for chickens genetically resistant to ALV.

  2. 18 CFR 1309.10 - What general responsibilities do recipients and TVA have to ensure compliance with the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... maintain records, provide information, and afford TVA access to its records to the extent required by TVA... attempt to secure a recipient's compliance with the Act by voluntary means, to the fullest...

  3. 18 CFR 1309.10 - What general responsibilities do recipients and TVA have to ensure compliance with the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... maintain records, provide information, and afford TVA access to its records to the extent required by TVA... attempt to secure a recipient's compliance with the Act by voluntary means, to the fullest...

  4. 18 CFR 1301.18 - TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.18 TVA review of request for correction...

  5. 18 CFR 1301.18 - TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.18 TVA review of request for correction...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.18 - TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.18 TVA review of request for correction...

  7. 18 CFR 1301.18 - TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.18 TVA review of request for correction...

  8. 18 CFR 1301.18 - TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.18 TVA review of request for correction...

  9. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on...

  10. 18 CFR 1309.9 - How does TVA provide financial assistance in conformity with the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does TVA provide financial assistance in conformity with the Act? 1309.9 Section 1309.9 Conservation of Power and Water... financial assistance in conformity with the Act? (a) TVA contributes financial assistance only...

  11. 18 CFR 1309.9 - How does TVA provide financial assistance in conformity with the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA provide financial assistance in conformity with the Act? 1309.9 Section 1309.9 Conservation of Power and Water... financial assistance in conformity with the Act? (a) TVA contributes financial assistance only...

  12. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on...

  13. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on...

  15. 18 CFR 1311.11 - What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations? 1311.11 Section 1311.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 1311.11 What are TVA's obligations in...

  16. 18 CFR 1311.13 - May TVA waive any provision of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May TVA waive any provision of these regulations? 1311.13 Section 1311.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 1311.13 May TVA waive any provision of these...

  17. 18 CFR 1311.9 - How does TVA receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA receive and respond to comments? 1311.9 Section 1311.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 1311.9 How does TVA receive and respond to comments...

  18. 18 CFR 1311.5 - What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is TVA's... Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 1311.5 What is TVA's...

  19. Nature of chalcogen hor ellipsis chalcogen contact interactions in organic donor-molecule salts

    SciTech Connect

    Novoa, J.J.; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan . Dept. of Chemistry); Williams, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The nature of chalcogen{hor ellipsis}chalcogen contact interactions in organic donor-molecule salts was examined by performing ab initio SCF-MO/MP2 calculations on H{sub 2}X{hor ellipsis}XH{sub 2}(X = O, S, SE, Te) and MM2 calculations on donor dimers (TXF){sub 2} (X = S, SE, Te) and (BEDX-TTF){sub 2} (X = O, S). 14 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. HorA web server to infer homology between proteins using sequence and structural similarity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Cheng, Hua; Grishin, Nick V.

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of proteins are often gleaned through comparative analysis of evolutionary relatives. Although protein structure similarity search methods detect more distant homologs than purely sequence-based methods, structural resemblance can result from either homology (common ancestry) or analogy (similarity without common ancestry). While many existing web servers detect structural neighbors, they do not explicitly address the question of homology versus analogy. Here, we present a web server named HorA (Homology or Analogy) that identifies likely homologs for a query protein structure. Unlike other servers, HorA combines sequence information from state-of-the-art profile methods with structure information from spatial similarity measures using an advanced computational technique. HorA aims to identify biologically meaningful connections rather than purely 3D-geometric similarities. The HorA method finds ∼90% of remote homologs defined in the manually curated database SCOP. HorA will be especially useful for finding remote homologs that might be overlooked by other sequence or structural similarity search servers. The HorA server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/horaserver. PMID:19417074

  1. Induction of the tod operon by trichloroethylene in Pseudomonas putida TVA8

    SciTech Connect

    Shingleton, J.T.; Applegate, B.M.; Nagel, A.C.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    Bioluminescence, mRNA levels, and toluene degradation rates in Pseudomonas putida TVA8 were measured as a function of various concentrations of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). TVA8 showed an increasing bioluminescence response to increasing TCE and toluene concentrations. Compared to uninduced TVA8 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 11-fold for TCE-treated cultures and 13-fold for toluene-treated cultures. Compared to uninduced P. putida F1 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 4,4-fold for TCE-induced cultures and 4.9-fold for toluene-induced cultures. Initial toluene degradation rates were linearly correlated with specific bioluminescence in TVA8 cultures.

  2. Induction of the tod Operon by Trichloroethylene in Pseudomonas putida TVA8

    PubMed Central

    Shingleton, Justin T.; Applegate, Bruce M.; Nagel, Aaron C.; Bienkowski, Paul R.; Sayler, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Bioluminescence, mRNA levels, and toluene degradation rates in Pseudomonas putida TVA8 were measured as a function of various concentrations of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). TVA8 showed an increasing bioluminescence response to increasing TCE and toluene concentrations. Compared to uninduced TVA8 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 11-fold for TCE-treated cultures and 13-fold for toluene-treated cultures. Compared to uninduced P. putida F1 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 4.4-fold for TCE-induced cultures and 4.9-fold for toluene-induced cultures. Initial toluene degradation rates were linearly correlated with specific bioluminescence in TVA8 cultures. PMID:9835608

  3. Campbell Creek TVA 2010 First Year Performance Report July 1, 2009 August 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Boudreaux, Philip R; New, Joshua Ryan

    2010-10-01

    This research project was initiated by TVA in March 2008 and encompasses three houses that are of similar size, design and located within the same community - Campbell Creek, Farragut TN with simulated occupancy. This report covers the performance period from July 1, 2009 to August 31, 2010. It is the intent of TVA that this Valley Data will inform electric utilities future residential retrofit incentive program.

  4. Optimizing efficiency of zebra mussel monitoring at TVA power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, B.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) began monitoring for zebra mussels in spring 1992 and first detected veligers entering plant intake at Shawnee, Allen and Cumberland Fossil Plans in summer 1993. Existing information indicated that densities of zebra mussel veligers at plant intakes did not always correspond to densities in critical pipe units; however, a more accurate predictive technique was unavailable. The two sites chosen for this project were Shawnee Fossil Plant on the Ohio River and Allen Fossil Plant on the Mississippi River. The project involved a coordinated series of experiments to determine how densities of zebra mussel veligers varied throughout the day, how veliger densities estimated outside the plants related to estimates at different internal locations, and how growth rate of adult zebra mussels compared using measurements taken inside and outside the plants and from the two different rivers. The data indicated no significant difference in veliger densities from samples collected at the intakes and samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples taken at different times of the day. The data did indicate a significant difference in density estimates between samples collected on different days and between densities in the rivers compared to densities being drawn into the plant. The results will be used to assist plant staff in evaluating future data and in planning a more effective and cost efficient monitoring program.

  5. The concept of externality: Implications for TVA Environmental Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    Pollution of the environment is a result of the economic activities of production and consumption. And although the market system is touted as the superior method of organizing and operating an economic system, society frequently is dissatisfied with some of the side effects. In these cases of market failure, a cry for intervention often is raised to obtain more socially-desirable solutions. Environmental pollution is one symptom of market failure. If the TVA Environmental Research Center is to focus on defining solutions to environmental problems and designing policy options for implementing such solutions, its efforts should benefit from an understanding of why the market fails and how it may be adjusted to produce more socially-desirable results. The purposes of this report are to: (1) promote an appreciation for and understanding of the concept of externality; (2) demonstrate the utility of the concept in the design and packaging of policy and technology for improved environmental performance; (3) provide a brief summary of the externality valuation issue currently being debated by the electric power industry; and (4) identify environmental research and development agenda opportunities or strategic considerations suggested for the Center by this review.

  6. TVA nuclear power: Management of the nuclear program through personal services contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Mr. Steven White, a retired admiral, is serving as manager of the TVA Office of Nuclear Power. GAO previously concluded that Mr. White's retention under contractual arrangements constituted the improper use of a personal services contract and represented a circumvention of the statutory ceiling on salary payments to TVA employees. This report finds that Mr. White's rate of pay is within the range of the salaries paid by a sample of nonfederal utilities to their top executives and is over two and a half times the average salary paid to executives who hold positions which appear to have responsibility for managing the utilities' power or nuclear power operations. GAO also found that (1) TVA's Office of Nuclear Power has employed an additional 25 persons since 1986 under arrangements similar to the employing arrangements of Mr. White and (2) TVA's Nuclear Safety Review staff no longer reports directly to the TVA Board of Directors and General Manager. It has relocated from Knoxville, Tennessee to Chattanooga, Tennessee.

  7. Identification of novel horA-harbouring bacteria capable of spoiling beer.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, Monique; Ziola, Barry

    2008-04-01

    An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multi-drug resistance (MDR) gene was found in 4 Gram-positive bacterial isolates of environmental origin and found capable of spoiling beer. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Paenibacillus humicus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis; all of which were previously unappreciated as beer-spoilage bacteria. The MDR gene found in these bacteria has less than 37% similarity to known ABC MDR proteins described for Bacillus and Staphylococcus, and this is the first finding of an ABC MDR gene in the genus Paenibacillus. The sequenced region of the gene was translated and compared phylogenetically with the closest GenBank matches of the respective species and the closest GenBank matches overall. The ABC MDR proteins from these isolates were found to cluster among known sequences of HorA, sharing 99.5% identity within the sequenced region. In the beer-spoilage-associated genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, the presence of the MDR gene horA correlates with the ability to grow in beer. As the unique horA-harbouring isolates described here are capable of growing in beer, it is likely that the presence of the horA gene likewise confers hop resistance to these organisms.

  8. 18 CFR 1311.8 - How does TVA provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed federal financial assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA provide...? 1311.8 Section 1311.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 1311.8 How does TVA provide states an opportunity to comment on proposed federal...

  9. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  10. 18 CFR 1314.4 - Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of any Person against TVA and... FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.4 Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks;...

  11. 18 CFR 1314.4 - Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of any Person against TVA and... FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.4 Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks;...

  12. Chateaubriant, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-08

    This image, acquired 11-05-2007 by NASA Terra spacecraft, shows the city of Chateaubriant, France, surrounded by very old farmsteads. The surrounding countryside presents an interesting pattern of randomly oriented, small individual farmsteads.

  13. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints? 1311.10 Section 1311.10 Conservation of Power and... make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints? (a) If a state process provides a...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Development within flood... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone on...

  15. 18 CFR 1311.3 - What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations? 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Conservation of Power and Water... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 1311.3 What programs and...

  16. 18 CFR 1311.5 - What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination? 1311.5 Section 1311.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  17. 18 CFR 1311.9 - How does TVA receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does TVA receive and respond to comments? 1311.9 Section 1311.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND...

  18. 18 CFR 1311.13 - May TVA waive any provision of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May TVA waive any provision of these regulations? 1311.13 Section 1311.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND...

  19. 18 CFR 1311.9 - How does TVA receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does TVA receive and respond to comments? 1311.9 Section 1311.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND...

  20. 18 CFR 1311.3 - What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations? 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL...

  1. 18 CFR 1311.5 - What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination? 1311.5 Section 1311.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  2. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints? 1311.10 Section 1311.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  3. 18 CFR 1311.11 - What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations? 1311.11 Section 1311.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  4. 18 CFR 1311.11 - What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations? 1311.11 Section 1311.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  5. 18 CFR 1311.3 - What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations? 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL...

  6. 18 CFR 1311.13 - May TVA waive any provision of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May TVA waive any provision of these regulations? 1311.13 Section 1311.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND...

  7. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints? 1311.10 Section 1311.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  8. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland. 1304.207 Section 1304.207 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND...

  9. horC confers beer-spoilage ability on hop-sensitive Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45cc.

    PubMed

    Iijima, K; Suzuki, K; Ozaki, K; Yamashita, H

    2006-06-01

    To determine whether horC confers beer-spoilage ability and to evaluate the validity of horC as a trans-species genetic marker for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Hop-sensitive Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45cc was transformed with an expression plasmid, pHYchorBC, containing putative multidrug resistance gene horC and its putative regulator horB, and the transformant was designated as ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC. As a control, ABBC45cc was transformed with pHYchorB that contains horB, and the transformed strain was designated as ABBC45cc/pHYchorB. As a result of beer-spoilage assay of these transformants, ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC exhibited beer-spoilage ability, whereas ABBC45cc/pHYchorB did not. Furthermore ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC showed higher hop resistance than ABBC45cc/pHYchorB, accounting for the differences in beer-spoilage ability observed between the two transformants. ABBC45cc/pHYchorBC also exhibited higher resistance to various structurally unrelated drugs, compared with ABBC45cc/pHYchorB. horC was shown to confer hop resistance and beer-spoilage ability on ABBC45cc by presumably encoding a multidrug transporter. The finding that horC plays an important role in hop resistance and beer-spoilage ability supports the validity of horC as a trans-species genetic marker for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of LAB.

  10. TVA coal-gasification plant conceptual design. Volume 1. Plant based on Executive overview (Summary). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    TVA plans to build a coal gasification plant to demonstrate the operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility producing a clean medium Btu gas (MBG) for use in various industrial applications in the TVA region. In the Phase I efforts, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation prepared conceptual designs, cost estimates, and trade-off studies of the following gasification systems: Lurgi Dry Bottom, Koppers-Totzek, Babcock and Wilcox, British Gas Slagger, and Texaco.

  11. Bioenvironmental Engineer’s Guide to TVA-1000B Toxic Vapor Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Dept 2510 Fifth St. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number : 88ABW...penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR...December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bioenvironmental Engineer’s Guide to TVA-1000B Toxic Vapor Analyzer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  12. Identification of Key Residues in Subgroup A Avian Leukosis Virus Envelope Determining Receptor Binding Affinity and Infectivity of Cells Expressing Chicken or Quail Tva Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Sheri L.; Melder, Deborah C.; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    To better understand retroviral entry, we have characterized the interactions between subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and Tva, the receptor for ALV(A), that result in receptor interference. We have recently shown that soluble forms of the chicken and quail Tva receptor (sTva), expressed from genes delivered by retroviral vectors, block ALV(A) infection of cultured chicken cells (∼200-fold antiviral effect) and chickens (>98% of the birds were not infected). We hypothesized that inhibition of viral replication by sTva would select virus variants with mutations in the surface glycoprotein (SU) that altered the binding affinity of the subgroup A SU for the sTva protein and/or altered the normal receptor usage of the virus. Virus propagation in the presence of quail sTva-mIgG, the quail Tva extracellular region fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein, identified viruses with three mutations in the subgroup A hr1 region of SU, E149K, Y142N, and Y142N/E149K. These mutations reduced the binding affinity of the subgroup A envelope glycoproteins for quail sTva-mIgG (32-, 324-, and 4,739-fold, respectively) but did not alter their binding affinity for chicken sTva-mIgG. The ALV(A) mutants efficiently infected cells expressing the chicken Tva receptor but were 2-fold (E149K), 10-fold (Y142N), and 600-fold (Y142N/E149K) less efficient at infecting cells expressing the quail Tva receptor. These mutations identify key determinants of the interaction between the ALV(A) glycoproteins and the Tva receptor. We also conclude from these results that, at least for the wild-type and variant ALV(A)s tested, the receptor binding affinity was directly related to infection efficiency. PMID:11134286

  13. Financial and statistical report for municipal and cooperative distributors of TVA power: Volume 2, 1987 power program summary: Fiscal year ending June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The following statements present the financial position at June 30, 1987, of the 160 locally owned and locally managed electric systems that distribute TVA power, together with the results of their operations for the fiscal year ended on that date. The statements are submitted to TVA annually by each municipal electric department and electric cooperative. All of the 110 municipal systems and 50 cooperatives reported to TVA that their financial statements for the year ended June 30, 1987, had been examined or reviewed by independent certified public accountants. TVA accountants review and assist the distributors with accounting practices or procedures but do not audit the accounts or reports.

  14. [Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza, China and Chinese medicine, 1928-1943].

    PubMed

    Roland, Maria Inês de França; Gianini, Reinaldo José

    2013-01-01

    This essay is on the writings of sanitary doctor Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza in Eugenia e Imigração (1928) and, after an official trip to the Orient, in Digressões sobre a medicina chinesa clássica (1942) and A sabedoria chinesa diante da ciência ocidental e a Escola Médica de Pequim (1943). The documents, analyzed according to the conceptual approach of Carlo Ginzburg, indicate a change in his view of the Chinese. Trained according to the Rockefeller Foundation's model of experimental medicine, Geraldo de Paula Souza was guided in his work by scientific rigor and record imagery. In his youth he was of the opinion that the Chinese civilization was stagnated, but this view changed after his visit, when he perceived the Chinese republic's capacity to modernize.

  15. Adsorption of hydrogen on Pt(111) and Pt(100) surfaces and its role in the HOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, D.; Tripkovic, D.; van der Vliet, D.; Stamenkovic, V.; Markovic, N. M.; Materials Science Division

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogen adsorption isotherms, evaluated by combination of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, are reported on Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) surfaces in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4}. We found that at E > 0.05 V Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) are only partially covered by the adsorbed hydrogen (H{sub ad}). On both surfaces, a full monolayer of the adsorbed hydrogen is completed at -0.1 V, i.e. the adsorption of atomic hydrogen is observed in the hydrogen evolution potential region. We also found, that the activity of the hydrogen oxidation reaction is mirrored by the shape of the hydrogen adsorption isotherms, implying that H{sub ad} is in fact a spectator in the HOR.

  16. Examining relationships between coal characteristics and the performance of TVA power plants. Part 1. Approach and some early results

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R. E.; Holt, Jr., E. C.; Cole, R. M.; Frank, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to examine historic TVA coal and power plant performance data for the purpose of searching for relationships between coal characterization and various measures of power plant performance. Power plant performance parameters of interest include unit efficiency, boiler capacity, boiler availability, plant operating costs, and plant maintenance costs. The program is being conducted using TVA data from the past 18 years (1961-1978) as the data base. Early results of the program show that unit heat rate, slagging outages, and maintenance costs are strongly influenced by coal ash and coal sulfur, at least for some TVA plants. Unit capacity and unit availability have not been shown to be strongly dependent on coal ash and sulfur in early results.

  17. Biochemical characterization of horA-independent hop resistance mechanism in Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koji; Sami, Manabu; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Harushi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2002-06-25

    We isolated a strain from hop-resistant Lactobacillus hrevis ABBC45, which had lost a plasmid (pRH45) harboring a putative hop resistance gene, horA. The hop resistance level of this horA-deficient strain, named ABBC45(C), was initially low but gradually induced by repeated growth in media containing progressively increasing levels of hop compounds. Although the hop resistance level was substantially lower than that of the hop-adapted wild type strain, hop-adapted ABBC45(C) (ABBC45(CR)) was still capable of growing in beer, suggesting ABBC45 possesses at least two hop resistance mechanisms. Hop resistance acquired by ABBC45(CR) gradually diminished to the pre-adapted level, when the strain was grown repeatedly in the absence of hop compounds. ABBC45(CR) was found to be cross-resistant to several structurally unrelated drugs, including ethidium bromide, daunomycin and nisin. In addition, ABBC45(CR) was shown to extrude ethidium in an energy-dependent manner, while ABBC45(C) did not show such activity. This indicates that the efflux pump was induced by adaptation to hop compounds. The efflux activity of ethidium was reduced by the addition of hop compounds, suggesting hop compounds are also the substrate of the efflux pump. It was also shown that the efflux activity was completely dissipated with the abolition of proton motive force (PMF). These results, taken together, suggest the hop resistance mechanism of ABBC45(C) is mediated by PMF-dependent multidrug efflux pump.

  18. Construction of physical maps of the Hor1 locus of two barley cultivars by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Siedler, H; Graner, A

    1991-04-01

    In order to construct a physical map of the Hor1 locus of barley (Hordeum vulgare) high molecular weight DNA was prepared from leaf mesophyll protoplasts. Seventeen different restriction endonucleases containing CpG or CpXpG motifs in their recognition sequences were tested and ten proved useful for the generation of high molecular weight DNA fragments. Physical maps of the Hor1 region of the barley cultivars IGRI and FRANKA spanning a distance of 370 and 430 kb respectively were constructed. The maps include sites of nine restriction endonucleases in IGRI and of eight in FRANKA. The maximal extent of the Hor1 locus could be limited to a 135 kb DNA fragment occurring in both cultivars. The differences in arrangement of restriction sites and in fragment lengths reveal major differences in the Hor1 flanking region in the two cultivars. The location of a CpG island, however, is highly conserved in both cultivars and reflects similarities to the organization of mammalian genomes.

  19. Construction of a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) YAC library and isolation of a Hor1-specific clone.

    PubMed

    Kleine, M; Michalek, W; Graner, A; Herrmann, R G; Jung, C

    1993-08-01

    We have constructed an EcoRI-based YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) library from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Franka) using the vector pYAC4. The library consists of approximately 18,000 recombinant YACs with insert sizes ranging between 100 and 1000 kb (average of 160 kb) corresponding to 50% of the barley genome. Size fractionation after ligation resulted in an increased average insert size (av. 370 kb) but also in a substantial decrease in cloning efficiency. Less than 1% of the colonies showed homology to a plastome-specific probe; approximately 50% of the colonies displayed a signal with a dispersed, highly repetitive barley-specific probe. Using a primer combination deduced from the sequence of a member of the small Hor1 gene family coding for the C-hordein storage proteins, the library was screened by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently by the colony hybridization technique. A single YAC, designated Y66C11, with a 120 kb insert was isolated. This DNA fragment represents a coherent stretch from the terminal part of the Hor1 gene region as judged from the correspondence of the restriction patterns between Y66C11 DNA and barley DNA after hybridization with the Hor1-specific probe. Restriction with the isoschizomeric enzymes HpaII/MspI suggests a high degree of methylation of the Hor1 region in mesophyll cells but not in YAC-derived (yeast) DNA.

  20. 18 CFR 1314.4 - Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of any Person against TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing other interests. 1314.4 Section 1314.4 Conservation of Power and...

  1. trans-11 18:1 vaccenic acid (TVA) has a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Na; Oh, Jin-Ju; Wang, Tao; Lee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Hong-Gu

    2014-02-10

    Trans vaccenic acid (TVA; trans-11 18:1) is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and it is the predominant trans isomer found in ruminant fats. TVA can be converted into cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA), a CLA isomer that has many beneficial effects, by stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) in the mammary gland. The health benefits associated with CLA are well documented, but it is unclear whether trans fatty acids (TFAs) from ruminant products have healthy effects. Therefore, the effects of TVA on the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells were investigated in the present study. Results showed that TVA inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells but not MCF-10A cells by down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 as well as procaspase-9. In addition, the suppressive effect of TVA was confirmed in SCD1-depleted MCF-7 cells. Our results suggested that TVA exerts a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 cells. These findings provided a better understanding of the research on the anti-carcinogenic effects of TVA and this may facilitate the manufacture of TVA/c9, t11-CLA fortified ruminant products.

  2. User's manual for the TVA lumber yield and value program (LYVP). Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.P.

    1982-11-01

    The Lumber Yield and Value Program (LYVP) is complementary to the Inventory Processor. (See: A User's Manual for the TVA Forest Inventory Program, July 1979, Station Bulletin No. 230). Many of the inputs needed for the Inventory Processor are also used by LYVP. Tree grade must be supplied for LYVP, but is optional for the Inventory Processor. Data on pulpwood observations, pine sawtimber, cull trees, and growth projections are ignored by LYVP, but may be necessary for compatibility with the Inventory Processor. Output tables predict board foot volume and dollar value by species and lumber grade. Summary data are presented on both tract and per-acre basis as well as for the entire sampling unit. The lumber yields expressed in LYVP are functions of species, d.b.h. merchantable height, and tree grade; therefore, some of the inputs used for the Inventory Processor such as log rule and form class are not needed when LYVP is used independently. Lumber prices used in LYVP calculations to predict lumber values may be obtained from any reliable source. Prices used by TVA are from the Hardwood Market Report and reflect lumber values for air dried, carload lots. Stumpage prices should not be used in any LYVP calculations.

  3. Hop Resistance in the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus brevis Is Mediated by the ATP-Binding Cassette Multidrug Transporter HorA

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Margolles, Abelardo; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Konings, Wil N.

    2001-01-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical to that of LmrA, an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter in Lactococcus lactis. To study the role of HorA in hop resistance, HorA was functionally expressed in L. lactis as a hexa-histidine-tagged protein using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. HorA expression increased the resistance of L. lactis to hop compounds and cytotoxic drugs. Drug transport studies with L. lactis cells and membrane vesicles and with proteoliposomes containing purified HorA protein identified HorA as a new member of the ABC family of multidrug transporters. PMID:11514522

  4. Hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter HorA.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Margolles, A; van Veen, H W; Konings, W N

    2001-09-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical to that of LmrA, an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter in Lactococcus lactis. To study the role of HorA in hop resistance, HorA was functionally expressed in L. lactis as a hexa-histidine-tagged protein using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. HorA expression increased the resistance of L. lactis to hop compounds and cytotoxic drugs. Drug transport studies with L. lactis cells and membrane vesicles and with proteoliposomes containing purified HorA protein identified HorA as a new member of the ABC family of multidrug transporters.

  5. TVA commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 2. Basis of study assessments and project selection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is considering the design, construction, and operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility to produce a clean, medium Btu fuel gas (MBG). The project includes all process and support systems required to convert approximately 20,000 tons per day of Kentucky No. 9 bituminous coal, as fed to the gasifiers, into MBG equivalent to about 300 billion Btu per day. The first phase of the proposed project involves conceptual design, environmental and siting studies and economic analyses of commercial plants emphasizing the following gasification technologies: Babcock and Wilcox entrained flow gasifier, Lurgi dry ash gasifier, BGC/Lurgi slagging gasifier, Texaco entrained flow gasifier, and Koppers Totzek entrained flow gasifier. Foster Wheeler's study and assessments/process selection is summarized in this volume.

  6. Two Different Molecular Defects in the Tva Receptor Gene Explain the Resistance of Two tvar Lines of Chickens to Infection by Subgroup A Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Elleder, Daniel; Melder, Deborah C.; Trejbalova, Katerina; Svoboda, Jan; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The subgroup A to E avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLVs) are highly related and are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor. These viruses use distinct cell surface proteins as receptors to gain entry into avian cells. Chickens have evolved resistance to infection by the ASLVs. We have identified the mutations responsible for the block to virus entry in chicken lines resistant to infection by subgroup A ASLVs [ASLV(A)]. The tva genetic locus determines the susceptibility of chicken cells to ASLV(A) viruses. In quail, the ASLV(A) susceptibility allele tvas encodes two forms of the Tva receptor; these proteins are translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs. The normal cellular function of the Tva receptor is unknown; however, the extracellular domain contains a 40-amino-acid, cysteine-rich region that is homologous to the ligand binding region of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) proteins. The chicken tvas cDNAs had not yet been fully characterized; we cloned the chicken tva cDNAs from two lines of subgroup A-susceptible chickens, line H6 and line 0. Two types of chicken tvas cDNAs were obtained. These cDNAs encode a longer and shorter form of the Tva receptor homologous to the Tva forms in quail. Two different defects were identified in cDNAs cloned from two different ASLV(A)-resistant inbred chickens, line C and line 72. Line C tvar contains a single base pair substitution, resulting in a cysteine-to-tryptophan change in the LDLR-like region of Tva. This mutation drastically reduces the binding affinity of TvaR for the ASLV(A) envelope glycoproteins. Line 72 tvar2 contains a 4-bp insertion in exon 1 that causes a change in the reading frame, which blocks expression of the Tva receptor. PMID:15564460

  7. The Spirit of France

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    self - esteem amongst the French, giving France a greater sense of dignity. Charles de Gaulle sought grandeur to unite France and give the people a sense of common purpose. According to de Gaulle, France’s pursuit of its national interests was not narrow and self-serving, but was

  8. Competition in France

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the developing market for windpower in France. The topics discussed in the article include changes in the French energy policy, Electricite de France under pressure to relax absolute control of the electricity market, a new wind energy program involving international wind turbine designs, and public opinion regarding the place of wind power in France.

  9. TVA sediment-disturbing activities within the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of Task 5 were to review: (1) the extent of dredging, construction, and other sediment-disturbing activities conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in potentially contaminated areas of Watts Bar Reservoir; and (2) the disposition of the materials from these activities. This memorandum is the final report for Task 5. This memorandum describes major activities in the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River that possibly resulted in significant disturbance of potentially contaminated sediments. TVA records from the construction of Watts Bar Dam, Kingston Fossil Plant, and Melton Hill Dam were reviewed to facilitate qualitative description of the effect of these activities in disturbing potentially contaminated sediments. The critical period for these activities in disturbing contaminated sediments was during or after 1956 when the peak releases of radioactive contaminants occurred from the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  10. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  11. 10-MW demonstration of the gas suspension absorption process at TVA`s Center for Emissions Research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cooperation with AirPol Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed a successful 17-month test program with the AirPol Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at TVA`s Center for Emissions Research (CER). This project was selected by DOE for funding in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. This 10-MW demonstration of the GSA FGD system at the CER was the first application of this technology in the U.S. The GSA test program, which was cofunded two-thirds by TVA and one-third by DOE/AirPol, was completed over a 17-month period from November 1, 1992 to March 31, 1993. This test program demonstrated that the GSA FGD technology could achieve high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (90+ percent) for a 2.7 percent sulfur (as-fired) coal application, while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), i.e., 0.03 lb/MBtu, in a four-field electrostatic precipitator. The reliability and operability of this system was also demonstrated in a 28-day, 24 hour/day, continuous run during which the GSA unit simultaneously achieved high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (90+ percent) and maintained particulate emissions below the NSPS. Also, the air toxics removal capabilities of the GSA system were determined in a series of tests. A 1-MW pulsejet baghouse (PJBH) pilot plant was also tested in conjunction with this GSA test program. This PJBH testing was initially cofunded by TVA and the Electric Power Research Institute, who were later joined by AirPol and DOE in sponsoring this PJBH testing. A 14-day PJBH demonstration run was also completed to confirm the reliability of this system.

  12. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    The economic and supply structures of short rotation woody crop (SRWC) markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields.

  13. Characterization of nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multi-layer nanostructures obtained by TVA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupina, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Prodan, Gabriel C.; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Jepu, Ionut; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana; Nicolescu, Virginia; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2016-09-01

    Ionized nitrogen doped Si-C multi-layer thin films used to increase the oxidation resistance of carbon have been obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The 100 nm thickness carbon thin films were deposed on silicon or glass substrates and then seven N doped Si-C successively layers on carbon were deposed. To characterize the microstructure, tribological and electrical properties of as prepared N-SiC multi-layer films, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDXS), electrical and tribological techniques were achieved. Samples containing multi-layer N doped Si-C coating on carbon were investigated up to 1000°C. Oxidation protection is based on the reaction between SiC and elemental oxygen, resulting SiO2 and CO2, and also on the reaction involving N, O and Si-C, resulting silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) with a continuously vary composition, and because nitrogen can acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. The tribological properties of structures were studied using a tribometer with ball-on-disk configuration from CSM device with sapphire ball. The measurements show that the friction coefficient on the N-SiC is smaller than friction coefficient on uncoated carbon layer. Electrical conductivity at different temperatures was measured in constant current mode. The results confirm the fact that conductivity is greater when nitrogen content is greater. To justify the temperature dependence of conductivity we assume a thermally activated electrical transport mechanism.

  14. Potential supply and cost of biomass from energy crops in the TVA region

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-04-01

    The economic and supply structures of energy crop markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of energy crop biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas, and coal. In this study, the cost and supply of short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) and switchgrass biomass for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region-a 276-county area that includes portions of 11 states in the southeastern United States - are projected. Projected prices and quantities of biomass are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected energy crop yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curves of SRWC and switchgrass biomass that are projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of energy crop production. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of energy crop biomass are shown. In particular, the separate impacts of varying energy crop production costs and yields, and interest rates are examined.

  15. France Without NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Community nations since 1958, France falls well behind Germany and Italy, and just barely above the Netherlands. A more meaning- ful comparison, would be...1965, p. 40. (Information relative to the shifting of the logistical base of NATO from France to the Low Countries.) 39. King, Gillian , ed

  16. Evaluation of TVA`s model site and individual technology pollution prevention demonstration programs and their impact on the agrichemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-06-01

    The high volume of fertilizer and pesticides funneled through a relatively small number of distribution outlets has made these agribusiness sites potential sources of surface/groundwater contamination in watersheds surrounding the agrichemical facilities. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. Since inception, the pollution prevention program and the technologies advanced by it have made a very positive impact on the US agrichemical industry, as well as on other TVA programs. This paper is an attempt to document these impacts, with primary focus being placed on the program`s impact on the agribusiness dealer who implements the pollution prevention technologies/practices recommended by TVA.

  17. Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan     ... predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour ...

  18. France in Black Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    d’Investissement et de D~vel- oppement Economique et Social (FIDES) (the Fund for Investment and for Economic and Social Development). The new constitution...de Cooperation (FAC). CCFOM became the Caisse Cen- trale de Cooperation Economique (CCCE). The Minis- try of Overseas France, with its headquarters on...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques , commerciales et culturelles," Paris, 1984

  19. Catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles on highly boron-doped and 100-oriented epitaxial diamond towards HER and HOR.

    PubMed

    Brülle, Tine; Denisenko, Andrej; Sternschulte, Hadwig; Stimming, Ulrich

    2011-07-28

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on boron-doped single-crystalline diamond surfaces were used as a model system to investigate the catalytic activity with respect to the influence of particle morphology, particle density and surface preparation of the diamond substrates. We report on the preparation, characterization and activity regarding hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) of these Pt/diamond electrodes. Two kinds of diamond layers with boron doping above 10(20) cm(-3) were grown epitaxially on (100)-oriented diamond substrates; post-treatments of wet chemical oxidation and radio frequency (rf) oxygen plasma treatments were applied. Electrochemical deposition of Pt was performed using a potentiostatic double-pulse technique, which allowed variation of the particle size in the range between 1 nm and 15 nm in height and 5 nm and 50 nm in apparent radius, while keeping the particle density constant. Higher nucleation densities on the plasma processed surface at equal deposition parameters could be related to the plasma-induced surface defects. Electrochemical characterization shows that the platinum particles act as nanoelectrodes and form an ohmic contact with the diamond substrate. The catalytic activity regarding HER and HOR of the platinum nanoparticles exhibits no dependence on the particle size down to particle heights of ∼1 nm. The prepared Pt on diamond(100) samples show a similar platinum-specific activity as bulk platinum. Therefore, while keeping the activity constant, the well-dispersed particles on diamond offer an optimized surface-to-material ratio. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  20. Patient assessment based on a theory of visual attention (TVA): subtle deficits after a right frontal-subcortical lesion.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas; Bundesen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who complained of reduced awareness in the left visual field, but showed no visual neglect or extinction in clinical testing. By MR scanning, the brain damage was localized to the right basal ganglia, also involving structures in right frontal cortex. Using psychophysical testing and mathematical modeling based on Bundesen's theory of visual attention [TVA; Psychol. Rev. 97 (1990) 523], the patient's subjective experience of attentional disturbance was confirmed, and the deficit was specified into several components. At very short exposure durations, two effects were shown. The detection threshold was elevated, particularly in the left visual field, and stimuli in this side were given less attentional weight. In addition, the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) was markedly reduced in both visual fields. The robustness of the test results was evaluated by bootstrap analysis. The study demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity gained by combining psychophysical testing with TVA modeling in the analysis of visual attention disorders. Extending the results of a pioneer study of parietal neglect patients by Duncan et al. [J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 128 (1999) 450], this study demonstrates the strength of the method in a single case, with a lesion outside parietal cortex, and only minor clinical symptoms.

  1. AlGaAs film growth using thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) and determination of its physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2015-06-01

    In this research, an AlGaAs film was deposited on a microscope slide by means of the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique which is a novel plasma production technique. AlGaAs structures were grown by this deposition technique for the first time and this process occurred in a very short period of time. In order to characterize the produced film, nano-structural, nano-mechanical, optical, and surface properties were determined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and interferometer. According to the results of the measurements, the mean thickness value of the produced film was obtained as 1.8 μm. The band gap value was determined as 2eV from the Kubelka-Munk plot. The refractive index value was obtained as approximately 3.4. Hardness value was determined as 2 GPa from the Oliver-Pharr method. All these values are consistent with the reported values in the literature for the AlGaAs films produced by different methods. TVA technique appeared as a suitable and promising technique for the production of AlGaAs films.

  2. Intronic deletions of tva receptor gene decrease the susceptibility to infection by subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The group of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) in chickens contains six highly related subgroups, A to E and J. Four genetic loci, tva, tvb, tvc and tvj, encode for corresponding receptors that determine the susceptibility to the ASLV subgroups. The prevalence of ASLV in hosts may have imposed...

  3. 18 CFR 1314.4 - Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.4 Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law... that is in favor of a Reserve Bank from a Participant and that is not recorded on the books of a... a Person that is not a Participant, and that is not recorded on the books of a Reserve Bank pursuant...

  4. 18 CFR 1314.4 - Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.4 Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law... that is in favor of a Reserve Bank from a Participant and that is not recorded on the books of a... a Person that is not a Participant, and that is not recorded on the books of a Reserve Bank pursuant...

  5. TVA/DOE integrated onfarm alcohol production system. Phase II. Progress report, October 1981-February 1982. Circular Z-134

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Burch, D.W.; Mays, D.A.; Lewis, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Equipment and procedures necessary for using a grain (corn) feedstock for onfarm alcohol production were refined and documented to provide benchmark data. Also, significant progress was made in developing technology to convert other agricultural crops into 190-proof alcohol with the farm-sized alcohol production facility. This was achieved by modifying the base alcohol-from-grain facility to process the nongrain feedstocks (Irish potatoes, sweet sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets, and Jerusalem artichokes) being evaluated in field production trials by TVA. Alcohol production capacities of cull potatoes, water chestnuts, and cull apples were also tested. A computerized investment model was refined to predict rapidly the economic implications for alcohol production levels, feedstocks, and various system components.

  6. Assessing and validating RST-FIRES on MSG-SEVIRI data by means a Total Validation Approach (TVA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, %Giuseppe; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2015-04-01

    Several fire detection methods have been developed through the years for detecting forest fires from space. These algorithms (which may be grouped in single channel, multichannel and contextual algorithms) are generally based on the use of fixed thresholds that, being intrinsically exposed to false alarm proliferation, are often used in a conservative way. As a consequence, most of satellite-based algorithms for fire detection show low sensitivity resulting not suitable in operational contexts. In this work, the RST-FIRES algorithm, which is based on an original multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis (RST-Robust Satellite Techniques), is presented. The implementation of RST-FIRES on data provided by Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) that, offering the best revisit time (i.e. 15 minutes), can be successfully used for detecting fires at early stage, is described here. Moreover, results of a Total Validation Approach (TVA) experimented both in Northern and Southern Italy, in collaboration with local and regional civil protection agencies, are also reported. In particular, TVA allowed us to assess RST-FIRES detections by means of ground check and aerial surveys, demonstrating the good performances offered by RST-FIRES using MSG-SEVIRI data. Indeed, this algorithm was capable of detecting several fires that for their features (e.g., small size, short time duration) would not have appeared in the official reports, highlighting a significant improvement in terms of sensitivity in comparison with other established satellite-based fire detection techniques still preserving a high confidence level of detection.

  7. [Anesthesiologists in France].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Merckx, Paul; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Kavafyan, Juliette; Mantz, Jean

    2007-03-01

    We review some anesthesiologist's curriculum and demographic characteristics in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. To become a certified anesthesiologist and an intensive care physician currently requires six years' medical education, passing national medical examination, and five years' special training as an intern of anesthesiology and intensive care. This educational course was started in 1984. There are 7942 certified anesthesiologists in France in 1999. The average age is 45.9 years and the ratio of female is 35.3%. Approximately two thirds of certified anesthesiologists are working in public institutions. 89% is full-time workers. More than half of certified anesthesiologists actually participate in daily intensive care practice. The number of certified anesthesiologists has been increasing gradually totaling 10,062 persons in 2005. The number of certified anesthesiologists per ten thousands general population is 1.7 persons and the corresponding ratio to all medical doctors is 4.8%. Working hours and holidays are regulated by the French Labour Law. The anaesthesiologist often works in a team with a nurse anaesthetist. The number of certified anesthesiologists in France is larger than that in Japan. Management of anesthesia in France seems to have an advantage in manpower.

  8. Chikungunya Virus, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Valérie; Plumet, Sébastien; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Souarès, Yvan; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Tolou, Hugues J.; Budelot, Michel; Cosserat, Didier; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Desprès, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus was recorded in southeastern France, where the Aedes albopictus mosquito vector is present. Sequence analysis of the viral genomes of imported and autochthonous isolates indicated new features for the potential emergence and spread of the virus in Europe. PMID:21529410

  9. Country Profiles. France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois-Pichat, Jean

    A profile of France is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: (1) location and description of the country; (2) population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, education,…

  10. France. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    In France, the 1882 Compulsory Education Act includes both French and foreign children. Since then, the need to go further than this general principle of non-discrimination and to undertake specific action for immigrants, both adults and children, has been recognized. Since 1970, the Ministry of Education has been directly responsible for this…

  11. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  12. Technological Elites in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilling, Leon

    1988-01-01

    Compares the training and activity of scientists and engineers in France and the United States. Describes the French higher education system including the features and curriculum design of the "grandes ecoles." Discusses the differences in the role of government to research and development between the two nations. (YP)

  13. France. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    In France, the 1882 Compulsory Education Act includes both French and foreign children. Since then, the need to go further than this general principle of non-discrimination and to undertake specific action for immigrants, both adults and children, has been recognized. Since 1970, the Ministry of Education has been directly responsible for this…

  14. English Teaching Profile: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in France provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English in the educational system at the elementary, secondary, higher, and vocational levels. The following topics are covered: instruction in English for special purposes, the…

  15. Linguistic Pluralism in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Jacques M.

    This paper suggests that a discussion of linguistic pluralism in France begins by chronicling the emergence of French as the primary language in early French history and the role of linguistic minorities at various periods in French history. It then focuses on growing linguistic activism in the second half of the twentieth century, when the…

  16. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in France].

    PubMed

    Vidon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects.

  17. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  18. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  19. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, L.; Rollin, P.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  20. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  2. Terrorism in France.

    PubMed

    Carli, Pierre; Telion, Caroline; Baker, David

    2003-01-01

    France has experienced two waves of major terrorist bombings since 1980. In the first wave (1985-1986), eight bombings occurred in Paris, killing 13 and injuring 281. In the second wave (1995-1996), six bombings occurred in Paris and Lyon, killing 10 and injuring 262. Based on lessons learned during these events, France has developed and improved a sophisticated national system for prehospital emergency response to conventional terrorist attacks based on its national emergency medical services (EMS) system, Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). According to the national plan for the emergency medical response to mass-casualty events (White Plan), the major phases of EMS response are: (1) alert; (2) search and rescue; (3) triage of victims and provision of critical care to first priority victims; (4) regulated dispatch of victims to hospitals; and (5) psychological assistance. Following the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, a national plan for the emergency response to chemical and biological events (PIRATOX) was implemented. In 2002, the Ministries of Health and the Interior collaborated to produce a comprehensive national plan (BIOTOX) for the emergency response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Key aspects of BIOTOX are the prehospital provision of specialized advance life support for toxic injuries and the protection of responders in contaminated environments. BIOTOX was successfully used during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in France.

  3. CENP-B box and pJalpha sequence distribution in human alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR).

    PubMed

    Rosandić, Marija; Paar, Vladimir; Basar, Ivan; Gluncić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Pilas, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Using our Key String Algorithm (KSA) to analyze Build 35.1 assembly we determined consensus alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR) and consensus distributions of CENP-B box and pJalpha motif in human chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 19, and X. We determined new suprachromosomal family (SF) assignments: SF5 for 13mer (2211 bp), SF5 for 13mer (2214 bp), SF2 for 11mer (1869 bp), SF1 for 18mer (3058 bp), SF3 for 12mer (2047 bp), SF3 for 14mer (2379 bp), and SF5 for 17mer (2896 bp) in chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 19, respectively. In chromosome 5 we identified SF5 13mer without any CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, highly homologous (96%) to 13mer in chromosome 19. Additionally, in chromosome 19 we identified new SF5 17mer with one CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, aligned to 13mer by deleting four monomers. In chromosome 11 we identified SF3 12mer, homologous to 12mer in chromosome X. In chromosome 10 we identified new SF1 18mer with eight CENP-B boxes in every other monomer (except one). In chromosome 4 we identified new SF5 13mer with CENP-B box in three consecutive monomers. We found four exceptions to the rule that CENP-B box belongs to type B and pJalpha motif to type A monomers.

  4. A Novel Ligustrazine Derivative T-VA Prevents Neurotoxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells and Protects the Brain against Ischemia Injury in MCAO Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoling; Tian, Yufei; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hong, Ying; Hao, Yingzhi; Chen, Chunxiao; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2015-01-01

    Broad-spectrum drugs appear to be more promising for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In our previous work, a new ligustrazine derivative (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methoxy]benzoate (T-VA) showed neuroprotective effect on injured PC12 cells (EC50 = 4.249 µM). In the current study, we show that this beneficial effect was due to the modulation of nuclear transcription factor-κB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. We also show that T-VA exhibited neuroprotective effect in a rat model of ischemic stroke with concomitant improvement of motor functions. We propose that the protective effect observed in vivo is owing to increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, decreased oxidative stress, and up-regulation of Ca2+–Mg2+ ATP enzyme activity. Altogether, our results warrant further studies on the utility of T-VA for the potential treatment of ischemic brain injuries, such as stroke. PMID:26370988

  5. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  6. City of Paris, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    STS047-94-010 (12 - 20 Sept 1992) --- This 250mm Hasselblad color photo of Paris, France recorded during this mission, shows urban land uses in great detail. Several airports are clear, including the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget. Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to the growth of this island city. The city expanded from its island state to become a major urban center in Europe because of its location, its easy access by river traffic, and its productive hinterland.

  7. Neural network boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability with TVA Kingston Unit 3 low NOx optimization test results

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.M.; Schroech, K.A.; Hou, H.S.

    1995-12-31

    Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires utilities to reduce NOx emission. NOx emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NOx burners. Boiler tuning for NOx control can be used as an alternative to low NOx burner installation. Specifically in tangentially-fired boilers, boiler tuning can be very effective in NOx reduction. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at TVA`s Kingston Unit 3 tangentially coal-fired furnace for NOx reduction. With a well-organized test plan, the optimized solution was reached with 16 tests at each test series load level. SOAP will be used for other plant equipment or system optimization, such as pulverizer performance, combustion system optimization, compared thermal performance design, and boiler tube leak detection and allocation.

  8. The Repetitive Detection of Toluene with Bioluminescence Bioreporter Pseudomonas putida TVA8 Encapsulated in Silica Hydrogel on an Optical Fiber.

    PubMed

    Kuncová, Gabriela; Ishizaki, Takayuki; Solovyev, Andrey; Trögl, Josef; Ripp, Steven

    2016-06-15

    Living cells of the lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas putida TVA8 were encapsulated in a silica hydrogel attached to the distal wider end of a tapered quartz fiber. Bioluminescence of immobilized cells was induced with toluene at high (26.5 mg/L) and low (5.3 mg/L) concentrations. Initial bioluminescence maxima were achieved after >12 h. One week after immobilization, a biofilm-like layer of cells had formed on the surface of the silica gel. This resulted in shorter response times and more intensive bioluminescence maxima that appeared as rapidly as 2 h after toluene induction. Considerable second bioluminescence maxima were observed after inductions with 26.5 mg toluene/L. The second and third week after immobilization the biosensor repetitively and semiquantitatively detected toluene in buffered medium. Due to silica gel dissolution and biofilm detachment, the bioluminescent signal was decreasing 20-32 days after immobilization and completely extinguished after 32 days. The reproducible formation of a surface cell layer on the wider end of the tapered optical fiber can be translated to various whole cell bioluminescent biosensor devices and may serve as a platform for in-situ sensors.

  9. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  10. Legionnaires' disease in France.

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Descours, G; Lepoutre, A; Beraud, L; Maine, C; Che, D; Jarraud, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year.

  11. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  12. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  13. Growth and characterization of GaN thin film on Si substrate by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundakçı, Mutlu; Mantarcı, Asim; Erdoğan, Erman

    2017-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an attractive material with a wide-direct band gap (3.4 eV) and is one of the significant III-nitride materials, with many advantageous device applications such as high electron mobility transistors, lasers, sensors, LEDs, detectors, and solar cells, and has found applications in optoelectronic devices. GaN could also be useful for industrial research in the future. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), sputter, and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are some of the methods used to fabricate GaN thin film. In this research, a GaN thin film grown on a silicon substrate using the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique has been extensively studied. Fast deposition, short production time, homogeneity, and uniform nanostructure with low roughness can be seen as some of the merits of this method. The growth of the GaN was conducted at an operating pressure of 1× {{10}-6} \\text{Torr} , a plasma current 0.6 \\text{A} and for a very short period of time of 40 s. For the characterization process, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to determine the structure and surface morphology of the material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to comprehend the elemental analysis characterization of the film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the structure of the film. Raman measurements were taken to investigate the phonon modes of the material. The morphological properties of the material were analyzed in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  14. {ital Ab initio} study of the dipole-bound anion (H{sub 2}O{hor_ellipsis}HCl){sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect

    Skurski, P. |; Gutowski, M.

    1999-08-01

    The (H{sub 2}O{hor_ellipsis}HCl){sup {minus}} anion has been studied at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and noniterative, triple excitations whereas lowest energy structures have been determined at the second-order Mo/ller{endash}Plesset level. The vertical electron detachment energy and the adiabatic electron affinity were found to be 475 and 447 cm{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and they agree very well with the maximum of the dominant peak in the photoelectron spectrum of (H{sub 2}O{hor_ellipsis}HCl){sup {minus}} at 436 cm{sup {minus}1}, recorded by Bowen and collaborators. Our results indicate that electron correlation contributions to the electron binding energy are important and represent {approximately}70{percent} of its total value. Both for the neutral and the anion, the two equivalent C{sub s} symmetry minima are separated by a C{sub 2v} transition state and the energy barrier amounts to only 77 cm{sup {minus}1}. Thus the equilibrium structures averaged over vibrations are effectively planar (C{sub 2v}). The Franck{endash}Condon (FC) factors, calculated in harmonic approximation, indicate that the neutral complex formed in photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments may be vibrationally excited in both soft intermolecular and stiff intramolecular modes. The theoretical photoelectron spectrum based on the calculated FC factors is compared to the experimental PES spectrum of Bowen {ital et al.} {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn LCSSE thruster/valve assembly and injection propulsion unit rocket engine assemblies: 0.2-lbf T/VA development and margin limit test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Thruster valve assemblies (T/VA's) were subjected to the development test program for the combined JPL Low-Cost Standardized Spacecraft Equipment (LCSSE) and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn '77 spacecraft (MJS) programs. The development test program was designed to achieve the following program goals: (1) demonstrate T/VA design compliance with JPL Specifications, (2) to conduct a complete performance Cf map of the T/VA over the full operating range of environment, (3) demonstrate T/VA life capability and characteristics of life margin for steady-state limit cycle and momentum wheel desaturation duty cycles, (4) verification of structural design capability, and (5) generate a computerized performance model capable of predicting T/VA operation over pressures ranging from 420 to 70 psia, propellant temperatures ranging from 140 F to 40 F, pulse widths of 0.008 to steady-state operation with unlimited duty cycle capability, and finally predict the transient performance associated with reactor heatup during any given duty cycle, start temperature, feed pressure, and propellant temperature conditions.

  16. Temporal Trends in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in France: FRANCE 2 to FRANCE TAVI.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Vincent; Lefevre, Thierry; Van Belle, Eric; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Iung, Bernard; Koning, René; Motreff, Pascal; Leprince, Pascal; Verhoye, Jean Philippe; Manigold, Thibaut; Souteyrand, Geraud; Boulmier, Dominique; Joly, Patrick; Pinaud, Frédéric; Himbert, Dominique; Collet, Jean Philippe; Rioufol, Gilles; Ghostine, Said; Bar, Olivier; Dibie, Alain; Champagnac, Didier; Leroux, Lionel; Collet, Frédéric; Teiger, Emmanuel; Darremont, Olivier; Folliguet, Thierry; Leclercq, Florence; Lhermusier, Thibault; Olhmann, Patrick; Huret, Bruno; Lorgis, Luc; Drogoul, Laurent; Bertrand, Bernard; Spaulding, Christian; Quilliet, Laurent; Cuisset, Thomas; Delomez, Maxence; Beygui, Farzin; Claudel, Jean-Philippe; Hepp, Alain; Jegou, Arnaud; Gommeaux, Antoine; Mirode, Anfani; Christiaens, Luc; Christophe, Charles; Cassat, Claude; Metz, Damien; Mangin, Lionel; Isaaz, Karl; Jacquemin, Laurent; Guyon, Philippe; Pouillot, Christophe; Makowski, Serge; Bataille, Vincent; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Gilard, Martine; Le Breton, Hervé

    2017-07-04

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is standard therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. However, national data regarding procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes over time are limited. The aim of this study was to assess nationwide performance trends and clinical outcomes of TAVR during a 6-year period. TAVRs performed in 48 centers across France between January 2013 and December 2015 were prospectively included in the FRANCE TAVI (French Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry. Findings were further compared with those reported from the FRANCE 2 (French Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards 2) registry, which captured all TAVRs performed from January 2010 to January 2012 across 34 centers. A total of 12,804 patients from FRANCE TAVI and 4,165 patients from FRANCE 2 were included in this analysis. The median age of patients was 84.6 years, and 49.7% were men. FRANCE TAVI participants were older but at lower surgical risk (median logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE]: 15.0% vs. 18.4%; p < 0.001). More than 80% of patients in FRANCE TAVI underwent transfemoral TAVR. Transesophageal echocardiography guidance decreased from 60.7% to 32.3% of cases, whereas more recent procedures were increasingly performed in hybrid operating rooms (15.8% vs. 35.7%). Rates of Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined device success increased from 95.3% in FRANCE 2 to 96.8% in FRANCE TAVI (p < 0.001). In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were 4.4% and 5.4%, respectively, in FRANCE TAVI compared with 8.2% and 10.1%, respectively, in FRANCE 2 (p < 0.001 for both). Stroke and potentially life-threatening complications, such as annulus rupture or aortic dissection, remained stable over time, whereas rates of cardiac tamponade and pacemaker implantation significantly increased. The FRANCE TAVI registry provided reassuring data regarding trends in TAVR performance in an all

  17. [Nurse anesthetist in France].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Yann, Douchy; De Almeida, Sylvie; Deckert, Christine; Gauss, Tobias; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Merckx, Paul; Mantz, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We present the system of nurse anesthetist (Infirmier Anesthésiste Diplômé d'Etat: IADE) in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. This French system with 70 years' history is older than the Japan Society of Anesthesiologists itself. There are 7000 nurse anesthetists in France now and the number of nurse anesthetists increases by 450-500 each year. Training to become a nurse anesthetist requires at least two years' experience as a general nurse and the general nurse must pass an examination after two years' special training in an anesthetistic nurse school to acquire the national certification. The nurse anesthetist's profession is regulated by French law. They work in a team with certified anesthesiologists. They can perform many kinds of anesthetic tasks including tracheal intubation and insertion of arterial catheter under the responsibility and supervision of certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to perform spinal, epidural, conduction and local anesthesia, although they can maintain these anesthesia and control these methods, e.g., by injecting local anesthetic agents through epidural catheter, following a specified prescription. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to insert central venous and pulmonary artery catheters, although they can manage them. They are allowed to administer inhalation anesthetic agents, and inject venous anesthetic agents, muscle relaxants, their antagonists, and opioids by their own initiatives, but the decision for the use of catecholamine and emergency drugs is reserved to certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists perform other tasks preparing and checking anesthetic agents and equipment such as anesthetic machine, monitor, and defibrillator everyday, and sometimes use autologous blood recovery systems. The relationship between the certified anesthesiologist and the nurse anesthetist is marked by mutual respect, confidence and cooperation at each step of the anesthetic

  18. Outreach in southern France

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1992-12-09

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year.

  19. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  20. A surgical sabbatical in France.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, F; Launois, B

    2000-06-01

    During my stay in France I had the unique opportunity to meet surgical professors from all over the world and made many friends and contacts in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. Brittany is a beautiful province of France, having unique way of life and approach to social and societal problems. The cultural enrichment that I received from my year there will last a lifetime, as well the many fond memories of the people, the culinary delights and the spectacular seashore.

  1. Video game experience and its influence on visual attention parameters: an investigation using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA).

    PubMed

    Schubert, Torsten; Finke, Kathrin; Redel, Petra; Kluckow, Steffen; Müller, Hermann; Strobach, Tilo

    2015-05-01

    Experts with video game experience, in contrast to non-experienced persons, are superior in multiple domains of visual attention. However, it is an open question which basic aspects of attention underlie this superiority. We approached this question using the framework of Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) with tools that allowed us to assess various parameters that are related to different visual attention aspects (e.g., perception threshold, processing speed, visual short-term memory storage capacity, top-down control, spatial distribution of attention) and that are measurable on the same experimental basis. In Experiment 1, we found advantages of video game experts in perception threshold and visual processing speed; the latter being restricted to the lower positions of the used computer display. The observed advantages were not significantly moderated by general person-related characteristics such as personality traits, sensation seeking, intelligence, social anxiety, or health status. Experiment 2 tested a potential causal link between the expert advantages and video game practice with an intervention protocol. It found no effects of action video gaming on perception threshold, visual short-term memory storage capacity, iconic memory storage, top-down control, and spatial distribution of attention after 15 days of training. However, observations of a selected improvement of processing speed at the lower positions of the computer screen after video game training and of retest effects are suggestive for limited possibilities to improve basic aspects of visual attention (TVA) with practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theoretical study of the dipole-bound anion (H{sub 2}O{hor_ellipsis}NH{sub 3}){sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect

    Skurski, P.; Gutowski, M. |

    1998-04-01

    The adiabatic electron detachment energy for (H{sub 2}O{hor_ellipsis}NH{sub 3}){sup {minus}} has been found to be 109cm{sup {minus}1} at the coupled-cluster level of theory with single, double, and noninteractive triple excitations (CCSD(T)), to be compared with the recent experimental result of 123{endash}129cm{sup {minus}1} obtained by Abdoul-Carime {ital et al.} [Z. Phys. D {bold 40}, 55 (1997)]. The stationary points on the potential energy surface of the neutral and anionic dimer have been determined at the second-order Mo/ller-Plesset level of theory. Our results indicate that the second-order dispersion interaction between the loosely bound electron and electrons of the neutral dimer is as important as the electrostatic electron-dipole stabilization. The higher-order electron correlation corrections are also very important and the CCSD(T) electron binding energy is approximately four times larger than the Koopmans theorem estimation. In addition, the hydrogen bond in H{sub 2}O{hor_ellipsis}NH{sub 3} is susceptible to a deformation upon attachment of an electron. This deformation enhances both the electrostatic and dispersion components of the electron binding energy. The calculated Franck-Condon factors indicate that neutral dimers formed in electron photodetachment experiments may be vibrationally excited in both soft intermolecular and stiff intramolecular modes. The theoretical photoelectron spectrum based on the calculated Franck-Condon factors is reported. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Davidson, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  4. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  5. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  6. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition. PMID:18976564

  7. Pyemotes ventricosus dermatitis, southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  8. Education in France: Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  9. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  10. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France, would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...), entitled Sorbitol from France (Inv. No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review). \\2\\ The Commission determined to exercise...

  11. Cadence-power-relationship during decisive mountain ascents at the Tour de France.

    PubMed

    Vogt, S; Roecker, K; Schumacher, Y O; Pottgiesser, T; Dickhuth, H-H; Schmid, A; Heinrich, L

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to report the relationship between cadence and power developed by professional cyclists during high mountain ascents of the Tour de France. From the 10 cyclists (30 +/- 4 years, 178 +/- 8 cm, 69 +/- 6 kg) involved in the study, 108 ascents were recorded and analyzed using a mobile power measurement device (SRM Training Systems, Jülich, Germany). Based on topographic characteristics, the ascents were categorized into 1st and Hors Category (HC) climbs. During the ascents of the 1st Category climbs, power output averaged 312 +/- 43 W (4.5 +/- 0.6 W/kg) with a mean cadence of 73 +/- 6 rpm and a mean duration of 37 : 41 +/- 16 : 16 min. Power output averaged 294 +/- 36 W (4.3 +/- 0.6 W/kg) at a mean cadence of 70 +/- 6 rpm during 57 : 40 +/- 10 : 32 min on HC climbs. The maximal mean power for long durations (1800 s) showed a mean power output of 327 W and 346 W for the 1st and HC climbs, respectively. The evaluation of the cadence-power output and the distance per pedaling cycle-power output relationship shows that high power outputs are mainly yielded by higher pedaling cadences and higher gears.

  12. Photovoltaic rural electrification in France

    SciTech Connect

    Claverie, A.; Courtiade, P.; Vezin, P.

    1994-12-31

    The promotional programs sponsored by ADEME to encourage the use of off-grid photovoltaic power systems have evolved over the last ten years. From the first year-round residences that were equipped in the early 1980s, to those that are now participating in the program set up jointly by ADEME and the electricity utility Electricite de France (EDF), the notions of service quality and longevity are now better adapted to users` needs. This article outlines the evolution of ADEME`s approach in mainland France, describes the program undertaken in the French territory of New Caledonia, and lastly summarizes the results of a field survey of users of stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the French overseas department of Guadeloupe.

  13. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  14. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  15. Human coronavirus NL63, France.

    PubMed

    Vabret, Astrid; Mourez, Thomas; Dina, Julia; van der Hoek, Lia; Gouarin, Stéphanie; Petitjean, Joëlle; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2005-08-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in The Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory specimens for HCoV-NL63. Of the 300 samples, 28 (9.3%) were positive for HCoV-NL63. The highest prevalence was found in February (18%). The main symptoms were fever (61%), rhinitis (39%), bronchiolitis (39%), digestive problems (33%), otitis (28%), pharyngitis (22%), and conjunctivitis (17%). A fragment of the spike protein gene was sequenced to determine the variety of circulating HCoV-NL63. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strains with different genetic markers cocirculate in France.

  16. [Bull horn wounds. A 1 year experience at the O'Horán General Hospital Mérida, Yucatán, México].

    PubMed

    Ríos-Pacheco, Mónica; Pacheco-Guzmán, Rafael; Padrón-Arredondo, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Taurine medicine has been able to open the way to the advance of science and to the adaptation of science to the patient with a bull horn wound so that at present, 95% of patients now survive gorings that were fatal in earlier times. We carried out a retrospective study, utilizing clinical files from the O'Horán General Hospital in Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico during January 1999 through November 2000 as a data-base. Fifteen patients, all male, were treated for 26 bull horn goring wounds. The most frequently injuried patients ranged in age from 14-30 years. All patients were received at the Trauma Unit within 12 h of goring; gorings most frequently occurred in the town of Oxtcutzab, with from patients. Eight patients of is were bullfighters, all with different professions outside the bullfighting season; there were six spontaneous gorings, and the remaining patient was a cowboy wounded during work. Wounds of eight patients were closed, seven received open treatment. From time of admittance, all patients were administered a triple antibiotic schema, in addition to anti-tetanic gamma globulin and tetanic toxoid. We carried out comparisons with our patient bull horn goring treatments and those published in the Surgical Round, Spanish Surgery, and the Mexican Journal of Orthopedics and Traumatology; our results were similian to those found in the international literature.

  17. Human embryo research in France.

    PubMed

    Viville, Stéphane; Ménézo, Yves

    2002-02-01

    The French law on bioethics, voted upon in July 1994, is going to be revised. This is the occasion for France to reconsider its position concerning research on human embryos, which is currently prohibited in France, as it is in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. However, such research is authorised in other European countries such as the UK, Spain, Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands. The establishment of human embryonic stem (ES) cells has reopened the debate in France because of their potential in human therapy. Indeed, ES cells, derived from early embryos (5-6 days old), preserve in vitro a pluripotent character, and they could provide an infinite source of different tissues that could be used in replacement therapy. This consists of ES cells differentiated in vitro into the desired tissues or cell types and grafted into the patient. The use of human ES cells in replacement therapy raises the major problem of graft rejection. One of the proposed solutions would be to carry out a 'therapeutic cloning' and to derive ES cells from the embryos obtained in this way. We do consider that, for the moment, the interest of the cloning study lies mainly in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for reprogramming the nuclei. This research can be performed first on animal models. France is now thinking to allow human embryo research. We present here the French law proposed on human embryo research. French government is proposing to allow research exclusively on frozen supernumerary embryos, which no longer have any parental or adoption potential. Creation of human embryos for research purposes will still be prohibited. However, allowance of studies on human cloning in order to realise therapeutic cloning is mentioned in the proposal. We think that allowing research in humans on therapeutic cloning is premature and contradicts the prohibition of the creation of human embryos for research.

  18. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  19. [Suicide and occupation in France].

    PubMed

    Cohidon, C; Santin, G; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Imbernon, E

    2010-04-01

    Suicide is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. The number of work-related suicides is difficult to assess in France. There are nevertheless some data available to document this problem. The aim of this study is to describe suicide attempts (SA) and suicide mortality according to occupation in France. The description of SA relies on the "Baromètre Santé 2005", a cross-sectional representative survey conducted by the Inpes in France. The study population includes 6264 men and 7389 women in employment at the time of the survey. The prevalence of all life SA is described according to occupational category (one and two digits). Data on suicide mortality before the age of 65 comes from the Cosmop project, conducted by the Department of Occupational Health/InVS, and based on data from the "Echantillon démographique permanent"/Insee linked to medical causes of death from the French national death registry (CepiDc/Inserm). People included was born in France, employed at one of censuses (1968, 1975, 1982 and 1990, 187,938 men, 150,683 women). Relative risks for suicide mortality were estimated for the last known occupational category and economic sector. The prevalence of life course SA was higher among women than among men (6.6% vs 3.1%); an opposite situation was observed for mortality. Regarding salaried people, categories of manual workers and clerks are the most affected by SA and mortality from suicide whereas executives are the least concerned. Farmers were little affected by SA (0.4% men, 4.1% women) but experienced the highest rate of mortality by suicide (RR=3.1 men, RR=2.2 women). Among women, compared to non market sectors, the agricultural and equipment goods sectors exhibited an excessive risk of mortality from suicide. This study points out SA and mortality from suicide inequalities by occupational categories and to a lesser extent by economic sector. These results provide a first assessment on suicide according to occupation in France.

  20. Genetically engineered rat gliomas: PDGF-driven tumor initiation and progression in tv-a transgenic rats recreate key features of human brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Nina P; Stokum, Jesse A; Schneider, Craig S; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Xu, Su; Galisteo, Rebeca; Castellani, Rudolph J; Kim, Anthony J; Simard, J Marc; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Holland, Eric C; Woodworth, Graeme F

    2017-01-01

    Previously rodent preclinical research in gliomas frequently involved implantation of cell lines such as C6 and 9L into the rat brain. More recently, mouse models have taken over, the genetic manipulability of the mouse allowing the creation of genetically accurate models outweighed the disadvantage of its smaller brain size that limited time allowed for tumor progression. Here we illustrate a method that allows glioma formation in the rat using the replication competent avian-like sarcoma (RCAS) virus / tumor virus receptor-A (tv-a) transgenic system of post-natal cell type-specific gene transfer. The RCAS/tv-a model has emerged as a particularly versatile and accurate modeling technology by enabling spatial, temporal, and cell type-specific control of individual gene transformations and providing de novo formed glial tumors with distinct molecular subtypes mirroring human GBM. Nestin promoter-driven tv-a (Ntv-a) transgenic Sprague-Dawley rat founder lines were created and RCAS PDGFA and p53 shRNA constructs were used to initiate intracranial brain tumor formation. Tumor formation and progression were confirmed and visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The tumors were analyzed using histopathological and immunofluorescent techniques. All experimental animals developed large, heterogeneous brain tumors that closely resembled human GBM. Median survival was 92 days from tumor initiation and 62 days from the first point of tumor visualization on MRI. Each tumor-bearing animal showed time dependent evidence of malignant progression to high-grade glioma by MRI and neurological examination. Post-mortem tumor analysis demonstrated the presence of several key characteristics of human GBM, including high levels of tumor cell proliferation, pseudopalisading necrosis, microvascular proliferation, invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, peri-tumoral reactive astrogliosis, lymphocyte infiltration, presence of numerous tumor

  1. Genetically engineered rat gliomas: PDGF-driven tumor initiation and progression in tv-a transgenic rats recreate key features of human brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stokum, Jesse A.; Schneider, Craig S.; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Xu, Su; Galisteo, Rebeca; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Kim, Anthony J.; Simard, J. Marc; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Holland, Eric C.; Woodworth, Graeme F.

    2017-01-01

    Previously rodent preclinical research in gliomas frequently involved implantation of cell lines such as C6 and 9L into the rat brain. More recently, mouse models have taken over, the genetic manipulability of the mouse allowing the creation of genetically accurate models outweighed the disadvantage of its smaller brain size that limited time allowed for tumor progression. Here we illustrate a method that allows glioma formation in the rat using the replication competent avian-like sarcoma (RCAS) virus / tumor virus receptor-A (tv-a) transgenic system of post-natal cell type-specific gene transfer. The RCAS/tv-a model has emerged as a particularly versatile and accurate modeling technology by enabling spatial, temporal, and cell type-specific control of individual gene transformations and providing de novo formed glial tumors with distinct molecular subtypes mirroring human GBM. Nestin promoter-driven tv-a (Ntv-a) transgenic Sprague-Dawley rat founder lines were created and RCAS PDGFA and p53 shRNA constructs were used to initiate intracranial brain tumor formation. Tumor formation and progression were confirmed and visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The tumors were analyzed using histopathological and immunofluorescent techniques. All experimental animals developed large, heterogeneous brain tumors that closely resembled human GBM. Median survival was 92 days from tumor initiation and 62 days from the first point of tumor visualization on MRI. Each tumor-bearing animal showed time dependent evidence of malignant progression to high-grade glioma by MRI and neurological examination. Post-mortem tumor analysis demonstrated the presence of several key characteristics of human GBM, including high levels of tumor cell proliferation, pseudopalisading necrosis, microvascular proliferation, invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, peri-tumoral reactive astrogliosis, lymphocyte infiltration, presence of numerous tumor

  2. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  3. [Access to medicines in France].

    PubMed

    Bouvenot, Gilles; Bouvenot, Julien

    2009-03-01

    In France the total cost of medicinal products reimbursed by health insurers in 2007 was over 25 thousand million euros, and access to new drugs is neither restricted nor rationed, despite the unfavorable economic situation. In 2007 and 2008 the Transparency Commission (TC) of the French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé) approved the reimbursement of 97% of new drugs and new indications for existing products, within 90 days on average. The 3% of medicinal products that were not approved did not represent therapeutic advances and could be considered to be of dubious utility. If evaluation of new drugs is to be an independent process, then HAS must not only be independent of the decision-maker, funding bodies and commercial firms, but must also be a purely medical and technical organization. This implies removing all financial consideration from the picture, including the size of the target population that may qualify for a new treatment. This system could be further improved by creating special procedures to promote funding for innovations outside the marketing authorization system, thereby providing patients with faster access to the drugs they need; these procedures would include temporary authorisation, temporary treatment protocols, and a special-case function for treatment of chronic and rare conditions. Currently, new treatments produced by the pharmaceutical industry are paid for by national funding bodies and, from this point of view, it is difficult to argue that drug innovation is under-supported in France. On the other hand, it is well known that France has long been the largest consumer of medicinal drugs, both in Europe and worldwide. Two behavioral patterns partially explain this situation: one is a tendency to believe that drugs are the answer to all health concerns, and the other is a preference for new, more expensive drugs, even though "never" is not necessarily "better".

  4. [Health and politics in France].

    PubMed

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  5. Structure of the cytochrome b6f complex: new prosthetic groups, Q-space, and the 'hors d'oeuvres hypothesis' for assembly of the complex.

    PubMed

    Cramer, William A; Yan, Jiusheng; Zhang, Huamin; Kurisu, Genji; Smith, Janet L

    2005-01-01

    3-A crystal structures of the cytochrome b6f complex have provided a structural framework for the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The structures of the 220,000 molecular weight dimeric cytochrome b6f complex from the thermophilic cyanobacterium, Mastigocladis laminosus (Kurisu et al. 2003, Science 302: 1009-1014), and the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Stroebel et al. 2003, Nature 426: 413-418), are very similar. The latter is the first structure of a integral membrane photosynthetic electron transport complex from a eukaryotic source. The M. laminosus and C. reinhardtii structures have provided structural information and experimental insights to the properties and functions of three native and novel prosthetic groups, a chlorophyll a, a beta-carotene, and a unique heme x, one copy of which is found in each monomer of the cytochrome b6f complex, but not the cytochrome bc1 complex from the mitochondrial respiratory chain of animals and yeast. Several functional insights have emerged from the structures including the function of the dimer; the properties of heme x; the function of the inter-monomer quinone-exchange cavity; a quinone diffusion pathway through relatively narrow crevices or portals; a modified reaction scheme for n-side quinone redox reactions; a necessarily novel mechanism for quenching of the bound chlorophyll triplet state; a possible role for the bound chlorophyll a in activation of the LHC kinase; and a structural and assembly role for the four small PetG, L, M, and N subunits. An 'hors d'oeuvres hypothesis' for assembly of the complex is proposed for the small 'hydrophobic stick' or 'picket fence' polypeptides at the periphery of the complex, based on the cis-positive orientation of the small hydrophobic subunits and the 'toothpick' binding mode of the beta-carotene.

  6. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  7. [Surgical glove use in France].

    PubMed

    Caillot, J L

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, surgeons have used gloves to prevent infectious complications to the patient. The AIDS epidemic of the 1980's sparked the use of universal precautions to protect the surgeon from infection and vice-versa. The interface between surgeon and patient is in effect a two-way street. Surgical techniques must be modified and barrier protection optimized to minimize these risks. A single layer glove is a fragile barrier to blood exposure; unrecognized glove perforations may lead to unrecognized and prolonged exposure. Double gloving, though far from being a widespread practice in France, seems to be the best protection from pathogen exposure. Glove powder and latex allergies have their own inherent risks to both surgeon and patient in the form of latex allergies and adhesive peritonitis. New institutional protocols will be necesssary in order to make powder-free non-latex gloves available to French surgeons.

  8. Regulation of Biobanks in France.

    PubMed

    Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Pigeon, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The privacy of biobank research participants in France is protected by a combination of bioethics laws, research laws, and data protection laws. Although the law has attempted to facilitate research by creating an opt-out regime for research with pre-existing samples, other aspects of the law hinder research. The requirement for multiple consents throughout the process of biobank sample collection and use, the lack of acceptance of a broad consent for biobanking, and genetic exceptionalism in the law all complicate biobank research. With IRB approval, opt-out consent may be used for genetic research using human tissue collected for other purposes, but express consent is still required for research with the associated genetic data. Among the important issues remaining to be addressed are harmonizing and simplifying the various informed consent processes. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Crystalline Hors d'Oeuvres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Scott R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a laboratory activity to be used in the high school Materials Science and Technologies (MST) classroom. The objective of the lab is to develop macroscopic models for several types of crystal lattices. The students individually construct a unit cell out of toothpicks and candies and then join the cells with those of the other students. Upon completion, three macroscopic crystal lattices will have been created.

  10. Audit unto others hor ellipsis

    SciTech Connect

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, You're in a heap o' trouble boy '' Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a Buffalo Bill'' goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I'm fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived Because this first encounter of the worst kind'' made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  11. Crystalline Hors d'Oeuvres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Scott R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a laboratory activity to be used in the high school Materials Science and Technologies (MST) classroom. The objective of the lab is to develop macroscopic models for several types of crystal lattices. The students individually construct a unit cell out of toothpicks and candies and then join the cells with those of the other students. Upon completion, three macroscopic crystal lattices will have been created.

  12. The PermaFRANCE network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    A French long term monitoring network of permafrost and frost related processes, named PermaFRANCE, is being built since two years. It will represent the French contribution to the Alpine wide PermaNET network. The PermaFRANCE network will focus not only on permafrost, but on all frost related phenomena at different altitudinal levels, including both thermal monitoring and process observation and monitoring : 1) continuous and discontinuous permafrost in rock walls : - thermal monitoring is mainly performed at the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif) and includes rock surface temperature (RST) and temperature profils in medium depth boreholes (10 m) ; - inventory and observation of rockfall activity in high mountain rock walls : this action concerns the whole Mont Blanc area and is based on a hitorical inventory and an observation of current activity based on a network of observers and contributors ; 2) discontinuous permafrost is surficial deposits and flat bedrock : - thermal monitoring is performed on five rockglacier sites and includes ground surface temperature (GST) and annual BTS campaigns on some sites. Two medium depth boreholes (15 m) have been made in 2009 on one site, and equipped for thermal profile monitoring. A deep borehole (100 m) will be made in 2010 at 45° N latitude ; - geophysical monitoring is performed on 4 sites : repeated vertical electrical soundings exist for some sites since 20 years, and have been complemented since 2007 by eletrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismics ; - surficial displacements of rockglaciers : surficial displacements are measured either by classical geodesy or by DGPS on 6 rockglaciers ; 3) sporadic permafrost at middle altitudes : - an inventory of cold scree slopes and biological investigations on soil and tree growth (dendrogeomorphology) have already been achieved ; - a thermal monitoring should be initiated on selected sites in 2010 ; 4) seasonal frost and frost/thaw cycles at middle and low

  13. [Smoking in women in France].

    PubMed

    Hill, C

    1999-10-01

    Surveillance of smoking behavior and study of consequences of smoking on the health of the French population, and particularly the female population, is a public health priority. The amount of tobacco consumed can be determined from sales figures and from surveys. Globally, tobacco sales increased through 1985. According to the available surveys, the proportion of regular smokers has varied little as smoking rate has decreased in men and increased in women. The decrease occurred in all age groups for men and increased only in the 25-49 year age group for women. Smoking is the cause of 60,000 deaths per year in France, 57,000 in the male population and 3,000 in the female population. Despite reinforced legislation (The Veil and Evin laws) which is unfortunately poorly applied, tobacco consumption has not decreased greatly. Funding levels for anti-smoking campaigns are totally insignificant compared with the efforts of the tobacco industry to promote their products. However, the beneficial health effect of stopping smoking is truly great since the risk depends much more on the duration of smoking than on the number of daily cigarettes. In addition, the delay between the cause and consequence is long, the consequences of the increase in tobacco smoking among young women over the last 20 years will not become visible until 20 to 40 years from now. One could wonder why so little effort has been put into anti-smoking campaigns despite the readily available data clearly warranting their promotion.

  14. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  15. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    PubMed

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Cold wake of Hurricane Frances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Niiler, P. Peter; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-08-01

    An array of instruments air-deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances measured the three-dimensional, time dependent response of the ocean to this strong (60 ms-1) storm. Sea surface temperature cooled by up to 2.2°C with the greatest cooling occurring in a 50-km-wide band centered 60-85 km to the right of the track. The cooling was almost entirely due to vertical mixing, not air-sea heat fluxes. Currents of up to 1.6 ms-1 and thermocline displacements of up to 50 m dispersed as near-inertial internal waves. The heat in excess of 26°C, decreased behind the storm due primarily to horizontal advection of heat away from the storm track, with a small contribution from mixing across the 26°C isotherm. SST cooling under the storm core (0.4°C) produced a 16% decrease in air-sea heat flux implying an approximately 5 ms-1 reduction in peak winds

  17. [The occupational physician in France].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information.

  18. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR...

  19. New environmental technology options in France

    SciTech Connect

    Oppeneau, J.C. )

    1994-12-01

    Since the 1980s and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the environmental, or ''ecological,'' dimension has become the basis for a strategic orientation among industries and economies. France in 1992 allocated nearly 100.5 billion French francs ($19 billion)--1.4 percent of its gross domestic products--to environmental protection. If drinking water production facilities, natural resource conservation, urban amenities and waste recycling are included, France's expenditure on the environment is almost 140 billion francs ($26.4 billion), or 1.8 percent of GDP. Despite a recessionary period, environmental expenditures increased about 2.4 percent in 1992, while industrial investment remained constant. Traditional industry's share in this national expenditure has reached 30 percent.

  20. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  1. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  2. The Evolution of Minehunting in France (L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    AD-A132 532 THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE IL’EVOLUTION DE I/1 LA CHASSE AUX MINES EN FRANCE)(U) NAVAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER WASHINGTON...SEP 16 0 -wm- a/or.’- i.,it ______ D a " THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE (de Drezigue, Cdr; L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France...than the minehunter could assure this mission? Evolution of Minehunting The guiding thought of this evolution is the following: to have a good

  3. [Smoking and electronic cigarettes in France].

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    France is one of the developed countries where the prevalence of tobacco use is the highest. The reduction of incidence and prevalence of tobacco use in the near future would considerably decrease tobacco associated mortality and morbidity. The electronic cigarette, a consumer product that delivers pharmacologically active substances, is used by several millions of persons in France. The benefit-risk ratio of electronic cigarette use is unknown, as of today.

  4. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  5. [Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in France].

    PubMed

    Herida, M; Michel, A; Goulet, V; Janier, M; Sednaoui, P; Dupin, N; de Barbeyrac, B; Semaille, C

    2005-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) in France are reported on a voluntary basis through several sentinel surveillance systems. To monitor STI, sentinel laboratory- or clinician-based surveillance systems were set up by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire: gonorrhea surveillance (Renago) in 1986, Chlamydia infections surveillance (Renachla) in 1989, and more recently, syphilis surveillance in 2000 and rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in 2004. From 2000 to 2003, 1,089 syphilis infections were reported. Most of the cases were diagnosed in men having sex with men (MSM) and were mainly reported by STI clinics located in the Paris area. From 1997 to 2000, an increase of gonorrhea was observed each year. After two years of stable trend, the prevalence of gonorrhea increased again in 2003. From 2002 to 2004, 123 LGV cases were diagnosed in France and were observed only in MSM. Since 2001, Chlamydia infections have steadily increased, particularly in women. Because STI surveillance is based on a voluntary basis, the number of reported cases is probably lower than the number of STI diagnosed in France. However, the data provided by the different surveillance systems reveals that STI have been increasing in France since 1997. Moreover, the resurgence of syphilis in 2000 and the emergence of rectal LGV in 2004 indicate that these STI occur mainly in MSM. Trends on incidence and patients characteristics observed in France are similar to those of several Europeans countries. European Public Health interventions are becoming necessary to prevent and control STI.

  6. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2008].

    PubMed

    Che, D; Antoine, D

    2011-07-01

    A total of 5,758 tuberculosis cases were notified in France in 2008, giving a rate of nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The median age was 45 years and 59% of cases were male patients. Île-de-France (Paris and greater Paris area) and French Guiana had the highest notification rate in 2008 (17.9/10(5) and 22.6/10(5) respectively). The rate of tuberculosis was higher in individuals born abroad (43.2/10(5) vs. 5.0/10(5) for individuals born in France), especially those recently arrived in France. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 72% of notified cases, 76% of which were potentially contagious (positive sputum smear, or culture). Compared to 2007, the number of notified tuberculosis cases increased by 3.3% in 2008. This increase was not accompanied by a rise of severe cases (meningitis and miliary TB); this seemed to be due partly to improvement in identification and notification of cases. However this trend could require specific monitoring in future years. A national tuberculosis control program was launched in France in 2007, aiming at reducing epidemiological disparities. Clinical and public health expertise needs to be maintained on all the territory to ensure that implemented measures can have the expected impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  7. [Utilization of methylphenidate(Ritalin) in France].

    PubMed

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2002-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the only psychostimulant approved in France and indicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children over 6 years. It is under restricted prescription and distribution conditions. As such, it requires a hospital initiated prescription from either a neurology, psychiatry or pediatric specialist and it is covered by the "narcotics" schedule. The French Pharmacovigilance database spontaneous adverse drug reactions reporting, since it was approved in 1995, were analyzed. 21 adverse drug reactions were reported. In 16 cases, methylphenidate was suspected. They were generally non-serious, mild side effects and in most cases promptly resolved. These results do not suggest methylphenidate misuse in France or an overuse in between 1300 and 4000 treated children, to date. Until more information is available concerning the long-term effects of methylphenidate, and in order to limit misuse, inappropriate or overuse, the current prescription and dispensing regulation should be maintained in France, and could well be developed in other countries.

  8. [A case of donovanosis acquired in France].

    PubMed

    Okhremchuk, I; Marmottant, E; Abed, S; Nguyen, A-T; Fournier, B; Boye, T; Morand, J-J

    2016-11-01

    Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) is a bacterial infection caused by Klebsiella granulomatis that occurs mainly in the genital area and is primarily sexually transmitted; it is seen predominantly in the tropics. Herein, we report a case of the disease contracted in metropolitan France. A 47-year-old man presented with painless ulceration of the glans, present for one month, with progressive extension; there was no history of any recent trip abroad. Skin biopsy with Whartin-Starry and Giemsa staining revealed Donovan bodies in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Based on these findings, further questioning of the patient revealed unprotected sexual contact two months earlier in France. Treatment was initiated with azithromycin 1g on the first day followed by 500mg per day for three weeks. The clinical outcome was spectacular, with almost complete regression of the ulcer at 7 days. This case demonstrates that donovanosis can occur in metropolitan France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Foreign-born youth in France].

    PubMed

    Tribalat, M

    1996-12-01

    Data from an INED survey on migration and social integration (Mobilite Geographique et Insertion Sociale) carried out in France in 1992 are used to examine the process of assimilation of young people aged 20-29 in France. The results show that although there are many problems facing the young of foreign origin, and particularly those of North African origin, the situation concerning their integration into French society has improved significantly over the course of a generation despite the economic and social problems affecting the country that have made the process of assimilation more difficult.

  10. 78 FR 49115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...-100-AD; Amendment 39-17285; AD 2012-25-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... applies to certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B3 helicopters. The reference to Title...

  11. Frances Rauscher: Music and Reasoning. Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Neal

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an interview with Frances Rauscher, a research psychologist and musician who has studied the effects of music on the brain. Maintains that students who have studied music have enhanced spatial reasoning. Recommends that music education begin at younger ages. (CFR)

  12. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  13. Haemovigilance and transfusion safety in France.

    PubMed

    Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y

    2000-01-01

    The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety.

  14. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  15. France's Rich Relation: The Oc Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Simon

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of Occitan, a Romance language spoken in a large portion of France, looks at the history; irregular characteristics; orthographic and morphophonemic variations across dialects; and present status, which is in danger of becoming extinct because of neglect, of the language. (MSE)

  16. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  17. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  18. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  19. France: Nukes Stuck between NATO and EU

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    On words alone, however, the French may seem more prone to use nuclear weapons, which may start a potential chain reaction that could lead to the...A COLD HANDSHAKE BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND THE UNITED STATES...height of the Cold War. In the 1950s, France embarked on a campaign of building for nuclear energy to power its postwar reconstruction and nuclear

  20. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  1. The emergence of cognitive science in France.

    PubMed

    Chamak, B

    1999-10-01

    A comparison between the development of cognitive science in France and the USA enables us to analyze some national differences linked to specific connections between the scientific, military, economic and political worlds. The influence of new practices and tools developed during World War II and the Cold War appears to be of crucial importance in understanding the development of this new field, as well as that of cybernetics, computer science, artificial intelligence and molecular biology. This paper can be considered as a study in how the differing contexts in France and the USA shaped the history of the construction of cognitive science in each of these two countries. In spite of various differences, some common aspects may be pointed out: in both cases, computer experts and psychologists using a computational modelling approach were those first engaged in the construction of cognitive science. If in France neuroscience-oriented cognitive science research was stronger than in the USA, it seems that the artificial intelligence orientation is also of growing importance in France.

  2. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  3. Les instituts universitaires de technologie en France. (The university institutes of technology in France)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineau, Gaston

    1971-01-01

    In 1966 France passed legislation naming three types of technical training: two year postbaccalaureate, short-cycle for those without a bachelor's degree, adult education, for those already employed. (MF)

  4. Satellite remote sensing of hailstorms in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía

    2016-12-01

    Hailstorms are meteorological phenomena of great interest to the scientific community, owing to their socioeconomic impact, which is mainly on agricultural production. With its global coverage and high spatial and temporal resolution, satellite remote sensing can contribute to monitoring of such events through the development of appropriate techniques. This paper presents an extensive validation in the south of France of a hail detection tool (HDT) developed for the Middle Ebro Valley (MEV). The HDT is based on consecutive application of two filters, a convection mask (CM) and hail mask (HM), using spectral channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The south of France is an ideal area for studying hailstorms, because there is a robust database of hail falls recorded by an extensive network of hailpads managed by the Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA). The results show noticeably poorer performance of the HDT in France relative to that in the MEV, with probability of detection (POD) 60.4% and false alarm rate (FAR) 26.6%. For this reason, a new tool to suit the characteristics of hailstorms in France has been developed. The France Hail Detection Tool (FHDT) was developed using logistic regression from channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor of the MSG. The FHDT was validated, resulting in POD 69.3% and FAR 15.4%, thus improving hail detection in the study area as compared with the previous tool. The new tool was tested in a case study with satisfactory results, supporting its future practical application.

  5. 77 FR 18965 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Eurocopter France Model SA341G helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by an analysis and tests performed... Civile (DGAC), which is the aviation authority for France, has issued French AD No. F-2004-070, dated...

  6. 77 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B... France EC 155, SA 366, SA 365, and AS 365 model helicopters, except those with certain modifications...) Applicability This AD applies to Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, and SA-366G1 helicopters,...

  7. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  8. 77 FR 43734 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... Determination This helicopter model is manufactured in France and is type certificated for operation in the...

  9. 78 FR 75579 - Low Enriched Uranium From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Low Enriched Uranium from France: Investigation No. 731-TA-909 (Second Review). By order of the...

  10. 78 FR 857 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...-17302; AD 2012-26-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350BA helicopters with certain AERAZUR... Determination These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for...

  11. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  12. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital.

  13. Diphtheria: a zoonotic disease in France?

    PubMed

    Bonmarin, Isabelle; Guiso, Nicole; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Patey, Olivier; Patrick, A D Grimont; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2009-06-24

    Thanks to vaccination, diphtheria has almost disappeared in France. The case definition, used for mandatory notification, was expanded in 2003 to include toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium ulcerans. We describe the epidemiology of diphtheria in France from 1990 to 2008. No cases occurred between 1990 and 2001. Since 2002, 19 cases have been reported: 4 cases due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae related to exposure in endemic countries, and 15 cases due to other corynebacteria, including 4 cases of pseudomembranous pharyngitis, mainly related to contact with domestic animals. High vaccination coverage in the population and sensitive surveillance need to be maintained. Moreover, control measures need to be adapted to the non-C. diphtheriae toxigenic species.

  14. Modeling the Historical Flood Events in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hani; Blaquière, Simon

    2017-04-01

    We will present the simulation results for different scenarios based on the flood model developed by AXA Global P&C CAT Modeling team. The model uses a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 75 m resolution, a hydrographic system (DB Carthage), daily rainfall data from "Météo France", water level from "HYDRO Banque" the French Hydrological Database (www.hydro.eaufrance.fr), for more than 1500 stations, hydrological model from IRSTEA and in-house hydraulic tool. In particular, the model re-simulates the most important and costly flood events that occurred during the past decade in France: we will present the re-simulated meteorological conditions since 1964 and estimate insurance loss incurred on current AXA portfolio of individual risks.

  15. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    PubMed Central

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France. PMID:23425508

  16. First case of human gongylonemosis in France.

    PubMed

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  17. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  18. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis.

  19. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  20. [Suicide in France, a situational analysis].

    PubMed

    Facy, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    The fall in the number of suicides in France in no way diminishes the urgent need to act and reinforce the efforts, initiatives and resources to fight against this human tragedy. Public policies are starting to show results. The action of the French national suicide watch, associations, health professionals as well as the perspectives of the French national mental health council should amplify this movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  2. The e-Bug project in France.

    PubMed

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  3. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    PubMed

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard.

  5. Bioelectromagnetics Research in France--An Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-29

    lEanetj’ hr black auf) Over the past decade, France has played a major research role In bicebec- tri~ gnetics (BEN) (studies of the interaction of...materials studied at CNRS; reasonable conclusion. Occupational use animal behavior and electroencephalogram of electromagnetic energy, on the oher...at slightly shorter A crossed -beam apparatus for treatment times and at slightly lower simultaneous spectrophotometric observa- final temperatures

  6. [Epidemiology of urogenital cancers in France].

    PubMed

    Rébillard, Xavier; Tretarre, Brigitte

    2007-03-31

    Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in France as well as survival data are published by the cancer registry network (Francim). In 2000, the number of new cancer cases was almost 280,000 in France. This number has been gradually increasing, partly due to population aging. The proportion of urological cancers is increasing as well, as a consequence of the marked increase in number of prostate cancers. The estimated number of new cases for the 4 main urological cancers in 2000 reached 61,174, distributed as follows: 40,310 prostate cancers, 10,771 bladder cancers, 8,293 kidney cancers and 1,800 testis cancers. Urological tumours represented at the time 22% of new cancer cases in France: 35% of male cancers (56,402 /161,025) and 4% of female cancers (4,772/117,228). The relative five-year survival for prostate cancers is high: 80%. It is below that of testis cancers (95% after 5 years), but higher than that of kidney cancers (64% in men and 63% in women after five years). Of all urological cancers, bladder cancers have the worst prognosis, since the relative five-year survival is 60% in men and especially 50% in women.

  7. Mosquito spiroplasmas from France and their ecology.

    PubMed

    Chastel, C; Devau, B; Le Goff, F; Simitzis-Le Flohic, A M; Gruffaz, R; Kerdraon, G; Gilot, B

    1987-06-01

    Spiroplasmas have been isolated previously from a number of blood-sucking arthropods, including ticks, horseflies, and deerflies. More recently, spiroplasmas were isolated from mosquitoes from the USA, France, and Taiwan. Spiroplasmas isolated from mosquitoes from France belong to at least three serogroups and are serologically different from one of the Taiwan isolates, Sp2. Our Ar 1343 strain is the prototype of a new serogroup (XIII). During 3 consecutive years (1983-85), the ecology of these spiroplasmas was studied in different biotopes near, and in, the Isère River Valley in Savoia, France. A total of 23 strains was isolated from four species or groups of mosquitoes (Aedes sticticus/vexans, Ae. cantans/annulipes, Ae. cinereus/geminus and Coquillettidia richiardii). Spiroplasmas were isolated only from female mosquitoes and only during June and July. An as yet unidentified virus was also isolated from three mosquito pools, one of which yielded spiroplasmas. Spiroplasma viruses were not detected. Antibody to our Ar 1357 isolate was found in 4 of 20 sera from cows living in the areas studied, but not in sera from wild rodents or in sera from rabbit or pigeon sentinels. Finally, preliminary results are presented on the effects of experimental infection of Ae. aegypti with the Ar 1357 isolated (serogroup XXII).

  8. A paradox in physics education in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  9. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  10. 78 FR 38821 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N, SA... apply to Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, and AS 365 N3..., 2011 (AD No. 2011-0190), to correct an unsafe condition for the Eurocopter France EC 155, SA 366,...

  11. Human tularemia in France, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max; Pelloux, Isabelle; Brion, Jean Paul; Del Banõ, Jeanne-Noëlle; Picard, Aleth

    2011-11-01

    Tularemia is an endemic but rare disease in France. We describe the epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in 101 consecutive patients investigated during a 5-year period (2006-2010). All tularemia cases confirmed at the French Reference Center for Tularemia (FRCT) were included. Data were collected both at the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (mandatory notification) and FRCT. Diagnostic methods included serological tests (microagglutination and indirect immunofluorescence assay), Francisella tularensis cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests, and molecular identification of the F. tularensis subspecies involved. The patient cohort consisted of 55 men and 46 women (sex ratio, 1.2; average age, 51.7 years), including 93 sporadic cases that occurred throughout France. Contaminations occurred predominantly through contact with or ingestion of lagomorphs (31.7%), tick bites (10.9%), or contaminated environments (7.9%). The glandular and ulceroglandular forms predominated (57.5% of cases), but 18.8% of patients experienced a systemic disease and 29.7% were hospitalized. Specific diagnosis was mainly based on serology, but 38.6% of patients had positive RT-PCR tests and 20.8% had a positive culture. F. tularensis subspecies holarctica was identified in 25 patients. All patients except 1 recovered from infection, but 38.6% experienced relapses despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. The epidemiological and clinical aspects of tularemia in France are varied, suggesting different modes of contamination. The high rates of systemic diseases and hospitalization indicate that the more serious cases are more likely to be diagnosed and notified. RT-PCR tests may help to improve diagnosis and reporting of the disease.

  12. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France].

    PubMed

    Vigoureux, S

    2016-12-01

    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Current data on malaria in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Danis, M; Legros, F; Thellier, M; Caumes, E

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological data from the French National Reference Center for Imported Diseases showed that the estimated number of cases of imported malaria in France increased from 5,940 in 1998 to 7,127 in 1999 and 8,056 in 2000. This three-year progression ended in 2001 when the number of estimated cases fell back to 7,223. It was due mainly to the concomitant increase in the number of people traveling to endemic zones especially in Africa. In 2000 the median age of patients with imported malaria in France was 29.5 years and the sex ratio was 1.78. Sixty-three percent of cases involved people of African origin and 37% involved "Westerners". The countries in which contamination occurred were located in tropical Africa (95%), Asia (2.2%), and Latin America (2.7%). During the three year period from 1998 to 2000, there were a total of 13 accidental autochtonous cases of malaria involving patients with no history of travel to tropical areas. The distribution of Plasmodium species involved in imported malaria in France was stable with 83% of cases involving Plasmodium falciparum, 6% involving Plasmodium vivax, 6.5% involving Plasmodium ovale and 1.3% involving Plasmodium malariae. Attacks were clinically uncomplicated in 90 to 95% of cases and severe in 2 to 5% including fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 0.49 to 0.37% of cases. Less than 10% of the 45% of patients claiming use of prophylaxis complied properly. Analysis of the drugs used for curative treatment in 2000 showed an increase in the use of quinine and mefloquine and decrease in the use of halofantrine. The main objectives remain reduction of mortality and improvement of prevention.

  14. Outlier detection for groundwater data in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valmy, Larissa; de Fouquet, Chantal; Bourgine, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Quality and quantity water in France are increasingly observed since the 70s. Moreover, in 2000, the EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for community action in the water policy field for the protection of inland surface waters (rivers and lakes), transitional waters (estuaries), coastal waters and groundwater. It will ensure that all aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands meet 'good status' by 2015. The Directive requires Member States to establish river basin districts and for each of these a river basin management plan. In France, monitoring programs for the water status were implemented in each basin since 2007. The data collected through these programs feed into an information system which contributes to check the compliance of water environmental legislation implementation, assess the status of water guide management actions (programs of measures) and evaluate their effectiveness, and inform the public. Our work consists in study quality and quantity groundwater data for some basins in France. We propose a specific mathematical approach in order to detect outliers and study trends in time series. In statistic, an outlier is an observation that lies outside the overall pattern of a distribution. Usually, the presence of an outlier indicates some sort of problem, thus, it is important to detect it in order to know the cause. In fact, techniques for temporal data analysis have been developed for several decades in parallel with geostatistical methods. However compared to standard statistical methods, geostatistical analysis allows incomplete or irregular time series analysis. Otherwise, tests carried out by the BRGM showed the potential contribution of geostatistical methods for characterization of environmental data time series. Our approach is to exploit this potential through the development of specific algorithms, tests and validation of methods. We will introduce and explain our method

  15. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    PubMed

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  16. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  17. Model of the 2003 Tour de France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannas, Benjamin Lee; Goff, John Eric

    2004-05-01

    We modeled the 2003 Tour de France bicycle race using stage profile data for which elevations at various points in each stage are known. Each stage is modeled as a series of inclined planes. We accounted for the forces on a bicycle-rider combination such as aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance and calculated the winning stage times for an assumed set of bicycle and rider parameters. The calculated total race time differed from the sum of all actual winning stage times by only 0.03%.

  18. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  19. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  20. [Economic repercussions of cardiac insufficiency in France].

    PubMed

    Selke, B; Brunot, A; Lebrun, T

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the article is to review economic and public health consequences of congestive heart failure in France. This disease with an increasing prevalence induces for the social security system and the society a high cost; 85 to 93% of this cost are bound to hospitalizations, most of them avoidable. New modalities of care are to be chosen in order to improve the management of heart failure and to contain costs. In this context, multidisciplinary interventions based on patients' education are experimented taking care to assure a greater role to health actors working in the ambulatory sector (GPs, private cardiologists, nurses).

  1. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.

  2. La France a ta porte: Negocier les apprentissages (France at Your Doorstep: Negotiating Learning Experiences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Acosta, Asuncion; Serna, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    A second-language teaching strategy in which students are active in the selection of a unit theme and objective is discussed. In this approach, the teacher assumes the role of monitor in student development of the unit. A sample unit on language for daily living in France illustrates the process. (MSE)

  3. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    PubMed

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m(3)). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form.

  4. Power Output during the Tour de France.

    PubMed

    Vogt, S; Schumacher, Y O; Roecker, K; Dickhuth, H-H; Schoberer, U; Schmid, A; Heinrich, L

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demands of riding a "Grand Tour" by monitoring both heart rate and power output in 15 professional cyclists. SRM power output profiles (SRM Trainingsystem, Jülich, Germany) were collected during 148 mass start stages during the 2005 Tour de France and analyzed to establish average power, heart rate (HR) and cadence produced in different terrain categories (flat [FLT]; semi-mountainous [SMT]; mountainous [MT]). The maximal mean power (MMP) for progressively longer durations was quantified. Average HR was similar between FLT (133 +/- 10 bpm) and SMT (134 +/- 8 bpm) but higher during MT (140 +/- 3 bpm). Average power output revealed a similar trend (FLT 218 +/- 21 W [3.1 +/- 0.3 W/kg], SMT 228 +/- 22 W [3.3 +/- 0.3 W/kg], and MT 234 +/- 13 W [3.3 +/- 0.2 W/kg]). Cadence during MT was approximately 6 - 7 rpm lower (81 +/- 15 rpm) compared to FLT or SMT. During MT stages, the MMP for 1800 sec. was highest (394 W vs. 342 W) but the MMP 15 was lower (836 W vs. 895 W) compared to FLT. The data document comprehensively the power output demands during the Tour de France.

  5. Medication Sales and Syndromic Surveillance, France

    PubMed Central

    Grais, Rebecca F.; Sarter, Hélène; Fagot, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Bruno; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    Although syndromic surveillance systems using nonclinical data have been implemented in the United States, the approach has yet to be tested in France. We present the results of the first model based on drug sales that detects the onset of influenza season and forecasts its trend. Using weekly lagged sales of a selected set of medications, we forecast influenzalike illness (ILI) incidence at the national and regional level for 3 epidemic seasons (2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03) and validate the model with real-time updating on the fourth (2003-04). For national forecasts 1–3 weeks ahead, the correlation between observed ILI incidence and forecast was 0.85–0.96, an improvement over the current surveillance method in France. Our findings indicate that drug sales are a useful additional tool to syndromic surveillance, a complementary and independent source of information, and a potential improvement for early warning systems for both epidemic and pandemic planning. PMID:16704778

  6. Aedes albopictus: a potential problem in France.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    1995-12-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of Asian origin, has been rapidly spreading in all the continents since a decade: it is now established in North and South America, Africa, Oceania and even in Europe where it was detected in Albania, 1979 and in Italy, 1990. The international shipping trade of used tires provides to Ae. albopictus an ideal mechanism of dissemination, and everywhere the tire stocks constitute an extremely productive ecological niche. Now, this mosquito is present in several localities in Northern and Central Italy, and it is a real threat for other Mediterranean countries, particularly Southern part of France (French Riviera and Corsica) where climatic conditions are very suitable for its establishment. In addition, the tolerance exhibited by some natural populations of Ae. albopictus for low temperatures allows this species to occupy an area much further north than Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is a very competent vector for many arboviruses, particularly the four dengue serotypes, with the possibility of a vertical transmission; we also know that it can act as an experimental vector for many other viruses. The consequences of its introduction into France would lie in an increased level of transmission of autochthonous viral or filarial (canine dirofilariasis) infections, along with the spread of viruses presently unknown in the region (like dengue, Rift Valley fever, Batai, etc.). For these reasons, it is necessary to set up a permanent entomological surveillance in all the threatened areas in order to detect immediately such an introduction and to be able to quickly eliminate the mosquito.

  7. Strategic nuclear forces of Britain and France

    SciTech Connect

    Prados, J.; Wit, J.S.; Zagurek, M.J. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Weapon inventories of the US and the USSR account for about 97% of the nuclear warheads in the world today; Britain and France have most of the remainder. Yet even the comparatively modest claims the two Western European nations can make in this regard represent an awesome military capability that the USSR (and, to a lesser extent, the US) cannot afford to ignore. Indeed, the recent proposals both superpowers have made to dismantle all their European-based intermediate-range missiles differ sharply in particulars but raise the same fundamental question: What role will the other nuclear forces in Europe have in the future military balance. The Europeans are unlikely to place their limited strategic forces on the bargaining table along with those of the USSR and the US unless the superpowers impose severe constraints on their own strategic-weapon programs, and in particular on their strategic-defense programs. The deployment of such defense systems poses a worrisome dilemma for the Europeans: while in the near term a Soviet anti-ballistic-missile (ABM) system might have only marginal military impact, over the longer term a novel, exotic defense could conceivably nullify the dependent deterrent Britain and France have so arduously sought. At the same time and American system such as the Strategic Defense Initiative could, by decoupling the defense of Europe from that of the US, increase the need for precisely such an independent deterrent in the minds of the British and the French.

  8. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  9. In Wake of Riots, France Refashions Priority Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with an initiative embarked upon by the government of France one year after widespread youth violence broke out in many disadvantaged communities in France. The initiative is aimed at adapting its 25-year-old "priority education" program to a landscape that has dramatically changed. The initiative is the centerpiece of…

  10. 78 FR 49116 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-16847; AD 2011-22-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... applies to certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1...

  11. Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Claire; Meyer, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    A new influenza virus, genus D, isolated in US pigs and cattle, has also been circulating in cattle in France. It was first identified there in 2011, and an increase was detected in 2014. The virus genome in France is 94%–99% identical to its US counterpart, which suggests intercontinental spillover. PMID:25628038

  12. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  13. A Primer for Accompanying Secondary Student Groups to France. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jim

    Many of the factors that can help ensure a successful and positive learning experience for teachers, leaders, chaperons, and students who travel and/or study in France are addressed in this publication. Although it is geared toward France, many of the ideas, especially the section on pre-departure orientation, can be applied to any travel group.…

  14. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  15. Social Representation of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Study in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Jean Louis; Zenasni, Franck; Pereira-Fradin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of giftedness in France and the need for identification. Social Representations (SR) of gifted children have never been examined in France with an appropriate methodology, yet it is important to do so as the information obtained may help ensure the insertion and inclusion of these children in school and society. The…

  16. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  17. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  18. In Wake of Riots, France Refashions Priority Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with an initiative embarked upon by the government of France one year after widespread youth violence broke out in many disadvantaged communities in France. The initiative is aimed at adapting its 25-year-old "priority education" program to a landscape that has dramatically changed. The initiative is the centerpiece of…

  19. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  20. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  1. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  2. La punaise diabolique a la conquete de la France

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys is now present in France in Alsace and in several neighboring countries (Switzerland and Italy). The potential risk of invasion of H. halys throughout France is considered to be high. Through its natural dispersal, or with human assistance, this insect will likely colonize the majo...

  3. [Training in tropical medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Touze, Jean-Étienne; Laroche, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Tropical medicine was a key element of the medical structures provided by France to our former colonies and, later; to countries within the scope of our international cooperation. hI recent decades, France has drastically reduced its bilateral commitments to countries in the tropics, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the teaching of tropical medicine, which was highly regarded even beyond our borders, has lost a good deal of its expertise. Initially available in a few large French centers, and ensured by teachers with extensive field experience, training in tropical medicine is now offered in many universities. However; their programs and educational objectives, focusing mainly on infectious and parasitic diseases, no longer meet the healthcare priorities of southern countries, which are facing an epidemiological transition and the rise of non communicable diseases. Few teachers now have recognized expertise in tropical medicine. These changes have had negative consequences for research programs in tropical medicine and for the image of French assistance to developing countries. In this context, the followving perspectives should be considered: 1) training in tropical medicine should be enhanced by the creation of a national diploma recognized by international bodies. 2) The creation of a doctoral course in tropical medicine is a prerequisite for achieving this goal, and the future diploma must include a significant research component. 3) Teaching in tropical medicine must become more practical and be ensured by teachers with extensive field experience. 4) Training in tropical medicine should be part of a bilateral relationship with countries in the tropics, each party contributing its expertise while respecting that of its partners. 5) Training in tropical medicine should be backed uip by high-level scientific research based on enhanced synergy of our current networks (Institute for Research and Development, Network of overseas Pasteur

  4. Aging in france: population trends, policy issues, and research institutions.

    PubMed

    Béland, Daniel; Viriot Durandal, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology research, and, finally, points to several emerging issues about aging. In France, these issues include active and healthy aging, the improvement of knowledge on specific vulnerable segments of the elderly population, and the adaptation of the urban landscape and infrastructure to an aging population. At the broadest level, one of the key points formulated in this article is that in France, aging research is dominated by the state, yet it is scattered and compartmentalized, posing a crucial challenge in an era dominated by European and other international networks and coordination efforts in aging policy and knowledge.

  5. [France, the European migratory system, and globalization].

    PubMed

    Simon, G

    1996-01-01

    "The overwhelming trend of migratory flows to become globalized, which is manifesting itself in all the major immigrant countries and the planet's main pools of employment, henceforth concerns France and Europe. One of the main challenges confronting these two entities is related to the spatial expansion and rising diversity of their recruitment spaces, and the great difficulty involved in controlling mobility which increasingly tends to function on a global scale. It is essential to revise analytic paradigms based on a strictly national vision which is blind to and repressive of phenomena that are more planetary every day. The global approach will have to combine national management, the functioning of the community's migratory space, relations with increasingly distant and increasingly ¿foreign' lands of origin, and the globalization of migratory dynamics." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  6. The Tour de France: a physiological review.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Arribas, Carlos

    2003-10-01

    On 5 July 2003, the Tour de France (TDF) has celebrated 100th running. Instead of a chimney sweep competing during his free time (as in 1903), the recent winner is a highly trained, professional cyclist whose entire life-style has been dedicated to reach his pinnacle during this event. The TDF has been held successfully for 100 years, but the application of the physiologic sciences to the sport is a relatively recent phenomenon. Although some historical reports help to understand the unique physiological characteristics of this race, scientific studies were not available in Sports Science/Applied Physiology journals until the 1990s. The aim of this article is to review the history of the TDF. Special emphasis is placed on the last decade where classic physiology has been integrated into applied scientific cycling data.

  7. Case management in France: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Frossard, M

    1996-01-01

    Case management is currently an important issue in France. Because neither service providers nor consumers pay for case management in this country, a cost-benefit analysis is often required by the organizations that do pay. Given the context of French social policy and the current focus on justifying case management through cost-benefit analysis, we have developed a way to evaluate its costs. This article presents the limitations of standard economic choice theory, provides a methodology based on the principles of limited rationality, and gives the results of an evaluation of four case management programs. The article provides a method to measure case management costs and efficiency, as well as the willingness of consumers to pay for services.

  8. [Epidemiology of autochthonous leishmaniases in France].

    PubMed

    Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Carme, Bernard; Desbois, Nicole; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Lachaud, Laurence; Pratlong, Francine

    2013-11-01

    Leishmania infantum is the only species occurring in metropolitan France; located in the Mediterranean part of the country, it is responsible for a highly enzootic canine disease, while the human endemicity is low, with about 23 cases yearly reported to the National Reference Centre of Leishmaniases, mainly visceral forms. In French Guyana, five Leishmania species occur in the Amazonian forest, of which L. guyanensis is the predominant species, and L. braziliensis is responsible for the most critical forms. The most frequent clinical feature is cutaneous leishmaniasis, with a mean annual incidence reaching 2 p. 1000, with some inter-annual fluctuations. In Martinique Island, recent studies have confirmed the presence of an ancestral Leishmania species, responsible for small cutaneous lesions, of mild evolution; the life cycle of this species remains unknown. In Guadeloupe Island, a few autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases have been reported, needing a prospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Lafon, Alain; Perves, Jean-Pierre; Rosengard, Alex; Sauzay, Guy

    1993-05-01

    France has developed a very complete nuclear industry, from mining to reprocessing and radwastes management, and now has a major electro-nuclear park, with 55 power reactors, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity and representing 32% of its energy requirements. The modern multinational EURODIF enrichment plant in Pierrelatte in the south of the country supplies these reactors with enriched uranium as well as foreign utilities (30% exports). It works smoothly and has continuously been improved to reduce operating costs and to gain flexibility and longevity. Investment costs will be recovered at the turn of the century. The plant will be competitive well ahead of an aging production park, with large overcapacity, in other countries. Meanwhile, world needs will increase only slightly during the next 15 years, apart from the Asian Pacific area, but many world governments are becoming well aware of the necessity to progressively resume nuclear energy development worldwide from the year 2000 on.

  10. The LUNEX5 project in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Betinelli, P.; Bouvet, F.; Buteau, A.; Cassinari, L.; Daillant, J.; Denard, J. C.; Eymard, P.; Gagey, B.; Herbeaux, C.; Labat, M.; Lagarde, B.; Lestrade, A.; Loulergue, A.; Marchand, P.; Marlats, J. L.; Miron, C.; Morin, P.; Nadji, A.; Polack, F.; Pruvost, J. B.; Ribeiro, F.; Ricaud, J. P.; Roy, P.; Tanikawa, T.; Roux, R.; Bielawski, S.; Evain, C.; Szwaj, C.; Lambert, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.; Lehe, R.; Rousse, A.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Thaury, C.; Devanz, G.; Luong, M.; Carré, B.; LeBec, G.; Farvacque, L.; Dubois, A.; Lüning, J.

    2013-03-01

    The LUNEX5 (free electron Laser Using a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) in France aims at investigating the generation of short, intense, and coherent pulses in the soft x-ray region (with two particular targeted wavelengths of 20 and 13 nm). It consists in a single Free Electron Laser (FEL) line with cryo-ready in-vacuum undulators using a Conventional Linear Accelerator (CLA) using the superconducting technology of 400 MeV or a Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) ranging from 0.4 to 1 GeV with multi-TW or PW lasers. The FEL line can be operated in the seeded (High order Harmonic in Gas seeding) and Echo Enable Harmonic Generation configurations, which performances will be compared. Two pilot user experiments for time-resolved studies of isolated species and magnetization dynamics will take benefit of LUNEX5 FEL radiation.

  11. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  12. Ragweed pollen in France: origin, diffusion, exposure.

    PubMed

    Thibaudon, M; Hamberger, C; Guilloux, L; Massot, R

    2010-12-01

    To detect the origin of ragweed pollen and to measure the impact of this pollen exposure on allergic patients, so their sensitivity can be noted (using specific IgE production: sIgEw1) in order to inform the population about an "allergy" against those ragweed pollen grains. To measure population exposure to ragweed pollen, the R.N.S.A (National Aerobiological Monitoring Network, a French association) has a pollen trap network located in urban areas. These traps allow continuous recording of airborne pollen, the light microscope analysis (with a bi-hourly time step) allows one to know the daily concentrations of ragweed grains and the circadian rhythm of grains impaction. It is thus possible to follow the evolution of pollination during each day ofeach season and to compare seasons and years at each station. Biomnis is a biological laboratory which performs more than 85% of ragweed specific IgE assay in France. It seems to be clear that when allergists ask ragweed IgE for a patient, it is because they think that this patient seems to be allergic to this specific pollen. The statistical analysis of results about specific IgE (for ragweed) from the Allergology laboratories Biomnis (located in Lyon and Paris) can determine the number ofpatients sensitized to ragweed in French departments. The distribution ofsensitized patients to ragweed is compared to ragweed pollen distribution studied by the R.N.S.A from the year 2005 to 2008 in France, whatever the ragweed plant' origin: local (closed topollen trap) or imported (by wind). The biological database (Health impact) allows a correlation between the geographical distribution ofragweed pollen and the number ofpatients with specific IgE against ragweed (sIgEw1), i.e., whose sensitization is due to local plants. That also permits one to estimate the expected number of allergy cases in the next years, because the sensitivity precedes the allergy.

  13. Women's career choices in radiology in France.

    PubMed

    Pyatigorskaya, N; Madson, M; Di Marco, L

    2017-07-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of gender on residents' and fellows' motivations in choosing radiology as a career in France, and on choosing a practice setting later on. An online survey was sent to French residents and fellows in order to access their radiology practice and career aspirations, as well as the potential influence of their gender. Influence of being a woman on initial professional expectations, professional choices, and the evolution of career paths was investigated using the chi-square test. Responses were collected from 206 French residents and fellows. The reasons for choosing radiology residency were, at first, mostly the same for men and women such as interest in the specialty (100% of women and men), work conditions (74% of women and men), technical aspects of the specialty (63% of men and 52% of women, P=0.11) or "reasonable" workload (29% women and 21% men, P=0.19); however, 74% of women stated that maternity might influence their career choices, and were less interested in unstable positions exclusively in private practice (45% men and 33% women, P=0.05). Male and female radiologists primarily considered the same factors in choosing their specialties. However, maternity is still a source of inequality in France, including fewer opportunities for fellowship positions or academic careers. Furthermore, more women were willing to work in salaried positions to acquire a secure job, even though compensation might be lower. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. First occurrence of cylindrospermopsin in freshwater in France.

    PubMed

    Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Bormans, Myriam; Fastner, Jutta

    2009-08-01

    Eleven waterbodies in Western France dominated by cyanobacteria of the genera Aphanizomenon and Anabaena were analyzed in September 2006 for microcystins (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). CYN was detected for the first time in France in four of them in the presence of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and in the presence of Anabaena planctonica in the other. The intracellular concentrations of CYN measured by LC-MS/MS ranged between 1.55 and 1.95 microg/L. The occurrence of CYN represents an additional health hazard to MC especially because Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is the third most common species in freshwaters in France. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Audit unto others{hor_ellipsis}

    SciTech Connect

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember? The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, ``You`re in a heap o` trouble boy!`` Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a ``Buffalo Bill`` goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I`m fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived? Because this ``first encounter of the worst kind`` made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  16. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool appropriated for studying multiscale and non-stationary processes that occur in finite spatial and temporal domains. Its development began with Morlet and, since then, the wavelet transform (WT) has had better applications in Geophysics. However, the characterization of hail precipitation is not exempt from difficulty, since it deals with phenomenon on a small scale, with elevated spatial and temporal variation. The extreme variability of the frequency and distribution of hail is attributed, among other things, to the same process of its formation. The conditions that influence hail formation span from air masses climatology to lower-scale factors such as orography, wind fields, concentration of ice nuclei or temperature. This last factor is important both from a point of view of convective activity as well as its influence in the height of the freezing point. Thus, it would be possible to do comparative analysis between time series of temperature and diverse hail variables; or, rather, to try to establish a relationship between periodicities found and phenomenon such as ENSO (El Niño, Southern Oscillation) or NAO (North-Atlantic Oscillation). France is one of the European countries that is most affected by hail precipitation. Previous climatic studies have been done with the objective of characterizing the long-term variability of distinct variables of this hydrometeor that is present in the time series. These measurements are obtained using networks of hailpads distributed in French territory and managed by ANELFA. Berthet et al. (2011) observed the annual hail frequency in France, finding successions of three years with high values followed by three years of low values; this being calculated as the number of hailfalls per year divided by the number of hailpad stations that were in use during said year. In the present paper, a wavelet analysis was carried out with the objective of detecting the possible existence of

  17. Briquet and Briquet's syndrome viewed from France.

    PubMed

    Dongier, M

    1983-10-01

    Briquet's contributions to the description of hysteria have been almost completely forgotten in France. One may wonder how he, as well as contemporary French psychiatrists, would react to the approach to hysteria introduced and officialized by DSM III. In particular, its fragmentation into syndromes without apparent link to each other (psychogenic amnesia, conversion disorders, histrionic personality disorder, etc.) and its psychological causation, unbalanced by the consideration of organic factors in etiology, may raise questions. The correlation of conversion disorders with hysterical personality remains a feature of the WHO classification (ICD 9), as well as a feature of French contemporary texts, although it is no longer viewed as a regular association by American psychiatry. It may be that cultural factors lead, as suggested by Brisset, to a repression of conversion phenomena and of hyperexpressivity of affects replaced by more psychosomatic disorders in many contemporary societies. Finally, one may question whether the choice of the term "Briquet Syndrome" is appropriate, as many of the patients described by him did not have the chronic and malignant course described by Guze: It tends to limit hysteria to one end (the most severe one) of a spectrum of disorders.

  18. View of Mediterranean coast of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Mediterranean coast of France is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view includes the port cities of Marseilles (near center) and Toulon (far right). The mouth of the Rhone River is on the left. The irregular L-shaped inland body of water is Etang de Berre and is connected to the sea by a narrow canal. The city of Martiques is on the inland side of the canal. Cloud formations form narrow bands or streets along the coast east of Martiques and over the water. Cultural features such as major highways are indicated by thin white lines. Harbor facilities (wharves) and inner city patterns are distinctive in Marseilles and Toulon. The light tan areas in the regions inland from the major cities represent farming communities. The patterns are well shown in the vicinity of the Rhone River. The geology of the region is complex as illustrated by

  19. Sexology as a profession in France.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain; de Colomby, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    A national survey of sexologists was carried out in France in 1998-1999, among the individuals listed in the professional directories and the telephone book as "sexologists." It described the sociodemographic characteristics of sexologists, their initial profession and training in sexology, sex therapy and psychotherapeutic techniques, and how they practice sexology. A total of 959 individuals were identified and surveyed. The response rate was 63%. Two thirds of the sexologists were physicians and 60% were men. French sexologists appeared to be segmented into three subgroups: (1) one-third were general practitioners, trained in sexology and psychotherapeutic approaches, recognized themselves as sexologists, and devoted 40% of their professional activity to sexology. Men were about two thirds of this group; (2) one-third were nonphysicians (including psychologists and other health professionals, such as social workers and nurses), recognized themselves as sex therapists and devoted one third of their time to sexology. Men and women were equally represented in this group; (3) one-third were specialists, with less training in sexology and psychotherapeutic techniques, and did not generally recognize themselves as sexologists. They devoted a lesser part of their time to sexology and had academic and hospital practice. Men comprised more than 75% of this group. This study raised the issue of the diversity of primary professions involved in the field of sexology and showed that sexology is a secondary professional choice for the majority of sexologists.

  20. View of Mediterranean coast of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Mediterranean coast of France is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view includes the port cities of Marseilles (near center) and Toulon (far right). The mouth of the Rhone River is on the left. The irregular L-shaped inland body of water is Etang de Berre and is connected to the sea by a narrow canal. The city of Martiques is on the inland side of the canal. Cloud formations form narrow bands or streets along the coast east of Martiques and over the water. Cultural features such as major highways are indicated by thin white lines. Harbor facilities (wharves) and inner city patterns are distinctive in Marseilles and Toulon. The light tan areas in the regions inland from the major cities represent farming communities. The patterns are well shown in the vicinity of the Rhone River. The geology of the region is complex as illustrated by

  1. Tick-borne encephalitis in eastern France.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Yves; Pierre Gut, Jean; Remy, Veronique; Martinot, Martin; Allard Witz, Marie; Christmann, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Each y a few cases of TBE infection are described in Alsace, France which lies at the occidental limit of the endemic zone of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Hence we carried out a retrospective epidemiological and clinical study of TBE infection in Alsace. Data were collected from serological results sent to the Institut de Virologie (Université Louis Pasteur) in Strasbourg. All samples positive for specific IgM against TBE were retained. The physician in charge of each patient was asked to provide clinical, epidemiological and biological data and with his agreement the medical file was referred to us. Since 1968, 64 cases of TBE infection, occurring between April and November, had been described. In 56% of cases, flu-like symptoms preceded neurological symptoms. Most patients had meningitis (54%) or meningoencephalitis (34%). There was no death due to TBE. Two areas were more highly endemic for the disease: the Guebwiller valley in low mountain country and the Neuhof forest, near Strasbourg in the plain of Alsace. In the last 2 y of the study, a third zone seemed to emerge, in the Munster valley. This epidemiological survey revealed the existence in Alsace of 2 endemic zones of TBE with a third zone possibly emerging in the last few y. The survey must be continued to follow the evolution of the disease.

  2. Cystic fibrosis mortality trends in France.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Gil; Cazes, Marie-Hélène; Parant, Alain; Gaimard, Maryse; Travers, Cécile; Le Roux, Evelyne; Ravilly, Sophie; Rault, Gilles

    2007-05-01

    In 1992 France set up a national cystic fibrosis observatory (Observatoire national de la mucoviscidose, ONM) to monitor the state of health of patients on an annual basis. Using the ONM data, this study estimates the main indicators for life expectancy and assesses the total number of cystic fibrosis patients. The data for the years 1994 to 2003 are divided into 3-year periods. Life tables are drawn up for these periods, from which mean and median lengths of life are determined. Using the most recent life table, the number of births in 2003 and the incidence of the disease, the total population of patients can be estimated, assuming a stationary population. In 2001-2003, life expectancy at birth of patients registered with the ONM was 39.1 years and median length of life was 36.4 years. These results, substantially better than those of 1994-1996, are linked to improved conditions of patient inclusion in the ONM database, to improvements in their healthcare, but also to the limitations of the life tables. Based on the 2003 data, the total theoretical number of patients is 6490, and coverage by the ONM database is thus 63.2%. These provisional results demonstrate the need to convert the ONM observatory into a registry providing exhaustive coverage of all patients.

  3. The CQI/TQM journey in France.

    PubMed

    Maguerez, G

    1997-01-01

    In France interest in continuous quality improvement (CQI) and other quality improvement (QI) approaches is recent and experience modest, but the pace of change should quicken now that the government has required that all hospitals be accredited within the next five years. In addition, in the face of increasing competition, hospitals, public and private, may find a quality strategy to be critical in helping them survive. In fall 1994 the National Agency for the Promotion of Medical Evaluation (ANDEM) was mandated by the Ministry of Health to set up a national demonstration project based on quality assurance and CQI methodologies. The program was designed to identify the key success factors for implementing such programs within hospitals. The program involves 28 18-month CQI projects, which deal with prevention of nosocomial infection, patient safety in anesthesia, medical records, blood transfusion safety, drug dispensing safety, and control of violence in psychiatric settings. Participating hospitals are required to analyze the variation in the involved processes and attempt to reduce variation through cross-departmental quality management programs. The general method for each team's management of the project closely follows the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle. Preliminary experience suggests that the participating hospitals have benefited from following the same model and sharing of accounts of their progress. Representatives of the 28 teams met in fall 1995 and June 1996, and future meetings are planned. Most of the teams have collected quantitative data about the current processes and have started to pilot test process changes.

  4. [The blood donors' haemovigilance in France].

    PubMed

    Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N

    2013-05-01

    This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. The Quaternary coversands of southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bateman, Mark D.; Hernandez, Marion; Garon, Henri; de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Mercier, Norbert; Leroyer, Chantal; Queffelec, Alain; Voinchet, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64-42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24-14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial-interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.

  6. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  7. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the Établissement français du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  8. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France.

    PubMed

    Adida, Claire L; Laitin, David D; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-12-28

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences' 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin.

  9. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  10. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    PubMed

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  11. [The image of smoking women in France].

    PubMed

    Sledziewski, E G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to try to understand why the social image of the smoking woman remains positive and cannot be assimilated to that of the smoking man. We wanted to describe the typical status and function of smoking women in today's social imaginary in France. We identified and interpreted selected images in which female smoking is presented as an ideological corpus. The cultural meaning of female and male smoking, as well as their pathological effects, are different and should not be apprehended symmetrically. The leading feministic culture deeply resists alarming discourses about the dangers of tobacco, considering them to have little importance. Female smoking is still encouraged and exalted for its emancipating power: tobacco liberates woman from an impracticable womanhood. There is a need for a political approach to female smoking, viewing it as a modern form of mutilation meant to compensate for the extension of women's rights. In order to fight against this imagery efficiently, it must be put into a critical perspective, eliminating taboos about certain feministic misunderstandings and dead-ends. A woman must be offered something more than smoking cessation: an improvement in her own being, a way to reappropriate her gendered identity.

  12. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right.

  13. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Frances Rand Smith Collection California Historical Society Original: About 1890 Re-photo: January 1940 SECOND FRAME CHURCH REPLACING MISSION (1890) - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  14. 16. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society, 1900) Photographer unknown, Date unknown FRONT VIEW OF MISSION, c. 1900 - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  15. 19. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society, 1880) Photographer unknown, April 1940 EXTERIOR VIEW OF REAR OF CHURCH - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  16. 20. Photocopy of photograph (From Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (From Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW OF CHURCH FROM REAR - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  17. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  18. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  19. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  20. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  1. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Drawing Right (SDR) rate (as published by the International Monetary Fund) on that date utilizing the linking coefficient of 3.061 gold francs = 1 SDR. An equivalent amount in U.S. dollars must be paid to...

  2. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.

  3. History as Passport: Frances FitzGerald and Her Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall, William

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to get at some of the assumptions and definitions behind "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald and, in addition, to investigate some of the conceptions of history held by critics who reviewed the book. (DB)

  4. Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-14

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured these images and cloud-top height retrievals of Hurricane Frances on September 4, 2004, when the eye sat just off the coast of eastern Florida, and Hurricane Ivan on September 5th.

  5. France, West Germany, and the Security of the Persian Gulf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    oligopolistic battle developed between the major oil companies on one side and the nationalized or cartelized coal companies on the other in which the oil...French government, relishing the favored treatment, insisted that all oil companies supplying France implement the Arab policy fully and refused to...maximum potential, whereas the technology for exploiting geothermal power still remains to be developed . By 1979, however, France relied on hydroelectric

  6. [A probable case of alveolar echinococcosis in Normandy, France].

    PubMed

    Costes, Laurent; Thirot-Bidault, Anne; Dhalluin-Venier, Valérie; Rangheard, Anne-Sophie; Benichou, Joseph; Pelletier, Gilles

    2005-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis induced liver infection was diagnosed in a Moroccan patient. Diagnosis was based on CT scan results and Western Blot test. Contamination probably occurred in France, in the Cherbourg area where the patient travelled frequently and ate wild berries. This case and other recently reported cases outside the usual endemic areas (Besançon and the Massif Central) suggest that the Echinococcus multilocularis epidemic has moved towards the west of France. French gastroenterologists should be aware of this parasitic disease.

  7. [First report of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1984) in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F; Karch, S

    2000-04-01

    The first record of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France has been made in a village of Orne (Basse-Normandie). A few larvae were collected in October 1999, in the used tire stock of an important tire recycling company, importing in particular from the USA and Japan. Reproduction of the species has taken place in France, and the environmental conditions make the implantation of the species probable.

  8. 77 FR 54353 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, SA-366G1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC... to amend 14 CFR part 39 to include an AD that would apply to all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, SA-366G1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC 155B, and EC155B1 helicopters. That NPRM proposed...

  9. A brief history of genome research and bioinformatics in France.

    PubMed

    Danchin, A

    2000-01-01

    The development of in silico genomics has progressed slowly in France for a number of political reasons. Two administrative organizations, the Groupement de Recherche sur les Génomes (GREG) and the Groupement de Recherche 1029 (GDR 1029) of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) have been established. These organizations have created the dynamics that hopefully will place France (which coordinated consortia that completed several of the first large microbial genomes) among the developed nations that support Large-Scale Biology.

  10. Comparison of rehospitalization rates in France and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gusmano, Michael; Rodwin, Victor; Weisz, Daniel; Cottenet, Jonathan; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To compare rates of 30-day all-cause rehospitalization in France and the US among patients aged 65 years and older and explain any difference between the countries. To calculate rehospitalization rates in France, we use an individual identifying variable in the national hospital administrative dataset to track unique individuals aged 65 years or more hospitalized in France in 2010. To calculate the proportion of rehospitalized patients (65+) who received outpatient visits between the time of initial discharge and rehospitalization, we linked the hospital database with a database that includes all medical and surgical admissions. We used step by step regression models to predict rehospitalization. Rates of rehospitalization in France (14.7%) are lower than among Medicare beneficiaries in the US (20%). We find that age, sex, patient morbidity and the ownership status of the hospital are all correlated with rehospitalization in France. Lower rates of rehospitalization in France appear to be due to a combination of better access to primary care, better health among the older French population, longer lengths of stay in French hospitals and the fact that French nursing homes do not face the same financial incentive to rehospitalize residents. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. [Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden].

    PubMed

    Dezileaux, Barbara; Martinez, Florie

    2016-06-01

    Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Project compares quantitatively outpatient drug prescriptions in France, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained from national databases; the unit of measurement was defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants. The five most prescribed drug classes were compared in each country in 2009, then benzodiazepines and antibiotics from 2006 to 2012. A literature review was focused on the context of prescriptions for each country. In 2009, the five most prescribed drug classes in the four countries represented seven classes in total. France was not the biggest prescriber of drugs, but from 2006 to 2012 benzodiazepines and antibiotics were prescribed much more in France than in the other countries. The evolution of prescriptions was different for each country, and very stable in France. In 2009, France was not the biggest drugs consumer of all classes, but was characterized by high prescriptions in some classes. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [History of clinical pharmacology in France: adaptation, evaluation, defense and illustration of drug in France 1978-1981].

    PubMed

    Montastruc, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This text illustrates some unknown aspects of the history and beginnings of clinical pharmacology in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s From the current situation, development and objectives of clinical pharmacology are recalled as well as obstacles necessary to overcome to change the paradigm in the field of drug evaluation and appropriate use in France. The text recalls this important moment where French medicine and medical pharmacology entered the modern era.

  13. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  14. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  15. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  16. Imported amoebic liver abscess in France.

    PubMed

    Cordel, Hugues; Prendki, Virginie; Madec, Yoann; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Bourée, Patrice; Caumes, Eric; Matheron, Sophie; Bouchaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, amoebic liver abscess (ALA) can be found in individuals in non-endemic areas, especially in foreign-born travelers. We performed a retrospective analysis of ALA in patients admitted to French hospitals between 2002 and 2006. We compared imported ALA cases in European and foreign-born patients and assessed the factors associated with abscess size using a logistic regression model. We investigated 90 ALA cases. Patient median age was 41. The male:female ratio was 3.5:1. We were able to determine the origin for 75 patients: 38 were European-born and 37 foreign-born. With respect to clinical characteristics, no significant difference was observed between European and foreign-born patients except a longer lag time between the return to France after traveling abroad and the onset of symptoms for foreign-born. Factors associated with an abscess size of more than 69 mm were being male (OR = 11.25, p<0.01), aged more than 41 years old (OR = 3.63, p = 0.02) and being an immigrant (OR = 11.56, p = 0.03). Percutaneous aspiration was not based on initial abscess size but was carried out significantly more often on patients who were admitted to surgical units (OR = 10, p<0.01). The median time to abscess disappearance for 24 ALA was 7.5 months. In this study on imported ALA was one of the largest worldwide in terms of the number of cases included males, older patients and foreign-born patients presented with larger abscesses, suggesting that hormonal and immunological factors may be involved in ALA physiopathology. The long lag time before developing ALA after returning to a non-endemic area must be highlighted to clinicians so that they will consider Entamoeba histolytica as a possible pathogen of liver abscesses more often.

  17. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG <3.1, special attention is paid to the non-unity slope of the relation between the local magnitudes and M w. All M w determined during the SI-Hex project is calibrated according to reference M w of recent events. As for some small events, no M L-LDG has been determined; local magnitudes issued by other French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  18. The spatial distribution of Mustelidae in France.

    PubMed

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the "small carnivorous species logbooks" program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest.

  19. Metal music and mental health in France.

    PubMed

    Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick

    2009-09-01

    Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mental health of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mental health and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mental health was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, <5 percent of metal music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society.

  20. Contraceptive practices and trends in France.

    PubMed

    Toulemon, L; Leridon, H

    1998-01-01

    This study describes current contraceptive practices in France over the past 30 years, by method, among single men and women, for dual method use, for pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, and at 1st intercourse. Data were obtained from the 1994 Fertility and Family Survey and previous fertility surveys. In 1994, 69% of women aged 20-49 years used contraceptives. Most women relied on the pill (about 36%), followed by the IUD (16%). 7% of women were sterilized. About 5% used condoms, and 6% used abstinence or withdrawal. 31% reported not using contraceptives, of whom 3% were sterile. 4% were infertile. 4% were pregnant. 4% desired pregnancy, and 11% had no ongoing sexual relationship. 5% were determined to be at risk for unintended pregnancy. About 83% of women reported ever use of the pill, and 58% had ever used condoms. Typical patterns of use during the 1980s include 10 years of pill use followed by IUD use. Contraceptive behavior only differed among single men and women not in a union. Some men and women reported multiple method use, especially pills and condoms. During 1988-94, pill use increased, IUD use decreased, and condom use increased. Condom use was higher among singles, among the well educated, and in large cities. During 1978-94, natural method use and sterilization declined. Women tended to identify condom use with pregnancy prevention. Men tended to include STD/AIDS prevention. Contraceptive use at 1st intercourse increased over time. Even though contraceptive use increased, the number of induced abortions remained constant, suggesting lower use-effectiveness.

  1. The Spatial Distribution of Mustelidae in France

    PubMed Central

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the “small carnivorous species logbooks” program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  2. The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.

    2006-12-01

    The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.

  3. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i) map the reported cases in France, and ii) produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model). Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central), at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average), 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France. PMID:20377867

  4. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    There are several interesting astronomical topics that must be addressed in the High School and Elementary/Middle School in the disciplines of Geography and of Sciences. Among them, the topic of time zones which is one of the most important to understand the correlation of the Earth's rotation and its implications on daily activities of citizens in local scale, regional and global scales which involve problems of time differences. For the teaching of time zones in the lessons of Geography, for example, there are bi-dimensional representations of thematic maps of world time zones, textbooks and atlas. It happens that teachers face some difficulties to permit its students to view three-dimensionally this astronomical phenomenon from the textbooks available in schools. The aim of this paper is to present two proposals with low-cost materials, which allow the preparation of three-dimensional models for the teaching of time zones. Há vários temas astronômicos interessantes que devem ser trabalhados nos Ensinos Médio e Fundamental, nas disciplinas de Geografia e de Ciências. Entre eles, o tema dos fusos horários que é um dos mais importantes para se correlacionar a rotação da Terra e suas implicações nas atividades cotidianas dos cidadãos em escala local, regional e global, que envolvem problemas de diferenças horárias. Para o ensino dos fusos horários nas aulas de Geografia, por exemplo, há representações bidimensionais de mapas temáticos de fusos horários mundiais, nos livros didáticos e nos atlas. Ocorre que os professores enfrentam algumas dificuldades para possibilitar aos seus alunos a visão tridimensional deste fenômeno astronômico, a partir dos materiais didáticos disponíveis nas escolas. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar duas propostas para a confecção de materiais de baixo custo, que possibilitem a elaboração de modelos tridimensionais para o ensino dos fusos horários. Hay algunos temas astronómicos interesantes que se

  5. Imported Amoebic Liver Abscess in France

    PubMed Central

    Cordel, Hugues; Prendki, Virginie; Madec, Yoann; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Bourée, Patrice; Caumes, Eric; Matheron, Sophie; Bouchaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, amoebic liver abscess (ALA) can be found in individuals in non-endemic areas, especially in foreign-born travelers. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of ALA in patients admitted to French hospitals between 2002 and 2006. We compared imported ALA cases in European and foreign-born patients and assessed the factors associated with abscess size using a logistic regression model. Results We investigated 90 ALA cases. Patient median age was 41. The male:female ratio was 3.5∶1. We were able to determine the origin for 75 patients: 38 were European-born and 37 foreign-born. With respect to clinical characteristics, no significant difference was observed between European and foreign-born patients except a longer lag time between the return to France after traveling abroad and the onset of symptoms for foreign-born. Factors associated with an abscess size of more than 69 mm were being male (OR = 11.25, p<0.01), aged more than 41 years old (OR = 3.63, p = 0.02) and being an immigrant (OR = 11.56, p = 0.03). Percutaneous aspiration was not based on initial abscess size but was carried out significantly more often on patients who were admitted to surgical units (OR = 10, p<0.01). The median time to abscess disappearance for 24 ALA was 7.5 months. Conclusions/Significance In this study on imported ALA was one of the largest worldwide in terms of the number of cases included males, older patients and foreign-born patients presented with larger abscesses, suggesting that hormonal and immunological factors may be involved in ALA physiopathology. The long lag time before developing ALA after returning to a non-endemic area must be highlighted to clinicians so that they will consider Entamoeba histolytica as a possible pathogen of liver abscesses more often. PMID:23951372

  6. [The vision of welders in France].

    PubMed

    Boissin, J P; Peyresblanques, J; Rollin, J P; Marini, F; Beaufils, D

    2002-10-01

    A study was conducted to measure the impact of welding on the vision of welders. This study was conducted in France by the occupational medicine staff of large companies on 1.131 people, namely 850 welders and 281 control subjects. This investigation included two examinations at the beginning and the end of a year. The investigative procedure examined the different welding processes, the percentage of working time spent on welding activity, the length of exposure in years, as well as the medical variables: the optical correction type and history of ocular traumatology. The Visiotest or the Ergovision were used for the visual examination, equipment in common use by occupational medicine departments. The welders were comparatively young (59.53% of them were less than 45 years old). Moreover, for 69.75% of the welders, more than 75% of their activity was devoted to welding. All currently used welding processes were represented, including the modern PLASMA-TIG welding process. No excessive blood alcohol levels were observed in all subjects, but welders did smoke slightly more than the control subjects (40% vs 33%). Self-medication was rather less frequent among the welders, except as regards the use of eye drops, where the proportions were clearly inverted. Optical correction for hyperopia was similar between the two groups; however, as regards myopia, the welders were corrected less often. Lastly, contact lens use was exceptional among the welders. Nearsightedness varied logically with age, but also, inexplicably, with the welding processes. Vision recovery time after exposure to glare was much longer among the welders, except for the PLASMA-TIG processes. No difference was observed in the other parameters of the study. No change in the visual functions studied was noted between the two examinations. The examination techniques used showed no impairment of the studied visual functions, probably because companies use protective and preventive eye care methods. Moreover

  7. [Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis and neuroborreliosis in France].

    PubMed

    Blanc, F

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a systemic disease called neuroborreliosis (NB) when neurological symptoms are pre-eminent. LB is a zoonosis caused by Borrelia bacteria transmitted by Ixodes tick-bite. Because of the absence of a national registry, epidemiology of LB in France is not well known. Moreover, diagnosis of NB may be difficult because of the various clinical forms. Acute meningoradiculitis is the most common presentation, but pauci-symptomatic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, polyneuropathy, cerebrovascular involvement, and rarely chronic encephalomyelitis are also described. The vector Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) is found throughout metropolitan France excepting border areas of the Mediterranean seaside and in regions with an altitude above 1500 meters. In France, the Borrelia infestation rate of Ixodes is 7% with wide disparity between administrative districts. Prospective work in 1999-2000 by 875 general practitioners participating in the "Sentinel" network established the estimated incidence of BL (9.4/100 000) and of NB (0.6/100 000) in France. Incidence is higher in certain regions: in Alsace, prospective work by 419 general practitioners and specialists in cooperation with the national surveillance agency (Institut national de veille sanitaire), estimated BL incidence at 86 to 200/100 000 inhabitants and NB at 10/100 000. Thus, although globally France is a country with a moderate risk for LB, some regions such as Limousin, Auvergne, Lorraine and Alsace, have a high risk of LB, comparable to countries in the northeastern Europe such as Germany and Sweden.

  8. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. The Tour de France: an updated physiological review.

    PubMed

    Santalla, Alfredo; Earnest, Conrad P; Marroyo, José A; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    From its initial inception in 1903 as a race premised on a publicity stunt to sell newspapers, the Tour de France had grown and evolved over time to become one of the most difficult and heralded sporting events in the world. Though sporting science and the Tour paralleled each other, it was not until the midlate 1980s, and especially the midlate 1990s (with the use of heart-rate monitors) that the 2 began to unify and grow together. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize what is currently known of the physiological demands of the Tour de France, as well as of the main physiological profile of Tour de France competitors.

  10. Cord blood banking in France: reorganising the national network.

    PubMed

    Katz, Gregory; Mills, Antonia

    2010-06-01

    Paradoxically, France is one of the leading exporters of cord blood units worldwide, but ranks only 17th in terms of cord blood units per inhabitant, and imports 64% of cord blood grafts to meet national transplantation demands. With three operational banks in 2008, the French allogeneic cord blood network is now entering an important phase of development with the creation of seven new banks collecting from local clusters of maternities. Although the French network of public banks is demonstrating a strong commitment to reorganise and scale up its activities, the revision of France's bioethics law in 2010 has sparked a debate concerning the legalisation of commercial autologous banking. The paper discusses key elements for a comprehensive national plan that would strengthen the allogeneic banking network through which France could meet its national medical needs and guarantee equal access to healthcare. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism Following a Viper Envenomation in France

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Géraldine; Pineau, Samuel; Biron, Charlotte; Connault, Jérôme; Artifoni, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France. A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble. Repeated lower limbs Doppler ultrasound were normal. This case is particularly interesting because it is only the 7th reported case of pulmonary embolism following a snake envenomation; moreover, it happened in France where poisonous snakes are very rare. Several hypotheses have been made to explain this late localized coagulopathy: an increased level of unstable fibrin produced by thrombin-like glycoproteins from the venom is one of them. PMID:27175626

  12. [Child victims of house fires in France. Mortality, morbidity, prevention].

    PubMed

    Leveque, B; Lareng, L; Julien, H; Lavaud, J; Wassermann, D; Latarjet, J

    1993-10-01

    Children injuries by house fires in France are the cause of a severe mortality (sixty deaths in average each year) and of a morbidity for the survival due to smoke toxicity (oxygen deprivation and inhalation of toxic gases--CO and HCN) and to thermal burns. Epidemiological studies show that young children (0 to 4) are specially concerned by this threat and that the deaths occurred more often in some part of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region). A special strategy for this prevention should be applied in France, the same available in USA, Sweden and UK, including information on the behavior one should have with children: never leave them alone and escape with them as soon as possible out of the smoke. The usefulness of smoke detectors should be confirmed by French administration and recommended to the public, since they have had effective results in other countries.

  13. Spatial distribution of Lindane concentration in topsoil across France.

    PubMed

    Orton, T G; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D; Jolivet, C C; Villanneau, E J; Marchant, B P; Caria, G; Barriuso, E; Bispo, A; Briand, O

    2013-01-15

    Lindane [γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] is an organochlorine pesticide with toxic effects on humans. It is bioaccumulative and can remain in soils for long periods, and although its use for crop spraying was banned in France in 1998, it is possible that residues from before this time remain in the soil. The RMQS soil monitoring network consists of soil samples from 2200 sites on a 16 km regular grid across France, collected between 2002 and 2009. We use 726 measurements of the Lindane concentration in these samples to (i) investigate the main explanatory factors for its spatial distribution across France, and (ii) map this distribution. Geostatistics provides an appropriate framework to analyze our spatial dataset, though two issues regarding the data are worth special consideration: first, the harmonization of two subsets of the data (which were analyzed using different measurement processes), and second, the large proportion of data from one of these subsets that fell below a limit of quantification. We deal with these issues using recent methodological developments in geostatistics. Results demonstrate the importance of land use and rainfall for explaining part of the variability of Lindane across France: land use due to the past direct input of Lindane on cropland and its subsequent persistence in the soil, and rainfall due to the re-deposition of volatilized Lindane. Maps show the concentrations to be generally largest in the north and northwest of France, areas of more intensive agricultural land. We also compare levels to some contamination thresholds taken from the literature, and present maps showing the probability of Lindane concentrations exceeding these thresholds across France. These maps could be used as guidelines for deciding which areas require further sampling before some possible remediation strategy could be applied.

  14. Increased average longevity among the "Tour de France" cyclists.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, F; Olaso-Gonzalez, G; Corella, D; Gomez-Cabrera, M C; Vina, J

    2011-08-01

    It is widely held among the general population and even among health professionals that moderate exercise is a healthy practice but long term high intensity exercise is not. The specific amount of physical activity necessary for good health remains unclear. To date, longevity studies of elite athletes have been relatively sparse and the results are somewhat conflicting. The Tour de France is among the most gruelling sport events in the world, during which highly trained professional cyclists undertake high intensity exercise for a full 3 weeks. Consequently we set out to determine the longevity of the participants in the Tour de France, compared with that of the general population. We studied the longevity of 834 cyclists from France (n=465), Italy (n=196) and Belgium (n=173) who rode the Tour de France between the years 1930 and 1964. Dates of birth and death of the cyclists were obtained on December 31 (st) 2007. We calculated the percentage of survivors for each age and compared them with the values for the pooled general population of France, Italy and Belgium for the appropriate age cohorts. We found a very significant increase in average longevity (17%) of the cyclists when compared with the general population. The age at which 50% of the general population died was 73.5 vs. 81.5 years in Tour de France participants. Our major finding is that repeated very intense exercise prolongs life span in well trained practitioners. Our findings underpin the importance of exercising without the fear that becoming exhausted might be bad for one's health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  16. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  17. [Management of stroke in France. Results of 3 national surveys].

    PubMed

    Woimant, F; De Broucker, T; Vassel, P

    2003-05-01

    Three surveys were performed in France, in March 1999, to analyze the management of acute stroke patients. Three hundred forty five Emergency departments, 93 departments of Neurology and 258 Rehabilitation units participated. Fifty per cent of patients with stroke arrive at the emergency department within 3 hours of symptom onset. Only 40 p. cent of the patients are admitted in a neurological department and 5 p. cent in an acute stroke unit. The mean length of acute hospital stay is often very long (more than three weeks) because of the delay to transfer to a rehabilitation unit. This study shows that acute stroke management is herogeneous and not structured in France.

  18. EUROPEAN SCIENCE POLICY: France Rebels Against Gene-Patenting Law.

    PubMed

    Balter, M

    2000-06-23

    France is on a collision course with the European Union over an E.U. directive that many researchers believe would allow raw DNA sequences of human genes to be patented. On 7 June, French justice minister Elisabeth Guigou told the National Assembly that the directive--which must be enacted by each of the 15 E.U. member nations by 30 July--contradicts French bioethics laws, which forbid the patenting of any part of the human body. If France maintains its defiance, it could be fined up to $600,000 daily for each day it refuses to adopt the directive.

  19. TVA--A World of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Anne E., Ed.; And Others

    Studying our natural resources and the systems governing them can help to bring about an understanding of the interrelationships of these resources and ecosystems. This junior high school program is intended to supplement existing school curricula in science and social studies by presenting activities that deal with the concepts of…

  20. TVA--A World of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Anne, Ed.

    In studying the earth's natural resources and the systems governing them, students need to understand the interrelationships of resources and ecosystems. This curriculum program for junior high school students investigates the environment as a whole. It is designed to supplement existing school curricula in science and social studies by presenting…

  1. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    PubMed Central

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  2. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in animals in France.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy; Boschiroli, Maria Laura

    2015-03-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002-2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated.

  3. [Population characteristics and data on live births in France].

    PubMed

    Launay, C

    1993-01-01

    The collection of birth information in France is outlined and data on fertility trends are presented. Two forms used by the Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques to gather information on mothers and families of newborns are included. Tabular data are provided for births by cohorts of women, by nationality of mother, and by maternal age.

  4. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France

    PubMed Central

    Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Tazi, Asmaa; Billoët, Annick; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Bidet, Philippe; Bingen, Edouard; Raymond, Josette; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases. PMID:18826837

  5. Invasive group B streptococcal infections in infants, France.

    PubMed

    Poyart, Claire; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Tazi, Asmaa; Billoët, Annick; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Bidet, Philippe; Bingen, Edouard; Raymond, Josette; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases.

  6. [The Australian nurses in France during the Great War].

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil

    2014-06-01

    Australia was dragged into the First World War due to its status as a dominion of the British Empire. High numbers of nurses, both civilian and military, served during this conflict, notably in France, reflecting the surge of support and sympathy felt by Australians for the country.

  7. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    PubMed

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  8. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  9. Geographic variation in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Gregoire; Georgescu, Vera; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Potentially avoidable hospitalizations are studied as an indirect measure of access to primary care. Understanding the determinants of these hospitalizations can help improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of health care delivery. Few studies have tackled the issue of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France, and none has done so at the national level. We assessed disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France in 2012 and analyzed their determinants. The standardized rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations ranged from 0.1 to 44.4 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, at the ZIP code level. Increased potentially avoidable hospitalizations were associated with higher mortality, lower density of acute care beds and ambulatory care nurses, lower median income, and lower education levels. This study unveils considerable variation in the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in spite of France's mandatory, publicly funded health insurance system. In addition to epidemiological and sociodemographic factors, this study suggests that primary care organization plays a role in geographic disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations that might be addressed by increasing the number of nurses and enhancing team work in primary care. Policy makers should consider measuring potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France as an indicator of primary care organization.

  10. Surveillance of leishmaniases in France, 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lachaud, L; Dedet, J P; Marty, P; Faraut, F; Buffet, P; Gangneux, J P; Ravel, C; Bastien, P

    2013-07-18

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in the south of France, where autochthonous disease is caused by Leishmania infantum, and affects both humans and dogs. The prevalence of canine leishmaniasis is between 3 and 66% depending on the region and the methods used. Human leishmaniases are also imported into France, mainly from French Guiana and North Africa. The surveillance of autochthonous and imported human leishmaniases is based on passive notification to the National Reference Centre for Leishmaniases (NRCL) created in 1998. Between 1999 and 2012, 317 autochthonous and 1,154 imported cases were notified to the NRCL. The average number of autochthonous cases notified per year was 22.6, mainly cases of visceral leishmaniasis (84.5%). All cases were infected in the south of France. Leishmaniasis incidence is 0.22 per 100,000 inhabitants in the endemic area. Imported cases were more frequent (annual mean of 82.4 cases) and consisted predominantly in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases (91%), essentially L. major CL imported from Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa, and L. guyanensis CL from French Guiana. This national notification system allowed a better understanding of the incidence and distribution of the disease; it is also useful to assess the temporal-spatial evolution of the disease in France, which appears relatively stable.

  11. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France.

    PubMed

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael Gb; Dina, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses.

  12. [Courses in microsurgical techniques in France and abroad].

    PubMed

    Alzakri, A; Al-Rajeh, M; Liverneaux, P A; Facca, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the state of current training programs for microsurgery in France and abroad. Our survey of microsurgery training programs determined the registration volume, program contents, and number of students in France, and looked at registration volume and teaching time for programs abroad. Data were obtained from the Internet, university administration, those responsible for university diploma programs, and students. There were 18 university diploma programs in microsurgery in France. The average list price was €1,129 for an average of 19 hours of theoretical training and 100 hours of practice. Evaluation methods varied, but all required at least vascular anastomosis in rats. In 2011-2012, 148 students were enrolled and 126 graduated (85% passing rate). Abroad, 16 basic courses were listed in the USA, Europe and Asia. Nine advanced courses were offered. The average price was $1,346 for 36 hours of practice in the basic courses and $1,955 for over 50 hours of training in advanced courses. None of these courses gave out a diploma. Our results show that in France, university diploma programs in microsurgery are heterogeneous and the French College should consider updating them. Globally, a study is underway by the International Microsurgical Simulation Society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  14. Proceedings of the Full Board Meeting (Orleans, France, July 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris (France). Abstracting Board.

    The 1971 General Assembly and full board meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions Abstracting Board (ICSU AB) were held in July at Orleans, France. This volume is the published proceedings of those meetings. The first part of the Proceedings is a detailed description of the activities of the Board. The second part records the…

  15. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  16. Foodborne Outbreak and Nonmotile Salmonella enterica Variant, France

    PubMed Central

    Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations. PMID:22257550

  17. Foodborne outbreak and nonmotile Salmonella enterica variant, France.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Simon; Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations.

  18. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bat, France.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michael; Teeling, Emma C

    2010-02-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

  19. Magpies as Hosts for West Nile Virus, Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Sabatier, Philippe; Grège, Océane; Greenland, Timothy; Leblond, Agnès; Lafaye, Murielle; Zeller, Hervé G.

    2008-01-01

    European magpies (Pica pica) from southern France were tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and viral shedding in feces during spring–autumn 2005. Results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on WNV ecology in Europe. PMID:18258098

  20. Magpies as hosts for West Nile virus, southern France.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Elsa; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Sabatier, Philippe; Grège, Océane; Greenland, Timothy; Leblond, Agnès; Lafaye, Murielle; Zeller, Hervé G

    2008-01-01

    European magpies (Pica pica) from southern France were tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and viral shedding in feces during spring-autumn 2005. Results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on WNV ecology in Europe.

  1. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  2. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  3. Pre-School Education in the Massif Central (France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Emile

    This paper lists and tentatively assesses three experiments in preschool education in rural areas in France, and outlines the Massif Central development program which draws extensively on these experiments. In Experiment I, a peripatetic teacher worked with young children, concentrating on speech activities in four different single-class schools.…

  4. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  5. New large-format holographic laboratory in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, Pascal E. P.

    1994-01-01

    A new holographic laboratory, Photonics 3D, has opened in Lyon, France. Its objectives are many fold: to encourage creative research in the field of holographic imagery, to set up an artist in residence program and to allow the production of very large holograms.

  6. Critical Citizenship Education in England and France: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of "critical citizenship" has become a key objective of official school curricula around the world. Using an analytic framework developed by the authors, this paper identifies the diverse conceptions of critical citizenship that are promoted, by comparing the official school curricula for citizenship in England and France.…

  7. Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies, France, 2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Vulin, Johann; Calavas, Didier; Baron, Thierry G M

    2008-02-01

    In France, through exhaustive active surveillance, approximately 17.1 million adult cattle were tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy from July 2001 through July 2007; approximately 3.6 million were >8 years of age. Our retrospective Western blot study of all 645 confirmed cases found that 7 were H-type and 6 were L-type.

  8. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  9. Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella in Bats from France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Matthew J.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Bartonella in 11 of 109 insectivorous bats from France and 1 of 26 bats from Spain. These genetic variants are closely related to bat-associated Bartonella described in Finland and the United Kingdom and to B. mayotimonensis, the agent of a human endocarditis case in the United States. PMID:28221109

  10. Teaching of Languages to Migrant Workers . (Toulouse, France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscail, X.; And Others

    With the cooperation of the Council of Europe, CREPT (tr. Regional Center for the Study and Promotion of Travel) conducted an experimental training course for migrant workers at Toulouse, France. Aim of the course was to bring trainees from the stage of attaining literacy to that of entering the Centre for Vocational Training for Adults (FPA). In…

  11. Rights and Rites of Passage: Crossing Boundaries in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes the adult and higher education system in France in terms of institutional boundaries, increased proportion of adults in universities, and the chaotic system of qualifications. Examines procedures for articulation and transfer between the various components of the educational system. (SK)

  12. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in Animals in France

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002–2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  13. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  14. 78 FR 70242 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... this proposed AD, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) AD, the economic evaluation, any comments...

  15. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  16. Clonal propagation on Eucalyptus by cuttings in France

    Treesearch

    H. Chaperon

    1983-01-01

    A.FO.CEL has developed a technique for mass propagation by cuttings of Eucalyptus in France. This technique is described from the selection of the ortet to the mass propagation of the clone for afforestation: the first stage is the mobilization of the ortet, the second stage is called pre-propagation which includes rejuvenating and rooting conditioning, the third stage...

  17. Current status of beech bark disease in France

    Treesearch

    R. Perrin

    1983-01-01

    The two organisms involved in beech bark disease are endemic everywhere in France. Nevertheless the disease is restricted to the northern part of the beech's range, where it grows on the plains. During the last five years beech bark disease has shown a general decrease in severity but there have been local increases in the north and north-eastern parts of forests...

  18. Seasonality of cat-scratch disease, France, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti-Morelli, Diane; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Richet, Hervé; Davoust, Bernard; Rolain, Jean Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-04-01

    Cat-scratch disease is seasonal in the United States and Japan; but no data are available from Europe. To assess the seasonality of the disease in France, we analyzed lymph node biopsy specimens collected during 1999-2009. Most (87.5%) cases occurred during September-April and peaked in December.

  19. Seasonality of Cat-Scratch Disease, France, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti-Morelli, Diane; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Richet, Hervé; Davoust, Bernard; Rolain, Jean Marc

    2011-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease is seasonal in the United States and Japan; but no data are available from Europe. To assess the seasonality of the disease in France, we analyzed lymph node biopsy specimens collected during 1999–2009. Most (87.5%) cases occurred during September–April and peaked in December. PMID:21470466

  20. Geographical Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence in France

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. Methods We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization. We used a spatial Bayesian approach based on estimating the number of MS cases from 2005 and 2008 capture–recapture studies to analyze differences in prevalence. Results The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of MS per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 68.1 (95% credible interval 54.6, 84.4) in Hautes-Pyrénées (southwest France) to 296.5 (258.8, 338.9) in Moselle (northeast France). The greatest prevalence was in the northeast departments, and the other departments showed great variability. Discussion By combining multiple data sources into a spatial Bayesian model, we found heterogeneity in MS prevalence among the 21 departments of France, some with higher prevalence than anticipated from previous publications. No clear explanation related to health insurance coverage and hospital facilities can be advanced. Population migration, socioeconomic status of the population studied and environmental effects are suspected. PMID:27936086

  1. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  3. Recent Developments in Assessment and Examination Procedures in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    Recent changes in educational assessment in France reflect pressures to modernize the French educational system to align it with prevailing democratic and egalitarian values and to respond to the economy's vocational training needs. After providing background on the French educational system, this paper discusses two areas of secondary school…

  4. [The pharmaceutical industry in France: the turning point of 1915].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    For several convergent reasons, 1915 was a key period for the pharmaceutical industry in France. The overall realization that France was dependent on Germany for chemical and pharmaceutical products came from shortages of key drugs but also from massive use of poison gas for which France was not able to face this unexpected event. France's shortage for chemists properly trained to answer the needs of industry, the weak relationship between industry and faculty, the uncomfortable situation of specialty drugs, the regulations on patents and trademarks were many subjects of controversies which will contribute to the analysis of the source of this French dependence to Germany. It will be at the origin of new orientations after the war for the pharmaceutical industry and the French society. The objective was to be independent for drugs and consequently to resolve the identified issues, as well as to have a dynamic industrial research. The creation and development of several pharmaceutical companies after the war was a more or less direct benefit from the considerations starting in 1915.

  5. Pre-School Education in the Massif Central (France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Emile

    This paper lists and tentatively assesses three experiments in preschool education in rural areas in France, and outlines the Massif Central development program which draws extensively on these experiments. In Experiment I, a peripatetic teacher worked with young children, concentrating on speech activities in four different single-class schools.…

  6. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  7. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, and George Washington Bridge in background, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  8. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, George Washington Bridge, Hudson River, and Palisades Interstate Park in background, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  9. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  10. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on…

  11. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  12. Systemic Change in Vocational Training Institutions in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moallem, Abbas; Moallem, Mahnaz

    1998-01-01

    The Specialized Vocational Training Institutions known as Institut Medico-Professionel (IMPro) in France are faced with increasing demands to provide quality services to adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This article describes the process of organizational changes in IMPro including the model, methods, tools, and techniques used in…

  13. Early Childhood Program for the Handicapped in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucman, Elisabeth

    1985-01-01

    Early intervention in France begins with compulsory screening of all infants at birth, nine months, and at two years. Problems remain, especially in the availability of adequate support and of services for the handicapped child. Interdisciplinary teams operate from "early medico-social activity centers" to provide a variety of…

  14. Romanticism or Reality? An Exploration of Frances Mary Hendry's "Chandra."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jilaine

    This paper singles out a novel written for children about India, "Chandra" (1995) by Frances Mary Hendry, as a powerful and useful novel to present to today's 11 to 14 year old students. The paper contends that the novel allows students to explore and consider different value systems, challenges them to become aware of prejudice and the…

  15. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  16. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  17. Economic consequences of migration from North Africa to France.

    PubMed

    1979-10-01

    Migration to France from the countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) for employment has supplied France with a labor force on favorable terms, though with some problems. In the Maghreb countries, development has been immediately aided by emigrant remittances and the relief of underemployment. Whether or not emigration will favor those countries in the long run is the question. Immigration to France from the Maghreb was suspended in July 1974 when 1.3 million emigrants from the Maghreb were living there including 710,000 workers. Building and engineering firms employed them as unskilled labor. Whole sections were able to grow at little social cost. It is the country of origin that loses the manpower, the human capital, and investment. Every Algerian in gainful employment has to provide, directly or indirectly, for the subsistence of 7 other Algerians who are not productive. In France the equivalent ratio is 1 to 2.5. As long as female employment is so limited in the Maghreb the pattern of emigration to support the family left behind will continue. The monthly postal order is a means of survival for many Maghreb families living at the subsistence level. The family of the emigrant is liable to pattern its consumption on the Western ideas which support the breadwinner.

  18. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  19. Preparing Foreign Students for Engineering Studies in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Franck; Dutto, Estelle; Guillet, Stephane; Michau, Florence

    2007-01-01

    This article puts forward a project approach and a set of solutions to better prepare foreign students wishing to enter engineering schools in France. It focuses on how we train students to understand scientific presentations through intensive listening comprehension. Within this framework, it proposes a new educational ICT model that is original…

  20. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  1. The Present State of Educational Research in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Louis

    This chapter briefly describes the kinds of educational research centers active in France and the types of research they are conducting, then focuses on developments in the field of educational research from 1930 to the present and on the impact research has had on policy and innovations in recent years. In the section on history it is noted that…

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  3. Geographical Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence in France.

    PubMed

    Pivot, Diane; Debouverie, Marc; Grzebyk, Michel; Brassat, David; Clanet, Michel; Clavelou, Pierre; Confavreux, Christian; Edan, Gilles; Leray, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Thibault; Vukusic, Sandra; Hédelin, Guy; Guillemin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization. We used a spatial Bayesian approach based on estimating the number of MS cases from 2005 and 2008 capture-recapture studies to analyze differences in prevalence. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of MS per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 68.1 (95% credible interval 54.6, 84.4) in Hautes-Pyrénées (southwest France) to 296.5 (258.8, 338.9) in Moselle (northeast France). The greatest prevalence was in the northeast departments, and the other departments showed great variability. By combining multiple data sources into a spatial Bayesian model, we found heterogeneity in MS prevalence among the 21 departments of France, some with higher prevalence than anticipated from previous publications. No clear explanation related to health insurance coverage and hospital facilities can be advanced. Population migration, socioeconomic status of the population studied and environmental effects are suspected.

  4. Prevalence of Gout in the Adult Population of France.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Thomas; Bouée, Stéphane; Clerson, Pierre; Chalès, Gérard; Flipo, René-Marc; Lioté, Frédéric; Perez, Vincent; Poiraud, Thierry; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Richette, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    To estimate adult gout prevalence in France. We used a previously established phone questionnaire that allowed for classifying patients as gouty or nongouty by 2 logistic regression models and 1 classification and regression tree (CART) model, the sensitivity and specificity of which were all more than 80%. The full questionnaire was administered by phone to subjects who acknowledged present or past nontraumatic acute pain in a peripheral joint, the others being classified as nongouty. A random sample of adults residing in France was derived from the national telephone directory (home and mobile) by the quota method and further redressed to match the French population. The target size for the interview survey conducted in March and June 2013 was 10,000 participants. We interviewed 10,026 participants. All 3 models (2 logistic regression models and a CART model) converged to an estimated gout prevalence of 0.9%. This prevalence was lower than that estimated by self-reporting only (3.7% [95% confidence interval 3.3-4.1]). The prevalence was higher for men than women and increased with age but did not differ by area of France. Gout prevalence in the adult population of France in 2013 was estimated at 0.9%. Studies using self-reporting only might overestimate the prevalence. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France

    PubMed Central

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Balkau, B; Ducimetière, P; Eschwège;, E; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Girault, A; Fumeron, F; Marre, M; Roussel, R; Bonnet, F; Cauchi, S; Froguel, P; Cogneau, J; Born, C; Caces, E; Cailleau, M; Lantieri, O; Moreau, J G; Rakotozafy, F; Tichet, J; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael GB; Dina, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  6. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Moal, V.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature. PMID:26958347

  7. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  8. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P; Hamer, Davidson H; Esposito, Douglas H; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-10-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012-2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response.

  9. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Esposito, Douglas H.; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012–2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response. PMID:26401954

  10. Correspondence Tuition in France and the Development of Permanent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cros, Louis

    This report covers the current situation and general trends in correspondence study in France and describes two public institutions involved in it: Centre National de Tele-Enseignement and Radio-Television Scolaire. The evolution of correspondence study has been linked with the development of permanent education and the parallel transformation of…

  11. Preparing Foreign Students for Engineering Studies in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Franck; Dutto, Estelle; Guillet, Stephane; Michau, Florence

    2007-01-01

    This article puts forward a project approach and a set of solutions to better prepare foreign students wishing to enter engineering schools in France. It focuses on how we train students to understand scientific presentations through intensive listening comprehension. Within this framework, it proposes a new educational ICT model that is original…

  12. Sarah Frances Whiting: A foremother of American women physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Frieda A.

    2005-11-01

    Sarah Frances Whiting taught physics and astronomy at Wellesley College from 1876 to 1916 and developed the first physics laboratory classes for female students. She was elected a fellow of AAAS in 1883 and received an honorary D. Sc. from Tufts University in 1905. I review her accomplishments and discuss some of the barriers that she had to overcome.

  13. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper in the Reconstruction South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Farah Jasmine

    1988-01-01

    In letters and poetry Frances Ellen Harper wrote about the reconstruction era as it affected and influenced Black women. They confirm that there were values and priorities separate from those of middle class leaders and that Black women were oppressed by Whites and by Black men. (VM)

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  15. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  16. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased…

  17. The Educational Movement in France 1974/1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Paris (France).

    Educational policy in France emphasizes international and global relationships as well as relevance of education to students' and society's needs. Educational priorities include increasing school attendance of two to four-year-olds, limiting class size to 35, and equalizing enrollments between urban and rural areas. There are three levels in the…

  18. 78 FR 69989 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1... certain part-numbered nuts and washers from the lower ball-joint bolt. This AD was prompted by a report of... of the lower ball-joint nut, which could lead to loss of the sliding door and damage to...

  19. 78 FR 37154 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AS350C and AS350D1 because those models have a similar lower ball joint nut and washer. Costs of...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model...- joint bolt. This proposed AD is prompted by a report of a sliding door detaching from the helicopter...

  20. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN FRANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RATHMELL, GEORGE

    UNTIL THE FRENCH MINISTRY OF EDUCATION ESTABLISHED A COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF SPOKEN FRENCH AND TO DEVELOP A NEW TYPE OF LANGUAGE COURSE, THE MOST WIDELY ACCEPTED METHOD OF INSTRUCTION IN FRANCE WAS THE DIRECT METHOD OF BERLITZ AND GOUIN. FROM THE COMMISSION'S RESEARCH, A NEW AUDIOVISUAL COURSE, "VOIX ET IMAGES DE…

  1. Identification Strategies of a Texas Rebel: Frances (Sissy) Farenthold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Eva M.

    The identification techniques in Herbert C. Kelman's schema of identification were used to analyze the near, and perhaps surprising, success of Rep. Frances (Sissy) Farenthold's bid for the Democratic Texas gubernatorial nomination in 1972. Opposing government corruption, Farenthold overcame the potential obstacles of being a politically liberal…

  2. Multiple sclerosis in North African migrants to France.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F; Delasnerie-Lauprêtre, N; Wallin, M T

    1998-11-01

    Among some 7500 respondents with known place of birth who had completed a nationwide questionnaire survey for multiple sclerosis (MS) in France in 1986, there were 260 born in former French North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). They had migrated to France between 1923 and 1986, but 66% came between 1956 and 1964. Two-thirds were from Algeria, where virtually the entire European population had emigrated in 1962 at the end of the Algerian war for independence. The migrants were younger at prevalence day (mean 43.4 years) and at onset (29.4 years) than the French-born MS (46.6; 31.3 years). Eight migrants lacked age information. The 225 migrants with onset more than 1 year after immigration presumably acquired their MS in France. They provided an age adjusted (US 1960) MS prevalence rate 1.54 times that for all France. If the latter is taken at 50 per 100,000 population their estimated adjusted rate is 76.8 with 95% confidence interval of 67.1 to 87.5. The other 27 with presumed acquisition in North Africa gave an estimated adjusted prevalence of 16.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 10.9-24.1). For those migrants with acquisition in France there was a mean interval of 13 years between immigration or age 11 and clinical onset, with a minimum of 3 years. This series provides further support for the theses: 1) that MS is primarily an environmental disease acquired after childhood; 2) that acquisition requires prolonged or repeated exposure (here 3 years for these medium-to-high MS risk migrants) followed by a prolonged latent or incubation period between acquisition and symptom onset (here 10 years); and 3) that this disease is most likely a widespread but unknown persistent infection which results in clinical MS in only a small proportion of those affected.

  3. An estimation of burden of serious fungal infections in France.

    PubMed

    Gangneux, J-P; Bougnoux, M-E; Hennequin, C; Godet, C; Chandenier, J; Denning, D W; Dupont, B

    2016-12-01

    An estimation of burden of serious fungal diseases in France is essential data to inform public health priorities on the importance of resources and research needed on these infections. In France, precise data are available for invasive fungal diseases but estimates for several other diseases such as chronic and immunoallergic diseases are by contrast less known. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Web of Science Platform. Published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from France were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. The model predicts high prevalences of severe asthma with fungal sensitization episodes (189 cases/100,000 adults per year), of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (145/100,000) and of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (5.24/100,000). Besides, estimated incidence for invasive aspergillosis is 1.8/100,000 annually based on classical high risk factors. Estimates for invasive mucormycosis, pneumocystosis and cryptococcosis are 0.12/100,000, 1/100,000 and 0.2/100,000, respectively. Regarding invasive candidiasis, more than 10,000 cases per year are estimated, and a much higher number of recurrent vaginal candidiasis is probable but must be confirmed. Finally, this survey was an opportunity to report a first picture of the frequency of tinea capitis in France. Using local and literature data of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, approximately 1,000,000 (1.47%) people in France are estimated to suffer from serious fungal infections each year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  6. State behavior during the Ukrainian crisis: the perspectives of Romania, France, and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    State Behavior During the Ukrainian Crisis: The Perspectives of Romania, France , and the...Perspectives of Romania, France , and the United States Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER MAJ Valerica-Iulian...TERMS State behavior, Ukrainian crisis, Romania, France , the United States, geographical proximity, cultural-historical connectivity, economic

  7. 77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France on February 10, 2012,\\1\\ in which the... Results. \\1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  8. Feasibility studies to upgrade the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope site for the next generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; Angers, Mathieu; Breckenridge, Craig; Bauman, Steven; Loewen, Nathan; Loop, David; McConnachie, Alan; Pazder, Jonh; Salmon, Derrick; Spano, Paolo; Stiemer, Siegfried; Veillet, Christian

    2012-09-01

    The Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope is a dedicated, 10m aperture, wide-field, fiber-fed multiobject spectroscopic facility proposed as an upgrade to the existing Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea. The Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope baseline concept assumes the new facility is built on the existing Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope telescope pier and enclosure pier and occupies the same three dimensional exterior “footprint”. Three technical studies have been planned to examine the validity of these assumptions. The technical studies are executed in series as they represent technical decision points in a logical sequence. The three technical studies in succession are: 1. Telescope Pier Study - Load Capacity and Structural Interface, 2. Enclosure Fixed Base Study - Telescope and Enclosure Configuration and Load Capacity and 3. Aero- Thermal Study - Dome Thermal Seeing and Air Flow Attenuation over the Enclosure Aperture Opening. The paper outlines the baseline facility (telescope, spectrograph and enclosure) concept and the status of these studies, and discusses the proposed telescope and enclosure configuration in terms of the redevelopment assumptions. A consolidated feasibility study report will be submitted to the CFHT Board and Science Advisory Committee in the Fall of 2012, with first light for the facility aiming to be in the early 2020s.

  9. Ile de France: the metro area of Paris.

    PubMed

    Inserra, P

    1985-11-01

    Analysis of small area data shows that France is now experiencing the same trend seen in the 1970s in Great Britain and the US--the population in urban areas is migrating to semirural areas beyond traditional suburbs but still within commuting distance of city centers and employment. As a result, no population center of more than 20,000 people gained population between 1975 and 1982. The Ile de France Region houses 18.5% of France's total population, yet it accounts for only 2.2% of the country's land mass. This region grew by more than 194,400 residents between 1975 and 1982 to a total of 10 million people. For the 1st time in 20 years, the rate of population drain from the city center has slowed. Factors attributable to this slowing of population loss are 1) a sluggish economy holding down housing starts, 2) the aging of the population--making it less mobile, 3) a slight increase in births among inner-city Parisians, and 4) a shortage in older rental housing. Over the past 20 years Paris has lost 1/2 its blue collar jobs; it is becoming more and more bourgeois. The age and sex distribution of Ile de France reflects the effects of the World Wars and the postwar baby booms. One person households predominate in the Paris metro area; 2 person households declined from 30% in 1975 to 28% in 1982. In 1982, 42% of Paris residents were married couples, 8% were widows or widowers, 6% were divorced, and 44% were single. At least a half million Paris residents hold management or professional jobs; Paris produces half the area's jobs. Average salaries in Paris are more than 1/5 higher than the national average. 1/3 of France's students are enrolled in universities located in Paris. Nearly 15% of the French household budget is spent on health related services, and 1 in 5 Frenchman runs for aerobic exercise. Overall, Paris functions as the vital hub of a thriving metropolitan area, dominating the country's closely interrelated Ile de France region.

  10. New innovative ecosystems in France to develop the Bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Thierry; Chauvet, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-09

    The cluster's policy initiated in France in 2005 was a formidable opportunity to boost innovation in the bioeconomy and to develop innovation platforms allowing industrial demonstration and feasibility at technology readiness level (TRL) from 5 to 9. The IAR Cluster (Industries and Agro-Resources), based in the Hauts-de-France and Grand Est regions is completely dedicated to the bioeconomy. IAR's work has contributed to build a complete innovation ecosystem on bioeconomy by opening up relationships between actors along the full value chain. It also facilitated investments in new platforms and programs through public-private partnerships. The Biorefinery of Pomacle is a good illustration of such a collective approach. The role of regional and national public partners is essential to succeed in this development which requires a long term strategy and support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  12. Cryptosporidium oocysts in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Normandy (France).

    PubMed

    Li, Xunde; Guyot, Karine; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Mallard, Jean-Paul; Ballet, Jean Jacques; Brasseur, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected seasonally during one year from three sites on the Northwestern coastal area of Normandy (France). Flesh, gills and innerwater were examined for Cryptosporidium oocyst detection using immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescence assay. Oocysts were present in all samples for all sites and seasons and flesh was the most contaminated part. Oocyst rates were apparently related with seasonal rain precipitation variations. Molecular analysis revealed that oocysts belonged to the species Cryptosporidium parvum (formerly genotype 2 or ). Oocyst infectivity was assessed by oral administration to suckling NMRI-mice, and developmental stages were observed in only one mouse infected with oocysts from one location. The detection of potentially infectious C. parvum oocysts of likely cattle-breeding origin in cultured edible mussels confirms their resistance to sea environments, and underlines the potential risk of food-borne infection. This work reports for the first time the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts in shellfish from France.

  13. [How to approach the discipline of "nursing science" in France?].

    PubMed

    Lecordier, Didier; Rémy-Largeau, Isabelle; Jovic, Ljiljana

    2013-03-01

    The last four years have seen the development of supports toward research in nursing and other healthcare professionals' research, along with the fact that, nursing education has become part of university programs. Professional and scientific landscapes are changing and the opening perspectives let glimpse a growing professionalization of nurses' activities but also, raise the question of the nursing science construction in France. By considering interdisciplinary work, as an approach for complex situations of care, by specifying the purpose of the production of nursing scientific knowledge in order to meet the population needs of healthcare, by explaining the purpose of nursing research and theoretical elements that allow its construction, the following article offers an epistemological reflection on the evolution of the profession and on the construction of a nursing scientific discipline in France.

  14. The future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.

    2012-12-01

    This contribution presents a poll undertaken at the beginning of 2012, and addressed to every doctor in astronomy who obtained his/her degree in France. Its goal is to motivate the French astronomical community to think and discuss about what should be the training of PhDs, and what should be its objective. Further discussions and reactions can be posted e.g. on {http://docastro.blogspot.fr/}. A worrying results from the poll is that the majority of the participants would not encourage a young student to start a thesis in astronomy. The main reasons for this fact may be the high pressure on astronomy positions and the little interest a doctorate has for other careers in France. I suggest we either have to modify our training or reduce the number of thesis starting each year in astronomy.

  15. [Reflection on the psychiatric financial allocation in France].

    PubMed

    Boyer, L; Fond, G; Devictor, B; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C; Rouillon, F; Gaillard, R; Zendjidjian, X; Llorca, P-M

    2016-08-01

    For 25years work has been underway in France for the implementation of an alternative to public financing of health care. In the absence of progress, some regional health agencies are engaged in work related to the reallocation of public finances between psychiatric institutions. We propose a reflection with suggestion on the method proposed by the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Regional Health Agency. Without questioning the need for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions, the method proposed here needs to evolve further to be applied in a legitimate and appropriate manner. There is a kind of urgency for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions in France, but it implies a collective thinking and especially the definition of evaluation procedures for the selected models. These conditions are necessary to guarantee the quality of French psychiatry and equity in access to psychiatric care.

  16. [Study on two manuscripts with colored illustrations collected in France].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Two manuscripts with colored illustrations in French libraries were investigated. The research showed that: the first manuscript with colored pictures include 2 volumes, titled Animaux et Plantes de Chine collected in Library of Museum National d'Historie Naturelle (MNHN);the other manuscript with colored pictures has only 1 volume, titled Botanique Chinoise collected in Library of Societe Asiatique, College de France, which were identified as illustrations of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1640 edition) by Li Shi-zhen. These pictures were copied by P. d'Incarville, and are similar to Plantes fleurs et arbres de Chine in Bibliotheque de l'Institut de Franceand, Collection de Plantes Veneneuses de la Chine Gravees et Imprimees en Couleurs par les Missionnaries Jesuites in Bibliotheque Nationale de France, respectively. The latter two manuscripts were identified as illustrations of Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Essential Collections of Materia Medica) (1700 edition).

  17. [Serious fireworks-related eye injuries in Alsace (France)].

    PubMed

    Marsal, C; Abry, F; Bouyon, M; Meyer, N; Bourcier, T; Speeg-Schatz, C

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to review cases of serious fireworks-related eye injuries presented in the Strasbourg (France) University Hospital ophthalmology emergency department and to analyze epidemiological and clinical data such as visual outcomes and risk factors. A 13-year retrospective study (1994-2007) including fireworks-related ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalization was conducted. Thirty-nine patients were reported; 95% were male. The mean age was 19.38 years old. There was 61.5% contusions, 33.3% eye and adnexal burns, and 15.4% of the patients suffered from a penetrating injury. More than half of the patients required emergency ophthalmic surgical procedures. Twenty-six percent of the patients had final visual acuity of 20/400 or less. Fireworks are a cause of severe eye injury in France. These injuries are potentially preventable, especially in young males. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The mortality impacts of fine particles in France.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Mathilde; de Crouy Chanel, Perrine; Wagner, Vérène; Corso, Magali; Tillier, Claude; Bentayeb, Malek; Blanchard, Myriam; Cochet, Amandine; Pascal, Laurence; Host, Sabine; Goria, Sarah; Le Tertre, Alain; Chatignoux, Edouard; Ung, Aymeric; Beaudeau, Pascal; Medina, Sylvia

    2016-11-15

    Worldwide, air pollution has become a main environmental cause of premature mortality. This burden is largely due to fine particles. Recent cohort studies have confirmed the health risks associated with chronic exposure to PM2.5 for European and French populations. We assessed the mortality impact of PM2.5 in continental France using these new results. Based on a meta-analysis of French and European cohorts, we computed a shrunken estimate of PM2.5-mortality relationship for the French population (RR 1.15 [1.05:1.25] for a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5). This RR was applied to PM2.5 annual concentrations estimated at a fine spatial scale, using a classical health impacts assessment method. The health benefits associated with alternative scenarios of improving air quality were computed for 36,219 French municipalities for 2007-2008. 9% of the total mortality in continental France is attributable to anthropogenic PM2.5. This represents >48,000 deaths per year, and 950,000years of life lost per year, more than half occurring in urban areas larger than 100,000 inhabitants. If none of the municipalities exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value for PM2.5 (10μg/m(3)), the total mortality could be decreased by 3%, corresponding to 400,000years of life saved per year. Results were consistent with previous estimates of the long-term mortality impacts of fine particles in France. These findings show that further actions to improve air quality in France would substantially improve health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  20. Risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in France.

    PubMed

    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2005-02-01

    France has the second highest number of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) cases worldwide. Imports of bovine carcasses from the UK probably constituted the main source of exposure of the French population to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Meat products consumed whilst visiting the UK have also been considered as a possible source of exposure. We estimated the number of future vCJD cases in France using a simulation approach. Both the distribution of the vCJD incubation period and the age-dependent susceptibility to the BSE agent were estimated from UK data. The French epidemic was simulated by gender and birth-cohort from data on the infectivity of UK bovine tissues and simulations of the French consumption of infected beef products. We also used data on travel to the UK between 1980 and 1995. We predicted 33 future cases of vCJD: 12 in the 1940-69 birth-cohort and 21 in the post-1969 birth-cohort. No case was predicted in the pre-1940 cohort. Based on our model, simulated vCJD cases occurred later in the older (1940-69) than in the younger cohort (post-1969). Age at onset was stable in the post-1969 cohort and increased in the older cohort. The model predicted a small excess of male patients. No case was attributed to travels in the UK. This modelling confirms that a large vCJD epidemic in France is very unlikely. Since France (where 60% of the total British exports of bovine carcasses were exported) has been highly exposed to the BSE agent, our results are reassuring for most countries worldwide.

  1. Vichy France and the continuity of medical nationalism.

    PubMed

    Evleth, D

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the rise of medical nationalism and protectionism in France from the end of the nineteenth century through to the 1940s, with an emphasis on the Vichy period. It presents this nationalism as part of a continuity, showing its beginnings well before the coming of the Vichy government, its extremes under this government, and its continuation after the fall of the Vichy government, although retreating from its more extreme positions.

  2. 77 FR 20319 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, SA-366G1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC 155B, and EC155B1 helicopters. This proposed AD was..., 2010 (AD 2006-0368R1), to correct an unsafe condition for the EC Model SA 365 N, SA 365 N1, AS 365...

  3. Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Blood Donors, France

    PubMed Central

    Gallian, Pierre; Lhomme, Sébastien; Piquet, Yves; Sauné, Karine; Abravanel, Florence; Assal, Azzedine; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We screened plasma samples (minipools of 96 samples, corresponding to 53,234 blood donations) from France that had been processed with solvent–detergent for hepatitis E virus RNA. The detection rate was 1 HEV-positive sample/2,218 blood donations. Most samples (22/24) from viremic donors were negative for IgG and IgM against HEV. PMID:25340881

  4. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-03

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs.

  5. Stress and burnout among teachers in Italy and France.

    PubMed

    Pedrabissi, L; Rolland, J P; Santinello, M

    1993-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show differences between culture-bound stress levels in two samples of elementary and junior high school teachers in Italy (N = 299) and in France (N = 217), using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson, 1981) as a questionnaire. The results confirmed the influence of sociocultural background on stress levels in both samples in relation to age. Personal accomplishment was the most discriminating indicator in the two groups.

  6. Characterization of the large fire regime in SE France

    Treesearch

    Anne Ganteaume; Marielle Jappiot

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern France is the most wildfire prone region of the country, covering 14.7 percent of its land area-entire country, is the region most affected by wildfires, with 55 percent of the total number of fires recorded in the whole country from 2006 to 2008. It is a typical Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers, often with strong NW wind, and includes plant...

  7. [The locations of mobile geriatric teams in France].

    PubMed

    Salles, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Mobile geriatric teams fulfil several missions in healthcare facilities. They work within and outside hospitals. A nationwide study was carried out in 2011 and a task force was created within the French geriatric and gerontology society (SFGG) to standardise the practices of these teams in France and emphasise their place at the heart of the health care pathway of the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Barriers of influenza vaccination in health care personnel in France.

    PubMed

    Kadi, Zoher; Atif, Mohamed-Lamine; Brenet, Annie; Izoard, Sylvain; Astagneau, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    To identify barriers against influenza vaccination of health care personnel in Northern France, a cross-sectional study was conducted in health care facilities. A total of 3,213 questionnaires from 67 health care facilities were completed. In multivariate analysis using a logistic model, influenza vaccine coverage in health care personnel was significantly associated with level of knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bariatric surgery trends in France: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Lazzati, Andrea; Guy-Lachuer, Rodolphe; Delaunay, Vincent; Szwarcensztein, Karine; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery underwent a dramatic change in the past decade in France. The objective of this study was to examine elective bariatric surgical procedures from 2005 to 2011 in France and to determine trends in the use of the procedure. Data were extracted from the National Hospital Database. All admissions involving a bariatric surgery procedure were included. Procedures authorized by the Public Health Authority for the treatment of morbid obesity, including the adjustable gastric banding (AGB), vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), gastric bypass (GB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), either by laparotomic or laparoscopic approach, were retrieved. Revisional procedures, such as band removal or repositioning, band changing, and access device revisions, were also evaluated. We observed a 2.5-fold increase in bariatric procedures, from 12,800 in 2005 to 31,000 in 2011. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass became the most common bariatric procedures in France in 2011, whereas adjustable gastric banding has been decreasing since 2007. During the analysis period, about 50,000 revisional procedures were performed. The number of hospitals (private or public) providing bariatric surgery has considerably increased. However, most of the activity remains confined to a small number of centers, as 50% of all bariatric surgeries are carried out in 12% of hospitals. Bariatric procedures are predominantly performed in private hospitals. In France the number of bariatric procedures increased considerably between 2005 and 2011. The type of procedures changed, with a constant decrease of AGB and an important increase of SG and GB. Most bariatric procedures are still performed in low volume activity hospitals and in private hospitals. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.

  10. IUD use in France: women's and physician's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Bohet, Aline; Hassoun, Danielle; Ringa, Virginie; Bajos, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    While the intra-uterine device (IUD) is the second most popular contraceptive method in France, its use remains low among women most at risk of unintended pregnancies. Acknowledging the conjoint role of women and physicians in contraceptive decision making, we investigate the determinants of IUD use and IUD recommendations from the user and prescriber perspectives. Data are drawn from 2 national probability surveys (population-based and physician surveys) on sexual and reproductive health in France. The population based survey comprised 3,563 women ages 15-49 at risk of an unintended pregnancy in 2010 and the physician survey included 364 general practitioners (GPs) and 401 gynecologists practicing in private offices in 2010-2011. Analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Altogether, 21.4% of women were IUD users, with substantial differences by age and parity. Less than 1% of young women (<25 years) and 3% of nulliparous were current IUD users in 2010. The odds of IUD use were four times higher in women followed by a gynecologist as compared to a GP. Mirroring these results, gynecologists were more likely to recommend IUDs than GPs. Misconception about IUD risks was widespread among women and providers. Medical training and information, professional practice settings, and ever use of IUDs also informed physician's likelihood of recommending IUDs, regardless of specialty. The study reveals the intersection of individual and professional influences on contraceptive use patterns. The considerable age discrepancy in IUD use in France, with very few young women most at risk of an unintended pregnancy using the method, reflects a knowledge gap shared by users and providers. These findings suggest there are significant opportunities to improve contraceptive care in France. This study stresses the need to inform women and doctors about the benefits and risks of IUDs for all women. Substantial efforts are required to improve the medical curriculum, in order

  11. The loess and coversands of northern France and southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Catt, John; Lautridou, Jean-Pierre; Sommé, Jean

    2003-02-01

    Loess and coversands are widespread on either side of the English Channel. In southern England, loess is generally thin and discontinuous, but locally reaches thickness of about 4 m in east Kent. Coversands occur mainly in areas well north of the Channel, such as parts of East Anglia and the southern side of the Bristol Channel. Most of the loess and coversand deposits in southern England date from the Late Devensian cold stage (marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 2), but there are also a few localised patches of older (mainly MOIS 6 and 12) loess, which are the dissected remnants of originally more extensive covers. In France loess is widespread and locally very thick (up to 12 m), especially in northern and northeastern France. In Normandy and in the Somme basin some long records indicate that accumulation began at the end of the Lower Pleistocene, at about 900 ka. Nevertheless the main accumulations of typical calcareous loess are related to the Upper Weichselian and Upper Saalian stages (MOIS 2 and end of MOIS 3 and MOIS 6). Indeed, before about 160-170 ka, loess deposition was generally restricted to special sediment traps such as fluvial and marine terraces exposed to the east or northeast. These older deposits are characterised by more sandy facies derived from local fluvial sources (mainly by northwest to north-northwest winds). Coversands occur locally along the coast of the Mont Saint-Michel bay, and over the northern part of the Seine estuary near Le Havre. The main differences in thickness and extent of the loess deposits between southern England and northern France are linked to their location in relation to the source areas (Channel and North Sea), to ice sheets, and to the main wind directions (northwest to north-northwest in France and western England but northeast in eastern England).

  12. Cannabis use during pregnancy in France in 2010.

    PubMed

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M-J; Prunet, C; Blondel, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to estimate the proportion of women who reported cannabis use during pregnancy, to analyse the demographic and social characteristics of users, and the link between cannabis use and either preterm or small-for-gestational-age birth. Data were obtained from interviews of a representative sample of women giving birth in France in 2010 in the days after delivery, and from their medical records. All maternity units in France. The analysis includes women with live singleton births in metropolitan France who responded to the question about cannabis use during pregnancy: in total, 13 545 women. The percentage of cannabis users during pregnancy was estimated, and variations according to social characteristics were described. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate any associations between cannabis use and preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age status. Percentage of cannabis use, preterm birth rate, and small-for-gestational-age rate. In all, 1.2% of women reported having used cannabis during pregnancy. This percentage was higher among younger women, women living alone, or women who had a low level of education or low income. It was also associated with tobacco use and drinking alcohol. Cannabis users had higher rates of spontaneous preterm births: 6.4 versus 2.8%, for an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.15 (95% CI 1.10-4.18). The corresponding aOR was 2.64 (95% CI 1.12-6.22) among tobacco smokers and 1.22 (95% CI 0.29-5.06) among non-tobacco smokers. Although the reported rate of cannabis use during pregnancy in France is low, efforts should be continued to inform women and healthcare providers about the potential consequences of its use. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccinal coverage in hospitalized elderly patients in France.

    PubMed

    Rouveix, E; Gherissi Cherni, D; Dupont, C; Beauchet, A; Sordet Guepet, H; Gavazzi, G; Gaillat, J

    2013-01-01

    In France, there is little data on vaccinal coverage in elderly people at risk for invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI). The study objective was to assess the pneumococcal vaccination coverage and traceability in hospitalized elderly people (>75 years of age). A multicentric point prevalence survey was made on volunteers over 75 years of age, hospitalized in internal medicine, geriatrics, and infectious diseases units. Nine hundred and three patients in 63 units of 28 hospitals were included (mean 85 years of age) in the study between April and May 2011. Ten percent (93/903) were vaccinated against the pneumococcus. Thirty-eight percent of the patients had at least one risk factor for IPI and 20.5% of these had been vaccinated. There was a traceability back-up in 59% of the cases. Vaccination was not considered by the hospital for 83% of patients with IPI risk factor but not vaccinated (task delegated to the family physician in 50% of the cases). Vaccination coverage against the pneumococcus in France is very low in hospitalized patients over 75 years of age even though more than one out of three presents at least one risk factor for IPI. The rate of traceability is also poor. Hospitalization should be an opportunity to offer pneumococcal vaccination to elderly patients at risk for IPI in France because of unclear recommendations for elderly individuals and lack of political will to improve vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in France in 2010.

    PubMed

    Antona, D; Lepoutre, A; Fonteneau, L; Baudon, C; Halftermeyer-Zhou, F; LE Strat, Y; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains the leading cause of congenital virus infection in developed countries. Measuring the national prevalence of this infection, especially among women of childbearing age, is of great value to estimate the risk of congenital CMV infection, as well as to identify risk groups that should be targeted for behavioural interventions and/or vaccination once a CMV vaccine finally becomes available. In order to fulfil these objectives, a seroprevalence survey was conducted in 2010, using a nationally representative, population-based sample of 2536 people aged between 15 and 49 years, living in metropolitan France and attending private microbiological laboratories for blood testing. All blood samples were analysed in the same laboratory and screened for CMV-specific IgG using an enzyme-linked immunoassay technique (Elisa PKS Medac Enzyme immunoassay). The overall point estimate of CMV infection seroprevalence for individuals aged 15-49 years was 41.9%. The estimates were higher in women than in men (respectively 45.6% and 39.3%), and people born in a non-Western country were more likely to be CMV seropositive than those born in France or in another Western country (93.7% vs. 37.7%). Our results showed that a substantial percentage of women of childbearing age in France are CMV seronegative and therefore at risk of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. Educational measures and future vaccine are key issues to prevent infection in pregnant women and congenital CMV disease.

  15. A streamflow assimilation system for ensemble streamflow forecast over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, G.; Martin, E.; Mahfouf, J. F.; Massart, S.; Ricci, S.; Habets, F.

    2009-04-01

    SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) is a hydro-meteorological model used at Météo-France to predict soil water content and river streamflows. In order to produce a better initial state for the Ensemble Streamflow forecasts, an assimilation system is developed at Météo-France. This system uses past streamflow measurements in order to assess the best initial state of soil water content of the model for streamflow prediction. The data assimilation system is developed with a modular software (PALM, from the Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique), and is based on the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator method. Data from a maximum of 186 gauge stations are assimilated over France. This first study focuses on the selection of the best model variables for the assimilation process : root zone layer only or root and sub root layers taken together or apart. Two versions of SIM, including or not an exponential profile of hydraulic conductivity in the soil, are tested, and a set of classical hydrologic scores will be performed in order to describe the performances of the experiments. The impact of this improvement of the initial state of the model on ensemble streamflow forecasts scores will be assessed in a subsequent work.

  16. France: A Study of the Educational System of France and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States. World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, A. Mariam

    The purpose of this book is to explain French educational credentials to U.S. college and university admissions officers and credentials evaluators. Following introductory sections providing a map of France and an educational and historical overview of France, the following chapters are presented: (1) elementary and secondary education (including…

  17. France: A Study of the Educational System of France and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States. World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, A. Mariam

    The purpose of this book is to explain French educational credentials to U.S. college and university admissions officers and credentials evaluators. Following introductory sections providing a map of France and an educational and historical overview of France, the following chapters are presented: (1) elementary and secondary education (including…

  18. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long

  19. Euroscepticism in Britain and France: Implications for NATO and the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    BRITAIN AND FRANCE : IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION by William R. Walsh March 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Yost Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EUROSCEPTICISM IN BRITAIN AND FRANCE : IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION 5...power leaving the European Union (EU)? Political movements in two of the most influential member states, the United Kingdom and France , have

  20. Postpartum haemorrhage in Canada and France: a population-based comparison.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Marie-Pierre; Basso, Olga; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Dupont, Corinne; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio due to postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is higher in France than in Canada. We explored this difference by comparing PPH features between these two countries. Using data between 2004 and 2006, we compared the incidence, risk factors, causes and use of second-line treatments, of PPH between France (N = 6,660 PPH) and Canada (N = 9,838 PPH). We assessed factors associated with PPH through multivariate logistic models. PPH incidence, overall (4.8% (95% CI 4.7-4.9) in Canada and 4.5% (95% CI 4.4-4.7) in France), and after vaginal delivery (5.3% (95%CI 5.2-5.4) in Canada and 4.8 (95%CI 4.7-4.9) in France), were significantly higher in Canada than in France, but not after caesarean delivery. Women delivering without PPH were similar between the two populations, except for macrosomia (11% in Canada, 7% in France, p<0.001), caesarean delivery (27% in Canada, 18% in France, p<0.001), and episiotomy (17% in Canada, 34% in France, p<0.001). After vaginal delivery, factors strongly associated with PPH were multiple pregnancy, operative delivery and macrosomia in both populations, and episiotomy only in France (Odds Ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.23-1.57)). The use of second-line treatments for PPH management was significantly more frequent in France than in Canada after both vaginal and caesarean delivery. PPH incidence was not higher in France than in Canada and there was no substantial difference in PPH risk factors between the 2 countries. Greater use of second-line treatments in PPH management in France suggests a more frequent failure of first-line treatments and a higher rate of severe PPH, which may be involved in the higher maternal mortality ratio due to PPH.

  1. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2011-05-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the

  2. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-11-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, whereby it can influence the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic soil stocks (SOCS) are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOCS is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing circa 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOCS as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOCS for the whole of metropolitan France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on soil organic carbon for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOCS and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationship strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOCS in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOCS distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the European

  3. Unemployment and psychological distress one year after childbirth in France.

    PubMed

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Romito, P; Ancel, P Y; Lelong, N

    2000-03-01

    To analyse the relation between unemployment and the psychological distress of mothers one year after childbirth. Multicentric survey concerning births occurring between September 1993 and July 1994. In France: two maternity units in the Parisian area and one in Champagne-Ardennes, in the east of France, comprising both urban and rural areas. Primipara and secondipara women were interviewed three times: at birth by a face to face interview, five months and 12 months after the birth, by postal questionnaires, with a 83% response rate for the two postal questionnaires. The analysis includes 632 women who answered all three stages of the survey. Psychological distress was mainly assessed one year after birth by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. After adjustment for unwanted pregnancy, marital conflicts, marital status, hospitalisation of the baby during the last year, lack of confiding relationship, depressive or anxious troubles before pregnancy, age, educational level and parity, unemployed women had an excess of psychological distress compared with employed women (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.13). The ratios for housewives were very close to those of employed women. Among the unemployed women, 60% had recently been without a job, since a few months before or after the birth. An excess of psychological distress among unemployed compared with employed women was observed in all social groups defined by the current or last occupation, but with various extents. Psychological distress was specially linked to the employment status in the group of women with the more qualified occupations. Even after a birth, when women are very much involved in their maternal role, those seeking a job have worse mental health than those in a stable situation, either employed or housewives. In France, the unemployment rate among young women is high. It is specially important that social regulations protecting employment during and after pregnancy are adequately applied. Employers

  4. Characteristics of patients with fibromyalgia in France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Perrot, S; Winkelmann, A; Dukes, E; Xu, X; Schaefer, C; Ryan, K; Chandran, A; Sadosky, A; Zlateva, G

    2010-07-01

    Few studies have comprehensively assessed the burden associated with fibromyalgia (FM). This cross-sectional, observational study evaluates the impact of FM on patients in France and Germany. A total of 299 FM patients were recruited from 33 physician offices in France and Germany during routine visits. Patients completed a survey that included the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-sf), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to describe their pain, FM and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). FM severity was defined using patients' FIQ total scores with 0 to < 39, 39 to < 59 and 59-100, representing mild, moderate and severe FM, respectively. Site staff completed case report forms using patients' medical records. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 54.2 (12.6); 81% of patients were women. The mean (SD) FIQ total score was 53.3 (19.6); 33% and 44% of patients reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Most patients (91%) were receiving prescription medications for FM during the study. Patients reported a mean (SD) EQ-5D health state valuation of 0.44 (0.33) and a mean (SD) BPI-sf Pain Severity Index score of 4.9 (1.8). Forty-one percent of patients reported some level of disruption in their employment because of FM; employed patients missed a mean (SD) of 2.2 (4.6) workdays during the past 4 weeks. An increase in FM severity was significantly associated with increased pain severity, productivity loss, sleep disturbance and higher anxiety and depression (p < 0.0001). There is a substantial burden of illness including treatment limitations for FM patients in France and Germany.

  5. Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in France in 2007.

    PubMed

    Lepoutre, A; Doloy, A; Bidet, P; Leblond, A; Perrocheau, A; Bingen, E; Trieu-Cuot, P; Bouvet, A; Poyart, C; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2011-12-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. A national survey was initiated to assess the burden of invasive GAS infections in France, describe their clinical characteristics, and assess the molecular characteristics of GAS strains responsible for these infections. The survey was conducted in 194 hospitals, accounting for 51% of acute care hospital admissions in France. Clinical data, predisposing factors, and demographic data were obtained, and all GAS isolates were emm sequence typed. We identified 664 cases of invasive GAS infections, with an annual incidence of 3.1 per 100,000 population. The case-fatality ratio was 14% and rose to 43% in the case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Bacteremia without identified focus (22%) and skin/soft tissue infections (30%) were the most frequent clinical presentations. Necrotizing fasciitis was frequent in adults (18%) and uncommon in children (3%). The 3 predominant emm types were emm1, emm89, and emm28, accounting for 33%, 16%, and 10% of GAS isolates, respectively. The emm1 type was associated with fatal outcomes and was more frequent in children than in adults. Six clusters of cases were identified, with each cluster involving 2 invasive cases due to GAS strains which shared identical GAS emm sequence types. Four clusters of cases involved eight postpartum infections, one family cluster involved a mother and child, and one cluster involved two patients in a nursing home. Invasive GAS infection is one of the most severe bacterial diseases in France, particularly in persons aged ≥ 50 years or when associated with toxic shock syndrome.

  6. Isotopic evidence of pollutant lead sources in Northwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, Alain; Flament, Pascal; Bertho, Marie Laure; Alleman, Laurent; Flegal, Russell; Hamelin, Bruno

    Ratios of stable lead isotopes ( 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) are used to characterize both spatial and temporal variations in anthropogenic emissions of industrial lead aerosols to the atmosphere of northwestern France. Differences in isotopic compositions of aerosols collected from a rural area (Wimereux) in the Nord-Pas de Calais region along the English Channel in 1982-1983 ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.108±0.005) and 1994 ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.148±0.003) are paralleled by similar variations in urban aerosols within France during the same period (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.115±0.008 from 1981-1989 and 1.143±0.006 from 1992-1995). These results correlate well with recent findings in the Mediterranean basin (Alleman, 1997) where this radiogenicity increase is clearly associated with industrial sources other than leaded gasoline that has remained relatively constant during its phasing out ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.08-1.11). Here we used archived data, air mass trajectories and aerosol diameters combined with isotopic signatures to confirm this trend at a regional scale. Indeed, the main industrial signatures from lead smelting ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.133±0.001) and steel metallurgy ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.196±0.015) in northwestern France appear more radiogenic than that of leaded gasoline. The shift in isotopic compositions also conform with the systematic change in the mean size (diameter) of aerosols at Wimereux, which ranged from 0.30 to 0.61 μm in 1982-1984 and from 0.70 to 0.89 μm in 1994.

  7. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  8. Predictability in France : atmospheric forcing or land surface initial conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Martin, E.; Céron, J.-P.; Regimbeau, F.

    2010-09-01

    A first study of a hydrological forecasting suite has already been done at seasonal time scales over France (Céron and al., 2010) in a context of adaptation for water resources management. The results showed the feasibility of hydrological seasonal forecasts by forcing the hydrometeorological model Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) with seasonal atmospheric forecasts from the DEMETER project. Scores were better for hydrological variables than for atmospheric variables for four river catchments for the spring season. The purpose of the present study is to quantify the sources of predictability of the hydrometeorological system. Two experiences were conducted in order to address this issue. The first experience consisted in testing the impact of the land surface initial conditions. We used realistic land surface initial state produced by the operational SIM model for the specific year and 9 random years of Safran atmospheric analyses (temperature and precipitation) from 1971 to 2001, in a consistent way with the previous study (Céron et al, 2010). The other atmospheric parameters (wind, specific humidity, long wave and short wave radiation and cloudiness) come from the SAFRAN climatology over the same period. The second experience was designed to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric forcing with 9 random years, chosen for the land surface initial state. The atmospheric forcing (temperature and precipitation) comes from the Safran analysis system for the corresponding year. Some results of this study will be presented on soil wetness index (SWI) forecasts and river flows forecasts for all stations in France. We will compare deterministic and probabilistic scores of the two experiences with those of the hydrological forecasting suite built with the seasonal forecasts from the DEMETER project. Perspectives for the downscaling of seasonal forecasts will be discussed in a last part. Céron J-P, Tanguy G, Franchistéguy L, Martin E, Regimbeau F and Vidal J-P, 2010. Hydrological

  9. [The genetic fingerprints file in France: between security and freedom].

    PubMed

    Manaouil, C; Gignon, M; Werbrouck, A; Jarde, O

    2008-01-01

    In France, the French National File Automated with Genetic fingerprints (FNAEG) is a bank automated by genetic data which is used in penal domain. It facilitates search of the authors of malpractices, or the missing people. Since 1998, it has enabled to resolve numerous criminal cases. An extension of the field of application has been observed. It is a confidential register which is subjected to numerous controls. Nevertheless, private character of the data and its functioning (criminal character of the refusal of taking, periods of answer, and problem of data's conservation) explain the important contesting of associations worried about the respect of personal freedoms.

  10. The GMO case in France: Politics, lawlessness and postmodernism

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents’ strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a “modern” to a “postmodern” framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs. PMID:25437234

  11. Update on epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Southern France.

    PubMed

    René-Martellet, Magalie; Moro, Claire Valiente; Chêne, Jeanne; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Chabanne, Luc; Mavingui, Patrick

    2015-08-25

    Canine babesiosis is an emerging or re-emerging disease caused by Babesia and Theileria protozoans, also called piroplasms, transmitted by Ixodid ticks. In Europe, four etiological agents have been identified to date, namely Babesia canis, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni and Theileria annae. France has a high prevalence of canine babesiosis and two tick species, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are supposed to transmit B. canis and B. vogeli respectively. In southern France, where dog infections with B. vogeli were recently confirmed, no comprehensive study was performed to date on piroplasm species infecting dogs. Thus, a large scale survey involving veterinary clinics, kennels and tick collection from the environment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 in this area. From 2010 to 2012, 140 dog blood samples and 667 ticks were collected. All blood and a subset of ticks were screened for the presence of piroplasms by PCR amplification of 18S rDNA. B. vogeli, B. canis and T. annae were detected in 13.6, 12.9 and 0.7 % dogs respectively. B. vogeli and B. canis were detected in 10.5 % and in 1.6 % R. sanguineus ticks including 1.3 % co-infections. B. canis was the only species detected in D. reticulatus ticks (9.7 %). B. canis infections were only recorded in the southwest of France whereas B. vogeli was mainly found in the southeast. Finally, a significantly higher prevalence of B. vogeli infection was found in Gard compared to Corsica and Drôme regions, both in dogs (p < 0.002) and R. sanguineus ticks (p < 0.02) although R. sanguineus was the main ticks species removed from dogs in those three areas. The survey confirmed the circulation of both B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs in southern France with differences in distribution probably linked to the distribution of their respective vectors. It also showed differences in prevalence of B. vogeli infection in areas similar in terms of risk of dogs infestation with R. sanguineus. Further studies focusing on

  12. Remote Operations of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, T.; Thomas, J.; Burdullis, T.

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) started a project with the goal to enable remote control of the Mauna Kea observatory from the Headquarters facility in Waimea. After a few years of development effort the observatory has operated exclusively in a remote fashion since the beginning of 2011. This paper will discuss the entire lifecycle of the project from design and development to the successful implementation and ongoing operation of remote observing. Special emphasis will be given to the challenges, successes and lessons learned along the way.

  13. The burden and treatment of diabetes in France.

    PubMed

    Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen; Bouché, Clara

    2014-02-20

    The objective of this review was to describe and situate the burden and treatment of diabetes within the broader context of the French health care system. Literature review on the burden, treatment and outcomes of diabetes in France, complemented by personal communication with with diabetes experts in the Paris public hospital system. Prevalence of diabetes in the French population is estimated at 6%. Diabetes has the highest prevalence among all chronic conditions covered 100% by France's statutory health insurance (SHI), and the number of covered patients has doubled in the past 10 years. In 2010, the SHI cost for pharmacologically-treated diabetes patients amounted to €17.7 billion, including an estimated €2.5 billion directly related to diabetes treatment and prevention and €4.2 billion for treatment of diabetes-related complications. In 2007, the average annual SHI cost was €6 930 for patients with type 1 diabetes and €4 890 for patients with type 2 diabetes. Complications are associated with significantly increased costs. Diabetes is a leading cause of adult blindness, amputation and dialysis in France, which also has one of the highest rates of end-stage renal disease in Europe. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. Historically, the French health care system has been more oriented to curative acute care rather than preventive medicine and management of long-term chronic diseases. More recently, the government has focused on primary prevention as part of its national nutrition and health program, with the goal of reducing overweight and obesity in adults and children. It has also recognized the critical role of the patient in managing chronic diseases such as diabetes and has put into place a free patient support program called "sophia". Additional initiatives focus on therapeutic patient education (TPE) and the development of personalized patient pathways. While France has been successful in protecting

  14. Autochthonous strongyloidiasis, Bordeaux area, South-Western France.

    PubMed

    Glize, Bertrand; Malvy, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a ubiquitous parasitic infection mostly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, although sporadic autochthonous cases or sparse pockets have been reported in some areas of temperate regions. We report here the first, to our knowledge, autochthonous case diagnosed in the Arcachon basin in the coastal Aquitaine region of South-Western France. We failed to identify any recognized risk factor for transmission in this case of autochthonous infection occurring in a wealthy major tourist destination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Snow covered Alps of France, Italy, and Switzerland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-30

    SL3-121-2438 (July-September 1973) --- The Alps of Switzerland, France and Italy are featured in this exceptional photograph taken by a hand-held camera from the Skylab space station during the second manned Skylab mission. Also visible in the out-the-window 70mm Hasselblad view are Lake Geneva, Lake of Lucerne, Rhone River and many other features. The Skylab 3 crewmen, astronauts Alan L. Bean, Owen K. Garriott and Jack R. Lousma completed a 59-day mission with a successful splashdown on Sept. 25, 1973. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Project Pyralp: Tectonics relationships between Pyrenees and Alps (Southern France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillemot, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Eastern Aquitaine Basin in southern France, investigations using SL 3 photographs from an S190A camera reveal a slight line joining a Paleozoic trend of the Montagne Noire massif to a more recent Pyrenean fault zone of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. According to the interpretation of this line as the superficial geomorphological trace of a deep-seated fault zone, Hercynian weakness lines appear to have played a more important part than previously thought in the building of the Pyrenean range. The Lezat line is a trend of small morphological features obvious only in the photographs having the highest resolution.

  17. Tritium release experiment in France, presentation, organization and realization

    SciTech Connect

    Paillard, P.; Clerc, H.; Calando, J.P.; Gros, R.; Hircq, B.

    1988-09-01

    In October 1986 an experimental release of 256 TBq of tritium was performed in FRANCE; this experiment formed part of general studies agreed by the European Communities concerning the safety of future fusion reactors. The main objectives related to the analysis of HT HTO conversion in air and soil and the assessment of models. The organization and execution of the experiment was under the responsibility of the French Commissariat for Atomic Energy (CEA). The major experimental parameters such as site, weather conditions, activity are presented as well as the administrative aspects and appropriate logistics.

  18. West Nile virus in wild resident birds, Southern France, 2004.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, E; Schuffenecker, I; Korimbocus, J; Reynard, S; Murri, S; Kayser, Y; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Sabatier, P; Zeller, H G

    2007-01-01

    An equine West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak occurred in 2004 in the Camargue, a wetland area in the south of France where the virus was first reported in 1962 and re-emerged in 2000. WNV neutralizing antibodies were detected in resident birds and two isolates from a House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and a Common Magpie (Pica pica) were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related to strains previously found in horses in southern Europe and North Africa. More extensive investigation is required to determine whether WNV has been re-introduced or has become endemic in the Camargue.

  19. What strategy should France implement for H2020?

    PubMed

    Dhainaut, Jean-François; Diebolt, Vincent; Pouletty-Lefèbvre, Brigitte; Baker, Angela; Bassompierre, François; Borel, Thomas; Braunstein, David; Demotes, Jacques; François, Bruno; Huet, Stéphane; Micallef, Joëlle; Misse, Christophe; Molon, Annamaria; Rascol, Olivier; Ravoire, Sophie; Schwartz, Bertrand; Donne, Nathalie; Donne, Nathalie; Fusaï, Guillaume; Pouletty, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of Horizon 2020--the European Union's 8th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, allotted a budget of 79 billion euros--provides an opportunity to review France's participation in previous Framework Programmes. Indeed, French participation does not match either its scientific importance or its financial investment. While France contributed 16.5 to 17% of the EU's 7th Framework Programme research budget, its return through the funding of coordinated projects in which French teams are participating stands at around 12.5 to 13%, a shortfall of 600 million euros. Although the situation depends on the type of activity, French participation in clinical research appears to be smaller than that of its neighbours, with fewer responses to European calls for proposals. While France has many assets, which include the assured funding of clinical research, structured thematic networks and the initiation of major national programmes, it suffers from the dilution of resources due to France's regional development policy, the lack of multidisciplinarity and the ignorance of both the medical and scientific community and the institutions to which they belong as to how Horizon 2020 actually works. We propose three types of strategy to encourage proposals for coordinated clinical research projects or projects involving French teams, and to help in the drawing up of applications: Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives. Recognise the value of European actions to influence the European landscape and change mentalities. Help and support project initiators by pooling skills within a limited number of expert centres designed to assist them in their funding application. • Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives

  20. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.